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Sample records for optical microscopy kanglin

  1. Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianquan; Ma, Hongqiang; Liu, Yang

    2017-07-05

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy, a class of optical microscopy techniques at a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit, has revolutionized the way we study biology, as recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2014. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), a widely used SR technique, is based on the principle of single molecule localization. STORM routinely achieves a spatial resolution of 20 to 30 nm, a ten-fold improvement compared to conventional optical microscopy. Among all SR techniques, STORM offers a high spatial resolution with simple optical instrumentation and standard organic fluorescent dyes, but it is also prone to image artifacts and degraded image resolution due to improper sample preparation or imaging conditions. It requires careful optimization of all three aspects-sample preparation, image acquisition, and image reconstruction-to ensure a high-quality STORM image, which will be extensively discussed in this unit. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Single spin stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Waldherr, Gerald; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate precision addressing of single quantum emitters by combined optical microscopy and spin resonance techniques. To this end we utilize nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond confined within a few ten nanometers as individually resolvable quantum systems. By developing a stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) technique for NV centers we are able to simultaneously perform sub diffraction-limit imaging and optically detected spin resonance (ODMR)...

  3. Progress in the Correlative Atomic Force Microscopy and Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has evolved from the originally morphological imaging technique to a powerful and multifunctional technique for manipulating and detecting the interactions between molecules at nanometer resolution. However, AFM cannot provide the precise information of synchronized molecular groups and has many shortcomings in the aspects of determining the mechanism of the interactions and the elaborate structure due to the limitations of the technology, itself, such as non-specificity and low imaging speed. To overcome the technical limitations, it is necessary to combine AFM with other complementary techniques, such as fluorescence microscopy. The combination of several complementary techniques in one instrument has increasingly become a vital approach to investigate the details of the interactions among molecules and molecular dynamics. In this review, we reported the principles of AFM and optical microscopy, such as confocal microscopy and single-molecule localization microscopy, and focused on the development and use of correlative AFM and optical microscopy.

  4. Correlative Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy and Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doory; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Sigal, Yaron M.; Babcock, Hazen P.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Correlative fluorescence light microscopy and electron microscopy allows the imaging of spatial distributions of specific biomolecules in the context of cellular ultrastructure. Recent development of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy allows the location of molecules to be determined with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. However, correlative super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) still remains challenging because the optimal specimen preparation and imaging conditions for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and EM are often not compatible. Here, we have developed several experiment protocols for correlative stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and EM methods, both for un-embedded samples by applying EM-specific sample preparations after STORM imaging and for embedded and sectioned samples by optimizing the fluorescence under EM fixation, staining and embedding conditions. We demonstrated these methods using a variety of cellular targets. PMID:25874453

  5. Application of super-resolution optical microscopy in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xiuhai; Du Jiancong; Huang Qing; Fan Chunhai; Deng Suhui

    2013-01-01

    Background: A noninvasive, real-time far-field optical microscopy is needed to study the dynamic function inside cells and proteins. However, the resolution limit of traditional optical microscope is about 200 nm due to the diffraction limit of light. So, it's hard to directly observe the subcellular structures. Over the past several years of microscopy development, the diffraction limit of fluorescence microscopy has been overcome and its resolution limit is about tens of nanometers. Methods: To overcome the diffraction limit of light, many super-resolution fluoresce microscopes, including stimulated emission of depletion microscopy (STED), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), have been developed. Conclusions: These methods have been applied in cell biology, microbiology and neurobiology, and the technology of super-resolution provides a new insight into the life science. (authors)

  6. Subnanometric stabilization of plasmon-enhanced optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Taka-aki; Ichimura, Taro; Kuwahara, Shota; Verma, Prabhat; Kawata, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated subnanometric stabilization of tip-enhanced optical microscopy under ambient condition. Time-dependent thermal drift of a plasmonic metallic tip was optically sensed at subnanometer scale, and was compensated in real-time. In addition, mechanically induced displacement of the tip, which usually occurs when the amount of tip-applied force varies, was also compensated in situ. The stabilization of tip-enhanced optical microscopy enables us to perform long-time and robust measurement without any degradation of optical signal, resulting in true nanometric optical imaging with high reproducibility and high precision. The technique presented is applicable for AFM-based nanoindentation with subnanometric precision. (paper)

  7. Optical microscope illumination analysis using through-focus scanning optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Park, Haesung

    2017-06-15

    Misalignment of the aperture diaphragm present in optical microscopes results in angular illumination asymmetry (ANILAS) at the sample plane. Here we show that through-focus propagation of ANILAS results in a lateral image shift with a focus position. This could lead to substantial errors in quantitative results for optical methods that use through-focus images such as three-dimensional nanoparticle tracking, confocal microscopy, and through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM). A correlation exists between ANILAS and the slant in TSOM images. Hence, the slant in the TSOM image can be used to detect, analyze, and rectify the presence of ANILAS.

  8. Optically sectioned imaging by oblique plane microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Lin, Ziduo; Lyon, Alex R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. The first OPM results obtained using a high NA water immersion lens on a commercially available inverted microscope frame are presented, together with a measurement of the achievable optical resolution.

  9. Simultaneous differential spinning disk fluorescence optical sectioning microscopy and nanomechanical mapping atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Adelaide; De Beule, Pieter A. A.; Martins, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Combined microscopy techniques offer the life science research community a powerful tool to investigate complex biological systems and their interactions. Here, we present a new combined microscopy platform based on fluorescence optical sectioning microscopy through aperture correlation microscopy with a Differential Spinning Disk (DSD) and nanomechanical mapping with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The illumination scheme of the DSD microscope unit, contrary to standard single or multi-point confocal microscopes, provides a time-independent illumination of the AFM cantilever. This enables a distortion-free simultaneous operation of fluorescence optical sectioning microscopy and atomic force microscopy with standard probes. In this context, we discuss sample heating due to AFM cantilever illumination with fluorescence excitation light. Integration of a DSD fluorescence optical sectioning unit with an AFM platform requires mitigation of mechanical noise transfer of the spinning disk. We identify and present two solutions to almost annul this noise in the AFM measurement process. The new combined microscopy platform is applied to the characterization of a DOPC/DOPS (4:1) lipid structures labelled with a lipophilic cationic indocarbocyanine dye deposited on a mica substrate

  10. Simultaneous differential spinning disk fluorescence optical sectioning microscopy and nanomechanical mapping atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Adelaide; De Beule, Pieter A. A., E-mail: pieter.de-beule@inl.int [Applied Nano-Optics Laboratory, International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Avenida Mestre José Veiga, s/n, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal); Martins, Marco [Nano-ICs Group, International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Avenida Mestre José Veiga, s/n, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal)

    2015-09-15

    Combined microscopy techniques offer the life science research community a powerful tool to investigate complex biological systems and their interactions. Here, we present a new combined microscopy platform based on fluorescence optical sectioning microscopy through aperture correlation microscopy with a Differential Spinning Disk (DSD) and nanomechanical mapping with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The illumination scheme of the DSD microscope unit, contrary to standard single or multi-point confocal microscopes, provides a time-independent illumination of the AFM cantilever. This enables a distortion-free simultaneous operation of fluorescence optical sectioning microscopy and atomic force microscopy with standard probes. In this context, we discuss sample heating due to AFM cantilever illumination with fluorescence excitation light. Integration of a DSD fluorescence optical sectioning unit with an AFM platform requires mitigation of mechanical noise transfer of the spinning disk. We identify and present two solutions to almost annul this noise in the AFM measurement process. The new combined microscopy platform is applied to the characterization of a DOPC/DOPS (4:1) lipid structures labelled with a lipophilic cationic indocarbocyanine dye deposited on a mica substrate.

  11. High-speed atomic force microscopy combined with inverted optical microscopy for studying cellular events.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Yuki; Sakai, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Aiko; Uekusa, Yoshitsugu; Yagi, Akira; Imaoka, Yuka; Ito, Shuichi; Karaki, Koichi; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid atomic force microscopy (AFM)-optical fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating cellular morphologies and events. However, the slow data acquisition rates of the conventional AFM unit of the hybrid system limit the visualization of structural changes during cellular events. Therefore, high-speed AFM units equipped with an optical/fluorescence detection device have been a long-standing wish. Here we describe the implementation of high-speed AFM coupled with an optic...

  12. Particles and waves in electron optics and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials, Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. The series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science, digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. * Contains contributions from leading authorities on the subject matter* Informs and updates all the latest developments in the field of imaging and electron physics* Provides practitioners interested in microscopy, optics, image processing, mathematical morphology, electromagnetic fields, electron, and ion emission with a valuable resource* Features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science, and digital image pro...

  13. Full optical model of micro-endoscope with optical coherence microscopy, multiphoton microscopy and visible capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, David; Kiekens, Kelli C.; Syson, Nikolas C.; Romano, Gabriella; Baker, Tressa; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2018-02-01

    While Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM), Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM), and narrowband imaging are powerful imaging techniques that can be used to detect cancer, each imaging technique has limitations when used by itself. Combining them into an endoscope to work in synergy can help achieve high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis at the point of care. Such complex endoscopes have an elevated risk of failure, and performing proper modelling ensures functionality and minimizes risk. We present full 2D and 3D models of a multimodality optical micro-endoscope to provide real-time detection of carcinomas, called a salpingoscope. The models evaluate the endoscope illumination and light collection capabilities of various modalities. The design features two optical paths with different numerical apertures (NA) through a single lens system with a scanning optical fiber. The dual path is achieved using dichroic coatings embedded in a triplet. A high NA optical path is designed to perform OCM and MPM while a low NA optical path is designed for the visible spectrum to navigate the endoscope to areas of interest and narrowband imaging. Different tests such as the reflectance profile of homogeneous epithelial tissue were performed to adjust the models properly. Light collection models for the different modalities were created and tested for efficiency. While it is challenging to evaluate the efficiency of multimodality endoscopes, the models ensure that the system is design for the expected light collection levels to provide detectable signal to work for the intended imaging.

  14. Biobeam—Multiplexed wave-optical simulations of light-sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, Martin; Bundschuh, Sebastian T.

    2018-01-01

    Sample-induced image-degradation remains an intricate wave-optical problem in light-sheet microscopy. Here we present biobeam, an open-source software package that enables simulation of operational light-sheet microscopes by combining data from 105–106 multiplexed and GPU-accelerated point-spread-function calculations. The wave-optical nature of these simulations leads to the faithful reproduction of spatially varying aberrations, diffraction artifacts, geometric image distortions, adaptive optics, and emergent wave-optical phenomena, and renders image-formation in light-sheet microscopy computationally tractable. PMID:29652879

  15. Portable fiber-optic taper coupled optical microscopy platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming; Yu, Yan; Huang, Hui; Ou, Jinping

    2017-04-01

    The optical fiber taper coupled with CMOS has advantages of high sensitivity, compact structure and low distortion in the imaging platform. So it is widely used in low light, high speed and X-ray imaging systems. In the meanwhile, the peculiarity of the coupled structure can meet the needs of the demand in microscopy imaging. Toward this end, we developed a microscopic imaging platform based on the coupling of cellphone camera module and fiber optic taper for the measurement of the human blood samples and ascaris lumbricoides. The platform, weighing 70 grams, is based on the existing camera module of the smartphone and a fiber-optic array which providing a magnification factor of 6x.The top facet of the taper, on which samples are placed, serves as an irregular sampling grid for contact imaging. The magnified images of the sample, located on the bottom facet of the fiber, are then projected onto the CMOS sensor. This paper introduces the portable medical imaging system based on the optical fiber coupling with CMOS, and theoretically analyzes the feasibility of the system. The image data and process results either can be stored on the memory or transmitted to the remote medical institutions for the telemedicine. We validate the performance of this cell-phone based microscopy platform using human blood samples and test target, achieving comparable results to a standard bench-top microscope.

  16. Single-spin stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Waldherr, Gerald; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2014-10-14

    We experimentally demonstrate precision addressing of single-quantum emitters by combined optical microscopy and spin resonance techniques. To this end, we use nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond confined within a few ten nanometers as individually resolvable quantum systems. By developing a stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) technique for NV centers, we are able to simultaneously perform sub-diffraction-limit imaging and optically detected spin resonance (ODMR) measurements on NV spins. This allows the assignment of spin resonance spectra to individual NV center locations with nanometer-scale resolution and thus further improves spatial discrimination. For example, we resolved formerly indistinguishable emitters by their spectra. Furthermore, ODMR spectra contain metrology information allowing for sub-diffraction-limit sensing of, for instance, magnetic or electric fields with inherently parallel data acquisition. As an example, we have detected nuclear spins with nanometer-scale precision. Finally, we give prospects of how this technique can evolve into a fully parallel quantum sensor for nanometer resolution imaging of delocalized quantum correlations.

  17. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy – or rather nanoscopy – to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem. PMID:26124194

  18. DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Dan; Lei, Ming; Yao, Baoli; Wang, Wen; Winterhalder, Martin; Zumbusch, Andreas; Qi, Yujiao; Xia, Liang; Yan, Shaohui; Yang, Yanlong; Gao, Peng; Ye, Tong; Zhao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Super-resolution three-dimensional (3D) optical microscopy has incomparable advantages over other high-resolution microscopic technologies, such as electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, in the study of biological molecules, pathways and events in live cells and tissues. We present a novel approach of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) by using a digital micromirror device (DMD) for fringe projection and a low-coherence LED light for illumination. The lateral resolution of 90 nm and the optical sectioning depth of 120 μm were achieved. The maximum acquisition speed for 3D imaging in the optical sectioning mode was 1.6×10(7) pixels/second, which was mainly limited by the sensitivity and speed of the CCD camera. In contrast to other SIM techniques, the DMD-based LED-illumination SIM is cost-effective, ease of multi-wavelength switchable and speckle-noise-free. The 2D super-resolution and 3D optical sectioning modalities can be easily switched and applied to either fluorescent or non-fluorescent specimens.

  19. Nanometric locking of the tight focus for optical microscopy and tip-enhanced microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayazawa, N; Furusawa, K; Kawata, S

    2012-01-01

    We have successfully stabilized the tight focus onto the sample surface of an optical microscope within ±1.0 nm for a virtually unlimited time duration. The time-dependent thermal drift of the tight focus and the mechanical tilt of the sample surface were simultaneously sensed by a non-optical means based on a capacitive sensor and were compensated for in real-time. This non-optical scheme is promising for the suppression of background light sources for optical microscopy. The focus stabilization is crucial for microscopic measurement at an interface, particularly when scanning a large surface area, because there is always a certain amount of mechanical tilt of the sample substrate, which degrades the contrast of the image. When imaging nanoscopic materials such as carbon nanotubes or silicon nanowires, more stringent nanometric stabilization of the focus position relative to such samples is required, otherwise it is often difficult to interpret the results from the observations. Moreover, the smaller the sample volume is, the smaller the signal becomes, resulting in a long exposure time at each position. In this sense, long-term stability of the tight focus is essential for both microscopic large area scanning and nanosized sample scanning (high-resolution/large-area imaging). In addition, the recently developed tip-enhanced microscopy requires long-term stability of the relative position of the tip, sample and focus position. We were able to successfully demonstrate a stability improvement for tip-enhanced microscopy in the same manner. The stabilization of the tight focus enables us to perform long-term and robust measurements without any degradation of optical signal, resulting in the capability of true nanometric optical imaging with good reproducibility and high precision. The technique presented is a simple add-on for any kind of optical microscope. (paper)

  20. Biological applications of near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, Marco H.P.; Ruiter, A.G.T.; Jalocha, A.; Jalocha, Alain; van Hulst, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) is a true optical microscopic technique allowing fluorescence, absorption, reflection and polarization contrast with the additional advantage of nanometer lateral resolution, unlimited by diffraction and operation at ambient conditions. NSOM based on

  1. High-speed atomic force microscopy combined with inverted optical microscopy for studying cellular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuki; Sakai, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Aiko; Uekusa, Yoshitsugu; Yagi, Akira; Imaoka, Yuka; Ito, Shuichi; Karaki, Koichi; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid atomic force microscopy (AFM)-optical fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating cellular morphologies and events. However, the slow data acquisition rates of the conventional AFM unit of the hybrid system limit the visualization of structural changes during cellular events. Therefore, high-speed AFM units equipped with an optical/fluorescence detection device have been a long-standing wish. Here we describe the implementation of high-speed AFM coupled with an optical fluorescence microscope. This was accomplished by developing a tip-scanning system, instead of a sample-scanning system, which operates on an inverted optical microscope. This novel device enabled the acquisition of high-speed AFM images of morphological changes in individual cells. Using this instrument, we conducted structural studies of living HeLa and 3T3 fibroblast cell surfaces. The improved time resolution allowed us to image dynamic cellular events.

  2. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  3. Adaptive optics stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (AO-STORM) by particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan F; Zhang, Yiwen; Shen, Ping; Kner, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) can achieve resolutions of better than 20nm imaging single fluorescently labeled cells. However, when optical aberrations induced by larger biological samples degrade the point spread function (PSF), the localization accuracy and number of localizations are both reduced, destroying the resolution of STORM. Adaptive optics (AO) can be used to correct the wavefront, restoring the high resolution of STORM. A challenge for AO-STORM microscopy is the development of robust optimization algorithms which can efficiently correct the wavefront from stochastic raw STORM images. Here we present the implementation of a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach with a Fourier metric for real-time correction of wavefront aberrations during STORM acquisition. We apply our approach to imaging boutons 100 μm deep inside the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila melanogaster larvae achieving a resolution of 146 nm.

  4. A correlative optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach to locating nanoparticles in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Paul J; Kircher, Moritz F; de la Zerda, Adam; Zavaleta, Cristina L; Jokerst, Jesse V; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, demands the capability to exactly locate them within complex biological systems. In this work a correlative optical and scanning electron microscopy technique was developed to locate and observe multi-modal gold core nanoparticle accumulation in brain tumor models. Entire brain sections from mice containing orthotopic brain tumors injected intravenously with nanoparticles were imaged using both optical microscopy to identify the brain tumor, and scanning electron microscopy to identify the individual nanoparticles. Gold-based nanoparticles were readily identified in the scanning electron microscope using backscattered electron imaging as bright spots against a darker background. This information was then correlated to determine the exact location of the nanoparticles within the brain tissue. The nanoparticles were located only in areas that contained tumor cells, and not in the surrounding healthy brain tissue. This correlative technique provides a powerful method to relate the macro- and micro-scale features visible in light microscopy with the nanoscale features resolvable in scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microsphere-aided optical microscopy and its applications for super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-12-01

    The spatial resolution of a standard optical microscope (SOM) is limited by diffraction. In visible spectrum, SOM can provide ∼ 200 nm resolution. To break the diffraction limit several approaches were developed including scanning near field microscopy, metamaterial super-lenses, nanoscale solid immersion lenses, super-oscillatory lenses, confocal fluorescence microscopy, techniques that exploit non-linear response of fluorophores like stimulated emission depletion microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, etc. Recently, photonic nanojet generated by a dielectric microsphere was used to break the diffraction limit. The microsphere-approach is simple, cost-effective and can be implemented under a standard microscope, hence it has gained enormous attention for super-resolution imaging. In this article, we briefly review the microsphere approach and its applications for super-resolution imaging in various optical imaging modalities.

  6. Imaging slit-coupled surface plasmon polaritons using conventional optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehfuz, R; Chowdhury, F A; Chau, K J

    2012-05-07

    We develop a technique that now enables surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) coupled by nano-patterned slits in a metal film to be detected using conventional optical microscopy with standard objective lenses. The crux of this method is an ultra-thin polymer layer on the metal surface, whose thickness can be varied over a nanoscale range to enable controllable tuning of the SPP momentum. At an optimal layer thickness for which the SPP momentum matches the momentum of light emerging from the slit, the SPP coupling efficiency is enhanced about six times relative to that without the layer. The enhanced efficiency results in distinctive and bright plasmonic signatures near the slit visible by naked eye under an optical microscope. We demonstrate how this capability can be used for parallel measurement through a simple experiment in which the SPP propagation distance is extracted from a single microscope image of an illuminated array of nano-patterned slits on a metal surface. We also use optical microscopy to image the focal region of a plasmonic lens and obtain results consistent with a previously-reported results using near-field optical microscopy. Measurement of SPPs near a nano-slit using conventional and widely-available optical microscopy is an important step towards making nano-plasmonic device technology highly accessible and easy-to-use.

  7. Fast Calcium Imaging with Optical Sectioning via HiLo Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Marcel A; Ronzitti, Emiliano; Sternberg, Jenna R; Wyart, Claire; Emiliani, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Imaging intracellular calcium concentration via reporters that change their fluorescence properties upon binding of calcium, referred to as calcium imaging, has revolutionized our way to probe neuronal activity non-invasively. To reach neurons densely located deep in the tissue, optical sectioning at high rate of acquisition is necessary but difficult to achieve in a cost effective manner. Here we implement an accessible solution relying on HiLo microscopy to provide robust optical sectioning with a high frame rate in vivo. We show that large calcium signals can be recorded from dense neuronal populations at high acquisition rates. We quantify the optical sectioning capabilities and demonstrate the benefits of HiLo microscopy compared to wide-field microscopy for calcium imaging and 3D reconstruction. We apply HiLo microscopy to functional calcium imaging at 100 frames per second deep in biological tissues. This approach enables us to discriminate neuronal activity of motor neurons from different depths in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos. We observe distinct time courses of calcium signals in somata and axons. We show that our method enables to remove large fluctuations of the background fluorescence. All together our setup can be implemented to provide efficient optical sectioning in vivo at low cost on a wide range of existing microscopes.

  8. Differential Polarization Nonlinear Optical Microscopy with Adaptive Optics Controlled Multiplexed Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginijus Barzda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential polarization nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential to become an indispensable tool for structural investigations of ordered biological assemblies and microcrystalline aggregates. Their microscopic organization can be probed through fast and sensitive measurements of nonlinear optical signal anisotropy, which can be achieved with microscopic spatial resolution by using time-multiplexed pulsed laser beams with perpendicular polarization orientations and photon-counting detection electronics for signal demultiplexing. In addition, deformable membrane mirrors can be used to correct for optical aberrations in the microscope and simultaneously optimize beam overlap using a genetic algorithm. The beam overlap can be achieved with better accuracy than diffraction limited point-spread function, which allows to perform polarization-resolved measurements on the pixel-by-pixel basis. We describe a newly developed differential polarization microscope and present applications of the differential microscopy technique for structural studies of collagen and cellulose. Both, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence-detected nonlinear absorption anisotropy are used in these investigations. It is shown that the orientation and structural properties of the fibers in biological tissue can be deduced and that the orientation of fluorescent molecules (Congo Red, which label the fibers, can be determined. Differential polarization microscopy sidesteps common issues such as photobleaching and sample movement. Due to tens of megahertz alternating polarization of excitation pulses fast data acquisition can be conveniently applied to measure changes in the nonlinear signal anisotropy in dynamically changing in vivo structures.

  9. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Vobornik

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available An average human eye can see details down to 0,07 mm in size. The ability to see smaller details of the matter is correlated with the development of the science and the comprehension of the nature. Today’s science needs eyes for the nano-world. Examples are easily found in biology and medical sciences. There is a great need to determine shape, size, chemical composition, molecular structure and dynamic properties of nano-structures. To do this, microscopes with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution are required. Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM is a new step in the evolution of microscopy. The conventional, lens-based microscopes have their resolution limited by diffraction. SNOM is not subject to this limitation and can offer up to 70 times better resolution.

  10. Scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobornik, Dusan; Vobornik, Slavenka

    2008-02-01

    An average human eye can see details down to 0,07 mm in size. The ability to see smaller details of the matter is correlated with the development of the science and the comprehension of the nature. Today's science needs eyes for the nano-world. Examples are easily found in biology and medical sciences. There is a great need to determine shape, size, chemical composition, molecular structure and dynamic properties of nano-structures. To do this, microscopes with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution are required. Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) is a new step in the evolution of microscopy. The conventional, lens-based microscopes have their resolution limited by diffraction. SNOM is not subject to this limitation and can offer up to 70 times better resolution.

  11. Assessment of nerve ultrastructure by fibre-optic confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushway, T R; Lanzetta, M; Cox, G; Trickett, R; Owen, E R

    1996-01-01

    Fibre-optic technology combined with confocality produces a microscope capable of optical thin sectioning. In this original study, tibial nerves have been stained in a rat model with a vital dye, 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide, and analysed by fibre-optic confocal microscopy to produce detailed images of nerve ultrastructure. Schwann cells, nodes of Ranvier and longitudinal myelinated sheaths enclosing axons were clearly visible. Single axons appeared as brightly staining longitudinal structures. This allowed easy tracing of multiple signal axons within the nerve tissue. An accurate measurement of internodal lengths was easily accomplished. This technique is comparable to current histological techniques, but does not require biopsy, thin sectioning or tissue fixing. This study offers a standard for further in vivo microscopy, including the possibility of monitoring the progression of nerve regeneration following microsurgical neurorraphy.

  12. Through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) with adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Gyunam; Jeong, Junhee; Park, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Through-focus optical microscopy (TSOM) with nanometer-scale lateral and vertical sensitivity levels matching those of scanning electron microscopy has been demonstrated to be useful both for 3D inspections and metrology assessments. In 2014, funded by two private companies (Nextin/Samsung Electronics) and the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology (KEIT), a research team from four universities in South Korea set out to investigate core technologies for developing in-line TSOM inspection and metrology tools, with the respective teams focusing on optics implementation, defect inspection, computer simulation and high-speed metrology matching. We initially confirmed the reported validity of the TSOM operation through a computer simulation, after which we implemented the TSOM operation by throughfocus scanning of existing UV (355nm) and IR (800nm) inspection tools. These tools have an identical sampling distance of 150 nm but have different resolving distances (310 and 810 nm, respectively). We initially experienced some improvement in the defect inspection sensitivity level over TSV (through-silicon via) samples with 6.6 μm diameters. However, during the experiment, we noted sensitivity and instability issues when attempting to acquire TSOM images. As TSOM 3D information is indirectly extracted by differentiating a target TSOM image from reference TSOM images, any instability or mismatch in imaging conditions can result in measurement errors. As a remedy to such a situation, we proposed the application of adaptive optics to the TSOM operation and developed a closed-loop system with a tip/tilt mirror and a Shack-Hartmann sensor on an optical bench. We were able to keep the plane position within in RMS 0.4 pixel by actively compensating for any position instability which arose during the TSOM scanning process along the optical axis. Currently, we are also developing another TSOM tool with a deformable mirror instead of a tip/tilt mirror, in which case we

  13. Observation of self-assembled fluorescent beads by scanning near-field optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Jo, W.; Kim, Min-Gon; Kyu Park, Hyun; Hyun Chung, Bong

    2006-01-01

    Optical response and topography of fluorescent latex beads both on flat self-assembled monolayer and on a micron-patterned surface with poly(dimethylsiloxane) are studied. Scanning near-field optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy were utilized together for detecting fluorescence and imaging topography of the patterned latex beads, respectively. As a result, the micro-patterned latex beads where a specific chemical binding occurred show a strong signal, whereas no signals are observed in the case of nonspecific binding. With fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), it is convenient to measure fluorescence signal from the patterned beads allowing us to monitor the small balls of fluorescent latex

  14. Fabrication and characterization of optical-fiber nanoprobes for scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaidi, N; Chen, Y; Kottler, V; Cambril, E; Mayeux, C; Ronarch, N; Vieu, C

    1998-02-01

    The current scanning near-field optical microscopy has been developed with optical-fiber probes obtained by use of either laser-heated pulling or chemical etching. For high-resolution near-field imaging, the detected signal is rapidly attenuated as the aperture size of the probe decreases. It is thus important to fabricate probes optimized for both spot size and optical transmission. We present a two-step fabrication that allowed us to achieve an improved performance of the optical-fiber probes. Initially, a CO(2) laser-heated pulling was used to produce a parabolic transitional taper ending with a top thin filament. Then, a rapid chemical etching with 50% buffered hydrofluoric acid was used to remove the thin filament and to result in a final conical tip on the top of the parabolic transitional taper. Systematically, we obtained optical-fiber nanoprobes with the apex size as small as 10 nm and the final cone angle varying from 15 degrees to 80 degrees . It was found that the optical transmission efficiency increases rapidly as the taper angle increases from 15 degrees to 50 degrees , but a further increase in the taper angle gives rise to important broadening of the spot size. Finally, the fabricated nanoprobes were used in photon-scanning tunneling microscopy, which allowed observation of etched double lines and grating structures with periods as small as 200 nm.

  15. Visual-servoing optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Daniel E.; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-06-09

    The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time: quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

  16. Microsphere imaging with confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Hyung Su; An, Kyung Won; Lee, Jai Hyung

    2002-01-01

    We have acquired images of polystyrene and fused-silica microsphere by using conventional optical microscopy, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy, and performed comparative analysis of these images. Different from conventional optical microscopy, confocal and two-photon microscopy had good optical sectioning capability. In addition, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy had better lateral resolution than conventional optical microscopy. These results are attributed to confocality and nonlinearity of confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy, respectively.

  17. Optical Imaging and Microscopy Techniques and Advanced Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Török, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This text on contemporary optical systems is intended for optical researchers and engineers, graduate students and optical microscopists in the biological and biomedical sciences. This second edition contains two completely new chapters. In addition most of the chapters from the first edition have been revised and updated. The book consists of three parts: The first discusses high-aperture optical systems, which form the backbone of optical microscopes. An example is a chapter new in the second edition on the emerging field of high numerical aperture diffractive lenses which seems to have particular promise in improving the correction of lenses. In this part particular attention is paid to optical data storage. The second part is on the use of non-linear optical techniques, including nonlinear optical excitation (total internal reflection fluorescence, second and third harmonic generation and two photon microscopy) and non-linear spectroscopy (CARS). The final part of the book presents miscellaneous technique...

  18. Confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes for high speed measurements and better imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Wanhee; Lee, SeungWoo; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2008-02-01

    Confocal scanning microscopy (CSM) needs a scanning mechanism because only one point information of specimen can be obtained. Therefore the speed of the confocal scanning microscopy is limited by the speed of the scanning tool. To overcome this limitation from scanning tool we propose another scanning mechanism. We make three optical probes in the specimen under confocal condition of each point. Three optical probes are moved by beam scanning mechanism with shared resonant scanning mirror (RM) and galvanometer driven mirror (GM). As each optical probe scan allocated region of the specimen, information from three points is obtained simultaneously and image acquisition time is reduced. Therefore confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is expected to have three times faster speed of the image acquisition than conventional one. And as another use, multiple optical probes to which different light wavelength is applied can scan whole same region respectively. It helps to obtain better contrast image in case of specimens having different optical characteristics for specific light wavelength. In conclusion confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is useful technique for views of image acquisition speed and image quality.

  19. All-optical optoacoustic microscopy based on probe beam deflection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher M. Maswadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optoacoustic (OA microscopy using an all-optical system based on the probe beam deflection technique (PBDT for detection of laser-induced acoustic signals was investigated as an alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers. PBDT provides a number of advantages for OA microscopy including (i efficient coupling of laser excitation energy to the samples being imaged through the probing laser beam, (ii undistorted coupling of acoustic waves to the detector without the need for separation of the optical and acoustic paths, (iii high sensitivity and (iv ultrawide bandwidth. Because of the unimpeded optical path in PBDT, diffraction-limited lateral resolution can be readily achieved. The sensitivity of the current PBDT sensor of 22 μV/Pa and its noise equivalent pressure (NEP of 11.4 Pa are comparable with these parameters of the optical micro-ring resonator and commercial piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. Benefits of the present prototype OA microscope were demonstrated by successfully resolving micron-size details in histological sections of cardiac muscle.

  20. All-optical optoacoustic microscopy based on probe beam deflection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadi, Saher M; Ibey, Bennett L; Roth, Caleb C; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A; Beier, Hope T; Glickman, Randolph D; Oraevsky, Alexander A

    2016-09-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) microscopy using an all-optical system based on the probe beam deflection technique (PBDT) for detection of laser-induced acoustic signals was investigated as an alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers. PBDT provides a number of advantages for OA microscopy including (i) efficient coupling of laser excitation energy to the samples being imaged through the probing laser beam, (ii) undistorted coupling of acoustic waves to the detector without the need for separation of the optical and acoustic paths, (iii) high sensitivity and (iv) ultrawide bandwidth. Because of the unimpeded optical path in PBDT, diffraction-limited lateral resolution can be readily achieved. The sensitivity of the current PBDT sensor of 22 μV/Pa and its noise equivalent pressure (NEP) of 11.4 Pa are comparable with these parameters of the optical micro-ring resonator and commercial piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. Benefits of the present prototype OA microscope were demonstrated by successfully resolving micron-size details in histological sections of cardiac muscle.

  1. Practical guidelines for implementing adaptive optics in fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Dean; Pozzi, Paolo; Soloviev, Oleg; Vdovin, Gleb; Verhaegen, Michel

    2018-02-01

    In life sciences, interest in the microscopic imaging of increasingly complex three dimensional samples, such as cell spheroids, zebrafish embryos, and in vivo applications in small animals, is growing quickly. Due to the increasing complexity of samples, more and more life scientists are considering the implementation of adaptive optics in their experimental setups. While several approaches to adaptive optics in microscopy have been reported, it is often difficult and confusing for the microscopist to choose from the array of techniques and equipment. In this poster presentation we offer a small guide to adaptive optics providing general guidelines for successful adaptive optics implementation.

  2. Interference electron microscopy of one-dimensional electron-optical phase objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzini, P.F.; Ortolani, L.; Pozzi, G.; Ubaldi, F.

    2006-01-01

    The application of interference electron microscopy to the investigation of electron optical one-dimensional phase objects like reverse biased p-n junctions and ferromagnetic domain walls is considered. In particular the influence of diffraction from the biprism edges on the interference images is analyzed and the range of applicability of the geometric optical equation for the interpretation of the interference fringe shifts assessed by comparing geometric optical images with full wave-optical simulations. Finally, the inclusion of partial spatial coherence effects are discussed

  3. Scanning near-field optical microscopy and near-field optical probes: properties, fabrication, and control of parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryakhlushin, V F; Veiko, V P; Voznesenskii, N B

    2007-01-01

    A brief review of modern applications of scanning near-field optical (SNO) devices in microscopy, spectroscopy, and lithography is presented in the introduction. The problem of the development of SNO probes, as the most important elements of SNO devices determining their resolution and efficiency, is discussed. Based on the works of the authors, two different methods for fabricating SNO probes by using the adiabatic tapering of an optical fibre are considered: the laser-heated mechanical drawing and chemical etching. A nondestructive optical method for controlling the nanometre aperture of SNO probes is proposed, substantiated, and tested experimentally. The method is based on the reconstruction of a near-field source with the help of a theoretical algorithm of the inverse problem from the experimental far-filed intensity distribution. Some prospects for a further refinement of the construction and technology of SNO probes are discussed. (optical microscopy)

  4. Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Chang, Jae-Byum; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Aleman, Julio; Batzaya, Byambaa; Krishnadoss, Vaishali; Ramanujam, Aishwarya Aravamudhan; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Boyden, Edward S; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-15

    To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such "hybrid microscopy" methods--combining physical and optical magnifications--can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes ("mini-microscopes"), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics--a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)--is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places.

  5. Biological applications of near-field scanning optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, Marco H. P.; Ruiter, A. G. T.; Jalocha, Alain; van Hulst, Niko F.; Kalle, W. H. J.; Wiegant, J. C. A. G.; Raap, A. K.

    1995-09-01

    Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) is a true optical microscopic technique allowing fluorescence, absorption, reflection and polarization contrast with the additional advantage of nanometer lateral resolution, unlimited by diffraction and operation at ambient conditions. NSOM based on metal coated adiabatically tapered fibers, combined with shear force feedback and operated in illumination mode, has proven to be the most powerful NSOM arrangement, because of its true localization of the optical interaction, its various optical contrast possibilities and its sensitivity down to the single molecular level. In this paper applications of `aperture' NSOM to Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization of human metaphase chromosomes are presented, where the localized fluorescence allows to identify specific DNA sequences. All images are accompanied by the simultaneously acquired force image, enabling direct comparison of the optical contrast with the sample topography on nanometer scale, far beyond the diffraction limit. Thus the unique combination of high resolution, specific optical contrast and ambient operation offers many new direction possibilities in biological studies.

  6. Wide-field two-dimensional multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic computed microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Li, Guo; Wang, Lidai; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Maslov, Konstantin; Engelbach, John A.; Garbow, Joel R.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an emerging technique that directly images optical absorption in tissue at high spatial resolution. To date, the majority of OR-PAM systems are based on single focused optical excitation and ultrasonic detection, limiting the wide-field imaging speed. While one-dimensional multifocal OR-PAM (1D-MFOR-PAM) has been developed, the potential of microlens and transducer arrays has not been fully realized. Here, we present the development of two-dimensional multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic computed microscopy (2D-MFOR-PACM), using a 2D microlens array and a full-ring ultrasonic transducer array. The 10 × 10 mm2 microlens array generates 1800 optical foci within the focal plane of the 512-element transducer array, and raster scanning the microlens array yields optical-resolution photoacoustic images. The system has improved the in-plane resolution of a full-ring transducer array from ≥100 µm to 29 µm and achieved an imaging time of 36 seconds over a 10 × 10 mm2 field of view. In comparison, the 1D-MFOR-PAM would take more than 4 minutes to image over the same field of view. The imaging capability of the system was demonstrated on phantoms and animals both ex vivo and in vivo. PMID:24322226

  7. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy by stepwise optical saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yide; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Vigil, Genevieve D.; Khan, Aamir A.; Mason, Devon E.; Boerckel, Joel D.; Roeder, Ryan K.; Howard, Scott S.

    2018-01-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is an important tool in biomedical research for its ability to discern features smaller than the diffraction limit. However, due to its difficult implementation and high cost, the super-resolution microscopy is not feasible in many applications. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a saturation-based super-resolution fluorescence microscopy technique that can be easily implemented and requires neither additional hardware nor complex post-processing. The method is based on the principle of stepwise optical saturation (SOS), where M steps of raw fluorescence images are linearly combined to generate an image with a M-fold increase in resolution compared with conventional diffraction-limited images. For example, linearly combining (scaling and subtracting) two images obtained at regular powers extends the resolution by a factor of 1.4 beyond the diffraction limit. The resolution improvement in SOS microscopy is theoretically infinite but practically is limited by the signal-to-noise ratio. We perform simulations and experimentally demonstrate super-resolution microscopy with both one-photon (confocal) and multiphoton excitation fluorescence. We show that with the multiphoton modality, the SOS microscopy can provide super-resolution imaging deep in scattering samples. PMID:29675306

  8. X-ray optics for scanning fluorescence microscopy and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, R.W.; Warburton, W.K.

    1992-05-01

    Scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy is analogous to scanning electron microscopy. Maps of chemical element distribution are produced by scanning with a very small x-ray beam. Goal is to perform such scanning microscopy with resolution in the range of <1 to 10 μm, using standard laboratory x-ray tubes. We are investigating mirror optics in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. K-B optics uses two curved mirrors mounted orthogonally along the optical axis. The first mirror provides vertical focus, the second mirror provides horizontal focus. We have used two types of mirrors: synthetic multilayers and crystals. Multilayer mirrors are used with lower energy radiation such as Cu Kα. At higher energies such as Ag Kα, silicon wafers are used in order to increase the incidence angles and thereby the photon collection efficiency. In order to increase the surface area of multilayers which reflects x-rays at the Bragg angle, we have designed mirrors with the spacing between layers graded along the optic axis in order to compensate for the changing angle of incidence. Likewise, to achieve a large reflecting surface with silicon, the wafers are placed on a specially designed lever arm which is bent into a log spiral by applying force at one end. In this way, the same diffracting angle is maintained over the entire surface of the wafer, providing a large solid angle for photon collection

  9. X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henning Friis; Jakobsen, A. C.; Simons, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    A formalism is presented for dark‐field X‐ray microscopy using refractive optics. The new technique can produce three‐dimensional maps of lattice orientation and axial strain within millimetre‐sized sampling volumes and is particularly suited to in situ studies of materials at hard X‐ray energies....... An objective lens in the diffracted beam magnifies the image and acts as a very efficient filter in reciprocal space, enabling the imaging of individual domains of interest with a resolution of 100 nm. Analytical expressions for optical parameters such as numerical aperture, vignetting, and the resolution...

  10. An introduction to optical super-resolution microscopy for the adventurous biologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangindertael, J.; Camacho, R.; Sempels, W.; Mizuno, H.; Dedecker, P.; Janssen, K. P. F.

    2018-04-01

    Ever since the inception of light microscopy, the laws of physics have seemingly thwarted every attempt to visualize the processes of life at its most fundamental, sub-cellular, level. The diffraction limit has restricted our view to length scales well above 250 nm and in doing so, severely compromised our ability to gain true insights into many biological systems. Fortunately, continuous advancements in optics, electronics and mathematics have since provided the means to once again make physics work to our advantage. Even though some of the fundamental concepts enabling super-resolution light microscopy have been known for quite some time, practically feasible implementations have long remained elusive. It should therefore not come as a surprise that the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to the scientists who, each in their own way, contributed to transforming super-resolution microscopy from a technological tour de force to a staple of the biologist’s toolkit. By overcoming the diffraction barrier, light microscopy could once again be established as an indispensable tool in an age where the importance of understanding life at the molecular level cannot be overstated. This review strives to provide the aspiring life science researcher with an introduction to optical microscopy, starting from the fundamental concepts governing compound and fluorescent confocal microscopy to the current state-of-the-art of super-resolution microscopy techniques and their applications.

  11. Probing graphene defects and estimating graphene quality with optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Shen; Kyu Jang, Sung; Jae Song, Young; Lee, Sungjoo

    2014-01-01

    We report a simple and accurate method for detecting graphene defects that utilizes the mild, dry annealing of graphene/Cu films in air. In contrast to previously reported techniques, our simple approach with optical microscopy can determine the density and degree of dislocation of defects in a graphene film without inducing water-related damage or functionalization. Scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman and atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis were performed to demonstrate that our nondestructive approach to characterizing graphene defects with optimized thermal annealing provides rapid and comprehensive determinations of graphene quality

  12. Wave front engineering by means of diffractive optical elements for applications in microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojoc, Dan; Ferrari, Enrico; Garbin, Valeria; Cabrini, Stefano; Carpentiero, Alessandro; Prasciolu, Mauro; Businaro, Luca; Kaulich, Burchard; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2006-05-01

    We present a unified view regarding the use of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) for microscopy applications a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum. The unified treatment is realized through the design and fabrication of DOE through which wave front beam shaping is obtained. In particular we show applications ranging from micromanipulation using optical tweezers to X-ray differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. We report some details on the design and physical implementation of diffractive elements that beside focusing perform also other optical functions: beam splitting, beam intensity and phase redistribution or mode conversion. Laser beam splitting is used for multiple trapping and independent manipulation of spherical micro beads and for direct trapping and manipulation of biological cells with non-spherical shapes. Another application is the Gauss to Laguerre-Gaussian mode conversion, which allows to trap and transfer orbital angular momentum of light to micro particles with high refractive index and to trap and manipulate low index particles. These experiments are performed in an inverted optical microscope coupled with an infrared laser beam and a spatial light modulator for DOEs implementation. High resolution optics, fabricated by means of e-beam lithography, are demonstrated to control the intensity and the phase of the sheared beams in X-ray DIC microscopy. DIC experiments with phase objects reveal a dramatic increase in image contrast compared to bright-field X-ray microscopy.

  13. Isometric multimodal photoacoustic microscopy based on optically transparent micro-ring ultrasonic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Biqin; Li, Hao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Kevin; Chen, Siyu; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is an attractive imaging tool complementary to established optical microscopic modalities by providing additional molecular specificities through imaging optical absorption contrast. While the development of optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (ORPAM) offers high lateral resolution, the acoustically-determined axial resolution is limited due to the constraint in ultrasonic detection bandwidth. ORPAM with isometric spatial resolution along both axial and lateral direction is yet to be developed. Although recently developed sophisticated optical illumination and reconstruction methods offer improved axial resolution in ORPAM, the image acquisition procedures are rather complicated, limiting their capabilities for high-speed imaging and being easily integrated with established optical microscopic modalities. Here we report an isometric ORPAM based on an optically transparent micro-ring resonator ultrasonic detector and a commercial inverted microscope platform. Owing to the superior spatial resolution and the ease of integrating our ORPAM with established microscopic modalities, single cell imaging with extrinsic fluorescence staining, intrinsic autofluorescence, and optical absorption can be achieved simultaneously. This technique holds promise to greatly improve the accessibility of PAM to the broader biomedical researchers.

  14. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  15. Coherent optical adaptive technique improves the spatial resolution of STED microscopy in thick samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Yang, Yanlong; Tan, Yu; Chen, Xun; Li, Yang; Qu, Junle; Ye, Tong

    2018-01-01

    Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) is one of far-field optical microscopy techniques that can provide sub-diffraction spatial resolution. The spatial resolution of the STED microscopy is determined by the specially engineered beam profile of the depletion beam and its power. However, the beam profile of the depletion beam may be distorted due to aberrations of optical systems and inhomogeneity of specimens’ optical properties, resulting in a compromised spatial resolution. The situation gets deteriorated when thick samples are imaged. In the worst case, the sever distortion of the depletion beam profile may cause complete loss of the super resolution effect no matter how much depletion power is applied to specimens. Previously several adaptive optics approaches have been explored to compensate aberrations of systems and specimens. However, it is hard to correct the complicated high-order optical aberrations of specimens. In this report, we demonstrate that the complicated distorted wavefront from a thick phantom sample can be measured by using the coherent optical adaptive technique (COAT). The full correction can effectively maintain and improve the spatial resolution in imaging thick samples. PMID:29400356

  16. Near-field scanning optical microscopy using polymethylmethacrylate optical fiber probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibani, H.; Dukenbayev, K.; Mensi, M.; Sekatskii, S.K.; Dietler, G.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) optical fiber-made probes for scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). The sharp tips were prepared by chemical etching of the fibers in ethyl acetate, and the probes were prepared by proper gluing of sharpened fibers onto the tuning fork in the conditions of the double resonance (working frequency of a tuning fork coincides with the resonance frequency of dithering of the free-standing part of the fiber) reported earlier for the case of glass fibers. Quality factors of the probes in the range 2000-6000 were obtained, which enables the realization of an excellent topographical resolution including state-of-art imaging of single DNA molecules. Near-field optical performance of the microscope is illustrated by the Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope images of fluorescent beads with a diameter of 100 nm. The preparation of these plastic fiber probes proved to be easy, needs no hazardous material and/or procedures, and typical lifetime of a probe essentially exceeds that characteristic for the glass fiber probe.

  17. Electron microscopy of primary cell cultures in solution and correlative optical microscopy using ASEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kazumi; Kinoshita, Takaaki; Uemura, Takeshi; Motohashi, Hozumi; Watanabe, Yohei; Ebihara, Tatsuhiko; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Sato, Mari; Suga, Mitsuo; Maruyama, Yuusuke; Tsuji, Noriko M.; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nishihara, Shoko; Sato, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    Correlative light-electron microscopy of cells in a natural environment of aqueous liquid facilitates high-throughput observation of protein complex formation. ASEM allows the inverted SEM to observe the wet sample from below, while an optical microscope observes it from above quasi-simultaneously. The disposable ASEM dish with a silicon nitride (SiN) film window can be coated variously to realize the primary-culture of substrate-sensitive cells in a few milliliters of culture medium in a stable incubator environment. Neuron differentiation, neural networking, proplatelet-formation and phagocytosis were captured by optical or fluorescence microscopy, and imaged at high resolution by gold-labeled immuno-ASEM with/without metal staining. Fas expression on the cell surface was visualized, correlated to the spatial distribution of F-actin. Axonal partitioning was studied using primary-culture neurons, and presynaptic induction by GluRδ2-N-terminus-linked fluorescent magnetic beads was correlated to the presynaptic-marker Bassoon. Further, megakaryocytes secreting proplatelets were captured, and P-selectins with adherence activity were localized to some of the granules present by immuno-ASEM. The phagocytosis of lactic acid bacteria by dendritic cells was also imaged. Based on these studies, ASEM correlative microscopy promises to allow the study of various mesoscopic-scale dynamics in the near future. - Highlights: • In situ correlative light electron microscopy of samples in open solution by ASEM. • Primary cultures for in-solution CLEM by developing SiN-film coating methods • First visualization of fluorescent magnetic beads in aqueous solution by CLEM. • Presynaptic induction of neurons by GluRδ2-N-terminus-coated beads studied by CLEM. • Axonal partitioning, bacterial phagocytosis, platelet formation imaged by CLEM

  18. Electron microscopy of primary cell cultures in solution and correlative optical microscopy using ASEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Kazumi; Kinoshita, Takaaki [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Bioinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, 1-236 Tangi-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Uemura, Takeshi [Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Motohashi, Hozumi [Department of Gene Expression Regulation, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-cho, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Watanabe, Yohei; Ebihara, Tatsuhiko [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan); Nishiyama, Hidetoshi [JEOL Ltd., 1-2 Musashino 3-chome, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Sato, Mari [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan); Suga, Mitsuo [JEOL Ltd., 1-2 Musashino 3-chome, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Maruyama, Yuusuke; Tsuji, Noriko M. [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan); Yamamoto, Masayuki [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-cho, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nishihara, Shoko, E-mail: shoko@soka.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Bioinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, 1-236 Tangi-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    Correlative light-electron microscopy of cells in a natural environment of aqueous liquid facilitates high-throughput observation of protein complex formation. ASEM allows the inverted SEM to observe the wet sample from below, while an optical microscope observes it from above quasi-simultaneously. The disposable ASEM dish with a silicon nitride (SiN) film window can be coated variously to realize the primary-culture of substrate-sensitive cells in a few milliliters of culture medium in a stable incubator environment. Neuron differentiation, neural networking, proplatelet-formation and phagocytosis were captured by optical or fluorescence microscopy, and imaged at high resolution by gold-labeled immuno-ASEM with/without metal staining. Fas expression on the cell surface was visualized, correlated to the spatial distribution of F-actin. Axonal partitioning was studied using primary-culture neurons, and presynaptic induction by GluRδ2-N-terminus-linked fluorescent magnetic beads was correlated to the presynaptic-marker Bassoon. Further, megakaryocytes secreting proplatelets were captured, and P-selectins with adherence activity were localized to some of the granules present by immuno-ASEM. The phagocytosis of lactic acid bacteria by dendritic cells was also imaged. Based on these studies, ASEM correlative microscopy promises to allow the study of various mesoscopic-scale dynamics in the near future. - Highlights: • In situ correlative light electron microscopy of samples in open solution by ASEM. • Primary cultures for in-solution CLEM by developing SiN-film coating methods • First visualization of fluorescent magnetic beads in aqueous solution by CLEM. • Presynaptic induction of neurons by GluRδ2-N-terminus-coated beads studied by CLEM. • Axonal partitioning, bacterial phagocytosis, platelet formation imaged by CLEM.

  19. Optically sectioned in vivo imaging with speckle illumination HiLo microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daryl; Ford, Tim N.; Chu, Kengyeh K.; Mertz, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple wide-field imaging technique, called HiLo microscopy, that is capable of producing optically sectioned images in real time, comparable in quality to confocal laser scanning microscopy. The technique is based on the fusion of two raw images, one acquired with speckle illumination and another with standard uniform illumination. The fusion can be numerically adjusted, using a single parameter, to produce optically sectioned images of varying thicknesses with the same raw data. Direct comparison between our HiLo microscope and a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope is made on the basis of sectioning strength and imaging performance. Specifically, we show that HiLo and confocal 3-D imaging of a GFP-labeled mouse brain hippocampus are comparable in quality. Moreover, HiLo microscopy is capable of faster, near video rate imaging over larger fields of view than attainable with standard confocal microscopes. The goal of this paper is to advertise the simplicity, robustness, and versatility of HiLo microscopy, which we highlight with in vivo imaging of common model organisms including planaria, C. elegans, and zebrafish.

  20. Incorporating Basic Optical Microscopy in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and versatile approach to incorporating basic optical microscopy in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory is described. Attaching a miniature CCD spectrometer to the video port of a standard compound microscope yields a visible microspectrophotometer suitable for student investigations of fundamental spectrometry concepts,…

  1. Doppler optical coherence microscopy and tomography applied to inner ear mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Scott; Freeman, Dennis M. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Ghaffari, Roozbeh [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-12-31

    While it is clear that cochlear traveling waves underlie the extraordinary sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and dynamic range of mammalian hearing, the underlying micromechanical mechanisms remain unresolved. Recent advances in low coherence measurement techniques show promise over traditional laser Doppler vibrometry and video microscopy, which are limited by low reflectivities of cochlear structures and restricted optical access. Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) and Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) both utilize a broadband source to limit constructive interference of scattered light to a small axial depth called a coherence gate. The coherence gate can be swept axially to image and measure sub-nanometer motions of cochlear structures throughout the cochlear partition. The coherence gate of DOCT is generally narrower than the confocal gate of the focusing optics, enabling increased axial resolution (typically 15 μm) within optical sections of the cochlear partition. DOCM, frequently implemented in the time domain, centers the coherence gate on the focal plane, achieving enhanced lateral and axial resolution when the confocal gate is narrower than the coherence gate. We compare these two complementary systems and demonstrate their utility in studying cellular and micromechanical mechanisms involved in mammalian hearing.

  2. All-optical optoacoustic microscopy based on probe beam deflection technique

    OpenAIRE

    Maswadi, Saher M.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Roth, Caleb C.; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Beier, Hope T.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) microscopy using an all-optical system based on the probe beam deflection technique (PBDT) for detection of laser-induced acoustic signals was investigated as an alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers. PBDT provides a number of advantages for OA microscopy including (i) efficient coupling of laser excitation energy to the samples being imaged through the probing laser beam, (ii) undistorted coupling of acoustic waves to the detector without the need for separa...

  3. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  4. Nanometrology using a through-focus scanning optical microscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attota, Ravikiran; Silver, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We present an initial review of a novel through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM pronounced as 'tee-som') imaging method that produces nanometer-dimensional measurement sensitivity using a conventional bright-field optical microscope. In the TSOM method a target is scanned through the focus of an optical microscope, acquiring conventional optical images at different focal positions. The TSOM images are constructed using the through-focus optical images. A TSOM image is unique under given experimental conditions and is sensitive to changes in the dimensions of a target in a distinct way. We use this characteristic for nanoscale-dimensional metrology. This technique can be used to identify the dimension which is changing between two nanosized targets and to determine the dimensions using a library-matching method. This methodology has potential utility for a wide range of target geometries and application areas, including nanometrology, nanomanufacturing, defect analysis, inspection, process control and biotechnology

  5. Atomic force and scanning near-field optical microscopy study of carbocyanine dye J-aggregates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokhorov, V.V.; Petrova, M.G.; Kovaleva, Natalia; Demikhov, E.I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2014), s. 700-704 ISSN 1573-4137 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : carbocyanine dye * elementary fibri * high-resolution atomic force microscopy * J-aggregate * probe microscopy * scanning near-field optical microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.096, year: 2014

  6. Comparison between optical techniques and confocal microscopy for defect detection on thin wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, Philip; Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel; Martinez-Anton, Juan Carlos; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2004-01-01

    Conventional microscopy techniques, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy (CM) are not suitable for on-line surface inspection of fine metallic wires. In the recent years, some optical techniques have been developed to be used for those tasks. However, they need a rigorous validation. In this work, we have used confocal microscopy to obtain the topography z(x,y) of wires with longitudinal defects, such as dielines. The topography has been used to predict the light scattered by the wire. These simulations have been compared with experimental results, showing a good agreement

  7. Gold nanocone probes for near-field scanning optical microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeeb, Bastian; Schaefer, Christian; Nill, Peter; Fleischer, Monika; Kern, Dieter P. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy (ANSOM) provides the possibility to collect simultaneously high-resolution topographical and sub-diffraction limited optical information from a surface. When optically excited, the scanning probes act as optical antennae with a strong near-field enhancement near the tip apex. Spatial resolution and optical near-field enhancement depend strongly on the properties and geometry of the scanning probe - in particular on very sharp tip radii. Various possibilities for fabricating good antennae have been pursued. Most commonly, scanning probes consist of electrochemically etched gold wires which are sharp but not well-defined in geometry. We present two different approaches for ultra sharp and well-defined antennae based upon fabricating gold nanocones with a tip radius smaller than 10 nm which can be used in ANSOM. A transfer process is presented that can be used to attach single gold nanocones to non-metallic probes such as sharp glass fiber tips. Alternatively, new processes are presented to fabricate cones directly on pillars of different materials such as silicon or bismuth, which can be applied to cantilever tips for ANSOM scanning applications.

  8. Extending Single-Molecule Microscopy Using Optical Fourier Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article surveys the recent application of optical Fourier processing to the long-established but still expanding field of single-molecule imaging and microscopy. A variety of single-molecule studies can benefit from the additional image information that can be obtained by modulating the Fourier, or pupil, plane of a widefield microscope. After briefly reviewing several current applications, we present a comprehensive and computationally efficient theoretical model for simulating single-molecule fluorescence as it propagates through an imaging system. Furthermore, we describe how phase/amplitude-modulating optics inserted in the imaging pathway may be modeled, especially at the Fourier plane. Finally, we discuss selected recent applications of Fourier processing methods to measure the orientation, depth, and rotational mobility of single fluorescent molecules. PMID:24745862

  9. Evanescent field characterisation for a d-shaped optical fibre using scanning near-field optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, S.T.; Nugent, K.A.; Roberts, A.; Mulvaney, P.; Lo, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Scanning near field optical microscopy is used to measure the evanescent filed and mode profile of a Ge-doped D-shaped optical fibre. The structure of the fibre is determined by differential etching followed by an investigation of the resultant topography with an atomic force microscope. This information is then used to theoretically model the expected behaviour of the fibre and it is shown that the theoretically model the expected behaviour of the fibre and it is shown that the theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimentally observed fields

  10. SEM/EDS and optical microscopy analyses of microplastics in ocean trawl and fish guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Wagner, Jeff; Ghosal, Sutapa; Bedi, Gagandeep; Wall, Stephen

    2017-12-15

    Microplastic particles from Atlantic and Pacific Ocean trawls, lab-fed fish guts and ocean fish guts have been characterized using optical microscopy and SEM/EDS in terms of size, morphology, and chemistry. We assessed whether these measurements could serve as a rapid screening process for subsequent identification of the likely microplastic candidates by micro-spectroscopy. Optical microscopy enabled morphological classification of the types of particles or fibers present in the sample, as well as the quantification of particle size ranges and fiber lengths. SEM/EDS analysis was used to rule out non-plastic particles and screen the prepared samples for potential microplastic, based on their element signatures and surface characteristics. Chlorinated plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) could be easily identified with SEM/EDS due to their unique elemental signatures including chlorine, as could mineral species that are falsely identified as plastics by optical microscopy. Particle morphology determined by optical microscopy and SEM suggests the fish ingested particles contained both degradation fragments from larger plastic pieces and also manufactured microplastics. SEM images of microplastic particle surfaces revealed characteristic cracks consistent with environmental exposure, as well as pigment particles consistent with manufactured materials. Most of the microplastic surfaces in the fish guts and ocean trawls were covered with biofilms, radiolarians, and crustaceans. Many of the fish stomachs contained micro-shell pieces which visually resembled microplastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM) for ultrafast high-contrast cellular imaging in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terence T. W.; Lau, Andy K. S.; Ho, Kenneth K. Y.; Tang, Matthew Y. H.; Robles, Joseph D. F.; Wei, Xiaoming; Chan, Antony C. S.; Tang, Anson H. L.; Lam, Edmund Y.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Chan, Godfrey C. F.; Shum, Ho Cheung; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerating imaging speed in optical microscopy is often realized at the expense of image contrast, image resolution, and detection sensitivity – a common predicament for advancing high-speed and high-throughput cellular imaging. We here demonstrate a new imaging approach, called asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM), which can deliver ultrafast label-free high-contrast flow imaging with well delineated cellular morphological resolution and in-line optical image amplification to overcome the compromised imaging sensitivity at high speed. We show that ATOM can separately reveal the enhanced phase-gradient and absorption contrast in microfluidic live-cell imaging at a flow speed as high as ~10 m/s, corresponding to an imaging throughput of ~100,000 cells/sec. ATOM could thus be the enabling platform to meet the pressing need for intercalating optical microscopy in cellular assay, e.g. imaging flow cytometry – permitting high-throughput access to the morphological information of the individual cells simultaneously with a multitude of parameters obtained in the standard assay. PMID:24413677

  12. Proximal design for a multimodality endoscope with multiphoton microscopy, optical coherence microscopy and visual modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, Kelli C.; Talarico, Olivia; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2018-02-01

    A multimodality endoscope system has been designed for early detection of ovarian cancer. Multiple illumination and detection systems must be integrated in a compact, stable, transportable configuration to meet the requirements of a clinical setting. The proximal configuration presented here supports visible light navigation with a large field of view and low resolution, high resolution multiphoton microscopy (MPM), and high resolution optical coherence microscopy (OCM). All modalities are integrated into a single optical system in the endoscope. The system requires two light sources: a green laser for visible light navigation and a compact fiber based femtosecond laser for MPM and OCM. Using an inline wavelength division multiplexer, the two sources are combined into a single mode fiber. To accomplish OCM, a fiber coupler is used to separate the femtosecond laser into a reference arm and signal arm. The reflected reference arm and the signal from the sample are interfered and wavelength separated by a reflection grating and detected using a linear array. The MPM signal is collimated and goes through a series of filters to separate the 2nd and 3rd harmonics as well as twophoton excitation florescence (2PEF) and 3PEF. Each signal is independently detected on a photo multiplier tube and amplified. The visible light is collected by multiple high numerical aperture fibers at the endoscope tip which are bundled into one SMA adapter at the proximal end and connected to a photodetector. This integrated system design is compact, efficient and meets both optical and mechanical requirements for clinical applications.

  13. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, Kyle

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called "non-blinking" quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to

  14. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchuk, Kyle [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to

  15. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically tunneling current

  16. Cathodoluminescence-activated nanoimaging: noninvasive near-field optical microscopy in an electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischak, Connor G; Hetherington, Craig L; Wang, Zhe; Precht, Jake T; Kaz, David M; Schlom, Darrell G; Ginsberg, Naomi S

    2015-05-13

    We demonstrate a new nanoimaging platform in which optical excitations generated by a low-energy electron beam in an ultrathin scintillator are used as a noninvasive, near-field optical scanning probe of an underlying sample. We obtain optical images of Al nanostructures with 46 nm resolution and validate the noninvasiveness of this approach by imaging a conjugated polymer film otherwise incompatible with electron microscopy due to electron-induced damage. The high resolution, speed, and noninvasiveness of this "cathodoluminescence-activated" platform also show promise for super-resolution bioimaging.

  17. Multifocal multiphoton microscopy with adaptive optical correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Simao; Poland, Simon; Krstajic, Nikola; Li, David; Monypenny, James; Walker, Richard; Tyndall, David; Ng, Tony; Henderson, Robert; Ameer-Beg, Simon

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a well established approach for measuring dynamic signalling events inside living cells, including detection of protein-protein interactions. The improvement in optical penetration of infrared light compared with linear excitation due to Rayleigh scattering and low absorption have provided imaging depths of up to 1mm in brain tissue but significant image degradation occurs as samples distort (aberrate) the infrared excitation beam. Multiphoton time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) FLIM is a method for obtaining functional, high resolution images of biological structures. In order to achieve good statistical accuracy TCSPC typically requires long acquisition times. We report the development of a multifocal multiphoton microscope (MMM), titled MegaFLI. Beam parallelization performed via a 3D Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), increases TCSPC count rate proportional to the number of beamlets produced. A weighted 3D GS algorithm is employed to improve homogeneity. An added benefit is the implementation of flexible and adaptive optical correction. Adaptive optics performed by means of Zernike polynomials are used to correct for system induced aberrations. Here we present results with significant improvement in throughput obtained using a novel complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) 1024 pixel single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array, opening the way to truly high-throughput FLIM.

  18. Fluorescent dyes with large Stokes shifts for super-resolution optical microscopy of biological objects: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sednev, Maksim V; Belov, Vladimir N; Hell, Stefan W

    2015-01-01

    The review deals with commercially available organic dyes possessing large Stokes shifts and their applications as fluorescent labels in optical microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion (STED). STED microscopy breaks Abbe’s diffraction barrier and provides optical resolution beyond the diffraction limit. STED microscopy is non-invasive and requires photostable fluorescent markers attached to biomolecules or other objects of interest. Up to now, in most biology-related STED experiments, bright and photoresistant dyes with small Stokes shifts of 20–40 nm were used. The rapid progress in STED microscopy showed that organic fluorophores possessing large Stokes shifts are indispensable in multi-color super-resolution techniques. The ultimate result of the imaging relies on the optimal combination of a dye, the bio-conjugation procedure and the performance of the optical microscope. Modern bioconjugation methods, basics of STED microscopy, as well as structures and spectral properties of the presently available fluorescent markers are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the spectral properties of the commercial dyes are tabulated and correlated with the available depletion wavelengths found in STED microscopes produced by LEICA Microsytems, Abberior Instruments and Picoquant GmbH. (topical review)

  19. Identification of nodal tissue in the living heart using rapid scanning fiber-optics confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Kaza, Aditya K; Hitchcock, Robert W; Sachse, Frank B

    2013-09-01

    Risks associated with pediatric reconstructive heart surgery include injury of the sinoatrial node (SAN) and atrioventricular node (AVN), requiring cardiac rhythm management using implantable pacemakers. These injuries are the result of difficulties in identifying nodal tissues intraoperatively. Here we describe an approach based on confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores to quantify tissue microstructure and identify nodal tissue. Using conventional 3-dimensional confocal microscopy we investigated the microstructural arrangement of SAN, AVN, and atrial working myocardium (AWM) in fixed rat heart. AWM exhibited a regular striated arrangement of the extracellular space. In contrast, SAN and AVN had an irregular, reticulated arrangement. AWM, SAN, and AVN tissues were beneath a thin surface layer of tissue that did not obstruct confocal microscopic imaging. Subsequently, we imaged tissues in living rat hearts with real-time fiber-optics confocal microscopy. Fiber-optics confocal microscopy images resembled images acquired with conventional confocal microscopy. We investigated spatial regularity of tissue microstructure from Fourier analysis and second-order image moments. Fourier analysis of fiber-optics confocal microscopy images showed that the spatial regularity of AWM was greater than that of nodal tissues (37.5 ± 5.0% versus 24.3 ± 3.9% for SAN and 23.8 ± 3.7% for AVN; Pfiber-optics confocal microscopy. Application of the approach in pediatric reconstructive heart surgery may reduce risks of injuring nodal tissues.

  20. Simultaneous topographical, electrical and optical microscopy of optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Naresh; Zoladek-Lemanczyk, Alina; Guilbert, Anne A. Y.; Su, Weitao; Tuladhar, Sachetan M.; Kirchartz, Thomas; Schroeder, Bob C.; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny; Roy, Debdulal; Castro, Fernando A.

    2017-01-01

    resolution by combining plasmonic optical signal enhancement with electrical-mode scanning probe microscopy. We demonstrate that this combined approach offers subsurface sensitivity that can be exploited to provide molecular information with a nanoscale

  1. Group velocity measurement using spectral interference in near-field scanning optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, John D.; Chaipiboonwong, Tipsuda; Brocklesby, William S.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Netti, Caterina; Zoorob, Majd E.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2006-01-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy provides a tool for studying the behavior of optical fields inside waveguides. In this experiment the authors measure directly the variation of group velocity between different modes of a planar slab waveguide as the modes propagate along the guide. The measurement is made using the spectral interference between pulses propagating inside the waveguide with different group velocities, collected using a near-field scanning optical microscope at different points down the guide and spectrally resolved. The results are compared to models of group velocities in simple guides

  2. Tunable thin-film optical filters for hyperspectral microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favreau, Peter F.; Rich, Thomas C.; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2013-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging was originally developed for use in remote sensing applications. More recently, it has been applied to biological imaging systems, such as fluorescence microscopes. The ability to distinguish molecules based on spectral differences has been especially advantageous for identifying fluorophores in highly autofluorescent tissues. A key component of hyperspectral imaging systems is wavelength filtering. Each filtering technology used for hyperspectral imaging has corresponding advantages and disadvantages. Recently, a new optical filtering technology has been developed that uses multi-layered thin-film optical filters that can be rotated, with respect to incident light, to control the center wavelength of the pass-band. Compared to the majority of tunable filter technologies, these filters have superior optical performance including greater than 90% transmission, steep spectral edges and high out-of-band blocking. Hence, tunable thin-film optical filters present optical characteristics that may make them well-suited for many biological spectral imaging applications. An array of tunable thin-film filters was implemented on an inverted fluorescence microscope (TE 2000, Nikon Instruments) to cover the full visible wavelength range. Images of a previously published model, GFP-expressing endothelial cells in the lung, were acquired using a charge-coupled device camera (Rolera EM-C2, Q-Imaging). This model sample presents fluorescently-labeled cells in a highly autofluorescent environment. Linear unmixing of hyperspectral images indicates that thin-film tunable filters provide equivalent spectral discrimination to our previous acousto-optic tunable filter-based approach, with increased signal-to-noise characteristics. Hence, tunable multi-layered thin film optical filters may provide greatly improved spectral filtering characteristics and therefore enable wider acceptance of hyperspectral widefield microscopy.

  3. Structured light optical microscopy for three-dimensional reconstruction of technical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettel, Johannes; Reinecke, Holger; Müller, Claas

    2016-04-01

    In microsystems technology quality control of micro structured surfaces with different surface properties is playing an ever more important role. The process of quality control incorporates three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of specularand diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. Due to the demand on high measurement accuracy and data acquisition rates, structured light optical microscopy has become a valuable solution to solve this problem providing high vertical and lateral resolution. However, 3D reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces still remains a challenge to optical measurement principles. In this paper we present a measurement principle based on structured light optical microscopy which enables 3D reconstruction of specular- and diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. It is realized using two light paths of a stereo microscope equipped with different magnification levels. The right optical path of the stereo microscope is used to project structured light onto the object surface. The left optical path is used to capture the structured illuminated object surface with a camera. Structured light patterns are generated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) device in combination with a high power Light Emitting Diode (LED). Structured light patterns are realized as a matrix of discrete light spots to illuminate defined areas on the object surface. The introduced measurement principle is based on multiple and parallel processed point measurements. Analysis of the measured Point Spread Function (PSF) by pattern recognition and model fitting algorithms enables the precise calculation of 3D coordinates. Using exemplary technical surfaces we demonstrate the successful application of our measurement principle.

  4. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rhodes, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzman, Anthony D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  5. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rhodes, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzman, Anthony D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  6. Microscopy of biological sample through advanced diffractive optics from visible to X-ray wavelength regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Cojoc, Dan; Emiliani, Valentina; Cabrini, Stefano; Coppey-Moisan, Maite; Ferrari, Enrico; Garbin, Valeria; Altissimo, Matteo

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this report is to demonstrate a unified version of microscopy through the use of advanced diffractive optics. The unified scheme derives from the technical possibility of realizing front wave engineering in a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum. The unified treatment is realized through the design and nanofabrication of phase diffractive elements (PDE) through which wave front beam shaping is obtained. In particular, we will show applications, by using biological samples, ranging from micromanipulation using optical tweezers to X-ray differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy combined with X-ray fluorescence. We report some details on the design and physical implementation of diffractive elements that besides focusing also perform other optical functions: beam splitting, beam intensity, and phase redistribution or mode conversion. Laser beam splitting is used for multiple trapping and independent manipulation of micro-beads surrounding a cell as an array of tweezers and for arraying and sorting microscopic size biological samples. Another application is the Gauss to Laguerre-Gauss mode conversion, which allows for trapping and transfering orbital angular momentum of light to micro-particles immersed in a fluid. These experiments are performed in an inverted optical microscope coupled with an infrared laser beam and a spatial light modulator for diffractive optics implementation. High-resolution optics, fabricated by means of e-beam lithography, are demonstrated to control the intensity and the phase of the sheared beams in x-ray DIC microscopy. DIC experiments with phase objects reveal a dramatic increase in image contrast compared to bright-field x-ray microscopy. Besides the topographic information, fluorescence allows detection of certain chemical elements (Cl, P, Sc, K) in the same setup, by changing the photon energy of the x-ray beam. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Comprehensive study of unexpected microscope condensers formed in sample arrangements commonly used in optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Darshan B; Aldawsari, Mabkhoot Mudith S; Alharbi, Bandar Mohammed H; Sen, Sanchari; Grave de Peralta, Luis

    2015-09-01

    We show that various setups for optical microscopy which are commonly used in biomedical laboratories behave like efficient microscope condensers that are responsible for observed subwavelength resolution. We present a series of experiments and simulations that reveal how inclined illumination from such unexpected condensers occurs when the sample is perpendicularly illuminated by a microscope's built-in white-light source. In addition, we demonstrate an inexpensive add-on optical module that serves as an efficient and lightweight microscope condenser. Using such add-on optical module in combination with a low-numerical-aperture objective lens and Fourier plane imaging microscopy technique, we demonstrate detection of photonic crystals with a period nearly eight times smaller than the Rayleigh resolution limit.

  8. Automated seeding-based nuclei segmentation in nonlinear optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medyukhina, Anna; Meyer, Tobias; Heuke, Sandro; Vogler, Nadine; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy based, e.g., on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) or two-photon-excited fluorescence (TPEF) is a fast label-free imaging technique, with a great potential for biomedical applications. However, NLO microscopy as a diagnostic tool is still in its infancy; there is a lack of robust and durable nuclei segmentation methods capable of accurate image processing in cases of variable image contrast, nuclear density, and type of investigated tissue. Nonetheless, such algorithms specifically adapted to NLO microscopy present one prerequisite for the technology to be routinely used, e.g., in pathology or intraoperatively for surgical guidance. In this paper, we compare the applicability of different seeding and boundary detection methods to NLO microscopic images in order to develop an optimal seeding-based approach capable of accurate segmentation of both TPEF and CARS images. Among different methods, the Laplacian of Gaussian filter showed the best accuracy for the seeding of the image, while a modified seeded watershed segmentation was the most accurate in the task of boundary detection. The resulting combination of these methods followed by the verification of the detected nuclei performs high average sensitivity and specificity when applied to various types of NLO microscopy images.

  9. Adaptive optics in spinning disk microscopy: improved contrast and brightness by a simple and fast method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisier, V; Clouvel, G; Jasaitis, A; Dimitrov, A; Piolot, T; Salamero, J

    2015-09-01

    Multiconfocal microscopy gives a good compromise between fast imaging and reasonable resolution. However, the low intensity of live fluorescent emitters is a major limitation to this technique. Aberrations induced by the optical setup, especially the mismatch of the refractive index and the biological sample itself, distort the point spread function and further reduce the amount of detected photons. Altogether, this leads to impaired image quality, preventing accurate analysis of molecular processes in biological samples and imaging deep in the sample. The amount of detected fluorescence can be improved with adaptive optics. Here, we used a compact adaptive optics module (adaptive optics box for sectioning optical microscopy), which was specifically designed for spinning disk confocal microscopy. The module overcomes undesired anomalies by correcting for most of the aberrations in confocal imaging. Existing aberration detection methods require prior illumination, which bleaches the sample. To avoid multiple exposures of the sample, we established an experimental model describing the depth dependence of major aberrations. This model allows us to correct for those aberrations when performing a z-stack, gradually increasing the amplitude of the correction with depth. It does not require illumination of the sample for aberration detection, thus minimizing photobleaching and phototoxicity. With this model, we improved both signal-to-background ratio and image contrast. Here, we present comparative studies on a variety of biological samples. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of a nanometer-sized optical fiber electrode based on selective chemical etching for scanning electrochemical/optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kenichi; Ohkawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Sho; Ueda, Akio; Niwa, Osamu; Suzuki, Koji

    2006-03-15

    We have already reported a method for fabricating ultramicroelectrodes (Suzuki, K. JP Patent, 2004-45394, 2004). This method is based on the selective chemical etching of optical fibers. In this work, we undertake a detailed investigation involving a combination of etched optical fibers with various types of tapered tip (protruding-shape, double- (or pencil-) shape and triple-tapered electrode) and insulation with electrophoretic paint. Our goal is to establish a method for fabricating nanometer-sized optical fiber electrodes with high reproducibility. As a result, we realized pencil-shaped and triple-tapered electrodes that had radii in the nanometer range with high reproducibility. These nanometer-sized electrodes showed well-defined sigmoidal curves and stable diffusion-limited responses with cyclic voltammetry. The pencil-shaped optical fiber, which has a conical tip with a cone angle of 20 degrees , was effective for controlling the electrode radius. The pencil-shaped electrodes had higher reproducibility and smaller electrode radii (r(app) etched optical fiber electrodes. By using a pencil-shaped electrode with a 105-nm radius as a probe, we obtained simultaneous electrochemical and optical images of an implantable interdigitated array electrode. We achieved nanometer-scale resolution with a combination of scanning electrochemical microscopy SECM and optical microscopy. The resolution of the electrochemical and optical images indicated sizes of 300 and 930 nm, respectively. The neurites of living PC12 cells were also successfully imaged on a 1.6-microm scale by using the negative feedback mode of an SECM.

  11. New fluorinated rhodamines for optical microscopy and nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitronova, Gyuzel Yu; Belov, Vladimir N; Bossi, Mariano L; Wurm, Christian A; Meyer, Lars; Medda, Rebecca; Moneron, Gael; Bretschneider, Stefan; Eggeling, Christian; Jakobs, Stefan; Hell, Stefan W

    2010-04-19

    New photostable rhodamine dyes represented by the compounds 1 a-r and 3-5 are proposed as efficient fluorescent markers with unique combination of structural features. Unlike rhodamines with monoalkylated nitrogen atoms, N',N-bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) derivatives 1 e, 1 i, 1 j, 3-H and 5 were found to undergo sulfonation of the xanthene fragment at the positions 4' and 5'. Two fluorine atoms were introduced into the positions 2' and 7' of the 3',6'-diaminoxanthene fragment in compounds 1 a-d, 1 i-l and 1 m-r. The new rhodamine dyes may be excited with λ=488 or 514 nm light; most of them emit light at λ=512-554 nm (compounds 1 q and 1r at λ=576 and 589 nm in methanol, respectively) and have high fluorescence quantum yields in solution (up to 98 %), relatively long excited-state lifetimes (>3 ns) and are resistant against photobleaching, especially at high laser intensities, as is usually applied in confocal microscopy. Sulfonation of the xanthene fragment with 30 % SO3 in H2SO4 is compatible with the secondary amide bond (rhodamine-CON(Me)CH2CH2COOH) formed with MeNHCH2CH2COOCH3 to providing the sterically unhindered carboxylic group required for further (bio)conjugation reactions. After creating the amino reactive sites, the modified derivatives may be used as fluorescent markers and labels for (bio)molecules in optical microscopy and nanoscopy with very-high light intensities. Further, the new rhodamine dyes are able to pass the plasma membrane of living cells, introducing them as potential labels for recent live-cell-tag approaches. We exemplify the excellent performance of the fluorinated rhodamines in optical microscopy by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy experiments. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Correlated topographic and spectroscopic imaging by combined atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dehong; Micic, Miodrag; Klymyshyn, Nicholas; Suh, Y.D.; Lu, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    Near-field scanning microscopy is a powerful approach to obtain topographic and spectroscopic characterization simultaneously for imaging biological and nanoscale systems. To achieve optical imaging at high spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit, aperture-less metallic scanning tips have been utilized to enhance the laser illumination local electromagnetic field at the apex of the scanning tips. In this paper, we discuss and review our work on combined fluorescence imaging with AFM-metallic tip enhancement, finite element method simulation of the tip enhancement, and their applications on AFM-tip enhanced fluorescence lifetime imaging (AFM-FLIM) and correlated AFM and FLIM imaging of the living cells

  13. A robotized six degree of freedom stage for optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramov, M. Z.; Ivanov, I.; Pavlov, V.; Zaharieva, K.

    2013-04-01

    This work represents an investigation of the possibility to use a hexapod system for optical microscopy investigation and measurements. An appropriate hexapod stage has been developed. The stage has been calibrated and used for several different optical microscopy applications. The construction of the stage is based on the classic Stewart platform and thus represents a parallel robot with 6 degree of freedom. Appropriate software is controlling the transformation of the 3 position coordinates of the moving plate and the 3 Euler angles in position velocities and accelerations of the plate motion. An embedded microcontroller is implementing the motion plan and the PID controller regulating the kinematics. By difference to the available in the market hexapods the proposed solution is with lower precision but is significantly cheaper and simple to maintain. The repeatability obtained with current implementation is 0,05 mm and 0,001 rad. A specialized DSP based video processing engine is used for both feedback computation and application specific image processing in real-time. To verify the concept some applications has been developed for specific tasks and has been used for specific measurements.

  14. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Arentoft, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SHSOM) is performed on electric-field poled silica-based waveguides. Two operation modes of SHSOM are considered. Oblique transmission reflection and normal reflection modes are used to image the spatial distribution of nonlinear susceptibilities...... and limitations of the two operation modes when used for SHSOM studies of poled silica-based waveguides are discussed. The influence of surface defects on the resulting second-harmonic images is also considered. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  15. An integrated instrumental setup for the combination of atomic force microscopy with optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, R J; Heyes, C D; Knebel, D; Röcker, C; Nienhaus, G U

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, the study of single biomolecules using fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques has resulted in a plethora of new information regarding the physics underlying these complex biological systems. It is especially advantageous to be able to measure the optical, topographical, and mechanical properties of single molecules simultaneously. Here an AFM is used that is especially designed for integration with an inverted optical microscope and that has a near-infrared light source (850 nm) to eliminate interference between the optical experiment and the AFM operation. The Tip Assisted Optics (TAO) system consists of an additional 100 x 100-microm(2) X-Y scanner for the sample, which can be independently and simultaneously used with the AFM scanner. This allows the offset to be removed between the confocal optical image obtained with the sample scanner and the simultaneously acquired AFM topography image. The tip can be positioned exactly into the optical focus while the user can still navigate within the AFM image for imaging or manipulation of the sample. Thus the tip-enhancement effect can be maximized and it becomes possible to perform single molecule manipulation experiments within the focus of a confocal optical image. Here this is applied to simultaneous measurement of single quantum dot fluorescence and topography with high spatial resolution. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cytology 3D structure formation based on optical microscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronichev, A. N.; Polyakov, E. V.; Shabalova, I. P.; Djangirova, T. V.; Zaitsev, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    The article the article is devoted to optimization of the parameters of imaging of biological preparations in optical microscopy using a multispectral camera in visible range of electromagnetic radiation. A model for the image forming of virtual preparations was proposed. The optimum number of layers was determined for the object scan in depth and holistic perception of its switching according to the results of the experiment.

  17. Cytology 3D structure formation based on optical microscopy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronichev, A N; Polyakov, E V; Zaitsev, S M; Shabalova, I P; Djangirova, T V

    2017-01-01

    The article the article is devoted to optimization of the parameters of imaging of biological preparations in optical microscopy using a multispectral camera in visible range of electromagnetic radiation. A model for the image forming of virtual preparations was proposed. The optimum number of layers was determined for the object scan in depth and holistic perception of its switching according to the results of the experiment. (paper)

  18. High definition aperture probes for near-field optical microscopy fabricated by focused ion beam milling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.A.; Otter, A.M.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1998-01-01

    We have improved the optical characteristics of aluminum-coated fiber probes used in near-field scanning optical microscopy by milling with a focused ion beam. This treatment produces a flat-end face free of aluminum grains, containing a well- defined circularly-symmetric aperture with controllable

  19. Multifocus microscopy with precise color multi-phase diffractive optics applied in functional neuronal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Sara; Ilic, Rob; Wisniewski, Jan; Mehl, Brian; Yu, Liya; Chen, Lei; Davanco, Marcelo; Oudjedi, Laura; Fiche, Jean-Bernard; Hajj, Bassam; Jin, Xin; Pulupa, Joan; Cho, Christine; Mir, Mustafa; El Beheiry, Mohamed; Darzacq, Xavier; Nollmann, Marcelo; Dahan, Maxime; Wu, Carl; Lionnet, Timothée; Liddle, J Alexander; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-03-01

    Multifocus microscopy (MFM) allows high-resolution instantaneous three-dimensional (3D) imaging and has been applied to study biological specimens ranging from single molecules inside cells nuclei to entire embryos. We here describe pattern designs and nanofabrication methods for diffractive optics that optimize the light-efficiency of the central optical component of MFM: the diffractive multifocus grating (MFG). We also implement a "precise color" MFM layout with MFGs tailored to individual fluorophores in separate optical arms. The reported advancements enable faster and brighter volumetric time-lapse imaging of biological samples. In live microscopy applications, photon budget is a critical parameter and light-efficiency must be optimized to obtain the fastest possible frame rate while minimizing photodamage. We provide comprehensive descriptions and code for designing diffractive optical devices, and a detailed methods description for nanofabrication of devices. Theoretical efficiencies of reported designs is ≈90% and we have obtained efficiencies of > 80% in MFGs of our own manufacture. We demonstrate the performance of a multi-phase MFG in 3D functional neuronal imaging in living C. elegans.

  20. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy and microscopy of model random and biological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yici

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) spectroscopy and microscopy applied to biomedical science are emerging as new and rapidly growing areas which offer important insight into basic phenomena. Ultrafast NLO processes provide temporal, spectral and spatial sensitivities complementary or superior to those achieved through conventional linear optical approaches. The goal of this thesis is to explore the potential of two fundamental NLO processes to produce noninvasive histological maps of biological tissues. Within the goal of the thesis, steady state intensity, polarization and angular measurements of second- and third-harmonic generations (SHG, THG) have been performed on model random scattering and animal tissue samples. The nonlinear optical effects have been evaluated using models. Conversion efficiencies of SHG and THG from animal tissue interfaces have been determined, ranging from 10-7 to 10-10. The changes in the multiharmonic signals were found to depend on both local and overall histological structures of biological samples. The spectral signatures of two photon excitation induced fluorescence from intrinsic fluorophores have been acquired and used to characterize the physical state and types of tissues. Two dimensional scanning SHG and TPF tomographic images have been obtained from in vitro animal tissues, normal and diseased human breast tissues, and resolved subsurface layers and histo-chemical distributions. By combining consecutive 2D maps, a 3D image can be produced. The structure and morphology dependence of the SH signal has been utilized to image and evaluate subsurface tumor progression depth. Second harmonic microscopy in model random and biological cells has been studied using a CCD camera to obtain direct images from subcellular structures. Finally, near infrared (NIR) NLO spectroscopy and microscopy based on SHG and TPF have demonstrated high spatial resolution, deeper penetration depth, low level photo-damaging and enhanced morphological sensitivity for

  1. Brain plasticity and functionality explored by nonlinear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacconi, L.; Allegra, L.; Buffelli, M.; Cesare, P.; D'Angelo, E.; Gandolfi, D.; Grasselli, G.; Lotti, J.; Mapelli, J.; Strata, P.; Pavone, F. S.

    2010-02-01

    In combination with fluorescent protein (XFP) expression techniques, two-photon microscopy has become an indispensable tool to image cortical plasticity in living mice. In parallel to its application in imaging, multi-photon absorption has also been used as a tool for the dissection of single neurites with submicrometric precision without causing any visible collateral damage to the surrounding neuronal structures. In this work, multi-photon nanosurgery is applied to dissect single climbing fibers expressing GFP in the cerebellar cortex. The morphological consequences are then characterized with time lapse 3-dimensional two-photon imaging over a period of minutes to days after the procedure. Preliminary investigations show that the laser induced fiber dissection recalls a regenerative process in the fiber itself over a period of days. These results show the possibility of this innovative technique to investigate regenerative processes in adult brain. In parallel with imaging and manipulation technique, non-linear microscopy offers the opportunity to optically record electrical activity in intact neuronal networks. In this work, we combined the advantages of second-harmonic generation (SHG) with a random access (RA) excitation scheme to realize a new microscope (RASH) capable of optically recording fast membrane potential events occurring in a wide-field of view. The RASH microscope, in combination with bulk loading of tissue with FM4-64 dye, was used to simultaneously record electrical activity from clusters of Purkinje cells in acute cerebellar slices. Complex spikes, both synchronous and asynchronous, were optically recorded simultaneously across a given population of neurons. Spontaneous electrical activity was also monitored simultaneously in pairs of neurons, where action potentials were recorded without averaging across trials. These results show the strength of this technique in describing the temporal dynamics of neuronal assemblies, opening promising

  2. Near-field-optical-microscopy studies of micro-modifications caused by femtosecond laser irradiation in lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamela, J.; Jaque, D.; Rodenas, A.; Jaque, F.; Torchia, G.A.; Vazquez, J.R.; Mendez, C.; Roso, L.

    2008-01-01

    Near-field-optical-microscopy has been used to study the micro-modifications caused by femtosecond laser pulses focused at the surface and in the volume of lithium niobate crystals. We have found experimental evidence of the existence, close to femtosecond ablation craters, of periodic modifications in the surface reflectivity. In addition, the potential application of near-field-optical microscopy for the spatial location of permanent modifications caused by femtosecond pulses focused inside lithium niobate crystals has been also demonstrated. (orig.)

  3. Simultaneous characterization of rotational and translational diffusion of optically anisotropic particles by optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giavazzi, Fabio; Cerbino, Roberto; Haro-Pérez, Catalina

    2016-01-01

    We probe the roto-translational Brownian motion of optically anisotropic particles suspended in water with a simple and straightforward optical microscopy experiment that does not require positional or rotational particle tracking. We acquire a movie of the suspension placed between two polarizing elements and we extract the translational diffusion coefficient D T and the rotational diffusion coefficient D R from the analysis of the temporal correlation properties of the spatial Fourier modes of the intensity fluctuations in the movie. Our method is successfully tested with a dilute suspension of birefringent spherical colloidal particles obtained by polymerizing an emulsion of droplets of liquid crystal in a nematic phase, whose roto-translational dynamics is found to be well described by theory. The simplicity of our approach makes our method a viable alternative to particle tracking and depolarized dynamic light scattering. (paper)

  4. The mechanism of borax crystallization using in situ optical microscopy and AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharso, G.; Parkinson, M.; Ogden, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The quality of high-purity borax depends both on the concentrations of the impurities and the product appearance, which are mainly determined by the size and morphology of the crystals. Thus, knowledge about crystallization of borax is of direct relevance to the industrial production of borax. In addition, fundamental studies of borax crystallization will provide results of relevance to the crystallization of other economically important materials. An investigation into the fundamental mechanism of crystal growth of borax from aqueous solution was carried out, as a model system. The investigation focussed on the growth mechanism, and the influence of factors such as solution supersaturation, temperature, crystal size and solution flow on the rate of crystal growth. In situ optical microscopy was used to determine growth rates of three different faces of borax crystals at 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg C, at various concentrations. It was found that the growth rate increases with increasing temperature and supersaturation. At low concentration , growth on the (010), (001), and (111) faces occurs via a spiral growth mechanism and at high concentration birth and spread is the principal mechanism operating. The activation energy for the different mechanisms was determined. Examination by ex situ Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) showed features suggesting that the (100), (010), (001) faces of borax crystals grow by spiral mechanism at low concentration and two dimensional nucleation at high concentration. These experiments support the data obtained from in situ optical microscopy. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  5. Imaging subsurface damage of grinded fused silica optics by confocal fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neauport, J.; Cormont, P.; Destribats, J.; Legros, P.; Ambard, C.

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation of fluorescence confocal microscopy as a tool to measure subsurface damage on grinded fused silica optics. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was performed with an excitation at the wavelength of 405 nm on fixed abrasive diamond grinded fused silica samples. We detail the measured fluorescence spectrums and compare them to those of oil based coolants and grinding slurries. We evidence that oil based coolant used in diamond grinding induces a fluorescence that marks the subsurface damages and eases its observation. Such residual traces might also be involved in the laser damage process. (authors)

  6. CARS microscopy for imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzumanyan Grigory; Voskanyan Karine

    2013-01-01

    Optical microscopy grows in its importance with the development of modern nanotechnology, biotechnology, methods of diagnostics and treatment of most dangerous diseases for mankind. There are several important goals of optical microscopy for biomedical studies among which the next three may be distinguished: fast imaging with high lateral spatial resolution, 3-D sectioning capability and high contrast for chemical selectivity. To meet these specific requirements, various types of both linear and nonlinear optical microscopy were elaborated. (authors)

  7. Optical detection of ultrasound using an apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Phillip; Zhang, Zhen; Sun, Cheng; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2013-01-01

    Laser ultrasonics techniques are power approaches for non-contact generation and detection of high frequency ultrasound on a local scale. In these techniques, optical diffraction limits the spatial information that can be accessed from a measurement. In order to improve the lateral spatial resolution, we incorporate an apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope (aNSOM) into laser ultrasonics setup for local detection of laser generated ultrasound. The aNSOM technique relies on the measurement of a weak backscattered near-field light intensity resulting from the oblique illumination of a nanoscale probe-tip positioned close to a sample surface. We enhance the optical near-field intensity by coupling light to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on the shaft of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever. The SPPs propagate down the AFM shaft, localize at the tip apex, and are backscattered to the far-field when the separation distance between the probe tip and the sample surface is comparable to the probe-tip radius. The backscattered near-field intensity is dynamically modulated when an ultrasonic wave arrives at the sample surface leading to a transient change in the tip-sample separation distance. We present experimental results detailing measurement of broadband and narrowband laser generated ultrasound in solids with frequencies reaching up to 180 MHz range.

  8. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Keir C.; Nagy, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. These techniques are described and illustrated with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations. PMID:18511917

  9. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad; Joshi, Vineet V.; Rhodes, Mark A.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  10. Noninvasive label-free monitoring of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals in human skin using nonlinear optical microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseiran, Sam; Wang, Hequn; Evans, Conor L.

    2017-02-01

    Over the past decade, nonlinear optical microscopy has seen a dramatic rise in its use in research settings due to its noninvasiveness, enhanced penetration depth, intrinsic optical sectioning, and the ability to probe chemical compounds with molecular specificity without exogenous contrast agents. Nonlinear optical techniques including two-photon excitation fluorescence (2PEF), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), second harmonic generation (SHG), coherent anti-Stokes and stimulated Raman scattering (CARS and SRS, respectively), as well as transient and sum frequency absorption (TA and SFA, respectively), have been widely used to explore the physiology and microanatomy of skin. Recently, these modalities have shed light on dermal processes that could not have otherwise been observed, including the spatiotemporal monitoring of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. However, a challenge quickly arises when studying such chemicals in a dermatological context: many exogenous compounds have optical signatures that can interfere with the signals that would otherwise be acquired from intact skin. For example, oily solvents exhibit strong signals when probing CH2 vibrations with CARS/SRS; chemical sun filters appear bright in 2PEF microscopy; and darkly colored compounds readily absorb light across a broad spectrum, producing strong TA/SFA signals. Thus, this discussion will first focus on the molecular contrast in skin that can be probed using the aforementioned nonlinear optical techniques. This will be followed by an overview of strategies that take advantage of the exogenous compounds' optical signatures to probe spatiotemporal dynamics while preserving endogenous information from skin.

  11. Label-free imaging of acanthamoeba using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsubasa; Cha, Yu-Rok; Kaji, Yuichi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Kano, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a disease in which amoebae named Acanthamoeba invade the cornea of an eye. To diagnose this disease before it becomes serious, it is important to detect the cyst state of Acanthamoeba in the early stage of infection. In the present study, we explored spectroscopic signitures of the cyst state of Acanthamoeba using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy with the channels of multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG), and third harmonic generation (THG). A sharp band at around 1603 cm-1 in the CARS (Im[χ(3)]) spectrum was found at the cyst state of Acanthamoeba, which possibly originates from ergosterol and/or 7-dehydrostigmasterol. It can be used as a maker band of Acanthamoeba for medical treatment. Keyword: Acanthamoeba keratitis, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, CARS, second harmonic generation, SHG, microspectroscopy, multiphoton microscopy

  12. Towards phonon photonics: scattering-type near-field optical microscopy reveals phonon-enhanced near-field interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction limits the spatial resolution in classical microscopy or the dimensions of optical circuits to about half the illumination wavelength. Scanning near-field microscopy can overcome this limitation by exploiting the evanescent near fields existing close to any illuminated object. We use a scattering-type near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) that uses the illuminated metal tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) to act as scattering near-field probe. The presented images are direct evidence that the s-SNOM enables optical imaging at a spatial resolution on a 10 nm scale, independent of the wavelength used (λ=633 nm and 10 μm). Operating the microscope at specific mid-infrared frequencies we found a tip-induced phonon-polariton resonance on flat polar crystals such as SiC and Si 3 N 4 . Being a spectral fingerprint of any polar material such phonon-enhanced near-field interaction has enormous applicability in nondestructive, material-specific infrared microscopy at nanoscale resolution. The potential of s-SNOM to study eigenfields of surface polaritons in nanostructures opens the door to the development of phonon photonics--a proposed infrared nanotechnology that uses localized or propagating surface phonon polaritons for probing, manipulating and guiding infrared light in nanoscale devices, analogous to plasmon photonics

  13. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hell, Stefan W; Sahl, Steffen J; Bates, Mark; Jakobs, Stefan; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I

    2015-01-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  14. Application of carbon nanotubes to topographical resolution enhancement of tapered fiber scanning near field optical microscopy probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, S. T.; Jarvis, S. P.

    2003-05-01

    Scanning near field optical microscopy (SNOM) probes are typically tapered optical fibers with metallic coatings. The tip diameters are generally in excess of 300 nm and thus provide poor topographical resolution. Here we report on the attachment multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the probes in order to substantially enhance the topographical resolution, without adversely affecting the optical resolution.

  15. Polarization contrast in photon scanning tunnelling microscopy combined with atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Propstra, K.; Propstra, K.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    Photon scanning tunnelling microscopy combined with atomic force microscopy allows simultaneous acquisition and direct comparison of optical and topographical images, both with a lateral resolution of about 30 nm, far beyond the optical diffraction limit. The probe consists of a modified

  16. Characterization and improvement of highly inclined optical sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolini, T.; Curcio, V.; Gardini, L.; Capitanio, M.; Pavone, F. S.

    2018-02-01

    Highly Inclined and Laminated Optical sheet (HILO) microscopy is an optical technique that employs a highly inclined laser beam to illuminate the sample with a thin sheet of light that can be scanned through the sample volume1 . HILO is an efficient illumination technique when applied to fluorescence imaging of thick samples owing to the confined illumination volume that allows high contrast imaging while retaining deep scanning capability in a wide-field configuration. The restricted illumination volume is crucial to limit background fluorescence originating from portions of the sample far from the focal plane, especially in applications such as single molecule localization and super-resolution imaging2-4. Despite its widespread use, current literature lacks comprehensive reports of the actual advantages of HILO in these kinds of microscopies. Here, we thoroughly characterize the propagation of a highly inclined beam through fluorescently labeled samples and implement appropriate beam shaping for optimal application to single molecule and super-resolution imaging. We demonstrate that, by reducing the beam size along the refracted axis only, the excitation volume is consequently reduced while maintaining a field of view suitable for single cell imaging. We quantify the enhancement in signal-tobackground ratio with respect to the standard HILO technique and apply our illumination method to dSTORM superresolution imaging of the actin and vimentin cytoskeleton. We define the conditions to achieve localization precisions comparable to state-of-the-art reports, obtain a significant improvement in the image contrast, and enhanced plane selectivity within the sample volume due to the further confinement of the inclined beam.

  17. Optimal model-based sensorless adaptive optics for epifluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Paolo; Soloviev, Oleg; Wilding, Dean; Vdovin, Gleb; Verhaegen, Michel

    2018-01-01

    We report on a universal sample-independent sensorless adaptive optics method, based on modal optimization of the second moment of the fluorescence emission from a point-like excitation. Our method employs a sample-independent precalibration, performed only once for the particular system, to establish the direct relation between the image quality and the aberration. The method is potentially applicable to any form of microscopy with epifluorescence detection, including the practically important case of incoherent fluorescence emission from a three dimensional object, through minor hardware modifications. We have applied the technique successfully to a widefield epifluorescence microscope and to a multiaperture confocal microscope.

  18. Exploring lipids with nonlinear optical microscopy in multiple biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Garcia, Alba

    Lipids are crucial biomolecules for the well being of humans. Altered lipid metabolism may give rise to a variety of diseases that affect organs from the cardiovascular to the central nervous system. A deeper understanding of lipid metabolic processes would spur medical research towards developing precise diagnostic tools, treatment methods, and preventive strategies for reducing the impact of lipid diseases. Lipid visualization remains a complex task because of the perturbative effect exerted by traditional biochemical assays and most fluorescence markers. Coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy enables interrogation of biological samples with minimum disturbance, and is particularly well suited for label-free visualization of lipids, providing chemical specificity without compromising on spatial resolution. Hyperspectral imaging yields large datasets that benefit from tailored multivariate analysis. In this thesis, CRS microscopy was combined with Raman spectroscopy and other label-free nonlinear optical techniques to analyze lipid metabolism in multiple biological systems. We used nonlinear Raman techniques to characterize Meibum secretions in the progression of dry eye disease, where the lipid and protein contributions change in ratio and phase segregation. We employed similar tools to examine lipid droplets in mice livers aboard a spaceflight mission, which lose their retinol content contributing to the onset of nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease. We also focused on atherosclerosis, a disease that revolves around lipid-rich plaques in arterial walls. We examined the lipid content of macrophages, whose variable phenotype gives rise to contrasting healing and inflammatory activities. We also proposed new label-free markers, based on lifetime imaging, for macrophage phenotype, and to detect products of lipid oxidation. Cholesterol was also detected in hepatitis C virus infected cells, and in specific strains of age-related macular degeneration diseased cells by

  19. Imaging arterial cells, atherosclerosis, and restenosis by multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-Wei; Simianu, Vlad; Locker, Matthew J.; Sturek, Michael; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-02-01

    By integrating sum-frequency generation (SFG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) on a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope platform, multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging of arteries and atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated. CARS signals arising from CH II-rich membranes allowed visualization of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in a carotid artery. Additionally, CARS microscopy allowed vibrational imaging of elastin and collagen fibrils which are rich in CH II bonds in their cross-linking residues. The extracellular matrix organization was further confirmed by TPEF signals arising from elastin's autofluorescence and SFG signals arising from collagen fibrils' non-centrosymmetric structure. The system is capable of identifying different atherosclerotic lesion stages with sub-cellular resolution. The stages of atherosclerosis, such as macrophage infiltration, lipid-laden foam cell accumulation, extracellular lipid distribution, fibrous tissue deposition, plaque establishment, and formation of other complicated lesions could be viewed by our multimodal CARS microscope. Collagen percentages in the region adjacent to coronary artery stents were resolved. High correlation between NLO and histology imaging evidenced the validity of the NLO imaging. The capability of imaging significant components of an arterial wall and distinctive stages of atherosclerosis in a label-free manner suggests the potential application of multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy to monitor the onset and progression of arterial diseases.

  20. Nanohybrids Near-Field Optical Microscopy: From Image Shift to Biosensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayla El-Kork

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-Field Optical Microscopy is a valuable tool for the optical and topographic study of objects at a nanometric scale. Nanoparticles constitute important candidates for such type of investigations, as they bear an important weight for medical, biomedical, and biosensing applications. One, however, has to be careful as artifacts can be easily reproduced. In this study, we examined hybrid nanoparticles (or nanohybrids in the near-field, while in solution and attached to gold nanoplots. We found out that they can be used for wavelength modulable near-field biosensors within conditions of artifact free imaging. In detail, we refer to the use of topographic/optical image shift and the imaging of Local Surface Plasmon hot spots to validate the genuineness of the obtained images. In summary, this study demonstrates a new way of using simple easily achievable comparative methods to prove the authenticity of near-field images and presents nanohybrid biosensors as an application.

  1. Quantitative optical microscopy: measurement of cellular biophysical features with a standard optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kevin G; Baker-Groberg, Sandra M; McCarty, Owen J T

    2014-04-07

    We describe the use of a standard optical microscope to perform quantitative measurements of mass, volume, and density on cellular specimens through a combination of bright field and differential interference contrast imagery. Two primary approaches are presented: noninterferometric quantitative phase microscopy (NIQPM), to perform measurements of total cell mass and subcellular density distribution, and Hilbert transform differential interference contrast microscopy (HTDIC) to determine volume. NIQPM is based on a simplified model of wave propagation, termed the paraxial approximation, with three underlying assumptions: low numerical aperture (NA) illumination, weak scattering, and weak absorption of light by the specimen. Fortunately, unstained cellular specimens satisfy these assumptions and low NA illumination is easily achieved on commercial microscopes. HTDIC is used to obtain volumetric information from through-focus DIC imagery under high NA illumination conditions. High NA illumination enables enhanced sectioning of the specimen along the optical axis. Hilbert transform processing on the DIC image stacks greatly enhances edge detection algorithms for localization of the specimen borders in three dimensions by separating the gray values of the specimen intensity from those of the background. The primary advantages of NIQPM and HTDIC lay in their technological accessibility using "off-the-shelf" microscopes. There are two basic limitations of these methods: slow z-stack acquisition time on commercial scopes currently abrogates the investigation of phenomena faster than 1 frame/minute, and secondly, diffraction effects restrict the utility of NIQPM and HTDIC to objects from 0.2 up to 10 (NIQPM) and 20 (HTDIC) μm in diameter, respectively. Hence, the specimen and its associated time dynamics of interest must meet certain size and temporal constraints to enable the use of these methods. Excitingly, most fixed cellular specimens are readily investigated with

  2. Heavy-ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Yang, T.C.H.; Richards, T.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter briefly describes the techniques of optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, soft x-ray microscopy and compares these latter techniques with heavy-ion microscopy. The resolution obtained with these various types of microscopy are compared and the influence of the etching procedure on total resolution is discussed. Several micrographs of mammalian cells are included

  3. Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.A.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    The most difficult task in near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is to make a high quality subwavelength aperture probe, Recently we have developed high definition NSOM probes by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. These probes have a higher brightness, better polarization characteristics,

  4. Correlation of ''twins'' observed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in YBa2Cu3O7/sub -//sub x/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, H.A.; Singh, A.K.; Pande, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    By using transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy on the same specimens, the patterns of light- and dark-contrast lines seen in reflected polarized light were shown to be an interference pattern due to the variable spacing of suboptical microtwins. These microtwins are mostly [110] reflection twins. The [110] twinning was observed to be cyclic and occasionally pseudotetragonal because of the progressive cycling of contact twin domains. Within a domain, and occasionally in a whole grain, the [110] reflection twins occurred as polysynthetic lamellae. The morphology of the domain structure can be explained from the theory of martensitic transformation

  5. In situ 3D characterization of historical coatings and wood using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Latour , Gaël; Echard , Jean-Philippe; Didier , Marie; Schanne-Klein , Marie-Claire

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We demonstrate multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of historical artifacts by combining Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (2PEF) microscopies. We first identify the nonlinear optical response of materials commonly encountered in coatings of cultural heritage artifacts by analyzing one- and multi-layered model samples. We observe 2PEF signals from cochineal lake and sandarac and show that pigments and varnish films can be discriminate...

  6. Assessment of fibrotic liver disease with multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fake; Zheng, Wei; Tai, Dean C. S.; Lin, Jian; Yu, Hanry; Huang, Zhiwei

    2010-02-01

    Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagens, which may result in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension. In this study, we apply a multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy platform developed to investigate the fibrotic liver diseases in rat models established by performing bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery. The three nonlinear microscopy imaging modalities are implemented on the same sectioned tissues of diseased model sequentially: i.e., second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging quantifies the contents of the collagens, the two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) imaging reveals the morphology of hepatic cells, while coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging maps the distributions of fats or lipids quantitatively across the tissue. Our imaging results show that during the development of liver fibrosis (collagens) in BDL model, fatty liver disease also occurs. The aggregated concentrations of collagen and fat constituents in liver fibrosis model show a certain correlationship between each other.

  7. Reciprocity theory of apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy with point-dipole probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, Moritz; Vogelgesang, Ralf

    2012-09-25

    Near-field microscopy offers the opportunity to reveal optical contrast at deep subwavelength scales. In scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM), the diffraction limit is overcome by a nanoscopic probe in close proximity to the sample. The interaction of the probe with the sample fields necessarily perturbs the bare sample response, and a critical issue is the interpretation of recorded signals. For a few specific SNOM configurations, individual descriptions have been modeled, but a general and intuitive framework is still lacking. Here, we give an exact formulation of the measurable signals in SNOM which is easily applicable to experimental configurations. Our results are in close analogy with the description Tersoff and Hamann have derived for the tunneling currents in scanning tunneling microscopy. For point-like scattering probe tips, such as used in apertureless SNOM, the theory simplifies dramatically to a single scalar relation. We find that the measured signal is directly proportional to the field of the coupled tip-sample system at the position of the tip. For weakly interacting probes, the model thus verifies the empirical findings that the recorded signal is proportional to the unperturbed field of the bare sample. In the more general case, it provides guidance to an intuitive and faithful interpretation of recorded images, facilitating the characterization of tip-related distortions and the evaluation of novel SNOM configurations, both for aperture-based and apertureless SNOM.

  8. Dimensional metrology of lab-on-a-chip internal structures: a comparison of optical coherence tomography with confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D R; Halter, M; Hwang, J

    2015-07-01

    The characterization of internal structures in a polymeric microfluidic device, especially of a final product, will require a different set of optical metrology tools than those traditionally used for microelectronic devices. We demonstrate that optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is a promising technique to characterize the internal structures of poly(methyl methacrylate) devices where the subsurface structures often cannot be imaged by conventional wide field optical microscopy. The structural details of channels in the devices were imaged with OCT and analyzed with an in-house written ImageJ macro in an effort to identify the structural details of the channel. The dimensional values obtained with OCT were compared with laser-scanning confocal microscopy images of channels filled with a fluorophore solution. Attempts were also made using confocal reflectance and interferometry microscopy to measure the channel dimensions, but artefacts present in the images precluded quantitative analysis. OCT provided the most accurate estimates for the channel height based on an analysis of optical micrographs obtained after destructively slicing the channel with a microtome. OCT may be a promising technique for the future of three-dimensional metrology of critical internal structures in lab-on-a-chip devices because scans can be performed rapidly and noninvasively prior to their use. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  9. Near-field optical microscopy of localized excitations on rough surfaces: influence of a probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Starting from the general principles of near-field optical microscopy. I consider the influence of a probe when being used to image localized dipolar excitations and suggest a way of evaluating the perturbation thus introduced. Using the rigorous microscopic (electric) point-dipole description, I...

  10. Wide-field optical detection of nanoparticles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nanolenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudanyali, Onur; McLeod, Euan; Luo, Wei; Greenbaum, Alon; Coskun, Ahmet F.; Hennequin, Yves; Allier, Cédric P.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-03-01

    The direct observation of nanoscale objects is a challenging task for optical microscopy because the scattering from an individual nanoparticle is typically weak at optical wavelengths. Electron microscopy therefore remains one of the gold standard visualization methods for nanoparticles, despite its high cost, limited throughput and restricted field-of-view. Here, we describe a high-throughput, on-chip detection scheme that uses biocompatible wetting films to self-assemble aspheric liquid nanolenses around individual nanoparticles to enhance the contrast between the scattered and background light. We model the effect of the nanolens as a spatial phase mask centred on the particle and show that the holographic diffraction pattern of this effective phase mask allows detection of sub-100 nm particles across a large field-of-view of >20 mm2. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we report on-chip detection of individual polystyrene nanoparticles, adenoviruses and influenza A (H1N1) viral particles.

  11. Chemically etched fiber tips for near-field optical microscopy: a process for smoother tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambelet, P; Sayah, A; Pfeffer, M; Philipona, C; Marquis-Weible, F

    1998-11-01

    An improved method for producing fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy is presented. The improvement consists of chemically etching quartz optical fibers through their acrylate jacket. This new method is compared with the previous one in which bare fibers were etched. With the new process the meniscus formed by the acid along the fiber does not move during etching, leading to a much smoother surface of the tip cone. Subsequent metallization is thus improved, resulting in better coverage of the tip with an aluminum opaque layer. Our results show that leakage can be avoided along the cone, and light transmission through the tip is spatially limited to an optical aperture of a 100-nm dimension.

  12. Fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Michael J; Smith, Ian; Parker, Ian; Bootman, Martin D

    2014-10-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is a major tool with which to monitor cell physiology. Although the concepts of fluorescence and its optical separation using filters remain similar, microscope design varies with the aim of increasing image contrast and spatial resolution. The basics of wide-field microscopy are outlined to emphasize the selection, advantages, and correct use of laser scanning confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, scanning disk confocal microscopy, total internal reflection, and super-resolution microscopy. In addition, the principles of how these microscopes form images are reviewed to appreciate their capabilities, limitations, and constraints for operation. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes detected by near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Kalle, W.H.J.; Kalle, W.H.J.; Ruiter, A.G.T.; Wiegant, J.C.A.G.; Raap, A.K.; Greve, Jan; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization o­n human metaphase chromosomes is detected by near-field scanning optical microscopy. This combination of cytochemical and scanning probe techniques enables the localization and identification of several fluorescently labelled genomic DNA fragments o­n a single

  14. Quantitative optical microscopy and micromanipulation studies on the lipid bilayer membranes of giant unilamellar vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis; Needham, David

    2014-01-01

    to study composition-structure-property materials relationships of free-standing lipid bilayer membranes. Because their size (~5 to 100 m diameter) that is well above the resolution limit of regular light microscopes, GUVs are suitable membrane models for optical microscopy and micromanipulation...

  15. Accurate Rapid Lifetime Determination on Time-Gated FLIM Microscopy with Optical Sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana F; Domingues, José Paulo; Morgado, António Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a powerful technique to assess the biochemistry of cells and tissues. When applied to living thick samples, it is hampered by the lack of optical sectioning and the need of acquiring many images for an accurate measurement of fluorescence lifetimes. Here, we report on the use of processing techniques to overcome these limitations, minimizing the acquisition time, while providing optical sectioning. We evaluated the application of the HiLo and the rapid lifetime determination (RLD) techniques for accurate measurement of fluorescence lifetimes with optical sectioning. HiLo provides optical sectioning by combining the high-frequency content from a standard image, obtained with uniform illumination, with the low-frequency content of a second image, acquired using structured illumination. Our results show that HiLo produces optical sectioning on thick samples without degrading the accuracy of the measured lifetimes. We also show that instrument response function (IRF) deconvolution can be applied with the RLD technique on HiLo images, improving greatly the accuracy of the measured lifetimes. These results open the possibility of using the RLD technique with pulsed diode laser sources to determine accurately fluorescence lifetimes in the subnanosecond range on thick multilayer samples, providing that offline processing is allowed.

  16. Sub-40 fs, 1060-nm Yb-fiber laser enhances penetration depth in nonlinear optical microscopy of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Mihaela; Saytashev, Ilyas; Hou, Jue; Dantus, Marcos; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2015-12-01

    Advancing the practical utility of nonlinear optical microscopy requires continued improvement in imaging depth and contrast. We evaluated second-harmonic generation (SHG) and third-harmonic generation images from ex vivo human skin and showed that a sub-40 fs, 1060-nm Yb-fiber laser can enhance SHG penetration depth by up to 80% compared to a >100 fs, 800 nm Ti:sapphire source. These results demonstrate the potential of fiber-based laser systems to address a key performance limitation related to nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) technology while providing a low-barrier-to-access alternative to Ti:sapphire sources that could help accelerate the movement of NLOM into clinical practice.

  17. Transmission electron and optical microscopy of the domain structure of Ni3B7O13Br ferroic boracite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos-Guzman, A.G.; Trujillo-Torrez, M.; Czank, M.

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated the domain structure of nickel bromine boracite single crystals, by means of polarised-light in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy. Single crystals of Ni 3 B 7 O 13 Br were grown by chemical transport reactions in closed quartz ampoules, in the temperature range of 1130 K and were examined by polarising optical microscopy (PLM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PLM was also used in order to study the behaviour of birefringence as a function of temperature. For TEM the single crystals were crushed and mounted on holey carbon films. Comparative electron microscope images were useful for revealing the domain structure of this fully ferroelectric/fully ferroelastic material previously observed between the crossed polars of an optical microscope. X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystal under study was performed at room temperature

  18. Structured Illumination-Based Super-Resolution Optical Microscopy for Hemato- and Cyto-Pathology Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieqiao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy utilizes interfering light and the moiré effect to enhance spatial resolution to about a half of that of conventional light microscopy, i.e. approximately 90 nm. In addition to the enhancement in the x and y directions, it also allows enhancement of resolution in the z- direction by the same factor of two (to approximately 220 nm, making it a powerful tool for 3-D morphology studies of fluorescently labeled cells or thin tissue sections. In this report, we applied this technique to several types of blood cells that are commonly seen in hematopathology. Compared with standard brightfield and ordinary fluorescence microscopy images, the 3-D morphology results clearly reveal the morphological features of different types of normal blood cells. We have also used this technique to evaluate morphologies of abnormal erythrocytes and compare them with those recorded on normal cells. The results give a very intuitive presentation of morphological structures of erythrocytes with great details. This research illustrates the potential of this technique to be used in hematology and cyto-pathology studies aimed at identifying nanometer-sized features that cannot be distinguished otherwise with conventional optical microscopy.

  19. Sensitivity and Specificity of Cardiac Tissue Discrimination Using Fiber-Optics Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Sachse, Frank B; Hitchcock, Robert W; Kaza, Aditya K

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances of the cardiac conduction system constitute a major risk after surgical repair of complex cases of congenital heart disease. Intraoperative identification of the conduction system may reduce the incidence of these disturbances. We previously developed an approach to identify cardiac tissue types using fiber-optics confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores. Here, we applied this approach to investigate sensitivity and specificity of human and automated classification in discriminating images of atrial working myocardium and specialized tissue of the conduction system. Two-dimensional image sequences from atrial working myocardium and nodal tissue of isolated perfused rodent hearts were acquired using a fiber-optics confocal microscope (Leica FCM1000). We compared two methods for local application of extracellular fluorophores: topical via pipette and with a dye carrier. Eight blinded examiners evaluated 162 randomly selected images of atrial working myocardium (n = 81) and nodal tissue (n = 81). In addition, we evaluated the images using automated classification. Blinded examiners achieved a sensitivity and specificity of 99.2 ± 0.3% and 98.0 ± 0.7%, respectively, with the dye carrier method of dye application. Sensitivity and specificity was similar for dye application via a pipette (99.2 ± 0.3% and 94.0 ± 2.4%, respectively). Sensitivity and specificity for automated methods of tissue discrimination were similarly high. Human and automated classification achieved high sensitivity and specificity in discriminating atrial working myocardium and nodal tissue. We suggest that our findings facilitate clinical translation of fiber-optics confocal microscopy as an intraoperative imaging modality to reduce the incidence of conduction disturbances during surgical correction of congenital heart disease.

  20. Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for volumetric imaging of multiscale organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tian; Guo, Heng; Yao, Lei; Xie, Huikai; Jiang, Huabei; Xi, Lei

    2018-04-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) provides a fundamentally new tool for a broad range of studies of biological structures and functions. However, the use of PAM has been largely limited to small vertebrates due to the large size/weight and the inconvenience of the equipment. Here, we describe a portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (pORPAM) system for 3-dimensional (3D) imaging of small-to-large rodents and humans with a high spatiotemporal resolution and a large field of view. We show extensive applications of pORPAM to multiscale animals including mice and rabbits. In addition, we image the 3D vascular networks of human lips, and demonstrate the feasibility of pORPAM to observe the recovery process of oral ulcer and cancer-associated capillary loops in human oral cavities. This technology is promising for broad biomedical studies from fundamental biology to clinical diseases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. En face speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy by frequency compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnain, Caroline; Wang, Hui; Sakadžić, Sava; Fischl, Bruce; Boas, David A

    2016-05-01

    We report the use of frequency compounding to significantly reduce speckle noise in optical coherence microscopy, more specifically on the en face images. This method relies on the fact that the speckle patterns recorded from different wavelengths simultaneously are independent; hence their summation yields significant reduction in noise, with only a single acquisition. The results of our experiments with microbeads show that the narrow confocal parameter, due to a high numerical aperture objective, restricts the axial resolution loss that would otherwise theoretically broaden linearly with the number of optical frequency bands used. This speckle reduction scheme preserves the lateral resolution since it is performed on individual A-scans. Finally, we apply this technique to images of fixed human brain tissue, showing significant improvements in contrast-to-noise ratio with only moderate loss of axial resolution, in an effort to improve automatic three-dimensional detection of cells and fibers in the cortex.

  2. Fault localization and analysis in semiconductor devices with optical-feedback infrared confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, Raymund; Cemine, Vernon Julius; Tagaca, Imee Rose; Salvador, Arnel; Mar Blanca, Carlo; Saloma, Caesar

    2007-01-01

    We report on a cost-effective optical setup for characterizing light-emitting semiconductor devices with optical-feedback confocal infrared microscopy and optical beam-induced resistance change.We utilize the focused beam from an infrared laser diode to induce local thermal resistance changes across the surface of a biased integrated circuit (IC) sample. Variations in the multiple current paths are mapped by scanning the IC across the focused beam. The high-contrast current maps allow accurate differentiation of the functional and defective sites, or the isolation of the surface-emittingp-i-n devices in the IC. Optical beam-induced current (OBIC) is not generated since the incident beam energy is lower than the bandgap energy of the p-i-n device. Inhomogeneous current distributions in the IC become apparent without the strong OBIC background. They are located at a diffraction-limited resolution by referencing the current maps against the confocal reflectance image that is simultaneously acquired via optical-feedback detection. Our technique permits the accurate identification of metal and semiconductor sites as well as the classification of different metallic structures according to thickness, composition, or spatial inhomogeneity

  3. Oxidation study by Moessbauer and optic microscopy of steels from boiler tubes used in sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, M.; Perez Alcazar, G.A.; Aguilar, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Optic microscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to study the fail and the inner rusted surface of two boiler tubes used in the sugar industry, respectively. The studied tubes, of the type ASTM A 192, were found to have cracks. By optic microscopy it was observed that the failure begins in the inner surface with circumferential cracking. Also, inside and around the surface close to the cracks a rusted layer was detected. Powder from these layers was collected for Moessbauer spectroscopy analysis. By this method the presence of two or three types of Fe oxides such as wuestite, magnetite and hematite, was proved. These results permit to conclude that the failure mechanism was the thermal fatigue due to a hot work in an O 2 -rich vapor atmosphere. The rusted products are stable at high temperatures

  4. Visible light optical coherence microscopy imaging of the mouse cortex with femtoliter volume resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Conrad W.; Chong, Shau Poh; Kho, Aaron M.; Zhu, Jun; Kholiqov, Oybek; Dubra, Alfredo; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2018-02-01

    Most flying-spot Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) systems use a symmetric confocal geometry, where the detection path retraces the illumination path starting from and ending with the spatial mode of a single mode optical fiber. Here, we describe a visible light OCM instrument that breaks this symmetry to improve transverse resolution without sacrificing collection efficiency in scattering tissue. This was achieved by overfilling a 0.3 numerical aperture (NA) water immersion objective on the illumination path, while maintaining a conventional Gaussian mode detection path (1/e2 intensity diameter 0.82 Airy disks), enabling 1.1 μm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) transverse resolution. At the same time, a 0.9 μm FWHM axial resolution in tissue, achieved by a broadband visible light source, enabled femtoliter volume resolution. We characterized this instrument according to paraxial coherent microscopy theory, and then used it to image the meningeal layers, intravascular red blood cell-free layer, and myelinated axons in the mouse neocortex in vivo through the thinned skull. Finally, by introducing a 0.8 NA water immersion objective, we improved the lateral resolution to 0.44 μm FWHM, which provided a volumetric resolution of 0.2 fL, revealing cell bodies in cortical layer I of the mouse brain with OCM for the first time.

  5. Advanced magneto-optical microscopy: Imaging from picoseconds to centimeters - imaging spin waves and temperature distributions (invited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet Onur Urs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the observation of magnetic domains and domain walls by wide-field optical microscopy based on the magneto-optical Kerr, Faraday, Voigt, and Gradient effect are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the existence of higher order magneto-optical effects for advanced magnetic imaging. Fundamental concepts and advances in methodology are discussed that allow for imaging of magnetic domains on various length and time scales. Time-resolved imaging of electric field induced domain wall rotation is shown. Visualization of magnetization dynamics down to picosecond temporal resolution for the imaging of spin-waves and magneto-optical multi-effect domain imaging techniques for obtaining vectorial information are demonstrated. Beyond conventional domain imaging, the use of a magneto-optical indicator technique for local temperature sensing is shown.

  6. Observer Performance in the Use of Digital and Optical Microscopy for the Interpretation of Tissue-Based Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios A. Gavrielides

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a validation study of digital pathology for the quantitative assessment of tissue-based biomarkers with immunohistochemistry. Objective.\tTo examine observer agreement as a function of viewing modality (digital versus optical microscopy, whole slide versus tissue microarray (TMA review, biomarker type (HER2 incorporating membranous staining and Ki-67 with nuclear staining, and data type (continuous and categorical. Methods.\tEight pathologists reviewed 50 breast cancer whole slides (25 stained with HER2 and 25 with Ki-67 and 2 TMAs (1 stained with HER2, 1 with Ki-67, each containing 97 cores, using digital and optical microscopy. Results. Results showed relatively high overall interobserver and intermodality agreement, with different patterns specific to biomarker type. For HER2, there was better interobserver agreement for optical compared to digital microscopy for whole slides as well as better interobserver and intermodality agreement for TMAs. For Ki-67, those patterns were not observed. Conclusions. The differences in agreement patterns when examining different biomarkers and different scoring methods and reviewing whole slides compared to TMA stress the need for validation studies focused on specific pathology tasks to eliminate sources of variability that might dilute findings. The statistical uncertainty observed in our analyses calls for adequate sampling for each individual task rather than pooling cases.

  7. Advanced Microscopy of Microbial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Regenberg, Birgitte; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    microscopy, super-resolution optical microscopy (STED, SIM, PALM) as well as atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using examples of bistability in microbial populations as well as biofilm development and differentiation in bacterial and yeast consortia, we demonstrate the importance of microscopy...

  8. Scanning near-field optical microscopy of quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skacel, Matthias; Fiore, Andrea [COBRA Research Institute, Technical University Eindhoven, Den Dolech 2, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Prancardi, Marco; Gerardino, Annamaria [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnology, CNR, via del Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy); Alloing, Blandine; Li Lianhe, E-mail: m.s.skacel@tue.n [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-09-01

    Nanophotonic devices are of major interest for research and future quantum communication applications. Due to their nanometer feature size the resolution limit of far-field microscopy poses a limitation on the characterization of their optical properties. A method to overcome the resolution limit is the Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope (SNOM). By approaching a fiber tip into the close vicinity of the sample the optical emission in the near-field regime is collected. This way of collecting the light is not affected by the diffraction limit. We employ a low temperature SNOM to investigate the photoluminescence of InAs QDs emitting at 1300nm wavelength embedded in photonic crystal cavities. At each location of an image scan the tip is stopped and a spectrum is acquired. We then plot maps of the photoluminescence for each wavelength. With this instrument it is now possible to directly observe the coupling of QDs to photonic crystal cavities both spectrally and spatially. We show first results of photoluminescence mapping of InAs QDs in photonic crystal cavities.

  9. Investigation of porous asphalt microstructure using optical and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, L D; Partl, M N

    2010-11-01

    Direct observations of porous asphalt concrete samples in their natural state using optical and electron microscopy techniques led to useful information regarding the microstructure of two mixes and indicated a relationship between microstructure and in situ performance. This paper presents evidence that suboptimal microstructure can lead to premature failure thus making a first step in defining well or suboptimal performing pavements with a bottom-up approach (microstructure). Laboratory and field compaction produce different samples in terms of the microstructure. Laboratory compaction using the gyratory method has produced more microcracks in mineral aggregates after the binder had cooled. Well-performing mixes used polymer-modified binders, had a more homogeneous void structure with fewer elongated voids and better interlocking of the aggregates. Furthermore, well-performing mixes showed better distribution of the mastic and better coverage of the aggregates with bitumen. Low vacuum scanning electron microscopy showed that styrene butadiene styrene polymer modification in binder exists in the form of discontinuous globules and not continuous networks. A reduction in the polymer phase was observed as a result of aging and in-service use. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Optical spectroscopy and microscopy of radiation-induced light-emitting point defects in lithium fluoride crystals and films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montereali, R. M.; Bonfigli, F.; Menchini, F.; Vincenti, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    Broad-band light-emitting radiation-induced F2 and F3+ electronic point defects, which are stable and laser-active at room temperature in lithium fluoride crystals and films, are used in dosimeters, tuneable color-center lasers, broad-band miniaturized light sources and novel radiation imaging detectors. A brief review of their photoemission properties is presented, and their behavior at liquid nitrogen temperatures is discussed. Some experimental data from optical spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy of these radiation-induced point defects in LiF crystals and thin films are used to obtain information about the coloration curves, the efficiency of point defect formation, the effects of photo-bleaching processes, etc. Control of the local formation, stabilization, and transformation of radiation-induced light-emitting defect centers is crucial for the development of optically active micro-components and nanostructures. Some of the advantages of low temperature measurements for novel confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy techniques, widely used for spatial mapping of these point defects through the optical reading of their visible photoluminescence, are highlighted.

  11. Super-resolution imaging of subcortical white matter using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, A. H.; Lee, S.; Patel, A.; Poon, W. W.; Knight, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    Aims The spatial resolution of light microscopy is limited by the wavelength of visible light (the ‘diffraction limit’, approximately 250 nm). Resolution of sub-cellular structures, smaller than this limit, is possible with super resolution methods such as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). We aimed to resolve subcellular structures (axons, myelin sheaths and astrocytic processes) within intact white matter, using STORM and SOFI. Methods Standard cryostat-cut sections of subcortical white matter from donated human brain tissue and from adult rat and mouse brain were labelled, using standard immunohistochemical markers (neurofilament-H, myelin-associated glycoprotein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP). Image sequences were processed for STORM (effective pixel size 8–32 nm) and for SOFI (effective pixel size 80 nm). Results In human, rat and mouse, subcortical white matter high-quality images for axonal neurofilaments, myelin sheaths and filamentous astrocytic processes were obtained. In quantitative measurements, STORM consistently underestimated width of axons and astrocyte processes (compared with electron microscopy measurements). SOFI provided more accurate width measurements, though with somewhat lower spatial resolution than STORM. Conclusions Super resolution imaging of intact cryo-cut human brain tissue is feasible. For quantitation, STORM can under-estimate diameters of thin fluorescent objects. SOFI is more robust. The greatest limitation for super-resolution imaging in brain sections is imposed by sample preparation. We anticipate that improved strategies to reduce autofluorescence and to enhance fluorophore performance will enable rapid expansion of this approach. PMID:28696566

  12. Super-resolution imaging of subcortical white matter using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, A H; Lee, S; Foot, P; Patel, A; Poon, W W; Knight, A E

    2017-07-11

    The spatial resolution of light microscopy is limited by the wavelength of visible light (the 'diffraction limit', approximately 250 nm). Resolution of sub-cellular structures, smaller than this limit, is possible with super resolution methods such as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). We aimed to resolve subcellular structures (axons, myelin sheaths and astrocytic processes) within intact white matter, using STORM and SOFI. Standard cryostat-cut sections of subcortical white matter from donated human brain tissue and from adult rat and mouse brain were labelled, using standard immunohistochemical markers (neurofilament-H, myelin-associated glycoprotein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP). Image sequences were processed for STORM (effective pixel size 8-32 nm) and for SOFI (effective pixel size 80 nm). In human, rat and mouse, subcortical white matter high-quality images for axonal neurofilaments, myelin sheaths and filamentous astrocytic processes were obtained. In quantitative measurements, STORM consistently underestimated width of axons and astrocyte processes (compared with electron microscopy measurements). SOFI provided more accurate width measurements, though with somewhat lower spatial resolution than STORM. Super resolution imaging of intact cryo-cut human brain tissue is feasible. For quantitation, STORM can under-estimate diameters of thin fluorescent objects. SOFI is more robust. The greatest limitation for super-resolution imaging in brain sections is imposed by sample preparation. We anticipate that improved strategies to reduce autofluorescence and to enhance fluorophore performance will enable rapid expansion of this approach. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  13. Dual-wavelength optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for cells with gold nanoparticle bioconjugates in three-dimensional cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Po-Yi; Liu, Wei-Wen; Chen, Shu-Ching; Li, Pai-Chi

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models bridge the gap between typical two-dimensional cultures and in vivo conditions. However, conventional optical imaging methods such as confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy cannot accurately depict cellular processing in 3D models due to limited penetration of photons. We developed a dualwavelength optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), which provides sufficient penetration depth and spatial resolution, for studying CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) trafficking in an in vitro 3D tumor microenvironment. CTLs play a cardinal role in host defense against tumor. Efficient trafficking of CTLs to the tumor microenvironment is a critical step for cancer immunotherapy. For the proposed system, gold nanospheres and indocyanine green (ICG) have been remarkable choices for contrast agents for photoacoustic signals due to their excellent biocompatibility and high optical absorption. With distinct absorption spectrums, targeted cells with gold nanospheres and ICG respectively can be identified by switching 523-nm and 800-nm laser irradiation. Moreover, we use an x-y galvanometer scanner to obtain high scanning rate. In the developed system, lateral and axial resolutions were designed at 1.6 μm and 5 μm, respectively. We successfully showed that dual-spectral OR-PAM can map either the distribution of CTLs with gold nanospheres at a visible wavelength of 523 nm or the 3D structure of tumor spheres with ICG in an in vitro 3D microenvironment. Our OR-PAM can provide better biological relevant information in cellular interaction and is potential for preclinical screening of anti-cancer drugs.

  14. Near-field scanning optical microscopy cross-sectional measurements of crystalline GaAs solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, M. K.; Bradford, W. C.; Collins, R. T.; Hawkins, B. E.; Kuech, T. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) was used to study cleaved edges of GaAs solar cell devices. Using visible light for excitation, the NSOM acquired spatially resolved traces of the photocurrent response across the various layers in the device. For excitation energies well above the band gap, carrier recombination at the cleaved surface had a strong influence on the photocurrent signal. Decreasing the excitation energy, which increased the optical penetration depth, allowed the effects of surface recombination to be separated from collection by the pn junction. Using this approach, the NSOM measurements directly observed the effects of a buried minority carrier reflector/passivation layer. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. Quantitative Image Restoration in Bright Field Optical Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio; Sánchez Miranda, Manuel de Jesús

    2017-11-07

    Bright field (BF) optical microscopy is regarded as a poor method to observe unstained biological samples due to intrinsic low image contrast. We introduce quantitative image restoration in bright field (QRBF), a digital image processing method that restores out-of-focus BF images of unstained cells. Our procedure is based on deconvolution, using a point spread function modeled from theory. By comparing with reference images of bacteria observed in fluorescence, we show that QRBF faithfully recovers shape and enables quantify size of individual cells, even from a single input image. We applied QRBF in a high-throughput image cytometer to assess shape changes in Escherichia coli during hyperosmotic shock, finding size heterogeneity. We demonstrate that QRBF is also applicable to eukaryotic cells (yeast). Altogether, digital restoration emerges as a straightforward alternative to methods designed to generate contrast in BF imaging for quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Segmentation of Drosophila Heart in Optical Coherence Microscopy Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Lian; Qin, Xi; He, Yuanhao; Sang, Xialin; Pan, Jinda; Xu, Tao; Men, Jing; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Li, Airong; Ma, Yutao; Zhou, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Convolutional neural networks are powerful tools for image segmentation and classification. Here, we use this method to identify and mark the heart region of Drosophila at different developmental stages in the cross-sectional images acquired by a custom optical coherence microscopy (OCM) system. With our well-trained convolutional neural network model, the heart regions through multiple heartbeat cycles can be marked with an intersection over union (IOU) of ~86%. Various morphological and dyn...

  17. Massively parallel data processing for quantitative total flow imaging with optical coherence microscopy and tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Szlag, Daniel; Marchand, Paul J.; Kumar, Ashwin S.; Lasser, Theo

    2017-08-01

    We present an application of massively parallel processing of quantitative flow measurements data acquired using spectral optical coherence microscopy (SOCM). The need for massive signal processing of these particular datasets has been a major hurdle for many applications based on SOCM. In view of this difficulty, we implemented and adapted quantitative total flow estimation algorithms on graphics processing units (GPU) and achieved a 150 fold reduction in processing time when compared to a former CPU implementation. As SOCM constitutes the microscopy counterpart to spectral optical coherence tomography (SOCT), the developed processing procedure can be applied to both imaging modalities. We present the developed DLL library integrated in MATLAB (with an example) and have included the source code for adaptations and future improvements. Catalogue identifier: AFBT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AFBT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 913552 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 270876249 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: CUDA/C, MATLAB. Computer: Intel x64 CPU, GPU supporting CUDA technology. Operating system: 64-bit Windows 7 Professional. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, CPU code has been vectorized in MATLAB, CUDA code has been parallelized. RAM: Dependent on users parameters, typically between several gigabytes and several tens of gigabytes Classification: 6.5, 18. Nature of problem: Speed up of data processing in optical coherence microscopy Solution method: Utilization of GPU for massively parallel data processing Additional comments: Compiled DLL library with source code and documentation, example of utilization (MATLAB script with raw data) Running time: 1,8 s for one B-scan (150 × faster in comparison to the CPU

  18. Oxidation study by Mössbauer and optic microscopy of steels from boiler tubes used in sugar industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, M.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Aguilar, Y.

    1998-08-01

    Optic microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to study the fail and the inner rusted surface of two boiler tubes used in the sugar industry, respectively. The studied tubes, of the type ASTM A 192, were found to have cracks. By optic microscopy it was observed that the failure begins in the inner surface with circumferential cracking. Also, inside and around the surface close to the cracks a rusted layer was detected. Powder from these layers was collected for Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis. By this method the presence of two or three types of Fe oxides such as wüstite, magnetite and hematite, was proved. These results permit to conclude that the failure mechanism was the thermal fatigue due to a hot work in an O2 -rich vapor atmosphere. The rusted products are stable at high temperatures.

  19. Investigation of shape memory of red blood cells using optical tweezers and quantitative phase microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Nelson; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2012-03-01

    RBC has been shown to possess shape memory subsequent to shear-induced shape transformation. However, this property of RBC may not be generalized to all kinds of stresses. Here, we report our observation on the action of radiation pressure forces on RBC's shape memory using optical manipulation and quantitative phase microscopy (OMQPM). QPM, based on Mach-Zehnder interferrometry, allowed measurement of dynamic changes of shape of RBC in optical tweezers at different trapping laser powers. In high power near-infrared optical tweezers (>200mW), the RBC was found to deform significantly due to optical forces. Upon removal of the tweezers, hysteresis in recovering its original resting shape was observed. In very high power tweezers or long-term stretching events, shape memory was almost erased. This irreversibility of the deformation may be due to temperature rise or stress-induced phase transformation of lipids in RBC membrane.

  20. Combined multi-plane phase retrieval and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging for 4D cell microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, A.; Grußmayer, K. S.; Bostan, E.; Lukes, T.; Bouwens, A.; Sharipov, A.; Geissbuehler, S.; Mahul-Mellier, A.-L.; Lashuel, H. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Lasser, T.

    2018-03-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy provides unprecedented insight into cellular and subcellular structures. However, going `beyond the diffraction barrier' comes at a price, since most far-field super-resolution imaging techniques trade temporal for spatial super-resolution. We propose the combination of a novel label-free white light quantitative phase imaging with fluorescence to provide high-speed imaging and spatial super-resolution. The non-iterative phase retrieval relies on the acquisition of single images at each z-location and thus enables straightforward 3D phase imaging using a classical microscope. We realized multi-plane imaging using a customized prism for the simultaneous acquisition of eight planes. This allowed us to not only image live cells in 3D at up to 200 Hz, but also to integrate fluorescence super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging within the same optical instrument. The 4D microscope platform unifies the sensitivity and high temporal resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy.

  1. Comparison of rigorous modelling of different structure profiles on photomasks for quantitative linewidth measurements by means of UV- or DUV-optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Gerd; Bodermann, Bernd; Woehler, Martin

    2007-06-01

    The optical microscopy is an important instrument for dimensional characterisation or calibration of micro- and nanostructures, e.g. chrome structures on photomasks. In comparison to scanning electron microscopy (possible contamination of the sample) and atomic force microscopy (slow, risk of damage) optical microscopy is a fast and non destructive metrology method. The precise quantitative determination of the linewidth from the microscope image is, however, only possible by knowledge of the geometry of the structures and their consideration in the optical modelling. We compared two different rigorous model approaches, the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) and the Finite Elements Method (FEM) for modelling of structures with different edge angles, linewidths, line to space ratios and polarisations. The RCWA method can adapt inclined edges profiles only by a staircase approximation leading to increased modelling errors of the RCWA method. Even today's sophisticated rigorous methods still show problems with TM-polarisation. Therefore both rigorous methods are compared in terms of their convergence for TE and TM- polarisation. Beyond that also the influence of typical illumination wavelengths (365 nm, 248 nm and 193 nm) on the microscope images and their contribution to the measuring uncertainty budget will be discussed.

  2. Deep Learning Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair

    2017-05-12

    We demonstrate that a deep neural network can significantly improve optical microscopy, enhancing its spatial resolution over a large field-of-view and depth-of-field. After its training, the only input to this network is an image acquired using a regular optical microscope, without any changes to its design. We blindly tested this deep learning approach using various tissue samples that are imaged with low-resolution and wide-field systems, where the network rapidly outputs an image with remarkably better resolution, matching the performance of higher numerical aperture lenses, also significantly surpassing their limited field-of-view and depth-of-field. These results are transformative for various fields that use microscopy tools, including e.g., life sciences, where optical microscopy is considered as one of the most widely used and deployed techniques. Beyond such applications, our presented approach is broadly applicable to other imaging modalities, also spanning different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be used to design computational imagers that get better and better as they continue to image specimen and establish new transformations among different modes of imaging.

  3. Nonlinear optical microscopy for histology of fresh normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease with a 5-year survival rate of only 1-5%. The acceleration of intraoperative histological examination would be beneficial for better management of pancreatic cancer, suggesting an improved survival. Nonlinear optical methods based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF and second harmonic generation (SHG of intrinsic optical biomarkers show the ability to visualize the morphology of fresh tissues associated with histology, which is promising for real-time intraoperative evaluation of pancreatic cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate whether the nonlinear optical imaging methods have the ability to characterize pancreatic histology at cellular resolution, we studied different types of pancreatic tissues by using label-free TPEF and SHG. Compared with other routine methods for the preparation of specimens, fresh tissues without processing were found to be most suitable for nonlinear optical imaging of pancreatic tissues. The detailed morphology of the normal rat pancreas was observed and related with the standard histological images. Comparatively speaking, the preliminary images of a small number of chemical-induced pancreatic cancer tissues showed visible neoplastic differences in the morphology of cells and extracellular matrix. The subcutaneous pancreatic tumor xenografts were further observed using the nonlinear optical microscopy, showing that most cells are leucocytes at 5 days after implantation, the tumor cells begin to proliferate at 10 days after implantation, and the extracellular collagen fibers become disordered as the xenografts grow. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, nonlinear optical imaging was used to characterize the morphological details of fresh pancreatic tissues for the first time. We demonstrate that it is possible to provide real-time histological evaluation of pancreatic cancer by the nonlinear optical methods, which present an

  4. A spatio-temporally compensated acousto-optic scanner for two-photon microscopy providing large field of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Y; Léger, J-F; Lapole, R; Honnorat, N; Candela, Y; Dieudonné, S; Bourdieu, L

    2008-07-07

    Acousto-optic deflectors (AOD) are promising ultrafast scanners for non-linear microscopy. Their use has been limited until now by their small scanning range and by the spatial and temporal dispersions of the laser beam going through the deflectors. We show that the use of AOD of large aperture (13mm) compared to standard deflectors allows accessing much larger field of view while minimizing spatio-temporal distortions. An acousto-optic modulator (AOM) placed at distance of the AOD is used to compensate spatial and temporal dispersions. Fine tuning of the AOM-AOD setup using a frequency-resolved optical gating (GRENOUILLE) allows elimination of pulse front tilt whereas spatial chirp is minimized thanks to the large aperture AOD.

  5. Miniature fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy system using frequency-doubled femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Mills, Arthur K; Zhao, Yuan; Jones, David J; Tang, Shuo

    2016-05-01

    We report on a miniature fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy (MPM) system based on a frequency-doubled femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser. The femtosecond pulses from the laser source are delivered to the miniature fiber-optic probe at 1.58 µm wavelength, where a standard single mode fiber is used for delivery without the need of free-space dispersion compensation components. The beam is frequency-doubled inside the probe by a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. Frequency-doubled pulses at 786 nm with a maximum power of 80 mW and a pulsewidth of 150 fs are obtained and applied to excite intrinsic signals from tissues. A MEMS scanner, a miniature objective, and a multimode collection fiber are further used to make the probe compact. The miniature fiber-optic MPM system is highly portable and robust. Ex vivo multiphoton imaging of mammalian skins demonstrates the capability of the system in imaging biological tissues. The results show that the miniature fiber-optic MPM system using frequency-doubled femtosecond fiber laser can potentially bring the MPM imaging for clinical applications.

  6. Feasibility of full-field optical coherence microscopy in ultra-structural imaging of human colon tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Seo [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo June; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Byeong Ha [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hyuk; Bom, Hee Seung; Lee, Byeong Il [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    We demonstrated the imaging feasibility of full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) in pathological diagnosis of human colon tissues. FF-OCM images with high transverse resolution were obtained at different depths of the samples without any dye staining or physical slicing, and detailed microstructures of human colon tissues were visualized. Morphological differences in normal tissues, cancer tissues, and tissues under transition were observed and matched with results seen in conventional optical microscope images. The optical biopsy based on FF-OCM could overcome the limitations on the number of physical cuttings of tissues and could perform high-throughput mass diagnosis of diseased tissues. The proved utility of FF-OCM as a comprehensive and efficient imaging modality of human tissues showed it to be a good alternative to conventional biopsy.

  7. Feasibility of full-field optical coherence microscopy in ultra-structural imaging of human colon tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Seo; Choi, Woo June; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Byeong Ha; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Bom, Hee Seung; Lee, Byeong Il

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated the imaging feasibility of full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) in pathological diagnosis of human colon tissues. FF-OCM images with high transverse resolution were obtained at different depths of the samples without any dye staining or physical slicing, and detailed microstructures of human colon tissues were visualized. Morphological differences in normal tissues, cancer tissues, and tissues under transition were observed and matched with results seen in conventional optical microscope images. The optical biopsy based on FF-OCM could overcome the limitations on the number of physical cuttings of tissues and could perform high-throughput mass diagnosis of diseased tissues. The proved utility of FF-OCM as a comprehensive and efficient imaging modality of human tissues showed it to be a good alternative to conventional biopsy.

  8. Coherent light microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Pietro; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of optical coherent microscopy. While many other books exist on microscopy and imaging, this book provides a unique resource dedicated solely to this subject. Similarly, many books describe applications of holography, interferometry and speckle to metrology but do not focus on their use for microscopy. The coherent light microscopy reference provided here does not focus on the experimental mechanics of such techniques but instead is meant to provide a users manual to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of developing techniques. Th

  9. Three-dimensional DNA image cytometry by optical projection tomographic microscopy for early cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Biancardi, Alberto M; Patten, Florence W; Reeves, Anthony P; Seibel, Eric J

    2014-04-01

    Aneuploidy is typically assessed by flow cytometry (FCM) and image cytometry (ICM). We used optical projection tomographic microscopy (OPTM) for assessing cellular DNA content using absorption and fluorescence stains. OPTM combines some of the attributes of both FCM and ICM and generates isometric high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) images of single cells. Although the depth of field of the microscope objective was in the submicron range, it was extended by scanning the objective's focal plane. The extended depth of field image is similar to a projection in a conventional x-ray computed tomography. These projections were later reconstructed using computed tomography methods to form a 3-D image. We also present an automated method for 3-D nuclear segmentation. Nuclei of chicken, trout, and triploid trout erythrocyte were used to calibrate OPTM. Ratios of integrated optical densities extracted from 50 images of each standard were compared to ratios of DNA indices from FCM. A comparison of mean square errors with thionin, hematoxylin, Feulgen, and SYTOX green was done. Feulgen technique was preferred as it showed highest stoichiometry, least variance, and preserved nuclear morphology in 3-D. The addition of this quantitative biomarker could further strengthen existing classifiers and improve early diagnosis of cancer using 3-D microscopy.

  10. Simultaneous topographical, electrical and optical microscopy of optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Naresh

    2017-01-12

    Novel optoelectronic devices rely on complex nanomaterial systems where the nanoscale morphology and local chemical composition are critical to performance. However, the lack of analytical techniques that can directly probe these structure-property relationships at the nanoscale presents a major obstacle to device development. In this work, we present a novel method for non-destructive, simultaneous mapping of the morphology, chemical composition and photoelectrical properties with <20 nm spatial resolution by combining plasmonic optical signal enhancement with electrical-mode scanning probe microscopy. We demonstrate that this combined approach offers subsurface sensitivity that can be exploited to provide molecular information with a nanoscale resolution in all three spatial dimensions. By applying the technique to an organic solar cell device, we show that the inferred surface and subsurface composition distribution correlates strongly with the local photocurrent generation and explains macroscopic device performance. For instance, the direct measurement of fullerene phase purity can distinguish between high purity aggregates that lead to poor performance and lower purity aggregates (fullerene intercalated with polymer) that result in strong photocurrent generation and collection. We show that the reliable determination of the structure-property relationship at the nanoscale can remove ambiguity from macroscopic device data and support the identification of the best routes for device optimisation. The multi-parameter measurement approach demonstrated herein is expected to play a significant role in guiding the rational design of nanomaterial-based optoelectronic devices, by opening a new realm of possibilities for advanced investigation via the combination of nanoscale optical spectroscopy with a whole range of scanning probe microscopy modes.

  11. Plasmonic optical antenna design for performing tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharintsev, S S; Fishman, A I; Salakhov, M Kh; Hoffmann, G G

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights optical plasmonic antennas designed with dc-pulsed low-voltage electrochemical etching of a gold wire for implementing tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) measurements. We demonstrate a versatile electrochemical system that allows one to engineer TERS-active metallic gold tips with diverse shapes and sizes in a highly reproducible fashion. The underlying etching mechanism at a voltage-driven meniscus around a gold wire immersed into an electrolyte is discussed in detail. We show that the developed method is suitable to produce not only the simplest geometries such as cones and spheroids, but more complex designs. Attempts have been made to design plasmonic tapered antennas with quasi-uniformly spaced nano-sized bumps on the mesoscopic zone for the extra surface plasmon-light coupling. The capability of the patterned antenna to enhance and localize optical fields is demonstrated with near-field Raman microscopy and spectroscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes bundles. (paper)

  12. French Society of Microscopy, 10. conference; Societe Francaise des Microscopies, 10. colloque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault-Penisson, J; Cremer, Ch; Susini, J; Kirklanda, A I; Rigneault, H; Renault, O; Bailly, A; Zagonel, L F; Barrett, N; Bogner, A; Gauthier, C; Jouneau, P H; Thollet, G; Fuchs, G; Basset, D; Deconihout, B; Vurpillot, F; Vella, A; Matthieu, G; Cadel, E; Bostel, A; Blavette, D; Baumeister, W; Usson, Y; Zaefferer, St; Laffont, L; Weyland, M; Thomas, J M; Midgley, P; Benlekbir, S; Epicier, Th; Diop, B N; Roux, St; Ou, M; Perriat, P; Bausach, M; Aouine, M; Berhault, G; Idrissi, H; Cottevieille, M; Jonic, S; Larquet, E; Svergun, D; Vannoni, M A; Boisset, N; Ersena, O; Werckmann, J; Ulhaq, C; Hirlimann, Ch; Tihay, F; Cuong, Pham-Huu; Crucifix, C; Schultz, P; Jornsanoha, P; Thollet, G; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Gauthier, C; Ludwig, W; King, A; Johnson, G; Gonzalves-Hoennicke, M; Reischig, P; Messaoudi, C; Ibrahim, R; Marco, S; Klie, R F; Zhao, Y; Yang, G; Zhu, Y; Hue, F; Hytch, M; Hartmann, J M; Bogumilowicz, Y; Claverie, A; Klein, H; Alloyeau, D; Ricolleau, C; Langlois, C; Le Bouar, Y; Loiseau, A; Colliex, C; Stephan, O; Kociak, M; Tence, M; Gloter, A; Imhoff, D; Walls, M; Nelayah, J; March, K; Couillard, M; Ailliot, C; Bertin, F; Cooper, D; Rivallin, P; Dumelie, N; Benhayoune, H; Balossier, G; Cheynet, M; Pokrant, S; Tichelaar, F; Rouviere, J L; Cooper, D; Truche, R; Chabli, A; Debili, M Y; Houdellier, F; Warot-Fonrose, B; Hytch, M J; Snoeck, E; Calmels, L; Serin, V; Schattschneider, P; Jacob, D; Cordier, P

    2007-07-01

    This document gathers the resumes of some of the presentations made at this conference whose aim was to present the last developments and achievements of the 3 complementary microscopies: optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray microscopy. The contributions have been organized around the following 12 topics: 1) new technical developments, 2) 3-dimensional imaging, 3) quantitative microscopy, 4) technical progress in photon microscopy, 5) synchrotron radiation, 6) measurements of patterns, deformations and strains, 7) materials for energy and transports, 8) nano-structures, 9) virus: structure and infection mechanisms, 10) 3-dimensional imaging for molecules, cells and cellular tissues, 11) nano-particles and colloids, and 12) liquid crystals.

  13. Experimental and theoretical analysis for improved microscope design of optical projection tomographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Ryan L; Seibel, Eric J

    2013-09-01

    We present theoretical and experimental results of axial displacement of objects relative to a fixed condenser focal plane (FP) in optical projection tomographic microscopy (OPTM). OPTM produces three-dimensional, reconstructed images of single cells from two-dimensional projections. The cell rotates in a microcapillary to acquire projections from different perspectives where the objective FP is scanned through the cell while the condenser FP remains fixed at the center of the microcapillary. This work uses a combination of experimental and theoretical methods to improve the OPTM instrument design.

  14. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  15. Leakage radiation interference microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descrovi, Emiliano; Barakat, Elsie; Angelini, Angelo; Munzert, Peter; De Leo, Natascia; Boarino, Luca; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2013-09-01

    We present a proof of principle for a new imaging technique combining leakage radiation microscopy with high-resolution interference microscopy. By using oil immersion optics it is demonstrated that amplitude and phase can be retrieved from optical fields, which are evanescent in air. This technique is illustratively applied for mapping a surface mode propagating onto a planar dielectric multilayer on a thin glass substrate. The surface mode propagation constant estimated after Fourier transformation of the measured complex field is well matched with an independent measurement based on back focal plane imaging.

  16. 3D automatic quantification applied to optically sectioned images to improve microscopy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Diaz-Zamboni

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available New fluorescence microscopy techniques, such as confocal or digital deconvolution microscopy, allow to easily obtain three-dimensional (3D information from specimens. However, there are few 3D quantification tools that allow extracting information of these volumes. Therefore, the amount of information acquired by these techniques is difficult to manipulate and analyze manually. The present study describes a model-based method, which for the first time shows 3D visualization and quantification of fluorescent apoptotic body signals, from optical serial sections of porcine hepatocyte spheroids correlating them to their morphological structures. The method consists on an algorithm that counts apoptotic bodies in a spheroid structure and extracts information from them, such as their centroids in cartesian and radial coordinates, relative to the spheroid centre, and their integrated intensity. 3D visualization of the extracted information, allowed us to quantify the distribution of apoptotic bodies in three different zones of the spheroid.

  17. Integrated Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Maslov, Konstantin; Kim, Chulhong; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a dual-modality imaging system by integrating optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy and fluorescence confocal microscopy to provide optical absorption and fluorescence contrasts simultaneously. By sharing the same laser source and objective lens, intrinsically registered photoacoustic and fluorescence images are acquired in a single scan. The micrometer resolution allows imaging of both blood and lymphatic vessels down to the capillary level. Simultaneous photoacoustic...

  18. Microscopy and Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, George; Difilippantonio, Michael; Ried, Thomas; Bieber, Frederick R

    2017-07-11

    This unit provides an overview of light microscopy, including objectives, light sources, filters, film, and color photography for fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We believe there are excellent opportunities for cytogeneticists, pathologists, and other biomedical readers, to take advantage of specimen optical clearing techniques and expansion microscopy-we briefly point to these new opportunities. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy and Anterior Segment Optic Coherence Tomography Findings in Ocular Ochronosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Demirkilinc Biler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report clinical and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM findings of two patients with ocular ochronosis secondary due to alkaptonuria. Materials and Methods. Complete ophthalmologic examinations, including IVCM (HRT II/Rostock Cornea Module, Heidelberg, Germany, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT (Topcon 3D spectral-domain OCT 2000, Topcon Medical Systems, Paramus, NJ, USA, corneal topography (Pentacam, OCULUS Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany, and anterior segment photography, were performed. Results. Biomicroscopic examination showed bilateral darkly pigmented lesions of the nasal and temporal conjunctiva and episclera in both patients. In vivo confocal microscopy of the lesions revealed prominent degenerative changes, including vacuoles and fragmentation of collagen fibers in the affected conjunctival lamina propria and episclera. Hyperreflective pigment granules in different shapes were demonstrated in the substantia propria beneath the basement membrane. AS-OCT of Case 1 demonstrated hyporeflective areas. Fundus examination was within normal limits in both patients, except tilted optic discs with peripapillary atrophy in one of the patients. Corneal topography, thickness, and macular OCT were normal bilaterally in both cases. Conclusion. The degenerative and anatomic changes due to ochronotic pigment deposition in alkaptonuria can be demonstrated in detail with IVCM and AS-OCT. Confocal microscopic analysis in ocular ochronosis may serve as a useful adjunct in diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression.

  20. X-ray microscopy in Aarhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uggerhoej, Erik; Abraham-Peskir, Joanna V.

    2000-01-01

    The Aarhus imaging soft X-ray microscope is now a busy multi-user facility. The optical set-up will be described and project highlights discussed. a) Metal-induced structural changes in whole cells in solution. The effects of aluminum, copper, nickel and zinc on protozoa investigated by using a combination of light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and X-ray microscopy. b) Botanical studies by X-ray microscopy used to compliment electron microscopy studies. c) Sludge morphology and iron precipitation in Danish freshwater plants by combining X-ray, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy

  1. Advanced Microscopy of Microbial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Regenberg, Birgitte; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Growing awareness of heterogeneity in cells of microbial populations has emphasized the importance of advanced microscopy for visualization and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell variation. In this review, we highlight some of the recent advances in confocal...... microscopy, super-resolution optical microscopy (STED, SIM, PALM) as well as atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using examples of bistability in microbial populations as well as biofilm development and differentiation in bacterial and yeast consortia, we demonstrate the importance of microscopy...

  2. Occlusal overload investigations by noninvasive technology: fluorescence microscopy and en-face optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Negrutiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Demjan, Enikö; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study is the early detection and monitoring of occlusal overload in bruxing patients. En-Face Optical coherence tomography (eF-OCT) and fluorescence microscopy (FM) were used for the imaging of several anterior teeth extracted from patients with light active bruxism. We found a characteristic pattern of enamel cracks, that reached the tooth surface. We concluded that the combination of the en-Face OCT and FM is a promising non-invasive alternative technique for reliable monitoring of occlusal overload.

  3. Transmission-type angle deviation microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, M.-H.; Lai, C.-W.; Tan, C.-T.; Lai, C.-F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new microscopy technique that we call transmission angle deviation microscopy (TADM). It is based on common-path heterodyne interferometry and geometrical optics. An ultrahigh sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angular sensor is used to expand dynamic measurement ranges and to improve the axial resolution in three-dimensional optical microscopy. When transmitted light is incident upon a specimen, the beam converges or diverges because of refractive and/or surface height variations. Advantages include high axial resolution (∼32 nm), nondestructive and noncontact measurement, and larger measurement ranges (± 80 μm) for a numerical aperture of 0.21in a transparent measurement medium. The technique can be used without conductivity and pretreatment

  4. Label-free nonlinear optical microscopy detects early markers for osteogenic differentiation of human stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofemeier, Arne D.; Hachmeister, Henning; Pilger, Christian; Schürmann, Matthias; Greiner, Johannes F. W.; Nolte, Lena; Sudhoff, Holger; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Huser, Thomas; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Tissue engineering by stem cell differentiation is a novel treatment option for bone regeneration. Most approaches for the detection of osteogenic differentiation are invasive or destructive and not compatible with live cell analysis. Here, non-destructive and label-free approaches of Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy were used to detect and image osteogenic differentiation of human neural crest-derived inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs). Combined CARS and SHG microscopy was able to detect markers of osteogenesis within 14 days after osteogenic induction. This process increased during continued differentiation. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy showed significant increases of the PO43- symmetric stretch vibrations at 959 cm-1 assigned to calcium hydroxyapatite between days 14 and 21. Additionally, CARS microscopy was able to image calcium hydroxyapatite deposits within 14 days following osteogenic induction, which was confirmed by Alizarin Red-Staining and RT- PCR. Taken together, the multimodal label-free analysis methods Raman spectroscopy, CARS and SHG microscopy can monitor osteogenic differentiation of adult human stem cells into osteoblasts with high sensitivity and spatial resolution in three dimensions. Our findings suggest a great potential of these optical detection methods for clinical applications including in vivo observation of bone tissue-implant-interfaces or disease diagnosis.

  5. In vivo oral imaging with integrated portable photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Qi, Weizhi; Jin, Tian; Guo, Heng; Xi, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Oral diseases, especially oral cancers, are becoming serious health problems in humans. To image vasculatures and structures simultaneously in the human oral cavity which are tightly associated with various oral diseases, we develop a dual-modality portable optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (ORPAM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. This system utilizes a new rotary scanning mechanism and a compact design of the imaging head, making it portable and free of translation of the imaging interface or samples. Through the phantom experiments, both modalities yield high lateral resolutions of 8.1 μm (ORPAM) and 8.56 μm (OCT), respectively. The axial resolutions are measured to be 116.5 μm for ORPAM and 6.1 μm for OCT. In vivo imaging of a mouse ear was carried out to evaluate the performance of the system in biological tissues. In addition, in vivo oral imaging of a healthy human lip and monitoring recovery progress of a lip ulcer demonstrate the clinical potential of this system.

  6. Longitudinal correlation properties of an optical field with broad angular and frequency spectra and their manifestation in interference microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyakin, D V; Ryabukho, V P

    2013-01-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies of the longitudinal correlation properties of an optical field with broad angular and frequency spectra and manifestations of these properties in interference microscopy are presented. The joint and competitive influence of the angular and frequency spectra of the object-probing field on the longitudinal resolution and on the amplitude of the interference microscope signals from the interfaces between the media inside a multilayer object is demonstrated. The method of compensating the so-called defocusing effect that arises in the interference microscopy using objectives with a large numerical aperture is experimentally demonstrated, which consists in using as a light source in the interference microscope an illuminating interferometer with a frequency-broadband light source. This method of compensation may be used as the basis of simultaneous determination of geometric thickness and refractive index of media forming a multilayer object. (optical fields)

  7. All-optical photoacoustic microscopy using a MEMS scanning mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Liang; Xie, Zhixing; Ling, Tao; Wei, Xunbin; Guo, L. Jay; Wang, Xueding

    2013-03-01

    It has been studied that a potential marker to obtain prognostic information about bladder cancer is tumor neoangiogenesis, which can be quantified by morphometric characteristics such as microvascular density. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) can render sensitive three-dimensional (3D) mapping of microvasculature, providing promise to evaluate the neoangiogenesis that is closely related to the diagnosis of bladder cancer. To ensure good image quality, it is desired to acquire bladder PAM images from its inside via the urethra, like conventional cystoscope. Previously, we demonstrated all-optical PAM systems using polymer microring resonators to detect photoacoustic signals and galvanometer mirrors for laser scanning. In this work, we build a miniature PAM system using a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanning mirror, demonstrating a prototype of an endoscopic PAM head capable of high imaging quality of the bladder. The system has high resolutions of 17.5 μm in lateral direction and 19 μm in the axial direction at a distance of 5.4 mm. Images of printed grids and the 3D structure of microvasculature in animal bladders ex vivo by the system are demonstrated.

  8. Structured illumination microscopy and its new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical microscopy allows us to observe the biological structures and processes within living cells. However, the spatial resolution of the optical microscopy is limited to about half of the wavelength by the light diffraction. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM, a type of new emerging super-resolution microscopy, doubles the spatial resolution by illuminating the specimen with a patterned light, and the sample and light source requirements of SIM are not as strict as the other super-resolution microscopy. In addition, SIM is easier to combine with the other imaging techniques to improve their imaging resolution, leading to the developments of diverse types of SIM. SIM has great potential to meet the various requirements of living cells imaging. Here, we review the recent developments of SIM and its combination with other imaging techniques.

  9. Electronically tunable femtosecond all-fiber optical parametric oscillator for multi-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Tim; Brinkmann, Maximilian; Fallnich, Carsten

    2018-02-01

    We present a femtosecond fiber-based optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) for multiphoton microscopy with wavelength tuning by electronic repetition rate tuning in combination with a dispersive filter in the FOPO cavity. The all-spliced, all-fiber FOPO cavity is based on polarization-maintaining fibers and a broadband output coupler, allowing to get access to the resonant signal pulses as well as the idler pulses simultaneously. The system was pumped by a gain-switched fiber-coupled laser diode emitting pulses at a central wavelength of 1030 nm and an electronically tunable repetition frequency of about 2 MHz. The pump pulses were amplified in an Ytterbium fiber amplifier system with a pulse duration after amplification of 13 ps. Tuning of the idler (1140 nm - 1300 nm) and signal wavelengths (850 nm - 940 nm) was achieved by changing the repetition frequency of the pump laser by about 4 kHz. The generated signal pulses reached a pulse energy of up to 9.2 nJ at 920 nm and were spectrally broadened to about 6 nm in the FOPO by a combination of self-phase and cross-phase modulation. We showed external compression of the idler pulses at 920 nm to about 430 fs and appleid them to two-photon excitation microscopy with green fluorescent dyes. The presented system constitutes an important step towards a fully fiber-integrated all-electronically tunable and, thereby, programmable light source and already embodies a versatile and flexible light source for applications, e.g., for smart microscopy.

  10. Dictionary of Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Julian

    2005-10-01

    The past decade has seen huge advances in the application of microscopy in all areas of science. This welcome development in microscopy has been paralleled by an expansion of the vocabulary of technical terms used in microscopy: terms have been coined for new instruments and techniques and, as microscopes reach even higher resolution, the use of terms that relate to the optical and physical principles underpinning microscopy is now commonplace. The Dictionary of Microscopy was compiled to meet this challenge and provides concise definitions of over 2,500 terms used in the fields of light microscopy, electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, x-ray microscopy and related techniques. Written by Dr Julian P. Heath, Editor of Microscopy and Analysis, the dictionary is intended to provide easy navigation through the microscopy terminology and to be a first point of reference for definitions of new and established terms. The Dictionary of Microscopy is an essential, accessible resource for: students who are new to the field and are learning about microscopes equipment purchasers who want an explanation of the terms used in manufacturers' literature scientists who are considering using a new microscopical technique experienced microscopists as an aide mémoire or quick source of reference librarians, the press and marketing personnel who require definitions for technical reports.

  11. An integrated optical coherence microscopy imaging and optical stimulation system for optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Electrical stimulation is the clinical standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling cardiac rhythm, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its applications. Optogenetic pacing of the heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids the shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Drosophila melanogaster, which is a powerful model organism with orthologs of nearly 75% of human disease genes, has not been studied for optogenetic pacing in the heart. Here, we developed a non-invasive integrated optical pacing and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging system to control the heart rhythm of Drosophila at different developmental stages using light. The OCM system is capable of providing high imaging speed (130 frames/s) and ultrahigh imaging resolutions (1.5 μm and 3.9 μm for axial and transverse resolutions, respectively). A light-sensitive pacemaker was developed in Drosophila by specifically expressing the light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in transgenic Drosophila heart. We achieved non-invasive and specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm throughout the fly's life cycle (larva, pupa, and adult) by stimulating the heart with 475 nm pulsed laser light. Heart response to stimulation pulses was monitored non-invasively with OCM. This integrated non-invasive optogenetic control and in vivo imaging technique provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology.

  12. New microscopy for nanoimaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kinjo, Y; Watanabe, M

    2002-01-01

    Two types of new microscopy, namely, X-ray contact microscopy (XRCM) in combination with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray projection microscopy (XRPM) using synchrotron radiation and zone plate optics were used to image the fine structures of human chromosomes. In the XRCM plus AFM system, location of X-ray images on a photoresist has become far easier than that with our previous method using transmission electron microscopy coupled with the replica method. In addition, the images obtained suggested that the conformation of chromatin fiber differs from the current textbook model regarding the architecture of a eukaryotic chromosome. X-ray images with high contrast of the specimens could be obtained with XRPM. The resolution of each microscopy was about 30 and 200-300 nm for XRCM plus AFM and XRPM, respectively. (author)

  13. Nonlinear adaptive optics: aberration correction in three photon fluorescence microscopy for mouse brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinefeld, David; Paudel, Hari P.; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Mengran; Ouzounov, Dimitre G.; Bifano, Thomas G.; Xu, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy is a well-established technique for deep-tissue imaging with subcellular resolution. Three-photon microscopy (3PM) when combined with long wavelength excitation was shown to allow deeper imaging than two-photon microscopy (2PM) in biological tissues, such as mouse brain, because out-of-focus background light can be further reduced due to the higher order nonlinear excitation. As was demonstrated in 2PM systems, imaging depth and resolution can be improved by aberration correction using adaptive optics (AO) techniques which are based on shaping the scanning beam using a spatial light modulator (SLM). In this way, it is possible to compensate for tissue low order aberration and to some extent, to compensate for tissue scattering. Here, we present a 3PM AO microscopy system for brain imaging. Soliton self-frequency shift is used to create a femtosecond source at 1675 nm and a microelectromechanical (MEMS) SLM serves as the wavefront shaping device. We perturb the 1020 segment SLM using a modified nonlinear version of three-point phase shifting interferometry. The nonlinearity of the fluorescence signal used for feedback ensures that the signal is increasing when the spot size decreases, allowing compensation of phase errors in an iterative optimization process without direct phase measurement. We compare the performance for different orders of nonlinear feedback, showing an exponential growth in signal improvement as the nonlinear order increases. We demonstrate the impact of the method by applying the 3PM AO system for in-vivo mouse brain imaging, showing improvement in signal at 1-mm depth inside the brain.

  14. Combined reflectance confocal microscopy-optical coherence tomography for delineation of basal cell carcinoma margins: an ex vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimia, Nicusor; Peterson, Gary; Chang, Ernest W.; Maguluri, Gopi; Fox, William; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) approach, integrated within a single optical layout, for diagnosis of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and delineation of margins. While RCM imaging detects BCC presence (diagnoses) and its lateral spreading (margins) with measured resolution of ˜1 μm, OCT imaging delineates BCC depth spreading (margins) with resolution of ˜7 μm. When delineating margins in 20 specimens of superficial and nodular BCCs, depth could be reliably determined down to ˜600 μm, and agreement with histology was within about ±50 μm.

  15. Fabrication of a novel nano-probe slide for near-field optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Sang-Youp; Jeang, Eun-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Park, Seung-Han; Cho, Kyu-Man

    2004-01-01

    A novel probe structure, which can act as a planar nano-probe slide for near-field microscopy, was proposed and fabricated. Sub-wavelength apertures on a Si substrate are successfully produced by means of standard photolithography techniques with properly selected masks. In particular, the anisotropic etching characteristics of Si substrate and the hardness of the Si 3 N 4 film are utilized. Probe-to-probe scanning of the fabricated near-field nano-probe slide shows sub-wavelength confinement of light and comparable throughput to the conventional optical fiber probe. We also show that the nano-probe slide can serve as a supporting base and a sub-wavelength aperture to obtain the near-field photoluminescence spectra of a limited number of CdSe nanocrystals.

  16. Design of angle-resolved illumination optics using nonimaging bi-telecentricity for 193 nm scatterfield microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Martin Y; Barnes, Bryan M; Silver, Richard M

    2018-03-01

    Accurate optics-based dimensional measurements of features sized well-below the diffraction limit require a thorough understanding of the illumination within the optical column and of the three-dimensional scattered fields that contain the information required for quantitative metrology. Scatterfield microscopy can pair simulations with angle-resolved tool characterization to improve agreement between the experiment and calculated libraries, yielding sub-nanometer parametric uncertainties. Optimized angle-resolved illumination requires bi-telecentric optics in which a telecentric sample plane defined by a Köhler illumination configuration and a telecentric conjugate back focal plane (CBFP) of the objective lens; scanning an aperture or an aperture source at the CBFP allows control of the illumination beam angle at the sample plane with minimal distortion. A bi-telecentric illumination optics have been designed enabling angle-resolved illumination for both aperture and source scanning modes while yielding low distortion and chief ray parallelism. The optimized design features a maximum chief ray angle at the CBFP of 0.002° and maximum wavefront deviations of less than 0.06 λ for angle-resolved illumination beams at the sample plane, holding promise for high quality angle-resolved illumination for improved measurements of deep-subwavelength structures using deep-ultraviolet light.

  17. Differential-interference-contrast digital in-line holography microscopy based on a single-optical-element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Xie, Changqing

    2015-11-01

    Both digital in-line holography (DIH) and zone plate-based microscopy have received considerable interest as powerful imaging tools. However, the former suffers from a twin-image noise problem. The latter suffers from low efficiency and difficulty in fabrication. Here, we present an effective and efficient phase-contrast imaging approach, named differential-interference-contrast digital in-line holography (DIC-DIH), by using a single optical element to split the incident light into a plane wave and a converging spherical wave and generate a two-dimensional (2D) DIC effect simultaneously. Specifically, to improve image contrast, we present a new single optical element, termed 2D DIC compound photon sieves, by combining two overlaid binary gratings and a compound photon sieve through two logical XOR operations. The proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can eliminate the twin-image noise problem and improve image contrast with high efficiency. Additionally, we present an example of the phase-contrast imaging nonuniform thick photoresist development process.

  18. Optimisation-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics for microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonello, J.

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy is an essential tool for life sciences. Thanks to the development of confocal and multiphoton microscopy, scientists are able to obtain high-resolution 3D views of biological specimens. Nevertheless, spatial variations in the index of refraction within specimens cause aberrations that

  19. Optically Sectioned Imaging of Microvasculature of In-Vivo and Ex-Vivo Thick Tissue Models with Speckle-illumination HiLo Microscopy and HiLo Image Processing Implementation in MATLAB Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Ricky Wai

    The work described in this thesis covers the conversion of HiLo image processing into MATLAB architecture and the use of speckle-illumination HiLo microscopy for use of ex-vivo and in-vivo imaging of thick tissue models. HiLo microscopy is a wide-field fluorescence imaging technique and has been demonstrated to produce optically sectioned images comparable to confocal in thin samples. The imaging technique was developed by Jerome Mertz and the Boston University Biomicroscopy Lab and has been implemented in our lab as a stand-alone optical setup and a modification to a conventional fluorescence microscope. Speckle-illumination HiLo microscopy combines two images taken under speckle-illumination and standard uniform-illumination to generate an optically sectioned image that reject out-of-focus fluorescence. The evaluated speckle contrast in the images is used as a weighting function where elements that move out-of-focus have a speckle contrast that decays to zero. The experiments shown here demonstrate the capability of our HiLo microscopes to produce optically-sectioned images of the microvasculature of ex-vivo and in-vivo thick tissue models. The HiLo microscope were used to image the microvasculature of ex-vivo mouse heart sections prepared for optical histology and the microvasculature of in-vivo rodent dorsal window chamber models. Studies in label-free surface profiling with HiLo microscopy is also presented.

  20. Improving the visualization of electron-microscopy data through optical flow interpolation

    KAUST Repository

    Carata, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    Technical developments in neurobiology have reached a point where the acquisition of high resolution images representing individual neurons and synapses becomes possible. For this, the brain tissue samples are sliced using a diamond knife and imaged with electron-microscopy (EM). However, the technique achieves a low resolution in the cutting direction, due to limitations of the mechanical process, making a direct visualization of a dataset difficult. We aim to increase the depth resolution of the volume by adding new image slices interpolated from the existing ones, without requiring modifications to the EM image-capturing method. As classical interpolation methods do not provide satisfactory results on this type of data, the current paper proposes a re-framing of the problem in terms of motion volumes, considering the depth axis as a temporal axis. An optical flow method is adapted to estimate the motion vectors of pixels in the EM images, and this information is used to compute and insert multiple new images at certain depths in the volume. We evaluate the visualization results in comparison with interpolation methods currently used on EM data, transforming the highly anisotropic original dataset into a dataset with a larger depth resolution. The interpolation based on optical flow better reveals neurite structures with realistic undistorted shapes, and helps to easier map neuronal connections. © 2011 ACM.

  1. Investigation of optical nanostructures for photovoltaics with near-field scanning microscopy; Untersuchung optischer Nanostrukturen fuer die Photovoltaik mit Nahfeldmikroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Thomas

    2011-09-26

    Textured and rough surfaces are known to increase light trapping in solar cells significantly. The development and optimization of these nano-structures is essential to improve the energy conversion efficiency of thin-film solar cells. In the past, first research approaches covered classical and macroscopic investigations, e.g. determining the haze or angularly resolved scattering. These methods do not provide precise explanation for the optical improvement of the devices, because layer thicknesses and structure sizes in thin-film solar cells are smaller than the wavelength of visible light. The impact of local nano-structures and their contribution to the local absorption enhancement is not resolved by macroscopic measurements. In this thesis, near-field scanning optical microscopy is introduced as first near-field investigations of nano-structures for photovoltaics. This provides an insight into local optical effects for relevant surfaces of photovoltaic devices. Investigating the distribution of the electric fields in layer stacks is crucial to understand the absorption in solar cells. Evanescent fields, which occur due to total internal reflection at the interfaces, are measurable by near-field scanning optical microscopy and yield important information about local light trapping. Within the framework of this thesis, correlations between local surface structures and optical near-field effects are shown. In this case structure features of randomly textured surfaces, which optimize local light trapping, are identified. It paves the way to connect microscopic optical effects on the surface with the macroscopic performance of thin-film solar cells. Moreover, the measurement yields a 3D illustration of the electric field distribution over the sample surface. It is an important criterion to prove the results of rigorous diffraction theory. An excellent agreement between experiment and simulation is found. The simulations provide an insight into the material, which is

  2. Structural aspects of displacive transformations: what can optical microscopy contribute? Dehydration of Sm2(C2O43·10H2O as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Matvienko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For martensitic transformations the macroscopic crystal strain is directly related to the corresponding structural rearrangement at the microscopic level. In situ optical microscopy observations of the interface migration and the change in crystal shape during a displacive single crystal to single crystal transformation can contribute significantly to understanding the mechanism of the process at the atomic scale. This is illustrated for the dehydration of samarium oxalate decahydrate in a study combining optical microscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  3. Fluorescence microscopy for the characterization of structural integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Kenneth W.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1991-01-01

    The absorption characteristics of light and the optical technique of fluorescence microscopy for enhancing metallographic interpretation are presented. Characterization of thermally sprayed coatings by optical microscopy suffers because of the tendency for misidentification of the microstructure produced by metallographic preparation. Gray scale, in bright field microscopy, is frequently the only means of differentiating the actual structural details of porosity, cracking, and debonding of coatings. Fluorescence microscopy is a technique that helps to distinguish the artifacts of metallographic preparation (pullout, cracking, debonding) from the microstructure of the specimen by color contrasting structural differences. Alternative instrumentation and the use of other dye systems are also discussed. The combination of epoxy vacuum infiltration with fluorescence microscopy to verify microstructural defects is an effective means to characterize advanced materials and to assess structural integrity.

  4. Utilizing nonlinear optical microscopy to investigate the development of early cancer in nude mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Li, Feng-Chieh; Lin, Sung-Jan; Lo, Wen; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    In this investigation, we used in vivo nonlinear optical microscopy to image normal and carcinogen DMBA treated skin tissues of nude mice. We acquired two-photon autofluroescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) images of the skin tissue, and applied the ASI (Autofluorescence versus SHG Index) to the resulting image. This allows us to visualize and quantify the interaction between mouse skin cells and the surrounding connective tissue. We found that as the imaging depth increases, ASI has a different distribution in the normal and the treated skin tissues. Since the DMBA treated skin eventually became squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), our results show that the physiological changes to mouse skin en route to become cancer can be effectively tracked by multiphoton microscopy. We envision this approach to be effective in studying tumor biology and tumor treatment procedures.

  5. French Society of Microscopy, 10. conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault-Penisson, J.; Cremer, Ch.; Susini, J.; Kirklanda, A.I.; Rigneault, H.; Renault, O.; Bailly, A.; Zagonel, L.F.; Barrett, N.; Bogner, A.; Gauthier, C.; Jouneau, P.H.; Thollet, G.; Fuchs, G.; Basset, D.; Deconihout, B.; Vurpillot, F.; Vella, A.; Matthieu, G.; Cadel, E.; Bostel, A.; Blavette, D.; Baumeister, W.; Usson, Y.; Zaefferer, St.; Laffont, L.; Weyland, M.; Thomas, J.M.; Midgley, P.; Benlekbir, S.; Epicier, Th.; Diop, B.N.; Roux, St.; Ou, M.; Perriat, P.; Bausach, M.; Aouine, M.; Berhault, G.; Idrissi, H.; Cottevieille, M.; Jonic, S.; Larquet, E.; Svergun, D.; Vannoni, M.A.; Boisset, N.; Ersena, O.; Werckmann, J.; Ulhaq, C.; Hirlimann, Ch.; Tihay, F.; Cuong, Pham-Huu; Crucifix, C.; Schultz, P.; Jornsanoha, P.; Thollet, G.; Masenelli-Varlot, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ludwig, W.; King, A.; Johnson, G.; Gonzalves-Hoennicke, M.; Reischig, P.; Messaoudi, C.; Ibrahim, R.; Marco, S.; Klie, R.F.; Zhao, Y.; Yang, G.; Zhu, Y.; Hue, F.; Hytch, M.; Hartmann, J.M.; Bogumilowicz, Y.; Claverie, A.; Klein, H.; Alloyeau, D.; Ricolleau, C.; Langlois, C.; Le Bouar, Y.; Loiseau, A.; Colliex, C.; Stephan, O.; Kociak, M.; Tence, M.; Gloter, A.; Imhoff, D.; Walls, M.; Nelayah, J.; March, K.; Couillard, M.; Ailliot, C.; Bertin, F.; Cooper, D.; Rivallin, P.; Dumelie, N.; Benhayoune, H.; Balossier, G.; Cheynet, M.; Pokrant, S.; Tichelaar, F.; Rouviere, J.L.; Cooper, D.; Truche, R.; Chabli, A.; Debili, M.Y.; Houdellier, F.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Hytch, M.J.; Snoeck, E.; Calmels, L.; Serin, V.; Schattschneider, P.; Jacob, D.; Cordier, P.

    2007-01-01

    This document gathers the resumes of some of the presentations made at this conference whose aim was to present the last developments and achievements of the 3 complementary microscopies: optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray microscopy. The contributions have been organized around the following 12 topics: 1) new technical developments, 2) 3-dimensional imaging, 3) quantitative microscopy, 4) technical progress in photon microscopy, 5) synchrotron radiation, 6) measurements of patterns, deformations and strains, 7) materials for energy and transports, 8) nano-structures, 9) virus: structure and infection mechanisms, 10) 3-dimensional imaging for molecules, cells and cellular tissues, 11) nano-particles and colloids, and 12) liquid crystals

  6. Image-based overlay and alignment metrology through optically opaque media with sub-surface probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Maarten H.; Mohtashami, Abbas; Piras, Daniele; Sadeghian, Hamed

    2018-03-01

    Nondestructive subsurface nanoimaging through optically opaque media is considered to be extremely challenging and is essential for several semiconductor metrology applications including overlay and alignment and buried void and defect characterization. The current key challenge in overlay and alignment is the measurement of targets that are covered by optically opaque layers. Moreover, with the device dimensions moving to the smaller nodes and the issue of the so-called loading effect causing offsets between between targets and product features, it is increasingly desirable to perform alignment and overlay on product features or so-called on-cell overlay, which requires higher lateral resolution than optical methods can provide. Our recently developed technique known as SubSurface Ultrasonic Resonance Force Microscopy (SSURFM) has shown the capability for high-resolution imaging of structures below a surface based on (visco-)elasticity of the constituent materials and as such is a promising technique to perform overlay and alignment with high resolution in upcoming production nodes. In this paper, we describe the developed SSURFM technique and the experimental results on imaging buried features through various layers and the ability to detect objects with resolution below 10 nm. In summary, the experimental results show that the SSURFM is a potential solution for on-cell overlay and alignment as well as detecting buried defects or voids and generally metrology through optically opaque layers.

  7. Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdobnov, Anton Yu; Tuchin, Valery V.; Lademann, Juergen; E Darvin, Maxim

    2017-07-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) is employed to study the skin physiology, drug permeation and skin disease monitoring. In order to increase the depth of investigations, the effect of optical clearing was observed on porcine ear skin ex vivo. The optical clearing agents (OCAs) glycerol and iohexol (Omnipaque™) were applied to the porcine ear skin and investigated by CRM after 30 and 60 min of treatment. The extent of optical clearing by utilizing concentrations of 70% glycerol and 100% Omnipaque™ was evaluated. The intensity of the skin-related Raman peaks significantly increased starting from the depth 160 µm for Omnipaque™ and 40 µm for glycerol (p  ⩽  0.05) after 60 min of treatment. The OCAs’ influence on the collagen hydration in the deep-located dermis was investigated. Both OCAs induce skin dehydration, but the effect of glycerol treatment (30 min and 60 min) is stronger. The obtained results demonstrate that with increasing the treatment time, both glycerol and Omnipaque™ solutions improve the optical clearing of porcine skin making the deep-located dermal regions able for investigations. At the used concentrations and time intervals, glycerol is more effective than Omnipaque™. However, Omnipaque™ is more promising than glycerol for future in vivo applications as it is an already approved pharmaceutic substance without any known impact on the skin structure.

  8. Photoinduced force microscopy: A technique for hyperspectral nanochemical mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdick, Ryan A.; Morrison, William; Nowak, Derek; Albrecht, Thomas R.; Jahng, Junghoon; Park, Sung

    2017-08-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have intensified the need for tools that can characterize newly synthesized nanomaterials. A variety of techniques has recently been shown which combines atomic force microscopy (AFM) with optical illumination including tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (sSNOM), and photothermal induced resonance microscopy (PTIR). To varying degrees, these existing techniques enable optical spectroscopy with the nanoscale spatial resolution inherent to AFM, thereby providing nanochemical interrogation of a specimen. Here we discuss photoinduced force microscopy (PiFM), a recently developed technique for nanoscale optical spectroscopy that exploits image forces acting between an AFM tip and sample to detect wavelength-dependent polarization within the sample to generate absorption spectra. This approach enables ∼10 nm spatial resolution with spectra that show correlation with macroscopic optical absorption spectra. Unlike other techniques, PiFM achieves this high resolution with virtually no constraints on sample or substrate properties. The applicability of PiFM to a variety of archetypal systems is reported here, highlighting the potential of PiFM as a useful tool for a wide variety of industrial and academic investigations, including semiconducting nanoparticles, nanocellulose, block copolymers, and low dimensional systems, as well as chemical and morphological mixing at interfaces.

  9. Establishing the suitability of quantitative optical CT microscopy of PRESAGE® radiochromic dosimeters for the verification of synchrotron microbeam therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Simon J.; Rahman, A. T. Abdul; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Brochard, Thierry; Adamovics, John; Nisbet, Andrew; Bradley, David

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on optical computed tomography (CT) microscopy in the context of the synchrotron microbeam has shown the potential of the technique and demonstrated high quality images, but has left two questions unanswered: (i) are the images suitably quantitative for 3D dosimetry? and (ii) what is the impact on the spatial resolution of the system of the limited depth-of-field of the microscope optics? Cuvette and imaging studies are reported here that address these issues. Two sets of cuvettes containing the radiochromic plastic PRESAGE® were irradiated at the ID17 biomedical beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation facility over the ranges 0-20 and 0-35 Gy and a third set of cuvettes was irradiated over the range 0-20 Gy using a standard medical linac. In parallel, three cylindrical PRESAGE® samples of diameter 9.7 mm were irradiated with test patterns that allowed the quantitative capabilities of the optical CT microscope to be verified, and independent measurements of the imaging modulation transfer function (MTF) to be made via two different methods. Both spectrophotometric analysis and imaging gave a linear dose response, with gradients ranging from 0.036-0.041 cm-1 Gy-1 in the three sets of cuvettes and 0.037 (optical CT units) Gy-1 for the imaging. High-quality, quantitative imaging results were obtained throughout the 3D volume, as illustrated by depth-dose profiles. These profiles are shown to be monoexponential, and the linear attention coefficient of PRESAGE® for the synchrotron-generated x-ray beam is measured to be (0.185 ± 0.02) cm-1 in excellent agreement with expectations. Low-level (<5%) residual image artefacts are discussed in detail. It was possible to resolve easily slit patterns of width 37 µm (which are smaller than many of the microbeams used on ID-17), but some uncertainty remains as to whether the low values of MTF for the higher spatial frequencies are scanner related or a result of genuine (but non-ideal) dose

  10. Nonlinear optical microscopy reveals invading endothelial cells anisotropically alter three-dimensional collagen matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.-F.; Yeh, Alvin T.; Bayless, Kayla J.

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are fundamental in mediating various steps of angiogenesis, including cell adhesion, migration and sprout formation. Here, we used a noninvasive and non-destructive nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) technique to optically image endothelial sprouting morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices. We simultaneously captured signals from collagen fibers and endothelial cells using second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), respectively. Dynamic 3D imaging revealed EC interactions with collagen fibers along with quantifiable alterations in collagen matrix density elicited by EC movement through and morphogenesis within the matrix. Specifically, we observed increased collagen density in the area between bifurcation points of sprouting structures and anisotropic increases in collagen density around the perimeter of lumenal structures, but not advancing sprout tips. Proteinase inhibition studies revealed membrane-associated matrix metalloproteinase were utilized for sprout advancement and lumen expansion. Rho-associated kinase (p160ROCK) inhibition demonstrated that the generation of cell tension increased collagen matrix alterations. This study followed sprouting ECs within a 3D matrix and revealed that the advancing structures recognize and significantly alter their extracellular environment at the periphery of lumens as they progress

  11. Fluorescent nanoscale detection of biotin-streptavidin interaction using near-field scanning optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Kyu; Chung, Bong Hyun; Gokarna, Anisha; Hulme, John P; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2008-01-01

    We describe a nanoscale strategy for detecting biotin-streptavidin binding using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) that exploits the fluorescence properties of single polydiacetylene (PDA) liposomes. NSOM is more useful to observe nanomaterials having optical properties with the help of topological information. We synthesized amine-terminated 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) monomer (PCDA-NH 2 ) and used this derivatized monomer to prepare PCDA liposomes. PCDA-NH 2 liposomes were immobilized on an aldehyde-functionalized glass surface followed by photopolymerization by using a 254 nm light source. To measure the biotin-streptavidin binding, we conjugated photoactivatable biotin to immobilized PCDA-NH 2 liposomes by UV irradiation (365 nm) and subsequently allowed them to interact with streptavidin. We analyzed the fluorescence using a fluorescence scanner and observed single liposomes using NSOM. The average height and NSOM signal observed in a single liposome after binding were ∼31.3 to 8.5 ± 0.5 nm and 0.37 to 0.16 ± 0.6 kHz, respectively. This approach, which has the advantage of not requiring a fluorescent label, could prove highly beneficial for single molecule detection technology

  12. Acute changes associated with electrode insertion measured with optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Lozzi, Andrea; Boretsky, Adam; Agrawal, Anant; Welle, Cristin G.

    2016-03-01

    Despite advances in functional neural imaging, penetrating microelectrodes provide the most direct interface for the extraction of neural signals from the nervous system and are a critical component of many high degree-of-freedom braincomputer interface devices. Electrode insertion is a traumatic event that elicits a complex neuroinflammatory response. In this investigation we applied optical coherence microscopy (OCM), particularly optical coherence angiography (OCA), to characterize the immediate tissue response during microelectrode insertion. Microelectrodes of varying dimension and footprint (one-, two-, and four-shank) were inserted into mouse motor cortex beneath a window after craniotomy surgery. The microelectrodes were inserted in 3-4 steps at 15-20°, with approximately 250 μm linear insertion distance for each step. Before insertion and between each step, OCM datasets were collected, including for quantitative capillary velocimetry. A cohort of control animals without microelectrode insertion was also imaged over a similar time period (2-3 hours). Mechanical tissue deformation was observed in all the experimental animals. The quantitative angiography results varied across animals, and were not correlated with device dimensions. In some cases, localized flow drop-out was observed in a small region surrounding the electrode, while in other instances a global disruption in flow occurred, perhaps as a result of large vessel compression caused by mechanical pressure. OCM is a tool that can be used in various neurophotonics applications, including quantification of the neuroinflammatory response to penetrating electrode insertion.

  13. Cell tracking with gadophrin-2: a bifunctional contrast agent for MR imaging, optical imaging, and fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Rudelius, Martina; Piontek, Guido; Schlegel, Juergen; Metz, Stephan; Settles, Marcus; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pichler, Bernd; Heinzmann, Ulrich; Oostendorp, Robert A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of use of gadophrin-2 to trace intravenously injected human hematopoietic cells in athymic mice, employing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, optical imaging (OI), and fluorescence microscopy. Mononuclear peripheral blood cells from GCSF-primed patients were labeled with gadophrin-2 (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), a paramagnetic and fluorescent metalloporphyrin, using established transfection techniques with cationic liposomes. The labeled cells were evaluated in vitro with electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Then, 1 x 10 6 -3 x 10 8 labeled cells were injected into 14 nude Balb/c mice and the in vivo cell distribution was evaluated with MR imaging and OI before and 4, 24, and 48 h after intravenous injection (p.i.). Five additional mice served as controls: three mice were untreated controls and two mice were investigated after injection of unlabeled cells. The contrast agent effect was determined quantitatively for MR imaging by calculating signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) data. After completion of in vivo imaging studies, fluorescence microscopy of excised organs was performed. Intracellular cytoplasmatic uptake of gadophrin-2 was confirmed by electron microscopy. Spectrometry determined an uptake of 31.56 nmol Gd per 10 6 cells. After intravenous injection, the distribution of gadophrin-2 labeled cells in nude mice could be visualized by MR, OI, and fluorescence microscopy. At 4 h p.i., the transplanted cells mainly distributed to lung, liver, and spleen, and 24 h p.i. they also distributed to the bone marrow. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed the distribution of gadophrin-2 labeled cells to these target organs. Gadophrin-2 is suited as a bifunctional contrast agent for MR imaging, OI, and fluorescence microscopy and may be used to combine the advantages of each individual imaging modality for in vivo tracking of intravenously injected hematopoietic cells. (orig.)

  14. A SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-PROBE DETECTION LABEL-FREE OPTICAL-RESOLUTION PHOTOACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE BASED ON MICROCAVITY TRANSDUCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YONGBO WU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous multi-probe detection for an optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM system. OR-PAM has elicited the attention of biomedical imaging researchers because of its optical absorption contrast and high spatial resolution with great imaging depth. OR-PAM allows label-free and noninvasive imaging by maximizing the optical absorption of endogenous biomolecules. However, given the inadequate absorption of some biomolecules, detection sensitivity at the same incident intensity requires improvement. In this study, a modulated continuous wave with power density less than 3 mW/cm2 (1/4 of the ANSI safety limit excited the weak photoacoustic (PA signals of biological cells. A microcavity transducer is developed based on the bulk modulus of gas five orders of magnitude lower than that of solid; air pressure variation is inversely proportional to cavity volume at the same temperature increase. Considering that a PA wave expands in various directions, detecting PA signals from different positions and adding them together can increase detection sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, we employ four detectors to acquire tiny PA signals simultaneously. Experimental results show that the developed OR-PAM system allows the label-free imaging of cells with weak optical absorption.

  15. Spatiotemporal closure of fractional laser-ablated channels imaged by optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina A.; Wind, Bas S.; Mogensen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) offer high-resolution optical imaging of the skin, which may provide benefit in the context of laser-assisted drug delivery. We aimed to characterize postoperative healing of ablative fractional...... laser (AFXL)-induced channels and dynamics in their spatiotemporal closure using in vivo OCT and RCM techniques. Study design/Materials and Methods The inner forearm of healthy subjects (n = 6) was exposed to 10,600 nm fractional CO2 laser using 5 and 25% densities, 120 μm beam diameter, 5, 15, and 25 m......J/microbeam. Treatment sites were scanned with OCT to evaluate closure of AFXL-channels and RCM to evaluate subsequent re-epithelialization. Results OCT and RCM identified laser channels in epidermis and upper dermis as black, ablated tissue defects surrounded by characteristic hyper-and hyporeflective zones. OCT imaged...

  16. Refractometry of melanocyte cell nuclei using optical scatter images recorded by digital Fourier microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Katrina Y T; Nieminen, Timo A; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2009-01-01

    The cell nucleus is the dominant optical scatterer in the cell. Neoplastic cells are characterized by cell nucleus polymorphism and polychromism-i.e., the nuclei exhibits an increase in the distribution of both size and refractive index. The relative size parameter, and its distribution, is proportional to the product of the nucleus size and its relative refractive index and is a useful discriminant between normal and abnormal (cancerous) cells. We demonstrate a recently introduced holographic technique, digital Fourier microscopy (DFM), to provide a sensitive measure of this relative size parameter. Fourier holograms were recorded and optical scatter of individual scatterers were extracted and modeled with Mie theory to determine the relative size parameter. The relative size parameter of individual melanocyte cell nuclei were found to be 16.5+/-0.2, which gives a cell nucleus refractive index of 1.38+/-0.01 and is in good agreement with previously reported data. The relative size parameters of individual malignant melanocyte cell nuclei are expected to be greater than 16.5.

  17. The necessity of microscopy to characterize the optical properties of size-selected, nonspherical aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veghte, Daniel P; Freedman, Miriam A

    2012-11-06

    It is currently unknown whether mineral dust causes a net warming or cooling effect on the climate system. This uncertainty stems from the varied and evolving shape and composition of mineral dust, which leads to diverse interactions of dust with solar and terrestrial radiation. To investigate these interactions, we have used a cavity ring-down spectrometer to study the optical properties of size-selected calcium carbonate particles, a reactive component of mineral dust. The size selection of nonspherical particles like mineral dust can differ from spherical particles in the polydispersity of the population selected. To calculate the expected extinction cross sections, we use Mie scattering theory for monodisperse spherical particles and for spherical particles with the polydispersity observed in transmission electron microscopy images. Our results for calcium carbonate are compared to the well-studied system of ammonium sulfate. While ammonium sulfate extinction cross sections agree with Mie scattering theory for monodisperse spherical particles, the results for calcium carbonate deviate at large and small particle sizes. We find good agreement for both systems, however, between the calculations performed using the particle images and the cavity ring-down data, indicating that both ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate can be treated as polydisperse spherical particles. Our results indicate that having an independent measure of polydispersity is essential for understanding the optical properties of nonspherical particles measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Our combined spectroscopy and microscopy techniques demonstrate a novel method by which cavity ring-down spectroscopy can be extended for the study of more complex aerosol particles.

  18. Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow X-ray microscopy without X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jianwei; Kirz, Janos; Sayre, David; Charalambous, Pambos

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that the soft X-ray diffraction pattern from a micron-size noncrystalline specimen can be recorded and inverted to form a high-resolution image. The phase problem is overcome by oversampling the diffraction pattern. The image is obtained using an iterative algorithm. The technique provides a method for X-ray microscopy requiring no high-resolution X-ray optical elements or detectors. In the present work, a resolution of approximately 60 nm was obtained, but we believe that considerably higher resolution can be achieved

  19. Ultra-compact silicon nitride grating coupler for microscopy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yunpeng; Wang, Jie; Xie, Weiqiang; Tian, Bin; Li, Yanlu; Brainis, Edouard; Jiao, Yuqing; Van Thourhout, Dries

    2017-01-01

    Grating couplers have been widely used for coupling light between photonic chips and optical fibers. For various quantum-optics and bio-optics experiments, on the other hand, there is a need to achieve good light coupling between photonic chips and microscopy systems. Here, we propose an ultra-compact silicon nitride (SiN) grating coupler optimized for coupling light from a waveguide to a microscopy system. The grating coupler is about 4 by 2 mu m(2) in size and a 116 nm 1 dB bandwidth can be...

  20. Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdobnov, Anton Yu; Tuchin, Valery V; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2017-01-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) is employed to study the skin physiology, drug permeation and skin disease monitoring. In order to increase the depth of investigations, the effect of optical clearing was observed on porcine ear skin ex vivo . The optical clearing agents (OCAs) glycerol and iohexol (Omnipaque ™ ) were applied to the porcine ear skin and investigated by CRM after 30 and 60 min of treatment. The extent of optical clearing by utilizing concentrations of 70% glycerol and 100% Omnipaque ™ was evaluated. The intensity of the skin-related Raman peaks significantly increased starting from the depth 160 µ m for Omnipaque ™ and 40 µ m for glycerol ( p   ⩽  0.05) after 60 min of treatment. The OCAs’ influence on the collagen hydration in the deep-located dermis was investigated. Both OCAs induce skin dehydration, but the effect of glycerol treatment (30 min and 60 min) is stronger. The obtained results demonstrate that with increasing the treatment time, both glycerol and Omnipaque ™ solutions improve the optical clearing of porcine skin making the deep-located dermal regions able for investigations. At the used concentrations and time intervals, glycerol is more effective than Omnipaque ™ . However, Omnipaque ™ is more promising than glycerol for future in vivo applications as it is an already approved pharmaceutic substance without any known impact on the skin structure. (paper)

  1. Near-Field Optical Microscopy of Fractal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coello, Victor; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Using a photon scanning tunnelling microscope combined with a shear-force feedback system, we image both topographical and near-field optical images (at the wavelengths of 633 and 594 nm) of silver colloid fractals. Near-field optical imaging is calibrated with a standing evanescent wave pattern...

  2. The lymphatic mechanisms of brain cleaning: application of optical coherence tomography and fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkovskaya-Semyachkina, O.; Abdurashitov, A.; Fedosov, I.; Namykin, A.; Pavlov, A.; Shirokov, A.; Shushunova, N.; Sindeeva, O.; Khorovodov, A.; Ulanova, M.; Sagatova, V.; Agranovich, I.; Bodrova, A.; Kurths, J.

    2018-04-01

    Here we studied the role of cerebral lymphatic system in the brain clearing using intraparenchymal injection of Evans Blue and gold nanorods assessed by optical coherent tomography and fluorescence microscopy. Our data clearly show that the cerebral lymphatic system plays an important role in the brain cleaning via meningeal lymphatic vessels but not cerebral veins. Meningeal lymphatic vessels transport fluid from the brain into the deep cervical node, which is the first anatomical "station" for lymph outflow from the brain. The lymphatic processes underlying brain clearing are more slowly vs. peripheral lymphatics. These results shed light on the lymphatic mechanisms responsible for brain clearing as well as interaction between the intra- and extracranial lymphatic compartment.

  3. Imaging of phase change materials below a capping layer using correlative infrared near-field microscopy and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, M.; Hauer, B.; Bornhöfft, M.; Jung, L.; Benke, J.; Michel, A.-K. U.; Mayer, J.; Wuttig, M.; Taubner, T.

    2015-10-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCM) show two stable states in the solid phase with significantly different optical and electronic properties. They can be switched reversibly between those two states and are promising candidates for future non-volatile memory applications. The development of phase change devices demands characterization tools, yielding information about the switching process at high spatial resolution. Scattering-type Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (s-SNOM) allows for spectroscopic analyses of the different optical properties of the PCMs on the nm-scale. By correlating the optical s-SNOM images with transmission electron microscopy images of the same sample, we unambiguously demonstrate the correlation of the infrared optical contrast with the structural state of the phase change material. The investigated sample consists of sandwiched amorphous and crystalline regions of Ag 4 In 3 Sb 67 Te 26 below a 100 nm thick ( ZnS ) 80 - ( SiO2 ) 20 capping layer. Our results demonstrate the sensitivity of s-SNOM to small dielectric near-field contrasts even below a comparably thick capping layer ( 100 nm ).

  4. Fully time-resolved near-field scanning optical microscopy fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Eun-Soo; Vanden Bout, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Time-correlated single photon counting has been coupled with near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to record complete fluorescence lifetime decays at each pixel in an NSOM image. The resulting three-dimensional data sets can be binned in the time dimension to create images of photons at particular time delays or images of the fluorescence lifetime. Alternatively, regions of interest identified in the topography and fluorescence images can be used to bin the data in the spatial dimensions resulting in high signal to noise fluorescence decays of particular regions of the sample. The technique has been demonstrated on films of poly(vinylalcohol), doped with the fluorescent dye, cascade blue (CB). The CB segregates into small circular regions of high concentration within the films during the drying process. The lifetime imaging shows that the spots have slightly faster excited state decays due to quenching of the luminescence as a result of the higher concentration. The technique is also used to image the fluorescence lifetime of an annealed film of poly(dihexylfluorene). The samples show high contrast in the total intensity fluorescence image, but the lifetime image reveals the sample to be extremely uniform

  5. Microfluidic Imaging Flow Cytometry by Asymmetric-detection Time-stretch Optical Microscopy (ATOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Anson H L; Lai, Queenie T K; Chung, Bob M F; Lee, Kelvin C M; Mok, Aaron T Y; Yip, G K; Shum, Anderson H C; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Tsia, Kevin K

    2017-06-28

    Scaling the number of measurable parameters, which allows for multidimensional data analysis and thus higher-confidence statistical results, has been the main trend in the advanced development of flow cytometry. Notably, adding high-resolution imaging capabilities allows for the complex morphological analysis of cellular/sub-cellular structures. This is not possible with standard flow cytometers. However, it is valuable for advancing our knowledge of cellular functions and can benefit life science research, clinical diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. Incorporating imaging capabilities into flow cytometry compromises the assay throughput, primarily due to the limitations on speed and sensitivity in the camera technologies. To overcome this speed or throughput challenge facing imaging flow cytometry while preserving the image quality, asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM) has been demonstrated to enable high-contrast, single-cell imaging with sub-cellular resolution, at an imaging throughput as high as 100,000 cells/s. Based on the imaging concept of conventional time-stretch imaging, which relies on all-optical image encoding and retrieval through the use of ultrafast broadband laser pulses, ATOM further advances imaging performance by enhancing the image contrast of unlabeled/unstained cells. This is achieved by accessing the phase-gradient information of the cells, which is spectrally encoded into single-shot broadband pulses. Hence, ATOM is particularly advantageous in high-throughput measurements of single-cell morphology and texture - information indicative of cell types, states, and even functions. Ultimately, this could become a powerful imaging flow cytometry platform for the biophysical phenotyping of cells, complementing the current state-of-the-art biochemical-marker-based cellular assay. This work describes a protocol to establish the key modules of an ATOM system (from optical frontend to data processing and visualization

  6. Application of oblique plane microscopy to high speed live cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Wilding, Dean; Sikkel, Markus B.; Lyon, Alexander R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-07-01

    Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. We present high speed 2D and 3D optically sectioned OPM imaging of live cells using a high NA water immersion lens.

  7. Scanning probe microscopy in material science and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cricenti, A; Colonna, S; Girasole, M; Gori, P; Ronci, F; Longo, G; Dinarelli, S; Luce, M; Rinaldi, M; Ortenzi, M

    2011-01-01

    A review of the activity of scanning probe microscopy at our Institute is presented, going from instrumentation to software development of scanning tunnelling microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Some of the most important experiments in material science and biology performed by our group through the years with these SPM techniques will be presented. Finally, infrared applications by coupling a SNOM with a free electron laser will also be presented.

  8. Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy Developed for Microgravity Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David G.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Asipauskas, Marius

    2004-01-01

    Recent research efforts within the Microgravity Fluid Physics Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center have necessitated the development of a microscope capable of high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of intracellular structure and tissue morphology. Standard optical microscopy works well for thin samples, but it does not allow the imaging of thick samples because of severe degradation caused by out-of-focus object structure. Confocal microscopy, which is a laser-based scanning microscopy, provides improved three-dimensional imaging and true optical sectioning by excluding the out-of-focus light. However, in confocal microscopy, out-of-focus object structure is still illuminated by the incoming beam, which can lead to substantial photo-bleaching. In addition, confocal microscopy is plagued by limited penetration depth, signal loss due to the presence of a confocal pinhole, and the possibility of live-cell damage. Two-photon microscopy is a novel form of laser-based scanning microscopy that allows three-dimensional imaging without many of the problems inherent in confocal microscopy. Unlike one-photon microscopy, it utilizes the nonlinear absorption of two near-infrared photons. However, the efficiency of two-photon absorption is much lower than that of one-photon absorption because of the nonlinear (i.e., quadratic) electric field dependence, so an ultrafast pulsed laser source must typically be employed. On the other hand, this stringent energy density requirement effectively localizes fluorophore excitation to the focal volume. Consequently, two-photon microscopy provides optical sectioning and confocal performance without the need for a signal-limiting pinhole. In addition, there is a reduction in photo-damage because of the longer excitation wavelength, a reduction in background fluorescence, and a 4 increase in penetration depth over confocal methods because of the reduction in Rayleigh scattering.

  9. Near-field and far-field modeling of scattered surface waves. Application to the apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, J.; Parent, G.; Fumeron, S.; Jeandel, G.; Lacroix, D.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of surface waves through scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) is a promising technique for thermal measurements at very small scales. Recent studies have shown that electromagnetic waves, in the vicinity of a scattering structure such as an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, can be scattered from near to far-field and thus detected. In the present work, a model based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and the near-field to far-field (NFTFF) transformation for electromagnetic waves propagation is presented. This model has been validated by studying the electromagnetic field of a dipole in vacuum and close to a dielectric substrate. Then simulations for a tetrahedral tip close to an interface are presented and discussed.

  10. Spectroscopic ellipsometric modeling of a Bi–Te–Se write layer of an optical data storage device as guided by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Madaan, Nitesh; Bagley, Jacob; Diwan, Anubhav [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Liu, Yiqun [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Davis, Robert C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Lunt, Barry M. [Department of Information Technology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Smith, Stacey J., E-mail: ssmith@chem.byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Linford, Matthew R., E-mail: mrlinford@chem.byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2014-10-31

    Conventional magnetic tape is the most widely used medium for archival data storage. However, data stored on it need to be migrated every ca. 5 years. Recently, optical discs that store information for hundreds, or even more than 1000 years, have been introduced to the market. We recently proposed that technology in these optical discs be used to make an optical tape that would show greater permanence than its magnetic counterpart. Here we provide a detailed optical characterization of a sputtered thin film of bismuth, tellurium, and selenium (BTS) that is a proposed data storage layer for these devices. The methodology described herein should be useful in the future development of related materials. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) data are obtained using interference enhancement, and the modeling of this data is guided by results from atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray reflectivity (XRR). By AFM, ca. 40 nm BTS films show ca. 10 nm roughness. SEM images also suggest considerable roughness in the films and indicate that they are composed of 13.1 ± 5.9 nm grains. XRD confirms that the films are crystalline and predicts a grain size of 17 ± 2 nm. XRD results are consistent with the composition of the films — a mildly oxidized BTS material. Three models of increasing complexity are investigated to explain the SE data. The first model consists of a smooth, homogeneous BTS film. The second model adds a roughness layer to the previous model. The third model also has two layers. The bottom layer is modeled as a mixture of BTS and void using a Bruggeman effective medium approximation. The upper layer is similarly modeled, but with a gradient. The first model was unable to adequately model the SE data. The second model was an improvement — lower MSE (4.4) and good agreement with step height measurements. The third model was even better — very low MSE (2.6) and good agreement with AFM results. The

  11. In situ 3D characterization of historical coatings and wood using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Gaël; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Didier, Marie; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2012-10-22

    We demonstrate multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of historical artifacts by combining Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (2PEF) microscopies. We first identify the nonlinear optical response of materials commonly encountered in coatings of cultural heritage artifacts by analyzing one- and multi-layered model samples. We observe 2PEF signals from cochineal lake and sandarac and show that pigments and varnish films can be discriminated by exploiting their different emission spectral ranges as in luminescence linear spectroscopy. We then demonstrate SHG imaging of a filler, plaster, composed of bassanite particles which exhibit a non centrosymmetric crystal structure. We also show that SHG/2PEF imaging enables the visualization of wood microstructure through typically 60 µm-thick coatings by revealing crystalline cellulose (SHG signal) and lignin (2PEF signal) in the wood cell walls. Finally, in situ multimodal nonlinear imaging is demonstrated in a historical violin. SHG/2PEF imaging thus appears as a promising non-destructive and contactless tool for in situ 3D investigation of historical coatings and more generally for wood characterization and coating analysis at micrometer scale.

  12. Temporal overlap estimation based on interference spectrum in CARS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongning; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Huang, Can; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Xuezhi; Liu, Tiegen

    2018-01-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy has attracted lots of attention because of the advantages, such as noninvasive, label-free, chemical specificity, intrinsic three-dimension spatial resolution and so on. However, the temporal overlap of pump and Stokes has not been solved owing to the ultrafast optical pulse used in CARS microscopy. We combine interference spectrum of residual pump in Stokes path and nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) to realize the temporal overlap of pump pulse and Stokes pulse. At first, based on the interference spectrum of pump pulse and residual pump in Stokes path, the optical delay is defined when optical path difference between pump path and Stokes path is zero. Then the relative optical delay between Stokes pulse and residual pump in PCF can be calculated by NLSE. According to the spectrum interference and NLSE, temporal overlap of pump pulse and Stokes pulse will be realized easily and the imaging speed will be improved in CARS microscopy.

  13. Cell reactions with biomaterials: the microscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A. S.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods and results of optical microscopy that can be used to observe cell reactions to biomaterials are Interference Reflection Microscopy (IRM, Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM, Surface Plasmon Resonance Microscopy (SPRM and Forster Resonance Energy Transfer Microscopy (FRETM and Standing Wave Fluorescence Microscopy. The last three are new developments, which have not yet been fully perfected. TIRFM and SPRM are evanescent wave methods. The physics of these methods depend upon optical phenomena at interfaces. All these methods give information on the dimensions of the gap between cell and the substratum to which it is adhering and thus are especially suited to work with biomaterials. IRM and FRETM can be used on opaque surfaces though image interpretation is especially difficult for IRM on a reflecting opaque surface. These methods are compared with several electron microscopical methods for studying cell adhesion to substrata. These methods all yield fairly consistent results and show that the cell to substratum distance on many materials is in the range 5 to 30 nm. The area of contact relative to the total projected area of the cell may vary from a few per cent to close to 100% depending on the cell type and substratum. These methods show that those discrete contact areas well known as focal contacts are frequently present. The results of FRETM suggest that the separation from the substratum even in a focal contact is about 5 nm.

  14. Three-ring filters increase the effective NA up to 1.46 in optical sectioning fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Corral, M; Ibanez-Lopez, C; Caballero, M T; Munoz-Escriva, L; Saavedra, G

    2003-01-01

    Single-photon fluorescence confocal microscopy techniques can be combined with the use of specific binary filters in order to increase their optical sectioning capability. We present a novel class of axially super-resolving binary pupil filters specially designed to reach this aim. These filters let us to obtain a relevant compression of the z-response together with the reduction of the photo-bleaching effect typically inherent to apodization techniques. The fact of joining both the three-ring filters we propose in the illumination path, and the confocal detection gives rise to an important effective increase of lenses of effective numerical aperture

  15. Analyzing Lysosome-Related Organelles by Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Hurbain, Ilse

    2017-04-29

    Intracellular organelles have a particular morphological signature that can only be appreciated by ultrastructural analysis at the electron microscopy level. Optical imaging and associated methodologies allow to explore organelle localization and their dynamics at the cellular level. Deciphering the biogenesis and functions of lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles (LROs) and their dysfunctions requires their visualization and detailed characterization at high resolution by electron microscopy. Here, we provide detailed protocols for studying LROs by transmission electron microscopy. While conventional electron microscopy and its recent improvements is the method of choice to investigate organelle morphology, immunoelectron microscopy allows to localize organelle components and description of their molecular make up qualitatively and quantitatively.

  16. Smart-phone based computational microscopy using multi-frame contact imaging on a fiber-optic array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navruz, Isa; Coskun, Ahmet F; Wong, Justin; Mohammad, Saqib; Tseng, Derek; Nagi, Richie; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-10-21

    We demonstrate a cellphone based contact microscopy platform, termed Contact Scope, which can image highly dense or connected samples in transmission mode. Weighing approximately 76 grams, this portable and compact microscope is installed on the existing camera unit of a cellphone using an opto-mechanical add-on, where planar samples of interest are placed in contact with the top facet of a tapered fiber-optic array. This glass-based tapered fiber array has ~9 fold higher density of fiber optic cables on its top facet compared to the bottom one and is illuminated by an incoherent light source, e.g., a simple light-emitting-diode (LED). The transmitted light pattern through the object is then sampled by this array of fiber optic cables, delivering a transmission image of the sample onto the other side of the taper, with ~3× magnification in each direction. This magnified image of the object, located at the bottom facet of the fiber array, is then projected onto the CMOS image sensor of the cellphone using two lenses. While keeping the sample and the cellphone camera at a fixed position, the fiber-optic array is then manually rotated with discrete angular increments of e.g., 1-2 degrees. At each angular position of the fiber-optic array, contact images are captured using the cellphone camera, creating a sequence of transmission images for the same sample. These multi-frame images are digitally fused together based on a shift-and-add algorithm through a custom-developed Android application running on the smart-phone, providing the final microscopic image of the sample, visualized through the screen of the phone. This final computation step improves the resolution and also removes spatial artefacts that arise due to non-uniform sampling of the transmission intensity at the fiber optic array surface. We validated the performance of this cellphone based Contact Scope by imaging resolution test charts and blood smears.

  17. Characterizing the surface forces between two individual nanowires using optical microscopy based nanomanipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongtao; Mead, James L.; Wang, Shiliang; Fatikow, Sergej; Huang, Han

    2018-06-01

    The adhesion and friction between two Al2O3 nanowires (NWs) was characterized by the use of optical microscopy based nanomanipulation, with which peeling, shearing and sliding was performed. The elastically deformed shape of the NWs during peeling and shearing was used to calculate the adhesion and frictional forces; force sensing was not required. The obtained adhesion stress between two Al2O3 NWs varied from 0.14 to 0.25 MPa, lower than that observed for carbon nanotube junctions, and was attributed to van der Waals attraction. Stick-slip was observed during the shearing and sliding of two NWs, and was the consequence of discrete contact between surface asperities. The obtained static and kinetic frictional stresses varied from 0.7 to 1.3 MPa and 0.4 to 0.8 MPa, respectively; significantly greater than the obtained adhesion stress.

  18. Study of Transitions between Wetting States on Microcavity Arrays by Optical Transmission Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Smistrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a simple and fast optical method based on transmission microscopy to study the stochastic wetting transitions on micro- and nanostructured polymer surfaces immersed in water. We analyze the influence of immersion time and the liquid pressure on the degree of water......-Laplace equation for the water menisci in the cavities and the diffusion of dissolved gas molecules in the water. In addition, the wetting transitions had a stochastic nature, which resulted from the short diffusion distance for dissolved gas molecules in the water between neighboring cavities. Furthermore, we...... compared the contact angle properties of two polymeric materials (COC and PP) with moderate hydrophobicity. We attributed the difference in the water repellency of the two materials to a difference in the wetting of their nanostructures. Our experimental observations thus indicate that both the diffusion...

  19. Detection, mapping, and quantification of single walled carbon nanotubes in histological specimens with photoacoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avti, Pramod K; Hu, Song; Favazza, Christopher; Mikos, Antonios G; Jansen, John A; Shroyer, Kenneth R; Wang, Lihong V; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of multi-scale photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was investigated to detect, map, and quantify trace amounts [nanograms (ng) to micrograms (µg)] of SWCNTs in a variety of histological tissue specimens consisting of cancer and benign tissue biopsies (histological specimens from implanted tissue engineering scaffolds). Optical-resolution (OR) and acoustic-resolution (AR)--Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was employed to detect, map and quantify the SWCNTs in a variety of tissue histological specimens and compared with other optical techniques (bright-field optical microscopy, Raman microscopy, near infrared (NIR) fluorescence microscopy). Both optical-resolution and acoustic-resolution PAM, allow the detection and quantification of SWCNTs in histological specimens with scalable spatial resolution and depth penetration. The noise-equivalent detection sensitivity to SWCNTs in the specimens was calculated to be as low as ∼7 pg. Image processing analysis further allowed the mapping, distribution, and quantification of the SWCNTs in the histological sections. The results demonstrate the potential of PAM as a promising imaging technique to detect, map, and quantify SWCNTs in histological specimens, and could complement the capabilities of current optical and electron microscopy techniques in the analysis of histological specimens containing SWCNTs.

  20. Detection, mapping, and quantification of single walled carbon nanotubes in histological specimens with photoacoustic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod K Avti

    Full Text Available In the present study, the efficacy of multi-scale photoacoustic microscopy (PAM was investigated to detect, map, and quantify trace amounts [nanograms (ng to micrograms (µg] of SWCNTs in a variety of histological tissue specimens consisting of cancer and benign tissue biopsies (histological specimens from implanted tissue engineering scaffolds.Optical-resolution (OR and acoustic-resolution (AR--Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM was employed to detect, map and quantify the SWCNTs in a variety of tissue histological specimens and compared with other optical techniques (bright-field optical microscopy, Raman microscopy, near infrared (NIR fluorescence microscopy.Both optical-resolution and acoustic-resolution PAM, allow the detection and quantification of SWCNTs in histological specimens with scalable spatial resolution and depth penetration. The noise-equivalent detection sensitivity to SWCNTs in the specimens was calculated to be as low as ∼7 pg. Image processing analysis further allowed the mapping, distribution, and quantification of the SWCNTs in the histological sections.The results demonstrate the potential of PAM as a promising imaging technique to detect, map, and quantify SWCNTs in histological specimens, and could complement the capabilities of current optical and electron microscopy techniques in the analysis of histological specimens containing SWCNTs.

  1. Multimodal analysis of diamond crystals and layers using RISE microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Váňa, R.; Dluhoš, J.; Varga, Marián; Schmid, Ch.; Kromka, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, Aug (2017), s. 2280-2281 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15003 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond * RISE microscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  2. Three-dimensional fluorescent microscopy via simultaneous illumination and detection at multiple planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Khademhosseinieh, Bahar; Huang, Eric; Qian, Haoliang; Bakowski, Malina A; Troemel, Emily R; Liu, Zhaowei

    2016-08-16

    The conventional optical microscope is an inherently two-dimensional (2D) imaging tool. The objective lens, eyepiece and image sensor are all designed to capture light emitted from a 2D 'object plane'. Existing technologies, such as confocal or light sheet fluorescence microscopy have to utilize mechanical scanning, a time-multiplexing process, to capture a 3D image. In this paper, we present a 3D optical microscopy method based upon simultaneously illuminating and detecting multiple focal planes. This is implemented by adding two diffractive optical elements to modify the illumination and detection optics. We demonstrate that the image quality of this technique is comparable to conventional light sheet fluorescent microscopy with the advantage of the simultaneous imaging of multiple axial planes and reduced number of scans required to image the whole sample volume.

  3. Optical near-fields & nearfield optics

    OpenAIRE

    Meixner, Alfred J; Leiderer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Optical methods provide exceedingly powerful tools in science and technology for measuring, analyzing and manipulating, from optical microscopy and spectroscopy to the characterization of ultrafast processes by femtosecond pulses and the modification of materials by intense laser radiation. However, when it comes to applications in the nanometer-regime, the conventional optical techniques suffer from the resolution limit – formulated by Ernst Abbe one and a half centuries ago – that light can...

  4. Pupil-segmentation-based adaptive optics for microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Na; Milkie, Daniel E.; Betzig, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Inhomogeneous optical properties of biological samples make it difficult to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in depth. Correcting the sample-induced optical aberrations needs adaptive optics (AO). However, the direct wavefront-sensing approach commonly used in astronomy is not suitable for most biological samples due to their strong scattering of light. We developed an image-based AO approach that is insensitive to sample scattering. By comparing images of the sample taken with different segments of the pupil illuminated, local tilt in the wavefront is measured from image shift. The aberrated wavefront is then obtained either by measuring the local phase directly using interference or with phase reconstruction algorithms similar to those used in astronomical AO. We implemented this pupil-segmentation-based approach in a two-photon fluorescence microscope and demonstrated that diffraction-limited resolution can be recovered from nonbiological and biological samples.

  5. Sub?40?fs, 1060?nm Yb?fiber laser enhances penetration depth in nonlinear optical microscopy of human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Balu, Mihaela; Saytashev, Ilyas; Hou, Jue; Dantus, Marcos; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Advancing the practical utility of nonlinear optical microscopy requires continued improvement in imaging depth and contrast. We evaluated second-harmonic generation (SHG) and third-harmonic generation images from ex vivo human skin and showed that a sub-40 fs, 1060-nm Yb-fiber laser can enhance SHG penetration depth by up to 80% compared to a > 100 fs, 800 nm Ti:sapphire source. These results demonstrate the potential of fiber-based laser systems to address a key perform...

  6. Synthetic optical holography for rapid nanoimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, M; Carney, P S; Hillenbrand, R

    2014-03-20

    Holography has paved the way for phase imaging in a variety of wide-field techniques, including electron, X-ray and optical microscopy. In scanning optical microscopy, however, the serial fashion of image acquisition seems to challenge a direct implementation of traditional holography. Here we introduce synthetic optical holography (SOH) for quantitative phase-resolved imaging in scanning optical microscopy. It uniquely combines fast phase imaging, technical simplicity and simultaneous operation at visible and infrared frequencies with a single reference arm. We demonstrate SOH with a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) where it enables reliable quantitative phase-resolved near-field imaging with unprecedented speed. We apply these capabilities to nanoscale, non-invasive and rapid screening of grain boundaries in CVD-grown graphene, by recording 65 kilopixel near-field images in 26 s and 2.3 megapixel images in 13 min. Beyond s-SNOM, the SOH concept could boost the implementation of holography in other scanning imaging applications such as confocal microscopy.

  7. Tunable optical setup with high flexibility for spectrally resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, G; Akimov, D; Bartelt, H; Dietzek, B; Popp, J; Schlücker, S

    2011-01-01

    A simplified setup for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is introduced, which allows for recording CARS images with 30 cm -1 excitation bandwidth for probing Raman bands between 500 and 900 cm -1 with minimal requirements for alignment. The experimental arrangement is based on electronic switching between CARS images recorded at different Raman resonances by combining a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as broadband light source and an acousto-optical programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF) as tunable wavelength filter. Such spatial light modulator enables selection of a narrow-band spectrum to yield high vibrational contrast and hence chemical contrast in the resultant CARS images. Furthermore, an experimental approach to reconstruct spectral information from CARS image contrast is introduced

  8. Super-resolution optical microscopy for studying membrane structure and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Erdinc

    2017-07-12

    Investigation of cell membrane structure and dynamics requires high spatial and temporal resolution. The spatial resolution of conventional light microscopy is limited due to the diffraction of light. However, recent developments in microscopy enabled us to access the nano-scale regime spatially, thus to elucidate the nanoscopic structures in the cellular membranes. In this review, we will explain the resolution limit, address the working principles of the most commonly used super-resolution microscopy techniques and summarise their recent applications in the biomembrane field.

  9. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  10. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  11. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  12. Single myelin fiber imaging in living rodents without labeling by deep optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Arous, Juliette; Binding, Jonas; Léger, Jean-François; Casado, Mariano; Topilko, Piotr; Gigan, Sylvain; Claude Boccara, A.; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2011-11-01

    Myelin sheath disruption is responsible for multiple neuropathies in the central and peripheral nervous system. Myelin imaging has thus become an important diagnosis tool. However, in vivo imaging has been limited to either low-resolution techniques unable to resolve individual fibers or to low-penetration imaging of single fibers, which cannot provide quantitative information about large volumes of tissue, as required for diagnostic purposes. Here, we perform myelin imaging without labeling and at micron-scale resolution with >300-μm penetration depth on living rodents. This was achieved with a prototype [termed deep optical coherence microscopy (deep-OCM)] of a high-numerical aperture infrared full-field optical coherence microscope, which includes aberration correction for the compensation of refractive index mismatch and high-frame-rate interferometric measurements. We were able to measure the density of individual myelinated fibers in the rat cortex over a large volume of gray matter. In the peripheral nervous system, deep-OCM allows, after minor surgery, in situ imaging of single myelinated fibers over a large fraction of the sciatic nerve. This allows quantitative comparison of normal and Krox20 mutant mice, in which myelination in the peripheral nervous system is impaired. This opens promising perspectives for myelin chronic imaging in demyelinating diseases and for minimally invasive medical diagnosis.

  13. Single myelin fiber imaging in living rodents without labeling by deep optical coherence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Arous, Juliette; Binding, Jonas; Léger, Jean-François; Casado, Mariano; Topilko, Piotr; Gigan, Sylvain; Boccara, A Claude; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2011-11-01

    Myelin sheath disruption is responsible for multiple neuropathies in the central and peripheral nervous system. Myelin imaging has thus become an important diagnosis tool. However, in vivo imaging has been limited to either low-resolution techniques unable to resolve individual fibers or to low-penetration imaging of single fibers, which cannot provide quantitative information about large volumes of tissue, as required for diagnostic purposes. Here, we perform myelin imaging without labeling and at micron-scale resolution with >300-μm penetration depth on living rodents. This was achieved with a prototype [termed deep optical coherence microscopy (deep-OCM)] of a high-numerical aperture infrared full-field optical coherence microscope, which includes aberration correction for the compensation of refractive index mismatch and high-frame-rate interferometric measurements. We were able to measure the density of individual myelinated fibers in the rat cortex over a large volume of gray matter. In the peripheral nervous system, deep-OCM allows, after minor surgery, in situ imaging of single myelinated fibers over a large fraction of the sciatic nerve. This allows quantitative comparison of normal and Krox20 mutant mice, in which myelination in the peripheral nervous system is impaired. This opens promising perspectives for myelin chronic imaging in demyelinating diseases and for minimally invasive medical diagnosis.

  14. Towards non-invasive 3D hepatotoxicity assays with optical coherence phase microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leonard J.; Koulovasilopoulos, Andreas; Treskes, Philipp; Hayes, Peter C.; Plevris, John N.; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional tissue-engineered models are increasingly recognised as more physiologically-relevant than standard 2D cell culture for pre-clinical drug toxicity testing. However, many types of conventional toxicity assays are incompatible with dense 3D tissues. This study investigated the use of optical coherence phase microscopy (OCPM) as a novel approach to assess cell death in 3D tissue culture. For 3D micro-spheroid formation Human hepatic C3A cells were encapsulated in hyaluronic acid gels and cultured in 100μl MEME/10%FBS in 96-well plates. After spheroid formation the 3D liver constructs were exposed to acetaminophen on culture day 8. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in 3D cultures was evaluated using standard biochemical assays. An inverted OCPM in common path configuration was developed with a Callisto OCT engine (Thorlabs), centred at 930nm and a custom scanning head. Intensity data were used to perform in-depth microstructural imaging. In addition, phase fluctuations were measured by collecting several successive B scans at the same location, and statistics on the first time derivative of the phase, i.e. time fluctuations, were analysed over the acquisition time interval to retrieve overall cell viability. OCPM intensity (cell cluster size) and phase fluctuation statistics were directly compared with biochemical assays. In this study, we investigated optical coherence phase tomography to assess cell death in a 3d liver model after exposure to a prototypical hepatotoxin, acetaminophen. We showed that OCPM has the potential to assess noninvasively and label-free drug toxicity in 3D tissue models.

  15. Laboratory soft x-ray microscopy and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertilson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Soft x-ray microscopy in the water-window (λ = 2.28 nm - 4.36 nm) is based on zone-plate optics and allows high-resolution imaging of, e.g., cells and soils in their natural or near-natural environment. Three-dimensional imaging is provided via tomographic techniques, soft x-ray cryo tomography. However, soft x-ray microscopes with such capabilities have been based on large-scale synchrotron x-ray facilities, thereby limiting their accessibility for a wider scientific community. This Thesis describes the development of the Stockholm laboratory soft x-ray microscope to three-dimensional cryo tomography and to new optics-based contrast mechanisms. The microscope relies on a methanol or nitrogen liquid-jet laser-plasma source, normal-incidence multilayer or zone-plate condenser optics, in-house fabricated zone-plate objectives, and allows operation at two wavelengths in the water-window, λ = 2.48 nm and λ = 2.48 nm. With the implementation of a new state-of-the-art normal-incidence multilayer condenser for operation at λ = 2.48 nm and a tiltable cryogenic sample stage the microscope now allows imaging of dry, wet or cryo-fixed samples. This arrangement was used for the first demonstration of laboratory soft x-ray cryo microscopy and tomography. The performance of the microscope has been demonstrated in a number of experiments described in this Thesis, including, tomographic imaging with a resolution of 140 nm, cryo microscopy and tomography of various cells and parasites, and for studies of aqueous soils and clays. The Thesis also describes the development and implementation of single-element differential-interference and Zernike phase-contrast zone-plate objectives. The enhanced contrast provided by these optics reduce exposure times or lowers the dose in samples and are of major importance for harder x-ray microscopy. The implementation of a high-resolution 50 nm compound zone-plate objective for sub-25-nm resolution imaging is also described. All experiments

  16. Actin restructuring during Salmonella typhimurium infection investigated by confocal and super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jason J.; Kunde, Yuliya A.; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Werner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    We have used super-resolution optical microscopy and confocal microscopy to visualize the cytoskeletal restructuring of HeLa cells that accompanies and enables Salmonella typhimurium internalization. Herein, we report the use of confocal microscopy to verify and explore infection conditions that would be compatible with super-resolution optical microscopy, using Alexa-488 labeled phalloidin to stain the actin cytoskeletal network. While it is well known that actin restructuring and cytoskeletal rearrangements often accompany and assist in bacterial infection, most studies have employed conventional diffraction-limited fluorescence microscopy to explore these changes. Here we show that the superior spatial resolution provided by single-molecule localization methods (such as direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) enables more precise visualization of the nanoscale changes in the actin cytoskeleton that accompany bacterial infection. In particular, we found that a thin (100-nm) ring of actin often surrounds an invading bacteria 10 to 20 min postinfection, with this ring being transitory in nature. We estimate that a few hundred monofilaments of actin surround the S. typhimurium in this heretofore unreported bacterial internalization intermediate.

  17. Local Delivery of Fluorescent Dye For Fiber-Optics Confocal Microscopy of the Living Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eHuang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-optics confocal microscopy (FCM is an emerging imaging technology with various applications in basic research and clinical diagnosis. FCM allows for real-time in situ microscopy of tissue at sub-cellular scale. Recently FCM has been investigated for cardiac imaging, in particular, for discrimination of cardiac tissue during pediatric open-heart surgery. FCM relies on fluorescent dyes. The current clinical approach of dye delivery is based on systemic injection, which is associated with high dye consumption and adverse clinical events. In this study, we investigated approaches for local dye delivery during FCM imaging based on dye carriers attached to the imaging probe. Using three-dimensional confocal microscopy, automated bench tests, and FCM imaging we quantitatively characterized dye release of carriers composed of open-pore foam only and foam loaded with agarose hydrogel. In addition, we compared local dye delivery with a model of systemic dye delivery in the isolated perfused rodent heart. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio of images acquired in various regions of the heart. Our evaluations showed that foam-agarose dye carriers exhibited a prolonged dye release versus foam-only carriers. Foam-agarose dye carriers allowed reliable imaging of 5-9 lines, which is comparable to 4-8 min of continuous dye release. Our study in the living heart revealed that the SNR of FCM images using local and systemic dye delivery is not different. However, we observed differences in the imaged tissue microstructure with the two approaches. Structural features characteristic of microvasculature were solely observed for systemic dye delivery. Our findings suggest that local dye delivery approach for FCM imaging constitutes an important alternative to systemic dye delivery. We suggest that the approach for local dye delivery will facilitate clinical translation of FCM, for instance, for FCM imaging during pediatric heart surgery.

  18. Local delivery of fluorescent dye for fiber-optics confocal microscopy of the living heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Kaza, Aditya K; Hitchcock, Robert W; Sachse, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-optics confocal microscopy (FCM) is an emerging imaging technology with various applications in basic research and clinical diagnosis. FCM allows for real-time in situ microscopy of tissue at sub-cellular scale. Recently FCM has been investigated for cardiac imaging, in particular, for discrimination of cardiac tissue during pediatric open-heart surgery. FCM relies on fluorescent dyes. The current clinical approach of dye delivery is based on systemic injection, which is associated with high dye consumption, and adverse clinical events. In this study, we investigated approaches for local dye delivery during FCM imaging based on dye carriers attached to the imaging probe. Using three-dimensional confocal microscopy, automated bench tests, and FCM imaging we quantitatively characterized dye release of carriers composed of open-pore foam only and foam loaded with agarose hydrogel. In addition, we compared local dye delivery with a model of systemic dye delivery in the isolated perfused rodent heart. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of images acquired in various regions of the heart. Our evaluations showed that foam-agarose dye carriers exhibited a prolonged dye release vs. foam-only carriers. Foam-agarose dye carriers allowed reliable imaging of 5-9 lines, which is comparable to 4-8 min of continuous dye release. Our study in the living heart revealed that the SNR of FCM images using local and systemic dye delivery is not different. However, we observed differences in the imaged tissue microstructure with the two approaches. Structural features characteristic of microvasculature were solely observed for systemic dye delivery. Our findings suggest that local dye delivery approach for FCM imaging constitutes an important alternative to systemic dye delivery. We suggest that the approach for local dye delivery will facilitate clinical translation of FCM, for instance, for FCM imaging during pediatric heart surgery.

  19. Optical characterication of probes for photon scanning tunnelling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Brian; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    The photon scanning tunnelling microscope is a well-established member of the family of scanning near-field optical microscopes used for optical imaging at the sub-wavelength scale. The quality of the probes, typically pointed uncoated optical fibres, used is however difficult to evaluate...

  20. Image correction in magneto-optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Larsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    An image-processing procedure that assures correct determination of the magnetic field distribution of magneto-optical images is presented. The method remedies image faults resulting from sources that are proportional to the incident light intensity, such as different types of defects...

  1. Characterization of konjac glucomannan-ethyl cellulose film formation via microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Wan, Li; Corke, Harold; Yan, Wenli; Ni, Xuewen; Fang, Yapeng; Jiang, Fatang

    2016-04-01

    Konjac glucomannan-ethyl cellulose (KGM-EC, 7:3, w/w) blended film shows good mechanical and moisture resistance properties. To better understand the basis for the KGM-EC film formation, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to observe the formation of the film from emulsion. Optical microscopy images showed that EC oil droplets were homogeneously dispersed in KGM water phase without obviously coalescence throughout the entire drying process. SEM images showed the surface and cross-sectional structures of samples maintained continuous and homogeneous appearance from the emulsion to dried film. AFM images indicated that KGM molecules entangled EC molecules in the emulsion. Interactions between KGM and EC improved the stability of KGM-EC emulsion, and contributed to uniformed structures of film formation. Based on these output information, a schematic model was built to elucidate KGM-EC film-forming process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Light depolarization induced by metallic tips in apertureless near-field optical microscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gucciardi, P G [CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, sezione Messina, Salita Sperone, Contrada Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore, Messina (Italy); Lopes, M; Deturche, R; Julien, C; Barchiesi, D; Chapelle, M Lamy de la [Institut Charles Delaunay-CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2008-05-28

    We have investigated the depolarization effects of light scattered by sharp tips used for apertureless near-field optical microscopy. Dielectric and metal coated tips have been investigated and depolarization factors between 5 and 30% have been measured, changing as a function of the incident light polarization and of the tip shape. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations performed by the finite element method, giving a near-field depolarization factor close to 10%. The effect of depolarization has been investigated in polarized tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) experiments; the depolarization gives rise to forbidden Raman modes in Si crystals.

  3. Hybrid confocal Raman fluorescence microscopy on single cells using semiconductor quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, H.J.; Otto, Cornelis

    2007-01-01

    We have overcome the traditional incompatibility of Raman microscopy with fluorescence microscopy by exploiting the optical properties of semiconductor fluorescent quantum dots (QDs). Here we present a hybrid Raman fluorescence spectral imaging approach for single-cell microscopy applications. We

  4. Nonlinear Polarimetric Microscopy for Biomedical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samim, Masood

    A framework for the nonlinear optical polarimetry and polarimetric microscopy is developed. Mathematical equations are derived in terms of linear and nonlinear Stokes Mueller formalism, which comprehensively characterize the polarization properties of the incoming and outgoing radiations, and provide structural information about the organization of the investigated materials. The algebraic formalism developed in this thesis simplifies many predictions for a nonlinear polarimetry study and provides an intuitive understanding of various polarization properties for radiations and the intervening medium. For polarimetric microscopy experiments, a custom fast-scanning differential polarization microscope is developed, which is also capable of real-time three-dimensional imaging. The setup is equipped with a pair of high-speed resonant and galvanometric scanning mirrors, and supplemented by advanced adaptive optics and data acquisition modules. The scanning mirrors when combined with the adaptive optics deformable mirror enable fast 3D imaging. Deformable membrane mirrors and genetic algorithm optimization routines are employed to improve the imaging conditions including correcting the optical aberrations, maximizing signal intensities, and minimizing point-spread-functions of the focal volume. A field-programmable-gate array (FPGA) chip is exploited to rapidly acquire and process the multidimensional data. Using the nonlinear optical polarimetry framework and the home-built polarization microscope, a few biologically important tissues are measured and analyzed to gain insight as to their structure and dynamics. The structure and distribution of muscle sarcomere myosins, connective tissue collagen, carbohydrate-rich starch, and fruit fly eye retinal molecules are characterized with revealing polarization studies. In each case, using the theoretical framework, polarization sensitive data are analyzed to decipher the molecular orientations and nonlinear optical

  5. Super-resolution Microscopy in Plant Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Šamaj, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    Although the development of super-resolution microscopy methods dates back to 1994, relevant applications in plant cell imaging only started to emerge in 2010. Since then, the principal super-resolution methods, including structured-illumination microscopy (SIM), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), and stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED), have been implemented in plant cell research. However, progress has been limited due to the challenging properties of plant material. Here we summarize the basic principles of existing super-resolution methods and provide examples of applications in plant science. The limitations imposed by the nature of plant material are reviewed and the potential for future applications in plant cell imaging is highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping the Landscape of Domain-Wall Pinning in Ferromagnetic Films Using Differential Magneto-Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Robert; Berezovsky, Jesse

    2016-06-01

    The propagation of domain walls in a ferromagnetic film is largely determined by domain-wall pinning at defects in the material. In this article, we map the effective potential landscape for domain-wall pinning in permalloy films by raster scanning a single ferromagnetic vortex and monitoring the hysteretic vortex displacement vs applied magnetic field. The measurement is carried out using a differential magneto-optical microscopy technique which yields spatial sensitivity of approximately 10 nm. We present a simple algorithm for extracting an effective pinning potential from the measurement of vortex displacement vs applied field. The resulting maps of the pinning potential reveal distinct types of pinning sites, which we attribute to quasi-zero-, one-, and two-dimensional defects in the permalloy film.

  7. Validating Intravascular Imaging with Serial Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Pier-Luc; Bertrand, Marie-Jeanne; Abran, Maxime; Castonguay, Alexandre; Lefebvre, Joël; Stähli, Barbara E; Merlet, Nolwenn; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Geoffroy, Pascale; Mecteau, Mélanie; Busseuil, David; Ni, Feng; Abulrob, Abedelnasser; Rhéaume, Éric; L'Allier, Philippe; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Lesage, Frédéric

    2016-12-15

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are characterized by the formation of a plaque in the arterial wall. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides high-resolution images allowing delineation of atherosclerotic plaques. When combined with near infrared fluorescence (NIRF), the plaque can also be studied at a molecular level with a large variety of biomarkers. In this work, we present a system enabling automated volumetric histology imaging of excised aortas that can spatially correlate results with combined IVUS/NIRF imaging of lipid-rich atheroma in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Pullbacks in the rabbit aortas were performed with a dual modality IVUS/NIRF catheter developed by our group. Ex vivo three-dimensional (3D) histology was performed combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal fluorescence microscopy, providing high-resolution anatomical and molecular information, respectively, to validate in vivo findings. The microscope was combined with a serial slicer allowing for the imaging of the whole vessel automatically. Colocalization of in vivo and ex vivo results is demonstrated. Slices can then be recovered to be tested in conventional histology.

  8. Three-dimensional simultaneous optical coherence tomography and confocal fluorescence microscopy for investigation of lung tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Maria; Cimalla, Peter; Meissner, Sven; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Koch, Edmund

    2012-07-01

    Although several strategies exist for a minimal-invasive treatment of patients with lung failure, the mortality rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome still reaches 30% at minimum. This striking number indicates the necessity of understanding lung dynamics on an alveolar level. To investigate the dynamical behavior on a microscale, we used three-dimensional geometrical and functional imaging to observe tissue parameters including alveolar size and length of embedded elastic fibers during ventilation. We established a combined optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal fluorescence microscopy system that is able to monitor the distension of alveolar tissue and elastin fibers simultaneously within three dimensions. The OCT system can laterally resolve a 4.9 μm line pair feature and has an approximately 11 μm full-width-half-maximum axial resolution in air. confocal fluorescence microscopy visualizes molecular properties of the tissue with a resolution of 0.75 μm (laterally), and 5.9 μm (axially) via fluorescence detection of the dye sulforhodamine B specifically binding to elastin. For system evaluation, we used a mouse model in situ to perform lung distension by application of different constant pressure values within the physiological regime. Our method enables the investigation of alveolar dynamics by helping to reveal basic processes emerging during artificial ventilation and breathing.

  9. Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibres and waveguides: a quantitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, S.T.; Mulvaney, P.; Roberts, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    The use of preferential etching and atomic force microscopy to measure refractive index profiles of optical fibres is investigated. Both the etch rate and the position of lateral features are shown to be independent of etch time. An elliptical core fibre has been studied and the resultant profile found to be in qualitative agreement with the preform index profile. It is shown, however, that the ellipticity of the core has changed during the drawing process. The method has been extended to fluorine and germanium doped planar waveguides and the results correlated with the fabrication process

  10. A study of internal oxidation in carburized steels by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    An, X; Rainforth, W M; Chen, L

    2003-01-01

    The internal oxidation of Cr-Mn carburizing steel was studied. Internal oxidation was induced using a commercial carburizing process. Sputter erosion coupled with glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) was used to determine the depth profile elemental distribution within the internal oxidation layer (<10 mu m). In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) studies were carried out on selected sputter eroded surfaces. Oxide type was identified primarily by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The carburized surface was found to consist of a continuous oxide layer, followed by a complex internal oxidation layer, where Cr and Mn oxides were found to populate grain boundaries in a globular form in the near surface region. At greater depths (5-10 mu m), Si oxides formed as a grain boundary network. The internal oxides (mainly complex oxides) grew quickly during the initial stages of the carburizing process (2 h, 800 deg. C+3 h, 930 deg. C). G...

  11. How Hedstrom files fail during clinical use? A retrieval study based on SEM, optical microscopy and micro-XCT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinelis, Spiros; Al Jabbari, Youssef S

    2018-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the failure mechanism of clinically failed Hedstrom (H)-files. Discarded H-files (n=160) from #8 to #40 ISO sizes were collected from different dental clinics. Retrieved files were classified according to their macroscopic appearance and they were investigated under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray micro-computed tomography (mXCT). Then the files were embedded in resin along their longitudinal axis and after metallographic grinding and polishing, studied under an incident light microscope. The macroscopic evaluation showed that small ISO sizes (#08-#15) failed by extensive plastic deformation, while larger sizes (≥#20) tended to fracture. Light microscopy and mXCT results coincided showing that unused and plastically deformed files were free of internal defects, while fractured files demonstrate the presence of intense cracking in the flute region. SEM analysis revealed the presence of striations attributed to the fatigue mechanism. Secondary cracks were also identified by optical microscopy and their distribution was correlated to fatigue under bending loading. Experimental results demonstrated that while overloading of cutting instruments is the predominating failure mechanism of small file sizes (#08-#15), fatigue should be considered the fracture mechanism for larger sizes (≥#20).

  12. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  13. Label-free imaging of developing vasculature in zebrafish with phase variance optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Fingler, Jeff; Trinh, Le A.; Fraser, Scott E.

    2016-03-01

    A phase variance optical coherence microscope (pvOCM) has been created to visualize blood flow in the vasculature of zebrafish embryos, without using exogenous labels. The pvOCM imaging system has axial and lateral resolutions of 2 μm in tissue, and imaging depth of more than 100 μm. Imaging of 2-5 days post-fertilization zebrafish embryos identified the detailed structures of somites, spinal cord, gut and notochord based on intensity contrast. Visualization of the blood flow in the aorta, veins and intersegmental vessels was achieved with phase variance contrast. The pvOCM vasculature images were confirmed with corresponding fluorescence microscopy of a zebrafish transgene that labels the vasculature with green fluorescent protein. The pvOCM images also revealed functional information of the blood flow activities that is crucial for the study of vascular development.

  14. Rigorous numerical modeling of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinzhong; Lo, Chiu Fan Bowen; Zheng, William; Hu, Hai; Dai, Qing; Liu, Mengkun

    2017-11-01

    Over the last decade, scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy have been widely used in nano-photonics and material research due to their fine spatial resolution and broad spectral range. A number of simplified analytical models have been proposed to quantitatively understand the tip-scattered near-field signal. However, a rigorous interpretation of the experimental results is still lacking at this stage. Numerical modelings, on the other hand, are mostly done by simulating the local electric field slightly above the sample surface, which only qualitatively represents the near-field signal rendered by the tip-sample interaction. In this work, we performed a more comprehensive numerical simulation which is based on realistic experimental parameters and signal extraction procedures. By directly comparing to the experiments as well as other simulation efforts, our methods offer a more accurate quantitative description of the near-field signal, paving the way for future studies of complex systems at the nanoscale.

  15. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, B.; Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Pedersen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Second-harmonic (SH) optical imaging of self-assembled InAlGaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown on a GaAs(0 0 1) substrate has been accomplished at room temperature by use of respectively a scanning far-field optical microscope in reflection mode and a scanning near-field optical microscope...... in transmission mode. In both cases the SH signal peaks at a pump wavelength of similar to 885 nm in correspondence to the maximum in the photoluminescence spectrum of the QD sample. SH near-field optical images exhibit spatial signal variations on a subwavelength scale that depend on the pump wavelength. We...

  16. Characterization of power induced heating and damage in fiber optic probes for near-field scanning optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Erickson, Elizabeth S.; Mooren, Olivia L.; Dunn, Robert C.

    2007-05-01

    Tip-induced sample heating in near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is studied for fiber optic probes fabricated using the chemical etching technique. To characterize sample heating from etched NSOM probes, the spectra of a thermochromic polymer sample are measured as a function of probe output power, as was previously reported for pulled NSOM probes. The results reveal that sample heating increases rapidly to ˜55-60°C as output powers reach ˜50nW. At higher output powers, the sample heating remains approximately constant up to the maximum power studied of ˜450nW. The sample heating profiles measured for etched NSOM probes are consistent with those previously measured for NSOM probes fabricated using the pulling method. At high powers, both pulled and etched NSOM probes fail as the aluminum coating is damaged. For probes fabricated in our laboratory we find failure occurring at input powers of 3.4±1.7 and 20.7±6.9mW for pulled and etched probes, respectively. The larger half-cone angle for etched probes (˜15° for etched and ˜6° for pulled probes) enables more light delivery and also apparently leads to a different failure mechanism. For pulled NSOM probes, high resolution images of NSOM probes as power is increased reveal the development of stress fractures in the coating at a taper diameter of ˜6μm. These stress fractures, arising from the differential heating expansion of the dielectric and the metal coating, eventually lead to coating removal and probe failure. For etched tips, the absence of clear stress fractures and the pooled morphology of the damaged aluminum coating following failure suggest that thermal damage may cause coating failure, although other mechanisms cannot be ruled out.

  17. Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G; Graf, Benedikt W; Ahmad, Adeel; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2012-05-08

    Aberrations in optical microscopy reduce image resolution and contrast, and can limit imaging depth when focusing into biological samples. Static correction of aberrations may be achieved through appropriate lens design, but this approach does not offer the flexibility of simultaneously correcting aberrations for all imaging depths, nor the adaptability to correct for sample-specific aberrations for high-quality tomographic optical imaging. Incorporation of adaptive optics (AO) methods have demonstrated considerable improvement in optical image contrast and resolution in noninterferometric microscopy techniques, as well as in optical coherence tomography. Here we present a method to correct aberrations in a tomogram rather than the beam of a broadband optical interferometry system. Based on Fourier optics principles, we correct aberrations of a virtual pupil using Zernike polynomials. When used in conjunction with the computed imaging method interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy, this computational AO enables object reconstruction (within the single scattering limit) with ideal focal-plane resolution at all depths. Tomographic reconstructions of tissue phantoms containing subresolution titanium-dioxide particles and of ex vivo rat lung tissue demonstrate aberration correction in datasets acquired with a highly astigmatic illumination beam. These results also demonstrate that imaging with an aberrated astigmatic beam provides the advantage of a more uniform depth-dependent signal compared to imaging with a standard gaussian beam. With further work, computational AO could enable the replacement of complicated and expensive optical hardware components with algorithms implemented on a standard desktop computer, making high-resolution 3D interferometric tomography accessible to a wider group of users and nonspecialists.

  18. Exploring neural cell dynamics with digital holographic microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarize how the new concept of digital optics applied to the field of holographic microscopy has allowed the development of a reliable and flexible digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy (DH-QPM) technique at the nanoscale particularly suitable for cell imaging. Particular emphasis is placed on the original biological ormation provided by the quantitative phase signal. We present the most relevant DH-QPM applications in the field of cell biology, including automated cell counts, recognition, classification, three-dimensional tracking, discrimination between physiological and pathophysiological states, and the study of cell membrane fluctuations at the nanoscale. In the last part, original results show how DH-QPM can address two important issues in the field of neurobiology, namely, multiple-site optical recording of neuronal activity and noninvasive visualization of dendritic spine dynamics resulting from a full digital holographic microscopy tomographic approach. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews.

  19. Exploring neural cell dynamics with digital holographic microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2013-07-11

    In this review, we summarize how the new concept of digital optics applied to the field of holographic microscopy has allowed the development of a reliable and flexible digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy (DH-QPM) technique at the nanoscale particularly suitable for cell imaging. Particular emphasis is placed on the original biological ormation provided by the quantitative phase signal. We present the most relevant DH-QPM applications in the field of cell biology, including automated cell counts, recognition, classification, three-dimensional tracking, discrimination between physiological and pathophysiological states, and the study of cell membrane fluctuations at the nanoscale. In the last part, original results show how DH-QPM can address two important issues in the field of neurobiology, namely, multiple-site optical recording of neuronal activity and noninvasive visualization of dendritic spine dynamics resulting from a full digital holographic microscopy tomographic approach. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews.

  20. Ultra-precise measurement of optical aberrations for sub-Aangstroem transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, J.

    2008-06-15

    Quantitative investigations of material structures on an atomic scale by means of highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) impose not only extreme demands on the mechanic and electromagnetic stability of the applied instruments but require also their precise electron-optical adjustment. Today a physical resolution well below one Aangstroem can be achieved with commercially available microscopes on a daily basis. However, the achieved resolution can often not be reliably exploited for the interpretation of the resulting microscopical data due to the presence of so-called higher-order lens aberrations. At the starting time of this work, a sufficiently accurate procedure to measure higher-order aberrations was urgently missing. Since aberration measurement is a mandatory prerequisite for any technique of aberration control enabling quantitative high-resolution microscopy, the goal of this work is to develop such a measurement procedure for the Sub-Aangstroem regime. The measurement procedures developed in the course of this work are based on the numerical evaluation of a series of images taken from an amorphous object under electron-beam illumination with varying tilt. New techniques have been developed for the evaluation of single images as well as for the optimised evaluation of the whole series. These procedures allow microscope users to perform quantitative HRTEM even at a resolution of 0.5 Aangstroem. The precision reached with the newly developed measurement procedures is unprecedented and surpasses existing solutions by at least one order of magnitude in any respect. All the concepts and procedures for aberration measurement developed in this work have been implemented in a software package which satisfies professional demands with respect to robustness, precision, speed and user-friendliness. The new automatic aberrationmeasurement procedures are suitable to establish HRTEM as a quantitative technique for material science investigations in the

  1. Ultra-precise measurement of optical aberrations for sub-Aangstroem transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, J.

    2008-06-01

    Quantitative investigations of material structures on an atomic scale by means of highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) impose not only extreme demands on the mechanic and electromagnetic stability of the applied instruments but require also their precise electron-optical adjustment. Today a physical resolution well below one Aangstroem can be achieved with commercially available microscopes on a daily basis. However, the achieved resolution can often not be reliably exploited for the interpretation of the resulting microscopical data due to the presence of so-called higher-order lens aberrations. At the starting time of this work, a sufficiently accurate procedure to measure higher-order aberrations was urgently missing. Since aberration measurement is a mandatory prerequisite for any technique of aberration control enabling quantitative high-resolution microscopy, the goal of this work is to develop such a measurement procedure for the Sub-Aangstroem regime. The measurement procedures developed in the course of this work are based on the numerical evaluation of a series of images taken from an amorphous object under electron-beam illumination with varying tilt. New techniques have been developed for the evaluation of single images as well as for the optimised evaluation of the whole series. These procedures allow microscope users to perform quantitative HRTEM even at a resolution of 0.5 Aangstroem. The precision reached with the newly developed measurement procedures is unprecedented and surpasses existing solutions by at least one order of magnitude in any respect. All the concepts and procedures for aberration measurement developed in this work have been implemented in a software package which satisfies professional demands with respect to robustness, precision, speed and user-friendliness. The new automatic aberrationmeasurement procedures are suitable to establish HRTEM as a quantitative technique for material science investigations in the

  2. Hybrid of two-photon microscopy and optical multimodality imaging for multi-scale imaging of small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianmeng; Hui, Hui; Ma, He; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Non-invasive imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical multimodality imaging methods, are commonly used for diagnosing and supervising the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These in vivo imaging methods can provide morphology changes information of IBD in macro-scale. However, it is difficult to investigate the intestinal wall in molecular and cellular level. State-of-art light-sheet and two-photon microscopy have the ability to acquire the changes for IBD in micro-scale. The aim of this work is to evaluate the size of the enterocoel and the thickness of colon wall using both MRI for in vivo imaging, and light-sheet and two-photon microscope for in vitro imaging. C57BL/6 mice were received 3.5% Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water for 5 days to build IBD model. Mice were imaged with MRI on days 0, 6 to observe colitis progression. After MRI imaging, the mice were sacrificed to take colons for tissue clearing. Then, light-sheet and two-photon microscopies are used for in vitro imaging of the cleared samples. The experimental group showed symptoms of bloody stools, sluggishness and weight loss. It showed that the colon wall was thicker while the enterocoel was narrower compare to control group. The more details are observed using light-sheet and two-photon microscope. It is demonstrated that hybrid of MRI in macro-scale and light-sheet and two-photon microscopy in micro-scale imaging is feasible for colon inflammation diagnosing and supervising.

  3. Microscopy techniques in flavivirus research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mun Keat; Chua, Anthony Jin Shun; Tan, Terence Tze Tong; Tan, Suat Hoon; Ng, Mah Lee

    2014-04-01

    The Flavivirus genus is composed of many medically important viruses that cause high morbidity and mortality, which include Dengue and West Nile viruses. Various molecular and biochemical techniques have been developed in the endeavour to study flaviviruses. However, microscopy techniques still have irreplaceable roles in the identification of novel virus pathogens and characterization of morphological changes in virus-infected cells. Fluorescence microscopy contributes greatly in understanding the fundamental viral protein localizations and virus-host protein interactions during infection. Electron microscopy remains the gold standard for visualizing ultra-structural features of virus particles and infected cells. New imaging techniques and combinatory applications are continuously being developed to push the limit of resolution and extract more quantitative data. Currently, correlative live cell imaging and high resolution three-dimensional imaging have already been achieved through the tandem use of optical and electron microscopy in analyzing biological specimens. Microscopy techniques are also used to measure protein binding affinities and determine the mobility pattern of proteins in cells. This chapter will consolidate on the applications of various well-established microscopy techniques in flavivirus research, and discuss how recently developed microscopy techniques can potentially help advance our understanding in these membrane viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Statistical validation of individual fibre segmentation from tomograms and microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Conradsen, Knut

    2018-01-01

    at different resolutions to optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), where we characterise fibres by their diameters and positions. In addition to comparing individual fibre diameters, we also model their spatial distribution, and compare the obtained model parameters. Our study shows...

  5. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin I; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-10-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, an imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. In this paper, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of a commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (SNARF-5F carboxylic acid) in tissue phantoms. We demonstrated that PAM is capable of pH imaging in absolute values at tissue depths of up to 2.0 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  6. Superresolution Microscopy of the Nuclear Envelope and Associated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Horn, Henning F; Wright, Graham D

    2016-01-01

    Superresolution microscopy is undoubtedly one of the most exciting technologies since the invention of the optical microscope. Capable of nanometer-scale resolution to surpass the diffraction limit and coupled with the versatile labeling techniques available, it is revolutionizing the study of cell biology. Our understanding of the nucleus, the genetic and architectural center of the cell, has gained great advancements through the application of various superresolution microscopy techniques. This chapter describes detailed procedures of multichannel superresolution imaging of the mammalian nucleus, using structured illumination microscopy and single-molecule localization microscopy.

  7. Developing a New Biophysical Tool to Combine Magneto-Optical Tweezers with Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaokun Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel experimental setup in which magnetic and optical tweezers are combined for torque and force transduction onto single filamentous molecules in a transverse configuration to allow simultaneous mechanical measurement and manipulation. Previously we have developed a super-resolution imaging module which, in conjunction with advanced imaging techniques such as Blinking assisted Localisation Microscopy (BaLM, achieves localisation precision of single fluorescent dye molecules bound to DNA of ~30 nm along the contour of the molecule; our work here describes developments in producing a system which combines tweezing and super-resolution fluorescence imaging. The instrument also features an acousto-optic deflector that temporally divides the laser beam to form multiple traps for high throughput statistics collection. Our motivation for developing the new tool is to enable direct observation of detailed molecular topological transformation and protein binding event localisation in a stretching/twisting mechanical assay that previously could hitherto only be deduced indirectly from the end-to-end length variation of DNA. Our approach is simple and robust enough for reproduction in the lab without the requirement of precise hardware engineering, yet is capable of unveiling the elastic and dynamic properties of filamentous molecules that have been hidden using traditional tools.

  8. Digital Fourier microscopy for soft matter dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giavazzi, Fabio; Cerbino, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Soft matter is studied with a large portfolio of methods. Light scattering and video microscopy are the most employed at optical wavelengths. Light scattering provides ensemble-averaged information on soft matter in the reciprocal space. The wave-vectors probed correspond to length scales ranging from a few nanometers to fractions of millimetre. Microscopy probes the sample directly in the real space, by offering a unique access to the local properties. However, optical resolution issues limit the access to length scales smaller than approximately 200 nm. We describe recent work that bridges the gap between scattering and microscopy. Several apparently unrelated techniques are found to share a simple basic idea: the correlation properties of the sample can be characterized in the reciprocal space via spatial Fourier analysis of images collected in the real space. We describe the main features of such digital Fourier microscopy (DFM), by providing examples of several possible experimental implementations of it, some of which not yet realized in practice. We also provide an overview of experimental results obtained with DFM for the study of the dynamics of soft materials. Finally, we outline possible future developments of DFM that would ease its adoption as a standard laboratory method. (topical review)

  9. Biological applications of novel nonlinear optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiyama, Shin'ichiro; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Fukui, Kiichi

    2010-01-01

    Two types of newly developed nonlinear optical microscopes namely stimulated parametric emission (SPE) microscope and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope were presented together with their biological applications.

  10. Three-dimensional motion-picture imaging of dynamic object by parallel-phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy using an inverted magnification optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takahito; Shinomura, Masato; Xia, Peng; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Matoba, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    We constructed a parallel-phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy (PPSDHM) system using an inverted magnification optical system, and succeeded in three-dimensional (3D) motion-picture imaging for 3D displacement of a microscopic object. In the PPSDHM system, the inverted and afocal magnification optical system consisted of a microscope objective (16.56 mm focal length and 0.25 numerical aperture) and a convex lens (300 mm focal length and 82 mm aperture diameter). A polarization-imaging camera was used to record multiple phase-shifted holograms with a single-shot exposure. We recorded an alum crystal, sinking down in aqueous solution of alum, by the constructed PPSDHM system at 60 frames/s for about 20 s and reconstructed high-quality 3D motion-picture image of the crystal. Then, we calculated amounts of displacement of the crystal from the amounts in the focus plane and the magnifications of the magnification optical system, and obtained the 3D trajectory of the crystal by that amounts.

  11. Towards automated segmentation of cells and cell nuclei in nonlinear optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medyukhina, Anna; Meyer, Tobias; Schmitt, Michael; Romeike, Bernd F M; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging techniques based e.g. on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) or two photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) show great potential for biomedical imaging. In order to facilitate the diagnostic process based on NLO imaging, there is need for an automated calculation of quantitative values such as cell density, nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, average nuclear size. Extraction of these parameters is helpful for the histological assessment in general and specifically e.g. for the determination of tumor grades. This requires an accurate image segmentation and detection of locations and boundaries of cells and nuclei. Here we present an image processing approach for the detection of nuclei and cells in co-registered TPEF and CARS images. The algorithm developed utilizes the gray-scale information for the detection of the nuclei locations and the gradient information for the delineation of the nuclear and cellular boundaries. The approach reported is capable for an automated segmentation of cells and nuclei in multimodal TPEF-CARS images of human brain tumor samples. The results are important for the development of NLO microscopy into a clinically relevant diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Determination of pigments in colour layers on walls of some selected historical buildings using optical and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skapin, A. Sever; Ropret, P.; Bukovec, P.

    2007-01-01

    For successful restoration of painted walls and painted coloured finishing coats it is necessary to determine the composition of the original colour layers. Identification of the pigments used in The Cistercian Abbey of Sticna and The Manor of Novo Celje was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples of wall paintings were inspected by the combined application of an optical microscope and a low-vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope to determine their colour and structural features and to identify the position of individual pigment grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine the elemental distribution on selected surfaces and elemental composition of individual pigments. It was found that the most abundantly used pigments were iron oxide red, cinnabar, green earth, umber, calcium carbonate white, ultramarine, yellow ochre and carbon black. These identifications have allowed us to compare the use of various pigments in buildings from different historical periods

  13. Ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy for deep super-resolution vascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Claudia; Pierre, Juliette; Pezet, Sophie; Desailly, Yann; Lenkei, Zsolt; Couture, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive imaging deep into organs at microscopic scales remains an open quest in biomedical imaging. Although optical microscopy is still limited to surface imaging owing to optical wave diffusion and fast decorrelation in tissue, revolutionary approaches such as fluorescence photo-activated localization microscopy led to a striking increase in resolution by more than an order of magnitude in the last decade. In contrast with optics, ultrasonic waves propagate deep into organs without losing their coherence and are much less affected by in vivo decorrelation processes. However, their resolution is impeded by the fundamental limits of diffraction, which impose a long-standing trade-off between resolution and penetration. This limits clinical and preclinical ultrasound imaging to a sub-millimetre scale. Here we demonstrate in vivo that ultrasound imaging at ultrafast frame rates (more than 500 frames per second) provides an analogue to optical localization microscopy by capturing the transient signal decorrelation of contrast agents—inert gas microbubbles. Ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy allowed both non-invasive sub-wavelength structural imaging and haemodynamic quantification of rodent cerebral microvessels (less than ten micrometres in diameter) more than ten millimetres below the tissue surface, leading to transcranial whole-brain imaging within short acquisition times (tens of seconds). After intravenous injection, single echoes from individual microbubbles were detected through ultrafast imaging. Their localization, not limited by diffraction, was accumulated over 75,000 images, yielding 1,000,000 events per coronal plane and statistically independent pixels of ten micrometres in size. Precise temporal tracking of microbubble positions allowed us to extract accurately in-plane velocities of the blood flow with a large dynamic range (from one millimetre per second to several centimetres per second). These results pave the way for deep non

  14. 3D imaging of optically cleared tissue using a simplified CLARITY method and on-chip microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yibo; Shin, Yoonjung; Sung, Kevin; Yang, Sam; Chen, Harrison; Wang, Hongda; Teng, Da; Rivenson, Yair; Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput sectioning and optical imaging of tissue samples using traditional immunohistochemical techniques can be costly and inaccessible in resource-limited areas. We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) imaging and phenotyping in optically transparent tissue using lens-free holographic on-chip microscopy as a low-cost, simple, and high-throughput alternative to conventional approaches. The tissue sample is passively cleared using a simplified CLARITY method and stained using 3,3′-diaminobenzidine to target cells of interest, enabling bright-field optical imaging and 3D sectioning of thick samples. The lens-free computational microscope uses pixel super-resolution and multi-height phase recovery algorithms to digitally refocus throughout the cleared tissue and obtain a 3D stack of complex-valued images of the sample, containing both phase and amplitude information. We optimized the tissue-clearing and imaging system by finding the optimal illumination wavelength, tissue thickness, sample preparation parameters, and the number of heights of the lens-free image acquisition and implemented a sparsity-based denoising algorithm to maximize the imaging volume and minimize the amount of the acquired data while also preserving the contrast-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed images. As a proof of concept, we achieved 3D imaging of neurons in a 200-μm-thick cleared mouse brain tissue over a wide field of view of 20.5 mm2. The lens-free microscope also achieved more than an order-of-magnitude reduction in raw data compared to a conventional scanning optical microscope imaging the same sample volume. Being low cost, simple, high-throughput, and data-efficient, we believe that this CLARITY-enabled computational tissue imaging technique could find numerous applications in biomedical diagnosis and research in low-resource settings.

  15. 3D imaging of optically cleared tissue using a simplified CLARITY method and on-chip microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yibo

    2017-08-12

    High-throughput sectioning and optical imaging of tissue samples using traditional immunohistochemical techniques can be costly and inaccessible in resource-limited areas. We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) imaging and phenotyping in optically transparent tissue using lens-free holographic on-chip microscopy as a low-cost, simple, and high-throughput alternative to conventional approaches. The tissue sample is passively cleared using a simplified CLARITY method and stained using 3,3′-diaminobenzidine to target cells of interest, enabling bright-field optical imaging and 3D sectioning of thick samples. The lens-free computational microscope uses pixel super-resolution and multi-height phase recovery algorithms to digitally refocus throughout the cleared tissue and obtain a 3D stack of complex-valued images of the sample, containing both phase and amplitude information. We optimized the tissue-clearing and imaging system by finding the optimal illumination wavelength, tissue thickness, sample preparation parameters, and the number of heights of the lens-free image acquisition and implemented a sparsity-based denoising algorithm to maximize the imaging volume and minimize the amount of the acquired data while also preserving the contrast-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed images. As a proof of concept, we achieved 3D imaging of neurons in a 200-μm-thick cleared mouse brain tissue over a wide field of view of 20.5 mm2. The lens-free microscope also achieved more than an order-of-magnitude reduction in raw data compared to a conventional scanning optical microscope imaging the same sample volume. Being low cost, simple, high-throughput, and data-efficient, we believe that this CLARITY-enabled computational tissue imaging technique could find numerous applications in biomedical diagnosis and research in low-resource settings.

  16. Deleterious phases precipitation on superduplex stainless steel UNS S32750: characterization by light optical and scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Pardal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious phases precipitation in superduplex stainless steels is the main concern in fabrication by welding and hot forming of this class of material. Sigma, chi and secondary austenite phases are considered deleterious phases because they produce negative effects on corrosion resistance. Besides, sigma and chi phases also promote strong decrease of toughness. In the present work, the precipitations of sigma, chi and secondary austenite under aging in the 800-950 °C interval were studied in two UNS S32750 steels with different grain sizes. The deleterious phases could be quantified by light optical microscopy, with no distinction between them. Scanning electron microscopy was used to distinguish the individual phases in various aging conditions. The results elucidate the influence of the aging temperature and grain size on the kinetics precipitation and morphology of deleterious phases. The kinetics of deleterious phases is higher in the fine grained material in the initial stage of aging, but the maximum amount of deleterious phases is higher in the coarse grained steel.

  17. Near-field optical microscopy with a scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbara, A.; Lopez-Rios, T.; Quemerais, P.

    2005-01-01

    A homemade apertureless near-field optical microscope using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is described. The experimental set-up simultaneously provides optical and topographic images of the sample. Technical details and features of the set-up are presented, together with results demonstrating the sub-wavelength resolution achieved as well as its sensitivity to dielectric contrasts. We show that the use of a STM permits to precisely control very small distances between the tip and the sample which is a great advantage to excite localized optical resonances between the tip and the surface

  18. Differential dynamic optical microscopy for the characterization of soft matter: liquid crystal dynamics, volume phase transition of hydrogels, and phase transition of binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Beom-Jin; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan; Smith, Michael H.; Lyon, L. Andrew

    2011-03-01

    The structure and dynamics of soft matter were studied by differential dynamic optical microscopy. One can retrieve q-space information through image processing and Fourier analysis, even when the feature sizes in real space image are too small to be resolved or even visible in an optical microscope. The temporal sequence of real space images were Fourier transformed, and analyzed for the temporal and spatial fluctuations of power spectrum. Here, we present the results on liquid crystal dynamics and their elastic properties, volume phase transition of hydrogels when their dimensions are sub-micron, and critical opalescence of binary mixtures (water/2,6-lutidine).

  19. Quantitative DIC microscopy using an off-axis self-interference approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dan; Oh, Seungeun; Choi, Wonshik; Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Dorn, August; Yaqoob, Zahid; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S

    2010-07-15

    Traditional Normarski differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a very powerful method for imaging nonstained biological samples. However, one of its major limitations is the nonquantitative nature of the imaging. To overcome this problem, we developed a quantitative DIC microscopy method based on off-axis sample self-interference. The digital holography algorithm is applied to obtain quantitative phase gradients in orthogonal directions, which leads to a quantitative phase image through a spiral integration of the phase gradients. This method is practically simple to implement on any standard microscope without stringent requirements on polarization optics. Optical sectioning can be obtained through enlarged illumination NA.

  20. Multiplane optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongcang; Ota, Sadao; Kim, Jeongmin; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-11-21

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to optical microscopy. In one aspect, an apparatus includes a sample holder, a first objective lens, a plurality of optical components, a second objective lens, and a mirror. The apparatus may directly image a cross-section of a sample oblique to or parallel to the optical axis of the first objective lens, without scanning.

  1. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications. PMID:27036751

  2. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Martin C., E-mail: Martin.Fischer@duke.edu; Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Warren, Warren S. [Departments of Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications.

  3. Dynamic contrast enhancement in widefield microscopy using projector-generated illumination patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, Edward Carlo; Blanca, Carlo Mar

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple and cost-effective optical protocol to realize contrast-enhancement imaging (such as dark-field, optical-staining and oblique illumination microscopy) of transparent samples on a conventional widefield microscope using commercial multimedia projectors. The projector functions as both light source and mask generator implemented by creating slideshows of the filters projected along the illumination planes of the microscope. The projected optical masks spatially modulate the distribution of the incident light to selectively enhance structures within the sample according to spatial frequency thereby increasing the image contrast of translucent biological specimens. Any amplitude filter can be customized and dynamically controlled so that switching from one imaging modality to another involves a simple slide transition and can be executed at a keystroke with no physical filters and no moving optical parts. The method yields an image contrast of 89-96% comparable with standard enhancement techniques. The polarization properties of the projector are then utilized to discriminate birefringent and non-birefringent sites on the sample using single-shot, simultaneous polarization and optical-staining microscopy. In addition to dynamic pattern generation and polarization, the projector also provides high illumination power and spectral excitation selectivity through its red-green-blue (RGB) channels. We exploit this last property to explore the feasibility of using video projectors to selectively excite stained samples and perform fluorescence imaging in tandem with reflectance and polarization reflectance microscopy

  4. Multiphoton Microscopy for Ophthalmic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Gibson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We review multiphoton microscopy (MPM including two-photon autofluorescence (2PAF, second harmonic generation (SHG, third harmonic generation (THG, fluorescence lifetime (FLIM, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS with relevance to clinical applications in ophthalmology. The different imaging modalities are discussed highlighting the particular strength that each has for functional tissue imaging. MPM is compared with current clinical ophthalmological imaging techniques such as reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence imaging. In addition, we discuss the future prospects for MPM in disease detection and clinical monitoring of disease progression, understanding fundamental disease mechanisms, and real-time monitoring of drug delivery.

  5. Optimising electron microscopy experiment through electron optics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Y. [CEMES-CNRS, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse France (France); Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation, 882, Ichige, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Gatel, C.; Snoeck, E. [CEMES-CNRS, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse France (France); Houdellier, F., E-mail: florent.houdellier@cemes.fr [CEMES-CNRS, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse France (France)

    2017-04-15

    We developed a new type of electron trajectories simulation inside a complete model of a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM). Our model incorporates the precise and real design of each element constituting a TEM, i.e. the field emission (FE) cathode, the extraction optic and acceleration stages of a 300 kV cold field emission gun, the illumination lenses, the objective lens, the intermediate and projection lenses. Full trajectories can be computed using magnetically saturated or non-saturated round lenses, magnetic deflectors and even non-cylindrical symmetry elements like electrostatic biprism. This multi-scale model gathers nanometer size components (FE tip) with parts of meter length (illumination and projection systems). We demonstrate that non-trivial TEM experiments requiring specific and complex optical configurations can be simulated and optimized prior to any experiment using such model. We show that all the currents set in all optical elements of the simulated column can be implemented in the real column (I2TEM in CEMES) and used as starting alignment for the requested experiment. We argue that the combination of such complete electron trajectory simulations in the whole TEM column with automatic optimization of the microscope parameters for optimal experimental data (images, diffraction, spectra) allows drastically simplifying the implementation of complex experiments in TEM and will facilitate the development of advanced use of the electron microscope in the near future. - Highlights: • Using dedicated electron optics software, we calculate full electrons trajectories inside a modern transmission electron microscope. • We have determined how to deal with multi-scale electron optics elements like high voltage cold field emission source. • W • e have succeed to model both weak and strong magnetic lenses whether in saturated or unsaturated conditions as well as electrostatic biprism and magnetic deflectors. • We have applied this model

  6. Optimising electron microscopy experiment through electron optics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Y.; Gatel, C.; Snoeck, E.; Houdellier, F.

    2017-01-01

    We developed a new type of electron trajectories simulation inside a complete model of a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM). Our model incorporates the precise and real design of each element constituting a TEM, i.e. the field emission (FE) cathode, the extraction optic and acceleration stages of a 300 kV cold field emission gun, the illumination lenses, the objective lens, the intermediate and projection lenses. Full trajectories can be computed using magnetically saturated or non-saturated round lenses, magnetic deflectors and even non-cylindrical symmetry elements like electrostatic biprism. This multi-scale model gathers nanometer size components (FE tip) with parts of meter length (illumination and projection systems). We demonstrate that non-trivial TEM experiments requiring specific and complex optical configurations can be simulated and optimized prior to any experiment using such model. We show that all the currents set in all optical elements of the simulated column can be implemented in the real column (I2TEM in CEMES) and used as starting alignment for the requested experiment. We argue that the combination of such complete electron trajectory simulations in the whole TEM column with automatic optimization of the microscope parameters for optimal experimental data (images, diffraction, spectra) allows drastically simplifying the implementation of complex experiments in TEM and will facilitate the development of advanced use of the electron microscope in the near future. - Highlights: • Using dedicated electron optics software, we calculate full electrons trajectories inside a modern transmission electron microscope. • We have determined how to deal with multi-scale electron optics elements like high voltage cold field emission source. • W • e have succeed to model both weak and strong magnetic lenses whether in saturated or unsaturated conditions as well as electrostatic biprism and magnetic deflectors. • We have applied this model

  7. Lobster eye as a collector for water window microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, L.; Maršíková, V.; Inneman, A.; Nawaz, M. F.; Jančárek, A.; Havlíková, R.

    2017-08-01

    Imaging in EUV, SXR and XR spectral bands of radiation is of increasing interest. Material science, biology and hot plasma are examples of relevant fast developing areas. Applications include spectroscopy, astrophysics, Soft X-ray Ray metrology, Water Window microscopy, radiography and tomography. Especially Water Window imaging has still not fully recognized potential in biology and medicine microscopy applications. Theoretical study and design of Lobster Eye (LE) optics as a collector for water window (WW) microscopy and comparison with a similar size ellipsoidal mirror condensor are presented.

  8. Light Microscopy at Maximal Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Leahy, Brian D.; Alemi, Alexander A.; Cohen, Itai; Sethna, James P.

    2017-10-01

    Microscopy is the workhorse of the physical and life sciences, producing crisp images of everything from atoms to cells well beyond the capabilities of the human eye. However, the analysis of these images is frequently little more accurate than manual marking. Here, we revolutionize the analysis of microscopy images, extracting all the useful information theoretically contained in a complex microscope image. Using a generic, methodological approach, we extract the information by fitting experimental images with a detailed optical model of the microscope, a method we call parameter extraction from reconstructing images (PERI). As a proof of principle, we demonstrate this approach with a confocal image of colloidal spheres, improving measurements of particle positions and radii by 10-100 times over current methods and attaining the maximum possible accuracy. With this unprecedented accuracy, we measure nanometer-scale colloidal interactions in dense suspensions solely with light microscopy, a previously impossible feat. Our approach is generic and applicable to imaging methods from brightfield to electron microscopy, where we expect accuracies of 1 nm and 0.1 pm, respectively.

  9. Light Microscopy at Maximal Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bierbaum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy is the workhorse of the physical and life sciences, producing crisp images of everything from atoms to cells well beyond the capabilities of the human eye. However, the analysis of these images is frequently little more accurate than manual marking. Here, we revolutionize the analysis of microscopy images, extracting all the useful information theoretically contained in a complex microscope image. Using a generic, methodological approach, we extract the information by fitting experimental images with a detailed optical model of the microscope, a method we call parameter extraction from reconstructing images (PERI. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate this approach with a confocal image of colloidal spheres, improving measurements of particle positions and radii by 10–100 times over current methods and attaining the maximum possible accuracy. With this unprecedented accuracy, we measure nanometer-scale colloidal interactions in dense suspensions solely with light microscopy, a previously impossible feat. Our approach is generic and applicable to imaging methods from brightfield to electron microscopy, where we expect accuracies of 1 nm and 0.1 pm, respectively.

  10. Multimodal reconstruction of microvascular-flow distributions using combined two-photon microscopy and Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Louis; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Fréderic; Mandeville, Emiri T; Fang, Qianqian; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Boas, David A

    2015-01-01

    Computing microvascular cerebral blood flow ([Formula: see text]) in real cortical angiograms is challenging. Here, we investigated whether the use of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) flow measurements in individual vessel segments can help in reconstructing [Formula: see text] across the entire vasculature of a truncated cortical angiogram. A [Formula: see text] computational framework integrating DOCT measurements is presented. Simulations performed on a synthetic angiogram showed that the addition of DOCT measurements, especially close to large inflowing or outflowing vessels, reduces the impact of pressure boundary conditions and estimated vessel resistances resulting in a more accurate reconstruction of [Formula: see text]. Our technique was then applied to reconstruct microvascular flow distributions in the mouse cortex down to [Formula: see text] by combining two-photon laser scanning microscopy angiography with DOCT.

  11. Microscopy system of atomic force based on a digital optical reading unit and a buzzer-scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabirian, R.; Loza M, D.; Wang, W. M.; Hwu, E. T.

    2015-01-01

    An astigmatic detection system (Ads) based on a compact disk/digital-versatile-disk (Cd-DVD) astigmatic optical pickup unit is presented. It can achieve a resolution better than 0.3 nm in detection of the vertical displacement and is able to detect the two-dimensional angular tilt of the object surface. Furthermore, a novel scanner design actuated by piezoelectric disk buzzers is presented. The scanner is composed of a quad-rod actuation structure and several piezoelectric disks. It can be driven directly with low-voltage and low-current sources, such as analogue outputs of a data acquisition card and enables a sufficient scanning range of up to μm. In addition, an economic, high-performance streamlined atomic force microscopy (AFM) was constructed, using the buzzer-scanner to move the sample relative to the probe, and using a Cd/DVD optical pickup unit to detect the mechanical resonance of a micro fabricated cantilever. The performance of the AFM is evaluated. The high sensitivity and high bandwidth of the detection system makes the equipment suitable for characterizing nano scale elements. An AFM using our detection system for detecting the deflection of micro fabricated cantilevers can resolve individual atomic steps on graphite surfaces. (Author)

  12. Real-time observation of growth and orientation of Sm-Ba-Cu-O phases on a Sm-211 whisker substrate by high-temperature optical microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sun, J.L.; Huang, Y.B.; Cheng, L.; Yao, X.; Lai, Y.J.; Jirsa, Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2009), 898-902 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0722 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : high-temperature optical microscopy * growth and orientation of Sm-Ba-Cu-O phases * Sm-211 whisker substrate Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2009

  13. The art in science: electron microscopy and paintings conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: When examining a painting, a conservator uses many different and complementary methods of analysis to build an understanding of the materials and way the painting was constructed. Common methods of examination include x-radiography, infrared reflectography, ultraviolet fluorescence and optical microscopy of the surface of the painting. Minute samples of paint prepared as cross-sections are sometimes taken for optical examination under the microscope, and it is these that can, conveniently, be further analysed with electron microscopy to yield another level of information. Electron microscopy has a valuable role to play within the examination of paintings, be it for pigment identification alone, or at the other end of the spectrum, for informing issues around the attribution of works of art. This paper provides an overview of the use of electron microscopy in the conservation of paintings by discussing examples of work undertaken by the National Gallery of Victoria and the CSIRO. Work described includes the problem of distinguishing between restorers' original paint in a landscape by Arthur Streeton, and the examination of the ground or priming layer in a Rembrandt portrait which clarified its attribution to his studio. Copyright (2003) Australian Microbeam Analysis Society

  14. Crystallization kinetics of poly-(lactic acid) with and without talc: Optical microscopy and calorimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaa, Z.; Boutaous, M.; Rousset, F.; Fulchiron, R.; Zinet, M.; Xin, S.; Bourgin, P.

    2014-05-01

    Poly-(lactic acid) or PLA is a biodegradable polymer synthesized from renewable resources. Recently, the discovery of new polymerization routes has allowed increasing the produced volumes. As a consequence, PLA is becoming of great interest for reducing the dependence on petroleum-based plastics. Because of its interesting mechanical properties, PLA is seen as a potential substitute for some usual polymers. However, its relatively slow crystallization kinetics can be a disadvantage with regard to industrial applications. The crystallization kinetics of PLA can be enhanced by adding nucleating agents, which also influences on crystalline morphology and rheological behavior. In the present work, the isothermal quiescent crystallization kinetics of both neat PLA and PLA/talc composite (5 wt% talc) are investigated. The effects of talc on the overall crystallization kinetics and on the crystalline morphology are analyzed using both optical microscopy measurements and thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry.

  15. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, an imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. In this paper, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of a commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (SNARF-5F carboxylic acid) in tissue phantoms. We demonstrated that PAM is capable of pH imaging in absolute values at tissue depths of up to 2.0 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy. PMID:22029342

  16. Cathodoluminescence Microscopy of Nanostructures on Transparent Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narváez, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL), the excitation of light by an electron beam, has gained attention as an analysis tool for investigating the optical response of a structure, at a resolution that approaches that in electron microscopy, in the nanometer range. However, the application possibilities are

  17. Exploring Neural Cell Dynamics with Digital Holographic Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre; Jourdain, Pascal; Boss, Daniel; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2013-01-01

    In this talk, I will present how digital holographic microscopy, as a powerful quantitative phase technique, can non-invasively measure cell dynamics and especially resolve local neuronal network activity through simultaneous multiple site optical recording.

  18. Exploring Neural Cell Dynamics with Digital Holographic Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2013-04-21

    In this talk, I will present how digital holographic microscopy, as a powerful quantitative phase technique, can non-invasively measure cell dynamics and especially resolve local neuronal network activity through simultaneous multiple site optical recording.

  19. A study of internal oxidation in carburized steels by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, X; Cawley, J.; Rainforth, W.M.; Chen, L.

    2003-01-01

    The internal oxidation of Cr-Mn carburizing steel was studied. Internal oxidation was induced using a commercial carburizing process. Sputter erosion coupled with glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) was used to determine the depth profile elemental distribution within the internal oxidation layer (<10 μm). In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) studies were carried out on selected sputter eroded surfaces. Oxide type was identified primarily by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The carburized surface was found to consist of a continuous oxide layer, followed by a complex internal oxidation layer, where Cr and Mn oxides were found to populate grain boundaries in a globular form in the near surface region. At greater depths (5-10 μm), Si oxides formed as a grain boundary network. The internal oxides (mainly complex oxides) grew quickly during the initial stages of the carburizing process (2 h, 800 deg. C+3 h, 930 deg. C). GDOES proved to be an excellent tool for the quantification of oxidation and element distribution as a function of depth, particularly when combined with SEM and TEM to identify oxide type and morphology

  20. Microscopy imaging system and method employing stimulated raman spectroscopy as a contrast mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney [Lexington, MA; Freudiger, Christian [Boston, MA; Min, Wei [Cambridge, MA

    2011-09-27

    A microscopy imaging system includes a first light source for providing a first train of pulses at a first center optical frequency .omega..sub.1, a second light source for providing a second train of pulses at a second center optical frequency .omega..sub.2, a modulator system, an optical detector, and a processor. The modulator system is for modulating a beam property of the second train of pulses at a modulation frequency f of at least 100 kHz. The optical detector is for detecting an integrated intensity of substantially all optical frequency components of the first train of pulses from the common focal volume by blocking the second train of pulses being modulated. The processor is for detecting, a modulation at the modulation frequency f, of the integrated intensity of the optical frequency components of the first train of pulses to provide a pixel of an image for the microscopy imaging system.

  1. Field-based dynamic light scattering microscopy: theory and numerical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Chulmin; de Boer, Johannes F

    2013-11-01

    We present a theoretical framework for field-based dynamic light scattering microscopy based on a spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy (SD-OCPM) platform. SD-OCPM is an interferometric microscope capable of quantitative measurement of amplitude and phase of scattered light with high phase stability. Field-based dynamic light scattering (F-DLS) analysis allows for direct evaluation of complex-valued field autocorrelation function and measurement of localized diffusive and directional dynamic properties of biological and material samples with high spatial resolution. In order to gain insight into the information provided by F-DLS microscopy, theoretical and numerical analyses are performed to evaluate the effect of numerical aperture of the imaging optics. We demonstrate that sharp focusing of fields affects the measured diffusive and transport velocity, which leads to smaller values for the dynamic properties in the sample. An approach for accurately determining the dynamic properties of the samples is discussed.

  2. Viscous optical clearing agent for in vivo optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zijian; Jing, Lijia; Wu, Ning; lv, Pengyu; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Ren, Qiushi; Li, Changhui

    2014-07-01

    By allowing more photons to reach deeper tissue, the optical clearing agent (OCA) has gained increasing attention in various optical imaging modalities. However, commonly used OCAs have high fluidity, limiting their applications in in vivo studies with oblique, uneven, or moving surfaces. In this work, we reported an OCA with high viscosity. We measured the properties of this viscous OCA, and tested its successful performances in the imaging of a living animal's skin with two optical imaging modalities: photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Our results demonstrated that the viscous OCA has a great potential in the study of different turbid tissues using various optical imaging modalities.

  3. Analysis of artificial opals by scanning near field optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, J.; Lozano, G.; Lamela, J.; Lifante, G.; Dorado, L. A.; Depine, R. A.; Jaque, F.; Míguez, H.

    2011-04-01

    Herein we present a detailed analysis of the optical response of artificial opal films realized employing a near-field scanning optical microscope in collection and transmission modes. Near-field patterns measured at the rear surface when a plane wave impinges on the front face are presented with the finding that optical intensity maps present a clear correlation with the periodic arrangement of the outer surface. Calculations based on the vector Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method reproduce the different profiles experimentally observed as well as the response to the polarization of the incident field. These observations constitute the first experimental confirmation of the collective lattice resonances that give rise to the optical response of these three dimensional periodic structures in the high-energy range.

  4. Cement paste surface roughness analysis using coherence scanning interferometry and confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apedo, K.L., E-mail: apedo@unistra.fr [ICube, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, 2 rue Boussingault, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Munzer, C.; He, H. [ICube, INSA de Strasbourg, CNRS, 24 Bld de la Victoire, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Montgomery, P. [ICube, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Serres, N. [ICube, INSA de Strasbourg, CNRS, 24 Bld de la Victoire, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Fond, C. [ICube, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, 2 rue Boussingault, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Feugeas, F. [ICube, INSA de Strasbourg, CNRS, 24 Bld de la Victoire, 67084 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-02-15

    Scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy have been used for several decades to better understand the microstructure of cementitious materials. Very limited work has been performed to date to study the roughness of cementitious materials by optical microscopy such as coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) and chromatic confocal sensing (CCS). The objective of this paper is to better understand how CSI can be used as a tool to analyze surface roughness and topography of cement pastes. Observations from a series of images acquired using this technique on both polished and unpolished samples are described. The results from CSI are compared with those from a STIL confocal microscopy technique (SCM). Comparison between both optical techniques demonstrates the ability of CSI to measure both polished and unpolished cement pastes. - Highlights: • Coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) was used to analyze cement paste surfaces. • The results from the CSI were compared with those from a confocal microscopy. • 3D roughness parameters were obtained using the window resizing method. • Polished and unpolished cement pastes were studied.

  5. Cement paste surface roughness analysis using coherence scanning interferometry and confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apedo, K.L.; Munzer, C.; He, H.; Montgomery, P.; Serres, N.; Fond, C.; Feugeas, F.

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy have been used for several decades to better understand the microstructure of cementitious materials. Very limited work has been performed to date to study the roughness of cementitious materials by optical microscopy such as coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) and chromatic confocal sensing (CCS). The objective of this paper is to better understand how CSI can be used as a tool to analyze surface roughness and topography of cement pastes. Observations from a series of images acquired using this technique on both polished and unpolished samples are described. The results from CSI are compared with those from a STIL confocal microscopy technique (SCM). Comparison between both optical techniques demonstrates the ability of CSI to measure both polished and unpolished cement pastes. - Highlights: • Coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) was used to analyze cement paste surfaces. • The results from the CSI were compared with those from a confocal microscopy. • 3D roughness parameters were obtained using the window resizing method. • Polished and unpolished cement pastes were studied

  6. Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Niyom; Choi, Wonshik; Popescu, Gabriel; Yaqoob, Zahid; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S

    2009-11-26

    Quantitative chemical analysis has served as a useful tool for understanding cellular metabolisms in biology. Among many physical properties used in chemical analysis, refractive index in particular has provided molecular concentration that is an important indicator for biological activities. In this report, we present a method of extracting full-field refractive index maps of live cells in their native states. We first record full-field optical thickness maps of living cells by Hilbert phase microscopy and then acquire physical thickness maps of the same cells using a custom-built confocal reflectance microscope. Full-field and axially averaged refractive index maps are acquired from the ratio of optical thickness to physical thickness. The accuracy of the axially averaged index measurement is 0.002. This approach can provide novel biological assays of label-free living cells in situ.

  7. Deep-sea spherules from Pacific clay - Mass distribution and influx rate. [extraterrestrial origins from optical and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, M. T.; Davis, P. A., Jr.; Nishiizumi, K.; Millard, H. T., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    From 411 kg of Pacific clay, 22 mg of stony spherules and 50 mg of iron spherules larger than 150 microns were concentrated. The extraterrestrial origin of these particles was evaluated with the aid of optical and electron microscopy and atomic absorption elemental analysis. An expression for the integral number of stony particles from this sediment in the mass range 20-300 micrograms was derived. The world-wide influx rate of stony particles in the mass range which survive atmospheric heating and ocean sediment storage is calculated to be 90 tons/yr. The relative contributions of ablation debris vs fused interplanetary dust to the influx of stony spherules is discussed, but no conclusions could be made.

  8. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  9. Design and Development of Nonlinear Optical Microscope System: Simple Implementation with epi-Illumination Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Jiheun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the research using fluorescence-tagged or auto-fluorescence molecules, meaningful information is often buried deep inside the tissue, not its surface. Therefore, especially in the field of biomedical imaging, acquiring optically sectioned images from deep inside the tissue is very important. As well know already, confocal laser scanning microscopy (the most well-known optical sectioning microscopy gives axially-resolved fluorescence information using the physical background blocking component called pinhole. However, the axial range of imaging is practically limited due to such optical phenomena as the light scattered and absorbed in the tissue. However, nonlinear optical microscopy (e.g. Multiphoton microscopy, harmonic generation microscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy realized by the development of ultrafast light sources has been used for visualizing various tissues, especially in vivo, because of their low sensitivity to the limitation caused by the scattering and the absorption of light. Although nonlinear optical microscopy gives deep tissue image, it is not easy for many researcher to build customized nonlinear system. Here, we introduce an easy and simple way designing and developing such nonlinear optical microscope with upright or inverted epi-illumination platform using commercial optical components only.

  10. Fluorescence confocal microscopy for pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzi, Moira; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Castagnetti, Fabio; Foroni, Monica; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Gardini, Giorgio; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2014-03-01

    Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive method of optical imaging that may provide microscopic images of untreated tissue that correspond almost perfectly to hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Nowadays, following two confocal imaging systems are available: (1) reflectance confocal microscopy, based on the natural differences in refractive indices of subcellular structures within the tissues; (2) fluorescence confocal microscopy, based on the use of fluorochromes, such as acridine orange, to increase the contrast epithelium-stroma. In clinical practice to date, confocal microscopy has been used with the goal of obviating the need for excision biopsies, thereby reducing the need for pathological examination. The aim of our study was to test fluorescence confocal microscopy on different types of surgical specimens, specifically breast, lymph node, thyroid, and colon. The confocal images were correlated to the corresponding histological sections in order to provide a morphologic parallel and to highlight current limitations and possible applications of this technology for surgical pathology practice. As a result, neoplastic tissues were easily distinguishable from normal structures and reactive processes such as fibrosis; the use of fluorescence enhanced contrast and image quality in confocal microscopy without compromising final histologic evaluation. Finally, the fluorescence confocal microscopy images of the adipose tissue were as accurate as those of conventional histology and were devoid of the frozen-section-related artefacts that can compromise intraoperative evaluation. Despite some limitations mainly related to black/white images, which require training in imaging interpretation, this study confirms that fluorescence confocal microscopy may represent an alternative to frozen sections in the assessment of margin status in selected settings or when the conservation of the specimen is crucial. This is the first study to employ fluorescent confocal microscopy on

  11. Improvement in spatial frequency characteristics of magneto-optical Kerr microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Takeshi

    2017-10-01

    The spatial resolution of a conventional magneto-optical Kerr microscope, compared with those of conventional optical microscopes, inevitably deteriorates owing to oblique illumination. An approach to obtaining the maximum spatial resolution using multiple images with different illumination directions is demonstrated here. The method was implemented by rotating the illumination path around the optical axis using a motorized stage. The Fourier transform image of the observed magnetic domain indicates that the spatial frequency component that is lost in the conventional method is restored.

  12. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy: Three-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  13. Fundamentals of fluorescence microscopy exploring life with light

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2014-01-01

    This book starts at an introductory level and leads reader to the most advanced developments in fluorescence imaging and super-resolution techniques that have enabled the emergence of new disciplines such as nanobioimaging, multiphoton microscopy, photodynamic therapy, nanometrology and nanosensors. The interdisciplinary subject of fluorescence microscopy and imaging requires complete knowledge of imaging optics and molecular physics. So, this book approaches the subject by introducing optical imaging concepts before going deep into the advanced imaging systems and their applications. Molecular orbital theory forms the basis for understanding fluorescent molecules and thereby facilitates complete explanation of light-matter interaction at the geometrical focus. The two disciplines have some overlap since light controls the states of molecules and conversely, molecular states control the emitted light. These two mechanisms together determine essential fluorescence  factors and phenomena such as, molecular cro...

  14. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augspurger, Ashley E.; Stender, Anthony S.; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Fang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also…

  15. Characterization of CuCl quantum dots grown in NaCl single crystals via optical measurements, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Kensuke; Akatsu, Tatsuro; Itoh, Ken

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated the crystal size, shape, and alignment of the lattice planes of CuCl quantum dots (QDs) embedded in NaCl single crystals by optical measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We obtained, for the first time, an XRD pattern and TEM images for CuCl QDs in NaCl crystals. The XRD pattern showed that the lattice planes of the CuCl QDs were parallel to those of the NaCl crystals. In addition, the size of the QDs was estimated from the diffraction width. It was apparent from the TEM images that almost all CuCl QDs were polygonal, although some cubic QDs were present. The mean size and size distribution of the QDs were also obtained. The dot size obtained from optical measurements, XRD, and TEM image were almost consistent. Our new findings can help to reveal the growth mechanism of semiconductor QDs embedded in a crystallite matrix. In addition, this work will play an important role in progressing the study of optical phenomena originating from assembled semiconductor QDs.

  16. Revealing t-tubules in striated muscle with new optical super-resolution microscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isuru D. Jayasinghe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The t-tubular system plays a central role in the synchronisation of calcium signalling and excitation-contraction coupling in most striated muscle cells. Light microscopy has been used for imaging t-tubules for well over 100 years and together with electron microscopy (EM, has revealed the three-dimensional complexities of the t-system topology within cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibres from a range of species. The emerging super-resolution single molecule localisation microscopy (SMLM techniques are offering a near 10-fold improvement over the resolution of conventional fluorescence light microscopy methods, with the ability to spectrally resolve nanometre scale distributions of multiple molecular targets. In conjunction with the next generation of electron microscopy, SMLM has allowed the visualisation and quantification of intricate t-tubule morphologies within large areas of muscle cells at an unprecedented level of detail. In this paper, we review recent advancements in the t-tubule structural biology with the utility of various microscopy techniques. We outline the technical considerations in adapting SMLM to study t-tubules and its potential to further our understanding of the molecular processes that underlie the sub-micron scale structural alterations observed in a range of muscle pathologies.

  17. Decoupled illumination detection in light sheet microscopy for fast volumetric imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Olarte, Omar; Andilla, Jordi; Artigas García, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Current microscopy demands the visualization of large three-dimensional samples with increased sensitivity, higher resolution, and faster speed. Several imaging techniques based on widefield, point-scanning, and light-sheet strategies have been designed to tackle some of these demands. Although successful, all these require the illuminated volumes to be tightly coupled with the detection optics to accomplish efficient optical sectioning. Here, we break this paradigm and produce optical sectio...

  18. Optical metrology for analysis of lobster-eye x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, Thomas H.K.; Peele, Andrew G.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2003-01-01

    A new method that uses optical microscopy to determine the physical structure of lobster-eye x-ray optics is described. This approach offers the ability to predict x-ray performance without having to take an x-ray measurement. An overlapping series of images of the entrance and exit faces of an optic are obtained and examined by purpose-built software. A 24-parameter description of each channel is obtained from which a quantitative analysis of all the major optic defects, except surface roughness, is performed. Results for a planar lobster-eye optic are used to illustrate this technique and discuss its abilities as well as directions for future enhancements

  19. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Giulia M R; Breedijk, Ronald M P; Brandt, Rick A J; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required.

  20. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  1. Handheld Fluorescence Microscopy based Flow Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Manish; Jayakumar, Nitin; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has the intrinsic advantages of favourable contrast characteristics and high degree of specificity. Consequently, it has been a mainstay in modern biological inquiry and clinical diagnostics. Despite its reliable nature, fluorescence based clinical microscopy and diagnostics is a manual, labour intensive and time consuming procedure. The article outlines a cost-effective, high throughput alternative to conventional fluorescence imaging techniques. With system level integration of custom-designed microfluidics and optics, we demonstrate fluorescence microscopy based imaging flow analyzer. Using this system we have imaged more than 2900 FITC labeled fluorescent beads per minute. This demonstrates high-throughput characteristics of our flow analyzer in comparison to conventional fluorescence microscopy. The issue of motion blur at high flow rates limits the achievable throughput in image based flow analyzers. Here we address the issue by computationally deblurring the images and show that this restores the morphological features otherwise affected by motion blur. By further optimizing concentration of the sample solution and flow speeds, along with imaging multiple channels simultaneously, the system is capable of providing throughput of about 480 beads per second.

  2. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, M.J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J.E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J.P.; Jarvis, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity

  3. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M. J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J. E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J. P.; Jarvis, S. P.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity.

  4. In vivo calcium imaging from dentate granule cells with wide-field fluorescence microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Hayashi

    Full Text Available A combination of genetically-encoded calcium indicators and micro-optics has enabled monitoring of large-scale dynamics of neuronal activity from behaving animals. In these studies, wide-field microscopy is often used to visualize neural activity. However, this method lacks optical sectioning capability, and therefore its axial resolution is generally poor. At present, it is unclear whether wide-field microscopy can visualize activity of densely packed small neurons at cellular resolution. To examine the applicability of wide-field microscopy for small-sized neurons, we recorded calcium activity of dentate granule cells having a small soma diameter of approximately 10 micrometers. Using a combination of high numerical aperture (0.8 objective lens and independent component analysis-based image segmentation technique, activity of putative single granule cell activity was separated from wide-field calcium imaging data. The result encourages wider application of wide-field microscopy in in vivo neurophysiology.

  5. Original Research. Photoacoustic Microscopy in Dental Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Adrian Tudor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Photoacoustic microscopy, also known as optoacoustic imaging, is a comparatively new method of investigation in dental medicine, which uses a laser-generated ultrasound (short laser pulses to achieve images for interpretation. Photoacoustic microscopy can be used in a broad spectrum, from detecting tooth decay at its earliest stages to dental anatomy analysis. Material and methods: The energy emitted by the photoacoustic pulse is moderately absorbed by the target and exchanged into heat, leading to a local transitory temperature upsurge. The tension propagates and grows as ultrasonic waves, distinguished by the ultrasonic transducers which are planted apart from the tissue. The photoacoustic microscope has a tunable dye laser which passes through a condensing lens, an objective and ultimately an ultrasonic transducer attached to an acoustic lens to capture and receive information about the scanned probe from a sample moved on the X, Y dimensions. Results: The precise anatomy of layered concentric structures can be clearly observed in photoacoustic microscopy. The image value of the inner layer can be higher, indicating strong optical absorption, while the image value of the outer layer is lower, indicating weaker optical absorption. Meanwhile, the inner layer has the exact same size as the dentin structure and the outer layer has the exact same size as the enamel structure in this cross-section. Conclusions: The photoacoustic microscope (all-optical comes out to be a future and promising tool for detecting early-stage caries and lesions on the surface of the teeth, where micro-leakage occurs at the interface of tooth restoration, and also the anatomy of dental tissues.

  6. Three-dimensional live microscopy beyond the diffraction limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiolka, Reto

    2013-01-01

    In fluorescence microscopy it has become possible to fundamentally overcome the diffraction limited resolution in all three spatial dimensions. However, to have the most impact in biological sciences, new optical microscopy techniques need to be compatible with live cell imaging: image acquisition has to be fast enough to capture cellular dynamics at the new resolution limit while light exposure needs to be minimized to prevent photo-toxic effects. With increasing spatial resolution, these requirements become more difficult to meet, even more so when volumetric imaging is performed. In this review, techniques that have been successfully applied to three-dimensional, super-resolution live microscopy are presented and their relative strengths and weaknesses are discussed. (special issue article)

  7. A minimal optical trapping and imaging microscopy system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Noemí Hernández Candia

    Full Text Available We report the construction and testing of a simple and versatile optical trapping apparatus, suitable for visualizing individual microtubules (∼25 nm in diameter and performing single-molecule studies, using a minimal set of components. This design is based on a conventional, inverted microscope, operating under plain bright field illumination. A single laser beam enables standard optical trapping and the measurement of molecular displacements and forces, whereas digital image processing affords real-time sample visualization with reduced noise and enhanced contrast. We have tested our trapping and imaging instrument by measuring the persistence length of individual double-stranded DNA molecules, and by following the stepping of single kinesin motor proteins along clearly imaged microtubules. The approach presented here provides a straightforward alternative for studies of biomaterials and individual biomolecules.

  8. French Society of Microscopies, 11. Colloquium. SFM Paris 2009. Compilation of summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The 11. conference of the SFM (French Society of Microscopies), held in Paris in 2009, was divided into 14 symposiums, 4 GN-MEBA symposiums, and 10 workshops. The titles of the symposiums are: homage to Nicolas Boisset, advanced microscopies, alternative microscopies, new optical and plasmonic imaging microscopies, dynamic and quantitative microscopy of the living matter, photonic and correlative electronic microscopy, near field microscopy, molecular and cellular electronic cryo-microscopy, cellular compartmentation and dynamics (CFPU), microscopy and materials, dynamical microscopy in materials science, minerals/bio-minerals and environment, structure and properties of nano-materials, sub-eV and sub-nm chemical bonds imaging. The titles of the GN-MEBA symposiums are: microscopy and metals, microscopy and minerals, microscopy and living beings, microscopy and new materials. The titles of the workshops are: Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM), Cryo and electronic tomography in cellular biology, Cryo electronic microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), ULTRASTEM, Digital Micrograph programming, Cryo-Microscopy and molecular tomography, Cryo-ultra-microtomy and immuno-marking, FIB, ASTAR(EBSD-MET) - rapid mapping of crystalline orientations and phases

  9. Spatiotemporal polarization modulation microscopy with a microretarder array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changqin; Ulcickas, James R. W.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2018-02-01

    A patterned microretarder array positioned in the rear conjugate plane of a microscope enables rapid polarizationdependent nonlinear optical microscopy. The pattern introduced to the array results in periodic modulation of the polarization-state of the incident light as a function of position within the field of view with no moving parts or active control. Introduction of a single stationary optical element and a fixed polarizer into the beam of a nonlinear optical microscope enabled nonlinear optical tensor recovery, which informs on local structure and orientation. Excellent agreement was observed between the measured and predicted second harmonic generation (SHG) of z-cut quartz, selected as a test system with well-established nonlinear optical properties. Subsequent studies of spatially varying samples further support the general applicability of this relatively simple strategy for detailed polarization analysis in both conventional and nonlinear optical imaging of structurally diverse samples.

  10. Optical Saturation as a Versatile Tool to Enhance Resolution in Confocal Microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Humpolíčková, Jana; Benda, Aleš; Enderlein, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 9 (2009), s. 2623-2629 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400400904; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : fluorescence microscopy * reconstruction microscopy * cassettes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.390, year: 2009

  11. Biological applications of phase-contrast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2014-01-01

    Here, I review the principles and applications of phase-contrast electron microscopy using phase plates. First, I develop the principle of phase contrast based on a minimal model of microscopy, introducing a double Fourier-transform process to mathematically formulate the image formation. Next, I explain four phase-contrast (PC) schemes, defocus PC, Zernike PC, Hilbert differential contrast, and schlieren optics, as image-filtering processes in the context of the minimal model, with particular emphases on the Zernike PC and corresponding Zernike phase plates. Finally, I review applications of Zernike PC cryo-electron microscopy to biological systems such as protein molecules, virus particles, and cells, including single-particle analysis to delineate three-dimensional (3D) structures of protein and virus particles and cryo-electron tomography to reconstruct 3D images of complex protein systems and cells.

  12. Hierarchical super-structure identified by polarized light microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoindentation: Implications for the limits of biological control over the growth mode of abalone sea shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Andreas S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mollusc shells are commonly investigated using high-resolution imaging techniques based on cryo-fixation. Less detailed information is available regarding the light-optical properties. Sea shells of Haliotis pulcherina were embedded for polishing in defined orientations in order to investigate the interface between prismatic calcite and nacreous aragonite by standard materialographic methods. A polished thin section of the interface was prepared with a defined thickness of 60 μm for quantitative birefringence analysis using polarized light and LC-PolScope microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for comparison. In order to study structural-mechanical relationships, nanoindentation experiments were performed. Results Incident light microscopy revealed a super-structure in semi-transparent regions of the polished cross-section under a defined angle. This super-structure is not visible in transmitted birefringence analysis due to the blurred polarization of small nacre platelets and numerous organic interfaces. The relative orientation and homogeneity of calcite prisms was directly identified, some of them with their optical axes exactly normal to the imaging plane. Co-oriented "prism colonies" were identified by polarized light analyses. The nacreous super-structure was also visualized by secondary electron imaging under defined angles. The domains of the super-structure were interpreted to consist of crystallographically aligned platelet stacks. Nanoindentation experiments showed that mechanical properties changed with the same periodicity as the domain size. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that insights into the growth mechanisms of nacre can be obtained by conventional light-optical methods. For example, we observed super-structures formed by co-oriented nacre platelets as previously identified using X-ray Photo-electron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM [Gilbert et al., Journal of the

  13. Rod-like plasmonic nanoparticles as optical building blocks: how differences in particle shape and structural geometry influence optical signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stender, Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles, particularly those with an anisotropic shape, have become a popular optical probe for experiments involving work on the nanoscale. However, to carry out such delicate and intricate experiments, it is first necessary to understand the detailed behavior of individual nanoparticles. In this series of experiments, optical and electron microscopy were utilized for the characterization of individual nanoparticles and small assemblies of nanoparticles. In the first experiment, gold nanorods were investigated. Single, isolated nanorods exhibit two maxima of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), which are associated with the two nanorod axes. Upon the physical rotation of a nanorod at one of its LSPR wavelengths under polarized illumination, the optical behavior varies in a sinusoidal fashion. A dimer of nanorods exhibits optical behavior quite similar to a nanorod, except the LSPR maxima are shifted and broader. Under differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, a pair of nanorods separated by a distance below the diffraction limit can be distinguished from a single nanorod due to its optical behavior upon rotation. Dark field microscopy is unable to distinguish the two geometries. For the second set of experiments, the optical behavior of single gold nanorods at non-plasmonic wavelengths was investigated. The same nanorod was rotated with respect to a polarized light source under DIC, dark field, and polarized light microscopy. DIC microscopy was found to produce diffraction pattern peaks at non-plasmonic wavelengths, which could be altered by adjusting the setting of the polarizer. In the third set of experiments, the optical behavior of a single gold dumbbell and several simple dumbbell geometries were investigated with microscopy and simulations. The single dumbbell displayed behavior quite similar to that of a nanorod, but dumbbells exhibit a shift in both LSPR wavebands. Moreover, the shape of dumbbell particles allows them to

  14. Optical appearance of AC anodized Al/TiO2 composite coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Kirill; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    amplitudes. The microstructure and composition of the obtained anodic films were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical appearance of the films was characterized by optical reflectance spectroscopy...

  15. Optical measurements for scientists and engineers a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    McClelland, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    With this accessible, introductory guide, you will quickly learn how to use and apply optical spectroscopy and optical microscopy techniques. Focusing on day-to-day implementation and offering practical lab tips throughout, it provides step-by-step instructions on how to select the best technique for a particular application, how to set up and customize new optical systems, and how to analyze optical data. You will gain an intuitive understanding of the full range of standard optical techniques, from fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy to super resolution microscopy. Understand how to navigate around an optics lab with clear descriptions of the most common optical components and tools. Including explanations of basic optics and photonics, and easy-to-understand mathematics, this is an invaluable resource for graduate students, instructors, researchers and professionals who use or teach optical measurements in laboratories.

  16. True Tapping Mode Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy with Bent Glass Fiber Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A; Yasinskii, V M; Filimonenko, D S; Rostova, E; Dietler, G; Sekatskii, S K

    2018-01-01

    In scanning near-field optical microscopy, the most popular probes are made of sharpened glass fiber attached to a quartz tuning fork (TF) and exploiting the shear force-based feedback. The use of tapping mode feedback could be preferable. Such an approach can be realized, for example, using bent fiber probes. Detailed analysis of fiber vibration modes shows that realization of truly tapping mode of the probe dithering requires an extreme caution. In case of using the second resonance mode, probes vibrate mostly in shear force mode unless the bending radius is rather small (ca. 0.3 mm) and the probe's tip is short. Otherwise, the shear force character of the dithering persists. Probes having these characteristics were prepared by irradiation of a tapered etched glass fiber with a CW CO 2 laser. These probes were attached to the TF in double resonance conditions which enables achieving significant quality factor (4000-6000) of the TF + probe system (Cherkun et al., 2006). We also show that, to achieve a truly tapping character, dithering, short, and not exceeding 3 mm lengths of a freestanding part of bent fiber probe beam should also be used in the case of nonresonant excitation.

  17. True Tapping Mode Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy with Bent Glass Fiber Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Smirnov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In scanning near-field optical microscopy, the most popular probes are made of sharpened glass fiber attached to a quartz tuning fork (TF and exploiting the shear force-based feedback. The use of tapping mode feedback could be preferable. Such an approach can be realized, for example, using bent fiber probes. Detailed analysis of fiber vibration modes shows that realization of truly tapping mode of the probe dithering requires an extreme caution. In case of using the second resonance mode, probes vibrate mostly in shear force mode unless the bending radius is rather small (ca. 0.3 mm and the probe’s tip is short. Otherwise, the shear force character of the dithering persists. Probes having these characteristics were prepared by irradiation of a tapered etched glass fiber with a CW CO2 laser. These probes were attached to the TF in double resonance conditions which enables achieving significant quality factor (4000–6000 of the TF + probe system (Cherkun et al., 2006. We also show that, to achieve a truly tapping character, dithering, short, and not exceeding 3 mm lengths of a freestanding part of bent fiber probe beam should also be used in the case of nonresonant excitation.

  18. The effect of the ferroelectric domain walls in the scanning near field optical microscopy response of periodically poled Ba2NaNb5O15 and LiNbO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T P J; Jaque, F; Lamela, J; Jaque, D; Lifante, G; Cusso, F; Kamiskii, A A

    2009-01-01

    A study of Ba 2 NaNb 5 O 15 and LiNbO 3 crystals with periodic ferroelectric domain structures using the scanning near field optical microscopy technique is reported. Optical contrast is observed in the regions of ferroelectric domain boundaries and it is analysed using beam propagation method modelling. This reveals that the optical contrast, a consequence of changes in the refractive index, is not due to variation of the waveguide-coupling efficiency, and supports the hypothesis that it is associated with the domain array, which is related to the size of the domain. (fast track communication)

  19. Investigation into local cell mechanics by atomic force microscopy mapping and optical tweezer vertical indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceano, G; Yousafzai, M S; Ma, W; Ndoye, F; Venturelli, L; Hussain, I; Bonin, S; Niemela, J; Scoles, G; Cojoc, D; Ferrari, E

    2016-02-12

    Investigating the mechanical properties of cells could reveal a potential source of label-free markers of cancer progression, based on measurable viscoelastic parameters. The Young's modulus has proved to be the most thoroughly studied so far, however, even for the same cell type, the elastic modulus reported in different studies spans a wide range of values, mainly due to the application of different experimental conditions. This complicates the reliable use of elasticity for the mechanical phenotyping of cells. Here we combine two complementary techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical tweezer microscopy (OTM), providing a comprehensive mechanical comparison of three human breast cell lines: normal myoepithelial (HBL-100), luminal breast cancer (MCF-7) and basal breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells. The elastic modulus was measured locally by AFM and OTM on single cells, using similar indentation approaches but different measurement parameters. Peak force tapping AFM was employed at nanonewton forces and high loading rates to draw a viscoelastic map of each cell and the results indicated that the region on top of the nucleus provided the most meaningful results. OTM was employed at those locations at piconewton forces and low loading rates, to measure the elastic modulus in a real elastic regime and rule out the contribution of viscous forces typical of AFM. When measured by either AFM or OTM, the cell lines' elasticity trend was similar for the aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells, which were found to be significantly softer than the other two cell types in both measurements. However, when comparing HBL-100 and MCF-7 cells, we found significant differences only when using OTM.

  20. Second harmonic generation microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Risbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Myofibers and collagen show non-linear optical properties enabling imaging using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The technique is evaluated for use as a tool for real-time studies of thermally induced changes in thin samples of unfixed and unstained pork. The forward and the backward...... scattered SHG light reveal complementary features of the structures of myofibers and collagen fibers. Upon heating the myofibers show no structural changes before reaching a temperature of 53 °C. At this temperature the SHG signal becomes extinct. The extinction of the SHG at 53 °C coincides with a low......-temperature endotherm peak observable in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. DSC analysis of epimysium, the connective tissue layer that enfold skeletal muscles, produces one large endotherm starting at 57 °C and peaking at 59.5 °C. SHG microscopy of collagen fibers reveals a variability of thermal...

  1. Wide-field two-photon microscopy with temporal focusing and HiLo background rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Elijah Y. S.; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Daekeun; So, Peter T. C.

    2011-03-01

    Scanningless depth-resolved microscopy is achieved through spatial-temporal focusing and has been demonstrated previously. The advantage of this method is that a large area may be imaged without scanning resulting in higher throughput of the imaging system. Because it is a widefield technique, the optical sectioning effect is considerably poorer than with conventional spatial focusing two-photon microscopy. Here we propose wide-field two-photon microscopy based on spatio-temporal focusing and employing background rejection based on the HiLo microscope principle. We demonstrate the effects of applying HiLo microscopy to widefield temporally focused two-photon microscopy.

  2. Selective sensitivity in Kerr microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, I V; Schäfer, R

    2017-07-01

    A new technique for contrast separation in wide-field magneto-optical Kerr microscopy is introduced. Utilizing the light from eight light emitting diodes, guided to the microscope by glass fibers and being switched synchronously with the camera exposure, domain images with orthogonal in-plane sensitivity can be displayed simultaneously at real-time, and images with pure in-plane or polar contrast can be obtained. The benefit of this new method of contrast separation is demonstrated for Permalloy films, a NdFeB sinter magnet, and a cobalt crystal. Moreover, the new technique is shown to strongly enhance the sensitivity of Kerr microscopy by eliminating parasitic contrast contributions occurring in conventional setups. A doubling of the in-plane domain contrast and a sensitivity to Kerr rotations as low as 0.6 mdeg is demonstrated.

  3. Selective sensitivity in Kerr microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, I. V.; Schäfer, R.

    2017-07-01

    A new technique for contrast separation in wide-field magneto-optical Kerr microscopy is introduced. Utilizing the light from eight light emitting diodes, guided to the microscope by glass fibers and being switched synchronously with the camera exposure, domain images with orthogonal in-plane sensitivity can be displayed simultaneously at real-time, and images with pure in-plane or polar contrast can be obtained. The benefit of this new method of contrast separation is demonstrated for Permalloy films, a NdFeB sinter magnet, and a cobalt crystal. Moreover, the new technique is shown to strongly enhance the sensitivity of Kerr microscopy by eliminating parasitic contrast contributions occurring in conventional setups. A doubling of the in-plane domain contrast and a sensitivity to Kerr rotations as low as 0.6 mdeg is demonstrated.

  4. Optics in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, R W

    1969-10-01

    Optics is interpreted to include x-ray optics, electronic optics, and short wave radiooptics as well as the more conventional visible, uv, and ir optics. Recent work in Britain on x-ray optics (applied to molecular biology), on scanning electron microscopy, and in radioastronomy (discovery of pulsars) is mentioned. In the optics of the visible and ir there is an increasing interest in over-all systems design. .The formation of large industrial units capable of carrying through major design program, requiring advanced mechanical and electronic design associated with new lens systems, is welcomed.

  5. Characterization of Byzantine pottery from Oltina (Constanţa County), Romania, using PIXE and Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugoi, Roxana; Talmaţchi, Cristina; Haitǎ, Constantin; Ceccato, Daniele

    2018-02-01

    An assemblage of 58 ceramic shards discovered in archaeological excavations at Oltina, Romania, dated to the 10th-11th century CE, was subjected to archaeometric investigations in order to reveal the raw materials and manufacturing techniques employed by the potters from the Lower Danube zone during the Byzantine ruling. The initial grouping of the shards according to stylistic criteria was refined by the subsequent petrographic study. Optical Microscopy (OM) detailed the general mineralogy and the pottery fabric, i.e. the textural characteristics, porosity and microstructure, surface treatments and firing. The PIXE analyses of potteries performed at AN2000 accelerator of LNL, INFN, Italy led to the identification of the chemical composition of the ceramic shards. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of the PIXE data evidenced several categories of shards with distinct compositional signatures, the main division being the one separating the ceramic fragments made of kaolinitic clays from the rest of the Oltina potteries.

  6. Workshop on the coupling of synchrotron radiation IR and X-rays with tip based scanning probe microscopies X-TIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comin, F.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Mundboth, K.; Susini, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France); Purans, J.; Sammelselg, V. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia); Chevrier, J.; Huant, S. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, LEPES, 38 (France); Hamilton, B. [School of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Manchester (United Kingdom); Saito, A. [Osaka Univ., RIKEN/SPring8 (Japan); Dhez, O. [OGG, INFM/CNR, 38 - Grenoble (France); Brocklesby, W.S. [Southampton Univ., Optoelectronics Research Centre (United Kingdom); Alvarez-Prado, L.M. [Ovieado, Dept. de Fisica (Spain); Kuzmin, A. [Institute of Solid State Physics - Riga (Latvia); Pailharey, D. [CRMC-N - CNRS, 13 - Marseille (France); Tonneau, D. [CRMCN - Faculte des sciences de Luminy, 13 - Marseille (France); Chretien, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, 75 - Paris (France); Cricenti, A. [ISM-CNR, Rome (Italy); DeWilde, Y. [ESPCI, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The coupling of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) with synchrotron radiation is attracting increasing attention from nano-science community. By combining these 2 tools one can visualize, for example, the sample nano-structure prior to any X-ray characterization. Coupled with focusing devices or independently, SPM can provide spatial resolution below the optical limits. Furthermore, the possibility of employing SPM to manipulate nano-objects under X-ray beams is another exciting perspective. This document gathers the transparencies of 6 of the presentations made at the workshop: 1) the combination of atomic force microscopy and X-ray beam - experimental set-up and objectives; 2) the combination of scanning probe microscope and X-rays for detection of electrons; 3) towards soft X-ray scanning microscopy using tapered capillaries and laser-based high harmonic sources; 4) near-field magneto-optical microscopy; 5) near-field scanning optical microscopy - a brief overview -; and 6) from aperture-less near-field optical microscopy to infra-red near-field night vision. 4 posters entitled: 1) development of laboratory setup for X-ray/AFM experiments, 2) towards X-ray diffraction on single islands, 3) nano-XEOL using near-field detection, and 4) local collection with a STM tip of photoelectrons emitted by a surface irradiated by visible of UV laser beam, are included in the document.

  7. Workshop on the coupling of synchrotron radiation IR and X-rays with tip based scanning probe microscopies X-TIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comin, F.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Mundboth, K.; Susini, J.; Purans, J.; Sammelselg, V.; Chevrier, J.; Huant, S.; Hamilton, B.; Saito, A.; Dhez, O.; Brocklesby, W.S.; Alvarez-Prado, L.M.; Kuzmin, A.; Pailharey, D.; Tonneau, D.; Chretien, P.; Cricenti, A.; DeWilde, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The coupling of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) with synchrotron radiation is attracting increasing attention from nano-science community. By combining these 2 tools one can visualize, for example, the sample nano-structure prior to any X-ray characterization. Coupled with focusing devices or independently, SPM can provide spatial resolution below the optical limits. Furthermore, the possibility of employing SPM to manipulate nano-objects under X-ray beams is another exciting perspective. This document gathers the transparencies of 6 of the presentations made at the workshop: 1) the combination of atomic force microscopy and X-ray beam - experimental set-up and objectives; 2) the combination of scanning probe microscope and X-rays for detection of electrons; 3) towards soft X-ray scanning microscopy using tapered capillaries and laser-based high harmonic sources; 4) near-field magneto-optical microscopy; 5) near-field scanning optical microscopy - a brief overview -; and 6) from aperture-less near-field optical microscopy to infra-red near-field night vision. 4 posters entitled: 1) development of laboratory setup for X-ray/AFM experiments, 2) towards X-ray diffraction on single islands, 3) nano-XEOL using near-field detection, and 4) local collection with a STM tip of photoelectrons emitted by a surface irradiated by visible of UV laser beam, are included in the document

  8. LIBS, Raman spectroscopy, and optical microscopy analyses of superficial encrustations on ancient tesserae in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkowska, Anna; Chmielewski, Krzysztof; Skrzyczanowski, Wojciech; Mularczyk-Oliwa, Monika; Ostrowski, Roman; Strzelec, Marek

    2017-07-01

    The aim of research was determination of composition and nature of superficial deposits, cumulated at the selected mosaic's tesserae from Lebanon. Selected were three series of objects from different locations, namely from the seaside and mountain archaeological sites as well as from the mosaics exposed in the city center. Analyzed were stone and ceramic tesserae. The selection of objects was dictated by wide diversification of factors influencing the state of preservation and composition of deposits in given location. Investigations were performed including LIBS, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and optical 3D microscopy. The experimental results included composition and kind of deposit at the tesserae surfaces, and composition of tesserae itself. Compounds in the superficial deposits were identified. Confirmed was occurrence of different encrustations in dependence on geographic localization of a given sample. The interpretation of results was supported by multivariate statistical techniques, especially by the factor analysis. Performed analyses constitute the pioneer realization in terms of determination of deposits composition at the surface of mosaics from the Lebanon territory.

  9. Evaluation of Virtual Microscopy in Medical Histology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication…

  10. Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Lee, Sangwook; Isozaki, Akihiro; Li, Ming; Jiang, Yiyue; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Di Carlo, Dino; Tanaka, Yo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-03-01

    Innovations in optical microscopy have opened new windows onto scientific research, industrial quality control, and medical practice over the last few decades. One of such innovations is optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy - an emerging method for high-throughput quantitative phase imaging that builds on the interference between temporally stretched signal and reference pulses by using dispersive properties of light in both spatial and temporal domains in an interferometric configuration on a microfluidic platform. It achieves the continuous acquisition of both intensity and phase images with a high throughput of more than 10,000 particles or cells per second by overcoming speed limitations that exist in conventional quantitative phase imaging methods. Applications enabled by such capabilities are versatile and include characterization of cancer cells and microalgal cultures. In this paper, we review the principles and applications of optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy and discuss its future perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative analysis of imaging configurations and objectives for Fourier microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvits, Jonathan A; Jiang, Mingming; Zia, Rashid

    2015-11-01

    Fourier microscopy is becoming an increasingly important tool for the analysis of optical nanostructures and quantum emitters. However, achieving quantitative Fourier space measurements requires a thorough understanding of the impact of aberrations introduced by optical microscopes that have been optimized for conventional real-space imaging. Here we present a detailed framework for analyzing the performance of microscope objectives for several common Fourier imaging configurations. To this end, we model objectives from Nikon, Olympus, and Zeiss using parameters that were inferred from patent literature and confirmed, where possible, by physical disassembly. We then examine the aberrations most relevant to Fourier microscopy, including the alignment tolerances of apodization factors for different objective classes, the effect of magnification on the modulation transfer function, and vignetting-induced reductions of the effective numerical aperture for wide-field measurements. Based on this analysis, we identify an optimal objective class and imaging configuration for Fourier microscopy. In addition, the Zemax files for the objectives and setups used in this analysis have been made publicly available as a resource for future studies.

  12. Transmission Electron Microscopy Physics of Image Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohl, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation presents the theory of image and contrast formation, and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy. The principles of particle and wave optics of electrons are described. Electron-specimen interactions are discussed for evaluating the theory of scattering and phase contrast. Also discussed are the kinematical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their applications for crystal-structure analysis and imaging of lattices and their defects. X-ray microanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are treated as analytical methods. Specimen damage and contamination by electron irradiation limits the resolution for biological and some inorganic specimens. This fifth edition includes discussion of recent progress, especially in the area of aberration correction and energy filtering; moreover, the topics introduced in the fourth edition have been updated. Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation is written f...

  13. Superresolution upgrade for confocal spinning disk systems using image scanning microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbaner, Sebastian; Hähnel, Dirk; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Confocal Spinning Disk Systems are widely used for 3D cell imaging because they offer the advantage of optical sectioning at high framerates and are easy to use. However, as in confocal microscopy, the imaging resolution is diffraction limited, which can be theoretically improved by a factor of 2 using the principle of Image Scanning Microscopy (ISM) [1]. ISM with a Confocal Spinning Disk setup (CSDISM) has been shown to improve contrast as well as lateral resolution (FWHM) from 201 +/- 20 nm to 130 +/- 10 nm at 488 nm excitation. A minimum total acquisition time of one second per ISM image makes this method highly suitable for 3D live cell imaging [2]. Here, we present a multicolor implementation of CSDISM for the popular Micro-Manager Open Source Microscopy platform. Since changes in the optical path are not necessary, this will allow any researcher to easily upgrade their standard Confocal Spinning Disk system at remarkable low cost ( 5000 USD) with an ISM superresolution option. [1]. Müller, C.B. and Enderlein, J. Image Scanning Microscopy. Physical Review Letters 104, (2010). [2]. Schulz, O. et al. Resolution doubling in fluorescence microscopy with confocal spinning-disk image scanning microscopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110, 21000-5 (2013).

  14. 3D wide field-of-view Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy advancing real-time in-vivo imaging and metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cogliati, Andrea; Hayes, Adam; Tankam, Patrice; Santhanam, Anand; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2017-02-01

    Real-time volumetric high-definition wide-field-of-view in-vivo cellular imaging requires micron-scale resolution in 3D. Compactness of the handheld device and distortion-free images with cellular resolution are also critically required for onsite use in clinical applications. By integrating a custom liquid lens-based microscope and a dual-axis MEMS scanner in a compact handheld probe, Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) breaks the lateral resolution limit of optical coherence tomography through depth, overcoming the tradeoff between numerical aperture and depth of focus, enabling advances in biotechnology. Furthermore, distortion-free imaging with no post-processing is achieved with a compact, lightweight handheld MEMS scanner that obtained a 12-fold reduction in volume and 17-fold reduction in weight over a previous dual-mirror galvanometer-based scanner. Approaching the holy grail of medical imaging - noninvasive real-time imaging with histologic resolution - GD-OCM demonstrates invariant resolution of 2 μm throughout a volume of 1 x 1 x 0.6 mm3, acquired and visualized in less than 2 minutes with parallel processing on graphics processing units. Results on the metrology of manufactured materials and imaging of human tissue with GD-OCM are presented.

  15. A method for phenomenological and chemical kinetics study of autocatalytic reactive dissolution by optical microscopy. The case of uranium dioxide dissolution in nitric acid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Philippe; Magnaldo, Alastair; Godard, Jérémy; Schaer, Éric

    2018-03-01

    Dissolution is a milestone of the head-end of hydrometallurgical processes, as the stabilization rates of the chemical elements determine the process performance and hold-up. This study aims at better understanding the chemical and physico-chemical phenomena of uranium dioxide dissolution reactions in nitric acid media in the Purex process, which separates the reusable materials and the final wastes of the spent nuclear fuels. It has been documented that the attack of sintering-manufactured uranium dioxide solids occurs through preferential attack sites, which leads to the development of cracks in the solids. Optical microscopy observations show that in some cases, the development of these cracks leads to the solid cleavage. It is shown here that the dissolution of the detached fragments is much slower than the process of the complete cleavage of the solid, and occurs with no disturbing phenomena, like gas bubbling. This fact has motivated the measurement of dissolution kinetics using optical microscopy and image processing. By further discriminating between external resistance and chemical reaction, the "true" chemical kinetics of the reaction have been measured, and the highly autocatalytic nature of the reaction confirmed. Based on these results, the constants of the chemical reactions kinetic laws have also been evaluated.

  16. A method for phenomenological and chemical kinetics study of autocatalytic reactive dissolution by optical microscopy. The case of uranium dioxide dissolution in nitric acid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissolution is a milestone of the head-end of hydrometallurgical processes, as the stabilization rates of the chemical elements determine the process performance and hold-up. This study aims at better understanding the chemical and physico-chemical phenomena of uranium dioxide dissolution reactions in nitric acid media in the Purex process, which separates the reusable materials and the final wastes of the spent nuclear fuels. It has been documented that the attack of sintering-manufactured uranium dioxide solids occurs through preferential attack sites, which leads to the development of cracks in the solids. Optical microscopy observations show that in some cases, the development of these cracks leads to the solid cleavage. It is shown here that the dissolution of the detached fragments is much slower than the process of the complete cleavage of the solid, and occurs with no disturbing phenomena, like gas bubbling. This fact has motivated the measurement of dissolution kinetics using optical microscopy and image processing. By further discriminating between external resistance and chemical reaction, the “true” chemical kinetics of the reaction have been measured, and the highly autocatalytic nature of the reaction confirmed. Based on these results, the constants of the chemical reactions kinetic laws have also been evaluated.

  17. Developing and Incorporating Instructional Videos and Quizzes as a Blended and Online Learning Component in an Undergraduate Optical Microscopy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontano, S.; Gualda, G. A. R.; Claiborne, L. L.; Brame, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optical mineralogy is not an easy skill to master as an undergraduate, but it is crucial for understanding what the Earth is made out of. It is a supplementary and specific skillset typically taught in a microscope lab supporting lessons on crystallography, chemistry and mineral analysis in the classroom. Mastering the basic skills is required for advancement in courses that utilize thin sections in teaching igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. This project asks: Will exposing undergraduate Earth and environmental studies students to optical microscopy figures in videos prior to lab assist in the acquisition of skills required to describe and distinguish Earth materials? This project is conducted in conjunction with the Blended and Online Learning Design (BOLD) Fellowship offered through the Center for Teaching (CFT) at Vanderbilt University. Eight videos and accompanying pre-lab questions were hosted online weekly in a semester-long, undergraduate Earth materials course. The focus of the design of the videos and supporting questions is specifically on microscopy skills rather than on optics concepts, which is taught post-video. The videos were made available prior to a weekly lab with the intent of familiarizing the student with the types of images and information he/she should obtain with the microscope. Multiple choice, formative-style questions accompany the videos in an online-hosted assignment. These questions are graded on basis of completion and are intended to aid in student metacognition. Subjects include students in the Vanderbilt University Earth Materials course and students from the Hanover College Mineralogy course. The effectiveness of the videos is assessed in two parts: (1) Comparing the homework and lab final grades of the students this year with those of the students last year (2) Analysis of a weekly questionnaire. The answers after each week will be compiled and compared. Collecting data from Vanderbilt University students and Hanover

  18. Boundary segmentation for fluorescence microscopy using steerable filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David Joon; Salama, Paul; Dunn, Kenneth W.; Delp, Edward J.

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is used to image multiple subcellular structures in living cells which are not readily observed using conventional optical microscopy. Moreover, two-photon microscopy is widely used to image structures deeper in tissue. Recent advancement in fluorescence microscopy has enabled the generation of large data sets of images at different depths, times, and spectral channels. Thus, automatic object segmentation is necessary since manual segmentation would be inefficient and biased. However, automatic segmentation is still a challenging problem as regions of interest may not have well defined boundaries as well as non-uniform pixel intensities. This paper describes a method for segmenting tubular structures in fluorescence microscopy images of rat kidney and liver samples using adaptive histogram equalization, foreground/background segmentation, steerable filters to capture directional tendencies, and connected-component analysis. The results from several data sets demonstrate that our method can segment tubular boundaries successfully. Moreover, our method has better performance when compared to other popular image segmentation methods when using ground truth data obtained via manual segmentation.

  19. An Evanescent Field Optical Microscope. Scanning probe Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.; Wickramasinghe, H. Kumar

    1991-01-01

    An Evanescent Field Optical Microscope (EFOM) is presented, which employs frustrated total internal reflection on a highly localized scale by means of a sharp dielectric tip. The coupling of the evanescent field to the sub-micrometer probe as a function of probe-sample distance, angle of incidence

  20. Near-field scanning optical microscopy based nanostructuring of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimmalgi, A; Hwang, D J; Grigoropoulos, C P

    2007-01-01

    Nanofabrication, at lateral resolutions beyond the capability of conventional optical lithography techniques, is demonstrated here. Femtosecond laser was used in conjunction with Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopes (NSOMs) to nanostructure thin metal films. Also, the possibility of using these nanostructured metal films as masks to effectively transfer the pattern to the underlying substrate by wet etching process is shown. Two different optical nearfiled processing schemes were studied for near-field nanostructuring. In the first scheme, local field enhancement in the near-field of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) probe tip irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses was utilized (apertureless NSOM mode) and as a second approach, femtosecond laser beam was spatially confined by cantilevered NSOM fiber tip (apertured NOSM mode). The minimized heat- and shock-affected areas introduced during ultrafast laser based machining process, allows processing of even high conductivity thin metal films with minimized formation of any interfacial compounds between the metal films and the underlying substrate. Potential applications of this method may be in the fields of nanolithography, nanofluidics, nanoscale chemical and gas sensors, high-density data storage, nano-opto-electronics, as well as biotechnology related applications

  1. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy (CARS): Instrumentation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaker, Nadia; Lenne, Pierre-Francois; Marguet, Didier; Colonna, Anne; Hadjur, Christophe; Rigneault, Herve

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in laser physics have permitted the development of a new kind of microscopy based on stimulated Raman scattering. This new technique known as Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy allows vibrational imaging with high sensitivity, high spectral resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capabilities. We review recent advances in CARS microscopy, with applications to chemical and biological systems. We also present an application of CARS microscopy with high optical resolution and spectral selectivity, in resolving structures in surface ex vivo stratum corneum by looking at the CH 2 stretching vibrational band. A strong CARS signal is backscattered from an intense forward generated CARS signal in thick samples. This makes noninvasive imaging of deep structures possible, without labeling or chemical treatments

  2. Evaluation of virtual microscopy in medical histology teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication technologies in the study of digital microscopic images. A virtual microscopy program was recently introduced at Ghent University. Since little empirical evidence is available concerning the impact of virtual microscopy (VM) versus optical microscopy (OM) on the acquisition of histology knowledge, this study was set up in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. A pretest-post test and cross-over design was adopted. In the first phase, the experiment yielded two groups in a total population of 199 students, Group 1 performing the practical sessions with OM versus Group 2 performing the same sessions with VM. In the second phase, the research subjects switched conditions. The prior knowledge level of all research subjects was assessed with a pretest. Knowledge acquisition was measured with a post test after each phase (T1 and T2). Analysis of covariance was carried out to study the differential gain in knowledge at T1 and T2, considering the possible differences in prior knowledge at the start of the study. The results pointed to non-significant differences at T1 and at T2. This supports the assumption that the acquisition of the histology knowledge is independent of the microscopy representation mode (VM versus OM) of the learning material. The conclusion that VM is equivalent to OM offers new directions in view of ongoing innovations in medical education technology. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Chain end distribution of block copolymer in two-dimensional microphase-separated structure studied by scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Ryojun; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2009-10-01

    The chain end distribution of a block copolymer in a two-dimensional microphase-separated structure was studied by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). In the monolayer of poly(octadecyl methacrylate)-block-poly(isobutyl methacrylate) (PODMA-b-PiBMA), the free end of the PiBMA subchain was directly observed by SNOM, and the spatial distributions of the whole block and the chain end are examined and compared with the convolution of the point spread function of the microscope and distribution function of the model structures. It was found that the chain end distribution of the block copolymer confined in two dimensions has a peak near the domain center, being concentrated in the narrower region, as compared with three-dimensional systems.

  4. Nanodiamond Landmarks for Subcellular Multimodal Optical and Electron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Mark A.; Lake, Michael P.; Kohan, Sirus A.; Leung, Belinda; Bouchard, Louis-S.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need for biolabels that can be used in both optical and electron microscopies, are non-cytotoxic, and do not photobleach. Such biolabels could enable targeted nanoscale imaging of sub-cellular structures, and help to establish correlations between conjugation-delivered biomolecules and function. Here we demonstrate a sub-cellular multi-modal imaging methodology that enables localization of inert particulate probes, consisting of nanodiamonds having fluorescent nitrogen-vacancy centers. These are functionalized to target specific structures, and are observable by both optical and electron microscopies. Nanodiamonds targeted to the nuclear pore complex are rapidly localized in electron-microscopy diffraction mode to enable “zooming-in” to regions of interest for detailed structural investigations. Optical microscopies reveal nanodiamonds for in-vitro tracking or uptake-confirmation. The approach is general, works down to the single nanodiamond level, and can leverage the unique capabilities of nanodiamonds, such as biocompatibility, sensitive magnetometry, and gene and drug delivery. PMID:24036840

  5. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Freeze-Drying Microscopy for Designing Lyophilization Process and Its Impact on Process Efficiency and Product Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Srinivasan, Charudharshini; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Awotwe-Otoo, David; Cruz, Celia N; Muhammad, Ashraf

    2018-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography freeze-drying microscopy (OCT-FDM) is a novel technique that allows the three-dimensional imaging of a drug product during the entire lyophilization process. OCT-FDM consists of a single-vial freeze dryer (SVFD) affixed with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. Unlike the conventional techniques, such as modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC) and light transmission freeze-drying microscopy, used for predicting the product collapse temperature (Tc), the OCT-FDM approach seeks to mimic the actual product and process conditions during the lyophilization process. However, there is limited understanding on the application of this emerging technique to the design of the lyophilization process. In this study, we investigated the suitability of OCT-FDM technique in designing a lyophilization process. Moreover, we compared the product quality attributes of the resulting lyophilized product manufactured using Tc, a critical process control parameter, as determined by OCT-FDM versus as estimated by mDSC. OCT-FDM analysis revealed the absence of collapse even for the low protein concentration (5 mg/ml) and low solid content formulation (1%w/v) studied. This was confirmed by lab scale lyophilization. In addition, lyophilization cycles designed using Tc values obtained from OCT-FDM were more efficient with higher sublimation rate and mass flux than the conventional cycles, since drying was conducted at higher shelf temperature. Finally, the quality attributes of the products lyophilized using Tc determined by OCT-FDM and mDSC were similar, and product shrinkage and cracks were observed in all the batches of freeze-dried products irrespective of the technique employed in predicting Tc.

  6. Real-time high dynamic range laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegoni, C.; Leon Swisher, C.; Fumene Feruglio, P.; Giedt, R. J.; Rousso, D. L.; Stapleton, S.; Weissleder, R.

    2016-04-01

    In conventional confocal/multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, images are typically acquired under ideal settings and after extensive optimization of parameters for a given structure or feature, often resulting in information loss from other image attributes. To overcome the problem of selective data display, we developed a new method that extends the imaging dynamic range in optical microscopy and improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Here we demonstrate how real-time and sequential high dynamic range microscopy facilitates automated three-dimensional neural segmentation. We address reconstruction and segmentation performance on samples with different size, anatomy and complexity. Finally, in vivo real-time high dynamic range imaging is also demonstrated, making the technique particularly relevant for longitudinal imaging in the presence of physiological motion and/or for quantification of in vivo fast tracer kinetics during functional imaging.

  7. Time-stretch microscopy based on time-wavelength sequence reconstruction from wideband incoherent source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chi; Xu, Yiqing; Wei, Xiaoming; Tsia, Kevin K.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Time-stretch microscopy has emerged as an ultrafast optical imaging concept offering the unprecedented combination of the imaging speed and sensitivity. However, dedicated wideband and coherence optical pulse source with high shot-to-shot stability has been mandated for time-wavelength mapping—the enabling process for ultrahigh speed wavelength-encoded image retrieval. From the practical point of view, exploiting methods to relax the stringent requirements (e.g., temporal stability and coherence) for the source of time-stretch microscopy is thus of great value. In this paper, we demonstrated time-stretch microscopy by reconstructing the time-wavelength mapping sequence from a wideband incoherent source. Utilizing the time-lens focusing mechanism mediated by a narrow-band pulse source, this approach allows generation of a wideband incoherent source, with the spectral efficiency enhanced by a factor of 18. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, time-stretch imaging with the scan rate as high as MHz and diffraction-limited resolution is achieved based on the wideband incoherent source. We note that the concept of time-wavelength sequence reconstruction from wideband incoherent source can also be generalized to any high-speed optical real-time measurements, where wavelength is acted as the information carrier

  8. Near-infrared multispectral photoacoustic microscopy using a graded-index fiber amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Buma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM of lipid-rich tissue using a multi-wavelength pulsed laser based on nonlinear fiber optics. 1047 nm laser pulses are converted to 1098, 1153, 1215, and 1270 nm pulses via stimulated Raman scattering in a graded-index multimode fiber. Multispectral PAM of a lipid phantom is demonstrated with our low-cost and simple technique.

  9. Polarization contrast in reflection near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fibre tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Using cross-hatched, patterned semiconductor surfaces and round 20-nm-thick gold pads on semiconductor wafers, we investigate the imaging characteristics of a reflection near-field optical microscope with an uncoated fibre tip for different polarization configurations and light wavelengths....... Is is shown that cross-polarized detection allows one to effectively suppress far-field components in the detected signal and to realise imaging of optical contrast on the sub-wavelength scale. The sensitivity window of our microscope, i.e. the scale on which near-field optical images represent mainly optical...

  10. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  11. Two-dimensional metamaterial optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, I I

    2010-01-01

    While three-dimensional photonic metamaterials are difficult to fabricate, many new concepts and ideas in the metamaterial optics can be realized in two spatial dimensions using planar optics of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper we review recent progress in this direction. Two-dimensional photonic crystals, hyperbolic metamaterials, and plasmonic focusing devices are demonstrated and used in novel microscopy and waveguiding schemes

  12. The light-sheet microscopy revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girkin, J. M.; Carvalho, M. T.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reviews the rapid advances that have been made in one form of optical biological imaging in the last decade, namely that of light sheet microscopy. Although the concept was originally presented over one hundred years ago, at the time it was a methodology that lacked the technology to really make it a viable tool for practical everyday imaging in the biologist’s laboratory. However, since its re-discovery, it has started to transform in vivo and increasingly intact organ imaging in a number of areas of biology. This review looks back at the beginning of the method and then the crucial role that modern optical technology, frequently developed for other fields, has played in advancing the instrumentation. This paper will also look at the OpenSPIM route that was developed whereby, through the purchase of a few optical components, researchers have been able to develop their own bespoke instruments and we consider if this may be a route forward for the rapid development of other technological breakthroughs.

  13. Compact diffraction phase microscopy for quantitative visualization of cells in biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talaikova, N A; Ryabukho, V P

    2016-01-01

    We consider a simplified and compact scheme of interference phase microscopy using a diffraction grating and spatial filtering of the diffracted field, i.e., diffraction phase microscopy. The scheme and the parameters of the device with the possibility of using the optical system of a smartphone and its software are analysed. The results of experimental determination of the spatial structure parameters of erythrocytes are presented. (paper)

  14. Unconventional methods of imaging: computational microscopy and compact implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-07-01

    In the past two decades or so, there has been a renaissance of optical microscopy research and development. Much work has been done in an effort to improve the resolution and sensitivity of microscopes, while at the same time to introduce new imaging modalities, and make existing imaging systems more efficient and more accessible. In this review, we look at two particular aspects of this renaissance: computational imaging techniques and compact imaging platforms. In many cases, these aspects go hand-in-hand because the use of computational techniques can simplify the demands placed on optical hardware in obtaining a desired imaging performance. In the first main section, we cover lens-based computational imaging, in particular, light-field microscopy, structured illumination, synthetic aperture, Fourier ptychography, and compressive imaging. In the second main section, we review lensfree holographic on-chip imaging, including how images are reconstructed, phase recovery techniques, and integration with smart substrates for more advanced imaging tasks. In the third main section we describe how these and other microscopy modalities have been implemented in compact and field-portable devices, often based around smartphones. Finally, we conclude with some comments about opportunities and demand for better results, and where we believe the field is heading.

  15. New directions in scanning-tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, T.L.; Warmack, R.J.; Reddick, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    The tunneling of electrons in scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) has permitted imaging of the electronic distribution about individual atoms on surfaces. The need for use of conducting surfaces in STM limits its applicability, and new forms of scanning microscopy have emerged as a result of interest in poorly conducting samples. Atomic force microscopy has demonstrated that the force between a surface and a probe tip can be used to image selected materials. Now being developed are magnetic probe STM's and photon tunneling microscopes in which the probe is a sharpened optical fiber. Also of great interest presently is the measurement of differential conductance of surfaces using electron STM's. This method supplies spectral information and contrast enhancement in images. At present there remains much theoretical work to be carried out in order to better characterize related data on inelastic electron tunneling, and valuable insight may be gained from data being gathered on the local work function of materials. As matters stand today, the key problems lie in determining tip and contamination effects, preparation of samples, and understanding conductivity mechanisms in very thin materials on conducting substrates. Resolution of these problems and introduction of new forms of scanning microscopy may permit novel and important applications in biology as well as surface science

  16. Resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Christoph; Masters, Barry R.

    2013-05-01

    We survey the history of resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy and their impact on current research in biomedicine. Often these techniques are labeled superresolution, or enhanced resolution microscopy, or light-optical nanoscopy. First, we introduce the development of diffraction theory in its relation to enhanced resolution; then we explore the foundations of resolution as expounded by the astronomers and the physicists and describe the conditions for which they apply. Then we elucidate Ernst Abbe's theory of optical formation in the microscope, and its experimental verification and dissemination to the world wide microscope communities. Second, we describe and compare the early techniques that can enhance the resolution of the microscope. Third, we present the historical development of various techniques that substantially enhance the optical resolution of the light microscope. These enhanced resolution techniques in their modern form constitute an active area of research with seminal applications in biology and medicine. Our historical survey of the field of resolution enhancement uncovers many examples of reinvention, rediscovery, and independent invention and development of similar proposals, concepts, techniques, and instruments. Attribution of credit is therefore confounded by the fact that for understandable reasons authors stress the achievements from their own research groups and sometimes obfuscate their contributions and the prior art of others. In some cases, attribution of credit is also made more complex by the fact that long term developments are difficult to allocate to a specific individual because of the many mutual connections often existing between sometimes fiercely competing, sometimes strongly collaborating groups. Since applications in biology and medicine have been a major driving force in the development of resolution enhancing approaches, we focus on the contribution of enhanced resolution to these fields.

  17. Fluctuation microscopy: a probe of medium range order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treacy, M M J; Gibson, J M; Fan, L; Paterson, D J; McNulty, I

    2005-01-01

    Fluctuation microscopy is a hybrid diffraction-imaging technique that detects medium range order in amorphous materials by examining spatial fluctuations in coherent scattering. These fluctuations appear as speckle in images and diffraction patterns. The volume of material contributing to the speckle is determined by the point-spread function (the resolution) of the imaging optics and the sample thickness. The spatial periodicities being probed are related to the diffraction vector. Statistical analysis of the speckle allows the random and non-random (ordered) contributions to be discriminated. The image resolution that gives the maximum speckle contrast, as determined by the normalized variance of the image intensity, is determined by the characteristic length scale of the ordering. Because medium range ordering length scales can extend out to about the tenth coordination shell, fluctuation microscopy tends to be a low image resolution technique. This review presents the kinematical scattering theory underpinning fluctuation microscopy and a description of fluctuation electron microscopy as it has been employed in the transmission electron microscope for studying amorphous materials. Recent results using soft x-rays for studying nanoscale materials are also presented. We summarize outstanding issues and point to possible future directions for fluctuation microscopy as a technique

  18. Scanning electron microscopy physics of image formation and microanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reimer, Ludwig

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this book is to outline the physics of image formation, electron­ specimen interactions, imaging modes, the interpretation of micrographs and the use of quantitative modes "in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). lt forms a counterpart to Transmission Electron Microscopy (Vol. 36 of this Springer Series in Optical Sciences) . The book evolved from lectures delivered at the University of Münster and from a German text entitled Raster-Elektronenmikroskopie (Springer-Verlag), published in collaboration with my colleague Gerhard Pfefferkorn. In the introductory chapter, the principles of the SEM and of electron­ specimen interactions are described, the most important imaging modes and their associated contrast are summarized, and general aspects of eiemental analysis by x-ray and Auger electron emission are discussed. The electron gun and electron optics are discussed in Chap. 2 in order to show how an electron probe of small diameter can be formed, how the elec­ tron beam can be blanked at high fre...

  19. Recent achievements in multi-keV x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susini, J.; Barrett, R.; Salome, M.; Kaulich, B.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray microscopy (XRM) techniques are emerging as powerful and complementary tools for sub-micron investigations. Soft XRM traditionally offers the possibility to form direct images of thick hydrated biological material in near-native environments, at a spatial resolution well beyond that achievable with visible light microscopy. Natural contrast is available in the soft X-ray region, in the so-called 'water-window', due to the presence of absorption edges of the major constituents (C,N,O). Recent advances in manufacturing techniques have enlarged the accessible energy range of micro-focusing optics and offer new applications in a broad range of disciplines. XRM in the 1-20 keV energy range is better suited to map trace elements in fluorescence yield, 3-D tomographic imaging and in micro-diffraction. After a brief introduction to the principles and methods, the main attributes of X-ray microscopy will be presented. This presentation will be biased towards sub-micron microscopy developed at the ESRF in the 2-10 keV energy. Strengths and weaknesses of X-ray microscopy and spectro-microscopy techniques will be discussed and illustrated by examples in biology, materials sciences and geology. (authors)

  20. Super-resolution and super-localization microscopy: A novel tool for imaging chemical and biological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Bin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Optical microscopy imaging of single molecules and single particles is an essential method for studying fundamental biological and chemical processes at the molecular and nanometer scale. The best spatial resolution (~ λ/2) achievable in traditional optical microscopy is governed by the diffraction of light. However, single molecule-based super-localization and super-resolution microscopy imaging techniques have emerged in the past decade. Individual molecules can be localized with nanometer scale accuracy and precision for studying of biological and chemical processes.This work uncovered the heterogeneous properties of the pore structures. In this dissertation, the coupling of molecular transport and catalytic reaction at the single molecule and single particle level in multilayer mesoporous nanocatalysts was elucidated. Most previous studies dealt with these two important phenomena separately. A fluorogenic oxidation reaction of non-fluorescent amplex red to highly fluorescent resorufin was tested. The diffusion behavior of single resorufin molecules in aligned nanopores was studied using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM).

  1. Confocal filtering in cathodoluminescence microscopy of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Angela C.; Weppelman, I. Gerward C.; Moerland, Robert J.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.; Kruit, Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy allows optical characterization of nanostructures at high spatial resolution. At the nanoscale, a main challenge of the technique is related to the background CL generated within the sample substrate. Here, we implement confocal detection of the CL signal to minimize the background contribution to the measurement. Nano-phosphors were used as point sources to evaluate the filtering capabilities of our confocal CL system, obtaining an axial intensity profile with 2.7 μm full width at half maximum for the central peak, in good correspondence with theoretical expectations. Considering the electron interaction volume, we found that the confocal filter becomes effective for electron energies above 20 keV, when using a 25 μm pinhole (0.86 Airy units). To illustrate our approach, we present confocal CL imaging of gold nanowires and triangular shaped plates deposited on an indium-tin oxide covered glass substrate, comparing the images with those obtained in standard unfiltered CL detection. The results show that confocal CL microscopy is a valuable tool for the investigation of nanostructures on highly cathodoluminescent substrates, widely used in biological and optical applications.

  2. Confocal filtering in cathodoluminescence microscopy of nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narváez, Angela C., E-mail: a.c.narvaez@tudelft.nl, E-mail: j.p.hoogenboom@tudelft.nl; Weppelman, I. Gerward C.; Moerland, Robert J.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P., E-mail: a.c.narvaez@tudelft.nl, E-mail: j.p.hoogenboom@tudelft.nl; Kruit, Pieter [Imaging Physics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-06-23

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy allows optical characterization of nanostructures at high spatial resolution. At the nanoscale, a main challenge of the technique is related to the background CL generated within the sample substrate. Here, we implement confocal detection of the CL signal to minimize the background contribution to the measurement. Nano-phosphors were used as point sources to evaluate the filtering capabilities of our confocal CL system, obtaining an axial intensity profile with 2.7 μm full width at half maximum for the central peak, in good correspondence with theoretical expectations. Considering the electron interaction volume, we found that the confocal filter becomes effective for electron energies above 20 keV, when using a 25 μm pinhole (0.86 Airy units). To illustrate our approach, we present confocal CL imaging of gold nanowires and triangular shaped plates deposited on an indium-tin oxide covered glass substrate, comparing the images with those obtained in standard unfiltered CL detection. The results show that confocal CL microscopy is a valuable tool for the investigation of nanostructures on highly cathodoluminescent substrates, widely used in biological and optical applications.

  3. Multispectral photoacoustic microscopy of lipids using a pulsed supercontinuum laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buma, Takashi; Conley, Nicole C; Choi, Sang Won

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) of lipid-rich tissue between 1050-1714 nm using a pulsed supercontinuum laser based on a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber. OR-PAM experiments of lipid-rich samples show the expected optical absorption peaks near 1210 and 1720 nm. These results show that pulsed supercontinuum lasers are promising for OR-PAM applications such as label-free histology of lipid-rich tissue and imaging small animal models of disease.

  4. Super-Resolution Microscopy: Shedding Light on the Cellular Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew B; Shelby, Sarah A; Veatch, Sarah L

    2017-06-14

    Lipids and the membranes they form are fundamental building blocks of cellular life, and their geometry and chemical properties distinguish membranes from other cellular environments. Collective processes occurring within membranes strongly impact cellular behavior and biochemistry, and understanding these processes presents unique challenges due to the often complex and myriad interactions between membrane components. Super-resolution microscopy offers a significant gain in resolution over traditional optical microscopy, enabling the localization of individual molecules even in densely labeled samples and in cellular and tissue environments. These microscopy techniques have been used to examine the organization and dynamics of plasma membrane components, providing insight into the fundamental interactions that determine membrane functions. Here, we broadly introduce the structure and organization of the mammalian plasma membrane and review recent applications of super-resolution microscopy to the study of membranes. We then highlight some inherent challenges faced when using super-resolution microscopy to study membranes, and we discuss recent technical advancements that promise further improvements to super-resolution microscopy and its application to the plasma membrane.

  5. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dominguez@ttu.edu; Peralta, Luis Grave de [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bernussi, Ayrton A. [Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  6. Multilayer mounting for long-term light sheet microscopy of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael; Mickoleit, Michaela; Huisken, Jan

    2014-02-27

    Light sheet microscopy is the ideal imaging technique to study zebrafish embryonic development. Due to minimal photo-toxicity and bleaching, it is particularly suited for long-term time-lapse imaging over many hours up to several days. However, an appropriate sample mounting strategy is needed that offers both confinement and normal development of the sample. Multilayer mounting, a new embedding technique using low-concentration agarose in optically clear tubes, now overcomes this limitation and unleashes the full potential of light sheet microscopy for real-time developmental biology.

  7. Second-Harmonic Generation Scanning Microscopy on Domains in Al Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Scanning optical second-harmonic generation microscopy has been used to investigate domains in the surface of polycrystaline Al. Strong contrast among the crystalline grains is obtained due to variations in their crystallographic orientations and thus also nonlinear response. The origin of the co...

  8. Measurement of replication structures at the nanometer scale using super-resolution light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, D; Chagin, V O; Schermelleh, L; Martin, S; Pombo, A; Carlton, P M; Gahl, A; Domaing, P; Birk, U; Leonhardt, H; Cremer, C; Cardoso, M C

    2010-01-01

    DNA replication, similar to other cellular processes, occurs within dynamic macromolecular structures. Any comprehensive understanding ultimately requires quantitative data to establish and test models of genome duplication. We used two different super-resolution light microscopy techniques to directly measure and compare the size and numbers of replication foci in mammalian cells. This analysis showed that replication foci vary in size from 210 nm down to 40 nm. Remarkably, spatially modulated illumination (SMI) and 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) both showed an average size of 125 nm that was conserved throughout S-phase and independent of the labeling method, suggesting a basic unit of genome duplication. Interestingly, the improved optical 3D resolution identified 3- to 5-fold more distinct replication foci than previously reported. These results show that optical nanoscopy techniques enable accurate measurements of cellular structures at a level previously achieved only by electron microscopy and highlight the possibility of high-throughput, multispectral 3D analyses.

  9. Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Vohnsen, Brian; Bozhevolnaya, Elena A.

    1999-01-01

    are considered with respect to the relation between near-field optical images and the corresponding intensity distributions. Our conclusions are supported with numerical simulations and experimental results obtained by using a photon scanning tunneling microscope with an uncoated fiber tip....

  10. Transmission electron microscopy physics of image formation and microanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reimer, Ludwig

    1993-01-01

    "Transmission Electron Microscopy" presents the theory of image and contrastformation, and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy Theprinciples of particle and wave optics of electrons are described Electron-specimen interactions are discussed for evaluating the theory of scattering and phase contrast Also analysed are the kinetical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their applications for crystal-structure determination and imaging of lattices and their defects X-ray microanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are treated as analytical methods The third edition includes a brief discussionof Schottky emission guns, some clarification of minor details, and references to the recent literature

  11. Enhancement of fluorescence confocal scanning microscopy lateral resolution by use of structured illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taejoong; Gweon, DaeGab; Lee, Jun-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is an optical imaging technique used to reconstruct three-dimensional images without physical sectioning. As with other optical microscopes, the lateral resolution of the confocal microscope cannot surpass the diffraction limit. This paper presents a novel imaging system, structured illumination confocal scanning microscopy (SICSM), that uses structured illumination to improve the lateral resolution of the confocal microscope. The SICSM can easily be implemented by introducing a structured illumination generating optics to conventional line-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy. In this paper, we report our analysis of the lateral and axial resolutions of the SICSM by use of mathematical imaging theory. Numerical simulation results show that the lateral resolution of the SICSM is 1.43-fold better than that of the confocal microscope. In the axial direction, however, the resolution of the SICSM is ∼15% poorer than that of the confocal microscope. This deterioration arises because of a decrease in the axial cut-off frequency caused by the process of generating structured illumination. We propose the use of imaging conditions under which a compromise between the axial and lateral resolutions is chosen. Finally, we show simulated images of diversely shaped test objects to demonstrate the lateral and axial resolution performance of the SICSM

  12. In Depth Analyses of LEDs by a Combination of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Light Microscopy (LM) Correlated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jörg; Thomas, Christian; Tappe, Frank; Ogbazghi, Tekie

    2016-06-16

    In failure analysis, device characterization and reverse engineering of light emitting diodes (LEDs), and similar electronic components of micro-characterization, plays an important role. Commonly, different techniques like X-ray computed tomography (CT), light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used separately. Similarly, the results have to be treated for each technique independently. Here a comprehensive study is shown which demonstrates the potentials leveraged by linking CT, LM and SEM. In depth characterization is performed on a white emitting LED, which can be operated throughout all characterization steps. Major advantages are: planned preparation of defined cross sections, correlation of optical properties to structural and compositional information, as well as reliable identification of different functional regions. This results from the breadth of information available from identical regions of interest (ROIs): polarization contrast, bright and dark-field LM images, as well as optical images of the LED cross section in operation. This is supplemented by SEM imaging techniques and micro-analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  13. Digital Holographic Microscopy Principles, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Myung K

    2011-01-01

    Digital holography is an emerging field of new paradigm in general imaging applications. By replacing the photochemical procedures with electronic imaging and having a direct numerical access to the complex optical field, a wide range of new imaging capabilities become available, many of them difficult or infeasible in conventional holography. An increasing number of researchers—not only in optical physics and optical engineering, but also in diverse applications areas such as microbiology, medicine, marine science, particle analysis, microelectromechanics, and metrology—are realizing and exploiting the new capabilities of digital holography. Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, by Dr. Myung K. Kim, is intended to provide a brief but consistent introduction to the principles of digital holography as well as to give an organized overview of the large number of techniques and applications being developed. This will also shed some light on the range of possibilities for f...

  14. Ultrastructure of a hexagonal array in exosporium of a highly sporogenic mutant of Clostridium botulinum type A revealed by electron microscopy using optical diffraction and filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, K; Kawata, T; Takumi, K; Kinouchi, T

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructure of a hexagonal array in the exosporium from spores of a highly sporogenic mutant of Clostridium botulinum type A strain 190L was studied by electron microscopy of negatively stained exosporium fragments using optical diffraction and filtration. The exosporium was composed of three or more lamellae showing and equilateral, hexagonal periodicity. Images of the single exosporium layer from which the noise had been filtered optically revealed that the hexagonally arranged, morphological unit of the exosporium was composed of three globular subunits about 2.1 nm in diameter which were arranged at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of about 2.4 nm. The morphological units were arranged with a spacing of about 4.5 nm. the adjacent globular subunits appeared to be interconnected by delicate linkers.

  15. Characterization of printed pigment-based inks on ink-jet media using cross-sectional electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P. de; Pataki, T.; Peeters, D.; Roost, C. van

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the microscopic assessment of representative specimen cross-sections prepared by microtomy and ultramicrotomy with emphasis in structure-property information using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, namely, the absolute optical density δ, the measured effective printing coverage C-tilde, the averaged pigment-based ink layer thickness t-bar, and the morphology at 100% nominal printing coverage. This work shows that for different test patches printed at the same nominal printing coverage a number of different printing schemes yield a pre-defined absolute optical density δ which basically depends on the measured effective printing coverage C-tilde and the type of pigment-based inks used (spectral absorptivity m≠∞) and therefore on the averaged pigment-based ink layer thickness t-bar. A method for estimating the spectral absorptivity m is presented which combines the absolute optical density δ of the test patch and the averaged pigment-based ink layer thickness t-bar as measured from cross-sectional electron microscopy

  16. Low-cost mobile phone microscopy with a reversed mobile phone camera lens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Switz

    Full Text Available The increasing capabilities and ubiquity of mobile phones and their associated digital cameras offer the possibility of extending low-cost, portable diagnostic microscopy to underserved and low-resource areas. However, mobile phone microscopes created by adding magnifying optics to the phone's camera module have been unable to make use of the full image sensor due to the specialized design of the embedded camera lens, exacerbating the tradeoff between resolution and field of view inherent to optical systems. This tradeoff is acutely felt for diagnostic applications, where the speed and cost of image-based diagnosis is related to the area of the sample that can be viewed at sufficient resolution. Here we present a simple and low-cost approach to mobile phone microscopy that uses a reversed mobile phone camera lens added to an intact mobile phone to enable high quality imaging over a significantly larger field of view than standard microscopy. We demonstrate use of the reversed lens mobile phone microscope to identify red and white blood cells in blood smears and soil-transmitted helminth eggs in stool samples.

  17. Low-cost mobile phone microscopy with a reversed mobile phone camera lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switz, Neil A; D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    The increasing capabilities and ubiquity of mobile phones and their associated digital cameras offer the possibility of extending low-cost, portable diagnostic microscopy to underserved and low-resource areas. However, mobile phone microscopes created by adding magnifying optics to the phone's camera module have been unable to make use of the full image sensor due to the specialized design of the embedded camera lens, exacerbating the tradeoff between resolution and field of view inherent to optical systems. This tradeoff is acutely felt for diagnostic applications, where the speed and cost of image-based diagnosis is related to the area of the sample that can be viewed at sufficient resolution. Here we present a simple and low-cost approach to mobile phone microscopy that uses a reversed mobile phone camera lens added to an intact mobile phone to enable high quality imaging over a significantly larger field of view than standard microscopy. We demonstrate use of the reversed lens mobile phone microscope to identify red and white blood cells in blood smears and soil-transmitted helminth eggs in stool samples.

  18. Numerical tilting compensation in microscopy based on wavefront sensing using transport of intensity equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junbao; Meng, Xin; Wei, Qi; Kong, Yan; Jiang, Zhilong; Xue, Liang; Liu, Fei; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu

    2018-03-01

    Wide-field microscopy is commonly used for sample observations in biological research and medical diagnosis. However, the tilting error induced by the oblique location of the image recorder or the sample, as well as the inclination of the optical path often deteriorates the imaging quality. In order to eliminate the tilting in microscopy, a numerical tilting compensation technique based on wavefront sensing using transport of intensity equation method is proposed in this paper. Both the provided numerical simulations and practical experiments prove that the proposed technique not only accurately determines the tilting angle with simple setup and procedures, but also compensates the tilting error for imaging quality improvement even in the large tilting cases. Considering its simple systems and operations, as well as image quality improvement capability, it is believed the proposed method can be applied for tilting compensation in the optical microscopy.

  19. A Multi-Gradient Generator in a Single Microfluidic Device for Optical Microscopy and Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Manuel; Nadeau, Jay; Lindensmith, Chris

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this work was to create a single microfluidic device capable of establishing multiple types of gradients in a quantifiable manner. Many microbial species are known to exhibit directed motility in the presence of stimuli. This phenomenon, known as taxis, can be used as a bio-signature and a means of identifying microorganisms. Directed microbial motility has been seen as a response to the presence of certain chemicals, light, heat, magnetic fields, and other stimuli. Microbial movement along the gradient vector, that cannot be explained by passive hydrodynamics or Brownian motion, can shed light on whether the sample contains living microbes or not. The ability to create multiple types of gradients in a single microfluidic device allows for high throughput testing of heterogeneous samples to detect taxis. There has been increased interest in the search for life within our solar system where liquid water is known to exist. Induced directional motility can serve as a viable method for detecting living organisms that actively respond to their environment. The device developed here includes a chemical, photonic, thermal, and magnetic gradient generator, while maintaining high optical quality in order to be used for microscopy as well as quantitative phase imaging This work was funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, who the authors wish to thank for their generosity.

  20. Visualizing radiofrequency-skin interaction using multiphoton microscopy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Lin, Sung-Jan; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Wang, Chun-Chin; Hsu, Chih-Ting; Chu, Thomas; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    Redundant skin laxity is a major feature of aging. Recently, radiofrequency has been introduced for nonablative tissue tightening by volumetric heating of the deep dermis. Despite the wide range of application based on this therapy, the effect of this technique on tissue and the subsequent tissue remodeling have not been investigated in detail. Our objective is to evaluate the potential of non-linear optics, including multiphoton autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, as a non-invasive imaging modality for the real-time study of radiofrequency-tissue interaction. Electro-optical synergy device (ELOS) was used as the radiofrequency source in this study. The back skin of nude mouse was irradiated with radiofrequency at different passes. We evaluated the effect on skin immediately and 1 month after treatment with multiphoton microscopy. Corresponding histology was performed for comparison. We found that SHG is negatively correlated to radiofrequency passes, which means that collagen structural disruption happens immediately after thermal damage. After 1 month of collagen remodeling, SHG signals increased above baseline, indicating that collagen regeneration has occurred. Our findings may explain mechanism of nonablative skin tightening and were supported by histological examinations. Our work showed that monitoring the dermal heating status of RF and following up the detailed process of tissue reaction can be imaged and quantified with multiphoton microscopy non-invasively in vivo. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Automated Microscopy: Macro Language Controlling a Confocal Microscope and its External Illumination: Adaptation for Photosynthetic Organisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steinbach, Gabor; Kaňa, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2016), s. 258-263 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/12/0304; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : automated microscopy * remote controlled microscopy * confocal microscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  2. Light propagation studies on laser modified waveguides using scanning near-field optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrise, X.; Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Jimenez, D.

    2001-01-01

    By means of direct laser writing on Al, a new method to locally modify optical waveguides is proposed. This technique has been applied to silicon nitride waveguides, allowing modifications of the optical propagation along the guide. To study the formed structures, a scanning near-held optical mic...

  3. Superresolution size determination in fluorescence microscopy: A comparison between spatially modulated illumination and confocal laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoeri, Udo; Failla, Antonio Virgilio; Cremer, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    Recently developed far field light optical methods are a powerful tool to analyze biological nanostructures and their dynamics, in particular including the interior of three-dimensionally conserved cells. In this article, the recently described method of spatially modulated illumination (SMI) microscopy has been further extended to the online determination of the extension of small, subwavelength sized, fluorescent objects (nanosizing). Using fluorescence excitation with 488 nm, the determination of fluorescent labeled object diameters down to 40 nm corresponding to about 1/12th of the wavelength used for one-photon excitation could be shown. The results of the SMI nanosizing procedure for a detailed, systematic variation of the object diameter are presented together with a fast algorithm for online size evaluation. In addition, we show a direct comparison of the diameter of 'colocalization volumes' between SMI nanosizing and conventional confocal laser scanning microscopy

  4. Investigations of Caenorhabditis Elegans Using Soft X-ray Contact Microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Desai, T.; Batani, D.; Bernardinello, A.; Poletti, G.; Orsini, F.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Skála, Jiří; Králiková, Božena; Krouský, Eduard; Mocek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Kadlec, Christelle; Mocek, Tomáš; Präg R., Ansgar; Renner, Oldřich; Juha, Libor; Cotelli, F.; Lamia, C. L.; Zullini, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2004), s. 121-125 ISSN 1120-1797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Keywords : C. elegans * soft X-ray contact microscopy * intense laser plasma * gold target Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.341, year: 2004

  5. Newly designed, simple relief phase contrast for microscopy of microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žižka, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2010), s. 662-665 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : optical microscopy * Zeiss NG 10/1 * microphotography Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.977, year: 2010

  6. Improving the visualization of electron-microscopy data through optical flow interpolation

    KAUST Repository

    Carata, Lucian; Shao, Dan; Hadwiger, Markus; Grö eller, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    with electron-microscopy (EM). However, the technique achieves a low resolution in the cutting direction, due to limitations of the mechanical process, making a direct visualization of a dataset difficult. We aim to increase the depth resolution of the volume

  7. Analyzing speckle contrast for HiLo microscopy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaferri, J.; Kunik, D.; Belisle, J. M.; Singh, K.; Lefrançois, S.; Costantino, S.

    2011-07-01

    HiLo microscopy is a recently developed technique that provides both optical sectioning and fast imaging with a simple implementation and at a very low cost. The methodology combines widefield and speckled illumination images to obtain one optically sectioned image. Hence, the characteristics of such speckle illumination ultimately determine the quality of HiLo images and the overall performance of the method. In this work, we study how speckle contrast influence local variations of fluorescence intensity and brightness profiles of thick samples. We present this article as a guide to adjust the parameters of the system for optimizing the capabilities of this novel technology.

  8. 4D super-resolution microscopy with conventional fluorophores and single wavelength excitation in optically thick cells and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baddeley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optical super-resolution imaging of fluorescently stained biological samples is rapidly becoming an important tool to investigate protein distribution at the molecular scale. It is therefore important to develop practical super-resolution methods that allow capturing the full three-dimensional nature of biological systems and also can visualize multiple protein species in the same sample. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the use of a combination of conventional near-infrared dyes, such as Alexa 647, Alexa 680 and Alexa 750, all excited with a 671 nm diode laser, enables 3D multi-colour super-resolution imaging of complex biological samples. Optically thick samples, including human tissue sections, cardiac rat myocytes and densely grown neuronal cultures were imaged with lateral resolutions of ∼15 nm (std. dev. while reducing marker cross-talk to <1%. Using astigmatism an axial resolution of ∼65 nm (std. dev. was routinely achieved. The number of marker species that can be distinguished depends on the mean photon number of single molecule events. With the typical photon yields from Alexa 680 of ∼2000 up to 5 markers may in principle be resolved with <2% crosstalk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach is based entirely on the use of conventional, commercially available markers and requires only a single laser. It provides a very straightforward way to investigate biological samples at the nanometre scale and should help establish practical 4D super-resolution microscopy as a routine research tool in many laboratories.

  9. Multimodal imaging of heterogeneous polymers at the nanoscale by AFM and scanning near-field ellipsometric microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumurcu, Aysegul; Duvigneau, Joost; Lindsay, I.D.; Schön, Peter Manfred; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    Scanning near field ellipsometric microscopy (SNEM) was used to simultaneously obtain optical images and tapping mode topography images of the microphase separated morphology of PS-b-P2VP block copolymer thin films. Optical images revealed a spatial resolution well below the diffraction limit. The

  10. A combined optical, SEM and STM study of growth spirals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some novel results of a combined sequential study of growth spirals on the basal surface of the richly polytypic CdI2 crystals by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are presented and discussed. In confirmation of the known structural data, the STM pictures ...

  11. Optical Properties of Rotationally Twinned Nanowire Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jiming; Bell, David C.; Capasso, Federico

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a technique so that both transmission electron microscopy and microphotoluminescence can be performed on the same semiconductor nanowire over a large range of optical power, thus allowing us to directly correlate structural and optical properties of rotationally twinned zinc...... a heterostructure in a chemically homogeneous nanowire material and alter in a major way its optical properties opens new possibilities for band-structure engineering....

  12. A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winarski, Robert P., E-mail: winarski@anl.gov; Holt, Martin V. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Rose, Volker [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Fuesz, Peter; Carbaugh, Dean; Benson, Christa; Shu, Deming; Kline, David; Stephenson, G. Brian; McNulty, Ian [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Maser, Jörg [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline is a precision platform for scanning probe and full-field microscopy with 3–30 keV X-rays. A combination of high-stability X-ray optics and precision motion sensing and control enables detailed studies of the internal features of samples with resolutions approaching 30 nm. The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline (or Nanoprobe Beamline) is an X-ray microscopy facility incorporating diffraction, fluorescence and full-field imaging capabilities designed and operated by the Center for Nanoscale Materials and the Advanced Photon Source at Sector 26 of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility was constructed to probe the nanoscale structure of biological, environmental and material sciences samples. The beamline provides intense focused X-rays to the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (or Nanoprobe) which incorporates Fresnel zone plate optics and a precision laser sensing and control system. The beamline operates over X-ray energies from 3 to 30 keV, enabling studies of most elements in the periodic table, with a particular emphasis on imaging transition metals.

  13. Carbon/ternary alloy/carbon optical stack on mylar as an optical data storage medium to potentially replace magnetic tape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lunt, Barry M; Gates, Richard J; Asplund, Matthew C; Shutthanandan, V; Davis, Robert C; Linford, Matthew R

    2013-09-11

    A novel write-once-read-many (WORM) optical stack on Mylar tape is proposed as a replacement for magnetic tape for archival data storage. This optical tape contains a cosputtered bismuth-tellurium-selenium (BTS) alloy as the write layer sandwiched between thin, protective films of reactively sputtered carbon. The composition and thickness of the BTS layer were confirmed by Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The C/BTS/C stack on Mylar was written to/marked by 532 nm laser pulses. Under the same conditions, control Mylar films without the optical stack were unaffected. Marks, which showed craters/movement of the write material, were characterized by optical microscopy and AFM. The threshold laser powers for making marks on C/BTS/C stacks with different thicknesses were explored. Higher quality marks were made with a 60× objective compared to a 40× objective in our marking apparatus. The laser writing process was simulated with COMSOL.

  14. Carbon/Ternary Alloy/Carbon Optical Stack on Mylar as an Optical Data Storage Medium to Potentially Replace Magnetic Tape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Lunt, Barry M.; Gates, Richard J.; Asplund, Matthew C.; Shutthanandan, V.; Davis, Robert C.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-11

    A novel write-once-read-many (WORM) optical stack on Mylar tape is proposed as a replacement for magnetic tape for archival data storage. This optical tape contains a cosputtered bismuth–tellurium–selenium (BTS) alloy as the write layer sandwiched between thin, protective films of reactively sputtered carbon. The composition and thickness of the BTS layer were confirmed by Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The C/BTS/C stack on Mylar was written to/marked by 532 nm laser pulses. Under the same conditions, control Mylar films without the optical stack were unaffected. Marks, which showed craters/movement of the write material, were characterized by optical microscopy and AFM. The threshold laser powers for making marks on C/BTS/C stacks with different thicknesses were explored. Higher quality marks were made with a 60× objective compared to a 40× objective in our marking apparatus. Finally, the laser writing process was simulated with COMSOL.

  15. Multiple speckle illumination for optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Florian; Stasio, Nicolino; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri; Bossy, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy offers exquisite and specific contrast to optical absorption. Conventional approaches generally involves raster scanning a focused spot over the sample. Here, we demonstrate that a full-field illumination approach with multiple speckle illumination can also provide diffraction-limited optical-resolution photoacoustic images. Two different proof-of-concepts are demonstrated with micro-structured test samples. The first approach follows the principle of correlation/ghost imaging,1, 2 and is based on cross-correlating photoacoustic signals under multiple speckle illumination with known speckle patterns measured during a calibration step. The second approach is a speckle scanning microscopy technique, which adapts the technique proposed in fluorescence microscopy by Bertolotti and al.:3 in our work, spatially unresolved photoacoustic measurements are performed for various translations of unknown speckle patterns. A phase-retrieval algorithm is used to reconstruct the object from the knowledge of the modulus of its Fourier Transform yielded by the measurements. Because speckle patterns naturally appear in many various situations, including propagation through biological tissue or multi-mode fibers (for which focusing light is either very demanding if not impossible), speckle-illumination-based photoacoustic microscopy provides a powerful framework for the development of novel reconstruction approaches, well-suited to compressed sensing approaches.2

  16. Axial tomography in live cell laser microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Verena; Bruns, Sarah; Bruns, Thomas; Weber, Petra; Wagner, Michael; Cremer, Christoph; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    2017-09-01

    Single cell microscopy in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment is reported. Cells are grown in an agarose culture gel, located within microcapillaries and observed from different sides after adaptation of an innovative device for sample rotation. Thus, z-stacks can be recorded by confocal microscopy in different directions and used for illustration in 3-D. This gives additional information, since cells or organelles that appear superimposed in one direction, may be well resolved in another one. The method is tested and validated with single cells expressing a membrane or a mitochondrially associated green fluorescent protein, or cells accumulating fluorescent quantum dots. In addition, axial tomography supports measurements of cellular uptake and distribution of the anticancer drug doxorubicin in the nucleus (2 to 6 h after incubation) or the cytoplasm (24 h). This paper discusses that upon cell rotation an enhanced optical resolution in lateral direction compared to axial direction can be utilized to obtain an improved effective 3-D resolution, which represents an important step toward super-resolution microscopy of living cells.

  17. Nanoshells for in vivo imaging using two-photon excitation microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Liang; Nammalvar, Vengadesan [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Vadakkan, Tegy J, E-mail: lg3@rice.edu, E-mail: venkyn@rice.edu [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-09-07

    Gold nanoshells have been intensively investigated and applied to various biomedical fields because of their flexible optical tunability and biological compatibility. They hold great potential to serve as luminescent contrast agents excitable with near-infrared (NIR) lasers. In this paper, we describe the development of nanoshells with a peak of plasmon resonance at 800 nm and their subsequent use for in vivo blood vessel imaging using two-photon excitation microscopy at an excitation wavelength of 750 nm. We were able to image single nanoshell particles in blood vessels and generate optical contrast for blood vessel structure using luminescent signals. These results confirm the feasibility of engineering nanoshells with controlled optical properties for single-particle-based in vivo imaging.

  18. Comprehensive optical and data management infrastructure for high-throughput light-sheet microscopy of whole mouse brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllenbroich, M Caroline; Silvestri, Ludovico; Onofri, Leonardo; Costantini, Irene; Hoff, Marcel Van't; Sacconi, Leonardo; Iannello, Giulio; Pavone, Francesco S

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensive mapping and quantification of neuronal projections in the central nervous system requires high-throughput imaging of large volumes with microscopic resolution. To this end, we have developed a confocal light-sheet microscope that has been optimized for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of structurally intact clarified whole-mount mouse brains. We describe the optical and electromechanical arrangement of the microscope and give details on the organization of the microscope management software. The software orchestrates all components of the microscope, coordinates critical timing and synchronization, and has been written in a versatile and modular structure using the LabVIEW language. It can easily be adapted and integrated to other microscope systems and has been made freely available to the light-sheet community. The tremendous amount of data routinely generated by light-sheet microscopy further requires novel strategies for data handling and storage. To complete the full imaging pipeline of our high-throughput microscope, we further elaborate on big data management from streaming of raw images up to stitching of 3-D datasets. The mesoscale neuroanatomy imaged at micron-scale resolution in those datasets allows characterization and quantification of neuronal projections in unsectioned mouse brains.

  19. Dynamic force microscopy with quartz tuning forks at high oscillation amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labardi, M

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic force microscopy (DFM) with the self-oscillator (SO) method allows reasonably high scanning rates even with high Q-factors of the resonant force sensor, typical of cantilevers in ultra-high vacuum and of quartz tuning forks. However, due to simpler interpretation of force spectroscopy measurements, small oscillation amplitudes (sub-nm level) are generally preferred. In applications like 'apertureless' scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM), oscillation amplitudes of the order of 5-10 nm are needed to increase optical sensitivity and to apply standard optical artefact suppression methods. This motivates the study of the behaviour of tuning forks driven at such high amplitudes, as compared to usual air-operated cantilevers. Both constant-excitation-amplitude (CE) and constant-oscillation-amplitude (CA) modes of SO-DFM are analysed, since the CA mode is more convenient for SNOM applications, denoting remarkable differences. In particular, possible instability effects, previously found in CE mode, are not anticipated for CA mode. It is shown how resonance and approach ('isophase') curves in both modes can be conveniently described in terms of the usual 'normalized frequency shift' γ and of a 'normalized gain' η, defined as a measurement of surface dissipation

  20. CCD-based thermoreflectance microscopy: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzaneh, M; Maize, K; Shakouri, A; Lueerssen, D; Summers, J A; Hudgings, Janice A; Mayer, P M; Ram, R J; Raad, P E; Pipe, K P

    2009-01-01

    CCD-based thermoreflectance microscopy has emerged as a high resolution, non-contact imaging technique for thermal profiling and performance and reliability analysis of numerous electronic and optoelectronic devices at the micro-scale. This thermography technique, which is based on measuring the relative change in reflectivity of the device surface as a function of change in temperature, provides high-resolution thermal images that are useful for hot spot detection and failure analysis, mapping of temperature distribution, measurement of thermal transient, optical characterization of photonic devices and measurement of thermal conductivity in thin films. In this paper we review the basic physical principle behind thermoreflectance as a thermography tool, discuss the experimental setup, resolutions achieved, signal processing procedures and calibration techniques, and review the current applications of CCD-based thermoreflectance microscopy in various devices. (topical review)

  1. Electrochemical Design of Optical Nanoantennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilchenko V.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical techniques for fabricating tapered gold nanoantennas (tips are discussed. In the paper, the tunable design of nanoantennas is demonstrated. Tip parameters such as a tip apex curvature, mesoscopic morphology, aspect ratio and enhancement factor can be varied with etching electrolyte and applied voltage. The low-cost method makes tipehnahced optical spectroscopy and microscopy feasible for routine optical measurements beyond the diffraction limit.

  2. In-vivo nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) of epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) reveals quantitative measures of neoplasia in hamster oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Ortiz, Daniel; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) plays an integral role in epithelial neoplasia, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This interface undergoes significant alterations due to hyperproliferating epithelium that supports the transformation of normal epithelium to precancers and cancer. We present a method based on nonlinear optical microscopy to directly assess the ECTI and quantify dysplastic alterations using a hamster model for oral carcinogenesis. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic normal mucosa were imaged in-vivo by both multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) to obtain cross-sectional reconstructions of the oral epithelium and lamina propria. Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histopathological grading and measurement of ECTI parameters. An ECTI shape parameter was calculated based on deviation from the linear geometry (ΔLinearity) seen in normal mucosa was measured using MPAM-SHGM and histology. The ECTI was readily visible in MPAM-SHGM and quantitative shape analysis showed ECTI deformation in dysplasia but not in normal mucosa. ΔLinearity was significantly (p tissue with 87.9% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity, while calculations from histology provided 96.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity. Among other quantifiable architectural changes, a progressive statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness was seen with increasing grade of dysplasia. MPAM-SHGM provides new noninvasive ways for direct characterization of ECTI which may be used in preclinical studies to investigate the role of this interface in early transformation. Further development of the method may also lead to new diagnostic approaches to differentiate non-neoplastic tissue from precancers and neoplasia, possibly with other cellular and layer based indicators of abnormality.

  3. Vapor-transport growth of high optical quality WSe2 monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Clark

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are atomically thin direct-gap semiconductors that show a variety of novel electronic and optical properties with an optically accessible valley degree of freedom. While they are ideal materials for developing optical-driven valleytronics, the restrictions of exfoliated samples have limited exploration of their potential. Here, we present a physical vapor transport growth method for triangular WSe2 sheets of up to 30 μm in edge length on insulating SiO2 substrates. Characterization using atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy reveals that they are uniform, monolayer crystals. Low temperature photoluminescence shows well resolved and electrically tunable excitonic features similar to those in exfoliated samples, with substantial valley polarization and valley coherence. The monolayers grown using this method are therefore of high enough optical quality for routine use in the investigation of optoelectronics and valleytronics.

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  5. Fiber optic probe of free electron evanescent fields in the optical frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Jin-Kyu, E-mail: js1m10@orc.soton.ac.uk; MacDonald, Kevin F. [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zheludev, Nikolay I. [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2014-05-19

    We introduce an optical fiber platform which can be used to interrogate proximity interactions between free-electron evanescent fields and photonic nanostructures at optical frequencies in a manner similar to that in which optical evanescent fields are sampled using nanoscale aperture probes in scanning near-field microscopy. Conically profiled optical fiber tips functionalized with nano-gratings are employed to couple electron evanescent fields to light via the Smith-Purcell effect. We demonstrate the interrogation of medium energy (30–50 keV) electron fields with a lateral resolution of a few micrometers via the generation and detection of visible/UV radiation in the 700–300 nm (free-space) wavelength range.

  6. Enhancement of the optical image with a DC blocked spiral holographic pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung-In; Lee, Jung-Kyun; Song, Dong-Hoon; Choi, Dae-Sik; Ko, Do-Kyeong

    2011-01-01

    A modification of microscopy using a spiral phase plate, which enhanced the optical image by blocking the DC part of the object spectrum is presented. In conventional differential-interference-contrast microscopy, enhancement of optical images is achieved by interference of mutual coherent beams which experience different optical phases. This method increases the contrast of the optical image compared to normal microscopy, but the image still has some blurring around the edge of the sample. Our modification consists of placing a DC blocking region on an optical spatial filter, which allows us to achieve a sharp edge compared to the conventional one. By patterning the grating of the circular area in the center with a different direction (π/4 in our case), we could redirect the DC part of the Fourier component that passed through the center of the phase plate. By eliminating the DC part of the object spectrum, we could get a highly enhanced image and clearly observed the inside of the cheek cell, which was invisible otherwise.

  7. Scanning near-field infrared microscopy on semiconductor structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Rainer

    2011-01-15

    Near-field optical microscopy has attracted remarkable attention, as it is the only technique that allows the investigation of local optical properties with a resolution far below the diffraction limit. Especially, the scattering-type near-field optical microscopy allows the nondestructive examination of surfaces without restrictions to the applicable wavelengths. However, its usability is limited by the availability of appropriate light sources. In the context of this work, this limit was overcome by the development of a scattering-type near-field microscope that uses a widely tunable free-electron laser as primary light source. In the theoretical part, it is shown that an optical near-field contrast can be expected when materials with different dielectric functions are combined. It is derived that these differences yield different scattering cross-sections for the coupled system of the probe and the sample. Those cross-sections define the strength of the near-field signal that can be measured for different materials. Hence, an optical contrast can be expected, when different scattering cross-sections are probed. This principle also applies to vertically stacked or even buried materials, as shown in this thesis experimentally for two sample systems. In the first example, the different dielectric functions were obtained by locally changing the carrier concentration in silicon by the implantation of boron. It is shown that the concentration of free charge-carriers can be deduced from the near-field contrast between implanted and pure silicon. For this purpose, two different experimental approaches were used, a non-interferometric one by using variable wavelengths and an interferometric one with a fixed wavelength. As those techniques yield complementary information, they can be used to quantitatively determine the effective carrier concentration. Both approaches yield consistent results for the carrier concentration, which excellently agrees with predictions from

  8. Scanning near-field infrared microscopy on semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Near-field optical microscopy has attracted remarkable attention, as it is the only technique that allows the investigation of local optical properties with a resolution far below the diffraction limit. Especially, the scattering-type near-field optical microscopy allows the nondestructive examination of surfaces without restrictions to the applicable wavelengths. However, its usability is limited by the availability of appropriate light sources. In the context of this work, this limit was overcome by the development of a scattering-type near-field microscope that uses a widely tunable free-electron laser as primary light source. In the theoretical part, it is shown that an optical near-field contrast can be expected when materials with different dielectric functions are combined. It is derived that these differences yield different scattering cross-sections for the coupled system of the probe and the sample. Those cross-sections define the strength of the near-field signal that can be measured for different materials. Hence, an optical contrast can be expected, when different scattering cross-sections are probed. This principle also applies to vertically stacked or even buried materials, as shown in this thesis experimentally for two sample systems. In the first example, the different dielectric functions were obtained by locally changing the carrier concentration in silicon by the implantation of boron. It is shown that the concentration of free charge-carriers can be deduced from the near-field contrast between implanted and pure silicon. For this purpose, two different experimental approaches were used, a non-interferometric one by using variable wavelengths and an interferometric one with a fixed wavelength. As those techniques yield complementary information, they can be used to quantitatively determine the effective carrier concentration. Both approaches yield consistent results for the carrier concentration, which excellently agrees with predictions from

  9. Necrosis and apoptosis pathways of cell death at photodynamic treatment in vitro as revealed by digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, I. V.; Belashov, A. V.; Belyaeva, T. N.; Kornilova, E. S.; Salova, A. V.; Zhikhoreva, A. A.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.

    2018-02-01

    Monitoring of variations in morphological characteristics of cultured HeLa cells after photodynamic treatment with Radachlorin photosensitizer is performed by means of digital holographic microscopy. The observed dose-dependent post-treatment variations of phase shift evidence threshold effect of photodynamic treatment and allow for distinguishing between necrotic or apoptotic pathways of cell death. Results obtained by holographic microscopy were confirmed by means of far-field optical microscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy with commonly used test assays.

  10. Multispectral digital lensless holographic microscopy: from femtosecond laser to white light LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sucerquia, J

    2015-01-01

    The use of femtosecond laser radiation and super bright white LED in digital lensless holographic microscopy is presented. For the ultrafast laser radiation two different configurations of operation of the microscope are presented and the dissimilar performance of each one analyzed. The microscope operating with a super bright white light LED in combination with optical filters shows very competitive performance as it is compared with more expensive optical sources. The broadband emission of both radiation sources allows the multispectral imaging of biological samples to obtain spectral responses and/or full color images of the microscopic specimens; sections of the head of a Drosophila melanogaster fly are imaged in this contribution. The simple, solid, compact, lightweight, and reliable architecture of digital lensless holographic microscopy operating with broadband light sources to image biological specimens exhibiting micrometer-sized details is evaluated in the present contribution. (paper)

  11. X-ray optics and X-ray microscopes: new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susini, J.

    2004-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of X-rays in 1895 by W. Roentgen, it became rapidly clear that the methods traditionally used in the visible light regime, namely refraction, diffraction and reflection were difficult to apply for X-ray optics. The physical origins of these difficulties are closely linked to the very nature of interaction of X-rays with matter. The small deviation δ of the refractive index of condensed matter from unity makes it difficult to extend refraction-based optics from the optical spectral region to the X-ray region because the refraction angle is proportional to δ. Similarly it is very challenging to extend diffraction-based focusing techniques to X-rays because the diffraction angle scales inversely with wavelength. Finally, the use of reflection-based optics is also limited by the very small critical angle for total reflection. All those fundamental limitations prevented for almost one century, the development of X-ray microscopy whereas electron microscopy became a standard tool. In the past twenty years, interests for X-ray microscopy revived, mainly because of several major advances in X-ray sources and X-ray optics. X-ray microscopy techniques are now emerging as powerful and complementary tools for submicron investigations. Soft X-ray microscopes offer traditionally the possibility to form direct images of thick hydrated biological material in near-native environment, at a spatial resolution well beyond that achievable with visible light microscopy. Natural contrast is available in the soft X-ray region, in the so-called ''water-window'', due to the presence of absorption edges of the major constituents (C,N,O). Recent advances in manufacturing techniques have enlarged the accessible energy range of micro-focussing optics and offer new applications in a broad range of disciplines. X-ray microscopy in the 1 - 30 keV energy range is better suited for fluorescence to map trace elements, tomography for 3D imaging and micro-diffraction. The

  12. High-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc; Norrenberg, Sarah; Jemec, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    to those described for reflectance confocal microscopy but with the advantages not only to visualize individual cells up to a depth of 570 μm but also in both slice and en face mode. An adapted algorithmic method for pattern analysis of common inflammatory skin diseases could be proposed. This new......High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a non-invasive technique for morphological investigation of tissue with cellular resolution filling the imaging gap between reflectance confocal microscopy and conventional optical coherence tomography. The aim of this study is first...... dermatitis. Additional studies to test the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed algorithm for pattern analysis are essential. The other categories of Ackerman's pattern recognition need to be evaluated. This study provides a set of morphological features generated by HD-OCT imaging very similar...

  13. Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy with integrated dual-axis MEMS scanner for fast 3D imaging and metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cogliati, Andrea; Hayes, Adam; Santhanam, Anand P.; Tankam, Patrice; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2015-10-01

    Fast, robust, nondestructive 3D imaging is needed for characterization of microscopic structures in industrial and clinical applications. A custom micro-electromechanical system (MEMS)-based 2D scanner system was developed to achieve 55 kHz A-scan acquisition in a Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) instrument with a novel multilevel GPU architecture for high-speed imaging. GD-OCM yields high-definition volumetric imaging with dynamic depth of focusing through a bio-inspired liquid lens-based microscope design, which has no moving parts and is suitable for use in a manufacturing setting or in a medical environment. A dual-axis MEMS mirror was chosen to replace two single-axis galvanometer mirrors; as a result, the astigmatism caused by the mismatch between the optical pupil and the scanning location was eliminated and a 12x reduction in volume of the scanning system was achieved. Imaging at an invariant resolution of 2 μm was demonstrated throughout a volume of 1 × 1 × 0.6 mm3, acquired in less than 2 minutes. The MEMS-based scanner resulted in improved image quality, increased robustness and lighter weight of the system - all factors that are critical for on-field deployment. A custom integrated feedback system consisting of a laser diode and a position-sensing detector was developed to investigate the impact of the resonant frequency of the MEMS and the driving signal of the scanner on the movement of the mirror. Results on the metrology of manufactured materials and characterization of tissue samples with GD-OCM are presented.

  14. Contributed review: Review of integrated correlative light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, F J; Otto, C

    2015-01-01

    New developments in the field of microscopy enable to acquire increasing amounts of information from large sample areas and at an increased resolution. Depending on the nature of the technique, the information may reveal morphological, structural, chemical, and still other sample characteristics. In research fields, such as cell biology and materials science, there is an increasing demand to correlate these individual levels of information and in this way to obtain a better understanding of sample preparation and specific sample properties. To address this need, integrated systems were developed that combine nanometer resolution electron microscopes with optical microscopes, which produce chemically or label specific information through spectroscopy. The complementary information from electron microscopy and light microscopy presents an opportunity to investigate a broad range of sample properties in a correlated fashion. An important part of correlating the differences in information lies in bridging the different resolution and image contrast features. The trend to analyse samples using multiple correlated microscopes has resulted in a new research field. Current research is focused, for instance, on (a) the investigation of samples with nanometer scale distribution of inorganic and organic materials, (b) live cell analysis combined with electron microscopy, and (c) in situ spectroscopic and electron microscopy analysis of catalytic materials, but more areas will benefit from integrated correlative microscopy.

  15. Contributed Review: Review of integrated correlative light and electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, F. J.; Otto, C.

    2015-01-01

    New developments in the field of microscopy enable to acquire increasing amounts of information from large sample areas and at an increased resolution. Depending on the nature of the technique, the information may reveal morphological, structural, chemical, and still other sample characteristics. In research fields, such as cell biology and materials science, there is an increasing demand to correlate these individual levels of information and in this way to obtain a better understanding of sample preparation and specific sample properties. To address this need, integrated systems were developed that combine nanometer resolution electron microscopes with optical microscopes, which produce chemically or label specific information through spectroscopy. The complementary information from electron microscopy and light microscopy presents an opportunity to investigate a broad range of sample properties in a correlated fashion. An important part of correlating the differences in information lies in bridging the different resolution and image contrast features. The trend to analyse samples using multiple correlated microscopes has resulted in a new research field. Current research is focused, for instance, on (a) the investigation of samples with nanometer scale distribution of inorganic and organic materials, (b) live cell analysis combined with electron microscopy, and (c) in situ spectroscopic and electron microscopy analysis of catalytic materials, but more areas will benefit from integrated correlative microscopy

  16. Improving your four-dimensional image: traveling through a decade of light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Frederic; Schmitz, Alexander; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2017-06-01

    Light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy features optical sectioning in the excitation process. This reduces phototoxicity and photobleaching by up to four orders of magnitude compared with that caused by confocal fluorescence microscopy, simplifies segmentation and quantification for three-dimensional cell biology, and supports the transition from on-demand to systematic data acquisition in developmental biology applications.

  17. Line-scanning confocal microscopy for high-resolution imaging of upconverting rare-earth-based contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Laura M.; Zevon, Margot; Ganapathy, Vidya; Sheng, Yang; Tan, Mei Chee; Riman, Richard E.; Roth, Charles M.; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Rare-earth (RE) doped nanocomposites emit visible luminescence when illuminated with continuous wave near-infrared light, making them appealing candidates for use as contrast agents in biomedical imaging. However, the emission lifetime of these materials is much longer than the pixel dwell times used in scanning intravital microscopy. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a line-scanning confocal microscope for high-resolution, optically sectioned imaging of samples labeled with RE-based nanomaterials. Instrument performance is quantified using calibrated test objects. NaYF4:Er,Yb nanocomposites are imaged in vitro, and in ex vivo tissue specimens, with direct comparison to point-scanning confocal microscopy. We demonstrate that the extended pixel dwell time of line-scanning confocal microscopy enables subcellular-level imaging of these nanomaterials while maintaining optical sectioning. The line-scanning approach thus enables microscopic imaging of this emerging class of contrast agents for preclinical studies, with the potential to be adapted for real-time in vivo imaging in the clinic. PMID:26603495

  18. High spatial resolution soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Medecki, H.; Brown, J.T. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A new soft x-ray microscope (XM-1) with high spatial resolution has been constructed by the Center for X-ray Optics. It uses bending magnet radiation from beamline 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source, and is used in a variety of projects and applications in the life and physical sciences. Most of these projects are ongoing. The instrument uses zone plate lenses and achieves a resolution of 43 nm, measured over 10% to 90% intensity with a knife edge test sample. X-ray microscopy permits the imaging of relatively thick samples, up to 10 {mu}m thick, in water. XM-1 has an easy to use interface, that utilizes visible light microscopy to precisely position and focus the specimen. The authors describe applications of this device in the biological sciences, as well as in studying industrial applications including structured polymer samples.

  19. Coherent Raman scattering microscopy for label-free imaging of live amphioxus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhilong; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xiannian; Shen, Jie; Chen, Junyuan; Huang, Yanyi

    2012-03-01

    The existence of notochord distinguishes chordates from other phyla. Amphioxus is the only animal that keeps notochord during the whole life. Notochord is a unique organ for amphioxus, with its vertically arranged muscular notochordal plates, which is different from notochords in embryos of other chordates. We use stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy as a non-invasive technique to image the chemical components in amphioxus notochord. SRS provides chemical specificity as spontaneous Raman does and offers a higher sensitivity for fast acquisition. Unlike coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, SRS microscopy doesn't have non-resonant background and can better differentiate different components in the specimen. We verify that the notochord is a protein-rich organ, which agrees well with the result of conventional staining methods. Detailed structures in notochordal plates and notochordal sheath are revealed by SRS microscopy with diffraction limited resolution. Our experiment shows that SRS microscopy is an excellent imaging tool for biochemical research with its intrinsic chemical selectivity, high spatiotemporal resolution and native 3D optical sectioning ability.

  20. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflections optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The role of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices is discussed. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  1. Second-order nonlinear optical microscopy of spider silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Hien, Khuat Thi Thu; Mizutani, Goro; Rutt, Harvey N.

    2017-06-01

    Asymmetric β-sheet protein structures in spider silk should induce nonlinear optical interaction such as second harmonic generation (SHG) which is experimentally observed for a radial line and dragline spider silk using an imaging femtosecond laser SHG microscope. By comparing different spider silks, we found that the SHG signal correlates with the existence of the protein β-sheets. Measurements of the polarization dependence of SHG from the dragline indicated that the β-sheet has a nonlinear response depending on the direction of the incident electric field. We propose a model of what orientation the β-sheet takes in spider silk.

  2. Conformation of single block copolymer chain in two-dimensional microphase-separated structure studied by scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Ryojun; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2009-05-21

    The localization and orientation of the symmetric diblock copolymer chain in a quasi-two-dimensional microphase-separated structure were studied by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). In the monolayer of poly(isobutyl methacrylate)-block-poly(octadecyl methacrylate) (PiBMA-b-PODMA), the individual PiBMA subchains were directly observed by SNOM, and the center of mass (CM) and orientational angle relative to the phase interface were examined at the single chain level. It was found that the position of the CM and the orientation of the PiBMA subchain in the lamellar structure were dependent on the curvature of the PiBMA/PODMA interface. As the interface was bent toward the objective chain, the block chain preferred the CM position closer to the domain center, and the conformation was strongly oriented perpendicularly to the domain interface. With increase of the curvature, the steric hindrance among the block chain increases, resulting in the stretched conformation.

  3. Nonlinear microscopy of localized field enhancements in fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, I.; Evlyukhin, A.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Fractal shaped periodic nanostructures formed with a 100 nm period square lattice of gold nanoparticles placed on a gold film are characterized using far-field nonlinear scanning optical microscopy, in which two-photon photoluminescence (TPL) excited with a strongly focused femtosecond laser beam...

  4. Waveguide evanescent field fluorescence microscopy & its application in cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Abdollah

    There are many powerful microscopy technologies available for the investigation of bulk materials as well as for thin film samples. Nevertheless, for imaging an interface, especially live cells on a substrate and ultra thin-films, only Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is available. This TIRF microscopy allows imaging without interference of the bulk. Various approaches are employed in fluorescence microscopy applications to restrict the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen. Elimination of background fluorescence from outside the focal plane can dramatically improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and consequently, the spatial resolution of the features or events of interest. TIRF microscopy is an evanescent field based microscopy. In this method, fluorescent dyes are only excited within an evanescent field: roughly within 100 nm above a glass coverslip. This will allow imaging surface and interfacial issues of the glass coverslip and an adjacent material. Waveguide evanescent field fluorescence (WEFF) microscopy is a new development for imaging cell-substrate interactions in real time and in vitro. It is an alternative to TIRF microscopy. In this method the light is coupled into a waveguide via an optical grating. The coupled light propagates as a waveguide mode and exhibits an evanescent field on top of the waveguide. This can be used as a surface-bound illumination source to excite fluorophores. This evanescent field serves as an extremely powerful tool for quality control of thin films, to study cell-substrate contacts, and investigating the effect of external agents and drugs on the cell-substrate interaction in real time and in vitro. This new method has been established and optimized to minimize non-uniformity, scattering and photo bleaching issues. Visualizing and quantifying of the cell-substrates and solid thin films have been carried out by WEFF microscopy. The images of the cell-substrate interface

  5. Morphology, structure and optical properties of sol-gel ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, T.F.; Teodorescu, V.S.; Blanchin, M.G.; Stoica, T.A.; Gartner, M.; Losurdo, M.; Zaharescu, M

    2003-08-15

    The alkoxidic route and the spinning deposition were used to prepare monolayer sol-gel indium tin oxide (ITO) films. The morphology and crystalline structure were investigated by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ITO sol-gel mono-layer contains three regions of different porosities. The basic crystalline structure is that of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice. The optical properties have been studied by optical transmission and spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  6. Optical scattering characteristic of annealed niobium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Fachun; Li Ming; Wang Haiqian; Hu Hailong; Wang Xiaoping; Hou, J.G.; Song Yizhou; Jiang Yousong

    2005-01-01

    Niobium oxide (Nb 2 O 5 ) films with thicknesses ranging from 200 to 1600 nm were deposited on fused silica at room temperature by low frequency reactive magnetron sputtering system. In order to study the optical losses resulting from the microstructures, the films with 500 nm thickness were annealed at temperatures between 600 and 1100 deg. C, and films with thicknesses from 200 to 1600 nm were annealed at 800 deg. C. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images show that the root mean square of surface roughness, the grain size, voids, microcracks, and grain boundaries increase with increasing both the annealing temperature and the thickness. Correspondingly, the optical transmittance and reflectance decrease, and the optical loss increases. The mechanisms of the optical losses are discussed. The results suggest that defects in the volume and the surface roughness should be the major source for the optical losses of the annealed films by causing pronounced scattering. For samples with a determined thickness, there is a critical annealing temperature, above which the surface scattering contributes to the major optical losses. In the experimental scope, for the films annealed at temperatures below 900 deg. C, the major optical losses resulted from volume scattering. However, surface roughness was the major source for the optical losses when the 500-nm films were annealed at temperatures above 900 deg. C

  7. Automatic cell identification and visualization using digital holographic microscopy with head mounted augmented reality devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Timothy; Rawat, Siddharth; Markman, Adam; Javidi, Bahram

    2018-03-01

    We propose a compact imaging system that integrates an augmented reality head mounted device with digital holographic microscopy for automated cell identification and visualization. A shearing interferometer is used to produce holograms of biological cells, which are recorded using customized smart glasses containing an external camera. After image acquisition, segmentation is performed to isolate regions of interest containing biological cells in the field-of-view, followed by digital reconstruction of the cells, which is used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) pseudocolor optical path length profile. Morphological features are extracted from the cell's optical path length map, including mean optical path length, coefficient of variation, optical volume, projected area, projected area to optical volume ratio, cell skewness, and cell kurtosis. Classification is performed using the random forest classifier, support vector machines, and K-nearest neighbor, and the results are compared. Finally, the augmented reality device displays the cell's pseudocolor 3D rendering of its optical path length profile, extracted features, and the identified cell's type or class. The proposed system could allow a healthcare worker to quickly visualize cells using augmented reality smart glasses and extract the relevant information for rapid diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the integration of digital holographic microscopy with augmented reality devices for automated cell identification and visualization.

  8. New scanning technique for the optical vortex microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Ireneusz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Drobczyński, Sławomir

    2012-04-01

    In the optical vortex microscopy the focused Gaussian beam with optical vortex scans a sample. An optical vortex can be introduced into a laser beam with the use of a special optical element--a vortex lens. When moving the vortex lens, the optical vortex changes its position inside the spot formed by a focused laser beam. This effect can be used as a new precise scanning technique. In this paper, we study the optical vortex behavior at the sample plane. We also estimate if the new scanning technique results in observable effects that could be used for a phase object detection.

  9. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  10. Ex vivo confocal microscopy: a new diagnostic technique for mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, A; Cinotti, E; Labeille, B; Perrot, J L; Cambazard, F

    2016-05-01

    Skin-dedicated ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) has so far mainly been employed to identify cutaneous tumours on freshly excised samples. We present two cases where EVCM has been used to diagnose cutaneous mucormycosis. The skin biopsies were evaluated by the skin-dedicated ex vivo confocal microscope VivaScope 2500(®) (MAVIG GmbH, Munich Germany) under both reflectance and fluorescence mode. Conventional direct optical examination on skin scraping and histological examination were later performed. Mucormycetes observed by EVCM presented as hyper-reflective elongated 20 μm in diameter structures with perpendicular ramifications. Fungi were found both under reflectance and fluorescence mode and were better visible with acridine orange under fluorescence EVCM. Conventional direct optical examination on skin scraping and histological examination found the same elongated and branching structures confirming the presence of Mucormycetes. Ex vivo confocal microscopy has both the advantages of being fast as the direct optical examination, and to be able to show the localisation of the fungi in the tissue like the histological examination. In our cases, EVCM allowed to rapidly confirm the clinical diagnosis of mucormycosis, which is essential for the treatment of this fungal infection. Further studies are needed to compare the performance of EVCM with the findings of conventional histological and mycological examinations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Observations of crystallization and melting in poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends by hot-stage atomic-force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearce, R.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    1998-01-01

    The binary blend of poly(ethylene oxide)/atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) is examined using hot-stage atomic-force microscopy (AFM) in conjunction with differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy. It was found possible to follow in real time the melting process, which reveals itself to

  12. Robustness of plasmonic angular momentum confinement in cross resonant optical antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaer, Peter; Lehr, Martin; Krewer, Keno; Schertz, Florian; Schönhense, Gerd; Elmers, Hans Joachim, E-mail: elmers@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Staudingerweg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Razinskas, Gary; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Hecht, Bert [Institut für Physik, Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)

    2015-06-29

    Using a combination of photoemission electron microscopy and numerical simulations, we investigated the angular moment transfer in strongly enhanced optical near-fields of artificially fabricated optical antennas. The polarization dependence of the optical near-field enhancement has been measured in a maximum symmetric geometry, i.e., excitation by a normal incident planar wave. Finite-difference time-domain simulations for the realistic antenna geometries as determined by high-resolution electron microscopy reveal a very good agreement with experimental data. The agreement confirms that the geometrical asymmetries and inhomogeneities due to the nanoscale fabrication process preserve the circular polarization in the gap regions with strong near-field enhancement.

  13. Insights on proximity effect and multiphoton induced luminescence from gold nanospheres in far field optical microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, Johan [Biomedical Photonics Group, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 10, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 10, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Guldbrand, Stina [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 10, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Evenbratt, Hanne [Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemigården 4, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Kirejev, Vladimir; Ericson, Marica B., E-mail: marica.ericson@chem.gu.se [Biomedical Photonics Group, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 10, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Grönbeck, Henrik [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 9, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-12-07

    Gold nanoparticles can be visualized in far-field multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy (MPM) based on the phenomena of multiphoton induced luminescence (MIL). This is of interest for biomedical applications, e.g., for cancer diagnostics, as MPM allows for working in the near-infrared (NIR) optical window of tissue. It is well known that the aggregation of particles causes a redshift of the plasmon resonance, but its implications for MIL applying far-field MPM should be further exploited. Here, we explore MIL from 10 nm gold nanospheres that are chemically deposited on glass substrates in controlled coverage gradients using MPM operating in NIR range. The substrates enable studies of MIL as a function of inter-particle distance and clustering. It was shown that MIL was only detected from areas on the substrates where the particle spacing was less than one particle diameter, or where the particles have aggregated. The results are interpreted in the context that the underlying physical phenomenon of MIL is a sequential two-photon absorption process, where the first event is driven by the plasmon resonance. It is evident that gold nanospheres in this size range have to be closely spaced or clustered to exhibit detectable MIL using far-field MPM operating in the NIR region.

  14. Insights on proximity effect and multiphoton induced luminescence from gold nanospheres in far field optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borglin, Johan; Guldbrand, Stina; Evenbratt, Hanne; Kirejev, Vladimir; Ericson, Marica B.; Grönbeck, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles can be visualized in far-field multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy (MPM) based on the phenomena of multiphoton induced luminescence (MIL). This is of interest for biomedical applications, e.g., for cancer diagnostics, as MPM allows for working in the near-infrared (NIR) optical window of tissue. It is well known that the aggregation of particles causes a redshift of the plasmon resonance, but its implications for MIL applying far-field MPM should be further exploited. Here, we explore MIL from 10 nm gold nanospheres that are chemically deposited on glass substrates in controlled coverage gradients using MPM operating in NIR range. The substrates enable studies of MIL as a function of inter-particle distance and clustering. It was shown that MIL was only detected from areas on the substrates where the particle spacing was less than one particle diameter, or where the particles have aggregated. The results are interpreted in the context that the underlying physical phenomenon of MIL is a sequential two-photon absorption process, where the first event is driven by the plasmon resonance. It is evident that gold nanospheres in this size range have to be closely spaced or clustered to exhibit detectable MIL using far-field MPM operating in the NIR region

  15. Advances in Retinal Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxiu Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Retinal imaging has undergone a revolution in the past 50 years to allow for better understanding of the eye in health and disease. Significant improvements have occurred both in hardware such as lasers and optics in addition to software image analysis. Optical imaging modalities include optical coherence tomography (OCT, OCT angiography (OCTA, photoacoustic microscopy (PAM, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO, adaptive optics (AO, fundus autofluorescence (FAF, and molecular imaging (MI. These imaging modalities have enabled improved visualization of retinal pathophysiology and have had a substantial impact on basic and translational medical research. These improvements in technology have translated into early disease detection, more accurate diagnosis, and improved management of numerous chorioretinal diseases. This article summarizes recent advances and applications of retinal optical imaging techniques, discusses current clinical challenges, and predicts future directions in retinal optical imaging.

  16. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.) [pt

  17. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflection optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes are described along with their role as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  18. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  19. Measurement and modelization of silica opal optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoine, Amaury; Hong, Phan Ngoc; Frederich, Hugo; Aregahegn, Kifle; Bénalloul, Paul; Coolen, Laurent; Schwob, Catherine; Thu Nga, Pham; Gallas, Bruno; Maître, Agnès

    2014-03-01

    We present the synthesis process and optical characterization of artificial silica opals. The specular reflection spectra are analyzed and compared to band structure calculations and finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The silica optical index is a key parameter to correctly describe an opal and is usually not known and treated as a free parameter. Here we propose a method to infer the silica index, as well as the silica spheres diameter, from the reflection spectra and we validate it by comparison with two independent infrared methods for the index and, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements for the spheres diameter.

  20. Measurement and modelization of silica opal optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avoine, Amaury; Ngoc Hong, Phan; Frederich, Hugo; Aregahegn, Kifle; Bénalloul, Paul; Coolen, Laurent; Schwob, Catherine; Gallas, Bruno; Maître, Agnès; Thu Nga, Pham

    2014-01-01

    We present the synthesis process and optical characterization of artificial silica opals. The specular reflection spectra are analyzed and compared to band structure calculations and finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The silica optical index is a key parameter to correctly describe an opal and is usually not known and treated as a free parameter. Here we propose a method to infer the silica index, as well as the silica spheres diameter, from the reflection spectra and we validate it by comparison with two independent infrared methods for the index and, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements for the spheres diameter. (paper)

  1. Multi-microscopy study of the influence of stacking faults and three-dimensional In distribution on the optical properties of m-plane InGaN quantum wells grown on microwire sidewalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, L.; Lefebvre, W.; Houard, J.; Blum, I.; Vurpillot, F.; Rigutti, L., E-mail: lorenzo.rigutti@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6634, Normandie University, INSA and University of Rouen, 76800 St Etienne du Rouvray (France); Hernández-Maldonado, D. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6634, Normandie University, INSA and University of Rouen, 76800 St Etienne du Rouvray (France); SuperSTEM STFC Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Eymery, J.; Durand, C. [CEA, CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Tchernycheva, M. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, University Paris Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-01-25

    The optical properties of m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on microwire sidewalls were investigated carrying out a correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), atom probe tomography (APT), and micro-photoluminescence study applied on single nanoscale field-emission tips obtained by a focused ion beam annular milling. Instead of assuming simple rectangular composition profiles, yielding misleading predictions for the optical transition energies, we can thus take into account actual compositional distributions and the presence of stacking faults (SFs). SFs were shown to be responsible for a lowering of the recombination energies of the order of 0.1 eV with respect to those expected for defect-free quantum wells (QWs). Such energy reduction allows establishing a good correspondence between the transition energies observed by optical spectroscopy and those calculated on the basis of the QWs In measured composition and distribution assessed by STEM structural analysis and APT chemical mapping.

  2. Near-field microscopy with a microfabricated solid immersion lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Daniel Alden

    2001-07-01

    Diffraction of focused light prevents optical microscopes from resolving features in air smaller than half the wavelength, λ Spatial resolution can be improved by passing light through a sub-wavelength metal aperture scanned close to a sample, but aperture-based probes suffer from low optical throughput, typically below 10-4. An alternate and more efficient technique is solid immersion microscopy in which light is focused through a high refractive index Solid Immersion Lens (SIL). This work describes the fabrication, modeling, and use of a microfabricated SIL to obtain spatial resolution better than the diffraction limit in air with high optical throughput for infrared applications. SILs on the order of 10 μm in diameter are fabricated from single-crystal silicon and integrated onto silicon cantilevers with tips for scanning. We measure a focused spot size of λ/5 with optical throughput better than 10-1 at a wavelength of λ = 9.3 μm. Spatial resolution is improved to λ/10 with metal apertures fabricated directly on the tip of the silicon SIL. Microlenses have reduced spherical aberration and better transparency than large lenses but cannot be made arbitrarily small and still focus. We model the advantages and limitations of focusing in lenses close to the wavelength in diameter using an extension of Mie theory. We also investigate a new contrast mechanism unique to microlenses resulting from the decrease in field-of-view with lens diameter. This technique is shown to achieve λ/4 spatial resolution. We explore applications of the microfabricated silicon SIL for high spatial resolution thermal microscopy and biological spectroscopy. Thermal radiation is collected through the SIL from a heated surface with spatial resolution four times better than that of a diffraction- limited infrared microscope. Using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, we observe absorption peaks in bacteria cells positioned at the focus of the silicon SIL.

  3. BigNeuron: Large-Scale 3D Neuron Reconstruction from Optical Microscopy Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Peng (Hanchuan); M. Hawrylycz (Michael); J. Roskams (Jane); S. Hill (Sean); N. Spruston (Nelson); E. Meijering (Erik); G.A. Ascoli (Giorgio A.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding the structure of single neurons is critical for understanding how they function within neural circuits. BigNeuron is a new community effort that combines modern bioimaging informatics, recent leaps in labeling and microscopy, and the widely recognized need for openness and

  4. Investigation of autofocus algorithms for brightfield microscopy of unstained cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu Yu; Dugan, Nazim; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2014-05-01

    In the past decade there has been significant interest in image processing for brightfield cell microscopy. Much of the previous research on image processing for microscopy has focused on fluorescence microscopy, including cell counting, cell tracking, cell segmentation and autofocusing. Fluorescence microscopy provides functional image information that involves the use of labels in the form of chemical stains or dyes. For some applications, where the biochemical integrity of the cell is required to remain unchanged so that sensitive chemical testing can later be applied, it is necessary to avoid staining. For this reason the challenge of processing images of unstained cells has become a topic of increasing attention. These cells are often effectively transparent and appear to have a homogenous intensity profile when they are in focus. Bright field microscopy is the most universally available and most widely used form of optical microscopy and for this reason we are interested in investigating image processing of unstained cells recorded using a standard bright field microscope. In this paper we investigate the application of a range of different autofocus metrics applied to unstained bladder cancer cell lines using a standard inverted bright field microscope with microscope objectives that have high magnification and numerical aperture. We present a number of conclusions on the optimum metrics and the manner in which they should be applied for this application.

  5. Review of near-field optics and superlenses for sub-diffraction-limited nano-imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Adams

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Near-field optics and superlenses for imaging beyond Abbe’s diffraction limit are reviewed. A comprehensive and contemporary background is given on scanning near-field microscopy and superlensing. Attention is brought to recent research leveraging scanning near-field optical microscopy with superlenses for new nano-imaging capabilities. Future research directions are explored for realizing the goal of low-cost and high-performance sub-diffraction-limited imaging systems.

  6. Calibration of optically trapped nanotools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carberry, D M; Simpson, S H; Grieve, J A; Hanna, S; Miles, M J [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wang, Y; Schaefer, H; Steinhart, M [Institute for Chemistry, University of Osnabrueck, Osnabrueck (Germany); Bowman, R; Gibson, G M; Padgett, M J, E-mail: m.j.miles@bristol.ac.uk [SUPA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Science Road, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-30

    Holographically trapped nanotools can be used in a novel form of force microscopy. By measuring the displacement of the tool in the optical traps, the contact force experienced by the probe can be inferred. In the following paper we experimentally demonstrate the calibration of such a device and show that its behaviour is independent of small changes in the relative position of the optical traps. Furthermore, we explore more general aspects of the thermal motion of the tool.

  7. LED arrays as cost effective and efficient light sources for widefield microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu F Albeanu

    Full Text Available New developments in fluorophores as well as in detection methods have fueled the rapid growth of optical imaging in the life sciences. Commercial widefield microscopes generally use arc lamps, excitation/emission filters and shutters for fluorescence imaging. These components can be expensive, difficult to maintain and preclude stable illumination. Here, we describe methods to construct inexpensive and easy-to-use light sources for optical microscopy using light-emitting diodes (LEDs. We also provide examples of its applicability to biological fluorescence imaging.

  8. Organic Nanoaggregates: A Window to Submicron Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Bordo, Vladimir G.; Neuendorf, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    of controlled growth manipulation, while, on the other hand, showing self-assembled multiplication of individual entities. Examples on selective spectroscopy, scanning fluorescence optical microscopy, and waveguiding of individual nanofibers, as well as arrays of nanofibers are given. Both the linear optical...... properties, as well as the waveguiding efficiency are strongly related to the morphology of the nanoaggregates. Organic nanoaggregates, thus, are an interesting benchmark system for the investigation of the applicability of a variety of optical methods in the nanodomain....

  9. Deep learning enhanced mobile-phone microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair

    2017-12-12

    Mobile-phones have facilitated the creation of field-portable, cost-effective imaging and sensing technologies that approach laboratory-grade instrument performance. However, the optical imaging interfaces of mobile-phones are not designed for microscopy and produce spatial and spectral distortions in imaging microscopic specimens. Here, we report on the use of deep learning to correct such distortions introduced by mobile-phone-based microscopes, facilitating the production of high-resolution, denoised and colour-corrected images, matching the performance of benchtop microscopes with high-end objective lenses, also extending their limited depth-of-field. After training a convolutional neural network, we successfully imaged various samples, including blood smears, histopathology tissue sections, and parasites, where the recorded images were highly compressed to ease storage and transmission for telemedicine applications. This method is applicable to other low-cost, aberrated imaging systems, and could offer alternatives for costly and bulky microscopes, while also providing a framework for standardization of optical images for clinical and biomedical applications.

  10. X-ray shadow projection microscopy of microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasatkin, Yu.I.; Kasyuga, L.Z.; Kasyuga, P.I.; Kozyrev, A.S.; Khanonkin, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The X-ray shadow projection microscopy as a method for testing geometrical parameters of microwires is considered. Two X-ray-optical circuits for measuring geometrical parameters of wires are described. It is shown that the coefficient of increase of the circuits does not depend on geometrical parameters of the wire under testing, and it is determined solely by the construction peculiarities of the circuits. The testability of geometric parameters of a wire, using DRON-2.0 X-ray diffractometer or its like, is discussed [ru

  11. Mueller matrix microscopy on a Morpho butterfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga, Oriol; Kuntman, Ertan; Antó, Joan; Pascual, Esther; Canillas, Adolf; Bertran, Enric

    2015-01-01

    The brilliant iridescent colouring in male Morpho butterflies is due to the microstrutures and nanostructures present in the wing scales, rather than pigments. In this work Mueller matrix microscopy is used to investigate the polarization properties of butterfly wing scales in reflection and transmission. It is found that the top layer of more transparent scales (cover scales) have very different polarimetric properties from the ground iridescent scales. Images with high spatial resolution showing the retarding and diattenuating optical properties for both types of scales are provided. (paper)

  12. Current limitations in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy for biological specimens: How deep can we go from the cover glass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasushi

    2017-04-01

    Diffraction limit of resolution has been one of the biggest limitations in the optical microscopy. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has enabled us to break this limit. However, for the observations of real biological specimens, especially for the imaging of tissues or whole body, the target structures of interest are often embedded deep inside the specimen. Here, we would present our results to extend the target of the super-resolution microscopy deeper into the cells. Confocal microscope optics work effectively to minimize the effect by the aberrations by the cellular components, but at the expense of the signal intensities. Spherical aberrations by the refractive index mismatch between the cellular environment and the immersion liquid can be much larger, but can be reduced by adjusting the correction collar at the objective lens.

  13. Optical imaging beyond the diffraction limit by SNEM: Effects of AFM tip modifications with thiol monolayers on imaging quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumurcu, Aysegul; Diaz, J.; Lindsay, I.D.; de Beer, Sissi; Duvigneau, Joost; Schön, Peter Manfred; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    Tip-enhanced nanoscale optical imaging techniques such as apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (a-SNOM) and scanning near-field ellipsometric microscopy (SNEM) applications can suffer from a steady degradation in performance due to adhesion of atmospheric contaminants to the metal

  14. Integrated Confocal and Scanning Probe Microscopy for Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. Haupt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM continues to be developed, not only in design, but also in application. The new focus of using AFM is changing from pure material to biomedical studies. More frequently, it is being used in combination with other optical imaging methods, such as confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and fluorescent imaging, to provide a more comprehensive understanding of biological systems. To date, AFM has been used increasingly as a precise micromanipulator, probing and altering the mechanobiological characteristics of living cells and tissues, in order to examine specific, receptor-ligand interactions, material properties, and cell behavior. In this review, we discuss the development of this new hybrid AFM, current research, and potential applications in diagnosis and the detection of disease.

  15. Photonic Torque Microscopy of the Nonconservative Force Field for Optically Trapped Silicon Nanowires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Irrera, A.; Maggazu, A.; Artoni, P.; Simpson, Stephen Hugh; Hanna, S.; Jones, P.H.; Priolo, F.; Gucciardi, P. G.; Marago, O.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 7 (2016), s. 4181-4188 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : optical tweezers * silicon nanowires * nonequilibrium dynamics * Brownian motion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 12.712, year: 2016

  16. Examination of diagnostic features in multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography images of ovarian tumorigenesis in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer M.

    Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease owing to the non-specific symptoms and suspected rapid progression, leading to frequent late stage detection and poor prognosis. Medical imaging methods such as CT, MRI and ultrasound as well as serum testing for cancer markers have had extremely poor performance for early disease detection. Due to the poor performance of available screening methods, and the impracticality and ineffectiveness of taking tissue biopsies from the ovary, women at high risk for developing ovarian cancer are often advised to undergo prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. This surgery results in many side effects and is most often unnecessary since only a fraction of high risk women go on to develop ovarian cancer. Better understanding of the early development of ovarian cancer and characterization of morphological changes associated with early disease could lead to the development of an effective screening test for women at high risk. Optical imaging methods including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) are excellent tools for studying disease progression owing to the high resolution and depth sectioning capabilities. Further, these techniques are excellent for optical biopsy because they can image in situ non-destructively. In the studies described in this dissertation OCT and MPM are used to identify cellular and tissue morphological changes associated with early tumor development in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. This work is organized into three specific aims. The first aim is to use the images from the MPM phenomenon of second harmonic generation to quantitatively examine the morphological differences in collagen structure in normal mouse ovarian tissue and mouse ovarian tumors. The second aim is to examine the differences in endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence in normal mouse ovarian tissue and mouse ovarian tumors. The third and final aim is to identify changes in ovarian microstructure resulting from early

  17. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy of single nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Iestyn; Payne, Lukas; Zoriniants, George; Thomas, Evan; Williams, Oliver; Watson, Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted enormous attention for biomedical applications as optical labels, drug-delivery vehicles and contrast agents in vivo. In the quest for superior photostability and biocompatibility, nanodiamonds are considered one of the best choices due to their unique structural, chemical, mechanical and optical properties. So far, mainly fluorescent nanodiamonds have been utilized for cell imaging. However, their use is limited by the efficiency and costs in reliably producing fluorescent defect centres with stable optical properties. Here, we show that single non-fluorescing nanodiamonds exhibit strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) at the sp3 vibrational resonance of diamond. Using correlative light and electron microscopy, the relationship between CARS signal strength and nanodiamond size is quantified. The calibrated CARS signal in turn enables the analysis of the number and size of nanodiamonds internalized in living cells in situ, which opens the exciting prospect of following complex cellular trafficking pathways quantitatively.

  18. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy of single nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Iestyn; Payne, Lukas; Zoriniants, George; Thomas, Evan; Williams, Oliver; Watson, Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted enormous attention for biomedical applications as optical labels, drug-delivery vehicles and contrast agents in vivo. In the quest for superior photostability and biocompatibility, nanodiamonds are considered one of the best choices due to their unique structural, chemical, mechanical and optical properties. So far, mainly fluorescent nanodiamonds have been utilized for cell imaging. However, their use is limited by the efficiency and costs in reliably producing fluorescent defect centres with stable optical properties. Here, we show that single non-fluorescing nanodiamonds exhibit strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) at the sp(3) vibrational resonance of diamond. Using correlative light and electron microscopy, the relationship between CARS signal strength and nanodiamond size is quantified. The calibrated CARS signal in turn enables the analysis of the number and size of nanodiamonds internalized in living cells in situ, which opens the exciting prospect of following complex cellular trafficking pathways quantitatively.

  19. Provenance study through analysis of microstructural characteristics using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy for Goryeo celadon excavated from the seabed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min-su, Han

    2013-08-01

    This paper aims at identifying the provenance of Goryeo celadons by understanding its microstructural characteristics, such as particles, blisters, forms and amount of pores, and the presence of crystal formation, bodies, and glazes and its boundary, using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis of the reproduced samples shows that the glazed layer of the sherd fired at higher temperatures has lower viscosity and therefore it encourages the blisters to be combined together and the layer to become more transparent. In addition, the result showed that the vitrification and melting process of clay minerals such as feldspars and quartzs on the bodies was accelerated for those samples. To factor such characteristics of the microstructure and apply it to the sherds, the samples could be divided into six categories based on status, such as small particles with many small pores or mainly large and small circular pores in the bodies, only a limited number of varied sized blisters in the glazes, and a few blisters and needle-shaped crystals on the boundary surface. In conclusion, the analysis of the microstructural characteristics using an optical microscope and SEM have proven to be useful as a categorizing reference factor in a provenance study on Goryeo celadons.

  20. Hybrid fluorescence and electron cryo-microscopy for simultaneous electron and photon imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Hirofumi; Fukuda, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Yoshihiro; Terakawa, Susumu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2014-01-01

    Integration of fluorescence light and transmission electron microscopy into the same device would represent an important advance in correlative microscopy, which traditionally involves two separate microscopes for imaging. To achieve such integration, the primary technical challenge that must be solved regards how to arrange two objective lenses used for light and electron microscopy in such a manner that they can properly focus on a single specimen. To address this issue, both lateral displacement of the specimen between two lenses and specimen rotation have been proposed. Such movement of the specimen allows sequential collection of two kinds of microscopic images of a single target, but prevents simultaneous imaging. This shortcoming has been made up by using a simple optical device, a reflection mirror. Here, we present an approach toward the versatile integration of fluorescence and electron microscopy for simultaneous imaging. The potential of simultaneous hybrid microscopy was demonstrated by fluorescence and electron sequential imaging of a fluorescent protein expressed in cells and cathodoluminescence imaging of fluorescent beads. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.