WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical microscopes

  1. Anisotropic Contrast Optical Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Peev, D; Kananizadeh, N; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-01-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by mea...

  2. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D.; Hofmann, T.; Kananizadeh, N.; Beeram, S.; Rodriguez, E.; Wimer, S.; Rodenhausen, K. B.; Herzinger, C. M.; Kasputis, T.; Pfaunmiller, E.; Nguyen, A.; Korlacki, R.; Pannier, A.; Li, Y.; Schubert, E.; Hage, D.; Schubert, M.

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  3. Simulations of optical microscope images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Thomas A.; Marx, Egon

    2006-03-01

    The resolution of an optical microscope is limited by the optical wavelengths used. However, there is no fundamental limit to the sensitivity of a microscope to small differences in any of a feature's dimensions. That is, those limits are determined by such things as the sensitivity of the detector array, the quality of the optical system, and the stability of the light source. The potential for using this nearly unbounded sensitivity has sparked interest in extending optical microscopy to the characterization of sub-wavelength structures created by photolithography and using that characterization for process control. In this paper, an analysis of the imaging of a semiconductor grating structure with an optical microscope will be presented. The analysis includes the effects of partial coherence in the illumination system, aberrations of both the illumination and the collection optics, non-uniformities in the illumination, and polarization. It can thus model just about any illumination configuration imaginable, including Koehler illumination, focused (confocal) illumination, or dark-field illumination. By propagating Jones matrices throughout the system, polarization control at the back focal planes of both illumination and collection can be investigated. Given a detailed characterization of the microscope (including aberrations), images can be calculated and compared to real data, allowing details of the grating structure to be determined, in a manner similar to that found in scatterometry.

  4. Research of Microscopic Optical Potential for Deuteron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The microscopic optical potential for deuteron is obtained by Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The radial

  5. Optics of high-performance electron microscopes*

    OpenAIRE

    H H Rose

    2016-01-01

    During recent years, the theory of charged particle optics together with advances in fabrication tolerances and experimental techniques has lead to very significant advances in high-performance electron microscopes. Here, we will describe which theoretical tools, inventions and designs have driven this development. We cover the basic theory of higher-order electron optics and of image formation in electron microscopes. This leads to a description of different methods to correct aberrations by...

  6. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...

  7. Optical alignment using the Point Source Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Robert E.; Kuhn, William P.

    2005-08-01

    We give an example of a Point Source Microscope (PSM) and describe its uses as an aid in the alignment of optical systems including the referencing of optical to mechanical datums. The PSM is a small package (about 100x150x30 mm), including a point source of light, beam splitter, microscope objective and digital CCD camera to detect the reflected light spot. A software package in conjunction with a computer video display locates the return image in three degrees of freedom relative to an electronic spatial reference point. The PSM also includes a Koehler illumination source so it may be used as a portable microscope for ordinary imaging and the microscope can be zoomed under computer control. For added convenience, the laser diode point source can be made quite bright to facilitate initial alignment under typical laboratory lighting conditions. The PSM is particularly useful in aligning optical systems that do not have circular symmetry or are distributed in space such as off-axis systems. The PSM is also useful for referencing the centers of curvatures of optical surfaces to mechanical datums of the structure in which the optics are mounted. By removing the microscope objective the PSM can be used as an electronic autocollimator because of the infinite conjugate optical design.

  8. The optics of microscope image formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David E

    2013-01-01

    Although geometric optics gives a good understanding of how the microscope works, it fails in one critical area, which is explaining the origin of microscope resolution. To accomplish this, one must consider the microscope from the viewpoint of physical optics. This chapter describes the theory of the microscope-relating resolution to the highest spatial frequency that a microscope can collect. The chapter illustrates how Huygens' principle or construction can be used to explain the propagation of a plane wave. It is shown that this limit increases with increasing numerical aperture (NA). As a corollary to this, resolution increases with decreasing wavelength because of how NA depends on wavelength. The resolution is higher for blue light than red light. Resolution is dependent on contrast, and the higher the contrast, the higher the resolution. This last point relates to issues of signal-to-noise and dynamic range. The use of video and new digital cameras has necessitated redefining classical limits such as those of Rayleigh's criterion. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optics of high-performance electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, H H

    2008-01-01

    During recent years, the theory of charged particle optics together with advances in fabrication tolerances and experimental techniques has lead to very significant advances in high-performance electron microscopes. Here, we will describe which theoretical tools, inventions and designs have driven this development. We cover the basic theory of higher-order electron optics and of image formation in electron microscopes. This leads to a description of different methods to correct aberrations by multipole fields and to a discussion of the most advanced design that take advantage of these techniques. The theory of electron mirrors is developed and it is shown how this can be used to correct aberrations and to design energy filters. Finally, different types of energy filters are described.

  10. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naulleau, Patrick P; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A

    2011-07-10

    Defect free masks remain one of the most significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Progress on this front requires high-performance wavelength-specific metrology of EUV masks, including high-resolution and aerial-image microscopy performed near the 13.5 nm wavelength. Arguably the most cost-effective and rapid path to proliferating this capability is through the development of Fresnel zoneplate-based microscopes. Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized to deal with them and their imaging properties are poorly understood. Here we present a modeling methodology to analyze zoneplate microscopes based on commercially available optical modeling software and use the technique to investigate the imaging performance of an off-axis EUV microscope design. The modeling predicts that superior performance can be achieved by tilting the zoneplate, making it perpendicular to the chief ray at the center of the field, while designing the zoneplate to explicitly work in that tilted plane. Although the examples presented here are in the realm of EUV mask inspection, the methods described and analysis results are broadly applicable to zoneplate microscopes in general, including full-field soft-x-ray microscopes routinely used in the synchrotron community.

  11. Microscopic optical buffering in a harmonic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M

    2015-01-01

    In the early days of quantum mechanics, Schr\\"odinger noticed that oscillations of a wave packet in a one-dimensional harmonic potential well are periodic and, in contrast to those in anharmonic potential wells, do not experience distortion over time. This original idea did not find applications up to now since an exact one-dimensional harmonic resonator does not exist in nature and has not been created artificially. However, an optical pulse propagating in a bottle microresonator (a dielectric cylinder with a nanoscale-high bump of the effective radius) can exactly imitate a quantum wave packet in the harmonic potential. Here, we propose a tuneable microresonator that can trap an optical pulse completely, hold it as long as the material losses permit, and release it without distortion. This result suggests the solution of the long standing problem of creating a microscopic optical buffer, the key element of the future optical signal processing devices.

  12. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  13. Optical microscopic imaging based on VRML language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuedian; Zhang, Zhenyi; Sun, Jun

    2009-11-01

    As so-called VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language), is a kind of language used to establish a model of the real world or a colorful world made by people. As in international standard, VRML is the main kind of program language based on the "www" net building, which is defined by ISO, the kind of MIME is x-world or x-VRML. The most important is that it has no relationship with the operating system. Otherwise, because of the birth of VRML 2.0, its ability of describing the dynamic condition gets better, and the interaction of the internet evolved too. The use of VRML will bring a revolutionary change of confocal microscope. For example, we could send different kinds of swatch in virtual 3D style to the net. On the other hand, scientists in different countries could use the same microscope in the same time to watch the same samples by the internet. The mode of sending original data in the model of text has many advantages, such as: the faster transporting, the fewer data, the more convenient updating and fewer errors. In the following words we shall discuss the basic elements of using VRML in the field of Optical Microscopic imaging.

  14. Optical and digital microscopic imaging techniques and applications in pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications of optical microscopes, electron microscopes, scanning tunnel microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes. The interface of microscopy with digital image acquisition methods is discussed. The recent developments and future perspectives of contemporary microscopic imaging techniques such as three-dimensional and in vivo imaging are analyzed for their clinical potentials.

  15. Modification Of Normal Microscope To Magneto-Optical Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurazlin Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work reports on the modification of polarizing microscope to a magnetic domain imaging microscope based on Faraday Effect. Sample used in this research is a ferromagnetic garnet BiTmNa3FeGa5O12. The halogen lamp in the microscope is replaced by helium-neon HeNe laser as a light source. To reduce the laser spatial coherent effect thin transparent plastics placed in the laser path. The plastics are rotated at certain velocity. Other factors to be considered are the plastic rotation velocity the laser intensity and the laser alignment. Typical magnetic domain pattern is obtained with the new system.

  16. Atomic force microscope featuring an integrated optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to image the surface of both conductors and nonconductors. Biological specimens constitute a large group of nonconductors. A disadvantage of most AFM's is the fact that relatively large areas of the sample surface have to be scanned to pinpoint a biological

  17. Development of an ultrasound microscope combined with optical microscope for multiparametric characterization of a single cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Mototaka; Shikama, Joe; Yoshida, Koki; Nagaoka, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2015-09-01

    Biomechanics of the cell has been gathering much attention because it affects the pathological status in atherosclerosis and cancer. In the present study, an ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope for characterization of a single cell with multiple ultrasound parameters was developed. The central frequency of the transducer was 375 MHz and the scan area was 80 × 80 μm with up to 200 × 200 sampling points. An inverted optical microscope was incorporated in the design of the system, allowing for simultaneous optical observations of cultured cells. Two-dimensional mapping of multiple ultrasound parameters, such as sound speed, attenuation, and acoustic impedance, as well as the thickness, density, and bulk modulus of specimen/cell under investigation, etc., was realized by the system. Sound speed and thickness of a 3T3-L1 fibroblast cell were successfully obtained by the system. The ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope further enhances our understanding of cellular biomechanics.

  18. Plenoptic microscope based on laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI)

    CERN Document Server

    Glastre, W; Jacquin, O; de Chatellus, H Guillet; Lacot, E

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the performances of a plenoptic microscope which combines the high sensitivity of a laser optical feedback imaging setup , the high resolution of optical synthetic aperture and a shot noise limited signal to noise ratio by using acoustic photon tagging. By using an adapted phase filtering, this microscope allows phase drift correction and numerical aberration compensation (defocusing, coma, astigmatism ...). This new kind of microscope seems to be well adapted to make deep imaging through scattering and heterogeneous media.

  19. Accurate measurement of microscopic forces and torques using optical tweezers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McLaren, M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now well known that matter may be trapped by optical fields with high intensity gradients. Once trapped, it is then possible to manipulate microscopic particles using such optical fields, in so-called optical tweezers. Such optical trapping...

  20. Variable - temperature scanning optical and force microscope

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of a scanning microscope capable of working in confocal, atomic force and apertureless near field configurations is presented. The microscope is designed to operate in the temperature range 4 - 300 K, using conventional helium flow cryostats. In AFM mode, the distance between the sample and an etched tungsten tip is controlled by a self - sensing piezoelectric tuning fork. The vertical position of both the AFM head and microscope objective can be accurately controlled using...

  1. Optical and Digital Microscopic Imaging Techniques and Applications in Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications of optical microscopes, electron microscopes, scanning tunnel microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes. The interface of microscopy with digital image acquisition methods is discussed. The recent developments and future perspectives of contemporary microscopic imaging techniques such as three-dimensional and in vivo imaging are analyzed for their clinical potentials.

  2. Design of Optical Microscopes Some Guiding Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Roy

    1969-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential parameters of different types of microscopes, e.g.. magnification, resolving power and numerical aperture, have been highlighted and relations among these parameters have been established. Effort has been made to correlate focal length and numerical aperture of objectives, which may prove useful to the microscope designers in the country.

  3. Teaching Optics to Biology Students Through Constructing a Light Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    The microscope is familiar to many disciplines, including physics, materials science, chemistry, and the life sciences. It demonstrates fundamental aspects of ray and wave optics, making it an ideal system to help educate students in the basic concepts of optics and in measurement principles and techniques. We present an experimental system developed to teach students the basics of ray and wave optics. The students design, build, and test a light microscope made from optics components. We describe the equipment and the basic measurements that students can perform to develop experimental techniques to understand optics principles. Students measure the magnification and test the resolution of the microscope. The system is open and versatile to allow advanced projects such as epi-fluorescence, total internal reflection fluorescence, and optical trapping. We have used this equipment in an optics course, an advanced laboratory course, and graduate-level training modules.

  4. Experimental research on dual polarized laser optical feedback microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei; ZHANG Shu-lian; TAN Yi-dong

    2005-01-01

    The principle of laser optical feedback microscope was presented and demonstrated. Three methods to advance the vertical resolution of laser optical feedback microscope were experimentally studied. The first one is to detect the two polarized lights' intensities separately with a Wollaston prism instead of to detect the whole light's intensity. The second is that both of the two orthogonally polarized lights of a birefringent dual frequency laser are fed back. The third one is that only one of the orthogonally polarized lights is fed back. The experimental results show that the modes competition between orthogonally polarized lights can be used to improve the vertical resolution of laser optical feedback microscope effectively.

  5. Miniature electron microscope beam column optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Jody Stuart

    This investigation is in the area of electrostatic lens design with the overarching goal of contributing to the creation of a miniaturized scanning electron microscope (SEM) for use in mineralogical analysis or detection of signs of life on the surface of Mars. Such an instrument could also have application in the exploration of Earth's moon, planetary moons, asteroids, or comets. Other embodiments could include tabletop or field portable SEMs for use on Earth. The scope of this research is in the design of a beam column that attains focusing, demagnification, and aberration control within the smallest achievable package. The goals of planetary exploration and of spaceflight in general impose severe constraints on the instrument's mass and electrical power consumption, while favoring a robust design of small size and high rigidity that is also simple to align. To meet these requirements a design using electrostatic lenses was favored because of the lower power requirement and mass of electrostatic versus magnetic lenses, their relatively simple construction, as well as inherently easier shielding from extraneous fields. In modeling the lens field, a hybrid of a Boundary Element Method (BEM) and a Fourier series solution was employed, whereby an initial solution from the BEM is used to derive the bounding potential of a cylindrical subdomain for the subsequent Fourier series solution. The approach is applicable to many problems in physics and combines the inherent precision of this series solution with the flexibility of BEM to describe practical, non-idealized electrode shapes. The resulting lens field in the Fourier series subdomain is of higher precision, thereby allowing smaller errors in subsequent calculations of electron ray paths. The effects of aberrations are thus easier to observe in tracing non-paraxial rays. A significant speed increase in tracing rays is also observed. The modeling technique has been validated by reproducing example ray-traces through

  6. Microscopic Optical Potential of α-Nucleus Elastic Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The nucleon microscopic optical model potentials (OMP) in the nuclear medium are studied in the framework of the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach, which are of density- and energy-dependence.

  7. Helium-3 Microscopic Optical Model Potential Based on Skyrme Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The helium-3 microscopic optical potential is obtained by Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The reaction cross

  8. Tracking nanoparticles in an optical microscope using caustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Eann A [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Whelan, Maurice P [Nanotechnology and Molecular Imaging Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission DG Joint Research Center, 21021 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)

    2008-03-12

    An elegant method is proposed and demonstrated for tracking the location and movement of nanoparticles in an optical microscope using the optical phenomenon of caustics. A simple and reversible adjustment to the microscope generates caustics several orders of magnitude larger than the particles. The method offers a simple and relatively inexpensive method for visualizing such phenomena as the formation of self-assembled monolayers and the interaction of nanoparticles with chemically functionalized surfaces.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Optics of high-performance electron microscopes

    OpenAIRE

    H H Rose

    2008-01-01

    During recent years, the theory of charged particle optics together with advances in fabrication tolerances and experimental techniques has lead to very significant advances in high-performance electron microscopes. Here, we will describe which theoretical tools, inventions and designs have driven this development. We cover the basic theory of higher-order electron optics and of image formation in electron microscopes. This leads to a description of different methods to correct aberrations by...

  10. Microscopic theory of photonic band gaps in optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Samoylova, M; Bachelard, R; Courteille, Ph W

    2013-01-01

    We propose a microscopic model to describe the scattering of light by atoms in optical lattices. The model is shown to efficiently capture Bragg scattering, spontaneous emission and photonic band gaps. A connection to the transfer matrix formalism is established in the limit of a one-dimensional optical lattice, and we find the two theories to yield results in good agreement. The advantage of the microscopic model is, however, that it suits better for studies of finite-size and disorder effects.

  11. A combined near field optical and force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Tack, R.G.; Hulst, van N.F.; Bölger, B.

    1993-01-01

    Scanning near field optical microscopy (SNOM) is the optical alternative of the scanning probe microscopical techniques which enables a lateral resolution down to about 10 nm, unlimited by diffraction. Moreover, the potential of non- destructive imaging of chemical and biological samples with nanome

  12. Ultrafast superresolution fluorescence imaging with spinning disk confocal microscope optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Okada, Yasushi

    2015-05-01

    Most current superresolution (SR) microscope techniques surpass the diffraction limit at the expense of temporal resolution, compromising their applications to live-cell imaging. Here we describe a new SR fluorescence microscope based on confocal microscope optics, which we name the spinning disk superresolution microscope (SDSRM). Theoretically, the SDSRM is equivalent to a structured illumination microscope (SIM) and achieves a spatial resolution of 120 nm, double that of the diffraction limit of wide-field fluorescence microscopy. However, the SDSRM is 10 times faster than a conventional SIM because SR signals are recovered by optical demodulation through the stripe pattern of the disk. Therefore a single SR image requires only a single averaged image through the rotating disk. On the basis of this theory, we modified a commercial spinning disk confocal microscope. The improved resolution around 120 nm was confirmed with biological samples. The rapid dynamics of micro-tubules, mitochondria, lysosomes, and endosomes were observed with temporal resolutions of 30-100 frames/s. Because our method requires only small optical modifications, it will enable an easy upgrade from an existing spinning disk confocal to a SR microscope for live-cell imaging. © 2015 Hayashi and Okada. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Collisional blockade in microscopic optical dipole traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, N; Reymond, G; Grangier, P

    2002-07-08

    We analyze the operating regimes of a very small optical dipole trap, loaded from a magneto-optical trap, as a function of the atom loading rate, i.e., the number of atoms per second entering the dipole trap. We show that, when the dipole trap volume is small enough, a "collisional blockade" mechanism locks the average number of trapped atoms on the value 0.5 over a large range of loading rates. We also discuss the "weak loading" and "strong loading" regimes outside the blockade range, and we demonstrate experimentally the existence of these three regimes.

  14. Optical and digital microscopic imaging techniques and applications in pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodong Chen; Bin Zheng; Hong Liu

    2011-01-01

    The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications o...

  15. Research and application of ergonomics to optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue-kun; Xiao, Ze-xin; Zhang, Jie

    2008-03-01

    The characteristics of the human and the microscope, and their integrated characteristic have been studied respectively in this paper. Our results indicated that the correspondence of (i) focusing installment with human body arm, (ii) the height of ocular with eyes, (iii) visual characteristic with illuminative condition of the optical microscope, should obey the theory of the ergonomics. This was reflected in the structural design and the produce of the product, and therefore, improved the property of the amenity of the machine.

  16. Accurate measurement of microscopic forces and torques using optical tweezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Forbes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now well known that matter may be trapped by optical fields with high intensity gradients. Once trapped, it is then possible to manipulate microscopic particles using such optical fields, in so-called optical tweezers. Such optical trapping and tweezing systems have found widespread application across diverse fields in science, from applied biology to fundamental physics. In this article we outline the design and construction of an optical trapping and tweezing system, and show how the resulting interaction of the laser light with microscopic particles may be understood in terms of the transfer of linear and angular momentum of light. We demonstrate experimentally the use of our optical tweezing configuration for the measurement of microscopic forces and torques. In particular, we make use of digital holography to create so-called vortex laser beams, capable of transferring orbital angular momentum to particles. The use of such novel laser beams in an optical trapping and tweezing set-up allows for the control of biological species at the single-cell level.

  17. Scanning optical microscope with long working distance objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Sylvain G.

    2010-10-19

    A scanning optical microscope, including: a light source to generate a beam of probe light; collimation optics to substantially collimate the probe beam; a probe-result beamsplitter; a long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective; scanning means to scan a beam spot of the focused probe beam on or within a sample; relay optics; and a detector. The collimation optics are disposed in the probe beam. The probe-result beamsplitter is arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light from the sample. The beamsplitter reflects the probe beam into the objective and transmits resultant light. The long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective is also arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light. It focuses the reflected probe beam onto the sample, and collects and substantially collimates the resultant light. The relay optics are arranged to relay the transmitted resultant light from the beamsplitter to the detector.

  18. Optical approaches to macroscopic and microscopic engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, P J D S

    2001-01-01

    This research investigates the theoretical basis of a new photo-fabrication system. By this system, optical and thermal effects are used, together or separately, to locally induce a phase change in a liquid resin. This phase change phenomena is used to 'write' three-dimensional shapes. In addition, a thermal-kinetic model has been developed to correctly simulate the physical and chemical changes that occur in the bulk (and surroundings) of the material directly exposed to radiation and/or heat, and the rates at which these changes occur. Through this model, the law of conservation of energy describing the heat transfer phenomena is coupled with a kinetic model describing in detail the cure kinetics in both chemical and diffusion-controlled regimes. The thermal-kinetic model has been implemented using the finite element method. Linear rectangular elements have been considered and the concept of isoparametric formulation used. The Cranck-Nicolson algorithm has been used to integrate the system of equations, res...

  19. Dual collection mode optical microscope with single-pixel detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Fernández-Alonso, Mercedes; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we have developed a single-pixel optical microscope that provides both re ection and transmission images of the sample under test by attaching a diamond pixel layout DMD to a commercial inverted microscope. Our system performs simultaneous measurements of re ection and transmission modes. Besides, in contrast with a conventional system, in our single-element detection system both images belong, unequivocally, to the same plane of the sample. Furthermore, we have designed an algorithm to modify the shape of the projected patterns that improves the resolution and prevents the artifacts produced by the diamond pixel architecture.

  20. Operation of a scanning near field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.; Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Faulkner, T.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1992-01-01

    Images obtained with a scanning near field optical microscope (SNOM) operating in reflection are presented. We have obtained the first results with a SiN tip as optical probe. The instrument is simultaneously operated as a scanning force microscope (SFM). Moreover, the instrument incorporates an

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Optics of high-performance electron microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H H Rose

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, the theory of charged particle optics together with advances in fabrication tolerances and experimental techniques has lead to very significant advances in high-performance electron microscopes. Here, we will describe which theoretical tools, inventions and designs have driven this development. We cover the basic theory of higher-order electron optics and of image formation in electron microscopes. This leads to a description of different methods to correct aberrations by multipole fields and to a discussion of the most advanced design that take advantage of these techniques. The theory of electron mirrors is developed and it is shown how this can be used to correct aberrations and to design energy filters. Finally, different types of energy filters are described

  2. Design of Scattering Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecongost, Dustin

    The primary objective of this work is to construct a fully functional scattering type Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope (s-SNOM), and to understand the working mechanisms behind it. An s-SNOM is an instrument made up of two separate instruments working in unison. One instrument is a scanning optical microscope focusing light onto a raster scanning sample surface combined with an interferometer set up. The second instrument is an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) operating in noncontact mode. The AFM uses a small probe that interacts with the raster scanning sample surface to map out the topography of the of the sample surface. An s-SNOM uses both of these instruments simultaneously by focusing the light of the optical microscope onto the probe of the AFM. This probe acts as a nano-antenna and confines the light allowing for light-matter interaction to be inferred far below the resolution of the diffraction limit of light. This specific s-SNOM system is unique to others by having a controllable environment. It is high vacuum compatible and variable temperature. In addition, it is efficient at collecting scattered light due to the focusing objective being a partial elliptical mirror which collects 360° of light around the major axis. This s-SNOM system will be used for direct imaging of surface plasmons. Intended works are inducing surface plasmons on InSe thin films, and seeing the enhancement effect of introducing Au nano-rods. Also dielectric properties of materials will be interpreted such as the metal to insulator phase transition of NbO2.

  3. EUV optical system for the reticle imaging microscope (RIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, H.; Daniel, J.; Khajehnouri, K.; Mueller, U.; Roff, T.; Rosenbohm, J.; Sporer, S.

    2006-03-01

    The EUV optical system of the Reticle Imaging Microscope (RIM) for EUV mask inspection consists of a pinched Xeplasma source, a pupil-relayed Koehler-type illumination system and an equal-radii Cassegrain-type microscope with a 10x magnification1. The 3D surface topologies were characterized over spatial wavelengths ranging from the clear apertures down to a few nanometers by using a portfolio of instruments including contacting profilometry, phase-shifting interferometry at 633 nm at various magnifications and Atomic Force Microscopy. Measured 3D topography maps were Fourier analyzed and Power Spectral Densities (PSDs) are computed over spatial periods ranging from the critical aperture down to a few nm. Integrated RMS surface errors over typically reported spatial period ranges were computed. For a different optical system we improved our polishing process to reduce surface errors for spatial periods below 10 mm. PSDs and integrated RMS surface errors will be shown in comparison with typical RIM surfaces. All surfaces of the RIM optical system were coated with high-reflectivity coatings to maximize optical throughput. A description of the coatings and their performance had been published recently by Michael Kriese et al.2 The transmitted wavefront error (TWF) of the imager module was measured in a double pass configuration using a Fizeau-type Interferometer at 633 nm wavelength and a convex retrosphere. The measured TWF will be shown over the entire Numerical Aperture (NA = 0.0625) of the microscope. The integrated RMS of the TWF measured 0.79 nm.

  4. Microscopic model for all optical switching in ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, T. D.; Córdoba, R.; Koopmans, B.

    2016-04-01

    The microscopic mechanism behind the all optical switching (AOS) in ferromagnets has triggered intense scientific debate. Here, the microscopic three-temperature model is utilized to describe AOS in a perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnetic Co/Pt system. We demonstrate that AOS in such a ferromagnet can be explained with the Inverse Faraday Effect (IFE). The influence of the strength and lifetime of the IFE induced field pulse on the switching process are investigated. We found that because of strong spin-orbit coupling, the minimal lifetime of the IFE needed to obtain switching is of the order of 0.1 ps, which is shorter than previously assumed. Moreover, spatial images of the domain pattern after AOS in Co/Pt, as well as their dependence on applying an opposite magnetic field, are qualitatively reproduced.

  5. Laser-optical microscopic analyzer with unique advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wu; Luo Jian; Ji Tiezheng; Lan Liwen; Lin Dekuan

    1989-04-01

    This paper describes a laser optical microscopic analyzer (LOMA) for measuring photoelasticity, which can be applied to materials of transparency as low as 0.5 percent and are opaque to the naked eye. LOMA has a measuring accuracy of lambda/6000, as compared to the limit of lambda/2000 of the Senarment Compensator. In birefringent measurements, the new analyzer is able to distinguish states of stress or strain between two points within a distance of 50 microns, as compared to a limit of 1-mm of a common photoelastic apparatus. Results of inner-stress measurements in Kevlar-reinforced epoxy/rubber composites are reported. 7 references.

  6. Multi-mode Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A scanning near-field optical microscope using uncoated fiber tip is described, which can work in transmission and reflection configurations, both capable of working in illumination and collection-mode, so that either transparent or opaque sample can be investigated. Depending on different applications, either constant-gap or constant-height images can be achieved. A compact homemade translator permits to select interested area of sample in the range of 4mm×4mm. Working in the constant-height as well as transmission and collection-mode configuration, several kinds of samples such as holographic grating, liposome and zeolite were investigated. The experimental results revealed the dependence of the optical resolution of the SNOM on the tip-sample separation.

  7. Measuring microscopic forces and torques using optical tweezers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McLaren, MG

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available f1 f2 f 3 Objective lens Illumination source M1 M2 Dichroic mirror Sample stage Our home-built optical trapping and tweezing setup, complete with in-house microscope objective Optical tweezing and micromanipulation, MSc (Wits), 2009 60.5 µm... v v α−= Velocity of fluid as bead escapes trap Trap stiffnessViscosity of fluid Drag force method Drag force method mW 100at pN 26.024.5 =±= PFtrap Equipartition Method Tkx B2 1 2 1 2 =α N/m 105109.9 -65 ×±×= −α xF v v α...

  8. Special Features of Functioning of the Optical Channel of a Scanning Optical Microscope for Cryobiology and Cryomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Lubinecka, Bogdana; Pedan, Anatoliy

    2010-01-01

    Is analyzed work of a scanning optical microscope, which magnification reaches initial values of electronic raster microscopes, at research of biological microobjects cryobiology and cryomedicine at a cellular level. Circuits of optical channels for working on showthrough and reflection, and also microscopic cryostate for deep cooling are offered on the basis of thermoelectric modules and thermal pipes.

  9. Electron optics of multi-beam scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi-Gheidari, A., E-mail: A.M.Gheidari@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Kruit, P. [Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-07-21

    We have developed a multi-beam scanning electron microscope (MBSEM), which delivers a square array of 196 focused beams onto a sample with a resolution and current per beam comparable to a state of the art single beam SEM. It consists of a commercially available FEI Nova-nano 200 SEM column equipped with a novel multi-electron beam source module. The key challenge in the electron optical design of the MBSEM is to minimize the off-axial aberrations of the lenses. This article addresses the electron optical design of the system and presents the result of optics simulations for a specific setting of the system. It is shown that it is possible to design a system with a theoretical axial spot size of 1.2 nm at 15 kV with a probe current of 26 pA. The off-axial aberrations for the outermost beam add up 0.8 nm, increasing the probe size to 1.5 nm.

  10. HOMER: the Holographic Optical Microscope for Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luviano, Anali

    Holography was invented in 1948 by Dennis Gabor and has undergone major advancements since the 2000s leading to the development of commercial digital holographic microscopes (DHM). This noninvasive form of microscopy produces a three-dimensional (3-D) digital model of a sample without altering or destroying the sample, thus allowing the same sample to be studied multiple times. HOMER-the Holographic Optical Microscope for Education and Research-produces a 3-D image from a two-dimensional (2-D) interference pattern captured by a camera that is then put through reconstruction software. This 2-D pattern is created when a reference wave interacts with the sample to produce a secondary wave that interferes with the unaltered part of the reference wave. I constructed HOMER to be an efficient, portable in-line DHM using inexpensive material and free reconstruction software. HOMER uses three different-colored LEDs as light sources. I am testing the performance of HOMER with the goal of producing tri-color images of samples. I'm using small basic biological samples to test the effectiveness of HOMER and plan to transition to complex cellular and biological specimens as I pursue my interest in biophysics. Norwich University.

  11. Transmission electron microscope sample holder with optical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Mirko [Port Jefferson, NY; Zhu, Yimei [Stony Brook, NY; Rameau, Jonathan David [Coram, NY

    2012-03-27

    A sample holder for holding a sample to be observed for research purposes, particularly in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), generally includes an external alignment part for directing a light beam in a predetermined beam direction, a sample holder body in optical communication with the external alignment part and a sample support member disposed at a distal end of the sample holder body opposite the external alignment part for holding a sample to be analyzed. The sample holder body defines an internal conduit for the light beam and the sample support member includes a light beam positioner for directing the light beam between the sample holder body and the sample held by the sample support member.

  12. Photothermal modification of optical microscope for noninvasive living cell monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotko, Dmitry; Romanovskaya, Tat'yana; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2001-06-01

    Photothermal method was applied to improve sensing and imaging capabilities of a light microscope in cell studies. We describe the methods, technical details and testing results of cytometric application of Laser Photothermal Phase Microscope (LPPM). The merits of the proposed approach include living single cell monitoring capability, quantitative measurement of cell functional features through the use of cell natural chromophores as the sensors. Such intracellular sensors are activated by the laser pulse and transform an absorbed energy into the heat. The latter causes thermal and mechanical loads to a cell and its components. The second stage of the process includes the reaction of the cell as integral system or of its components to such loads. This reaction is caused by the changes of cell functional and structural state and includes alterations of cell optical properties. Both processes are monitored for a single cell non-invasively with probe laser beam. Pulsed phase contrast dual beam illumination scheme with acquisition of several laser images at different stages of cell-laser interaction was introduced. An acquired cell image is considered as spatially and temporally resolved cell response to non-specific load that is induced in a cell with a pump laser. This method eliminates any cell staining and allows to monitor cell viability and cell reaction to the environmental factors. Also LPPM offers further improvement of spatial and temporal resolution of optical microscope: with pulsed probe laser monitoring we can detect components with the size down to 50 nm and temporal resolution of 10 ns. In our set up the cell is pumped by pulsed laser at 532 nm, 10 ns , 0.01-0.4 mJ. The source of probe beam is a pulsed dye laser (630 nm, 10 nJ, 10 ns) which forms cell phase image. The results obtained with living cells such as drug impact control, single cell dosimetry, immune action of light on a cell demonstrate basic features of LPPM as the tool for the study of the

  13. Sub-nanosecond time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, J; Xu, H; Kolthammer, J; Hong, Y K; Choi, B C

    2015-02-01

    We report on the development of a new magnetic microscope, time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope, which combines a near-field scanning optical microscope and magneto-optical contrast. By taking advantage of the high temporal resolution of time-resolved Kerr microscope and the sub-wavelength spatial resolution of a near-field microscope, we achieved a temporal resolution of ∼50 ps and a spatial resolution of microscope, the magnetic field pulse induced gyrotropic vortex dynamics occurring in 1 μm diameter, 20 nm thick CoFeB circular disks has been investigated. The microscope provides sub-wavelength resolution magnetic images of the gyrotropic motion of the vortex core at a resonance frequency of ∼240 MHz.

  14. Increasing Student Understanding of Microscope Optics by Building and Testing the Limits of Simple, Hand-Made Model Microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Drace

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to effectively use a microscope to observe microorganisms is a crucial skill required for many disciplines within biology, especially general microbiology and cell biology. A basic understanding of the optical properties of light microscopes is required for students to use microscopes effectively, but this subject can also be a challenge to make personally interesting to students. To explore basic optical principles of magnification and resolving power in a more engaging and hands-on fashion, students constructed handmade lenses and microscopes based on Antony van Leeuwenhoek’s design using simple materials—paper, staples, glass, and adhesive putty. Students determined the power of their lenses using a green laser pointer to magnify a copper grid of known size, which also allowed students to examine variables affecting the power and resolution of a lens such as diameter, working distance, and wavelength of light. To assess the effectiveness of the laboratory’s learning objectives, four sections of a general microbiology course were given a brief pre-activity assessment quiz to determine their background knowledge on the subject. One week after the laboratory activity, students were given the same quiz (unannounced under similar conditions. Students showed significant gains in their understanding of microscope optics.

  15. Apparatus for observing a sample with a particle beam and an optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus for observing a sample (1) with a TEM column and an optical high resolution scanning microscope (10). The sample position when observing the sample with the TEM column differs from the sample position when observing the sample with the optical microscope in that in the latter case the

  16. Apparatus for observing a sample with a particle beam and an optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus for observing a sample (1) with a TEM column and an optical high resolution scanning microscope (10). The sample position when observing the sample with the TEM column differs from the sample position when observing the sample with the optical microscope in that in the latter case the s

  17. Inspection strategy for LIGA microstructures using a programmable optical microscope.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurfess, Thomas R (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Aigeldinger, Georg; Ceremuga, Joseph T.

    2004-07-01

    The LIGA process has the ability to fabricate very precise, high aspect ratio mesoscale structures with microscale features [l]. The process consists of multiple steps before a final part is produced. Materials native to the LIGA process include metals and photoresists. These structures are routinely measured for quality control and process improvement. However, metrology of LIGA structures is challenging because of their high aspect ratio and edge topography. For the scale of LIGA structures, a programmable optical microscope is well suited for lateral (XU) critical dimension measurements. Using grayscale gradient image processing with sub-pixel interpolation, edges are detected and measurements are performed. As with any measurement, understanding measurement uncertainty is necessary so that appropriate conclusions are drawn from the data. Therefore, the abilities of the inspection tool and the obstacles presented by the structures under inspection should be well understood so that precision may be quantified. This report presents an inspection method for LIGA microstructures including a comprehensive assessment of the uncertainty for each inspection scenario.

  18. Polarization resolved imaging with a reflection near-field optical microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Xiao, Mufei; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Using a rigorous microscopic point-dipole description of probe-sample interactions, we study imaging with a reflection scanning near-field optical microscope. Optical content, topographical artifacts, sensitivity window-i.e., the scale on which near-field optical images represent mainly optical...... configuration is preferable to the cross-linear one, since it ensures more isotropic (in the surface plane) near-field imaging of surface features. The numerical results are supported with experimental near-field images obtained by using a reflection microscope with an uncoated fiber tip....

  19. Iso-spin Dependent Microscopic Optical Model Potential Based on Dirac Bruckner Haretree Fock Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The microscopic optical model is investigated in the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) framework with Bonn B meson exchange potential. Both real and imaginary parts of isospin-dependent self-energies are derived from a strict projection

  20. Optical Field Measurement of Nano-Apertures with a Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tie-Jun; XU Ji-Ying; WANG Jia; TIAN Qian

    2004-01-01

    @@ We investigate optical near-field distributions of the unconventional C-apertures and the conventional square apertures in preliminary experiment with an aperture scanning near-field optical microscope. These nano-apertures are fabricated in Au film on a glass substrate with focused ion beam technology. The experimental results indicate the uptrend of output light intensity that a C-aperture enables the intensity maximum to increase at least 10times more than a square aperture with same unit length. The measured near-field light spot sizes of C-apertureand square aperture with 200-nm unit length are 439nm × 500nm and 245nm × 216nm, respectively.

  1. Three-dimensional optical transfer functions in the aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L; Nellist, P D

    2014-05-01

    In the scanning transmission electron microscope, hardware aberration correctors can now correct for the positive spherical aberration of round electron lenses. These correctors make use of nonround optics such as hexapoles or octupoles, leading to the limiting aberrations often being of a nonround type. Here we explore the effect of a number of potential limiting aberrations on the imaging performance of the scanning transmission electron microscope through their resulting optical transfer functions. In particular, the response of the optical transfer function to changes in defocus are examined, given that this is the final aberration to be tuned just before image acquisition. The resulting three-dimensional optical transfer functions also allow an assessment of the performance of a system for focal-series experiments or optical sectioning applications. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. An optical remote controlled high voltage dome for electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, S. [The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Kapp, O.H. [The Department of Radiology and the Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A low cost high voltage dome has been completed for an electron microscope with a thermal emission tip as electron source. Two fibers are used to provide communication across the high electrical field zone between the computer and the dome. This system provides a reliable method to operate the dome circuitry (floating at high voltage) and ensures the safety of both the computer system and the operator. Because of the application of ``dummy`` serial data transfer, the least number of fibers and associated components are used, providing a relatively low-cost solution to this problem. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  3. Influence of slant of objective on image formation in optical microscopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangang Wang; Rainer Koning

    2008-01-01

    A microscope image formation model based on scalar diffraction and Fourier optics has been developed, which takes a slant angle between the optical axis and the observed surface into account. The theoretical investigations of the imaging of line structures using this model show that reflection type microscopes are much stronger influenced by the slant angle than transmission type microscopes. In addition, the slant angle changes the image contrast and the image shape of a line structure, especially its edge. The larger the slant angle, the stronger the decrease of the image contrast, and the less steep the edge slope in both types of microscopes. Furthermore, the larger the numerical aperture of the objective, the less the effect of the slant angle on the line image shape.

  4. Correlation analysis of couple optical paths for microstereovision with stereo light microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuezong; LI Desheng; YU Yaping

    2007-01-01

    A micro stereovision system with a stereo light microscope (SLM) has been applied in micromanipulation systems.There is a coupling connection between two optical paths of a stereo light microscope.The coupling intension corresponds with two factors:the structure of an SLM and the position of an object point in the view of an SLM.In this paper,a correlation function is proposed to describe the coupling intension between the couple optical paths of an SLM.The quantified results are applied to the error analysis of the imaging model.Experiments show that the correlation of the optical paths of a common main objective of stereo light microscope (CMO-SLM) is little more than that of a G-SLM,and the error must be considered when a pinhole imaging model is used to analyze its correlation.

  5. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recorder using a time microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Corey Vincent

    2015-04-21

    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  6. Observation of Amorphous Recording Marks Using Reflection-Mode Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope Supported by Optical Interference Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masaru; Mononobe, Shuji; Yusu, Keiichiro; Tadokoro, Toshiyasu; Saiki, Toshiharu

    2005-09-01

    A signal enhancing technique for a reflection-mode near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) is proposed. Optical interference between the signal light, from an aperture at the tip of a tapered optical fiber, and the reflected light, from a metallic coating around the aperture, enhances the signal intensity. We used a rewritable high-definition digital versatile disc (HD DVD) with dual recording layers as a sample medium, and demonstrated observation of amorphous recording marks on the semitransparent (the first) recording layer. In spite of low optical contrast between the crystal region and the amorphous region on this layer, we successfully observed recording marks with good contrast.

  7. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S; Kuo, Anthony N; Toth, Cynthia A; Izatt, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes.

  8. Development of a super-resolution optical microscope for directional dark matter search experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, A., E-mail: andrey.alexandrov@na.infn.it [INFN - Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RUS-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Asada, T. [Nagoya University, J-464-8602 Nagoya (Japan); Consiglio, L.; D' Ambrosio, N. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); De Lellis, G. [INFN - Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); University of Naples, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Di Crescenzo, A. [INFN - Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Di Marco, N. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Furuya, S.; Hakamata, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Katsuragawa, T.; Kuwabara, K.; Machii, S.; Naka, T. [Nagoya University, J-464-8602 Nagoya (Japan); Pupilli, F. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Sirignano, C. [University of Padova and INFN, Padova (PD), 35131 Italy (Italy); Tawara, Y. [Nagoya University, J-464-8602 Nagoya (Japan); Tioukov, V. [INFN - Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Umemoto, A.; Yoshimoto, M. [Nagoya University, J-464-8602 Nagoya (Japan)

    2016-07-11

    Nuclear emulsion is a perfect choice for a detector for directional DM search because of its high density and excellent position accuracy. The minimal detectable track length of a recoil nucleus in emulsion is required to be at least 100 nm, making the resolution of conventional optical microscopes insufficient to resolve them. Here we report about the R&D on a super-resolution optical microscope to be used in future directional DM search experiments with nuclear emulsion as a detector media. The microscope will be fully automatic, will use novel image acquisition and analysis techniques, will achieve the spatial resolution of the order of few tens of nm and will be capable of reconstructing recoil tracks with the length of at least 100 nm with high angular resolution.

  9. High resolution imaging of dielectric surfaces with an evanescent field optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, van N.F.; Segerink, F.B.; Bölger, B.

    1992-01-01

    An evanescent field optical microscope (EFOM) is presented which employs frustrated total internal reflection o­n a localized scale by scanning a dielectric tip in close proximity to a sample surface. High resolution images of dielectric gratings and spheres containing both topographic and dielectri

  10. Nonlinear optical response in condensed phases : A microscopic theory using the multipolar Hamiltonian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, Jasper; Mukamel, Shaul

    1990-01-01

    A general scheme is presented for calculating the nonlinear optical response in condensed phases that provides a unified picture of excitons, polaritons, retardation, and local-field effects in crystals and in disordered systems. A fully microscopic starting point is taken by considering the evoluti

  11. Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Hyperspectral Microscope Imaging Method for Characterizing Spectra from Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method, which provides both spatial and spectral characteristics of samples, can be effective for foodborne pathogen detection. The acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-based HMI method can be used to characterize spectral properties of biofilms formed by Salmon...

  12. A Tuning Fork with a Short Fibre Probe Sensor for a Near-FieldScanning Optical Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沛; 鲁拥华; 章江英; 明海; 谢建平; 黄建文; 高宗圣; 蔡定平

    2002-01-01

    We report on a tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fibre probe sensor for a near-field scanning optical microscope. The method demonstrates how to fabricate the short fibre probe. This tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fibre probe can provide stable and high Q at the tapping frequency of the tuning fork, and can give high-quality near-field scanning optical microscope and atomic force microscope images of samples. We present the results of using the tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fibre probe sensor for a near-field scanning optical microscope performed on an eight-channel silica waveguide.

  13. An Auto-Focusing Method in a Microscopic Testbed for Optical Discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X; L'Hostis, P; Xiao, Y

    2000-01-01

    An auto-focusing method in a digital image system is demonstrated that uses a standard deviation of pixel gray levels as a feedback signal. In this system, an optical microscope and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera are used to create clear pit images of optical discs. A dynamic focusing scheme is designed in the system-control software, which is able to eliminate environmental disturbances and other noises so that a fast and stable focus can be achieved. The method shows an excellent focusing accuracy. The performance and possible applications of this method are discussed. The test results for optical discs are given in this paper.

  14. Efficient loading of a single neutral atom into an optical microscopic tweezer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何军; 刘贝; 刁文婷; 王杰英; 靳刚; 王军民

    2015-01-01

    A single atom in a magneto–optical trap (MOT) with trap size (hundreds of micrometers) can be transferred into an optical microscopic tweezer with a probability of∼100%. The ability to transfer a single atom into two traps back and forth allows us to study the loading process. The loading probability is found to be insensitive to the geometric overlap of the MOT and the tweezer. It is therefore possible to perform simultaneously loading of a single atom into all sites of the tweezer array for many qubits. In particular, we present a simulation of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays of an optical microscopic tweezer. We find the same qualitative behavior for all of the trap parameters.

  15. Efficient loading of a single neutral atom into an optical microscopic tweezer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Liu, Bei; Diao, Wen-Ting; Wang, Jie-Ying; Jin, Gang; Wang, Jun-Min

    2015-04-01

    A single atom in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) with trap size (hundreds of micrometers) can be transferred into an optical microscopic tweezer with a probability of ~ 100%. The ability to transfer a single atom into two traps back and forth allows us to study the loading process. The loading probability is found to be insensitive to the geometric overlap of the MOT and the tweezer. It is therefore possible to perform simultaneously loading of a single atom into all sites of the tweezer array for many qubits. In particular, we present a simulation of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays of an optical microscopic tweezer. We find the same qualitative behavior for all of the trap parameters. Project supported by the National Major Scientific Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921601) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61205215, 11274213, and 61475091).

  16. Light amplification by stimulated emission from an optically pumped molecular junction in a scanning tunneling microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, K; Wang, X; Adler, H; Peisert, H; Chasse, T; Zhang, D; Meixner, A J

    2013-01-01

    Here, we introduce and experimentally demonstrate optical amplification and stimulated emission from a single optically pumped molecular tunneling junction of a scanning tunneling microscope. The gap between a sharp gold tip and a flat gold substrate covered with a self-assembled monolayer of 5-chloro-2-mercaptobenzothiazole molecules forms an extremely small optical gain medium. When electrons tunnel from the molecules highest occupied molecular orbital to the tip, holes are left behind. These can be repopulated by hot electrons induced by the laser-driven plasmon oscillation on the metal surfaces enclosing the cavity. Solving the laser-rate equations for this system shows that the repopulation process can be efficiently stimulated by the gap modes near field, TERS scattering from neighboring molecules acting as an optical seed. Our results demonstrate how optical enhancement inside the plasmonic cavity can be further increased by a stronger localization via tunneling through molecules. We anticipate that st...

  17. Low Temperature Apertureless Near-field Scanning Optical Microscope for Optical Spectroscopy of Single Ge/Si Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Henry; Patil, N. G.; Levy, Jeremy

    2001-03-01

    A low-temperature apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope has been designed and constructed for the purpose of investigating the optical properties of individual Ge/Si quantum dots. The microscope fits in the 37 mm bore of a Helium vapor magneto-optic cryostat, allowing operations down to liquid helium temperatures in magnetic fields up to 8 Tesla. An in situ microscope objective focuses light onto the sample, which is scanned in the three spatial directions using a compact modular stage. An AFM/STM tip resides on the top; feedback is achieved using a quartz tuning fork oscillator. Both tip and objective are attached to inertial sliding motors that can move in fine (10 nm) steps to achieve touchdown and focus. A femtosecond optical parametric oscillator is used to excite carriers in the quantum dots both resonantly and non-resonantly; scattered luminescence from the AFM/STM tip is collected and analyzed spectrally using a 1/2 meter imaging spectrometer and a LN_2-cooled InGaAs array. We gratefully acknowledge NSF (DMR-9701725, IMR-9802784) and DARPA (DAAD-16-99-C1036) for financial support of this work.

  18. Arrays of microscopic magnetic traps for cold atoms and their applications in atom optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印建平; 高伟建; 胡建军

    2002-01-01

    A single microscopic magnetic trap for neutral atoms using planar current-carrying wires was proposed and studiedtheoretically by Weinstein et al. In this paper, we propose three structures of composite current-carrying wires to provide1D, 2D and 3D arrays of microscopic magnetic traps for cold alkali atoms. The spatial distributions of magnetic fieldsgenerated by these structures are calculated and the field gradient and curvature in each single microtrap are analysed.Our study shows that arrays of microscopic magnetic traps can be used to provide 1D, 2D or 3D atomic magneticlattices, and even to realize 1D, 2D and 3D arrays of magneto-optical traps, and so on.

  19. Programmable Colored Illumination Microscopy (PCIM): A practical and flexible optical staining approach for microscopic contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chao; Sun, Jiasong; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Yan; Chen, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Programmable colored illumination microscopy (PCIM) has been proposed as a flexible optical staining technique for microscopic contrast enhancement. In this method, we replace the condenser diaphragm of a conventional microscope with a programmable thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD). By displaying different patterns on the LCD, numerous established imaging modalities can be realized, such as bright field, dark field, phase contrast, oblique illumination, and Rheinberg illuminations, which conventionally rely on intricate alterations in the respective microscope setups. Furthermore, the ease of modulating both the color and the intensity distribution at the aperture of the condenser opens the possibility to combine multiple microscopic techniques, or even realize completely new methods for optical color contrast staining, such as iridescent dark-field and iridescent phase-contrast imaging. The versatility and effectiveness of PCIM is demonstrated by imaging of several transparent colorless specimens, such as unstained lung cancer cells, diatom, textile fibers, and a cryosection of mouse kidney. Finally, the potentialities of PCIM for RGB-splitting imaging with stained samples are also explored by imaging stained red blood cells and a histological section.

  20. The Development of a Heated-Stage Optical Microscope for ZBLAN Microgravity Crystallization Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Anthony; Barr, Reuben

    2016-08-01

    A heated-stage optical microscope has been developed for in-situ crystallization observation of ZBLAN glass. Traditional crystallization studies on most materials, including ZBLAN, are completed following high temperature heat treatment. The modern heated-stage microscope developed in this study permits high temperature sample microscopy data to be collected in real time. The heated stage has a high-end temperature limit of 520 ∘C with a heating ramp rate of 2.2 ∘C/second. The stage was also fitted with liquid nitrogen for rapid cooling and sample annealing up to -190 ∘C. The stage was customized to fit a Keyence VHX-2000 digital microscope with a magnification range of 100X-1000X. The microscope also has the ability to image samples using Differential Interference Contrasts (DIC) microscopy, which is used to elucidate key crystalline features not apparent with traditional optical microscopy. Additionally, the experiment was constructed to be operated on a microgravity parabolic aircraft to study the effects of microgravity on the crystallization of ZBLAN.

  1. Construction of a high resolution microscope with conventional and holographic optical trapping capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Jacqualine; Hong, Weili; Mershon, Leslie; Vershinin, Michael

    2013-04-22

    High resolution microscope systems with optical traps allow for precise manipulation of various refractive objects, such as dielectric beads (1) or cellular organelles (2,3), as well as for high spatial and temporal resolution readout of their position relative to the center of the trap. The system described herein has one such "traditional" trap operating at 980 nm. It additionally provides a second optical trapping system that uses a commercially available holographic package to simultaneously create and manipulate complex trapping patterns in the field of view of the microscope (4,5) at a wavelength of 1,064 nm. The combination of the two systems allows for the manipulation of multiple refractive objects at the same time while simultaneously conducting high speed and high resolution measurements of motion and force production at nanometer and piconewton scale.

  2. Optical characterization of individual semiconductor nanostructures using a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, Tohru; Ushioda, Sukekatsu

    2004-01-01

    By injecting low-energy minority carriers from the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and analyzing the light emitted from the tip-sample gap of the STM, it is possible to study the optical and electronic properties of individual semiconductor nanostructures with an extremely high spatial resolution close to the atomic scale. This technique has been applied to investigate the transport properties of hot electrons injected into AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well structures and the optical properties of single self-assembled InAs/AlGaAs quantum dots. The physical principles, usefulness and future expectations of this novel technique are discussed.

  3. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-07-01

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  4. Isospin-dependent relativistic microscopic optical potential in the Dirac Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG; Jian; MA; Zhongyu

    2004-01-01

    The relativistic microscopic optical potential in the asymmetric nuclear matter is studied in the framework of the Dirac Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method. A new decomposition of the Dirac structure of the nuclear self-energy in nuclear matter is adopted. The self-energy of a nucleon with E> 0 in nuclear matter is calculated with the G matrix in the Hartree-Fock approach. The optical potential of a nucleon in the nuclear medium is identified with the nucleon self-energy. The energy and asymmetric parameter dependence of the relativistic optical potentials for proton and neutron are discussed. The resulting Schroedinger equivalent potentials have reasonable behaviors of the energy dependence. The asymmetric parameter dependence of relativistic optical potentials and Schroedinger potentials are emphasized.

  5. Microscopic modeling of the effect of phonons on the optical properties of solid-state emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Ariel; Reyes, Sebastián A.; Mejía-Lopéz, José; Gali, Adam; Maze, Jerónimo R.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the effect of vibrations in optically active nanosystems is crucial for successfully implementing applications in molecular-based electro-optical devices, quantum information communications, single photon sources, and fluorescent markers for biological measurements. Here, we present a first-principles microscopic description of the role of phonons on the isotopic shift presented in the optical emission spectrum associated to the negatively charged silicon-vacancy color center in diamond. We use the spin-boson model and estimate the electron-phonon interactions using a symmetrized molecular description of the electronic states and a force-constant model to describe molecular vibrations. Group theoretical arguments and dynamical symmetry breaking are presented in order to explain the optical properties of the zero-phonon line and the isotopic shift of the phonon sideband.

  6. On the optical stability of high-resolution transmission electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, J; Thust, A

    2013-11-01

    In the recent two decades the technique of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy experienced an unprecedented progress through the introduction of hardware aberration correctors and by the improvement of the achievable resolution to the sub-Ångström level. The important aspect that aberration correction at a given resolution requires also a well defined amount of optical stability has received little attention so far. Therefore we investigate the qualification of a variety of high-resolution electron microscopes to maintain an aberration corrected optical state in terms of an optical lifetime. We develop a comprehensive statistical framework for the estimation of the optical lifetime and find remarkably low values between tens of seconds and a couple of minutes. Probability curves are introduced, which inform the operator about the chance to work still in the fully aberration corrected state.

  7. Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Cataract Surgery: Uses and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeep; Kummelil, Mathew Kurian; Kharbanda, Varun; Arora, Vishal; Nagappa, Somshekar; Shetty, Rohit; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2016-05-01

    To demonstrate the uses and applications of a microscope integrated intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Micro Incision Cataract Surgery (MICS) and Femtosecond Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery (FLACS). Intraoperative real time imaging using the RESCAN™ 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Oberkochen, Germany) was done for patients undergoing MICS as well as FLACS. The OCT videos were reviewed at each step of the procedure and the findings were noted and analyzed. Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography was found to be beneficial during all the critical steps of cataract surgery. We were able to qualitatively assess wound morphology in clear corneal incisions, in terms of subclinical Descemet's detachments, tears in the inner or outer wound lips, wound gaping at the end of surgery and in identifying the adequacy of stromal hydration, for both FLACS as well as MICS. It also enabled us to segregate true posterior polar cataracts from suspected cases intraoperatively. Deciding the adequate depth of trenching was made simpler with direct visualization. The final position of the intraocular lens in the capsular bag and the lack of bioadhesivity of hydrophobic acrylic lenses were also observed. Even though Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography is in its early stages for its application in cataract surgery, this initial assessment does show a very promising role for this technology in the future for cataract surgery both in intraoperative decision making as well as for training purposes.

  8. A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Waseem S; Gillen, Jonathon I; Peng, Amy; Fölling, Simon; Greiner, Markus

    2009-11-05

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in creating complex atomic many-body quantum systems. One approach is to use macroscopic, effectively thermodynamic ensembles of ultracold atoms to create quantum gases and strongly correlated states of matter, and to analyse the bulk properties of the ensemble. For example, bosonic and fermionic atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice can be used for quantum simulations of solid-state models. The opposite approach is to build up microscopic quantum systems atom-by-atom, with complete control over all degrees of freedom. The atoms or ions act as qubits and allow the realization of quantum gates, with the goal of creating highly controllable quantum information systems. Until now, the macroscopic and microscopic strategies have been fairly disconnected. Here we present a quantum gas 'microscope' that bridges the two approaches, realizing a system in which atoms of a macroscopic ensemble are detected individually and a complete set of degrees of freedom for each of them is determined through preparation and measurement. By implementing a high-resolution optical imaging system, single atoms are detected with near-unity fidelity on individual sites of a Hubbard-regime optical lattice. The lattice itself is generated by projecting a holographic mask through the imaging system. It has an arbitrary geometry, chosen to support both strong tunnel coupling between lattice sites and strong on-site confinement. Our approach can be used to directly detect strongly correlated states of matter; in the context of condensed matter simulation, this corresponds to the detection of individual electrons in the simulated crystal. Also, the quantum gas microscope may enable addressing and read-out of large-scale quantum information systems based on ultracold atoms.

  9. Design and Development of Nonlinear Optical Microscope System: Simple Implementation with epi-Illumination Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Jiheun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the research using fluorescence-tagged or auto-fluorescence molecules, meaningful information is often buried deep inside the tissue, not its surface. Therefore, especially in the field of biomedical imaging, acquiring optically sectioned images from deep inside the tissue is very important. As well know already, confocal laser scanning microscopy (the most well-known optical sectioning microscopy gives axially-resolved fluorescence information using the physical background blocking component called pinhole. However, the axial range of imaging is practically limited due to such optical phenomena as the light scattered and absorbed in the tissue. However, nonlinear optical microscopy (e.g. Multiphoton microscopy, harmonic generation microscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy realized by the development of ultrafast light sources has been used for visualizing various tissues, especially in vivo, because of their low sensitivity to the limitation caused by the scattering and the absorption of light. Although nonlinear optical microscopy gives deep tissue image, it is not easy for many researcher to build customized nonlinear system. Here, we introduce an easy and simple way designing and developing such nonlinear optical microscope with upright or inverted epi-illumination platform using commercial optical components only.

  10. Intraoperative assessment of laryngeal pathologies with optical coherence tomography integrated into a surgical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englhard, Anna S; Betz, Tom; Volgger, Veronika; Lankenau, Eva; Ledderose, Georg J; Stepp, Herbert; Homann, Christian; Betz, Christian S

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic examination followed by tissue biopsy is the gold standard in the evaluation of lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract. However, it can be difficult to distinguish between healthy mucosa, dysplasia, and invasive carcinoma. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique which acquires high-resolution, cross-sectional images of tissue in vivo. Integrated into a surgical microscope, it allows the intraoperative evaluation of lesions simultaneously with microscopic visualization. In a prospective case series, we evaluated the use of OCT integrated into a surgical microscope during microlaryngoscopy to help differentiating various laryngeal pathologies. 33 patients with laryngeal pathologies were examined with an OCT- microscope (OPMedT iOCT-camera, HS Hi-R 1000G-microscope, Haag-Streit Surgical GmbH, Wedel, Germany) during microlaryngoscopy. The suspected intraoperative diagnoses were compared to the histopathological reports of subsequent tissue biopsies. Hands-free non-contact OCT revealed high-resolution images of the larynx with a varying penetration depth of up to 1.2 mm and an average of 0.6 mm. Picture quality was variable. OCT showed disorders of horizontal tissue layering in dysplasias with a disruption of the basement membrane in carcinomas. When comparing the suspected diagnosis during OCT-supported microlaryngoscopy with histology, 79% of the laryngeal lesions could be correctly identified. Premalignant lesions were difficult to diagnose and falsely classified as carcinoma. OCT integrated into a surgical microscope seems to be a promising adjunct tool to discriminate pathologies of the upper aerodigestive tract intraoperatively. However, picture quality and penetration depth were variable. Although premalignant lesions were difficult to diagnose, the system proved overall helpful for the intraoperative discrimination of benign and malignant tumors. Further studies will be necessary to define its value in the future. Lasers

  11. Dual-mode optical microscope based on single-pixel imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate an inverted microscope that can image specimens in both reflection and transmission modes simultaneously with a single light source. The microscope utilizes a digital micromirror device (DMD) for patterned illumination altogether with two single-pixel photosensors for efficient light detection. The system, a scan-less device with no moving parts, works by sequential projection of a set of binary intensity patterns onto the sample that are codified onto a modified commercial DMD. Data to be displayed are geometrically transformed before written into a memory cell to cancel optical artifacts coming from the diamond-like shaped structure of the micromirror array. The 24-bit color depth of the display is fully exploited to increase the frame rate by a factor of 24, which makes the technique practicable for real samples. Our commercial DMD-based LED-illumination is cost effective and can be easily coupled as an add-on module for already existing inverted microscopes. The reflection and transmission information provided by our dual microscope complement each other and can be useful for imaging non-uniform samples and to prevent self-shadowing effects.

  12. Single beam optical trapping integrated in a confocal microscope for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, K; Brakenhoff, G J

    1991-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is very useful in biology because of its three dimensional imaging capacities and has proven to be an excellent tool to study the 3D organization of, for instance, cell structures. This property of confocal microscopy makes it also very suitable for observation during guidance of the three dimensional manipulation of single cells or cell elements. Therefore we decided to integrate a confocal microscope and a single beam optical manipulator into a single instrument. The advantage of optical manipulation over mechanical techniques is that it is non-invasive and therefore may be applied on living (micro-) organisms and cells. The creation of an effective single beam optical trap requires the use of a high numerical aperture (N.A.) objective to focus the laser beam. In this paper we briefly discuss the vertical or axial force exerted on a sphere in a single beam trap. The axial force on a sphere placed on the optical axis, caused by reflection and refraction, is calculated applying a electromagnetic vector diffraction theory to determine the field distribution in the focal region. One of the results is that the particle also experiences a vertical trapping force towards the focusing lens when it is in the strongly convergent part of the field in addition to the known negative signed trapping force in the divergent part of the field. Further we describe an instrumental approach to realize optical trapping in which the optical trap position is controlled by moving the focusing objective only.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography: A new surgical tool in vitreoretinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitra Jayadev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT has revolutionized imaging of ocular structures and various disease conditions. Though it has been used in the clinic for some decades, the OCT has only recently found its way into the operating theater. Early attempts at intraoperative OCT, hand-held and microscope mounted, have already improved our understanding of the surgical pathology and the role it might play in surgical decision-making. The microscope-integrated OCT now allows seamless, high-resolution, real-time imaging of surgical maneuvers from the incision to wound closure. Visualization of instruments and intraoperative tissue manipulation are possible with this in vivo modality and, therefore, help improve the outcome of surgery. In this article, we describe the advantages it offers during various vitreoretinal procedures.

  14. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery.

  15. The microscopic (optical and SEM) examination of putrefaction fluid deposits (PFD). Potential interest in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, P; Georges, P; Bouchet, F; Huynh-Charlier, I; Carlier, R; Mazel, V; Richardin, P; Brun, L; Blondiaux, J; Lorin de la Grandmaison, G

    2008-10-01

    This article describes the potential interest in physical and forensic anthropology of the microscopic analysis of residues of putrefaction fluid, a calcified deposit frequently found associated with bone rests. Its sampling and analysis seem straightforward and relatively reproducible. Samples came from archeological material (Monterenzio Vecchia, an Etruscan necropolis from the north of Italy dated between the fifth and third century B.C.; body rests of Agnès Sorel, royal mistress died in 1450 A.D.; skull and grave of French King Louis the XI and Charlotte of Savoy dated from 1483 A.D.). All samples were studied by direct optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. Many cytological, histological, and elemental analysis were possible, producing precious data for the identification of these remains and, in some cases, the cause of death.

  16. Animated Optical Microscope Zoom in from Phoenix Launch to Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated camera view zooms in from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander launch site all the way to Phoenix's Microscopy and Electrochemistry and C Eonductivity Analyzer (MECA) aboard the spacecraft on the Martian surface. The final frame shows the soil sample delivered to MECA as viewed through the Optical Microscope (OM) on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), or the 17th Martian day. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Field enhancement analysis of an apertureless near field scanning optical microscope probe with finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weibin Chen; Qiwen Zhan

    2007-01-01

    Plasmonic field enhancement in a fully coated dielectric near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM)probe under radial polarization illumination is analyzed using an axially symmetric three-dimensional (3D)finite element method (FEM) model. The enhancement factor strongly depends on the illumination spot size, taper angle of the probe, and the metal film thickness. The tolerance of the alignment angle is investigated. Probe designs with different metal coatings and their enhancement performance are studied as well. The nanometric spot size at the tip apex and high field enhancement of the apertureless NSOM probe have important potential application in semiconductor metrology.

  18. Animated Optical Microscope Zoom in from Phoenix Launch to Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated camera view zooms in from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander launch site all the way to Phoenix's Microscopy and Electrochemistry and C Eonductivity Analyzer (MECA) aboard the spacecraft on the Martian surface. The final frame shows the soil sample delivered to MECA as viewed through the Optical Microscope (OM) on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), or the 17th Martian day. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Enhancing thermally induced effects on atomic force microscope cantilevers using optical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy Vy, Nguyen; Iida, Takuya

    2016-12-01

    A theory of enhancing thermally induced effects on atomic force microscope cantilevers with respect to the input power is proposed. An optical microcavity is used to increase the absorbed power and radiation pressure on thin films. We show that the response to the input power is enhanced up to an order of magnitude for cantilevers of ∼200 µm in length and ∼0.5 µm in thickness. A decrease in the absorbed power in the presence of cantilever deflection increases system endurability with respect to the input power. The study gives methods for amplifying and tuning vibration amplitudes in amplitude modulation modes with high sensitivity and low controlling input power.

  20. Fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope applied to the cerebral microcirculation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, J; Sasaki, Y; Oyama, T; Yamamoto, J

    1996-01-01

    We have applied our developed fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope (FLDAM) for the study of the cerebral microcirculation in the rat. The red cell velocity in single pial microvessels was successfully measured through a closed cranial window for the vessel diameter range from 7.8 to 230 microns. The temporal resolution of the FLDAM was sufficiently high to detect the pulsation in the arterioles. Arterio-venous distributions of the temporal mean red cell velocity and wall shear rate are also described.

  1. Smart microscope: an adaptive optics learning system for aberration correction in multiphoton confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, O; Sherman, L; Mourou, G; Norris, T B; Vdovin, G

    2000-01-01

    Off-axis aberrations in a beam-scanning multiphoton confocal microscope are corrected with a deformable mirror. The optimal mirror shape for each pixel is determined by a genetic learning algorithm, in which the second-harmonic or two-photon fluorescence signal from a reference sample is maximized. The speed of the convergence is improved by use of a Zernike polynomial basis for the deformable mirror shape. This adaptive optical correction scheme is implemented in an all-reflective system by use of extremely short (10-fs) optical pulses, and it is shown that the scanning area of an f:1 off-axis parabola can be increased by nine times with this technique.

  2. Microscopic theory of the optical properties of Ga(AsBi) quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, Sebastian; Thraenhardt, Angela [Fakultaet fuer Naturwissenschaften, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz (Germany); Bueckers, Christina; Koch, Stephan W. [Fachbereich Physik und Wissenschaftliches Zentrum fuer Materialwissenschaften, Philipps Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Hader, Joerg; Moloney, Jerome V. [Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Ga(AsBi) is a serious candidate for infrared diode lasers because the bandgap of GaAs is reduced by as much as 60-80 meV per percent Bi that is incorporated. Thus, a wide wavelength range in the infrared region can be reached. Although the growth of heterostructures is still not feasible in this material system, we have access to the optical properties, e.g. material gain and photoluminescence as well as radiative and non-radiative laser loss processes of Ga(AsBi)/(AlGa)As quantum wells, by using a consistent microscopic theory. We calculate the bandstructure by using a valence band anticrossing model and investigate the influence of the anticrossing parameters on the optical properties.

  3. Bright-field Nanoscopy: Visualizing Nano-structures with Localized Optical Contrast Using a Conventional Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Suran, Swathi; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Varma, Manoj M

    2015-01-01

    Most methods for optical visualization beyond the diffraction limit rely on fluorescence emission by molecular tags. Here, we report a method for visualization of nanostructures down to a few nanometers using a conventional bright-field microscope without requiring additional molecular tags such as fluorophores. The technique, Bright-field Nanoscopy, is based on the strong thickness dependent color of ultra-thin germanium on an optically thick gold film. We demonstrate the visualization of grain boundaries in chemical vapour deposited single layer graphene and the detection of single 40 nm Ag nanoparticles. We estimate a size detection limit of about 2 nm using this technique. In addition to visualizing nano-structures, this technique can be used to probe fluid phenomena at the nanoscale, such as transport through 2D membranes. We estimated the water transport rate through a 1 nm thick polymer film using this technique, as an illustration. Further, the technique can also be extended to study the transport of ...

  4. Binary pseudorandom test standard to determine the modulation transfer function of optical microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Erik; Trolinger, James D.; Lacey, Ian; Anderson, Erik H.; Artemiev, Nikolay A.; Babin, Sergey; Cabrini, Stefano; Calafiore, Guiseppe; Chan, Elaine R.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Peroz, Christophe; Takacs, Peter Z.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports on the development of a binary pseudo-random test sample optimized to calibrate the MTF of optical microscopes. The sample consists of a number of 1-D and 2-D patterns, with different minimum sizes of spatial artifacts from 300 nm to 2 microns. We describe the mathematical background, fabrication process, data acquisition and analysis procedure to return spatial frequency based instrument calibration. We show that the developed samples satisfy the characteristics of a test standard: functionality, ease of specification and fabrication, reproducibility, and low sensitivity to manufacturing error. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  5. Building 3D aerial image in photoresist with reconstructed mask image acquired with optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. S.; Tang, Y. P.; Chu, F. S.; Huang, W. C.; Liu, R. G.; Gau, T. S.

    2012-03-01

    Calibration of mask images on wafer becomes more important as features shrink. Two major types of metrology have been commonly adopted. One is to measure the mask image with scanning electron microscope (SEM) to obtain the contours on mask and then simulate the wafer image with optical simulator. The other is to use an optical imaging tool Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMSTM) to emulate the image on wafer. However, the SEM method is indirect. It just gathers planar contours on a mask with no consideration of optical characteristics such as 3D topography structures. Hence, the image on wafer is not predicted precisely. Though the AIMSTM method can be used to directly measure the intensity at the near field of a mask but the image measured this way is not quite the same as that on the wafer due to reflections and refractions in the films on wafer. Here, a new approach is proposed to emulate the image on wafer more precisely. The behavior of plane waves with different oblique angles is well known inside and between planar film stacks. In an optical microscope imaging system, plane waves can be extracted from the pupil plane with a coherent point source of illumination. Once plane waves with a specific coherent illumination are analyzed, the partially coherent component of waves could be reconstructed with a proper transfer function, which includes lens aberration, polarization, reflection and refraction in films. It is a new method that we can transfer near light field of a mask into an image on wafer without the disadvantages of indirect SEM measurement such as neglecting effects of mask topography, reflections and refractions in the wafer film stacks. Furthermore, with this precise latent image, a separated resist model also becomes more achievable.

  6. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, legal representative, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  7. Sub-wavelength imaging by depolarization in a reflection near-field optical microscope using an uncoated fiber probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steen; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    We present a reflection scanning near-field optical microscope utilizing counter-directional light propagation in an uncoated fiber probe, cross-polarized detection and shear-force feedback. Topographical and near-field optical imaging with a scanning speed of up to 10 mu m/s and a lateral...

  8. Three-dimensional phase-contrast X-ray microtomography with scanning-imaging X-ray microscope optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2013-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) X-ray tomographic micro-imaging system has been developed. The optical system is based on a scanning-imaging X-ray microscope (SIXM) optics, which is a hybrid system consisting of a scanning microscope optics with a one-dimensional (1D) focusing (line-focusing) device and an imaging microscope optics with a 1D objective. In the SIXM system, each 1D dataset of a two-dimensional (2D) image is recorded independently. An object is illuminated with a line-focused beam. Positional information of the region illuminated by the line-focused beam is recorded with the 1D imaging microscope optics as line-profile data. By scanning the object with the line focus, 2D image data are obtained. In the same manner as for a scanning microscope optics with a multi-pixel detector, imaging modes such as phase contrast and absorption contrast can be arbitrarily configured after the image data acquisition. By combining a tomographic scan method and the SIXM system, quantitative 3D imaging is performed. Results of a feasibility study of the SIXM for 3D imaging are shown.

  9. A single-pixel optical-sectioning programmable array microscope (SP-PAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Ye, P.; Arce, G. R.; Prather, D. W.

    2010-02-01

    Programmable array microscopes (PAMs) use "multi-pinhole" masks in confocal image planes to introduce illumination and block the "out-of-focus light". Compared to traditional confocal microscopes (CM), PAM systems have higher efficiency in utilizing the signal light and faster image acquisition speed. However, these advantages are gained at the cost of using more complicated optics and detectors. Compressive sampling (CS) measurement patterns can be used as pinhole masks in PAM systems. With CS patterns, the light collected after the detector mask can be summed up and used to reconstruct the imaging scene via solving an l1-minimization problem. Only a simple relay-lens and a singlepixel detector are needed to measure the intensity of the summed light. Therefore the optical complexity associated with conventional PAM systems can be reduced. Since only a single-pixel detector is needed, this system can also be called a single-pixel PAM or SP-PAM system. In this work, we introduce the design and fabrication of a prototype SP-PAM system. In this system, scrambled-block Hadamard ensembles (SBHE) are used as CS measurement patterns and a digital micromirror device (DMD) is employed to realize these patterns.

  10. Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-07-13

    Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.

  11. Aggressive orbital optic nerve meningioma with benign microscopic features: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoli, F Asadi; Mehrabani, P Mansouri; Tari, A Sadeghi

    2007-12-01

    Primary optic nerve meningiomas occur at lower ages than meningiomas arising from the coverings of the brain and spinal cord. Here we report the case of a 20-year-old female with an aggressive orbital meningioma referred to the Ophthalmology Department of the Farabi Hospital in Tehran. The patient had a history of orbital meningioma from 10 years ago and several surgical resections due to tumor recurrence during these 10 years. On admission, the patient had a large orbital mass and severe proptosis. MRI images revealed a large left orbital mass with optic nerve involvement and extension to the left maxillary sinus, pterygoid fossa and the dura in the floor of the anterior fossa. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mass confirmed tumor recurrence. The patient first received radiotherapy due to the inoperable mass, and the tumor was resected 1.5 month later. Microscopic study showed meningotheliomatous meningioma with extensive involvement of the optic nerve and invasion of the optic disc, sclera and choroid. The interesting aspect of this case was the aggressive behavior of the tumor with intraocular invasion, despite its benign histopathological features, which led to wide exenteration of the eye together with resection of the upper and lower lids.

  12. Error correction based on micro-scanning preprocessing for an optical micro-scanning thermal microscope imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meijing; Xu, Jie; Tan, Ailing; Zu, Zhenlong; Yang, Ming; Wang, Jingyuan

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, various thermal microscope imaging systems have been developed to meet the demands of micro-thermal analysis for large-scale integrated circuits, biomedical, science, and research fields. However, conventional thermal microscope imaging systems, which use cooled infrared detectors are heavy and expensive. In order to solve this problem, we developed a thermal microscope imaging system based on an uncooled infrared detector. However, the spatial resolution of the thermal microscope imaging system based on an uncooled infrared detector is low. With optical micro-scanning technology, the spatial resolution of the thermal microscope imaging system can be increased without increasing the detector dimension or reducing the detector unit size. In order to improve its spatial resolution, a micro-scanning system based on optical plate rotation was developed, and an optical microscanning thermal microscope imaging system was obtained after the integrated design. Due to environmental factors, mechanical vibration, alignment error and other factors, there is micro-scanning error in the designed micro-scanning thermal microscope imaging system. The four low-resolution images collected by micro-scanning thermal microscope imaging system are not standard down-sampled images. The quality of the image interpolated directly by four collected images is reduced and the performance of the micro-scanning system isn't fully exploited. Therefore, based on the proposed second-order oversampling reconstruction micro-scanning error correction algorithm and the new edge directed interpolation algorithm, a new micro-scanning error correction technique is proposed. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed technique can effectively reduce optical micro-scanning error, improve the systems spatial resolution and optimize the effect of the imaging system. It can be applied to other electro-optical imaging systems to improve their spatial resolution.

  13. Sedimentological Investigations of the Martian Surface using the Mars 2001 Robotic Arm Camera and MECA Optical Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Smith, P. H.; Marshall, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The first microscopic sedimentological studies of the Martian surface will commence with the landing of the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) December 3, 1999. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) has a resolution of 25 um/p which will permit detailed micromorphological analysis of surface and subsurface materials. The Robotic Ann will be able to dig up to 50 cm below the surface. The walls of the trench will also be inspected by RAC to look for evidence of stratigraphic and / or sedimentological relationships. The 2001 Mars Lander will build upon and expand the sedimentological research begun by the RAC on MPL. This will be accomplished by: (1) Macroscopic (dm to cm): Descent Imager, Pancam, RAC; (2) Microscopic (mm to um RAC, MECA Optical Microscope (Figure 2), AFM This paper will focus on investigations that can be conducted by the RAC and MECA Optical Microscope.

  14. Characterization of Line Nanopatterns on Positive Photoresist Produced by Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Line nanopatterns are produced on the positive photoresist by scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM. A laser diode with a wavelength of 450 nm and a power of 250 mW as the light source and an aluminum coated nanoprobe with a 70 nm aperture at the tip apex have been employed. A neutral density filter has been used to control the exposure power of the photoresist. It is found that the changes induced by light in the photoresist can be detected by in situ shear force microscopy (ShFM, before the development of the photoresist. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images of the developed photoresist have been used to optimize the scanning speed and the power required for exposure, in order to minimize the final line width. It is shown that nanometric lines with a minimum width of 33 nm can be achieved with a scanning speed of 75 µm/s and a laser power of 113 mW. It is also revealed that the overexposure of the photoresist by continuous wave laser generated heat can be prevented by means of proper photoresist selection. In addition, the effects of multiple exposures of nanopatterns on their width and depth are investigated.

  15. Quantitative measurements of electromechanical response with a combined optical beam and interferometric atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research an Oxford Instruments Company, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)

    2015-06-22

    An ongoing challenge in atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments is the quantitative measurement of cantilever motion. The vast majority of AFMs use the optical beam deflection (OBD) method to infer the deflection of the cantilever. The OBD method is easy to implement, has impressive noise performance, and tends to be mechanically robust. However, it represents an indirect measurement of the cantilever displacement, since it is fundamentally an angular rather than a displacement measurement. Here, we demonstrate a metrological AFM that combines an OBD sensor with a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) to enable accurate measurements of the cantilever velocity and displacement. The OBD/LDV AFM allows a host of quantitative measurements to be performed, including in-situ measurements of cantilever oscillation modes in piezoresponse force microscopy. As an example application, we demonstrate how this instrument can be used for accurate quantification of piezoelectric sensitivity—a longstanding goal in the electromechanical community.

  16. Proton Spectroscopic Factors Deduced from Helium-3 Global Phenomenological and Microscopic Optical Model Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Lee; Pang, Dan-Yang; Han, Yin-Lu; B. Tsang, M.

    2014-09-01

    Global phenomenological GDP08 and microscopic helium-3 optical model potentials have been recently derived. We evaluate these two potential sets by comparing the elastic scattering data of 25 MeV 3He on 16O, 18O, 19F, 23Na, 24Mg, 25Mg, 26Mg, 27Al, 28Si, 30Si, 31P, 32S, 34S, 35Cl, 37Cl, and 39K isotopes. Using the deuteron angular distributions calculated with the distorted wave Born approximation model, we extract the ground-state proton spectroscopic factors from (3He, d) reactions on the same set of nuclei. The extracted proton spectroscopic factors are compared with the large-basis shell-model calculations.

  17. Toolkit for the Automated Characterization of Optical Trapping Forces on Microscopic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Joseph; Hoeprich, David; Resnick, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Optical traps have been in use in microbiological studies for the past 40 years to obtain noninvasive control of microscopic particles. However, the magnitude of the applied forces is often unknown. Therefore, we have developed an automated data acquisition and processing system which characterizes trap properties for known particle geometries. Extensive experiments and measurements utilizing well-characterized objects were performed and compared to literature to confirm the system's performance. This system will enable the future analysis of a trapped primary cilium, a slender rod-shaped organelle with aspect ratio L/R >30, where `L' is the cilium length and `R' the cilium diameter. The trapping of cilia is of primary importance, as it will lead to the precise measurements of mechanical properties of the organelle and its significance to the epithelial cell. Support from the National Institutes of Health, 1R15DK092716 is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Position-resolved Surface Characterization and Nanofabrication Using an Optical Microscop e Combined with a Nanopip ette/Quartz Tuning Fork Atomic Force Microscop e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangmin An; Baekman Sung; Haneol Noh; Corey Stambaugh; Soyoung Kwon; Kunyoung Lee; Bongsu Kim; Qhwan Kim; Wonho Jhe

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we introduce position-resolved surface characterization and nanofabrication us-ing an optical microscope (OM) combined with a nanopipette-based quartz tuning fork atomic force micro-scope (nanopipette/QTF-AFM) system. This system is used to accurately determine substrate position and nanoscale phenomena under ambient conditions. Solutions consisting of 5 nm Au nanoparticles, nanowires, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are deposited onto the substrate through the nano/microaperture of a pulled pipette. Nano/microscale patterning is performed using a nanopipette/QTF-AFM, while position is resolved by monitoring the substrate with a custom OM. With this tool, one can perform surface characterization (force spectroscopy/microscopy) using the quartz tuning fork (QTF) sensor. Nanofabrication is achieved by accu-rately positioning target materials on the surface, and on-demand delivery and patterning of various solutions for molecular architecture.

  19. Optical scatter imaging: a microscopic modality for the rapid morphological assay of living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustany, Nada N.

    2007-02-01

    Tumors derived from epithelial cells comprise the majority of human tumors and their growth results from the accumulation of multiple mutations affecting cellular processes critical for tissue homeostasis, including cell proliferation and cell death. To understand these processes and address the complexity of cancer cell function, multiple cellular responses to different experimental conditions and specific genetic mutations must be analyzed. Fundamental to this endeavor is the development of rapid cellular assays in genetically defined cells, and in particular, the development of optical imaging methods that allow dynamic observation and real-time monitoring of cellular processes. In this context, we are developing an optical scatter imaging technology that is intended to bridge the gap between light and electron microscopy by rapidly providing morphometric information about the relative size and shape of non-spherical organelles, with sub-wavelength resolution. Our goal is to complement current microscopy techniques used to study cells in-vitro, especially in long-term time-lapse studies of living cells, where exogenous labels can be toxic, and electron microscopy will destroy the sample. The optical measurements are based on Fourier spatial filtering in a standard microscope, and could ultimately be incorporated into existing high-throughput diagnostic platforms for cancer cell research and histopathology of neoplastic tissue arrays. Using an engineered epithelial cell model of tumor formation, we are currently studying how organelle structure and function are altered by defined genetic mutations affecting the propensity for cell death and oncogenic potential, and by environmental conditions promoting tumor growth. This talk will describe our optical scatter imaging technology and present results from our studies on apoptosis, and the function of BCL-2 family proteins.

  20. Microscopic investigations of the terahertz and the extreme nonlinear optical response of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golde, Daniel

    2010-06-22

    In the major part of this Thesis, we discuss the linear THz response of semiconductor nanostructures based on a microscopic theory. Here, two different problems are investigated: intersubband transitions in optically excited quantum wells and the THz plasma response of two-dimensional systems. In the latter case, we analyze the response of correlated electron and electron-hole plasmas. Extracting the plasma frequency from the linear response, we find significant deviations from the commonly accepted two-dimensional plasma frequency. Besides analyzing the pure plasma response, we also consider an intermediate regime where the response of the electron-hole plasma consists of a mixture of plasma contributions and excitonic transitions. A quantitative experiment-theory comparison provides novel insights into the behavior of the system at the transition from one regime to the other. The discussion of the intersubband transitions mainly focuses on the coherent superposition of the responses from true THz transitions and the ponderomotively accelerated carriers. We present a simple method to directly identify ponderomotive effects in the linear THz response. Apart from that, the excitonic contributions to intersubband transitions are investigated. The last part of the present Thesis deals with a completely different regime. Here, the extreme nonlinear optical response of low-dimensional semiconductor structures is discussed. Formally, extreme nonlinear optics describes the regime of light-matter interaction where the exciting field is strong enough such that the Rabi frequency is comparable to or larger than the characteristic transition frequency of the investigated system. Here, the Rabi frequency is given by the product of the electrical field strength and the dipole-matrix element of the respective transition. Theoretical investigations have predicted a large number of novel nonlinear effects arising for such strong excitations. Some of them have been observed in

  1. Modeling a Miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope Focusing Column - Lessons Learned in Electron Optics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Jody; Gregory, Don; Gaskin, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses work done to assess the design of a focusing column in a miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for use in-situ on the Moon-in particular for mineralogical analysis. The MSFC beam column design uses purely electrostatic fields for focusing, because of the severe constraints on mass and electrical power consumption imposed by the goals of lunar exploration and of spaceflight in general. The resolution of an SEM ultimately depends on the size of the focused spot of the scanning beam probe, for which the stated goal here is a diameter of 10 nanometers. Optical aberrations are the main challenge to this performance goal, because they blur the ideal geometrical optical image of the electron source, effectively widening the ideal spot size of the beam probe. In the present work the optical aberrations of the mini SEM focusing column were assessed using direct tracing of non-paraxial rays, as opposed to mathematical estimates of aberrations based on paraxial ray-traces. The geometrical ray-tracing employed here is completely analogous to ray-tracing as conventionally understood in the realm of photon optics, with the major difference being that in electron optics the lens is simply a smoothly varying electric field in vacuum, formed by precisely machined electrodes. Ray-tracing in this context, therefore, relies upon a model of the electrostatic field inside the focusing column to provide the mathematical description of the "lens" being traced. This work relied fundamentally on the boundary element method (BEM) for this electric field model. In carrying out this research the authors discovered that higher accuracy in the field model was essential if aberrations were to be reliably assessed using direct ray-tracing. This led to some work in testing alternative techniques for modeling the electrostatic field. Ultimately, the necessary accuracy was attained using a BEM

  2. Microscope basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Greenfield; Nordberg, Joshua J

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides information on how microscopes work and discusses some of the microscope issues to be considered in using a video camera on the microscope. There are two types of microscopes in use today for research in cell biology-the older finite tube-length (typically 160mm mechanical tube length) microscopes and the infinity optics microscopes that are now produced. The objective lens forms a magnified, real image of the specimen at a specific distance from the objective known as the intermediate image plane. All objectives are designed to be used with the specimen at a defined distance from the front lens element of the objective (the working distance) so that the image formed is located at a specific location in the microscope. Infinity optics microscopes differ from the finite tube-length microscopes in that the objectives are designed to project the image of the specimen to infinity and do not, on their own, form a real image of the specimen. Three types of objectives are in common use today-plan achromats, plan apochromats, and plan fluorite lenses. The concept of mounting video cameras on the microscope is also presented in the chapter. Copyright © 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A three-photon microscope with adaptive optics for deep-tissue in vivo structural and functional brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Lu, Ju; Lam, Tuwin; Rodriguez, Ramiro; Zuo, Yi; Kubby, Joel

    2017-02-01

    We developed a three-photon adaptive optics add-on to a commercial two-photon laser scanning microscope. We demonstrated its capability for structural and functional imaging of neurons labeled with genetically encoded red fluorescent proteins or calcium indicators deep in the living mouse brain with cellular and subcellular resolution.

  4. Optical microscope for nuclear emulsion readout: system design and results in application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Kerstin; Koerner, Lienhard; Gussek, Peter; Balogh, Istvan; Breitfelder, Stefan; Schlichting, Johannes; Dupraz, Jean-Pierre; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Panman, Jaap; Papadopoulos, Ioannis M.; Zucchelli, Piero; van de Vyver, Bart

    1999-10-01

    Experiments such as CHORUS at CERN require the inspection of a large amount of nuclear emulsion plates exposed to particle beams. Rare events need to be found, measured and analyzed. Their features are stored as grains in microscopic dimensions in a 3D stack of plates. A new, fully automatic immersion microscope system was developed for this purpose. It features high resolution, small depth of focus, large working distance, large field of view and synchronization of illumination and detector. An additional requirement is given by variations in the refraction index and in the relative thickness of immersion oil and emulsion. The approach used here is an imaging system based on a various objective lens with extreme numerical aperture, large working distance and wide field, combined with a matched high-aperture Koehler illuminator. The light source is a mercury arc lamp, combined with a filter package for the g- line. It includes liquid crystal elements for synchronized shuttering and variable attenuation. The theoretical resolution is less than 1 micron in x, y, z within a volume of 0.5mm diameter times 1 mm scanning depth in all situations within a predefined index range. Three identical pieces of the system have been built. The identical pieces of the system have been built. The experimentally measured resolution confirms the expectations and is better than 1 micron in all three dimensions. This is the result of a complex process of system design and manufacturing, unifying optical, opto-mechanical and opto-electronical contributions. This process spans from the early stages of feasibility and manufacturing up to the test and adjustment procedures. The three prototypes are operational since the fall of 1998 in the frame of the CHORUS project. Practical experience and application results are presented.

  5. Soil Pore Characterization Using Free Software and a Portable Optical Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.F.PIRES; F.S.BORGES; S.PASSONI; A.B.PEREIRA

    2013-01-01

    Total porosity (TP),determined by image analysis,pore type and pore size distribution were evaluated on impregnated soil blocks from an undisturbed Brazilian sandy loam soil using a digital portable optical microscope.The free software Image J (version 1.40g) was used for image analysis.Procedures for soil image collection and analysis were presented.The image analysis allowed the evaluation of pore sizes with diameters ranging from 20 to > 1000 μm.The following types of pores were also obtained:rounded,elongated and intermediate.The results allowed the characterization of the soil as moderately porous (TP =21.6%).Rounded,intermediate and elongated pores were responsible for 11.6%,31.7% and 56.7% of TP.In relation to pore size 51.1% of TP was in the 100-500 μm size class and a third of TP came from the pores larger than 500 μm.

  6. Analysis of mitochondrial mechanical dynamics using a confocal fluorescence microscope with a bent optical fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbo; Honda, Satoshi; Iwami, Kentaro; Ohta, Yoshihiro; Umeda, Norihiro

    2015-11-01

    The cells in the cardiovascular system are constantly subjected to mechanical forces created by blood flow and the beating heart. The effect of forces on cells has been extensively investigated, but their effect on cellular organelles such as mitochondria remains unclear. We examined the impact of nano-Newton forces on mitochondria using a bent optical fibre (BOF) with a flat-ended tip (diameter exceeding 2 μm) and a confocal fluorescence microscope. By indenting a single mitochondrion with the BOF tip, we found that the mitochondrial elastic modulus was proportional to the (-1/2) power of the mitochondrial radius in the 9.6-115 kPa range. We stained the mitochondria with a potential-metric dye (TMRE) and measured the changes in TMRE fluorescence intensity. We confirmed that more active mitochondria exhibit a higher frequency of repetitive transient depolarization. The same trend was observed at forces lower than 50 nN. We further showed that the depolarization frequency of mitochondria decreases under an extremely large force (nearly 100 nN). We conclude that mitochondrial function is affected by physical environmental factors, such as external forces at the nano-Newton level.

  7. Development and Optical Testing of the Camera, Hand Lens, and Microscope Probe with Scannable Laser Spectroscopy (CHAMP-SLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S.; Gursel, Yekta; Sepulveda, Cesar A.; Anderson, Mark; La Baw, Clayton; Johnson, Kenneth R.; Deans, Matthew; Beegle, Luther; Boynton, John

    2008-01-01

    Conducting high resolution field microscopy with coupled laser spectroscopy that can be used to selectively analyze the surface chemistry of individual pixels in a scene is an enabling capability for next generation robotic and manned spaceflight missions, civil, and military applications. In the laboratory, we use a range of imaging and surface preparation tools that provide us with in-focus images, context imaging for identifying features that we want to investigate at high magnification, and surface-optical coupling that allows us to apply optical spectroscopic analysis techniques for analyzing surface chemistry particularly at high magnifications. The camera, hand lens, and microscope probe with scannable laser spectroscopy (CHAMP-SLS) is an imaging/spectroscopy instrument capable of imaging continuously from infinity down to high resolution microscopy (resolution of approx. 1 micron/pixel in a final camera format), the closer CHAMP-SLS is placed to a feature, the higher the resultant magnification. At hand lens to microscopic magnifications, the imaged scene can be selectively interrogated with point spectroscopic techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, microscopic Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (micro-LIBS), laser ablation mass-spectrometry, Fluorescence spectroscopy, and/or Reflectance spectroscopy. This paper summarizes the optical design, development, and testing of the CHAMP-SLS optics.

  8. Development and Optical Testing of the Camera, Hand Lens, and Microscope Probe with Scannable Laser Spectroscopy (CHAMP-SLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S.; Gursel, Yekta; Sepulveda, Cesar A.; Anderson, Mark; La Baw, Clayton; Johnson, Kenneth R.; Deans, Matthew; Beegle, Luther; Boynton, John

    2008-01-01

    Conducting high resolution field microscopy with coupled laser spectroscopy that can be used to selectively analyze the surface chemistry of individual pixels in a scene is an enabling capability for next generation robotic and manned spaceflight missions, civil, and military applications. In the laboratory, we use a range of imaging and surface preparation tools that provide us with in-focus images, context imaging for identifying features that we want to investigate at high magnification, and surface-optical coupling that allows us to apply optical spectroscopic analysis techniques for analyzing surface chemistry particularly at high magnifications. The camera, hand lens, and microscope probe with scannable laser spectroscopy (CHAMP-SLS) is an imaging/spectroscopy instrument capable of imaging continuously from infinity down to high resolution microscopy (resolution of approx. 1 micron/pixel in a final camera format), the closer CHAMP-SLS is placed to a feature, the higher the resultant magnification. At hand lens to microscopic magnifications, the imaged scene can be selectively interrogated with point spectroscopic techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, microscopic Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (micro-LIBS), laser ablation mass-spectrometry, Fluorescence spectroscopy, and/or Reflectance spectroscopy. This paper summarizes the optical design, development, and testing of the CHAMP-SLS optics.

  9. Optical method for distance and displacement measurements of the probe-sample separation in a scanning near-field optical microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaria, L.; Siller, H. R. [Tecnológico de Monterrey, Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Monterrey, N.L., 64849 (Mexico); Garcia-Ortiz, C. E., E-mail: cegarcia@cicese.mx [CONACYT Research Fellow – CICESE, Unidad Monterrey, Alianza Centro 504, Apodaca, NL, 66629 (Mexico); Cortes, R.; Coello, V. [CICESE, Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Alianza Centro 504, Apodaca, NL, 66629 (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    In this work, we present an alternative optical method to determine the probe-sample separation distance in a scanning near-field optical microscope. The experimental method is based in a Lloyd’s mirror interferometer and offers a measurement precision deviation of ∼100 nm using digital image processing and numerical analysis. The technique can also be strategically combined with the characterization of piezoelectric actuators and stability evaluation of the optical system. It also opens the possibility for the development of an automatic approximation control system valid for probe-sample distances from 5 to 500 μm.

  10. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-04-07

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics.

  11. Micro-electro-fluidic module to control magnetotactic bacteria for micromanipulation tasks under an optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Walder; Lu, Zhao; Moufarrej, Bechara; Martel, Sylvain

    2007-10-01

    This project describes a Multi-Chip Module (MCM) that contains a microelectronic circuit and a microfluidic device that could be combined to implement a "bacterial microfactory". The microchip contains two decoders connected to arrays of horizontal and vertical wires respectively, forming a matrix used to process commands received from an external computer. The electrical current flowing through the matrix is generated from internal voltage-to-current converters. The electrical current circulating through a metal conductor generates a magnetic field that is used to guide the movement of Magnetotactic Bacteria (MTB) in the microfluidic device. The dedicated microfluidic device is micro-fabricated on a glass wafer. Preliminary results show that a single MC-1 MTB can push a 2 μm microbead at speeds reaching 100μm/s under the control of an external magnetic field of less than 10 Gauss. A Carl Zeiss microscopy software (AxioVision) is used to control and configure the Axio Imager Z1 optical microscope and allows us to develop customized plug-in with Visual Basic for Application (VBA). The control electronic die was hence programmed as a VBA module, simplifying interoperability between the control, data recordings and microscopy observations. The parallel port of an Intel Pentium 4, 3.0 GHz equipped with 2.87 Go of RAM running Windows XP was used to communicate with the circuit. Connected to the parallel port, two demultiplexers interface the chip and the port. Patterns to control the bacteria such as left-right and up-down displacements were implemented and tested. Other more complex patterns to capture, attract and repel the bacteria from the center of the chip were also designed and validated.

  12. A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsuk Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early detection is an essential component of cancer management. Unfortunately, visual examination can often be unreliable, and many settings lack the financial capital and infrastructure to operate PET, CT, and MRI systems. Moreover, the infrastructure and expense associated with surgical biopsy and microscopy are a challenge to establishing cancer screening/early detection programs in low-resource settings. Improvements in performance and declining costs have led to the availability of optoelectronic components, which can be used to develop low-cost diagnostic imaging devices for use at the point-of-care. Here, we demonstrate a fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade camera for in vivo cellular imaging. METHODS: The fiber-optic fluorescence microscope includes an LED light, an objective lens, a fiber-optic bundle, and a consumer-grade digital camera. The system was used to image an oral cancer cell line labeled with 0.01% proflavine. A human tissue specimen was imaged following surgical resection, enabling dysplastic and cancerous regions to be evaluated. The oral mucosa of a healthy human subject was imaged in vivo, following topical application of 0.01% proflavine. FINDINGS: The fiber-optic microscope resolved individual nuclei in all specimens and tissues imaged. This capability allowed qualitative and quantitative differences between normal and precancerous or cancerous tissues to be identified. The optical efficiency of the system permitted imaging of the human oral mucosa in real time. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate this device as a useful tool to assist in the identification of early neoplastic changes in epithelial tissues. This portable, inexpensive unit may be particularly appropriate for use at the point-of-care in low-resource settings.

  13. A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongsuk; Pierce, Mark C; Gillenwater, Ann M; Williams, Michelle D; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R

    2010-06-23

    Early detection is an essential component of cancer management. Unfortunately, visual examination can often be unreliable, and many settings lack the financial capital and infrastructure to operate PET, CT, and MRI systems. Moreover, the infrastructure and expense associated with surgical biopsy and microscopy are a challenge to establishing cancer screening/early detection programs in low-resource settings. Improvements in performance and declining costs have led to the availability of optoelectronic components, which can be used to develop low-cost diagnostic imaging devices for use at the point-of-care. Here, we demonstrate a fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade camera for in vivo cellular imaging. The fiber-optic fluorescence microscope includes an LED light, an objective lens, a fiber-optic bundle, and a consumer-grade digital camera. The system was used to image an oral cancer cell line labeled with 0.01% proflavine. A human tissue specimen was imaged following surgical resection, enabling dysplastic and cancerous regions to be evaluated. The oral mucosa of a healthy human subject was imaged in vivo, following topical application of 0.01% proflavine. The fiber-optic microscope resolved individual nuclei in all specimens and tissues imaged. This capability allowed qualitative and quantitative differences between normal and precancerous or cancerous tissues to be identified. The optical efficiency of the system permitted imaging of the human oral mucosa in real time. Our results indicate this device as a useful tool to assist in the identification of early neoplastic changes in epithelial tissues. This portable, inexpensive unit may be particularly appropriate for use at the point-of-care in low-resource settings.

  14. Nuclear data evaluation of long-lived fission products: Microscopic vs. phenomenological optical potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minato Futoshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron-nucleus cross sections calculated by macroscopic potentials are compared with a microscopic one to study the performance for long-lived fission products. The macroscopic potentials show a good agreement with the microscopic one at higher energies, where neutron experimental data are scarce. Besides it, analyses of differential elastic cross sections at low energies also suggest that the macroscopic potentials are still effective and applicable enough for the long-lived fission products.

  15. Multimodal optical setup for nonlinear and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopies: improvement on a commercial confocal inverted microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegati, V. B.; Adur, J.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Almeida, D. B.; Baratti, M. O.; Carvalho, H. F.; Cesar, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    In this work we proposed and built a multimodal optical setup that extends a commercially available confocal microscope (Olympus FV300) to include nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The NLO microscopies included two-photon fluorescence (TPFE), Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Third Harmonic Generation (THG). The whole system, including FLIM, used only one laser source composed of an 80 MHz femtosecond laser. The commercial Ti:sapphire lasers can be tuned up to 690-1040 nm bringing the THG signal to the 350 nm region where most microscope optics do not work. However, the third harmonic is only generated at the sample, meaning that we only have to take care of the collection optics. To do that we used a remote photomultiplier to acquire the THG signal at the 310-350 nm wavelength window. After performing the tests to guarantee that we are observing actually SHG/THG signals we than used this system to acquire multimodal images of several biological samples, from epithelial cancer to vegetables. The ability to see the collagen network together with the cell nuclei proved to be important for cancer tissues diagnosis. Moreover, FLIM provides information about the cell metabolism, also very important for cancer cell processes.

  16. Development of a scanning nearfield optical microscope for low-temperature investigations of semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodeck, Kai Friedrich

    2009-02-19

    In the present work the electronic structure of MOCVD-grown InGaAs/GaAs and InAs/GaAs quantum dots which are characterized by a particularly low ground state transition energy, was investigated using Scanning Nearfield Optical Microscopy (SNOM). The pivotal question of the presented investigations is, which influence the interaction of the confined carriers has on the energy states of the biexcitons and the multiexcitons in a quantum dot. Therefore, photoluminescence spectra of single quantum dots were investigated under varying excitation intensity at different temperatures between 5 K and 300 K. The construction of a novel scanning nearfield microscope especially for low temperatures allowed the investigation of single quantum dots. Due to significant improvements of the positioning technology and the shear-force distance control between the sample and the nearfield probe a stable scanning of the quantum dot samples at 5 K could be demonstrated, showing a lateral optical resolution of 200 nm. This way, in the photoluminescence spectroscopy of single quantum dots the thermal linewidth broadening of the detected light was reduced down to a value of less than 1 meV, which allowed the identification of the transitions of biexcitons and multiexcitons. On the basis of the performed measurements, for the InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots a biexciton state was identified, with variable binding energies of 2-7 meV. Furthermore, a positively charged trion state with a binding energy of 11 meV was observed, showing high emission intensity, which can be assigned to the sample doping. Accordingly, for the positively charged biexciton state a binding energy of 11 meV can be announced. For the investigated InAs/GaAs quantum dots a biexciton state with binding energies of 3-4 meV was found. Some of the investigated InAs/GaAs quantum dots showed the formation of positively charged states, in particular of a trion state with a binding energy of 3 meV, and of the positively charged

  17. Prevention of electron beam transmittance for biological cell imaging using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated the high-spatial-resolution imaging of label-free biological cells using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope without irradiation damage by the electron beam. An EXA microscope can be used to observe a specimen with a nanometric light source excited in the Si3N4 membrane by an electron beam. The incident electron beam penetrates the Si3N4 membrane and damages the specimen. To suppress the irradiation damage of the specimen, we prevented the transmittance of the electron beam by coating the Si3N4 membrane with a gold thin film. To obtain an electron beam transmittance through the Si3N4 of 0%, a gold film of 15 nm thickness was required. By adding the gold layer, a label-free cellular structure was observed with 135-nm spatial resolution.

  18. Four-probe scanning tunnelling microscope with atomic resolution for electrical and electro-optical property measurements of nanosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xiao; He Xiao-Bo; Lu Jun-Ling; Gao Li; Huan Qing; Shi Dong-Xia; Gao Hong-Jun

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a special four-probe scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) system in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV),which can provide coarse positioning for every probe independently with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM)and fine positioning down to nanometre using the STM technology. The system allows conductivity measurement by means of a four-point probe method, which can draw out more accurate electron transport characteristics in nanostructures, and provides easy manipulation of low dimension materials. All measurements can be performed in variable temperature (from 30K to 500K), magnetic field (from 0 to 0.1T), and different gas environments. Simultaneously, the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum can be achieved through an optical subsystem. Test measurements using some nanowire samples show that this system is a powerful tool in exploring electron transport characteristics and spectra in nanoscale physics.

  19. Dynamic nano-imaging of label-free living cells using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Kanamori, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taichi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Optical microscopes are effective tools for cellular function analysis because biological cells can be observed non-destructively and non-invasively in the living state in either water or atmosphere condition. Label-free optical imaging technique such as phase-contrast microscopy has been analysed many cellular functions, and it is essential technology for bioscience field. However, the diffraction limit of light makes it is difficult to image nano-structures in a label-free living cell, for example the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi body and the localization of proteins. Here we demonstrate the dynamic imaging of a label-free cell with high spatial resolution by using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope. We observed the dynamic movement of the nucleus and nano-scale granules in living cells with better than 100 nm spatial resolution and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) around 10. Our results contribute to the development of cellular function analysis and open up new bioscience applications. PMID:26525841

  20. Chronic monitoring of cortical hemodynamics in behaving, freely-moving rats using a miniaturized head-mounted optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Iliya; Gad, Raanan; Koletar, Margaret; Ringuette, Dene; Stefanovic, Bojana; Levi, Ofer

    2016-03-01

    Growing interest within the neurophysiology community in assessing healthy and pathological brain activity in animals that are awake and freely-behaving has triggered the need for optical systems that are suitable for such longitudinal studies. In this work we report label-free multi-modal imaging of cortical hemodynamics in the somatosensory cortex of awake, freely-behaving rats, using a novel head-mounted miniature optical microscope. The microscope employs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) at three distinct wavelengths (680 nm, 795 nm, and 850 nm) to provide measurements of four hemodynamic markers: blood flow speeds, HbO, HbR, and total Hb concentration, across a > 2 mm field of view. Blood flow speeds are extracted using Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI), while oxygenation measurements are performed using Intrinsic Optical Signal Imaging (IOSI). Longitudinal measurements on the same animal are made possible over the course of > 6 weeks using a chronic window that is surgically implanted into the skull. We use the device to examine changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in superficial cortical blood vessels and tissue in response to drug-induced absence-like seizures, correlating motor behavior with changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in the brain.

  1. Polarization-preserving confocal microscope for optical experiments in a dilution refrigerator with high magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sladkov, Maksym; Bakker, M. P.; Chaubal, A. U.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; van der Wal, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    We present the design and operation of a fiber-based cryogenic confocal microscope. It is designed as a compact cold-finger that fits inside the bore of a superconducting magnet, and which is a modular unit that can be easily swapped between use in a dilution refrigerator and other cryostats. We aim

  2. The long road to the use of microscope in clinical medicine in vivo: from early pioneering proposals to the modern perspectives of optical biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Giovanni; Muscatello, Umberto; Sgantzos, Markos

    2015-01-01

    For a long period the scientists did not recognized the potentialities of the compound microscope in medicine. Only few scientists recognized the potentialities of the microscope for the medicine; among them G. Campani who proposed the utilization of his microscope to investigate the skin lesions directly on the patient. The proposal was illustrated in a letter Acta Eruditorum of 1686. The recent development of optical techniques, capable of providing in-focus images of an object from different planes with high spatial resolution, significantly increased the diagnostic potential of the microscope directly on the patient.

  3. Comparison of measurements from optical CMM and focus-variation microscope of a μPIM mechanical part

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Salaga, Jacek; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Two sets of 5 green and 5 sintered mechanical parts, manufactured by micro powder injection moulding (μPIM), were measured using an optical coordinate measuring machine (OCMM) and a focus-variation microscope (FVM). The examined features of size, including diameter, radii and distances, span...... geometrical features, such as surface texture and flatness, may depict FVM measurements as more attractive. However, measurements should be suitable for in-line quality control, in a production environment, where fast cycle time is required and measuring times are more compatible to those of the OCMM....

  4. Laboratory-size three-dimensional water-window x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2016-01-01

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water-window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques. It consists of an electron-impact x-ray source emitting oxygen Kα x-rays, Wolter type I grazing incidence mirror optics, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit better than 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm-scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  5. Use of scanning near-field optical microscope with an aperture probe for detection of luminescent nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shershulin, V. A.; Samoylenko, S. R.; Shenderova, O. A.; Konov, V. I.; Vlasov, I. I.

    2017-02-01

    The suitability of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) to image photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles with nanoscale resolution is demonstrated. Isolated diamond nanocrystals with an average size of 100 nm, containing negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) centers, were chosen as tested material. The NV- luminescence was stimulated by continuous 532 nm laser light. Sizes of analyzed crystallites were monitored by an atomic force microscope. The lateral resolution of the order of 100 nm was reached in SNOM imaging of diamond nanoparticles using 150 nm square aperture of the probe.

  6. Laboratory-size three-dimensional water-window x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsuka, Shinji [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 431-1202 (Japan); Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Nakano, Tomoyasu [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Ray-Focus Co. Ltd., 6009 Shinpara, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-0003 (Japan); Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water-window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques. It consists of an electron-impact x-ray source emitting oxygen Kα x-rays, Wolter type I grazing incidence mirror optics, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit better than 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm-scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  7. Hollow-pyramid based scanning near-field optical microscope coupled to femtosecond pulses: A tool for nonlinear optics at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebrano, Michele; Biagioni, Paolo; Zavelani-Rossi, Margherita; Polli, Dario; Labardi, Massimiliano; Allegrini, Maria; Finazzi, Marco; Duò, Lamberto; Cerullo, Giulio

    2009-03-01

    We describe an aperture scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) using cantilevered hollow pyramid probes coupled to femtosecond laser pulses. Such probes, with respect to tapered optical fibers, present higher throughput and laser power damage threshold, as well as greater mechanical robustness. In addition, they preserve pulse duration and polarization in the near field. The instrument can operate in two configurations: illumination mode, in which the SNOM probe is used to excite the nonlinear response in the near field, and collection mode, where it collects the nonlinear emission following far-field excitation. We present application examples highlighting the capability of the system to observe the nonlinear optical response of nanostructured metal surfaces (gold projection patterns and gold nanorods) with sub-100-nm spatial resolution.

  8. Density dependence of microscopic nucleon optical potential in first order Brueckner theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliem, S. M.; Haider, W.

    2002-06-01

    In the present work we apply the lowest order Brueckner theory of infinite nuclear matter to obtain nucleon-nucleus optical potential for p-40Ca elastic scattering at 200 MeV using Urbana V14 soft core internucleon potential. We have investigated the effect of target density on the calculated nucleon-nucleus optical potential. We find that the calculated optical potentials depend quite sensitively on the density distribution of the target nucleus. The important feature is that the real part of calculated central optical potential for all densities shows a wine-bottle-bottom type behaviour at this energy. We also discuss the effect of our new radial dependent effective mass correction. Finally, we compare the prediction of our calculated nucleon optical potential using V14 with the prediction using older hard core Hamada-Johnston internucleon potential for p-40Ca elastic scattering at 200 MeV.

  9. Analysis of proton scattering of stable and exotic light nuclei using an energy-dependent microscopic optical potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maridi H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton elastic scattering off the 9,10,11,12Be isotopes at a wide energy range from 3 to 200 MeV/nucleon is analyzed using the optical model with the partial-wave expansion method. The microscopic optical potential (OP is taken within the single-folding model. The density- and isospin-dependent M3YParis nucleon-nucleon (NN interaction is used for the real part and the NN-scattering amplitude of the highenergy approximation for the imaginary one. The cross-section data are reproduced well at energies up to 100 MeV/nucleon by use of the partial-wave expansion. For higher energies, the eikonal approximation is successfully used. The volume integrals of the OP parts have systematic energy dependencies and they can be parameterized as functions of energy. From these parametrization, an energy-dependent OP can be obtained.

  10. Optical microscope for nuclear emulsion readout-system design and results in application

    CERN Document Server

    Winkler, K; Gussek, P; Balogh, I; Breitfelder, S; Schlichting, J; Dupraz, J P; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Zucchelli, P; Van de Vyver, B L

    1999-01-01

    Experiments such as CHORUS at CERN require the inspection of a large amount of nuclear emulsion plates exposed to particle beams. Rare events need to be found, measured and analyzed. Their features are stored as grains in microscopic dimensions in a 3D stack of plates. A new, fully automatic immersion microscope system was developed. It features high resolution, small depth of focus, large working distance, large field of view and synchronization of illumination and detector. An additional requirement is given by variations in the refraction index and in the relative thickness of immersion oil and emulsion. The approach used is an imaging system based on a various objective lens with extreme numerical aperture, large working distance and wide field, combined with a matched high-aperture Koehler illuminator. The light source is a mercury arc lamp, combined with a filter package for the g-line. It includes liquid crystal elements for synchronized shuttering and variable attenuation. The theoretical resolution i...

  11. Meta-instrument: high speed positioning and tracking platform for near-field optical imaging microscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Bijster, R J F; Spierdijk, J P F; Dekker, A; Klop, W A; Kramer, G F IJ; Cheng, L K; Hagen, R A J; Sadeghian, H

    2016-01-01

    High resolution and high throughput imaging are typically mutually exclusive. The meta-instrument pairs high resolution optical concepts such as nano-antennas, superoscillatory lenses and hyperlenses with a miniaturized opto-mechatronic platform for precise and high speed positioning of the optical elements at lens-to-sample separations that are measured in tens of nanometers. Such platform is a necessary development for bringing near-field optical imaging techniques to their industrial application. Towards this purpose, we present two designs and proof-of-principle instruments that are aimed at realizing sub-nanometer positional precision with a 100 kHz bandwidth.

  12. Correction of cell-induced optical aberrations in a fluorescence fluctuation microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Leroux, Charles-Edouard; Wang, Irène; Delon, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    We describe the effect of optical aberrations on fluorescence fluctuations microscopy (FFM), when focusing through a single living cell. FFM measurements are performed in an aqueous fluorescent solution and prove to be a highly sensitive tool to assess the optical aberrations introduced by the cell. We demonstrate an adaptive optics (AO) system to remove the aberration-related bias in the FFM measurements. Our data show that AO is not only useful when imaging deep in tissues but also when performing FFM measurements through a single cellular layer. This work paves the way for the application of FFM to complex three-dimensional multicellular samples.

  13. Imaging of InGaN inhomogeneities using visible aperturelessnear-field scanning optical microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebounova, Larissa V.; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Chen, Dongxue; Leone, Stephen R.

    2007-06-14

    The optical properties of epitaxially grown islands of InGaN are investigated with nanometer-scale spatial resolution using visible apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy. Scattered light from the tip-sample system is modulated by cantilever oscillations and detected at the third harmonic of the oscillation frequency to distinguish the near-field signal from unwanted scattered background light. Scattered near-field measurements indicate that the as-grown InGaN islanded film may exhibit both inhomogeneous In composition and strain-induced changes that affect the optical signal at 633 nm and 532 nm. Changes are observed in the optical contrast for large 3D InGaN islands (100's of nm) of the same height. Near-field optical mapping of small grains on a finer scale reveals InGaN composition or strain-induced irregularities in features with heights of only 2 nm, which exhibit different near-field signals at 633 nm and 532 nm incident wavelengths. Optical signal contrast from topographic features as small as 30 nm is detected.

  14. Microscopic thin film optical anisotropy imaging at the solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Adelaide; De Beule, Pieter A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Optical anisotropy of thin films has been widely investigated through ellipsometry, whereby typically an optical signal is averaged over a ˜1 cm2 elliptical area that extends with increasing angle-of-incidence (AOI). Here, we report on spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry at the solid-liquid interface applied to a supported lipid bilayer (SLB). We detail how a differential spectrally resolved ellipsometry measurement, between samples with and without optically anisotropic thin film on an absorbing substrate, can be applied to recover in and out of plane refractive indices of the thin film with known film thickness, hence determining the thin film optical anisotropy. We also present how optimal wavelength and AOI settings can be determined ensuring low parameter cross correlation between the refractive indices to be determined from a differential measurement in Δ ellipsometry angle. Furthermore, we detail a Monte Carlo type analysis that allows one to determine the minimal required optical ellipsometry resolution to recover a given thin film anisotropy. We conclude by presenting a new setup for a spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry based on fiber supercontinuum laser technology, multi-wavelength diode system, and an improved liquid cell design, delivering a 5 ×-10 × ellipsometric noise reduction over state-of-the-art. We attribute this improvement to increased ellipsometer illumination power and a reduced light path in liquid through the use of a water dipping objective.

  15. Free radical erythrocyte damage in tumoral disease assessed by He-Ne laser and optical microscope through "Heinz Bodies" method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccio, M; Della Rovere, F; Granata, A; Wanderlingh, U; Zirilli, A; Tanzariello, A; Pirrone, G; Broccio, G

    1998-01-01

    Results obtained from blood sample readings by optical microscopy and He-Ne laser (lambda = 630.1 mW), have confirmed the reduction in Heinz Bodies (HB) formation time and the Transmittance Reduction Degree (TRD), in malignancies. The results of spectrometric readings in colorectum polyposis, (TRD = 0.07) and fibrocystic mastopathy (TRD = 0.08) gave results overlapping with controls (TRD = 0.08). In neoplasias, the early HB formation in erythrocytes observed by optical microscope corresponded to TRD increase = 0.17 (P < 0.01). TRD increase was statistically significant (P < 0.01), as well as the reduction in the time of HB appearance (< 0.01). The relationship between optical and laser readings was exponential in tumors, while it was linear in controls, in polyposis and mastopathies. The values of the correlation coefficients obtained by both methods were significant (P < 0.01) for all the studied groups. Moreover, these research data further support the existence, even in the earlier stages of the disease, of the labile state of the red cell membrane due to strong lipid peroxidation by FRs.

  16. A Differential Interference Contrast-Based Light Microscopic System for Laser Microsurgery and Optical Trapping of Selected Chromosomes during Mitosis In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Richard W.; Khodjakov, Alexey; Wright, William H.; Rieder, Conly L.

    1995-10-01

    Laser microsurgery and laser-generated optical force traps (optical tweezers) are both valuable light microscopic-based approaches for studying intra- and extracellular motility processes, including chromosome segregation during mitosis. Here we describe a system in use in our laboratory that allows living cells to be followed by high-resolution differential interference contrast (DIC) video-enhanced time-lapse light microscopy while selected mitotic organelles and spindle components are subjected to laser microsurgery and/or manipulation with an optical force trap. This system couples the output from two different Neodymium-YAG lasers to the same inverted light microscope equipped with both phase-contrast and de Senarmont compensation DIC optics, a motorized stage, and a high-resolution low-light-level CCD camera. Unlike similar systems using phase-contrast optics, our DIC-based system can image living cells in thin optical sections without contamination due to phase halos or out-of-focus object information. These advantages greatly facilitate laser-based light microscopic studies on mitotic organelles and components, including spindle poles (centrosomes) and kinetochores, which are at or below the resolution limit of the light microscope and buried within a large complex structure. When used in conjunction with image processing and high-resolution object-tracking techniques, our system provides new information on the roles that kinetochores and spindle microtubules play during chromosome segregation in plant and animal cells.

  17. Comparison of measurements from optical CMM and focus-variation microscope of a μPIM mechanical part

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Salaga, Jacek; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Two sets of 5 green and 5 sintered mechanical parts, manufactured by micro powder injection moulding (μPIM), were measured using an optical coordinate measuring machine (OCMM) and a focus-variation microscope (FVM). The examined features of size, including diameter, radii and distances, span...... in the range of (10-1–101) mm. Comparing the corresponding measurements from the two instruments, a relative maximum deviation of 8 % was found for the linear dimensions of the green parts and a relative maximum deviation of 6 % for the ones of the sintered parts. The maximum relative deviation of the radii...... was 17 % for the green parts and 30 % for the sintered parts (relative deviations have been evaluated considering focus-variation measurements as reference).OCMM showed some problems in the detection of the smallest dimensional features (above all radii) where the presence of defects on the edges, quite...

  18. A microscopic T-violating optical potential implications for neutron-transmission experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, J; Hnizdo, V

    1994-01-01

    We derive a T-violating P-conserving optical potential for neutron-nucleus scattering, starting from a uniquely determined two-body \\rho-exchange interaction with the same symmetry. We then obtain limits on the T-violating \\rho-nucleon coupling \\overline{g}_{\\rho} from neutron-transmission experiments in ^{165}Ho. The limits may soon compete with those from measurements of atomic electric-dipole moments.

  19. Microscopic kinetic analysis of space-charge induced optical microbunching in a relativistic electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Marinelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal space-charge forces from density fluctuations generated by shot noise can be a major source of microbunching instability in relativistic high brightness electron beams. The gain in microbunching due to this effect is broadband, extending at least up to optical frequencies, where the induced structure on the beam distribution gives rise to effects such as coherent optical transition radiation. In the high-frequency regime, theoretical and computational analyses of microbunching formation require a full three-dimensional treatment. In this paper we address the problem of space-charge induced optical microbunching formation in the high-frequency limit when transverse thermal motion due to finite emittance is included for the first time. We derive an analytical description of this process based on the beam’s plasma dielectric function. We discuss the effect of transverse temperature on the angular distribution of microbunching gain and its connection to the physics of Landau damping in longitudinal plasma oscillations. Application of the theory to a relevant experimental scenario is discussed. The analytical results obtained are then compared to the predictions arising from high resolution three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations.

  20. [Sensitivity, precision and resolution of the optical microscope in the study of environmental pollution by asbestos fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, G; Patroni, M; Trimarchi, R; Clerici, C; Occella, E

    1991-01-01

    The authors comment on the methods and equipment used in two Italian laboratories for sampling and microscopic phase contrast analysis of asbestos and other respirable fibres in the air of the general environment, i.e., the Dust Analysis Laboratory, Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology Department of the Institute of Occupational Health (Clinica del Lavoro), University of Milan and the Technical Microscopy Laboratory, Ground Resources and Land Control (Georisorse e Territorio) Department of Turin Polytechnic, which use identical methods. Airborne dust samples are taken with personal samplers, 1 l/min air flow (sample duration 4-8 h), filtering air on 25 mm diameter, 0.8 micropore cellulose filters (about 300 mm total net surface of dust deposit). The following equipment is used for counting and analysis of fibres: a) Clinica del Lavoro, Milan: Polyvar Reichert-Jung microscope, 500 magnitudes, Zernike positive phase contrast; numerical counting on 100 whole ocular fields, equal to 6.38% of the total net surface of dust deposit on the membrane; b) Turin Polytechnic: Leitz Ortholux microscope, 500 magnitudes, Heine and Zernike phase contrast with mean standard contrast; numerical counting on square grid, with explored surface total equal to 1.68% of the total net surface of dust deposit on the membrane. Measurements performed: Clinica del Lavoro, Milan: 2,980 since 1960; Turin Polytechnic: 875 since 1965. The sensitivity of the methods for counting airborne fibres is discussed, concluding that the methods used by the two laboratories have a sensitivity between 0.05 and 1.6 fibre/litre of air, according to the overall dustiness of the environment under study. Analysis of the accuracy of the optic determinations, based on the repeated counts, shows a repeatability of 0.4 (40%) within 95% confidence limits. A resolution power of 0.35 microns is reported; however, the possibility exists (and is normally achieved in analytical practice in both laboratories) of identifying and

  1. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  2. Coherent double-color interference microscope for traceable optical surface metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovski, I.; França, R. S.; Bessa, M. S.; Silva, C. R.; Couceiro, I. B.

    2016-06-01

    Interference microscopy is an important field of dimensional surface metrology because it provides direct traceability of the measurements to the SI base unit definition of the metre. With a typical measurement range from micrometres to nanometres interference microscopy (IM) covers the gap between classic metrology and nanometrology, providing continuous transfer of dimensional metrology into new areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Therefore IM is considered to be an indispensable tool for traceable transfer of the metre unit to different instruments. We report here the metrological study of an absolute Linnik interference microscope (IM) based on two frequency stabilized lasers. The design permits the flexible use of both lasers for measurements depending on the demand of the concrete measurement task. By principle of operation IM is combination of imaging and phase-shifting interferometry (PSI). The traceability is provided by the wavelength reference, that is, a He-Ne 633 nm stabilized laser. The second laser source, that is, a Blue-Green 488 nm grating stabilized laser diode, is used for improvements of resolution, and also for resolving integer fringe discontinuities on sharp features of the surface. The IM was optimized for surface height metrology. We have performed the study of the systematic effects of the measurements. This study allowed us to improve the hardware and software of IM and to find corrections for main systematic errors. The IM is purposed for 1D to 3D height metrology and surface topography in an extended range from nanometres to micrometres. The advantages and disadvantages of the design and developed methods are discussed.

  3. Microscopic formulation of medium contributions to the first-order optical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.

    1993-12-01

    A refinement of the first-order optical potential is introduced, consistent with multiple scattering theory and the spectator expansion. A systematic formalism is presented to treat medium contributions associated with the difference between the effective NN t matrix as required by multiple scattering theory and the free NN t matrix. A mean field potential is used to represent the action of the residual (A-1) nucleus upon the struck target nucleon (medium effects). We calculate elastic proton and neutron scattering from 40Ca, using the full Bonn interaction and two different mean field potentials taken from realistic and proven nuclear structure models. Results indicate that the medium contributions are insignificant at energies above 300 MeV and provide a significant improvement of the theoretical predictions for laboratory energies between 48 and 200 MeV.

  4. Microscopic formulation of medium contributions to the first-order optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, C.R. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States) Center for Computationally Intensive Physics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)); Elster, C. (Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States)); Thaler, R.M. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States) Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States))

    1993-12-01

    A refinement of the first-order optical potential is introduced, consistent with multiple scattering theory and the spectator expansion. A systematic formalism is presented to treat medium contributions associated with the difference between the effective [ital NN] [ital t] matrix as required by multiple scattering theory and the free [ital NN] [ital t] matrix. A mean field potential is used to represent the action of the residual ([ital A][minus]1) nucleus upon the struck target nucleon (medium effects). We calculate elastic proton and neutron scattering from [sup 40]Ca, using the full Bonn interaction and two different mean field potentials taken from realistic and proven nuclear structure models. Results indicate that the medium contributions are insignificant at energies above 300 MeV and provide a significant improvement of the theoretical predictions for laboratory energies between 48 and 200 MeV.

  5. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recording using referenced heterodyning and a time microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Corey Vincent

    2010-06-15

    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. This invention expands upon previous work in temporal imaging by adding heterodyning, which can be self-referenced for improved precision and stability, to convert frequency chirp (the second derivative of phase with respect to time) into a time varying intensity modulation. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  6. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recorder using referenced heterodyning and a time microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Corey Vincent [Livermore, CA

    2011-11-22

    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. This invention expands upon previous work in temporal imaging by adding heterodyning, which can be self-referenced for improved precision and stability, to convert frequency chirp (the second derivative of phase with respect to time) into a time varying intensity modulation. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  7. Multi-colour microscopic interferometry for optical metrology and imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit; Nandigana, Krishna Mohan; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2016-09-01

    Interferometry has been widely used for optical metrology and imaging applications because of their precision, reliability, and versatility. Although single-wavelength interferometery can provide high sensitivity and resolution, it has several drawbacks, namely, it fails to quantify large-discontinuities, large-deformations, and shape of unpolished surfaces. Multiple-wavelength techniques have been successfully used to overcome the drawbacks associated with single wavelength analysis. The use of colour CCD camera allows simultaneous acquisition of multiple interferograms. The advances in colour CCD cameras and image processing techniques have made the multi-colour interferometry a faster, simpler, and cost-effective tool for industrial applications. This article reviews the recent advances in multi-colour interferometric techniques and their demanding applications for characterization of micro-systems, non-destructive testing, and bio-imaging applications.

  8. Microscopic theory of coherent and incoherent optical properties of semiconductor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Martin

    2008-09-02

    An important question is whether there is a regime in which lasing from indirect semiconductors is possible. Thus, we discuss this question in this thesis. It is shown that under incoherent emission conditions it is possible to create an exciton condensate in multiple-quantum-well (MQW) systems. The influence of a MQW structure on the exciton lifetime is investigated. For the description of the light-matter interaction of a QW in the coherent excitation regime, the semiconductor Bloch equation (SBE) are used. The incoherent regime is described by the semiconductor luminescence equations (SLE). In principle it is even possible to couple SBE and SLE. The resulting theory is able to describe interactions between coherent and incoherent processes we investigate both, the coherent and the incoherent light-emission regime. Thus we define the investigated system and introduce the many-body Hamiltonian that describes consistently the light-matter interaction in the classical and the quantum limit. We introduce the SBE that allow to compute the light-matter interaction in the coherent scenario. The extended scattering model is used to investigate the absorption of a Ge QW for different time delays after the excitations. In this context, we analyze whether there is a regime in which optical gain can be realized. Then we apply a transfer-matrix method to include into our calculations the influence of the dielectric environment on the optical response. Thereafter the SLE for a MQW system are introduced. We derive a scheme that allows for decoupling environmental effects from the pure PL-emission properties of the QW. The PL of the actual QW system is obtained by multiplying this filter function and the free-space PL that describes the quantum emission into a medium with spatially constant background-refractive index. It is studied how the MQW-Bragg structure influences the PL-emission properties compared to the emission of a single QW device. As a last feature, it is shown

  9. Dark-gray soliton transformations: possibility to study microscopic quantum phenomena by nonlinear optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Tenorio, C.; Serkin, V. N.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Peña-Moreno, R.; Morales-Lara, L.

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) model with an external harmonic potential is one of the most important in modern science. This model makes it possible to analyze a variety of nonlinear phenomena, in nonlinear optics and laser physics, biophysics and in the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms. It is shown that the main specific feature of the dynamics of dark GP matter wave solitons in a parabolic trap is the formation of solitons with dynamically changing form-factors producing the periodic variation in the modulation depth (the degree of "blackness") of dark solitons. In general, the period of dark soliton oscillations in trapping potential depends on the specific conditions of the experiment and does not coincide with the oscillation period of a linear quantum-mechanical oscillator. In the case of an immobile pedestal in the trap, the oscillation period of the black soliton considerably increases because of the periodic transformation of the black soliton to the gray one and vice versa. Surprisingly, that if the dark soliton is superimposed on the base pedestal oscillating in the trap and displaced from the trap center, the oscillation period of the dark soliton coincides with the period of oscillations of the linear harmonic oscillator, while the dynamics of the dark soliton is similar to that of a classical particle obeying the Newton mechanics laws.

  10. Optical Properties of DMA-π-DCV Derivatives: A Theoretical Inspection under the DFT Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Calbo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of a series of donor-acceptor N,N-dimethylaniline-π-dicyanovinylene (DMA-π-DCV chromophores have been investigated under the density functional theory framework. Focus has been made on the low-lying charge-transfer (CT electronic transitions for which experimental data is available. The effect of the π-conjugated bridge length and type was analysed between the families of oligoene and oligoyne derivatives of increasing size. Theoretical calculations demonstrate that the ethylene bridge is a better π-communicator and allows for more delocalized frontier molecular orbitals compared to the acetylene spacer. The Λ diagnostic test allowed rationalization of the orbital spatial overlap in the main CT excitations. The performance of different density functional rungs was assessed in the prediction of the lowest-lying CT electronic transition. Surprisingly, most modern long-range corrected functionals demonstrated to provide among the largest errors, whereas hybrid functionals showed the best performance. Solvatochromism was confirmed in both oligoene and oligoyne compounds. A donor-acceptor-donor triad based on tetrathiafulvalene was utilised as a test system for the prediction of its two CT bands of different nature, energy, and intensity. The hybrid PBE0 (or a similar hybrid analogue consolidates as the best choice for the prediction of CT excitations in the DMA-π-DCV push-pull family.

  11. Atomic force and optical near-field microscopic investigations of polarization holographic gratings in a liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, N.C.R.; Hvilsted, S.

    1996-01-01

    Atomic force and scanning near-field optical microscopic investigations have been carried out on a polarization holographic grating recorded in an azobenzene side-chain Liquid crystalline polyester. It has been found that immediately following laser irradiation, a topographic surface grating...

  12. Validation of a fiber-based confocal microscope for interventional image-guided procedures: correlation with multispectral optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzka, Daniel; Quijano, Jade; Xie, Jianwu; Krueger, Sascha; Weiss, Steffen; Abrat, Benjamin; Osdoit, Anne; Cavé, Charlotte; Burnett, Christopher; Danthi, S. Narasimhan; Li, King

    2006-03-01

    The concept of the biopsy is ubiquitous in current medical diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. The standard biopsy consists of removing a sample of tissue for evaluation and diagnosis, primarily to ascertain the presence of cancer cells by (histo)pathological analyses. However, the advent of new optical imaging modalities and targeted or "smart" agents, that have affinity for a select target, suggests the possibility of performing in vivo tissue characterization without the need for sample removal or the wait for histopathologic processing. Here we present work testing and validating a fiber-based confocal fluorescence microscopic imaging system intended for combination with a larger scale imaging modality (i.e. MRI or CT) to be used in image-guided in vivo tissue characterization. Fiber-based confocal fluorescence microscopic imaging experiments were performed (Cellvizio, Mauna Kea Technologies, Paris, France) in vivo in two mouse models including: 1) EGFP-expressing mouse melanoma model and 2) M21 mouse melanoma model. Both models are known to express integrin α νβ 3, a cell-surface receptor protein. We also performed an experiment in ex vivo chicken muscle tissue labelled with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-lectin targeted compound. In the mouse models, contrast agents that targeted the integrin were injected and the contrast agent localization in tumor was verified by a whole-body multispectral imager. The fiber-based tool was sensitive enough to detect and image the tissue of interest in all different experiments, and was found appropriate for use in interventional catheter-based procedures.

  13. Fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope developed for the measurement of microvascular red cell velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, J

    1990-11-01

    A fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope (FLDAM) was developed and its applicability to the study of microvascular blood flow was examined by measuring red cell velocities in vivo and in vitro. The FLDAM consists of an intravital microscope equipped with a fringe-mode back-scatter LDA. A data processing method of the Doppler signal which used frequency averaging over the entire frequency range of the power spectrum was developed. Spatial resolution of the FLDAM varied from 17 to 200 microns with 50X to 5X objectives. In vitro experiments showed that the red cell velocity obtained by the FLDAM was equal to the mean flow velocity, within the accuracy of the measurements, for tube diameters from 35 to 100 microns, mean velocity from 0.7 to 17 mm/sec, and feed hematocrit of 20%, when 10X or 20X objectives were used. In vivo red cell velocity measurements conducted with the FLDAM in microvessels of rat mesentery with diameters from 6.5 to 49 microns showed that red cell velocities were about 1/1.6 times smaller than those obtained by the two-slit technique, which also suggests that the velocity obtained by the FLDAM corresponds to the mean flow velocity. This relationship was also established from theoretical considerations for the case where the FLDAM sampling volume covers the entire vessel cross section. Furthermore the frequency response of the FLDAM was established to be about 20 Hz, which was sufficient for measurement of pulsatile velocities in rat mesenteric microvessels.

  14. Microscopic Polyangiitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here: Home / Types of Vasculitis / Microscopic Polyangiitis Microscopic Polyangiitis First Description Who gets Microscopic Polyangiitis (the “ ... differences as to justify separate classifications. Who gets Microscopic Polyangiitis? A typical patient MPA can affect individuals ...

  15. Global analysis of isospin dependent microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials in a Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruirui; Ma, Zhongyu; Zhang, Yue; Tian, Yuan; van Dalen, E. N. E.; Müther, H.

    2016-09-01

    Background: For the study of exotic nuclei it is important to have an optical model potential that is reliable not only for stable nuclei but can also be extrapolated to nuclear systems with exotic numbers of protons and neutrons. An efficient way to obtain such a potential is to develop a microscopic optical potential (MOP) based on a fundamental theory with a minimal number of free parameters, which are adjusted to describe stable nuclei all over the nuclide chart. Purpose: The choice adopted in the present work is to develop the MOP within a relativistic scheme which provides a natural and consistent relation between the spin-orbit part and the central part of the potential. The Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach provides such a microscopic relativistic scheme, which is based on a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction and reproduces the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter without any adjustable parameter. Its solution using the projection technique within the subtracted T -matrix representation provides a reliable extension to asymmetric nuclear matter, which is important to describe the features of isospin asymmetric nuclei. The present work performs a global analysis of the isospin dependent nucleon-nucleus MOP based on the DBHF calculation in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter. Methods: The DBHF approach is used to evaluate the relativistic structure of the nucleon self-energies in nuclear matter at various densities and asymmetries. The Schrödinger equivalent potentials of finite nuclei are derived from these Dirac components by a local density approximation (LDA). The density distributions of finite nuclei are taken from the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach with Gogny D1S force. An improved LDA approach (ILDA) is employed to get a better prediction of the scattering observables. A χ2 assessment system based on the global simulated annealing algorithm is developed to optimize the very few free components in this study. Results

  16. New aspects of the structure of human hair on the basis of optical microscopic observations of disassembled hair parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Asao; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Infant' and adult' scalp hair fibers were disassembled to various cellular components and blocks by chemical and enzymatic treatments, followed by random scission with rapidly rotating cutters. The hair fibers were also fractured by the use of a vise. The optical microscopic inspection of these specimens led to the discovery of many previously unknown structures in the hair shaft. In particular, a cuticular cell (Cu) was found to take a trowel-like shape consisting of a part with a blade-like shape (CuB) and a part with a handle-like shape (CuH), where CuB overlapped one another and fused partially to build the honeycomb-like structure on a large cuticular thin plate (CuP). Whereas CuH was closely similar to the cortical cell in dimensions and richness of macrofibrils (Mf). It was considered that human hair is stabilized structurally and physicochemically by the presence of the honeycomb-like structure, the CuP and the Mf.

  17. Measurement of anchoring coefficient of homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal using a polarizing optical microscope in reflective mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-In Baek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals is widely used in LCD TVs, no easy method exists to measure its anchoring coefficient. In this study, we propose an easy and convenient measurement technique in which a polarizing optical microscope is used in the reflective mode with an objective lens having a low depth of focus. All measurements focus on the reflection of light near the interface between the liquid crystal and alignment layer. The change in the reflected light is measured by applying an electric field. We model the response of the director of the liquid crystal to the electric field and, thus, the change in reflectance. By adjusting the extrapolation length in the calculation, we match the experimental and calculated results and obtain the anchoring coefficient. In our experiment, the extrapolation lengths were 0.31 ± 0.04 μm, 0.32 ± 0.08 μm, and 0.23 ± 0.05 μm for lecithin, AL-64168, and SE-5662, respectively.

  18. Optical and atomic force microscopic study on step bunching in BaB2O4 crystal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiu-Hong; Jin Wei-Qing; Liu Yan; Ai Fei; Jin Fei; Xie Jun-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The formation of macrostep during high-temperature phase of barium meta-borate (α-BaB2O4) single crystal growth has been investigated by both optical in-situ observation system and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in-situ observation results demonstrate that the critical linear size of growing facet exceeding the size that the macrostep generates is significantly anisotropic. The critical linear sizes are around 280 μm and 620 μm for {10(1)0} and {(1)010} planes, respectively. AFM study illustrates that macrostep train with a height of 150 nm~200 nm is one typical morphological feature of the as-grown crystal surface. The riser of each macrostep consists of several straight and parallel sub-steps, indicating the occurrence of step bunching. Additionally, triangular sub-steps with heights of several nanometers on the treads of the macrosteps are found to be another typical feature of surface morphology, which implies a microscopically competitive bunching of sub-steps between various crystallographic orientations.

  19. Enhanced defect detection capability using learning system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask inspection tool with projection electron microscope optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Terao, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2016-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) patterned mask defect detection is a major issue that must be addressed to realize EUVL-based device fabrication. We have designed projection electron microscope (PEM) optics for integration into a mask inspection system, and the resulting PEM system performs well in half-pitch (hp) 16-nm-node EUVL patterned mask inspection applications. A learning system has been used in this PEM patterned mask inspection tool. The PEM identifies defects using the "defectivity" parameter that is derived from the acquired image characteristics. The learning system has been developed to reduce the labor and the costs associated with adjustment of the PEM's detection capabilities to cope with newly defined mask defects. The concepts behind this learning system and the parameter optimization flow are presented here. The learning system for the PEM is based on a library of registered defects. The learning system then optimizes the detection capability by reconciling previously registered defects with newly registered defects. Functional verification of the learning system is also described, and the system's detection capability is demonstrated by applying it to the inspection of hp 11-nm EUV masks. We can thus provide a user-friendly mask inspection system with reduced cost of ownership.

  20. Development of electron optical system using annular pupils for scanning transmission electron microscope by focused ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsutani, Takaomi, E-mail: matutani@ele.kindai.ac.jp [Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Yasumoto, Tsuchika; Tanaka, Takeo [Osaka Sangyo University, 3-1-1 Nakagaito, Daito, Osaka 574-8530 (Japan); Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Ichihashi, Mikio [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ikuta, Takashi [Osaka Electro-Communication University, 18-8 Hatsu-cho, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8530 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Annular pupils for electron optics were produced using a focused ion beam (FIB), enabling an increase in the depth of focus and allowing for aberration-free imaging and separation of the amplitude and phase images in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Simulations demonstrate that an increased focal depth is advantageous for three-dimensional tomography in the STEM. For a 200 kV electron beam, the focal depth is increased to approximately 100 nm by using an annular pupil with inner and outer semi-angles of 29 and 30 mrad, respectively. Annular pupils were designed with various outer diameters of 40-120 {mu}m and the inner diameter was designed at 80% of the outer diameter. A taper angle varying from 1 Degree-Sign to 20 Degree-Sign was applied to the slits of the annular pupils to suppress the influence of high-energy electron scattering. The fabricated annular pupils were inspected by scanning ion beam microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. These annular pupils were loaded into a STEM and no charge-up effects were observed in the scintillator projection images recorded by a CCD camera.

  1. Fuzzy logic scheme for tip-sample distance control for a low cost near field optical microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Márquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of the distance between the surface and the tip-sample of a Scanning Near Field Optical Microscope (SNOM is essential for a reliable surface mapping. The control algorithm should be able to maintain the system in a constant distance between the tip and the surface. In this system, nanometric adjustments should be made in order to sense topographies at the same scale with an appropriate resolution. These kinds of devices varies its properties through short periods of time, and it is required a control algorithm capable of handle these changes. In this work a fuzzy logic control scheme is proposed in order to manage the changes the device might have through the time, and to counter the effects of the non-linearity as well. Two inputs are used to program the rules inside the fuzzy logic controller, the difference between the reference signal and the sample signal (error, and the speed in which it decreases or increases. A lock-in amplifier is used as data acquisition hardware to sample the high frequency signals used to produce the tuning fork oscillations. Once these variables are read the control algorithm calculate a voltage output to move the piezoelectric device, approaching or removing the tip-probe from the sample analyzed.

  2. Effect of microscopic interface asymmetry on optical properties of short-period InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, H.M. [Department of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Li, L.L., E-mail: lllihfcas@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, W. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Han, K. [Department of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2015-08-31

    We theoretically investigate the effect of microscopic interface asymmetry (MIA) on the optical properties of short-period InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (SLs) which can serve for the mid-infrared (mid-IR) detection. To calculate the band structures of such SLs, we use a modified eight-band Kane model which includes the MIA effect. With the band structures, we can evaluate the optical matrix elements and joint density of states for the corresponding SL systems. Based on these obtained results, we employ the Boltzmann equation approach to calculate the optical absorption coefficients for the corresponding SL systems. Theoretical calculations demonstrate that the MIA effect can greatly influence the electronic and optical properties of short-period InAs/GaSb type-II SLs. For the band structures, we find that the MIA effect causes strong interactions between different SL subbands and creates large spin splittings of these subbands. For the optical properties, the MIA effect activates the forbidden optical transition channels for TM polarization, enhances the absorption strength considerably and induces remarkable red-shifts for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations, where TE and TM refer to light polarizations along the in-plane and growth directions of SL structure. Different absorption features for TE and TM polarizations are well manifested by corresponding optical matrix elements. Moreover, in conjunction with recent experiment, we calculate the polarization-dependent absorption spectra for mid-IR InAs/GaSb type-II SLs. Our theoretical results can explain those observed experimentally. The present work sheds the significant importance of MIA effect in short-period InAs/GaSb type-II SLs. - Highlights: • Optical properties of InAs/GaSb superlattices (SLs) are studied theoretically. • The microscopic interface asymmetry (MIA) effect is considered for such SLs. • The MIA effect influences the optical properties of such SLs

  3. Pulse electrochemical machining on Invar alloy: Optical microscopic/SEM and non-contact 3D measurement study of surface analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.H.; Choi, S.G.; Choi, W.K.; Yang, B.Y. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E.S., E-mail: leees@dreamwiz.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Invar alloy was electrochemically polished and then subjected to PECM (Pulse Electro Chemical Machining) in a mixture of NaCl, glycerin, and distilled water. • Optical microscopic/SEM and non-contact 3D measurement study of Invar surface analyses. • Analysis result shows that applied voltage and electrode shape are factors that affect the surface conditions. - Abstract: In this study, Invar alloy (Fe 63.5%, Ni 36.5%) was electrochemically polished by PECM (Pulse Electro Chemical Machining) in a mixture of NaCl, glycerin, and distilled water. A series of PECM experiments were carried out with different voltages and different electrode shapes, and then the surfaces of polished Invar alloy were investigated. The polished Invar alloy surfaces were investigated by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and non-contact 3D measurement (white light microscopes) and it was found that different applied voltages produced different surface characteristics on the Invar alloy surface because of the locally concentrated applied voltage on the Invar alloy surface. Moreover, we found that the shapes of electrode also have an effect on the surface characteristics on Invar alloy surface by influencing the applied voltage. These experimental findings provide fundamental knowledge for PECM of Invar alloy by surface analysis.

  4. 3D micro-particle image modeling and its application in measurement resolution investigation for visual sensing based axial localization in an optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolai; Bi, Shusheng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jinhua

    2017-01-01

    Visual sensing based three dimensional (3D) particle localization in an optical microscope is important for both fundamental studies and practical applications. Compared with the lateral (X and Y) localization, it is more challenging to achieve a high resolution measurement of axial particle location. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of different factors on axial measurement resolution through an analytical approach. Analytical models were developed to simulate 3D particle imaging in an optical microscope. A radius vector projection method was applied to convert the simulated particle images into radius vectors. With the obtained radius vectors, a term of axial changing rate was proposed to evaluate the measurement resolution of axial particle localization. Experiments were also conducted for comparison with that obtained through simulation. Moreover, with the proposed method, the effects of particle size on measurement resolution were discussed. The results show that the method provides an efficient approach to investigate the resolution of axial particle localization.

  5. Local detection efficiency of a NbN superconducting single photon detector explored by a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Renema, Jelmer J; Engel, Andreas; van Exter, Martin P; de Dood, Michiel J A

    2015-09-21

    We propose an experiment to directly probe the local response of a superconducting single photon detector using a sharp metal tip in a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope. The optical absorption is obtained by simulating the tip-detector system, where the tip-detector is illuminated from the side, with the tip functioning as an optical antenna. The local detection efficiency is calculated by considering the recently introduced position-dependent threshold current in the detector. The calculated response for a 150 nm wide detector shows a peak close to the edge that can be spatially resolved with an estimated resolution of ∼ 20 nm, using a tip with parameters that are experimentally accessible.

  6. Power spectrum analysis with least-squares fitting: Amplitude bias and its elimination, with application to optical tweezers and atomic force microscope cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlykke, Simon F.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Optical tweezers and atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers are often calibrated by fitting their experimental power spectra of Brownian motion. We demonstrate here that if this is done with typical weighted least-squares methods, the result is a bias of relative size between -2/n and + 1/n....... The fitted value for the characteristic frequency is not affected by this bias. For the AFM then, force measurements are not affected provided an independent length-scale calibration is available. For optical tweezers there is no such luck, since the spring constant is found as the ratio...... of the characteristic frequency and the diffusion coefficient. We give analytical results for the weight-dependent bias for the wide class of systems whose dynamics is described by a linear (integro)differential equation with additive noise, white or colored. Examples are optical tweezers with hydrodynamic self...

  7. Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and ATR-mode sample excitation for super-resolution Raman imaging of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, A. L.; Gordon, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    A tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) excitation and collection is described and used to demonstrate sub-diffraction-limited (super-resolution) optical and chemical characterization of surfaces. ATR illumination is combined with an Au optical antenna tip to show that (i) the tip can quantitatively transduce the optical near-field (evanescent waves) above the surface by scattering photons into the far-field, (ii) the ATR geometry enables excitation and characterization of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), whose associated optical fields are shown to enhance Raman scattering from a thin layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and (iii) SPPs can be used to plasmonically excite the tip for super-resolution chemical imaging of patterned CuPc via tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). ATR-illumination TERS is also quantitatively compared with the more conventional side-on illumination scheme. In both cases, spatial resolution was better than 40 nm and tip on/tip off Raman enhancement factors were >6500. Furthermore, ATR illumination was shown to provide similar Raman signal levels at lower "effective" pump powers due to additional optical energy delivered by SPPs to the active region in the tip-surface gap.

  8. The connective tissue and glial framework in the optic nerve head of the normal human eye: light and scanning electron microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Tokuhide; Abe, Haruki; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2006-12-01

    The arrangement of connective tissue components (i.e., collagen, reticular, and elastic fibers) and glial elements in the optic nerve head of the human eye was investigated by the combined use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Light-microscopically, the optic nerve head could be subdivided into four parts from the different arrangements of the connective tissue framework: a surface nerve fiber layer, and prelaminar, laminar, and postlaminar regions. The surface nerve fiber layer only possessed connective tissue elements around blood vessels. In the prelaminar region, collagen fibrils, together with delicate elastic fibers, formed thin interrupted sheaths for accommodating small nerve bundles. Immunohistochemistry for the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) showed that GFAP-positive cells formed columnar structures (i.e., glial columns), with round cell bodies piled up into layers. These glial columns were located in the fibrous sheaths of collagen fibrils and elastic fibers. In the laminar region, collagen fibrils and elastic fibers ran transversely to the optic nerve axis to form a thick membranous layer - the lamina cribrosa - which had numerous round openings for accommodating optic nerve fiber bundles. GFAP-positive cellular processes also ran transversely in association with collagen and elastin components. The postlaminar region had connective tissues which linked the lamina cribrosa with fibrous sheaths for accommodating nerve bundles in the extraocular optic nerve, where GFAP-positive cells acquired characteristics typical of fibrous astrocytes. These findings indicate that collagen fibrils, as a whole, form a continuous network which serves as a skeletal framework of the optic nerve head for protecting optic nerve fibers from mechanical stress as well as for sustaining blood vessels in the optic nerve. The lamina cribrosa containing elastic fibers are considered to be plastic against the mechanical force affected by elevation

  9. Estimation of the breakup cross sections in $^6$He+$^{12}$C reaction within high-energy approximation and microscopic optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Zemlyanaya, E V; Lukyanov, K V

    2010-01-01

    The breakup cross sections in the reaction $^6$He+$^{12}$C are calculated at about 40 MeV/nucleon using the high-energy approximation (HEA) and with the help of microscopic optical potentials (OP) of interaction with the target nucleus $^{12}$C of the projectile nucleus fragments $^4$He and 2n. Considering the di-neutron $h$=2n as a single particle the relative motion $h\\alpha$ wave function is estimated so that to explain both the separation energy of $h$ in $^6$He and the rms radius of the latter. The stripping and absorbtion total cross sections are calculated and their sum is compared with the total reaction cross section obtained within a double-folding microscopic OP for the $^6$He+$^{12}$C scattering. It is concluded that the breakup cross sections contribute in about 50% of the total reaction cross section.

  10. Hyperspectral confocal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B; Haaland, David M; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Jones, Howland D T

    2006-08-20

    We have developed a new, high performance, hyperspectral microscope for biological and other applications. For each voxel within a three-dimensional specimen, the microscope simultaneously records the emission spectrum from 500 nm to 800 nm, with better than 3 nm spectral resolution. The microscope features a fully confocal design to ensure high spatial resolution and high quality optical sectioning. Optical throughput and detection efficiency are maximized through the use of a custom prism spectrometer and a backside thinned electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) array. A custom readout mode and synchronization scheme enable 512-point spectra to be recorded at a rate of 8300 spectra per second. In addition, the EMCCD readout mode eliminates curvature and keystone artifacts that often plague spectral imaging systems. The architecture of the new microscope is described in detail, and hyperspectral images from several specimens are presented.

  11. XRD and optical microscopic studies of Co(III) complexes containing 5-cyano-6-(4-pyridyl)-2-thiouracil, thymine and adenine bases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lallan Mishra; Brajesh Pathak; R K Mandal

    2001-06-01

    Multifunctional ligand 5-cyano-6-(-4-pyridyl)-2-thiouracil (L) was prepared and allowed to react with trans [Co(en)2Cl2]+Cl– resulting into [Co(en)2LCl]2+.2Cl– which upon further reaction with equimolar ratio of ligand [L] gave the complex [Co(en)2L2]3+.3Cl–. These metal complexes were then separately reacted with thymine and adenine bases. Complexes thus prepared after characterization by their elemental analysis, FAB mass and spectral (IR, 1HNMR, UV-visible) data were studied for their powder X-ray diffraction and optical microscopic characteristics.

  12. Microwave Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Makes ultra-high-resolution field measurements. The Microwave Microscope (MWM) has been used in support of several NRL experimental programs involving sea...

  13. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of neurons in the blowfly optic lobe reacting with antisera to RFamide and FMRFamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nässel, D R; Ohlsson, Lisbeth; Johansson, K U

    1988-01-01

    medulla. Each of these amacrines supplies the entire mosaic with fine processes. The remaining local RF-like immunoreactive neurons are present in relatively large numbers (one type in more than 2000 copies in each medulla) and-supply the medulla, lobula and lobula plate neuropils with fine varicose...... processes. In the medulla the RF-like immunoreactive processes are arranged in strict layers whereas in the lobula complex the distribution is diffuse. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, using both pre-embedding immuno peroxidase-antiperoxidase and post-embedding protein A-gold labeling, was employed...

  14. Measurement of the location of a particle in three dimensions using Mie scattering theory and wave optics: Application to flow in a microscopic field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kamal Kanti

    In this research, we have sought to develop a technique for measuring three-dimensional flow fields in small fluid volumes seeded with small spherical particles using a high numerical aperture (NA) microscope. The technique relies upon the knowledge of how the light is scattered from the particles to accurately determine their three dimensional position. We have combined Mie scattering theory and wave optics to predict the scattered field from spherical particles in a fluid medium using high NA collection optics. The model uses Mie scattering theory to calculate the optical field distribution on the intermediate planar interface between glass and air and then adopts a ray approach to propagate the field to the entrance pupil of an imaging system. We do not use a paraxial (parabolic wavefront) approximation and, therefore, our approach is applicable to the modeling of imaging systems with high aperture objectives. We have verified our theoretical model by measuring the scattering from polystyrene spheres illuminated with partially coherent, Koehler illumination in a transmitted light microscope with a 0.5 NA objective. Good agreement between our model and the experiment was achieved. We also developed a non-paraxial transformation for the lens and a vectorial model for the electromagnetic fields collected by a high NA objective. The model was also to determine the three-dimensional microscale based upon the motion of small particles in a seeded fluid. Application to laminar flow in a sub-millimeter channel and a thin liquid film demonstrate the utility of the technique. Preliminary results show that a wavelet based denoising technique may be used to process the data without loss of resolution.

  15. The use of optical microscope equipped with multispectral detector to distinguish different types of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronichev, A. N.; Polyakov, E. V.; Tupitsyn, N. N.; Frenkel, M. A.; Mozhenkova, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The article describes the use of a computer optical microscopy with multispectral camera to characterize the texture of blasts bone marrow of patients with different variants of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: B- and T- types. Specific characteristics of the chromatin of the nuclei of blasts for different types of acute lymphoblastic leukemia were obtained.

  16. The optical design of confocal microscope based on DMD%基于数字微镜的共焦显微系统的光路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官志超; 张运波; 侯文玫

    2011-01-01

    详细叙述了共焦技术中的横向扫描技术,介绍了基于数字微镜(DMD)的共焦显微镜结构与原理,建立了基于DMD的并行检测系统,并且进行了光路的优化设计.实验结果表明,采用传统共焦显微镜光路时,光线出射分光棱镜时存在棱镜内表面反射问题,导致DMD上同一像素块在CCD上成两个像.在此分析了上述现象产生的原理,给出了解决此问题的方法.%It described horizontal scanning technologies of confocal technology in detail and introduced the structure and principle of confocal microscope based on digital micromirror device (DMD). Besides, the parallel detection system based on DMD was established, and the optical path design was optimized as well. It was found that in the normal optical system there was reflection on the inner surface of prism, which causes double images on CCD. Based on theoretical analysis and repeated experiments, spectral plates were taken the place of splitting prism and the refection on inner surface of prism was eliminated. A promoted optical system is achieved.

  17. Studies of porphyrin-containing specimens using an optical spectrometer connected to a confocal scanning laser microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepte, O; Rokahr, I; Andersson-Engels, S; Carlsson, K

    1994-12-01

    A spectrometer has been developed for use with a confocal scanning laser microscope. With this unit, spectral information from a single point or a user-defined region within the microscope specimen can be recorded. A glass prism is used to disperse the spectral components of the recorded light over a linear CCD photodiode array with 256 elements. A regulated cooling unit keeps the detector at 277 K, thereby allowing integration times of up to 60 s. The spectral resolving power, lambda/delta lambda, ranges from 350 at lambda = 400 nm to 100 at lambda = 700 nm. Since the entrance aperture of the spectrometer has the same size as the detector pinhole used during normal confocal scanning, the three-dimensional spatial resolution is equivalent to that of normal confocal scanning. Light from the specimen is deflected to the spectrometer by a solenoid controlled mirror, allowing fast and easy switching between normal confocal scanning and spectrometer readings. With this equipment, studies of rodent liver specimens containing porphyrins have been made. The subcellular localization is of interest for the mechanisms of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant tumours. Spectroscopic detection is necessary to distinguish the porphyrin signal from other fluorescent components in the specimen. Two different substances were administered to the tissue, Photofrin, a haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and delta-amino levulinic acid (ALA), a precursor to protoporphyrin IX and haem in the haem cycle. Both are substances under clinical trials for PDT of malignant tumours. Following administration of these compounds to the tissue, the potent photosensitizer and fluorescent compound Photofrin, or protoporphyrin IX, respectively, is accumulated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Photon scanning tunneling microscope in combination with a force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Tack, R.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1994-01-01

    The simultaneous operation of a photon scanning tunneling microscope with an atomic force microscope is presented. The use of standard atomic force silicon nitride cantilevers as near-field optical probes offers the possibility to combine the two methods. Vertical forces and torsion are detected

  19. Second harmonic generation in a KNbO3 nanorod and its detection by using a near-field scanning optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D. J.; Kang, P. G.; Jung, J. H.; Lee, H. H.; Choi, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    We report on an observation of second harmonic generation in an individual KNbO3 nanorod by using a near-field scanning optical microscope. The second harmonic is successfully generated by irradiating with a femtosecond laser having center wavelengths of 1200, 1100, and 972 nm. Such a second harmonic yield shows a clear dependence on the incident laser polarization, where maximum yield is obtained when the incident laser polarization is parallel to the long axis of an individual nanorod. A spatially-resolved second harmonic image shows a bright spot at the edge of the nanorod, which is attributed to the elaborated intensity of both fundamental laser light and second harmonic light inside the nanowire owing to cavity-mode formation.

  20. Suppression of single cesium atom heating in a microscopic optical dipole trap for demonstration of an 852nm triggered single-photon source

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bei; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate single cesium (Cs) atom heating owing to the momentum accumulation process induced by the resonant pulsed excitation in a microscopic optical dipole trap formed by a strongly focused 1064 nm laser beam. The heating depends on the trap frequency which restricts the maximum repetition rate of pulsed excitation. We experimentally verify the heating of a single atom and then demonstrate how to suppress it with an optimized pulsed excitation/cooling method. The typical trap lifetime of single Cs atom is extended from 108 +/- 6 us to 2536 +/- 31 ms, and the corresponding number of excitation increases from ~ 108 to ~ 360000. In applying this faster cooling method, we use the trapped single Cs atom as a triggered single-photon source at an excitation repetition rate of 10 MHz. The second-order intensity correlations of the emitted single photons are characterized by implementing Hanbury Brown and Twiss setup, and clear anti-bunching effect has been observed.

  1. Integrated nonlinear optical imaging microscope for on-axis crystal detection and centering at a synchrotron beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Jeremy T.; Toth, Scott J.; Dettmar, Christopher M.; Newman, Justin A.; Oglesbee, Robert A.; Hedderich, Hartmut G.; Everly, R. Michael [Purdue University, 560 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Becker, Michael [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ronau, Judith A. [Purdue University, 560 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Buchanan, Susan K. [National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 4503, 50 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Cherezov, Vadim [The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Morrow, Marie E. [Purdue University, 560 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Xu, Shenglan; Ferguson, Dale; Makarov, Oleg [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Das, Chittaranjan [Purdue University, 560 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Fischetti, Robert [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Simpson, Garth J., E-mail: gsimpson@purdue.edu [Purdue University, 560 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) instrumentation has been integrated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction for combined single-platform analysis, examining the viability of NLO microscopy as an alternative to the conventional X-ray raster scan for the purposes of sample centering. Second-harmonic generation microscopy and two-photon excited ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy were evaluated for crystal detection, and assessed by X-ray raster scanning. Nonlinear optical (NLO) instrumentation has been integrated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) for combined single-platform analysis, initially targeting applications for automated crystal centering. Second-harmonic-generation microscopy and two-photon-excited ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy were evaluated for crystal detection and assessed by X-ray raster scanning. Two optical designs were constructed and characterized; one positioned downstream of the sample and one integrated into the upstream optical path of the diffractometer. Both instruments enabled protein crystal identification with integration times between 80 and 150 µs per pixel, representing a ∼10{sup 3}–10{sup 4}-fold reduction in the per-pixel exposure time relative to X-ray raster scanning. Quantitative centering and analysis of phenylalanine hydroxylase from Chromobacterium violaceum cPAH, Trichinella spiralis deubiquitinating enzyme TsUCH37, human κ-opioid receptor complex kOR-T4L produced in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), intimin prepared in LCP, and α-cellulose samples were performed by collecting multiple NLO images. The crystalline samples were characterized by single-crystal diffraction patterns, while α-cellulose was characterized by fiber diffraction. Good agreement was observed between the sample positions identified by NLO and XRD raster measurements for all samples studied.

  2. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  3. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  4. Influence of the probe-sample interaction on scanning near-field optical microscopic images in the far field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhi; Zhang Jia-Sen; Yang Jing; Gong Qi-Huang

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the influence of probe-sample interaction in a scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) in the far field by using samples with a step structure. For a sample with a step height of ~λ/4, the SNOM image contrast between the two sides of the step changes periodically at different scan heights. For a step height of ~λ/2, the image contrast remains approximately the same. The probe-sample interaction determines the SNOM image contrast here. The influence of different refractive indices of the sample has been also analysed by using a simple theoretical model.

  5. Quantum dots for multiplexed detection and characterisation of prostate cancer cells using a scanning near-field optical microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly-Ann D Walker

    Full Text Available In this study scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM has been utilised in conjunction with quantum dot labelling to interrogate the biomolecular composition of cell membranes. The technique overcomes the limits of optical diffraction found in standard fluorescence microscopy and also yields vital topographic information. The technique has been applied to investigate cell-cell adhesion in human epithelial cells. This has been realised through immunofluorescence labelling of the cell-cell adhesion protein E-cadherin. Moreover, a dual labelling protocol has been optimised to facilitate a comparative study of the adhesion mechanisms and the effect of aberrant adhesion protein expression in both healthy and cancerous epithelial cells. This study reports clear differences in the morphology and phenotype of healthy and cancerous cells. In healthy prostate epithelial cells (PNT2, E-cadherin was predominantly located around the cell periphery and within filopodial extensions. The presence of E-cadherin appeared to be enhanced when cell-cell contact was established. In contrast, examination of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC-3 revealed no E-cadherin labelling around the periphery of the cells. This lack of functional E-cadherin in PC-3 cells coincided with a markedly different morphology and PC-3 cells were not found to form close cell-cell associations with their neighbours. We have demonstrated that with a fully optimised sample preparation methodology, multiplexed quantum dot labelling in conjunction with SNOM imaging can be successfully applied to interrogate biomolecular localisation within delicate cellular membranes.

  6. Nanometer scale correlation of optical and structural properties of individual InGaN/GaN nanorods by scanning transmission electron microscope cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Marcus; Schmidt, Gordon; Veit, Peter; Petzold, Silke; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Juergen [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany); Albert, Steven; Bengoechea-Encabo, Ana Maria; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Calleja, Enrique [ISOM e Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    A potential benefit of nanorods as light emitters, aside from their very high crystal quality, relies on better light extraction efficiency as compared to thin films, because of the high surface to volume ratio. In this study we present a direct nano-scale correlation of the optical properties with the actual crystalline structure of ordered InGaN/GaN nanorods using low temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM-CL). Direct comparison of the high-angle annular dark field image with the simultaneously recorded panchromatic CL mapping at 15 K reveals a weak luminescence from the bottom GaN layer. We observe the highest CL intensity in the middle of the InGaN region. The spectral position of the InGaN emission shifts continuously red from the GaN/InGaN interface (λ=409 nm) to the NR top (λ=446 nm) due to lattice pulling effects and InGaN partial decomposition. Additionally, optical active basal stacking faults in the GaN layer emitting at 366 nm can be found.

  7. In situ non-destructive measurement of biofilm thickness and topology in an interferometric optical microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larimer, Curtis [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle for the USDOE, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-50 Richland WA 99354 USA; Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle for the USDOE, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-50 Richland WA 99354 USA; Bonheyo, George [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle for the USDOE, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-50 Richland WA 99354 USA; Addleman, Raymond Shane [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle for the USDOE, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-50 Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-03-15

    Biofilms are ubiquitous and deleteriously impact a wide range of industrial processes, medical and dental health issues, and environmental problems such as transport of invasive species and the fuel efficiency of ocean going vessels. Biofilms are difficult to characterize when fully hydrated, especially in a non-destructive manner, because of their soft structure and water-like bulk properties. Herein we describe a non-destructive high resolution method of measuring and monitoring the thickness and topology of live biofilms of using white light interferometric optical microscopy. Using this technique, surface morphology, surface roughness, and biofilm thickness can be measured non-destructively and with high resolution as a function of time without disruption of the biofilm activity and processes. The thickness and surface topology of a P. putida biofilm were monitored growing from initial colonization to a mature biofilm. Typical bacterial growth curves were observed. Increase in surface roughness was a leading indicator of biofilm growth.

  8. Characterization of perovskite film prepared by pulsed laser deposition on ferritic stainless steel using microscopic and optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durda, E.; Jaglarz, J.; Kąc, S.; Przybylski, K.; El Kouari, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The perovskite La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF48) film was deposited on Crofer 22 APU ferritic stainless steel by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Morphological studies of the sample were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Information about film thickness and surface topography of the film and the steel substrate were obtained using following optical methods: spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) and total integrated reflectometry (TIS). In particular, the BRDF study, being complementary to atomic force microscopy, yielded information about surface topography. Using the previously mentioned methods, the following statistic surface parameters were determined: root-mean square (rms) roughness and autocorrelation length by determining the power spectral density (PSD) function of surface irregularities.

  9. High-dynamic-range microscope imaging based on exposure bracketing in full-field optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Montgomery, Paul C; Serio, Bruno; Twardowski, Patrice; Uhring, Wilfried

    2016-04-01

    By applying the proposed high-dynamic-range (HDR) technique based on exposure bracketing, we demonstrate a meaningful reduction in the spatial noise in image frames acquired with a CCD camera so as to improve the fringe contrast in full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). This new signal processing method thus allows improved probing within transparent or semitransparent samples. The proposed method is demonstrated on 3 μm thick transparent polymer films of Mylar, which, due to their transparency, produce low contrast fringe patterns in white-light interference microscopy. High-resolution tomographic analysis is performed using the technique. After performing appropriate signal processing, resulting XZ sections are observed. Submicrometer-sized defects can be lost in the noise that is present in the CCD images. With the proposed method, we show that by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio of the images, submicrometer-sized defect structures can thus be detected.

  10. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Polymerized LB Films Imaged with a Combined Atomic Force Microscope-Fluorescence Microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.J.; Hansma, Helen G.; Gaub, Hermann E.; Hansma, Paul K.

    1992-01-01

    The first results obtained with a new stand-alone atomic force microscope (AFM) integrated with a standard Zeiss optical fluorescence microscope are presented. The optical microscope allows location and selection of objects to be imaged with the high-resolution AFM. Furthermore, the combined

  12. Polymerized LB films imaged with a combined atomic force microscope-fluorescence microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Hansma, Helen G.; Gaub, Hermann E.; Hansma, Paul K.

    1992-01-01

    The first results obtained with a new stand-alone atomic force microscope (AFM) integrated with a standard Zeiss optical fluorescence microscope are presented. The optical microscope allows location and selection of objects to be imaged with the high-resolution AFM. Furthermore, the combined microsc

  13. Martian Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic imager (circular device in center) is in clear view above the surface at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in this approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The image was taken on the 9th sol of the rover's journey. The microscopic imager is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm. The arrow is pointing to the lens of the instrument. Note the dust cover, which flips out to the left of the lens, is open. This approximated color image was created using the camera's violet and infrared filters as blue and red.

  14. Microscopic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, A; Aust, D; Bohr, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory bowel disease presenting with chronic, non-bloody watery diarrhoea and few or no endoscopic abnormalities. The histological examination reveals mainly two subtypes of MC, lymphocytic or collagenous colitis. Despite the fact that the incidence in MC has...... been rising over the last decades, research has been sparse and our knowledge about MC remains limited. Specialists in the field have initiated the European Microscopic Colitis Group (EMCG) with the primary goal to create awareness on MC. The EMCG is furthermore a forum with the intention to promote...

  15. Martian Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic imager (circular device in center) is in clear view above the surface at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in this approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The image was taken on the 9th sol of the rover's journey. The microscopic imager is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm. The arrow is pointing to the lens of the instrument. Note the dust cover, which flips out to the left of the lens, is open. This approximated color image was created using the camera's violet and infrared filters as blue and red.

  16. Superlensing Microscope Objective Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Bing; Parker, Alan; Lai, Yukun; Thomas, John; Yue, Liyang; Monks, James

    2016-01-01

    Conventional microscope objective lenses are diffraction limited, which means that they cannot resolve features smaller than half the illumination wavelength. Under white light illumination, such resolution limit is about 250-300 nm for an ordinary microscope. In this paper, we demonstrate a new superlensing objective lens which has a resolution of about 100 nm, offering at least two times resolution improvement over conventional objectives in resolution. This is achieved by integrating a conventional microscope objective lens with a superlensing microsphere lens using a 3D printed lens adaptor. The new objective lens was used for label-free super-resolution imaging of 100 nm-sized engineering and biological samples, including a Blu-ray disc sample, semiconductor chip and adenoviruses. Our work creates a solid base for developing a commercially-viable superlens prototype, which has potential to transform the field of optical microscopy and imaging.

  17. Integrated elastic microscope device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. M.; Wright, D.; Watkins, R.; Cen, Zi

    2015-03-01

    The growing power of imaging and computing power of smartphones is creating the possibility of converting your smartphone into a high power pocket microscopy system. High quality miniature microscopy lenses attached to smartphone are typically made with glass or plastics that can only be produce at low cost with high volume. To revise the paradigm of microscope lenses, we devised a simple droplet lens fabrication technique that which produces low cost and high performance lens. Each lens is integrated into thin 3-D printed holder with complimentary light emitted diode (LEDs) that clips onto majority of smartphones. The integrated device converts a smartphone into a high power optical microscope/dermatoscope at around $2. This low cost device has wide application in a multitude of practical uses such as material inspection, dermascope and educational microscope.

  18. Microscopic Optical Characterization of ZnO Bulk Crystals, Free Standing III-Nitride Substrates and III-V Structures for Non-Linear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    for non-linear optics By J.Jiménez, Co-workers : J. Mass, M. Avella, A.Martín, O. Martínez Física de la Materia Condensada, ETSII...incorporate the impurity responsible for this band with higher efficiency than hydrogen, which balances the NBE luminescence emission towards the 3.33 eV...300K. The spectra obtained in such temperature range are shown in Fig.8, where one observes a very interesting balance between the two bands, One

  19. Science 101: How Does an Electron Microscope Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, electron microscopes are not used to look at electrons. They are used to look for structure in things that are too small to observe with an optical microscope, or to obtain images that are magnified much more than is obtainable with an optical microscope. To understand how electron microscopes work, it will help to go…

  20. Science 101: How Does an Electron Microscope Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, electron microscopes are not used to look at electrons. They are used to look for structure in things that are too small to observe with an optical microscope, or to obtain images that are magnified much more than is obtainable with an optical microscope. To understand how electron microscopes work, it will help to go…

  1. Microscopic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Cammarota, Giovanni; Valerio, Luca; Annicchiarico, Brigida Eleonora; Milani, Alessandro; Siciliano, Massimo; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2012-11-21

    Microscopic colitis may be defined as a clinical syndrome, of unknown etiology, consisting of chronic watery diarrhea, with no alterations in the large bowel at the endoscopic and radiologic evaluation. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis is only possible by histological analysis. The epidemiological impact of this disease has become increasingly clear in the last years, with most data coming from Western countries. Microscopic colitis includes two histological subtypes [collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)] with no differences in clinical presentation and management. Collagenous colitis is characterized by a thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer that is absent in LC. The main feature of LC is an increase of the density of intra-epithelial lymphocytes in the surface epithelium. A number of pathogenetic theories have been proposed over the years, involving the role of luminal agents, autoimmunity, eosinophils, genetics (human leukocyte antigen), biliary acids, infections, alterations of pericryptal fibroblasts, and drug intake; drugs like ticlopidine, carbamazepine or ranitidine are especially associated with the development of LC, while CC is more frequently linked to cimetidine, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and lansoprazole. Microscopic colitis typically presents as chronic or intermittent watery diarrhea, that may be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss and incontinence. Recent evidence has added new pharmacological options for the treatment of microscopic colitis: the role of steroidal therapy, especially oral budesonide, has gained relevance, as well as immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents, infliximab and adalimumab, constitutes a new, interesting tool for the treatment of microscopic colitis, but larger, adequately designed studies are needed to confirm existing data.

  2. Microscopic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Ianiro; Giovanni Cammarota; Luca Valerio; Brigida Eleonora Annicchiarico; Alessandro Milani; Massimo Siciliano; Antonio Gasbarrini

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic colitis may be defined as a clinical syndrome,of unknown etiology,consisting of chronic watery diarrhea,with no alterations in the large bowel at the endoscopic and radiologic evaluation.Therefore,a definitive diagnosis is only possible by histological analysis.The epidemiological impact of this disease has become increasingly clear in the last years,with most data coming from Western countries.Microscopic colitis includes two histological subtypes [collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)] with no differences in clinical presentation and management.Collagenous colitis is characterized by a thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer that is absent in LC.The main feature of LC is an increase of the density of intra-epitll lial lymphocytes in the surface epithelium.A number of pathogenetic theories have been proposed over the years,involving the role of luminal agents,autoimmunity,eosinophils,genetics (human leukocyte antigen),biliary acids,infections,alterations of pericryptal fibroblasts,and drug intake; drugs like ticlopidine,carbamazepine or ranitidine are especially associated with the development of LC,while CC is more frequently linked to cimetidine,non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and lansoprazole.Microscopic colitis typically presents as chronic or intermittent watery diarrhea,that may be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain,weight loss and incontinence.Recent evidence has added new pharmacological options for the treatment of microscopic colitis:the role of steroidal therapy,especially oral budesonide,has gained relevance,as well as immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine.The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents,infliximab and adalimumab,constitutes a new,interesting tool for the treatment of microscopic colitis,but larger,adequately designed studies are needed to confirm existing data.

  3. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  4. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  5. Effects of intracranial pressure on the pial microcirculation in rats studied by a fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, J; Sasaki, Y; Oyama, T; Yamamoto, J

    1999-01-01

    The fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope (FLDAM) developed in our laboratory was applied to measure red cell velocity in individual pial microvessels in rats to determine the effect of intracranial pressure (ICP) on the pial microcirculation. The red cell velocity and the vessel diameter of pial microvessels were measured through a closed cranial window at controlled values of ICP between 0 and 50 mmHg. As ICP increased from 0 to 50 mmHg, the average relative diameter of venules with respect to the diameter at an ICP of 5 mmHg decreased from 1.18 +/- 0.12 (mean +/- SD) to 0.74 +/- 0.08 and the average relative velocity increased from 0.80 +/- 0.20 to 1.83 +/- 0.42 monotonically. The changes in diameter and velocity of arterioles with ICP were small, and they were not significantly different from those values at an ICP of 5 mmHg except for the diameter at an ICP of 20 mmHg. The mean volume flow rates calculated assuming a circular vessel cross-section did not show any statistically significant change with ICP between 0 and 50 mmHg in both arterioles and venules, which supports the concept of autoregulation.

  6. Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

  7. Nanosecond electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanjoglo; Elschner; Mao; Nink; Weingartner

    2000-04-01

    Combining electron optics, fast electronics and pulsed lasers, a transmission and a photoelectron emission microscope were built, which visualize events in thin films and on surfaces with a time resolution of several nanoseconds. The high-speed electron microscopy is capable to track fast laser-induced processes in metals below the ablation threshold, which are difficult to detect by other imaging techniques. The material response to nano- and femtosecond laser pulses was found to be very different. It was dominated by thermo/chemocapillary flow and chemical reactions in the case of nanosecond pulses, and by mechanical deformations and non-thermal electron emission after a femtosecond pulse.

  8. Microscope Project for Undergraduate Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Chippendale, Rachel Kemp Alexander; Shumway, Jennifer; Tan, Amanda; Zuraw, Sarah; Ross, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Optics is an important subfield of physics required for instrument design and used in a variety of other disciplines, including materials science, physics, and life sciences such as developmental biology and cell biology. It is important to educate students from a variety of disciplines and backgrounds in the basics of optics in order to train the next generation of interdisciplinary researchers and instrumentalists who will push the boundaries of discovery. In this paper, we present an experimental system developed to teach students in the basics of geometric optics, including ray and wave optics. The students learn these concepts through designing, building, and testing a home-built light microscope made from component parts. We describe the experimental equipment and basic measurements students can perform to learn principles, technique, accuracy, and resolution of measurement. Students find the magnification and test the resolution of the microscope system they build. The system is open and versatile to a...

  9. Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text. Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired. This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Understanding and caring for an operating microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An operating or surgical microscope is an optical instrument that provides the surgeon with a stereoscopic, high quality magnified and illuminated image of the small structures in the surgical area.

  12. Microscopic Materials on a Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    These images show a comparison of the weak magnet OM7 from the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander before (left) and after (right) soil deposition. The microscope took the left image during Phoenix's Sol 15 (June 10, 2008) and the right image during Sol 21 (Jun 16, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the

  14. Foldscope: Origami-Based Paper Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, James S.; Clements, James; Prakash, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe an ultra-low-cost origami-based approach for large-scale manufacturing of microscopes, specifically demonstrating brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopes. Merging principles of optical design with origami enables high-volume fabrication of microscopes from 2D media. Flexure mechanisms created via folding enable a flat compact design. Structural loops in folded paper provide kinematic constraints as a means for passive self-alignment. This light, rugged instrument can survive harsh field conditions while providing a diversity of imaging capabilities, thus serving wide-ranging applications for cost-effective, portable microscopes in science and education. PMID:24940755

  15. Foldscope: origami-based paper microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S Cybulski

    Full Text Available Here we describe an ultra-low-cost origami-based approach for large-scale manufacturing of microscopes, specifically demonstrating brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopes. Merging principles of optical design with origami enables high-volume fabrication of microscopes from 2D media. Flexure mechanisms created via folding enable a flat compact design. Structural loops in folded paper provide kinematic constraints as a means for passive self-alignment. This light, rugged instrument can survive harsh field conditions while providing a diversity of imaging capabilities, thus serving wide-ranging applications for cost-effective, portable microscopes in science and education.

  16. Foldscope: Origami-based paper microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Cybulski, James; Prakash, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe an ultra-low-cost origami-based approach for large-scale manufacturing of microscopes, specifically demonstrating brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopes. Merging principles of optical design with origami enables high-volume fabrication of microscopes from 2D media. Flexure mechanisms created via folding enable a flat compact design. Structural loops in folded paper provide kinematic constraints as a means for passive self-alignment. This light, rugged instrument can survive harsh field conditions while providing a diversity of imaging capabilities, thus serving wide-ranging applications for cost-effective, portable microscopes in science and education.

  17. 显微数码互动实验系统在晶体光学实验教学中的应用%Application of digital microscope mutual experimental system in experimental teaching of crystal optical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锋; 刘苏桥; 白艳萍; 冯佐海; 张桂林

    2013-01-01

    显微数码互动实验系统是现代教学的重要手段.介绍了显微数码互动实验教学系统的组成与功能,运用数码显微互动实验系统进行晶体光学实验的教学示范、互动交流以及图像分析与共享,极大地改善了实验教学环境,减轻了教师的工作强度,培养了学生的操作和理解能力,提高了晶体光学实验教学的质量和效率.显微数码互动实验系统是地学实验教学的重要方法和发展方向.%Digital microscope mutual experimental system is an important modern didactical measure. This paper mainly introduces the composition and function of the didactical system. The application of digital microscope mutual experimental system in teaching crystal optics experiment, mutual communion, analyzing and sharing image can not only improve didactical environment of laboratory, abate preceptorial intension of work, train the ability of operation and observation, but also increase the didactical quality and efficiency of experiments of crystal optical. In a short, the digital microscope mutual experimental system is an important measure and leads the direction of development of experimental teaching of earth sciences.

  18. Athena microscopic Imager investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Bell, J.F.; Maki, J.N.; Arneson, H.M.; Bertelsen, P.; Brown, D.I.; Collins, S.A.; Dingizian, A.; Elliott, S.T.; Goetz, W.; Hagerott, E.C.; Hayes, A.G.; Johnson, M.J.; Kirk, R.L.; McLennan, S.; Morris, R.V.; Scherr, L.M.; Schwochert, M.A.; Shiraishi, L.R.; Smith, G.H.; Soderblom, L.A.; Sohl-Dickstein, J. N.; Wadsworth, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    The Athena science payload on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) includes the Microscopic Imager (MI). The MI is a fixed-focus camera mounted on the end of an extendable instrument arm, the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD). The MI was designed to acquire images at a spatial resolution of 30 microns/pixel over a broad spectral range (400-700 nm). The MI uses the same electronics design as the other MER cameras but has optics that yield a field of view of 31 ?? 31 mm across a 1024 ?? 1024 pixel CCD image. The MI acquires images using only solar or skylight illumination of the target surface. A contact sensor is used to place the MI slightly closer to the target surface than its best focus distance (about 66 mm), allowing concave surfaces to be imaged in good focus. Coarse focusing (???2 mm precision) is achieved by moving the IDD away from a rock target after the contact sensor has been activated. The MI optics are protected from the Martian environment by a retractable dust cover. The dust cover includes a Kapton window that is tinted orange to restrict the spectral bandpass to 500-700 nm, allowing color information to be obtained by taking images with the dust cover open and closed. MI data will be used to place other MER instrument data in context and to aid in petrologic and geologic interpretations of rocks and soils on Mars. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Microscope sterility during spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; O'Neill, Kevin R; Crosby, Colin G; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2012-04-01

    Prospective study. Assess the contamination rates of sterile microscope drapes after spine surgery. The use of the operating microscope has become more prevalent in certain spine procedures, providing superior magnification, visualization, and illumination of the operative field. However, it may represent an additional source of bacterial contamination and increase the risk of developing a postoperative infection. This study included 25 surgical spine cases performed by a single spine surgeon that required the use of the operative microscope. Sterile culture swabs were used to obtain samples from 7 defined locations on the microscope drape after its use during the operation. The undraped technician's console was sampled in each case as a positive control, and an additional 25 microscope drapes were swabbed immediately after they were applied to the microscope to obtain negative controls. Swab samples were assessed for bacterial growth on 5% sheep blood Columbia agar plates using a semiquantitative technique. No growth was observed on any of the 25 negative control drapes. In contrast, 100% of preoperative and 96% of postoperative positive controls demonstrated obvious contamination. In the postoperative group, all 7 sites of evaluation were found to be contaminated with rates of 12% to 44%. Four of the 7 evaluated locations were found to have significant contamination rates compared with negative controls, including the shafts of the optic eyepieces on the main surgeon side (24%, P = 0.022), "forehead" portion on both the main surgeon (24%, P = 0.022) and assistant sides (28%, P = 0.010), and "overhead" portion of the drape (44%, P = 0.0002). Bacterial contamination of the operative microscope was found to be significant after spine surgery. Contamination was more common around the optic eyepieces, likely due to inadvertent touching of unsterile portions. Similarly, all regions above the eyepieces also have a propensity for contamination because of unknown contact

  20. Transmission positron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyama, Masao [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan)]. E-mail: doyama@ntu.ac.jp; Kogure, Yoshiaki [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Inoue, Miyoshi [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Kurihara, Toshikazu [Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator, Research Organization (KEK), Ohno 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yoshiie, Toshimasa [Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University, Noda, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0451 (Japan); Oshima, Ryuichiro [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Matsuya, Miyuki [Electron Optics Laboratory (JEOL) Ltd., Musashino 3-1-2, Akishima 196-0021 (Japan)

    2006-02-28

    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons.

  1. Electron microscopic and optical investigations of the indium distribution GaAs capped InxGa1-xAs islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woggon, U.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    1997-01-01

    Results from a structural and optical analysis of buried InxGa1-xAs islands carried out after the process of GaAs overgrowth are presented. It is found that during the growth process, the indium concentration profile changes and the thickness of the wetting layer emanating from a Stranski-Krastan...

  2. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-01

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  3. A pragmatic guide to multiphoton microscope design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael D; Field, Jeffrey J; Sheetz, Kraig E; Bartels, Randy A; Squier, Jeff

    2015-06-30

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged as a ubiquitous tool for studying microscopic structure and function across a broad range of disciplines. As such, the intent of this paper is to present a comprehensive resource for the construction and performance evaluation of a multiphoton microscope that will be understandable to the broad range of scientific fields that presently exploit, or wish to begin exploiting, this powerful technology. With this in mind, we have developed a guide to aid in the design of a multiphoton microscope. We discuss source selection, optical management of dispersion, image-relay systems with scan optics, objective-lens selection, single-element light-collection theory, photon-counting detection, image rendering, and finally, an illustrated guide for building an example microscope.

  4. Atomic force microscope with integrated optical microscope for biological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) is capable of imaging nonconducting surfaces, the technique holds great promises for high‐resolution imaging of biological specimens. A disadvantage of most AFMs is the fact that the relatively large sample surface has to be scanned multiple times to pinpoint a

  5. Optical label-free and model-free probe of the surface potential of nanoscale and microscopic objects in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütgebaucks, Cornelis; Gonella, Grazia; Roke, Sylvie

    2016-11-01

    The electrostatic environment of aqueous systems is an essential ingredient for the function of any living system. To understand the electrostatic properties and their molecular foundation in soft, living, and three-dimensional systems, we developed a table-top model-free method to determine the surface potential of nano- and microscopic objects in aqueous solutions. Angle-resolved nonresonant second harmonic (SH) scattering measurements contain enough information to determine the surface potential unambiguously, without making assumptions on the structure of the interfacial region. The scattered SH light that is emitted from both the particle interface and the diffuse double layer can be detected in two different polarization states that have independent scattering patterns. The angular shape and intensity are determined by the surface potential and the second-order surface susceptibility. Calibrating the response with the SH intensity of bulk water, a single, unique surface potential value can be extracted. We demonstrate the method with 80 nm bare oil droplets in water and ˜50 nm dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) liposomes at various ionic strengths.

  6. [The study of Balantidium Helenae Bezzenberger, 1904 (Litostomatea, Trichostomatia) inhabiting the intestines of the frog Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, in optical and electron microscopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilova, O A; Chistyakova, L V

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the ciliate Balantidium helenae Bezzenberger, 1904 was investigated with the use of optical and electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that, together with the basic dimensional characteristics, main distinguishing features of the studied species include the following characters: the presence of a pointed prominence on the posterior margin of the cell; the presence of elongated cilia on the left margin of the vestibulum; and different shape and size of cortical ridges. Two morphologically different types of electron-dense bodies (supposedly hydrogenosoms) and also endobiotic bacteria were also found in the cytoplasm of B. helenae.

  7. The microscopes of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuylen, J

    1981-03-01

    The seventeenth-century Dutch microscopist, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, was the first man to make a protracted study of microscopical objects, and, unlike his contemporary Robert Hooke, he viewed by transmitted light. Leeuwenhoek made over 500 of his own, curious, simple microscopes, but now only nine are known to exist. The exact nature of the lenses Leeuwenhoek made, has for long been a puzzle. The existing microscopes have now been examined in detail, and their optical characteristics measured and tabulated. It is proposed that the lens of highest magnification, x 266, was made using a special blown bubble technique.

  8. Optical investigation of microscopic defect distribution in semi-polar (1-101 and 11-22) InGaN light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Shopan; Andrade, Nicolas; Monavarian, Morteza; Izyumskaya, Natalia; Das, Saikat; Zhang, Fan; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Özgür, Ümit

    2016-02-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy was applied to investigate the spatial variations of extended defects and their effects on the optical quality for semi-polar (1-101) and (11-22) InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). (1-101) and (11-22) oriented InGaN LEDs emitting at 450-470 nm were grown on patterned Si (001) 7° offcut substrates and m-sapphire substrates by means of nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO), respectively. For (1-101) structures, the photoluminescence (PL) at 85 K from the near surface c+ wings was found to be relatively uniform and strong across the sample. However, emission from the c- wings was substantially weaker due to the presence of high density of threading dislocations (TDs) and basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) as revealed from the local PL spectra. In case of (11-22) LED structures, near-field PL intensity correlated with the surface features and the striations along the direction parallel to the c-axis projection exposed facets where the Indium content was higher as deduced from shift in the PL peak energy.

  9. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  10. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  11. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, Charles W; Thompson, Jonathan V; Traverso, Andrew J; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue.

  12. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, Charles W.; Thompson, Jonathan V.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue.

  13. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  14. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  15. M-line spectroscopic, spectroscopic ellipsometric and microscopic measurements of optical waveguides fabricated by MeV-energy N{sup +} ion irradiation for telecom applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S. [“Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Fried, M.; Lohner, T. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary); Conti, G. Nunzi; Righini, G.C.; Pelli, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Zolnai, Z. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-08-31

    Irradiation with N{sup +} ions of the 1.5–3.5 MeV energy range was applied to optical waveguide formation. Planar and channel waveguides have been fabricated in an Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass, and in both types of bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals: Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (eulytine) and Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20} (sillenite). Multi-wavelength m-line spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used for the characterisation of the ion beam irradiated waveguides. Planar waveguides fabricated in the Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass using irradiation with N{sup +} ions at 3.5 MeV worked even at the 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength. 3.5 MeV N{sup +} ion irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine-type BGO worked up to 1550 nm and those in sillenite-type BGO worked up to 1330 nm. - Highlights: ► Waveguides were fabricated in glass and crystals using MeV energy N{sup +} ions. ► SRIM simulation and spectroscopic ellipsometry yielded similar waveguide structures. ► Multi-wavelength m-line spectroscopy was used to study the waveguides. ► Waveguides fabricated in an Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass worked up to 1.5 μm. ► Waveguides in Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20} remained operative up to 1.5 μm.

  16. Mailing microscope slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many insects feed agriculturally important crops, trees, and ornamental plants and cause millions of dollars of damage annually. Identification for some of these require the preparation of a microscope slide for examination. There are times when a microscope slide may need to be sent away to a speci...

  17. Surface imaging microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Eric W.; Bankman, Isaac N.

    2008-04-01

    The three-dimensional shapes of microscopic objects are becoming increasingly important for battlespace CBRNE sensing. Potential applications of microscopic 3D shape observations include characterization of biological weapon particles and manufacturing of micromechanical components. Aerosol signatures of stand-off lidar systems, using elastic backscatter or polarization, are dictated by the aerosol particle shapes and sizes that must be well characterized in the lab. A low-cost, fast instrument for 3D surface shape microscopy will be a valuable point sensor for biological particle sensing applications. Both the cost and imaging durations of traditional techniques such as confocal microscopes, atomic force microscopes, and electron scanning microscopes are too high. We investigated the feasibility of a low-cost, fast interferometric technique for imaging the 3D surface shape of microscopic objects at frame rates limited only by the camera in the system. The system operates at two laser wavelengths producing two fringe images collected simultaneously by a digital camera, and a specialized algorithm we developed reconstructs the surface map of the microscopic object. The current implementation assembled to test the concept and develop the new 3D reconstruction algorithm has 0.25 micron resolution in the x and y directions, and about 0.1 micron accuracy in the z direction, as tested on a microscopic glass test object manufactured with etching techniques. We describe the interferometric instrument, present the reconstruction algorithm, and discuss further development.

  18. Microscope Image of Scavenged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Optical Microscope shows a strongly magnetic surface which has scavenged particles from within the microscope enclosure before a sample delivery from the lander's Robotic Arm. The particles correspond to the larger grains seen in fine orange material that makes up most of the soil at the Phoenix site. They vary in color, but are of similar size, about one-tenth of a millimeter. As the microscope's sample wheel moved during operation, these particles also shifted, clearing a thin layer of the finer orange particles that have also been collected. Together with the previous image, this shows that the larger grains are much more magnetic than the fine orange particles with a much larger volume of the grains being collected by the magnet. The image is 2 milimeters across. It is speculated that the orange material particles are a weathering product from the larger grains, with the weathering process both causing a color change and a loss of magnetism. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Assessing and benchmarking multiphoton microscopes for biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Kaitlin; Pinkard, Henry; Peck, Sebastian; Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F

    2014-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has become staple tool for tracking cells within tissues and organs due to superior depth of penetration, low excitation volumes, and reduced phototoxicity. Many factors, ranging from laser pulse width to relay optics to detectors and electronics, contribute to the overall ability of these microscopes to excite and detect fluorescence deep within tissues. However, we have found that there are few standard ways already described in the literature to distinguish between microscopes or to benchmark existing microscopes to measure the overall quality and efficiency of these instruments. Here, we discuss some simple parameters and methods that can either be used within a multiphoton facility or by a prospective purchaser to benchmark performance. This can both assist in identifying decay in microscope performance and in choosing features of a scope that are suited to experimental needs.

  20. First Atomic Force Microscope Image from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This calibration image presents three-dimensional data from the atomic force microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, showing surface details of a substrate on the microscope station's sample wheel. It will be used as an aid for interpreting later images that will show shapes of minuscule Martian soil particles. The area imaged by the microscope is 40 microns by 40 microns, small enough to fit on an eyelash. The grooves in this substrate are 14 microns (0.00055 inch) apart, from center to center. The vertical dimension is exaggerated in the image to make surface details more visible. The grooves are 300 nanometers (0.00001 inch) deep. This is the first atomic force microscope image recorded on another planet. It was taken on July 9, 2008, during the 44th Martian day, or sol, of the Phoenix mission since landing. Phoenix's Swiss-made atomic force microscope builds an image of the surface shape of a particle by sensing it with a sharp tip at the end of a spring, all microfabricated out of a silicon wafer. A strain gauge records how far the spring flexes to follow the contour of the surface. It can provide details of soil-particle shapes smaller than one-hundredth the width of a human hair. This is about 20 times smaller than what can be resolved with Phoenix's optical microscope, which has provided much higher-magnification imaging than anything seen on Mars previously. Both microscopes are part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer.

  1. [Microscopic colitis: update 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmann, Konstantin; Fraga, Montserrat; Schoepfer, Alain M; Yun, Pu

    2014-09-03

    Microscopic colitis, which includes lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis, represents a frequent cause of chronic watery diarrhea especially in the elderly population. Several medications, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors or antidepressants, as well as cigarette smoking have been recognized as risk factors for microscopic colitis. The diagnosis of microscopic colitis is based on a macroscopically normal ileo-colonoscopy and several biopsies from the entire colon, which demonstrate the pathognomonic histopathologic findings. Therapy is mainly based on the use of budesonide. Other medications, such as mesalazine, cholestyramine and bismuth, have been evaluated as well but the evidence is less solid.

  2. Evaluation of a completely robotized neurosurgical operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Finke, Markus; Schweikard, Achim; Giese, Alf

    2013-01-01

    Operating microscopes are essential for most neurosurgical procedures. Modern robot-assisted controls offer new possibilities, combining the advantages of conventional and automated systems. We evaluated the prototype of a completely robotized operating microscope with an integrated optical coherence tomography module. A standard operating microscope was fitted with motors and control instruments, with the manual control mode and balance preserved. In the robot mode, the microscope was steered by a remote control that could be fixed to a surgical instrument. External encoders and accelerometers tracked microscope movements. The microscope was additionally fitted with an optical coherence tomography-scanning module. The robotized microscope was tested on model systems. It could be freely positioned, without forcing the surgeon to take the hands from the instruments or avert the eyes from the oculars. Positioning error was about 1 mm, and vibration faded in 1 second. Tracking of microscope movements, combined with an autofocus function, allowed determination of the focus position within the 3-dimensional space. This constituted a second loop of navigation independent from conventional infrared reflector-based techniques. In the robot mode, automated optical coherence tomography scanning of large surface areas was feasible. The prototype of a robotized optical coherence tomography-integrated operating microscope combines the advantages of a conventional manually controlled operating microscope with a remote-controlled positioning aid and a self-navigating microscope system that performs automated positioning tasks such as surface scans. This demonstrates that, in the future, operating microscopes may be used to acquire intraoperative spatial data, volume changes, and structural data of brain or brain tumor tissue.

  3. Microscopic approach to polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1981-01-01

    contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned and the electromagnetic field quantized. A simple microscopic polariton model is then derived. From this the wave function for the interacting exciton-photon complex is obtained...... of light of the crystal. The introduction of damping smears out the excitonic spectra. The wave function of the polariton, however, turns out to be very independent of damping up to large damping values. Finally, this simplified microscopic polariton model is compared with the exact solutions obtained...... for the macroscopic polariton model by Hopfield. It is seen that standing photon and exciton waves must be included in an exact microscopic polariton model. However, it is concluded that for practical purposes, only the propagating waves are of importance and the simple microscopic polariton wave function derived...

  4. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope. Specifications / Capabilities: Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  5. The Correlation Confocal Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, D S

    2010-01-01

    A new type of confocal microscope is described which makes use of intensity correlations between spatially correlated beams of light. It is shown that this apparatus leads to significantly improved transverse resolution.

  6. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  7. Microscopic colitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, A; Mayberry, J F

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, microscopic colitis has been increasingly diagnosed. This review was carried out to evaluate demographic factors for microscopic colitis and to perform a systematic assessment of available treatment options. Relevant publications up to December 2013 were identified following searches of PubMed and Google Scholar using the key words 'microscopic colitis', 'collagenous colitis' and 'lymphocytic colitis'. Two-hundred and forty-eight articles were identified. The term microscopic colitis includes lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. Both have common clinical symptoms but are well defined histopathologically. The clinical course is usually benign, but serious complications, including death, may occur. A peak incidence from 60 to 70 years of age with a female preponderance is observed. Although most cases are idiopathic, associations with autoimmune disorders, such as coeliac disease and hypothyroidism, as well as with exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and proton-pump inhibitors, have been observed. The incidence and prevalence of microscopic colitis is rising and good-quality epidemiological research is needed. Treatment is currently largely based on anecdotal evidence and on results from limited clinical trials of budesonide. Long-term follow-up of these patients is not well established. The review synthesizes work on the definition of microscopic colitis and the relationship between collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. It reviews the international epidemiology and work on aetiology. In addition, it critically considers the efficacy of a range of treatments. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Remote Histology Learning from Static versus Dynamic Microscopic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Histology is the study of microscopic structures in normal tissue sections. Curriculum redesign in medicine has led to a decrease in the use of optical microscopes during practical classes. Other imaging solutions have been implemented to facilitate remote learning. With advancements in imaging technologies, learning material can now be digitized.…

  9. Remote Histology Learning from Static versus Dynamic Microscopic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Histology is the study of microscopic structures in normal tissue sections. Curriculum redesign in medicine has led to a decrease in the use of optical microscopes during practical classes. Other imaging solutions have been implemented to facilitate remote learning. With advancements in imaging technologies, learning material can now be digitized.…

  10. Ultra-precise holographic beam shaping for microscopic quantum control

    OpenAIRE

    Zupancic, Philip; Preiss, Philipp M.; Ma, Ruichao; Lukin, Alexander; Tai, M. Eric; Rispoli, Matthew; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution addressing of individual ultracold atoms, trapped ions or solid state emitters allows for exquisite control in quantum optics experiments. This becomes possible through large aperture magnifying optics that project microscopic light patterns with diffraction limited performance. We use programmable amplitude holograms generated on a digital micromirror device to create arbitrary microscopic beam shapes with full phase and amplitude control. The system self-corrects for aberrat...

  11. Microscopic optical potentials for $^4$He scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Egashira, Kei; Toyokawa, Masakazu; Matsumoto, Takuma; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    We present a reliable double-folding (DF) model for $^{4}$He-nucleus scattering, using the Melbourne $g$-matrix nucleon-nucleon interaction that explains nucleon-nucleus scattering with no adjustable parameter. In the DF model, only the target density is taken as the local density in the Melbourne $g$-matrix. For $^{4}$He elastic scattering from $^{58}$Ni and $^{208}$Pb targets in a wide range of incident energies from 20~MeV/nucleon to 200~MeV/nucleon, the DF model with the target-density approximation (TDA) yields much better agreement with the experimental data than the usual DF model with the frozen-density approximation in which the sum of projectile and target densities is taken as the local density. We also discuss the relation between the DF model with the TDA and the conventional folding model in which the nucleon-nucleus potential is folded with the $^{4}$He density.

  12. A novel multimodal CARS miniaturized microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brett; Naji, Majid; Murugkar, Sangeeta; Brideau, Craig; Stys, Peter; Anis, Hanan

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a novel portable, fibre delivery miniaturized multimodal microscope (exoscope) for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging using a single Ti:sapphire femtosecond pulsed laser. This microscope features a large mode area photonic crystal fibre for light delivery, as well as biaxial scanning microelectromechanical system mirrors and custom miniaturized optics corrected for chromatic aberration. We demonstrate imaging of polystyrene beads, two photon excitation fluorescence beads in both forward and backward (epi) directions. This miniaturized exoscope will enable in-vivo imaging of rat spinal cord.

  13. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-07-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations.

  14. Analysis on enhanced depth of field for integral imaging microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Tae; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kwon, Ki-Chul; Kim, Nam

    2012-10-08

    Depth of field of the integral imaging microscope is studied. In the integral imaging microscope, 3-D information is encoded as a form of elemental images Distance between intermediate plane and object point decides the number of elemental image and depth of field of integral imaging microscope. From the analysis, it is found that depth of field of the reconstructed depth plane image by computational integral imaging reconstruction is longer than depth of field of optical microscope. From analyzed relationship, experiment using integral imaging microscopy and conventional microscopy is also performed to confirm enhanced depth of field of integral imaging microscopy.

  15. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, A E

    2011-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  16. Paleomagnetism with the SQUID Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B. P.; Baudenbacher, F. J.; Wikswo, J. P.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2002-05-01

    Rocks should preserve stable remanent magnetizations with useful directional and intensity information at levels down to ~10-15 Am2, about 1000 times below that of the noise level on today's best superconducting moment magnetometers. As a result, a more sensitive magnetometer could dramatically expand the range and variety of rock types amenable to paleomagnetic analysis. Just such an instrument is now on the horizon: the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) Microscope, designed by F. Baudenbacher and J. Wikswo of Vanderbilt University. The SQUID Microscope makes a map of the vertical component of the magnetic field above the surface of a sample held at room temperature and pressure. It achieves this with a spatial resolution of 250 μ m and a moment sensitivity 10,000 times that of the most recent 2G Enterprises Superconducting Rock Magnetometer (2G SRM). It can therefore provide data with a resolution comparable with that of other common petrographic techniques such as optical and electron microscopy. A major reason that the SQUID Microscope has such high sensitivity and resolution compared to the 2G SRM is that it has a much smaller pickup coil. Smaller coils are more sensitive to dipoles because they encompass less of the sample's fringing fields oriented in the opposite sense to its magnetization. Smaller coils also encompass a smaller area above the sample and so also provide higher spatial resolution. Our initial collaborative work on 30-μ m thin sections of Martian meteorite ALH84001 has already demonstrated that SQUID Microscopy will enable a whole a new class of paleomagnetic analyses. Conglomerate, baked contact, and fold tests can be performed on extremely small spatial scales, vastly expanding the utility of these critical geological field tests of magnetic stability. A suite of rock-magnetic and paleomagnetic experiments can be done on individual grains in standard petrographic thin sections at very high rates, allowing the observed

  17. Microscopic plasma Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.

    1974-01-01

    A Hamiltonian for the microscopic plasma model is derived from the Low Lagrangian after the dual roles of the generalized variables are taken into account. The resulting Hamilton equations are shown to agree with the Euler-Lagrange equations of the Low Lagrangian.

  18. Microscope on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  19. Microscope on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  20. Designs for a quantum electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruit, P; Hobbs, R G; Kim, C-S; Yang, Y; Manfrinato, V R; Hammer, J; Thomas, S; Weber, P; Klopfer, B; Kohstall, C; Juffmann, T; Kasevich, M A; Hommelhoff, P; Berggren, K K

    2016-05-01

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This 'quantum weirdness' could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or "quantum electron microscope". A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Classification of Salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has demonstrated an optical method with acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) based hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) had potential for classifying gram-negative from gram-positive foodborne pathogenic bacteria rapidly and nondestructively with a minimum sample preparation. In t...

  2. Microscopic Halftone Image Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-gang; YANG Jie; DING Yong-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Microscopic halftone image recognition and analysis can provide quantitative evidence for printing quality control and fault diagnosis of printing devices, while halftone image segmentation is one of the significant steps during the procedure. Automatic segmentation on microscopic dots by the aid of the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) method that takes account of the fuzziness of halftone image and utilizes its color information adequately is realized. Then some examples show the technique effective and simple with better performance of noise immunity than some usual methods. In addition, the segmentation results obtained by the FCM in different color spaces are compared, which indicates that the method using the FCM in the f1f2f3 color space is superior to the rest.

  3. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-07

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.

  4. Virtual pinhole confocal microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J.S.; Rector, D.M.; Ranken, D.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Biophysics Group; Peterson, B. [SciLearn Inc. (United States); Kesteron, J. [VayTech Inc. (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Scanned confocal microscopes enhance imaging capabilities, providing improved contrast and image resolution in 3-D, but existing systems have significant technical shortcomings and are expensive. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel approach--virtual pinhole confocal microscopy--that uses state of the art illumination, detection, and data processing technologies to produce an imager with a number of advantages: reduced cost, faster imaging, improved efficiency and sensitivity, improved reliability and much greater flexibility. Work at Los Alamos demonstrated proof of principle; prototype hardware and software have been used to demonstrate technical feasibility of several implementation strategies. The system uses high performance illumination, patterned in time and space. The authors have built functional confocal imagers using video display technologies (LCD or DLP) and novel scanner based on a micro-lens array. They have developed a prototype system for high performance data acquisition and processing, designed to support realtime confocal imaging. They have developed algorithms to reconstruct confocal images from a time series of spatially sub-sampled images; software development remains an area of active development. These advances allow the collection of high quality confocal images (in fluorescence, reflectance and transmission modes) with equipment that can inexpensively retrofit to existing microscopes. Planned future extensions to these technologies will significantly enhance capabilities for microscopic imaging in a variety of applications, including confocal endoscopy, and confocal spectral imaging.

  5. Thimble microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Rubinstein, Jaden; Watkins, Rachel; Cen, Zijian; Kong, Gary; Lee, W. M.

    2016-12-01

    Wearable computing devices, e.g. Google Glass, Smart watch, embodies the new human design frontier, where technology interfaces seamlessly with human gestures. During examination of any subject in the field (clinic, surgery, agriculture, field survey, water collection), our sensory peripherals (touch and vision) often go hand-in-hand. The sensitivity and maneuverability of the human fingers are guided with tight distribution of biological nerve cells, which perform fine motor manipulation over a range of complex surfaces that is often out of sight. Our sight (or naked vision), on the other hand, is generally restricted to line of sight that is ill-suited to view around corner. Hence, conventional imaging methods are often resort to complex light guide designs (periscope, endoscopes etc) to navigate over obstructed surfaces. Using modular design strategies, we constructed a prototype miniature microscope system that is incorporated onto a wearable fixture (thimble). This unique platform allows users to maneuver around a sample and take high resolution microscopic images. In this paper, we provide an exposition of methods to achieve a thimble microscopy; microscope lens fabrication, thimble design, integration of miniature camera and liquid crystal display.

  6. Compact Microscope Imaging System with Intelligent Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The figure presents selected views of a compact microscope imaging system (CMIS) that includes a miniature video microscope, a Cartesian robot (a computer- controlled three-dimensional translation stage), and machine-vision and control subsystems. The CMIS was built from commercial off-the-shelf instrumentation, computer hardware and software, and custom machine-vision software. The machine-vision and control subsystems include adaptive neural networks that afford a measure of artificial intelligence. The CMIS can perform several automated tasks with accuracy and repeatability . tasks that, heretofore, have required the full attention of human technicians using relatively bulky conventional microscopes. In addition, the automation and control capabilities of the system inherently include a capability for remote control. Unlike human technicians, the CMIS is not at risk of becoming fatigued or distracted: theoretically, it can perform continuously at the level of the best human technicians. In its capabilities for remote control and for relieving human technicians of tedious routine tasks, the CMIS is expected to be especially useful in biomedical research, materials science, inspection of parts on industrial production lines, and space science. The CMIS can automatically focus on and scan a microscope sample, find areas of interest, record the resulting images, and analyze images from multiple samples simultaneously. Automatic focusing is an iterative process: The translation stage is used to move the microscope along its optical axis in a succession of coarse, medium, and fine steps. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the image is computed at each step, and the FFT is analyzed for its spatial-frequency content. The microscope position that results in the greatest dispersal of FFT content toward high spatial frequencies (indicating that the image shows the greatest amount of detail) is deemed to be the focal position.

  7. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  8. Imaging properties of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jing-He; Xiao Fan-Rong; Wang Gui-Ying; Xu Zhi-Zhan

    2005-01-01

    The coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope with the combination of confocal and CARS techniques is a remarkable alternative for imaging chemical or biological specimens that neither fluoresce nor tolerate labelling. CARS is a nonlinear optical process, the imaging properties of CARS microscopy will be very different from the conventional confocal microscope. In this paper, the intensity distribution and the polarization property of the optical field near the focus was calculated. By using the Green function, the precise analytic solution to the wave equation of a Hertzian dipole source was obtained. We found that the intensity distributions vary considerably with the different experimental configurations and the different specimen shapes. So the conventional description of microscope (e.g. the point spread function) will fail to describe the imaging properties of the CARS microscope.

  9. A Scanning Cavity Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Mader, Matthias; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1700-fold signal enhancement compared to diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity below 1 nm2, we show a method to improve spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for opt...

  10. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  11. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  12. Schematic Animation of Phoenix's Microscope Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the workings of the microscope station of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Samples are delivered to the horizontal portion of the sample wheel (yellow) that pokes outside an opening in the box enclosure. The wheel rotates to present the sample to the microscopes. The Optical Microscope (red) can see particles a little smaller than one-tenth the diameter of a human hair. The Atomic Force Microscope (pink) can see particles forty time smaller. The samples are on a variety of substrate surfaces, the small circles on the beveled edge of the sample wheel. For scale, the diameter of the wheel is about 14 centimeters (5.5 inches). Each substrate is a circle 3 millimeters (0.1 inch) in diameter. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  14. The Athena Microscopic Imager Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Aquyres, S. W.; Bell, J. F., III; Maki, J. N.; Arneson, H. M.; Brown, D. I.; Collins, S. A.; Dingizian, A.; Elliot, S. T.; Geotz, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Athena science payload on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) includes the Microscopic Imager (MI) [1]. The MI is a fixed-focus camera mounted on the end of an extendable instrument arm, the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD; see Figure 1).The MI was designed to acquire images at a spatial resolution of 30 microns/pixel over a broad spectral range (400 - 700 nm; see Table 1). Technically, the microscopic imager is not a microscope: it has a fixed magnification of 0.4 and is intended to produce images that simulate a geologist s view through a common hand lens. In photographers parlance, the system makes use of a macro lens. The MI uses the same electronics design as the other MER cameras [2, 3] but has optics that yield a field of view of 31 31 mm across a 1024 1024 pixel CCD image (Figure 2). The MI acquires images using only solar or skylightillumination of the target surface. A contact sensor is used to place the MI slightly closer to the target surface than its best focus distance (about 66 mm), allowing concave surfaces to be imaged in good focus. Because the MI has a relatively small depth of field (3 mm), a single MI image of a rough surface will contain both focused and unfocused areas. Coarse focusing will be achieved by moving the IDD away from a rock target after the contact sensor is activated. Multiple images taken at various distances will be acquired to ensure good focus on all parts of rough surfaces. By combining a set of images acquired in this way, a completely focused image can be assembled. Stereoscopic observations can be obtained by moving the MI laterally relative to its boresight. Estimates of the position and orientation of the MI for each acquired image will be stored in the rover computer and returned to Earth with the image data. The MI optics will be protected from the Martian environment by a retractable dust cover. The dust cover includes a Kapton window that is tinted orange to restrict the spectral bandpass to 500-700 nm

  15. Ultra-precise holographic beam shaping for microscopic quantum control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Philip; Preiss, Philipp M; Ma, Ruichao; Lukin, Alexander; Eric Tai, M; Rispoli, Matthew; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus

    2016-06-27

    High-resolution addressing of individual ultracold atoms, trapped ions or solid state emitters allows for exquisite control in quantum optics experiments. This becomes possible through large aperture magnifying optics that project microscopic light patterns with diffraction limited performance. We use programmable amplitude holograms generated on a digital micromirror device to create arbitrary microscopic beam shapes with full phase and amplitude control. The system self-corrects for aberrations of up to several λ and reduces them to λ/50, leading to light patterns with a precision on the 10-4 level. We demonstrate aberration-compensated beam shaping in an optical lattice experiment and perform single-site addressing in a quantum gas microscope for 87Rb.

  16. Ultra-precise holographic beam shaping for microscopic quantum control

    CERN Document Server

    Zupancic, Philip; Ma, Ruichao; Lukin, Alexander; Tai, M Eric; Rispoli, Matthew; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution addressing of single ultracold atoms, trapped ions or solid state emitters allows for exquisite control in quantum optics experiments. This becomes possible through large aperture magnifying optics that project microscopic light patterns with diffraction limited performance. We use programmable amplitude holograms generated on a digital micromirror device to create arbitrary microscopic beam shapes with full phase and amplitude control. The system self-corrects for aberrations of up to several $\\lambda$ and reduces them to $\\lambda/50$, leading to light patterns with a precision on the $10^{-4}$ level. We demonstrate aberration-compensated beam shaping in an optical lattice experiment and perform single-site addressing in a quantum gas microscope for $^{87}$Rb.

  17. Microscopic origin of magnetoresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Heiliger

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Tunneling magnetoresistance is one of the basic effects of spintronics with the potential for applications in sensors and IT, where the spin degree of freedom of electrons is exploited. Successful application requires control of the materials and processes involved on the atomic scale. To support experimental developments, predict new materials, and optimize the effect, first-principle electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory are the most powerful tool. The method gives an insight into the microscopic origin of spin-dependent tunneling. The main components of a planar tunnel junction – barrier, leads, and their interface – and their specific role for tunneling magnetoresistance are discussed for one of the standard systems, Fe/MgO/Fe.

  18. Microscopic Theory of Transconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Jauho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of momentum transfer between two closely spaced mesoscopic electronic systems, which couple via Coulomb interaction but where tunneling is inhibited, have proven to be a fruitful method of extracting information about interactions in mesoscopic systems. We report a fully microscopic theory for transconductivity σ12, or, equivalently, momentum transfer rate between the system constituents. Our main formal result expresses the transconductivity in terms of two fluctuation diagrams, which are topologically related, but not equivalent to, the Azlamazov-Larkin and Maki-Thompson diagrams known for superconductivity. In the present paper the magnetic field dependence of σ12 is discussed, and we find that σ12(B is strongly enhanced over its zero field value, and it displays strong features, which can be understood in terms of a competition between density-of-states and screening effects.

  19. Atomic Force Microscope Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation (large file) This animation is a scientific illustration of the operation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA. The AFM is used to image the smallest Martian particles using a very sharp tip at the end of one of eight beams. The beam of the AFM is set into vibration and brought up to the surface of a micromachined silicon substrate. The substrate has etched in it a series of pits, 5 micrometers deep, designed to hold the Martian dust particles. The microscope then maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with the tip. At the end of the animation is a 3D representation of the AFM image of a particle that was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress.' The sample was delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate. A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit. The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil. The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Seamless stitching of tile scan microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, F B; Chernavskaia, O; Heuke, S; Bocklitz, T; Meyer, T; Popp, J; Heintzmann, R

    2015-06-01

    For diagnostic purposes, optical imaging techniques need to obtain high-resolution images of extended biological specimens in reasonable time. The field of view of an objective lens, however, is often smaller than the sample size. To image the whole sample, laser scanning microscopes acquire tile scans that are stitched into larger mosaics. The appearance of such image mosaics is affected by visible edge artefacts that arise from various optical aberrations which manifest in grey level jumps across tile boundaries. In this contribution, a technique for stitching tiles into a seamless mosaic is presented. The stitching algorithm operates by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at corners to a common value. The corrected image mosaics appear to be free from stitching artefacts and are, therefore, suited for further image analysis procedures. The contribution presents a novel method to seamlessly stitch tiles captured by a laser scanning microscope into a large mosaic. The motivation for the work is the failure of currently existing methods for stitching nonlinear, multimodal images captured by our microscopic setups. Our method eliminates the visible edge artefacts that appear between neighbouring tiles by taking into account the overall illumination differences among tiles in such mosaics. The algorithm first corrects the nonuniform brightness that exists within each of the tiles. It then compensates for grey level differences across tile boundaries by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at the corners to a common value. After these artefacts have been removed further image analysis procedures can be applied on the microscopic images. Even though the solution presented here is tailored for the aforementioned specific case, it could be easily adapted to other contexts where image tiles are assembled into mosaics such as in astronomical or satellite photos.

  1. Improved Scanners for Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye

    2009-01-01

    Improved scanners to be incorporated into hyperspectral microscope-based imaging systems have been invented. Heretofore, in microscopic imaging, including spectral imaging, it has been customary to either move the specimen relative to the optical assembly that includes the microscope or else move the entire assembly relative to the specimen. It becomes extremely difficult to control such scanning when submicron translation increments are required, because the high magnification of the microscope enlarges all movements in the specimen image on the focal plane. To overcome this difficulty, in a system based on this invention, no attempt would be made to move either the specimen or the optical assembly. Instead, an objective lens would be moved within the assembly so as to cause translation of the image at the focal plane: the effect would be equivalent to scanning in the focal plane. The upper part of the figure depicts a generic proposed microscope-based hyperspectral imaging system incorporating the invention. The optical assembly of this system would include an objective lens (normally, a microscope objective lens) and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. The objective lens would be mounted on a servomotor-driven translation stage, which would be capable of moving the lens in precisely controlled increments, relative to the camera, parallel to the focal-plane scan axis. The output of the CCD camera would be digitized and fed to a frame grabber in a computer. The computer would store the frame-grabber output for subsequent viewing and/or processing of images. The computer would contain a position-control interface board, through which it would control the servomotor. There are several versions of the invention. An essential feature common to all versions is that the stationary optical subassembly containing the camera would also contain a spatial window, at the focal plane of the objective lens, that would pass only a selected portion of the image. In one version

  2. Free and open-source automated 3-D microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Bas; Petersen, Emily E; Hunt, Emily J; Pearce, Joshua M

    2016-11-01

    Open-source technology not only has facilitated the expansion of the greater research community, but by lowering costs it has encouraged innovation and customizable design. The field of automated microscopy has continued to be a challenge in accessibility due the expense and inflexible, noninterchangeable stages. This paper presents a low-cost, open-source microscope 3-D stage. A RepRap 3-D printer was converted to an optical microscope equipped with a customized, 3-D printed holder for a USB microscope. Precision measurements were determined to have an average error of 10 μm at the maximum speed and 27 μm at the minimum recorded speed. Accuracy tests yielded an error of 0.15%. The machine is a true 3-D stage and thus able to operate with USB microscopes or conventional desktop microscopes. It is larger than all commercial alternatives, and is thus capable of high-depth images over unprecedented areas and complex geometries. The repeatability is below 2-D microscope stages, but testing shows that it is adequate for the majority of scientific applications. The open-source microscope stage costs less than 3-9% of the closest proprietary commercial stages. This extreme affordability vastly improves accessibility for 3-D microscopy throughout the world. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Microscopic theory of equilibrium polariton condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Wu, Fengcheng; Xie, Ming; Su, Jung-Jung; MacDonald, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the equilibrium polariton condensate state of a semiconductor quantum well in a planar optical cavity. The theory accounts for the adjustment of matter excitations to the presence of a coherent photon field, predicts effective polariton-polariton interaction strengths that are weaker and condensate exciton fractions that are smaller than in the commonly employed exciton-photon model, and yields effective Rabi coupling strengths that depend on the detuning of the cavity-photon energy relative to the bare exciton energy. The dressed quasiparticle bands that appear naturally in the theory provide a mechanism for electrical manipulation of polariton condensates.

  4. Microscopic optoelectronic defectoscopy of solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallaeva D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Scanning probe microscopes are powerful tool for micro- or nanoscale diagnostics of defects in crystalline silicon solar cells. Solar cell is a large p-n junction semiconductor device. Its quality is strongly damaged by the presence of defects. If the cell works under low reverse-biased voltage, defects emit a light in visible range. The suggested method combines three different measurements: electric noise measurement, local topography and near-field optical beam induced current and thus provides more complex information. To prove its feasibility, we have selected one defect (truncated pyramid in the sample, which emitted light under low reverse-biased voltage.

  5. Line scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope (LSSSCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, Daniel S; Krueger, James G; Hawkes, Jason E; Lish, Samantha R; Dietz, Michael P; Mülberger, Alba Guembe; Mu, Euphemia W; Stevenson, Mary L; Lewin, Jesse M; Meehan, Shane A; Carucci, John A

    2017-08-01

    For rapid pathological assessment of large surgical tissue excisions with cellular resolution, we present a line scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope (LSSSCM). LSSSCM uses no scanning mirrors. Laser light is focused with a single cylindrical lens to a line of diffraction-limited width directly into the (Z) sample focal plane, which is parallel to and near the flattened specimen surface. Semi-confocal optical sections are derived from the linear array distribution (Y) and a single mechanical drive that moves the sample parallel to the focal plane and perpendicular to the focused line (X). LSSSCM demonstrates cellular resolution in the conditions of high nuclear density within micronodular basal cell carcinoma.

  6. DHM (Digital Holography Microscope) for imaging cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Yves [Lyncee Tec SA, PSE-A, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cuche, Etienne [Lyncee Tec SA, PSE-A, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Colomb, Tristan [STI-IOA-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Depeursinge, Christian [STI-IOA-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rappaz, Benjamin [SV-BM-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Marquet, Pierre [CNP-CHUV, Site de Cery, 1008 Prilly (Switzerland); Magistretti, Pierre [SV-BM-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    Light interaction with a sample modifies both intensity and phase of the illuminating wave. Any available supports for image recording are only sensitive to intensity, but Denis Gabor [P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. Magistretti, et. al. Digital Holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging, Optics Letters, 30, 5, pp 291-93 (2005)] invented in 1948 a way to encode the phase as an intensity variation: the {sup h}ologram{sup .} Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) [D. Gabor, A new microscopic principle, Nature, 1948] implements digitally this powerful hologram. Characterization of various pollen grains and of morphology changes of neurones associated with hypotonic shock demonstrates the potential of DHM for imaging cells.

  7. Scanning Electron Microscope Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides the capability to examine surfaces microscopically with high resolution (5 nanometers), perform micro chemical analyses of these surfaces, and...

  8. Leakage radiation microscope for observation of non-transparent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Juan M; Ye, Fan; Burns, Michael J; Naughton, Michael J

    2014-09-22

    We describe a leakage radiation microscope technique that can be used to extend the leakage radiation microscopy to optically non-transparent samples. In particular, two experiments are presented, first to demonstrate that acquired images with our configuration correspond to the leakage radiation phenomenon and second, to show possible applications by directly imaging a plasmonic structure that previously could only be imaged with a near-field scanning optical microscope. It is shown that the measured surface plasmon wavelength and propagation length agree with theoretically-calculated values. This configuration opens the possibility to study important effects where samples are optically non-transparent, as in plasmonic cavities and single hole plasmonic excitation, without the use of time-consuming near-field scanning optical microscopy.

  9. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1990-08-01

    Our laboratory has made significant progress this year in devising improved electron-optical systems, in studying invertebrate hemoglobins with the STEM, and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. Our goal in electron optics is to improve resolution by producing spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients with signs opposite those of magnetic lenses. We have progressed toward this goal through calculations that explore the addition of electrodes to electron mirrors to reduce these two geometric aberrations and by devising a beam separation system that won't introduce asymmetrical aberrations. Some promising new designs of magnetic lenses for SEM applications have also been investigated. We have continued our exploration of the quaternary structure of the invertebrate hemoglobins and are now among the top laboratories in this area of expertise. In addition, we have overcome many of our electronic difficulties on the sub-angstrom STEM and have made significant progress toward achieving an operational system. The addition of an IBM RISC-6000 workstation to our lab has significantly increased our image processing capabilities.

  10. The World Under a Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Olympus sponsors the first national confocal microscopic-image competition The Olympus Cup National Confocal Microscopic-image Competition, the first of its kind in China,lifted its curtain in Beijing on November 1. Olympus (China) Co. Ltd. is the competition’s sole spon-

  11. Midfield microscope: exploring the extraordinary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docter, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the development of the midfield microscope is presented. This is a microscope in which the extraordinary transmission (EOT) through sub-wavelength hole-arrays is applied. Before trying to combine microscopy and EOT, we look at them separately. In chapter 1 an overview is given of the

  12. Fiber optic spanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2011-10-01

    Rotation is a fundamental function in nano/biotechnology and is being useful in a host of applications such as pumping of fluid flow in microfluidic channels for transport of micro/nano samples. Further, controlled rotation of single cell or microscopic object is useful for tomographic imaging. Though conventional microscope objective based laser spanners (based on transfer of spin or orbital angular momentum) have been used in the past, they are limited by the short working distance of the microscope objective. Here, we demonstrate development of a fiber optic spanner for rotation of microscopic objects using single-mode fiber optics. Fiber-optic trapping and simultaneous rotation of pin-wheel structure around axis perpendicular to fiber-optic axis was achieved using the fiber optic spanner. By adjusting the laser beam power, rotation speed of the trapped object and thus the microfluidic flow could be controlled. Since this method does not require special optical or structural properties of the sample to be rotated, three-dimensional rotation of a spherical cell could also be controlled. Further, using the fiber optic spanner, array of red blood cells could be assembled and actuated to generate vortex motion. Fiber optical trapping and spinning will enable physical and spectroscopic analysis of microscopic objects in solution and also find potential applications in lab- on-a-chip devices.

  13. First Sample Delivery to Mars Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Robotic Arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander has just delivered the first sample of dug-up soil to the spacecraft's microscope station in this image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager during the mission's Sol 17 (June 12), or 17th Martian day after landing. The scoop is positioned above the box containing key parts of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA, instrument suite. It has sprinkled a small amount of soil into a notch in the MECA box where the microscope's sample wheel is exposed. The wheel turns to present sample particles on various substrates to the Optical Microscope for viewing. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) wide. The top of the MECA box is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) wide. This image has been lightened to make details more visible. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. First Sample Delivery to Mars Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Robotic Arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander has just delivered the first sample of dug-up soil to the spacecraft's microscope station in this image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager during the mission's Sol 17 (June 12), or 17th Martian day after landing. The scoop is positioned above the box containing key parts of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA, instrument suite. It has sprinkled a small amount of soil into a notch in the MECA box where the microscope's sample wheel is exposed. The wheel turns to present sample particles on various substrates to the Optical Microscope for viewing. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) wide. The top of the MECA box is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) wide. This image has been lightened to make details more visible. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Clinical study of treatment of traumatic optic neuropathy by transcranial approach microscope decompression 30 cases%经颅显微镜下视神经管减压术治疗外伤性视神经损伤30例临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃重桥; 陆伟水; 余松祚; 谭适; 陆弘盈

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of treatment of traumatic optic neuropathy by transcranial approach microscope decompression. Methods Totally 36 patients were performed the direct microsurgery to treatment for fracture debris and hematoma and decompression approach with coronal scalp incision. Postoperative supplemented with high - dose steroid impact therapy and nerve nutrition and vasodilators. Results Totally 30 patients were followed - up 3 months and evaluated the efficacy. The visual acuity of 23 patients were improved, and 7 patients were not improve, the total effective rate was 76. 6%. Conclusions It is full exposed, small trauma and completely decompression that traumatic optic neuropathy by transcranial approach microscope decompression, and can be used as an effective way to treat traumatic optic neuropathy.%目的 评价经颅显微镜下视神经管减压术治疗外伤性视神经损伤的临床疗效.方法 30例均作冠状头皮切口,显微镜直视下处理骨折碎片和血肿以及进行视神经管减压,术后辅以大剂量激素冲击和神经营养、扩血管等药物治疗.结果 30例患者术后随访3个月并评价疗效,其中23例视力有不同程度改善,7例视力无提高,总有效率76.6%.结论 经颅显微镜下视神经管减压术具有暴露充分、创伤小、减压彻底等优点,是治疗外伤性视神经损伤的有效方法.

  16. Active limited-angle tomographic phase microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Arkadiusz; Krauze, Wojciech; Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an active, holographic tomography system, working with limited angle of projections, realized by optical-only, diffraction-based beam steering. The system created for this purpose is a Mach–Zehnder interferometer modified to serve as a digital holographic microscope with a high numerical aperture illumination module and a spatial light modulator (SLM). Such a solution is fast and robust. Apart from providing an elegant solution to viewing angle shifting, it also adds new capabilities of the holographic microscope system. SLM, being an active optical element, allows wavefront correction in order to improve measurement accuracy. Integrated phase data captured with different illumination scenarios within a highly limited angular range are processed by a new tomographic reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed sensing technique: total variation minimization, which is applied here to reconstruct nonpiecewise constant samples. Finally, the accuracy of full measurement and the proposed processing path is tested for a calibrated three-dimensional micro-object as well as a biological object--C2C12 myoblast cell.

  17. Fabrication of an all-metal atomic force microscope probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jan Pihl; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for fabrication of an all-metal atomic force microscope probe (tip, cantilever and support) for optical read-out, using a combination of silicon micro-machining and electroforming. The paper describes the entire fabrication process for a nickel AFM-probe. In addition...

  18. New Scanning Electron Microscope Used for Cryogenic Tensile Testing

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    At CERN engineering department's installation for cryogenic tensile testing, the new scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows for detailed optical observations to be carried out. Using the SEM, surface coatings and tensile properties of materials can investigated in order to better understand how they behave under different conditions.

  19. Designs for a quantum electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruit, P., E-mail: p.kruit@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Hobbs, R.G.; Kim, C-S.; Yang, Y.; Manfrinato, V.R. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hammer, J.; Thomas, S.; Weber, P. [Department of Physics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstrasse 1, d-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Klopfer, B.; Kohstall, C.; Juffmann, T.; Kasevich, M.A. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hommelhoff, P. [Department of Physics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstrasse 1, d-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Berggren, K.K. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This ‘quantum weirdness’ could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or “quantum electron microscope”. A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. - Highlights: • Quantum electron microscopy has the potential of reducing radiation damage. • QEM requires a fraction of the electron wave to pass through the sample

  20. Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Reber, Clay D.; Switz, Neil A.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone–based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications. PMID:24824072

  1. Quantitative imaging with a mobile phone microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone-based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications.

  2. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are...

  3. Microscopic Theory of Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian Joseph

    As new energy technologies are designed and implemented, there is a rising demand for improved energy storage devices. At present the most promising class of these devices is the electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC), also known as the supercapacitor. A number of recently created supercapacitors have been shown to produce remarkably large capacitance, but the microscopic mechanisms that underlie their operation remain largely mysterious. In this thesis we present an analytical, microscopic-level theory of supercapacitors, and we explain how such large capacitance can result. Specifically, we focus on four types of devices that have been shown to produce large capacitance. The first is a capacitor composed of a clean, low-temperature two-dimensional electron gas adjacent to a metal gate electrode. Recent experiments have shown that such a device can produce capacitance as much as 40% larger than that of a conventional plane capacitor. We show that this enhanced capacitance can be understood as the result of positional correlations between electrons and screening by the gate electrode in the form of image charges. Thus, the enhancement of the capacitance can be understood primarily as a classical, electrostatic phenomenon. Accounting for the quantum mechanical properties of the electron gas provides corrections to the classical theory, and these are discussed. We also present a detailed numerical calculation of the capacitance of the system based on a calculation of the system's ground state energy using the variational principle. The variational technique that we develop is broadly applicable, and we use it here to make an accurate comparison to experiment and to discuss quantitatively the behavior of the electrons' correlation function. The second device discussed in this thesis is a simple EDLC composed of an ionic liquid between two metal electrodes. We adopt a simple description of the ionic liquid and show that for realistic parameter values the capacitance

  4. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1991-06-01

    This year our laboratory has continued to make progress in the design of electron-optical systems, in the study of structure-function relationships of large multi-subunit proteins, in the development of new image processing software and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. We present an algebraic approach to the symmetrical Einzel (unipotential) lens wherein we simplify the analysis by specifying a field shape that meets some preferred set of boundary or other conditions and then calculate the fields. In a second study we generalize this approach to study of three element electrostatic lenses of which the symmetrical Einzel lens is a particular form. The purpose is to develop a method for assisting in the design of a lens for a particular purpose. In our biological work we study a stable and functional dodecameric complex of globin chains from the hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris. This is a complex lacking the linker'' subunit first imaged in this lab and required for maintenance of the native structure. In addition, we do a complete work-up on the hemoglobin of the marine polychaete Eudistylia vancouverii demonstrating the presence of a hierarchy of globin complexes. We demonstrate stable field-emission in the sub-angstrom STEM and the preliminary alignment of the beam. We continue our exploration of a algorithms for alignment of sequences of protein and DNA. Our computer facilities now include four second generation RISC workstations and we continue to take increasing advantage of the floating-point and graphical performance of these devices.

  5. Analysis of a copper sample for the CLIC ACS study in a field emission scanning microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Muranaka, Tomoko; Leifer, Klaus; Ziemann, Volker; Navitski, Aliaksandr; Müller, Günter

    2011-01-01

    We report measurements on a diamond turned Copper sample of material intended for the CLIC accelerating structures. The first part of the measurements was performed at Bergische Universität Wuppertal using a field emission scanning microscope to localize and characterize strong emission sites. In a second part the sample was investigated in an optical microscope, a white-light profilometer and scanning electron microscope in the microstructure laboratory in Uppsala to attempt to identify the features responsible for the field emission.

  6. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kanemaru

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM and an electron microscope (EM. In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM (JEOL JXA8600 M was combined with a fluorescence digital camera microscope unit and this hybrid instrument was named a fluorescence SEM (FL-SEM. In the labeling of FL-SEM samples, both Fluolid, which is an organic EL dye, and Alexa Fluor, were employed. We successfully demonstrated that the FL-SEM is a simple and practical tool for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  7. Microscopic examination of deteriorated concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Larbi, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Concrete petrography is the integrated microscopic and mesoscale (hand specimen size) investigation of hardened concrete, that can provide information on the composition of concrete, the original relationships between the concrete's various constituents, and any changes therein, whether as a result

  8. Microscopic Procedures for Plant Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braselton, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes laboratory techniques designed to familiarize students with meiosis and how microscopic preparations of meiosis are made. These techniques require the use of fresh or fixed flowers. Contains 18 references. (DDR)

  9. Microscopic Procedures for Plant Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braselton, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes laboratory techniques designed to familiarize students with meiosis and how microscopic preparations of meiosis are made. These techniques require the use of fresh or fixed flowers. Contains 18 references. (DDR)

  10. [MICROSCOPIC COLITIS: THE CLINICAL CASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulygina, Y A; Skalinskaya, M I; Ageeva, T A

    2015-01-01

    During past years incidence and prevalence of microscopic colitis (MC) have increased, that is possible caused to the improvement of knowledge of doctors about the disease. This article contain modern views on epidemiology, diagnostic and variant of microscopic colitis treatment. A typical clinical picture of MC in the form of recurrent a watery diarrhea, with the absence of pathologic changes at roentgenologic and endoscopic investigations is described with the example of a clinical case.

  11. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2011-07-12

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

  12. Hyperspectral microscope imaging methods to classify gram-positive and gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acousto-optic tunable filter-based hyperspectral microscope imaging method has potential for identification of foodborne pathogenic bacteria from microcolony rapidly with a single cell level. We have successfully developed the method to acquire quality hyperspectral microscopic images from variou...

  13. Double aberration correction in a low-energy electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Th., E-mail: schmidtt@fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 6-8, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik II, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Marchetto, H.; Levesque, P.L. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 6-8, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Groh, U.; Maier, F. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik II, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Preikszas, D. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Angewandte Physik, Hochschulstrasse 6, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Carl Zeiss NTS GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 56, D-73447 Oberkochen (Germany); Hartel, P.; Spehr, R. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Angewandte Physik, Hochschulstrasse 6, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lilienkamp, G. [Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Physikalisches Institut, Leibnizstrasse 4, D-38678 (Germany); Engel, W. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 6-8, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Fink, R. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalische Chemie II, Egerlandstrasse 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Bauer, E. [Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Physikalisches Institut, Leibnizstrasse 4, D-38678 (Germany); Arizona State University, Department of Physics, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Rose, H. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Angewandte Physik, Hochschulstrasse 6, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Umbach, E. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik II, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Freund, H.-J. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 6-8, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    The lateral resolution of a surface sensitive low-energy electron microscope (LEEM) has been improved below 4 nm for the first time. This breakthrough has only been possible by simultaneously correcting the unavoidable spherical and chromatic aberrations of the lens system. We present an experimental criterion to quantify the aberration correction and to optimize the electron optical system. The obtained lateral resolution of 2.6 nm in LEEM enables the first surface sensitive, electron microscopic observation of the herringbone reconstruction on the Au(1 1 1) surface.

  14. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis in the electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, DC

    2003-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth description of x-ray microanalysis in the electron microscope. It is sufficiently detailed to ensure that novices will understand the nuances of high-quality EDX analysis. Includes information about hardware design as well as the physics of x-ray generation, absorption and detection, and most post-detection data processing. Details on electron optics and electron probe formation allow the novice to make sensible adjustments to the electron microscope in order to set up a system which optimises analysis. It also helps the reader determine which microanalytical me

  15. Microscopic Faraday rotation measurement system using pulsed magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Shigeki; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2009-09-01

    Microscopic Faraday rotation measurement system using a pulsed magnetic field has been constructed, which can be applied to micron sized diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials. A pulsed magnetic coil could generate a maximum magnetic flux density of about 12 T. The performance of the microscopic Faraday rotation apparatus was demonstrated by the measurement of the Verdet constant V of a polystyrene particle, after the calibration of the pulsed magnetic flux density using a glass plate as a standard material. Also, the magneto-optical rotation dispersion of some diamagnetic substances have been measured and analyzed with V=alambda(-2)+b. The values of a and b were compared to their magnetic susceptibilities.

  16. Overview of Athena Microscopic Imager Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkenhoff, K.; Squyres, S.; Arvidson, R.; Bass, D.; Bell, J., III; Bertelsen, P.; Cabrol, N.; Ehlmann, B.; Farrand, W.; Gaddis, L.

    2005-01-01

    The Athena science payload on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) includes the Microscopic Imager (MI). The MI is a fixed-focus camera mounted on an extendable arm, the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD). The MI acquires images at a spatial resolution of 31 microns/pixel over a broad spectral range (400 - 700 nm). The MI uses the same electronics design as the other MER cameras but its optics yield a field of view of 32 32 mm across a 1024 1024 pixel CCD image. The MI acquires images using only solar or skylight illumination of the target surface. The MI science objectives, instrument design and calibration, operation, and data processing were described by Herkenhoff et al. Initial results of the MI experiment on both MER rovers (Spirit and Opportunity) have been published previously. Highlights of these and more recent results are described.

  17. US Atom-Resolving Microscope Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronsky, R.

    1980-03-01

    The largest project in transmission electron microscopy in this country has recently been initiated. This project has been given the name Atomic Resolution Microscopy and its goal is to provide the instrumentation and expertise necessary to conduct materials research directly at the atomic level. Taking advantage of the best available technology in electron-optical design, its core instrumentation is a unique machine, the Atomic Resolution Microscope (ARM), which is to be built by commercial manufacturers to the specifications of LBL and used in basic research programs requiring atomic imaging capabilities. The project will also include an in-house instrument development effort to maintain state-of-the-art performance from the ARM. Details of history, organization and performance specifications are given.

  18. Microscope and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers.

  19. Ergonomic microscope comfort and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth Anne

    2011-03-01

    Microscope use in the inspection phase of computer chip manufacturing is a major cause of worker discomfort and injury. A two-phase ergonomics project to reduce employee fatigue and discomfort was planned, implemented, and evaluated in a microscope user environment within a high-technology manufacturing environment. Total Quality Management methodology and tools were employed by a multidisciplinary team led by an occupational health nurse practitioner to accomplish the project goals. A multifaceted approach including equipment changes, administrative changes, and focused training for behavior changes achieved the desired reduction in reports of fatigue and discomfort among microscope users. Occupational health nurses are ideal candidates to lead teams to accomplish meaningful health and safety goals consistent with corporate quality initiatives and strategic objectives. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Macroscopic-microscopic mass models

    CERN Document Server

    Nix, J R; Nix, J Rayford; Moller, Peter

    1995-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models, including the 1992 finite-range droplet model, the 1992 extended-Thomas-Fermi Strutinsky-integral model, and the 1994 Thomas-Fermi model, with particular emphasis on how well they extrapolate to new regions of nuclei. We also address what recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models are teaching us about such physically relevant issues as the nuclear curvature energy, a new congruence energy arising from a greater-than-average overlap of neutron and proton wave functions, the nuclear incompressibility coefficient, and the Coulomb redistribution energy arising from a central density depression. We conclude with a brief discussion of the recently discovered rock of metastable superheavy nuclei near 272:110 that had been correctly predicted by macroscopic-microscopic models, along with a possible new tack for reaching an island near 290:110 beyond our present horizon.

  1. Sample holder support for microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Anthony (Inventor); Nerren, Billy H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A sample filter holder is disclosed for use with a microscope for holding the filter in a planar condition on the stage of the microscope so that automatic focusing of the microscope can be performed on particle samples dispersed on the filter. The holder includes a base having a well that communicates with an inlet port which is connected to a suction pump. A screen assembly is positioned within the well. The screen assembly includes a disk having a screen positioned on its top surface and secured to the disk at the peripheral edge of the screen. Small bores allow the outer surface of the screen to communicate with the well. The filter is placed on the screen and is held in a flat disposition by the suction forces.

  2. Evaluation and Selection of Estimating Function for Auto-focus System of Optical Microscope%光学显微镜自动调焦指导函数的评价与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史红伟; 石要武; 杨爽

    2013-01-01

    针对基于图像处理的光学显微镜自动调焦问题,提出了颜色比、图像差和类间方差3种新的调焦指导函数.首先提出了单点定义指标函数的面积引申方法,该方法同时具备统计方法与极值方法的优点;针对被动式自动调焦系统的设计,对指导函数的性能指标进行定义,提出了焦距响应范围、极值程度、对焦准确度、目标函数值变化范围等指标的定义和评价方法,并结合实际工作对文中提出的指导函数进行测量,给出了评价结果和比较结论.%Concerning the auto-focus system of microscope based on image treatment, this paper proposes three new instructing functions: color ratio,image difference and class variance. It proposes the area method to extend the instructing functions which are defined for single point. The extending method has the character of both average method and extreme method. To evaluate the instructing functions some guidelines are proposed, which include responsible object distance range, distinctness of the peak, distance with extreme point, the best object distance and range of function value. The formula for these guidelines are defined and the method to measure them is proposed, and the guidelines of instructing functions mentioned in this paper is tested and compared.

  3. Demonstration of Achromatic Cold-Neutron Microscope Utilizing Axisymmetric Focusing Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, D; Gubarev, M V; Ramsey, B D; Jacobson, D; Arif, M; Moncton, D E; Khaykovich, B

    2013-01-01

    An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, field of view, and depth of focus are measured and found consistent with ray-tracing simulations. Methods of increasing the resolution and magnification are discussed, as well as the scientific case for the neutron microscope. In contrast to traditional pinhole-camera neutron imaging, the resolution of the microscope is determined by the mirrors rather than by the collimation of the beam, leading to possible dramatic improvements in the signal rate and resolution.

  4. 基于二维微透镜阵列增大手术显微镜出瞳直径方法研究%2D microlens array-based surgical microscope in optical system′s exit pupil expander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于双双; 史宣; 杜吉; 孟军合

    2014-01-01

    医生使用传统含目镜系统的手术显微镜进行手术,当其头部移动时,该系统仅存在很小的出瞳直径,因而这就迫使医生在手术过程中长时间保持头部在特定位置。可见,传统手术显微镜存在显著弊端:长时间持续观察会增加医生的疲劳度。对使用二维微透镜阵列(microlens array,MLA)增大目视光学系统出瞳直径进行了理论探讨,并用傅里叶光学原理进行了理论分析。并且在此基础上,设计了增大手术显微镜光学系统出瞳直径的二维微透镜阵列器件,该二维微透镜阵列器件中两个折射面相对放置,且两者相距一个微透镜单元焦距的长度。经计算机模拟计算证明,使用该二维微透镜阵列器件可以有效增大目视光学系统出瞳直径,并可获得更加均匀的出射光束。%The conventional surgical microscope uses eyepiece lens systems which have very small exit pupil to occur when the observer moves his head during observation, thereby obliging the observer to keep his head at a constant position while he performs the operations described above. Therefore, the conventional surgical microscope has a defect that it gives a strong feeling of fatigue when he continues observation for a long time. Two dimensional microlens array(MLA) can be used in wearable applications as exit pupil expanders to increase the size of the optical system exit pupil. Fourier optics theory was used to derive the analytical formulas, and physical optics beam propagation was used for numerical computations. The MLA′s reflective surface was spaced from the other focal curve about a focal length. A dual-MLA is proved that can produces excellent exit-pupil, and it can often generate output beamlets that have a more uniform brightness.

  5. Two-probe atomic-force microscope manipulator and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, A A; Stolyarov, V S; Kononenko, O V

    2017-06-01

    We report on a manipulator based on a two-probe atomic force microscope (AFM) with an individual feedback system for each probe. This manipulator works under an upright optical microscope with 3 mm focal distance. The design of the microscope helps us tomanipulate nanowires using the microscope probes as a two-prong fork. The AFM feedback is realized based on the dynamic full-time contact mode. The applications of the manipulator and advantages of its two-probe design are presented.

  6. Multispectral Video-Microscope Modified for Skin Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubins U.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial DinoLite AD413 digital microscope was modified for skin diagnostics purposes. The original LED ring (4 white and 4 ultraviolet light emitters of microscope was replaced by a custom-designed 16-LED ring module consisting of four LED groups (450, 545, 660 and 940 nm, and an onboard LED controller with USB hub was added. The video acquisition and LED switching are performed using custom-designed Matlab software which provides real-time spectral analysis of multi-spectral images and calculation of skin chromophore optical density. The developed multispectral video-microscope is mainly meant for diagnostics of skin malformations, e.g. skin cancerous lesions.

  7. Effect of microscopic disorder on magnetic properties of metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkunov, Maxim V; Gredeskul, Sergey A; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2006-05-01

    We analyze the effect of microscopic disorder on the macroscopic properties of composite metamaterials and study how weak statistically independent fluctuations of the parameters of the structure elements can modify their collective magnetic response and left-handed properties. We demonstrate that even a weak microscopic disorder may lead to a substantial modification of the metamaterial magnetic properties, and a 10% deviation in the parameters of the microscopic resonant elements may lead to a substantial suppression of the wave propagation in a wide frequency range. A noticeable suppression occurs also if more than 10% of the resonant magnetic elements possess strongly different properties, and in the latter case the defects can create an additional weak resonant line. These results are of a key importance for characterizing and optimizing novel composite metamaterials with the left-handed properties at terahertz and optical frequencies.

  8. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L; Gu, M

    2007-06-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy has been an indispensable laboratory tool of high-resolution imaging in thick tissue and live animals. Rapid developments of fibre-optic components in terms of growing functionality and decreasing size provide enormous opportunities for innovations in nonlinear optical microscopy. Fibre-based nonlinear optical endoscopy is the sole instrumentation to permit the cellular imaging within hollow tissue tracts or solid organs that are inaccessible to a conventional optical microscope. This article reviews the current development of fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy, which includes crucial technologies for miniaturized nonlinear optical microscopy and their embodiments of endoscopic systems. A particular attention is given to several classes of photonic crystal fibres that have been applied to nonlinear optical microscopy due to their unique properties for ultrashort pulse delivery and signal collection. Furthermore, fibre-optic nonlinear optical imaging systems can be classified into portable microscopes suitable for imaging behaving animals, rigid endoscopes that allow for deep tissue imaging with minimally invasive manners, and flexible endoscopes enabling imaging of internal organs. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical endoscopy is coming of age and a paradigm shift leading to optical microscope tools for early cancer detection and minimally invasive surgery.

  9. Microscopic Image of Martian Surface Material on a Silicone Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger version of Figure 1 This image taken by the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows soil sprinkled from the lander's Robot Arm scoop onto a silicone substrate. The substrate was then rotated in front of the microscope. This is the first sample collected and delivered for instrumental analysis onboard a planetary lander since NASA's Viking Mars missions of the 1970s. It is also the highest resolution image yet seen of Martian soil. The image is dominated by fine particles close to the resolution of the microscope. These particles have formed clumps, which may be a smaller scale version of what has been observed by Phoenix during digging of the surface material. The microscope took this image during Phoenix's Sol 17 (June 11), or the 17th Martian day after landing. The scale bar is 1 millimeter (0.04 inch). Zooming in on the Martian Soil In figure 1, three zoomed-in portions are shown with an image of Martian soil particles taken by the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The left zoom box shows a composite particle. The top of the particle has a green tinge, possibly indicating olivine. The bottom of the particle has been reimaged at a different focus position in black and white (middle zoom box), showing that this is a clump of finer particles. The right zoom box shows a rounded, glassy particle, similar to those which have also been seen in an earlier sample of airfall dust collected on a surface exposed during landing. The shadows at the bottom of image are of the beams of the Atomic Force Microscope. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  11. 探讨尿沉渣分析仪、尿干化学分析仪及光学显微镜3种方法检测尿液红细胞的一致性%Study on consistency of urinary sediment analyzer,urine dry chemistry analyzer and optical microscope in detecting urine erythrocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖凤静; 郑善銮; 何娟; 卢佩; 林婕; 郝柯

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the consistency of the SYSMEX UF1000i automatic urinary sediment analyzer,Arkray AX-4030 urine dry chemistry analyzer and optical microscope in detecting urine erythrocyte.Methods The fresh urine specimens from 427 patients were randomly extracted and tested by the SYSMEX UF1000i automatic urinary sediment analyzer,urine dry chemistry analyzer and OLUMPUS Arkray AX-4030 optical microscope.Then the consistency of the results for detecting urine erythrocyte was compared among three kinds of detection method.Results With the microscopic examination as control,the sensitivity and spe-cificity of the SYSMEX UF1000i automatic urinary sediment analyzer for detecting urine erythrocyte were 82.84% and 86.35% re-spectively,which of the Arkray AX-4030 urine dry chemistry analyzer were 89.55% and 83.96% respectively.There was a high consistency between the SYSMEX UF1000i automatic urinary sediment analyzer and the optical microscope for detecting urine e-rythrocyte and the Kappa value was 0.580.There was also a high consistency between the Arkray AX-4030 urine dry chemistry analyzer and the optical microscope for detecting urine erythrocyte and the Kappa value was 0.625,while the consistency between the SYSMEX UF1000i automatic urinary sediment analyzer and the Arkray AX-4030 urine dry chemistry analyzer was weaker and the Kappa value was 0.324.Conclusion With the detection by the SYSMEX UF1000i automatic urinary sediment analyzer and the Arkray AX-4030 urine dry chemistry analyzer as a screening test,it should need to combine with the optical microscopy to conduct recheck for providing the effective and reliable test results quickly and accurately.%目的:比较并分析 SYSMEX UF1000i 全自动尿沉渣分析仪、Arkray AX-4030尿干化学分析仪及光学显微镜检测尿液红细胞的一致性。方法随机抽取427例患者新鲜尿液标本,分别用 SYSMEX UF1000i 全自动尿沉渣分析仪、Arkray AX-4030尿干化学分析仪及 OLUMPUS

  12. A high-resolution multimode digital microscope system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Edward D; Shaw, Sidney L; Waters, Jennifer C; Waterman-Storer, Clare M; Maddox, Paul S; Yeh, Elaine; Bloom, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the development of a high-resolution, multimode digital imaging system based on a wide-field epifluorescent and transmitted light microscope, and a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The three main parts of this imaging system are Nikon FXA microscope, Hamamatsu C4880 cooled CCD camera, and MetaMorph digital imaging system. This chapter presents various design criteria for the instrument and describes the major features of the microscope components-the cooled CCD camera and the MetaMorph digital imaging system. The Nikon FXA upright microscope can produce high resolution images for both epifluorescent and transmitted light illumination without switching the objective or moving the specimen. The functional aspects of the microscope set-up can be considered in terms of the imaging optics, the epi-illumination optics, the transillumination optics, the focus control, and the vibration isolation table. This instrument is somewhat specialized for microtubule and mitosis studies, and it is also applicable to a variety of problems in cellular imaging, including tracking proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein in live cells. The instrument is also valuable for correlating the assembly dynamics of individual cytoplasmic microtubules (labeled by conjugating X-rhodamine to tubulin) with the dynamics of membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (labeled with DiOC6) and the dynamics of the cell cortex (by differential interference contrast) in migrating vertebrate epithelial cells. This imaging system also plays an important role in the analysis of mitotic mutants in the powerful yeast genetic system Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 1998 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. X-ray microscope assemblies. Final report and metrology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnpfennig, T.F.

    1981-04-13

    This is the Final Report and Metrology Report prepared under Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Subcontract 9936205, X-ray Microscope Assemblies. The purpose of this program was to design, fabricate, and perform detailed metrology on an axisymmetric grazing-incidence x-ray microscope (XRMS) to be used as a diagnostic instrument in the Lawrence Livermore Laser Fusion Program. The optical configuration chosen for this device consists of two internally polished surfaces of revolution: an hyperboloid facing the object; and a confocal, co-axial elliposid facing the image. This arrangement is known as the Wolter Type-I configuration. The grazing angle of reflection for both surfaces is approximately 1/sup 0/. The general optical performance goals under this program were to achieve a spatial resolution in the object plane in the soft x-ray region of approximately 1 micron, and to achieve an effective solid collecting angle which is an appreciable fraction of the geometric solid collecting angle.

  14. Quantum Gas Microscope for Fermionic Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okan, Melih; Cheuk, Lawrence; Nichols, Matthew; Lawrence, Katherine; Zhang, Hao; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Strongly interacting fermions define the properties of complex matter throughout nature, from atomic nuclei and modern solid state materials to neutron stars. Ultracold atomic Fermi gases have emerged as a pristine platform for the study of many-fermion systems. In this poster we demonstrate the realization of a quantum gas microscope for fermionic 40 K atoms trapped in an optical lattice and the recent experiments which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high- resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single lattice site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell's demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement. NSF, AFOSR-PECASE, AFOSR-MURI on Exotic Phases of Matter, ARO-MURI on Atomtronics, ONR, a Grant from the Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation.

  15. Compact Video Microscope Imaging System Implemented in Colloid Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Long description Photographs showing fiber-optic light source, microscope and charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera head connected to camera body, CCD camera body feeding data to image acquisition board in PC, and Cartesian robot controlled via PC board. The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system can scan, find areas of interest in, focus on, and acquire images automatically. Many multiple-cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is feasible only with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control. The software also has a user-friendly interface, which can be used independently of the hardware for further post-experiment analysis. CMIS has been successfully developed in the SML Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center and adapted for use for colloid studies and is available for telescience experiments. The main innovations this year are an improved interface, optimized algorithms, and the ability to control conventional full-sized microscopes in addition to compact microscopes. The CMIS software-hardware interface is being integrated into our SML Analysis package, which will be a robust general-purpose image-processing package that can handle over 100 space and industrial applications.

  16. Foucault imaging by using non-dedicated transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoshifumi [Science and Medical Systems Business Group, Hitachi High-Technologies Corp., Ichige, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Matsumoto, Hiroaki [Corporate Manufacturing Strategy Group, Hitachi High-Technologies Corp., Ishikawa-cho, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-1991 (Japan); Harada, Ken [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan)

    2012-08-27

    An electron optical system for observing Foucault images was constructed using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any special equipment for Lorentz microscopy. The objective lens was switched off and an electron beam was converged by a condenser optical system to the crossover on the selected area aperture plane. The selected area aperture was used as an objective aperture to select the deflected beam for Foucault mode, and the successive image-forming lenses were controlled for observation of the specimen images. The irradiation area on the specimen was controlled by selecting the appropriate diameter of the condenser aperture.

  17. Foucault imaging by using non-dedicated transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Harada, Ken

    2012-08-01

    An electron optical system for observing Foucault images was constructed using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any special equipment for Lorentz microscopy. The objective lens was switched off and an electron beam was converged by a condenser optical system to the crossover on the selected area aperture plane. The selected area aperture was used as an objective aperture to select the deflected beam for Foucault mode, and the successive image-forming lenses were controlled for observation of the specimen images. The irradiation area on the specimen was controlled by selecting the appropriate diameter of the condenser aperture.

  18. Biological applications of an LCoS-BASED PROGRAMMABLE ARRAY MICROSCOPE (PAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, G.M.; Caarls, W.; Thomas, M.; Hill, A.; Lidke, K.A.; Rieger, B.; Fritsch, C.; Van Geest, B.; Jovin, T.M.; Arndt-Jovin, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a new generation, commercial prototype of a programmable array optical sectioning fluorescence microscope (PAM) for rapid, light efficient 3D imaging of living specimens. The stand-alone module, including light source(s) and detector(s), features an innovative optical design and a ferro

  19. Imaging of Tissue Micro-Structures using a Multi-Modal Microscope Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Lieber, C A; Lin, B; Ramsamooj, R

    2005-08-12

    We investigate a microscope design that offers high signal sensitivity and hyperspectral imaging capabilities and allows for implementation of various optical imaging approaches while its operational complexity is minimized. This system utilizes long working distance microscope objectives that enable for off-axis illumination of the tissue thereby allowing for excitation at any optical wavelength and nearly eliminating spectral noise from the optical elements. Preliminary studies using human and animal tissues demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for real-time imaging of intact tissue microstructures using autofluorescence and light scattering imaging methods.

  20. Imaging of Tissue Micro-Structures using a Multi-Modal Microscope Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Lieber, C A; Lin, B; Ramsamooj, R

    2005-08-12

    We investigate a microscope design that offers high signal sensitivity and hyperspectral imaging capabilities and allows for implementation of various optical imaging approaches while its operational complexity is minimized. This system utilizes long working distance microscope objectives that enable for off-axis illumination of the tissue thereby allowing for excitation at any optical wavelength and nearly eliminating spectral noise from the optical elements. Preliminary studies using human and animal tissues demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for real-time imaging of intact tissue microstructures using autofluorescence and light scattering imaging methods.

  1. Asbestos and Probable Microscopic Polyangiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S Rashed Philteos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several inorganic dust lung diseases (pneumoconioses are associated with autoimmune diseases. Although autoimmune serological abnormalities are common in asbestosis, clinical autoimmune/collagen vascular diseases are not commonly reported. A case of pulmonary asbestosis complicated by perinuclear-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (myeloperoxidase positive probable microscopic polyangiitis (glomerulonephritis, pericarditis, alveolitis, multineuritis multiplex is described and the possible immunological mechanisms whereby asbestosis fibres might be relevant in induction of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are reviewed in the present report.

  2. Microscopic views of drug solubility

    OpenAIRE

    Bondesson, Laban

    2006-01-01

    The development of computational models for predicting drug solubility has increased drastically during the last decades. Nevertheless these models still have diffculties to estimate the aqueous solubility as accurate as desired. In this thesis di erent aspects that are known to have a large impact on the aqueous solubility of a molecule have been studied in detail using various theoretical methods with intension to provide microscopic view on drug solubility. The rst aspect studied is the hy...

  3. Optical characterication of probes for photon scanning tunnelling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Brian; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    The photon scanning tunnelling microscope is a well-established member of the family of scanning near-field optical microscopes used for optical imaging at the sub-wavelength scale. The quality of the probes, typically pointed uncoated optical fibres, used is however difficult to evaluate...

  4. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, B.; Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Pedersen, K.;

    2001-01-01

    Second-harmonic (SH) optical imaging of self-assembled InAlGaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown on a GaAs(0 0 1) substrate has been accomplished at room temperature by use of respectively a scanning far-field optical microscope in reflection mode and a scanning near-field optical microscope...

  5. Gelation on the microscopic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Felix K.; Coussot, P.; de Bruyn, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Particle-tracking methods are used to study gelation in a colloidal suspension of Laponite clay particles. We track the motion of small fluorescent polystyrene spheres added to the suspension, and obtain the micron-scale viscous and elastic moduli of the material from their mean-squared displacement. The fluorescent spheres move subdiffusively due to the microstructure of the suspension, with the diffusive exponent decreasing from close to one at early times to near zero as the material gels. The particle-tracking data show that the system becomes more heterogeneous on the microscopic scale as gelation proceeds. We also determine the bulk-scale moduli using small-amplitude oscillatory shear rheometry. Both the macroscopic and microscopic moduli increase with time, and on both scales we observe a transition from a primarily viscous fluid to an elastic gel. We find that the gel point, determined as the time at which the viscous and elastic moduli are equal, is length-scale dependent—gelation occurs earlier on the bulk scale than on the microscopic scale.

  6. Compact Microscope Imaging System Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. The CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, can scan, find areas of interest, focus, and acquire images automatically. Large numbers of multiple cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is only feasible with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control capabilities. The software also has a user-friendly interface that can be used independently of the hardware for post-experiment analysis. CMIS has potential commercial uses in the automated online inspection of precision parts, medical imaging, security industry (examination of currency in automated teller machines and fingerprint identification in secure entry locks), environmental industry (automated examination of soil/water samples), biomedical field (automated blood/cell analysis), and microscopy community. CMIS will improve research in several ways: It will expand the capabilities of MSD experiments utilizing microscope technology. It may be used in lunar and Martian experiments (Rover Robot). Because of its reduced size, it will enable experiments that were not feasible previously. It may be incorporated into existing shuttle orbiter and space station experiments, including glove-box-sized experiments as well as ground-based experiments.

  7. Microscopic Colitis with Macroscopic Endoscopic Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Atif Saleem; Brahmbhatt, Parag A.; Sarah Khan; Mark Young; LeSage, Gene D.

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic Colitis (MC) is characterized by chronic watery diarrhea, grossly normal appearing colonic mucosa during conventional white light endoscopy, and biopsy showing microscopic inflammation. We report a case of collagenous colitis with gross endoscopic findings.

  8. New Microscope Scans Breast Tumors During Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166925.html New Microscope Scans Breast Tumors During Surgery The instrument examines ... WEDNESDAY, June 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A new microscope could help surgeons remove breast tumors completely, reducing ...

  9. Optics and optical instruments an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, B K

    2011-01-01

    This book illustrates basic practical applications of optical principle. Working models of telescopes, microscopes, photographic lenses, and optical projection systems are diagrammed and explained in full, as are the basic experiments for determining accuracy, power, angular field of view, amount of aberration, and all other necessary facts about the instrument. Throughout the book, only elementary mathematics is used, for the benefit of the student and the beginner in the field of optics.The author, an assistant professor at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, shows ho

  10. Microscopic characteristics of burst coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, C. [Shandong University of Science and Technology (China)

    2000-08-01

    Based on the analytical results of coal samples with microscope and scanning electron microscope, the paper explains the petrographic characteristics and microscopic depredation of burst coal. Quantitative analysis on the components and microstructures of the burst coal is conducted. The influence of the microscopic characteristics on coal burst is discussed. For coal seams with burst tendency, it has provided the necessary forecasting parameters. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A. [Spectra-Tech, Inc., Shelton, CT (United States); Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  12. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  13. Quantitative surface characterization using a Nomarski microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, H. van; Booij, S.M.; Fähnle, O.W.; Bijl, R.J.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    The use of a Nomarski microscope for the characterization of surface features will be presented. Since a Nomarski microscope measures slope values, the shape of a surface can be followed quantitatively. Besides, a Nomarski microscope can be used to analyze surface roughness in terms of rms value and

  14. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  15. Coaxial Atomic Force Microscope Tweezers

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, K A; Westervelt, R M

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate coaxial atomic force microscope (AFM) tweezers that can trap and place small objects using dielectrophoresis (DEP). An attractive force is generated at the tip of a coaxial AFM probe by applying a radio frequency voltage between the center conductor and a grounded shield; the origin of the force is found to be DEP by measuring the pull-off force vs. applied voltage. We show that the coaxial AFM tweezers (CAT) can perform three dimensional assembly by picking up a specified silica microsphere, imaging with the microsphere at the end of the tip, and placing it at a target destination.

  16. Microscopic structure of liquid hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Zoppi, M

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen makes the simplest molecular liquid. Nonetheless, due to several different reasons, measuring its microscopic structure has been one of the most challenging tasks in neutron diffraction experiments. The recent development of modern pulsed neutron sources triggered a renewed experimental interest which, in turn, led to new knowledge and also to a more effective use of the classic reactor-based experimental data. The contemporary development of quantum mechanical computer simulation techniques, and a critical comparison among the results of different experiments using steady and pulsed neutron sources, resulted in a quantitatively reliable solution of the problem. (topical review)

  17. Microscope system with on axis programmable Fourier transform filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, José Luis; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Moreno, Ignacio

    2017-02-01

    We propose an on-axis microscope optical system to implement programmable optical Fourier transform image processing operations, taking advantage of phase and polarization modulation of a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) display. We use a Hamamatsu spatial light modulator (SLM), free of flickering, which therefore can be tuned to fully eliminate the zero order component of the encoded diffractive filter. This allows the realization of filtering operation on axis (as opposed to other systems in the literature that require operating off axis), therefore making use of the full space bandwidth provided by the SLM. The system is first demonstrated by implementing different optical processing operations based on phase-only blazed gratings such as phase contrast, band-pass filtering, or additive and substractive imaging. Then, a simple Differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging is obtained changing to a polarization modulation scheme, achieved simply by selecting a different incident state of polarization on the incident beam.

  18. Convection in axially symmetric accretion discs with microscopic transport coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Malanchev, K L; Shakura, N I

    2016-01-01

    The vertical structure of stationary thin accretion discs is calculated from the energy balance equation with heat generation due to microscopic ion viscosity {\\eta} and electron heat conductivity {\\kappa}, both depending on temperature. In the optically thin discs it is found that for the heat conductivity increasing with temperature, the vertical temperature gradient exceeds the adiabatic value at some height, suggesting convective instability in the upper disc layer. There is a critical Prandtl number, Pr = 4/9, above which a Keplerian disc become fully convective. The vertical density distribution of optically thin laminar accretion discs as found from the hydrostatic equilibrium equation cannot be generally described by a polytrope but in the case of constant viscosity and heat conductivity. In the optically thick discs with radiation heat transfer, the vertical disc structure is found to be convectively stable for both absorption dominated and scattering dominated opacities, unless a very steep dependen...

  19. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  20. Microscopic Characterization of Scalable Coherent Rydberg Superatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Zeiher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Strong interactions can amplify quantum effects such that they become important on macroscopic scales. Controlling these coherently on a single-particle level is essential for the tailored preparation of strongly correlated quantum systems and opens up new prospects for quantum technologies. Rydberg atoms offer such strong interactions, which lead to extreme nonlinearities in laser-coupled atomic ensembles. As a result, multiple excitation of a micrometer-sized cloud can be blocked while the light-matter coupling becomes collectively enhanced. The resulting two-level system, often called a “superatom,” is a valuable resource for quantum information, providing a collective qubit. Here, we report on the preparation of 2 orders of magnitude scalable superatoms utilizing the large interaction strength provided by Rydberg atoms combined with precise control of an ensemble of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. The latter is achieved with sub-shot-noise precision by local manipulation of a two-dimensional Mott insulator. We microscopically confirm the superatom picture by in situ detection of the Rydberg excitations and observe the characteristic square-root scaling of the optical coupling with the number of atoms. Enabled by the full control over the atomic sample, including the motional degrees of freedom, we infer the overlap of the produced many-body state with a W state from the observed Rabi oscillations and deduce the presence of entanglement. Finally, we investigate the breakdown of the superatom picture when two Rydberg excitations are present in the system, which leads to dephasing and a loss of coherence.

  1. A sub-cm micromachined electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinerman, A. D.; Crewe, D. A.; Perng, D. C.; Shoaf, S. E.; Crewe, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fabricating macroscopic (approximately 10x10x10 mm(exp 3)) structures with micron accuracy has been developed. This approach combines the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies. A (100) silicon wafer is anisotropically etched to create four orthogonal v-grooves and an aperture on each 10x12 mm die. Precision 308 micron optical fibers are sandwiched between the die to align the v-grooves. The fiber is then anodically bonded to the die above and below it. This procedure is repeated to create thick structures and a stack of 5 or 6 die will be used to create a miniature scanning electron microscope (MSEM). Two die in the structure will have a segmented electrode to deflect the beam and correct for astigmatism. The entire structure is UHV compatible. The performance of an SEM improves as its length is reduced and a sub-cm 2 keV MSEM with a field emission source should have approximately 1 nm resolution. A low voltage high resolution MSEM would be useful for the examination of biological specimens and semiconductors with a minimum of damage. The first MSEM will be tested with existing 6 micron thermionic sources. In the future a micromachined field emission source will be used. The stacking technology presented in this paper can produce an array of MSEMs 1 to 30 mm in length with a 1 mm or larger period. A key question being addressed by this research is the optimum size for a low voltage MSEM which will be determined by the required spatial resolution, field of view, and working distance.

  2. Microscope Image of a Martian Soil Surface Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is the closest view of the material underneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This sample was taken from the top centimeter of the Martian soil, and this image from the lander's Optical Microscope demonstrates its overall composition. The soil is mostly composed of fine orange particles, and also contains larger grains, about a tenth of a millimeter in diameter, and of various colors. The soil is sticky, keeping together as a slab of material on the supporting substrate even though the substrate is tilted to the vertical. The fine orange grains are at or below the resolution of the Optical Microscope. Mixed into the soil is a small amount&mdashabout 0.5 percent&mdashof white grains, possibly of a salt. The larger grains range from black to almost transparent in appearance. At the bottom of the image, the shadows of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) beams are visible. This image is 1 millimeter x 2 millimeters. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Microscopic View of Soil on a Micromachined Silicone Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008) shows soil sprinkled from the lander's Robot Arm scoop onto a substrate that has been micromachined to produce different patterns of pegs and holes to capture the smallest particles in the Martian soil. The micromachined substrates are designed to tightly hold particles for imaging using the Atomic Force Microscope on Phoenix, which should be able to zoom in another 40 times beyond the magnification in this Optical Microscope image. Each stripe has a different spacing of pegs and holes. The strip third from the left, with a peg spacing of 5 micrometers, has been most successful in collecting the particles. These substrates were fabricated by Imperial College London as the United Kingdom hardware contribution to the Phoenix mission. For scale, each strip is 0.4 millimeter (0.016 inch) wide. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Microscopic colitis: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Ana Paula Hamer Sousa; Magnago, Flávia Drago; Ferreira, Juliana Neves; Grillo, Thais Gagno

    2016-12-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) refers to chronic inflammation of the colon which is characterized by histologic changes at the level of a radiologically and endoscopically normal mucosa. It is a common cause of chronic non-bloody diarrhea that occurs primarily in older individuals; however, there are few studies in the literature with strong scientific evidence compared to other inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which limits the knowledge of physicians and pathologists. This article aims to review the information on MC, describing diagnostic methods and drugs available for treatment. We conducted a search of the Pubmed database and CAPES Portal using the keywords "microscopic colitis", "collagenous colitis", "lymphocytic colitis", and "review" for selection of articles published between 1996 and 2015 related to the topic. Based on the studies discussed in this review, we conclude that MC is a relatively new gastrointestinal disorder, most studies are incipient particularly with respect to pathophysiology and immunology, and budesonide is the best documented short-term treatment. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the best strategy for treatment in the long term.

  5. Historical evolution toward achieving ultrahigh vacuum in JEOL electron microscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Nagamitsu

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the developmental history of the vacuum system of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) at the Japan Electron Optics Laboratory (JEOL) from its inception to its use in today’s high-technology microscopes. The author and his colleagues were engaged in developing vacuum technology for electron microscopes (JEM series) at JEOL for many years. This volume presents a summary and explanation of their work and the technology that makes possible a clean ultrahigh vacuum. The typical users of the TEM are top-level researchers working at the frontiers of new materials or with new biological specimens. They often use the TEM under extremely severe conditions, with problems sometimes occurring in the vacuum system of the microscopes. JEOL engineers then must work as quickly as possible to improve the vacuum evacuation system so as to prevent the recurrence of such problems. Among the wealth of explanatory material in this book are examples of users’ reports of problems in the vacuum system of...

  6. Microscopic Comparison of Airfall Dust to Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This pair of images taken by the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander offers a side-by-side comparison of an airfall dust sample collected on a substrate exposed during landing (left) and a soil sample scooped up from the surface of the ground beside the lander. In both cases the sample is collected on a silicone substrate, which provides a sticky surface holding sample particles for observation by the microscope. Similar fine particles at the resolution limit of the microscope are seen in both samples, indicating that the soil has formed from settling of dust. The microscope took the image on the left during Phoenix's Sol 9 (June 3, 2008), or the ninth Martian day after landing. It took the image on the right during Sol 17 (June 11, 2008). The scale bar is 1 millimeter (0.04 inch). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Parameter estimation method for blurred cell images from fluorescence microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fuyun; Zhang, Zhisheng; Luo, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Shulin

    2016-10-01

    Microscopic cell image analysis is indispensable to cell biology. Images of cells can easily degrade due to optical diffraction or focus shift, as this results in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and poor image quality, hence affecting the accuracy of cell analysis and identification. For a quantitative analysis of cell images, restoring blurred images to improve the SNR is the first step. A parameter estimation method for defocused microscopic cell images based on the power law properties of the power spectrum of cell images is proposed. The circular radon transform (CRT) is used to identify the zero-mode of the power spectrum. The parameter of the CRT curve is initially estimated by an improved differential evolution algorithm. Following this, the parameters are optimized through the gradient descent method. Using synthetic experiments, it was confirmed that the proposed method effectively increased the peak SNR (PSNR) of the recovered images with high accuracy. Furthermore, experimental results involving actual microscopic cell images verified that the superiority of the proposed parameter estimation method for blurred microscopic cell images other method in terms of qualitative visual sense as well as quantitative gradient and PSNR.

  8. Real-time microscopic phase-shifting profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Jeught, Sam; Soons, Joris A M; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2015-05-20

    A real-time microscopic profilometry system based on digital fringe projection and parallel programming has been developed and experimentally tested. Structured light patterns are projected onto an object through one pathway of a stereoscopic operation microscope. The patterns are deformed by the shape of the object and are then recorded with a high-speed CCD camera placed in the other pathway of the microscope. As the optical pathways of both arms are separated and reach the same object point at a relative angle, the recorded patterns allow the full-field object height variations to be calculated and the three-dimensional shape to be reconstructed by employing standard triangulation techniques. Applying proper hardware triggering, the projector-camera system is synchronized to capture up to 120 unique deformed line patterns per second. Using standard four-step phase-shifting profilometry techniques and applying graphics processing unit programming for fast phase wrapping, scaling, and visualization, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed system to generate 30 microscopic height maps per second. This allows the qualitative depth perception of the stereomicroscope operator to be enhanced by live quantitative height measurements with depth resolutions in the micrometer range.

  9. Performance verification of focus variation and confocal microscopes measuring tilted ultra-fine surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Baruffi, Federico; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of two optical instruments, scilicet a laser scanning confocal microscope and a focus-variation microscope, was investigated considering measurements of tilted surfaces. The measured samples were twelve steel artefacts for mould surface finish reference, covering Sa roughness...... parameter in the range (101—103) nm. The 3D surface texture parameters considered were Sa, Sq and Sdq. The small working distance of the confocal microscope objectives influenced the measurement setup, preventing from selecting a high tilting angle. The investigation was carried out comparing measurements...... of flat surfaces (0° tilt) with measurements of 12.5° tilted surfaces. The confocal microscope results showed a high sensitivity to tilting due to the laser beam reflection on the metal surfaces. The focus variation microscope results were more robust with respect to the considered angular variation...

  10. DESIGN NOTE: Surface microscopy and fibre characterization using a multimode-fibre reflectance microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukins, P. B.; Rehman, S.; Stevens, G. B.

    2000-04-01

    A remarkably simple scanning infrared surface-reflectance microscope based on a multimode-fibre-coupled diode laser together with straightforward electronics and scanning stage is described. The design does not require alignment and completely avoids the use of objectives, beamsplitters and other optics normally associated with such microscopes. The axial response, resolution and imaging properties for non-interferometric operation are characterized. A geometric model for the transmission of such a microscope using an idealized step/graded-index multimode fibre is presented. This model is used to explain the axial response of the microscope. Finally, a new method for determination of the numerical aperture and index-grading parameter of multimode fibres is proposed. This method is based on the geometric model together with axial-response measurements using the microscope in such a way that the fibre probe is the actual test fibre.

  11. Robotic autopositioning of the operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenlander, Mark E; Chowdhry, Shakeel A; Merkl, Brandon; Hattendorf, Guido M; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2014-06-01

    Use of the operating microscope has become pervasive since its introduction to the neurosurgical world. Neuronavigation fused with the operating microscope has allowed accurate correlation of the focal point of the microscope and its location on the downloaded imaging study. However, the robotic ability of the Pentero microscope has not been utilized to orient the angle of the microscope or to change its focal length to hone in on a predefined target. To report a novel technology that allows automatic positioning of the operating microscope onto a set target and utilization of a planned trajectory, either determined with the StealthStation S7 by using preoperative imaging or intraoperatively with the microscope. By utilizing the current motorized capabilities of the Zeiss OPMI Pentero microscope, a robotic autopositioning feature was developed in collaboration with Surgical Technologies, Medtronic, Inc. (StealthStation S7). The system is currently being tested at the Barrow Neurological Institute. Three options were developed for automatically positioning the microscope: AutoLock Current Point, Align Parallel to Plan, and Point to Plan Target. These options allow the microscope to pivot around the lesion, hover in a set plane parallel to the determined trajectory, or rotate and point to a set target point, respectively. Integration of automatic microscope positioning into the operative workflow has potential to increase operative efficacy and safety. This technology is best suited for precise trajectories and entry points into deep-seated lesions.

  12. Enhancing the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Noy; Yang, Samuel; Andalman, Aaron; Broxton, Michael; Grosenick, Logan; Deisseroth, Karl; Horowitz, Mark; Levoy, Marc

    2014-10-06

    Light field microscopy has been proposed as a new high-speed volumetric computational imaging method that enables reconstruction of 3-D volumes from captured projections of the 4-D light field. Recently, a detailed physical optics model of the light field microscope has been derived, which led to the development of a deconvolution algorithm that reconstructs 3-D volumes with high spatial resolution. However, the spatial resolution of the reconstructions has been shown to be non-uniform across depth, with some z planes showing high resolution and others, particularly at the center of the imaged volume, showing very low resolution. In this paper, we enhance the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding techniques. By including phase masks in the optical path of the microscope we are able to address this non-uniform resolution limitation. We have also found that superior control over the performance of the light field microscope can be achieved by using two phase masks rather than one, placed at the objective's back focal plane and at the microscope's native image plane. We present an extended optical model for our wavefront coded light field microscope and develop a performance metric based on Fisher information, which we use to choose adequate phase masks parameters. We validate our approach using both simulated data and experimental resolution measurements of a USAF 1951 resolution target; and demonstrate the utility for biological applications with in vivo volumetric calcium imaging of larval zebrafish brain.

  13. Near-field Optical Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, A.G.T.

    1997-01-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is one of the most recent scanning probe techniques. In this technique, an optical probe is brought in the vicinity of the sample surface, in the near-field zone. The microscope can either work in illumination mode, in which the probe consists of a

  14. Near-field Optical Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Anthonius Gerardus Theodorus

    1997-01-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is one of the most recent scanning probe techniques. In this technique, an optical probe is brought in the vicinity of the sample surface, in the near-field zone. The microscope can either work in illumination mode, in which the probe consists of a sub-w

  15. Improvement of spatial resolution in confocal microscope with shifted-focus phase filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangdong; Xiang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chongyang

    2015-02-01

    A spatial super-resolution method is proposed based on the multiplicative character of confocal microscope's amplitude point-spread functions. The axial resolution can be greatly improved by introducing a shifted-focus phase filters in illumination part of a confocal microscope. However, this improvement is accompanied by a decrease of transversal resolution. Thus, a super-Gaussian phase filter is optimized to control the focal shift and transversal intensity distribution in a confocal microscope. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed method is useful to obtain a significant improvement in the optical sectioning capacity.

  16. Three-dimensional microscopic light field particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Tadd T.; Belden, Jesse; Ni, Rui; Pendlebury, Jonathon; McEwen, Bryce

    2017-03-01

    A microscopic particle image velocimetry (μ {PIV}) technique is developed based on light field microscopy and is applied to flow through a microchannel containing a backward-facing step. The only hardware difference from a conventional μPIV setup is the placement of a microlens array at the intermediate image plane of the microscope. The method combines this optical hardware alteration with post-capture computation to enable 3D reconstruction of particle fields. From these particle fields, we measure three-component velocity fields, but find that accurate velocity measurements are limited to the two in-plane components at discrete depths through the volume (i.e., 2C-3D). Results are compared with a computational fluid dynamics simulation.

  17. Microscopic methods in analysis of submicron phospholipid dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płaczek Marcin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy belongs to the group of tests, used in pharmaceutical technology, that despite the lapse of time and the development of new analytical methods, still remain irreplaceable for the characterization of dispersed drug dosage forms (e.g., suspensions and emulsions. To obtain complete description of a specific drug formulation, such as parenteral colloidal products, a combination of different microscopic techniques is sometimes required. Electron microscopy methods are the most useful ones; however, even such basic methods as optical microscopy may be helpful for determination of some properties of a sample. The publication explicates the most popular microscopical techniques used nowadays for characterization of the morphology of nanoparticles suspended in pharmaceutical formulations; ad vantages and disadvantages of these methods are also discussed. Parenteral submicron formulations containing lecithin or a particular phospholipid were chosen as examples.

  18. The impact of loupes and microscopes on vision in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, P; Neuhaus, K W; Lussi, A

    2014-05-01

    To report on an intraradicular visual test in a simulated clinical setting under different optical conditions. Miniaturized visual tests with E-optotypes (bar distance from 0.01 to 0.05 mm) were fixed inside the root canal system of an extracted maxillary molar at different locations: at the orifice, a depth of 5 mm and the apex. The tooth was mounted in a phantom head for a simulated clinical setting. Unaided vision was compared with Galilean loupes (2.5× magnification) with integrated light source and an operating microscope (6× magnification). The influence of the dentists' age within two groups was evaluated: endodontic instruments. Dentists over 40 years of age were dependent on the microscope to inspect the root canal system. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Simple high-speed confocal line-scanning microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kang-Bin; Han, Sumin; Park, Hwajoon; Kim, Dongsun; Kim, Beop-Min

    2005-06-27

    Using a line scan camera and an acousto-optic deflector (AOD), we constructed a high-speed confocal laser line-scanning microscope that can generate confocal images (512 x 512 pixels) with up to 191 frames/s without any mechanically moving parts. The line scanner consists of an AOD and a cylindrical lens, which creates a line focus sweeping over the sample. The measured resolutions in z (depth), x (perpendicular to line focus), and y (direction of line focus) directions are 3.3 mum, 0.7 mum and 0.9 mum, respectively, with a 50x objective lens. This confocal microscope may be useful for analyzing fast phenomena during biological and chemical interactions and for fast 3D image reconstruction.

  20. A microscopic model for quantum optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Kanupriya

    We study a microscopic model, the Mirror-Oscillator-Field (MOF) model proposed in [1], for describing optomechanical interactions. In contrast with the conventional approach where the mirror-field interaction is understood as arising from the radiation pressure of an optical field inducing the motion of the mirror's CoM, the MOF model incorporates the dynamics of the internal degrees of freedom of the mirror that couple to the optical field directly. Considering the mirror's internal and mechanical degrees of freedom as two separate degrees of freedom we derive the optomechanical properties of the coupled mirror and field system. The major advantage in this approach is that it provides a self-consistent treatment of the three relevant subsystems (the mirror's motion, its internal degrees of freedom and the field) including their back-actions on each other, thereby giving a more accurate account of the coupled internal and external dynamics. The optical and the mechanical properties of a mirror arising from its dynamical interaction with the field are obtained without imposing any boundary conditions on the field additionally, as is done in the conventional way. We find that our results agree with those from the boundary condition approach in the appropriate limits and more generally the model provides a framework within which one can study optomechanical elements with different internal structures and mechanical properties, which makes it suited for studying hybrid systems. Considering the quantum dynamics of the coupled subsystems we look at the entanglement between the mirror's motion and the field, showing that the internal degrees of the mirror, in the appropriate parameter regimes, can act as a means to coherently transfer quantum correlations between the field and the mechanics thus leading to a larger optomechanical entanglement. We then use the MOF model to study the entanglement between the motion of an atom and a field for the setup in [95] and find a

  1. 局部氧疗法对高温复合创伤大鼠创面肌肉组织影响的光镜观察研究%The optical microscopic observation on the effects of rats of hyperthermia combined with trauma through topical oxygen therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞; 刘喜文; 杨群; 徐巧玲

    2008-01-01

    Objective Through the optical microscopic observation to investigate the pathological influence of topical oxygen therapy on wounds of rats' muscles in hot and humid environment. Method The rat traumatic models were established. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups, including normal envi-ronment comparison group (NEC group, n=6), normal environment oxygen therapy group (NEO group, n=6). hot and humid environment comparison group (HHE group, n=6), hot and humid environment oxygen therapy group (HHO group, n=6).Then all rats were sampled to observe the changes of rats' muscle under optical microscope. Results Pathologic histology of muscle cells were obviously changed in HHE group. In these rats. disorganized myofibrillae with some loss of myofilaments. The damage of the muscle fibers in HHO group were better than that in HHE group. The damage of muscle ceils in NEC group were slighter than that in HHE group, the muscle of rats in NEO group are all normal. Conclusion In hot and humid en-vironment pathologic histology changes of wounds were serious, topical oxygen therapy could relieve muscle tissue ultrastructures change.%目的 通过光镜观察探讨局部氧疗法对高温复合创伤大鼠创面肌肉组织的影响,为湿热环境的创伤伤口护理提供实验依据.方法 建立24只大鼠腹部创伤模型,随机将其分为常温对照组、常温氧疗组、高温对照组和高温氧疗组4组,6只/组,让其分别接受常温暴露、常温氧疗、高温露和高温氧疗,然后进行光镜观察.结果 高温对照组创面肌肉的组织形态变化最为剧烈,肌纤维明显变性萎缩甚至变性坏死成碎片,毛细血管扩张充血明显,大量炎性细胞入侵组织,组织间隙水肿严重;高温氧疗组明显好于高温对照组,肌纤维仅肿胀而未发生萎缩变性.结论 高温复合创伤应激比单因素的创伤应激显著,高温高湿环境创伤组织肌纤维损伤严重,局部氧疗法可降低高温

  2. In vivo cellular imaging with microscopes enabled by MEMS scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Hyejun

    High-resolution optical imaging plays an important role in medical diagnosis and biomedical research. Confocal microscopy is a widely used imaging method for obtaining cellular and sub-cellular images of biological tissue in reflectance and fluorescence modes. Its characteristic optical sectioning capability also enables three-dimensional (3-D) image reconstruction. However, its use has mostly been limited to excised tissues due to the requirement of high numerical aperture (NA) lenses for cellular resolution. Microscope miniaturization can enable in vivo imaging to make possible early cancer diagnosis and biological studies in the innate environment. In this dissertation, microscope miniaturization for in vivo cellular imaging is presented. The dual-axes confocal (DAC) architecture overcomes limitations of the conventional single-axis confocal (SAC) architecture to allow for miniaturization with high resolution. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner is the central imaging component that is key in miniaturization of the DAC architecture. The design, fabrication, and characterization of the two-dimensional (2-D) MEMS scanner are presented. The gimbaled MEMS scanner is fabricated on a double silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and is actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives. The imaging performance of the MEMS scanner in a DAC configuration is shown in a breadboard microscope setup, where reflectance and fluorescence imaging is demonstrated. Then, the MEMS scanner is integrated into a miniature DAC microscope. The whole imaging system is integrated into a portable unit for research in small animal models of human biology and disease. In vivo 3-D imaging is demonstrated on mouse skin models showing gene transfer and siRNA silencing. The siRNA silencing process is sequentially imaged in one mouse over time.

  3. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C.; Sheridan, John T.; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  4. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C.; Sheridan, John T.; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale. PMID:28059149

  5. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haoyu; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C; Sheridan, John T; Jia, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve spatially multiplexed discrete and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  6. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C; Sheridan, John T; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-06

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  7. Evaluación de Parámetros de Rugosidad usando Análisis de Imágenes de Diferentes Microscopios Ópticos y Electrónicos Evaluation of Roughness Parameters using Image Analysis from Different Optical and Electronic Microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una metodología para análisis de la rugosidad basada en las características superficiales de las imágenes obtenidas de microscopios ópticos y electrónicos. Se muestra un método de análisis basado en las características de rugosidad de textura. Las características que describen las texturas y que se utilizan para clasificarlas, provienen de los descriptores Haralick, que también se basan en matrices de co-ocurrencia. Los patrones de rugosidad primaria son evaluados y clasificados de acuerdo con varias características que utilizan los valores de estos descriptores. Los valores extraídos de los patrones se incorporan después a una red neuronal artificial de perceptrón multicapa. Se concluye que es posible iniciar la implementación del control de piezas metálicas para inspección de la calidad industrial de productos manufacturados a partir de ese sistema de reconocimiento de la rugosidad.A methodology for analyzing the roughness based on surface characteristics of the images obtained from optical and electronic microscopes, is presented. The features that describe textures and are also used to classify them derive from the Haralick descriptors, which are based on co-occurrence matrices. The primary roughness patterns are evaluated and classified according to several features which use the values of these descriptors. The values extracted from the patterns are fed to artificial neural network of the multi-layer perceptron type. It is concluded that it is possible to start implementing the control of metal parts for industrial quality control of manufactured products through this system of roughness recognition.

  8. The scanning ion conductance microscope for cellular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lab, Max J; Bhargava, Anamika; Wright, Peter T; Gorelik, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The quest for nonoptical imaging methods that can surmount light diffraction limits resulted in the development of scanning probe microscopes. However, most of the existing methods are not quite suitable for studying biological samples. The scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) bridges the gap between the resolution capabilities of atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope and functional capabilities of conventional light microscope. A nanopipette mounted on a three-axis piezo-actuator, scans a sample of interest and ion current is measured between the pipette tip and the sample. The feedback control system always keeps a certain distance between the sample and the pipette so the pipette never touches the sample. At the same time pipette movement is recorded and this generates a three-dimensional topographical image of the sample surface. SICM represents an alternative to conventional high-resolution microscopy, especially in imaging topography of live biological samples. In addition, the nanopipette probe provides a host of added modalities, for example using the same pipette and feedback control for efficient approach and seal with the cell membrane for ion channel recording. SICM can be combined in one instrument with optical and fluorescent methods and allows drawing structure-function correlations. It can also be used for precise mechanical force measurements as well as vehicle to apply pressure with precision. This can be done on living cells and tissues for prolonged periods of time without them loosing viability. The SICM is a multifunctional instrument, and it is maturing rapidly and will open even more possibilities in the near future.

  9. Optical Measurement Techniques for Optical Fiber and Waveguide Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Y.; Kim; Y.; Park; N.H.; Seong; Y.C.Youk; J.Y.; Lee; S.; Moon; I.H.; Shin; H.S.; Ryu

    2003-01-01

    We describe three major optical characterization methods for fiber and fiber devices. A simple servo controlled scanning fiber-optic confocal microscope is proposed for determining the refractive index profile of an optical fiber. To measure the chromatic dispersion of a short length fiber a Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer with a novel interferometric distance meter is introduced. At the end, a tomographic method is demonstrated for determining the 2-D stress profile of a fiber.

  10. Investigation of Tooling for Anisotropic Optical Functional Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Regi, Francesco; Zhang, Yang

    is assessed by processing the images obtained from a digital microscope Hirox RH-2000 [1]. Figure 1 illustrates the studied surface structure and the microscope. The optical axis of microscope can be tilted within 90 degrees from the horizontal level, which simulates the viewing angle; the analysed surface...

  11. Testing microscopes between market and scientific strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliff, Marc

    2007-01-01

    This paper claims that the testing of microscopes during the eighteenth century reveals specific types of interaction between makers and users and links between scientific and economic interests. Basic procedures for the comparison and test of microscopes existed already in the Enlightenment although many historians thought that these were invented during the nineteenth century. The paper discusses three kinds of tests, advertising, the admission of a microscope in the laboratory, and finally...

  12. Robot-assisted microscope for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, C; Eisenberg, H; Costi, G; Gallo, E; Garibotto, G; Casolino, D S

    1995-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a robotic arm connected to a neurosurgical operative microscope. A force feedback sensor drives the motors of the arm in response to the positioning of the microscope by the surgeon. Computer graphic techniques allow tracking of the current position of the microscope within the volumetric reconstruction of the brain. The integration of the prototype into the neurosurgical operating room is currently being evaluated. Preliminary comments on this experimental phase are offered.

  13. Application of in vivo laser scanning microscope in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, Juergen; Richter, H.; Otberg, N.; Lawrenz, F.; Blume-Peytavi, U.; Sterry, W.

    2003-10-01

    The state of the art of in-vivo and in-vitro penetration measurements of topically applied substances is described. Only optical techniques represent online measuring methods based on the absorption or scattering properties of the topically applied substances. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) has become a promising method for investigations in dermatology and skin physiology, after it was possible to analyze the skin surface on any body side in-vivo. In the present paper the application of a dermatological laser scanning microscope for penetration and distribution measurements of topically applied substances is described. The intercellular and follicular penetration pathways were studied.

  14. Characterization of quantum well structures using a photocathode electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael G.; Scott, Craig J.

    1989-01-01

    Present day integrated circuits pose a challenge to conventional electronic and mechanical test methods. Feature sizes in the submicron and nanometric regime require radical approaches in order to facilitate electrical contact to circuits and devices being tested. In addition, microwave operating frequencies require careful attention to distributed effects when considering the electrical signal paths within and external to the device under test. An alternative testing approach which combines the best of electrical and optical time domain testing is presented, namely photocathode electron microscope quantitative voltage contrast (PEMQVC).

  15. A design for a pinhole scanning helium microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, M.; Fahy, A. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Jardine, A.; Ellis, J.; Ward, D. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); MacLaren, D.A. [Dept. of Physics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Allison, W. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Dastoor, P.C., E-mail: Paul.Dastoor@newcastle.edu.au [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    We present a simplified design for a scanning helium microscope (SHeM) which utilises almost entirely off the shelf components. The SHeM produces images by detecting scattered neutral helium atoms from a surface, forming an entirely surface sensitive and non-destructive imaging technique. This particular prototype instrument avoids the complexities of existing neutral atom optics by replacing them with an aperture in the form of an ion beam milled pinhole, resulting in a resolution of around 5 microns. Using the images so far produced, an initial investigation of topological contrast has been performed.

  16. Fiber optic sensing and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book is designed to highlight the basic principles of fiber optic imaging and sensing devices. The editor has organized the book to provide the reader with a solid foundation in fiber optic imaging and sensing devices. It begins with an introductory chapter that starts from Maxwell’s equations and ends with the derivation of the basic optical fiber characteristic equations and solutions (i.e. fiber modes). Chapter 2 reviews most common fiber optic interferometric devices and Chapter 3 discusses the basics of fiber optic imagers with emphasis on fiber optic confocal microscope. The fiber optic interferometric sensors are discussed in detail in chapter 4 and 5. Chapter 6 covers optical coherence tomography and goes into the details of signal processing and systems level approach of the real-time OCT implementation. Also useful forms of device characteristic equations are provided so that this book can be used as a reference for scientists and engineers in the optics and related fields.

  17. Optical imaging. Expansion microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Boyden, Edward S

    2015-01-30

    In optical microscopy, fine structural details are resolved by using refraction to magnify images of a specimen. We discovered that by synthesizing a swellable polymer network within a specimen, it can be physically expanded, resulting in physical magnification. By covalently anchoring specific labels located within the specimen directly to the polymer network, labels spaced closer than the optical diffraction limit can be isotropically separated and optically resolved, a process we call expansion microscopy (ExM). Thus, this process can be used to perform scalable superresolution microscopy with diffraction-limited microscopes. We demonstrate ExM with apparent ~70-nanometer lateral resolution in both cultured cells and brain tissue, performing three-color superresolution imaging of ~10(7) cubic micrometers of the mouse hippocampus with a conventional confocal microscope.

  18. Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten P.

    Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope......Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope...

  19. Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten P.

    Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope......Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope...

  20. Mice embryology: a microscopic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Maria Letícia Baptista; Lessa, Thais Borges; Russo, Fabiele Baldino; Fernandes, Renata Avancini; Kfoury, José Roberto; Braga, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we studied the embryology of mice of 12, 14, and 18 days of gestation by gross observation, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Grossly, the embryos of 12 days were observed in C-shaped region of the brain, eye pigmentation of the retina, first, second, and third pharyngeal arches gill pit nasal region on the fourth ventricle brain, cervical curvature, heart, liver, limb bud thoracic, spinal cord, tail, umbilical cord, and place of the mesonephric ridge. Microscopically, the liver, cardiovascular system and spinal cord were observed. In the embryo of 14 days, we observed structures that make up the liver and heart. At 18 days of gestation fetuses, it was noted the presence of eyes, mouth, and nose in the cephalic region, chest and pelvic region with the presence of well-developed limbs, umbilical cord, and placenta. Scanning electron microscopy in 18 days of gestation fetuses evidenced head, eyes closed eyelids, nose, vibrissae, forelimb, heart, lung, kidney, liver, small bowel, diaphragm, and part of the spine. The results obtained in this work describe the internal and external morphology of mice, provided by an integration of techniques and review of the morphological knowledge of the embryonic development of this species, as this animal is of great importance to scientific studies.

  1. In vivo imaging of middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse guided by SD-OCT combined with a surgical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam Hyun; Jang, Jeong Hun; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2014-01-01

    We developed an augmented-reality system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a surgical microscope. By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and OCT, we could simultaneously acquire OCT and microscope views. The system was tested to identify the middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse. Considering the probability of clinical application including otorhinolaryngology, diseases such as middle-ear effusion were visualized using in vivo mouse and OCT images simultaneously acquired through the eyepiece of the surgical microscope during surgical manipulation using the proposed system. This system is expected to realize a new practical area of OCT application. PMID:24787787

  2. Measurement of Single Cell Refractive Index, Dry Mass, Volume, and Density Using a Transillumination Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Jacques, Steven L.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2012-09-01

    Phase contrast microscopy has become ubiquitous in the field of biology, particularly in qualitative investigations of cellular morphology. However, the use of quantitative phase retrieval methods and their connection to cellular refractive index and dry mass density remain under utilized. This is due in part to the restriction of phase and cellular mass determination to custom built instruments, involved mathematical analysis, and prohibitive sample perturbations. We introduce tomographic bright field imaging, an accessible optical imaging technique enabling the three dimensional measurement of cellular refractive index and dry mass density using a standard transillumination optical microscope. The validity of the technique is demonstrated on polystyrene spheres. The technique is then applied to the measurement of the refractive index, dry mass, volume, and density of red blood cells. This optical technique enables a simple and robust means to perform quantitative investigations of engineered and biological specimens in three dimensions using standard optical microscopes.

  3. Development of emulsion track expansion techniques for optical-microscopy-observation of low-velocity ion tracks with ranges beyond optical resolution limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, T. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Natsume, M. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)], E-mail: natsume@flab.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Niwa, K.; Hoshino, K.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Sato, O. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2007-11-01

    We succeeded to observe tracks of low-velocity Kr ions, having originally ranges below optical resolution, in a fine grain nuclear emulsion with an optical microscope after expanding the emulsion along the incident direction. This opens up the possibility of tracking low-velocity nuclear recoils from massive dark matter particles using optical microscope scanning systems.

  4. Characterizing microscopic domains of birefringence in thin tissue sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Moody, Alex; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2001-07-01

    A tissue engineering problem that we anticipate will become increasingly of interest is how to grow protein layers and filaments in preferred orientations. For example, the polymerization of monomers into an oriented structure which may exert influence on adherent cells. In this paper, we report on an optical solution using polarized light measurements to probe the structure and orientation of fibers. In particular in this initial study, we measure the fast-axis orientation and retardance of micro-domains in thin sections of liver, muscle, and skin tissues using a polarizing microscope. The size of microdomains of iso- retardance is in the range 10-100 μm, which suggests that optical measurements with laser beams that are on the order of 1-mm in diameter or with imaging cameras with pixels sizes on the order of 100 s of μm will average over several microdomains and consequently complicate interpretation of measurements.

  5. Schwarzschild microscopes in vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. WATANABE; M. YANAGIHARA; T. EJIMA; M. TOYODA; Y. KONDO; T. HATANO; T. TSURU; M. YAMAMOTO

    2005-01-01

    Microscopes in vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions using a normal incidence type of Schwarzschild objective are reviewed. The objective consists ofa concave mirror and a convex mirror coated with a high reflectance multilayer, having a large numerical aperture comparing with other objectives. The microscopes have been used to diagnose inertia-confinement-fusion plasmas, and to investigate small samples or microstructures of inorganic and organic materials by imaging them using laboratory light sources. Synchrotron radiation has been also used to obtain a microbeam for a photoelectron scanning microscope with a spatial resolution of 0.1 μm. The structure and performance of two laboratory microscopes developed at Tohoku University are demonstrated. One of them is a soft X-ray emission imaging microscope. An image of an artificial pattern made of W and SiO2 on Si wafer by focusing Si L emission was presented. The other is an ultraviolet photoelectron scanning microscope using a He (helium) gas discharge lamp. The valence band spectra of a microcrystal of FeWO4 were presented. Furthermore other applications such as demagnifying optics for lithography and optics to gather fluorescence for emission spectroscopy are introduced.

  6. Integrated system for point cloud reconstruction and simulated brain shift validation using tracked surgical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Clements, Logan W.; Luo, Ma; Narasimhan, Saramati; Thompson, Reid C.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-03-01

    Intra-operative soft tissue deformation, referred to as brain shift, compromises the application of current imageguided surgery (IGS) navigation systems in neurosurgery. A computational model driven by sparse data has been used as a cost effective method to compensate for cortical surface and volumetric displacements. Stereoscopic microscopes and laser range scanners (LRS) are the two most investigated sparse intra-operative imaging modalities for driving these systems. However, integrating these devices in the clinical workflow to facilitate development and evaluation requires developing systems that easily permit data acquisition and processing. In this work we present a mock environment developed to acquire stereo images from a tracked operating microscope and to reconstruct 3D point clouds from these images. A reconstruction error of 1 mm is estimated by using a phantom with a known geometry and independently measured deformation extent. The microscope is tracked via an attached tracking rigid body that facilitates the recording of the position of the microscope via a commercial optical tracking system as it moves during the procedure. Point clouds, reconstructed under different microscope positions, are registered into the same space in order to compute the feature displacements. Using our mock craniotomy device, realistic cortical deformations are generated. Our experimental results report approximately 2mm average displacement error compared with the optical tracking system. These results demonstrate the practicality of using tracked stereoscopic microscope as an alternative to LRS to collect sufficient intraoperative information for brain shift correction.

  7. Coherent confocal microscope with a phase-only filter in its extended source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chu-ping

    2006-01-01

    The phase information of an extended source is reconstructed by use of a two-zone (annular) phase-only filter in a coherent confocal scanning optical microscope.The dependence of its resolution on its source size is investigated theoretically by its three-dimensional optical transfer function (3D OTF).The results show that the resolution is improved, even though the source size is enlarged.

  8. Microscopic colitis : an unfamiliar but treatable disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E J; Karrenbeld, A; Kleibeuker, J H; Dijkstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Chronic diarrhoea is a frequent complaint in clinical practice. Microscopic colitis is the cause of this symptom in 10% of these cases and the prevalence is rising. To exclude microscopic colitis a colonoscopy with multiple biopsies of different regions of the colon is mandatory. A sigmoidoscopy alo

  9. Microscopic colitis : an unfamiliar but treatable disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E J; Karrenbeld, A; Kleibeuker, J H; Dijkstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Chronic diarrhoea is a frequent complaint in clinical practice. Microscopic colitis is the cause of this symptom in 10% of these cases and the prevalence is rising. To exclude microscopic colitis a colonoscopy with multiple biopsies of different regions of the colon is mandatory. A sigmoidoscopy alo

  10. Microscopic colitis : an unfamiliar but treatable disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E J; Karrenbeld, A; Kleibeuker, J H; Dijkstra, Gerard

    Chronic diarrhoea is a frequent complaint in clinical practice. Microscopic colitis is the cause of this symptom in 10% of these cases and the prevalence is rising. To exclude microscopic colitis a colonoscopy with multiple biopsies of different regions of the colon is mandatory. A sigmoidoscopy

  11. Robotic CCD microscope for enhanced crystal recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelke, Brent W.; Toppani, Dominique

    2007-11-06

    A robotic CCD microscope and procedures to automate crystal recognition. The robotic CCD microscope and procedures enables more accurate crystal recognition, leading to fewer false negative and fewer false positives, and enable detection of smaller crystals compared to other methods available today.

  12. Electron Microscope Center Opens at Berkeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1981-01-01

    A 1.5-MeV High Voltage Electron Microscope has been installed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory which will help materials scientists and biologists study samples in more true-to-life situations. A 1-MeV Atomic Resolution Microscope will be installed at the same location in two years which will allow scientists to distinguish atoms. (DS)

  13. The National Ignition Facility modular Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickworth, L. A.; Ayers, J.; Bell, P.; Brejnholt, N. F.; Buscho, J. G.; Bradley, D.; Decker, T.; Hau-Riege, S.; Kilkenny, J.; McCarville, T.; Pardini, T.; Vogel, J.; Walton, C.

    2016-11-01

    Current two-dimensional X-ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) uses time resolved pinhole cameras with ˜10-25 μm pinholes. This method has limitations in the smallest resolvable features that can be imaged with reasonable photon statistics for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. ICF sources have a broadband self-emission spectrum that causes the pinhole images obtained, through thin foil filters, to contain a similarly broadband spectrum complicating the interpretation of structure in the source. In order to study phenomena on the scale of ˜5 μm, such as dopant mix in the ICF capsule, a narrow energy band, higher spatial resolution microscope system with improved signal/noise has been developed using X-ray optics. Utilizing grazing incidence mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope (KBM) configuration [P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766-774 (1948)], an X-ray microscope has been designed and fielded on NIF with four imaging channels. The KBM has ˜12 × magnification, <8 μm resolution, and higher throughput in comparison to similar pinhole systems. The first KBM mirrors are coated with a multilayer mirror to allow a "narrow band" energy response at 10.2 keV with ΔE ˜ 3 keV. By adjusting the mirror coating only, the energy response can be matched to the future experimental requirements. Several mirror packs have been commissioned and are interchangeable in the diagnostic snout.

  14. MIDAS: Lessons learned from the first spaceborne atomic force microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Bentley, Mark S; Butler, Bart; Gavira, Jose; Jeszenszky, Harald; Mannel, Thurid; Romstedt, Jens; Schmied, Roland; Torkar, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System (MIDAS) atomic force microscope (AFM) onboard the Rosetta orbiter was the first such instrument launched into space in 2004. Designed only a few years after the technique was invented, MIDAS is currently orbiting comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko and producing the highest resolution 3D images of cometary dust ever made in situ. After more than a year of continuous operation much experience has been gained with this novel instrument. Coupled with operations of the Flight Spare and advances in terrestrial AFM a set of "lessons learned" has been produced, cumulating in recommendations for future spaceborne atomic force microscopes. The majority of the design could be reused as-is, or with incremental upgrades to include more modern components (e.g. the processor). Key additional recommendations are to incorporate an optical microscope to aid the search for particles and image registration, to include a variety of cantilevers (with different spring constants) and a variety of ...

  15. Stage scoring of liver fibrosis using Mueller matrix microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jialing; He, Honghui; Wang, Ye; Ma, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Liver fibrosis is a common pathological process of varied chronic liver diseases including alcoholic hepatitis, virus hepatitis, and so on. Accurate evaluation of liver fibrosis is necessary for effective therapy and a five-stage grading system was developed. Currently, experienced pathologists use stained liver biopsies to assess the degree of liver fibrosis. But it is difficult to obtain highly reproducible results because of huge discrepancy among different observers. Polarization imaging technique has the potential of scoring liver fibrosis since it is capable of probing the structural and optical properties of samples. Considering that the Mueller matrix measurement can provide comprehensive microstructural information of the tissues, in this paper, we apply the Mueller matrix microscope to human liver fibrosis slices in different fibrosis stages. We extract the valid regions and adopt the Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) and Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters for quantitative analysis. We also use the Monte Carlo simulation to analyze the relationship between the microscopic Mueller matrix parameters and the characteristic structural changes during the fibrosis process. The experimental and Monte Carlo simulated results show good consistency. We get a positive correlation between the parameters and the stage of liver fibrosis. The results presented in this paper indicate that the Mueller matrix microscope can provide additional information for the detections and fibrosis scorings of liver tissues and has great potential in liver fibrosis diagnosis.

  16. Low-power noncontact photoacoustic microscope for bioimaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyamoorthy, Krishnan; Strohm, Eric M.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2017-04-01

    An inexpensive noncontact photoacoustic (PA) imaging system using a low-power continuous wave laser and a kilohertz-range microphone has been developed. The system operates in both optical and PA imaging modes and is designed to be compatible with conventional optical microscopes. Aqueous coupling fluids are not required for the detection of the PA signals; air is used as the coupling medium. The main component of the PA system is a custom designed PA imaging sensor that consists of an air-filled sample chamber and a resonator chamber that isolates a standard kilohertz frequency microphone from the input laser. A sample to be examined is placed on the glass substrate inside the chamber. A laser focused to a small spot by a 40× objective onto the substrate enables generation of PA signals from the sample. Raster scanning the laser over the sample with micrometer-sized steps enables high-resolution PA images to be generated. A lateral resolution of 1.37 μm was achieved in this proof of concept study, which can be further improved using a higher numerical aperture objective. The application of the system was investigated on a red blood cell, with a noise-equivalent detection sensitivity of 43,887 hemoglobin molecules (72.88×10-21 mol or 72.88 zeptomol). The minimum pressure detectable limit of the system was 19.1 μPa. This inexpensive, compact noncontact PA sensor is easily integrated with existing commercial optical microscopes, enabling optical and PA imaging of the same sample. Applications include forensic measurements, blood coagulation tests, and monitoring the penetration of drugs into human membrane.

  17. Applied physics: Optical trapping for space mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, David

    2014-02-27

    Might it be possible to create mirrors for space telescopes, using nothing but microscopic particles held in place by light? A study that exploits a technique called optical binding provides a step towards this goal.

  18. Integrated structural and functional optical imaging combining spectral-domain optical coherence and multiphoton microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vinegoni, C; Luo, W; Marks, D L; Ralston, T; Tan, W

    2005-01-01

    An integrated microscope that combines different optical techniques for simultaneous imaging is demonstrated. The microscope enables spectral-domain optical coherence microscopy based on optical backscatter, and multi-photon microscopy for the detection of two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. The unique configuration of this integrated microscope allows for the simultaneous acquisition of both anatomical (structural) and functional imaging information with particular emphasis for applications in the fields of tissue engineering and cell biology. In addition, the contemporary analysis of the spectroscopic features can enhance contrast by differentiating among different tissue components.

  19. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  20. ``OPTICAL Catalytic Nanomotors''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosary-Oyong, Se, Glory

    D. Kagan, et.al, 2009:'' a motion-based chemical sensing involving fuel-driven nanomotors is demonstrated. The new protocol relies on the use of an optical microscope for tracking charge in the speed of nanowire motors in the presence of target analyte''. Synthetic nanomotors are propelled by catalytic decomposition of .. they do not require external electric, magnetic or optical fields as energy..pubs.acs.org/cen/science/83/i08/8308sci1.html>. Accompanying Fig 2.6(a) of optical micrograph of a partial monolayer of silica microbeads [J.Gibbs, 2011 ] retrieves WF Paxton:''rods were characterized by transmission electron & dark-field optical microscopy..'' & LF Valadares:''dimer due to the limited resolution of optical microscopy, however the result..'. Acknowledged to HE. Mr. Prof. SEDIONO M.P. TJONDRONEGORO.

  1. The Optics of Bruising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeberg, Lise Lyngsnes; Skallerud, Bjørn; Langlois, Neil E. I.; Haugen, Olav Anton; Svaasand, Lars Othar

    Forensic medicine is a field of medicine where technology plays an increasingly important role in securing and evaluating evidence in, for example, child abuse cases and cases of domestic violence. Methods from chemistry and biological sciences have found a wide application within forensic medicine. Optical technologies like microscopy are also widely used. Despite this, in vivo or post mortem optical diagnostics by spectroscopy have traditionally not had an important role in clinical or forensic examinations. Forensic medical optics as a field might include all kinds of optical analysis for use within forensic science. This includes everything from microscopic techniques to methods for examination of evidence from a crime scene. This chapter will, however, focus on the use of optical diagnostics for examining skin, with a focus on identification, characterization and age determination of minor traumatic injuries like skin bruises.

  2. Development of in vivo confocal microscope for reflection and fluorescence imaging simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, MyoungKi; Chun, ByungSeon; Song, Cheol; Gweon, DaeGab

    2010-02-01

    In-vivo confocal microscope technology can be applied to the medical imaging diagnosis and new drug development. We present an in-vivo confocal microscope that can acquire a reflection image and a fluorescence image simultaneously and independently. To obtain reflection confocal images, we used a linearly polarized diode laser with the wavelength of 830 nm. To acquire fluorescence confocal images, we used two diode lasers with the wavelength of 488 nm and 660 nm, respectively. Because of a broad wavelength bandwidth from visible (488 nm) to near-IR (830 nm), we designed and optimized the optical system to reduce various optical aberrations. With the developed in-vivo confocal microscope, we performed ex-vivo cell imaging and in-vivo imaging of the human skin.

  3. Classification of gram-positive and gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria with hyperspectral microscope imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical method with hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) has potential for identification of foodborne pathogenic bacteria from microcolonies rapidly with a cell level. A HMI system that provides both spatial and spectral information could be an effective tool for analyzing spectral characteristic...

  4. Visualizing Fluorescence: Using a Homemade Fluorescence "Microscope" to View Latent Fingerprints on Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFratta, Christopher N.; Huh, Sun Phill; Mallillin, Allistair C.; Riviello, Peter J.; Walt, David R.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an inexpensive hand-held fluorescence imager (low-magnification microscope), constructed from poly(vinyl chloride) pipe and other inexpensive components for use as a teaching tool to understand the principles of fluorescence detection. Optical filters are used to select the excitation and emission wavelengths and can be easily…

  5. The Brieva-Rook Localization of the Microscopic Nucleon-Nucleus Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Minomo, K; Kohno, M; Shimizu, Y R; Yahiro, M

    2009-01-01

    The nonlocality of the microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potential is commonly localized by the Brieva-Rook approximation. The validity of the localization is tested for the proton+$^{90}$Zr scattering at the incident energies from 65 MeV to 800 MeV. The localization is valid in the wide incident-energy range.

  6. Surveillance Cameras and Their Use as a Dissecting Microscope in the Teaching of Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance cameras are prevalent in various public and private areas, and they can also be coupled to optical microscopes and telescopes with excellent results. They are relatively simple cameras without sophisticated technological features and are much less expensive and more accessible to many people. These features enable them to be used in…

  7. Quasi interference of perpendicularly polarized guided modes observed with a photon scanning tunneling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balistreri, M.L.M.; Driessen, A.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    The simultaneous detection of TE- as well as TM-polarized light with a photon scanning tunneling microscope leads to a quasi- interference pattern of these mutually perpendicular polarized fields. This interference pattern has been observed in the optical field distribution as a function of both pos

  8. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  9. High NA diffractive array illuminators and application in a multi-spot scanning microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsken, B.; Vossen, D.; Stallinga, S.

    2012-01-01

    Array illuminators generating spots with high NA at high efficiency are presented. They are designed via application of high-NA scalar optics methods, and implemented as periodic binary phase structures. These array illuminators are used in a multi-spot scanning microscope for scanning large sample

  10. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  11. On chip shapeable optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, C; Cluzel, B; Dellinger, J; Lalouat, L; Picard, E; Peyrade, D; Hadji, E; de Fornel, F

    2013-01-01

    Particles manipulation with optical forces is known as optical tweezing. While tweezing in free space with laser beams was established in the 1980s, integrating the optical tweezers on a chip is a challenging task. Recent experiments with plasmonic nanoantennas, microring resonators, and photonic crystal nanocavities have demonstrated optical trapping. However, the optical field of a tweezer made of a single microscopic resonator cannot be shaped. So far, this prevents from optically driven micromanipulations. Here we propose an alternative approach where the shape of the optical trap can be tuned by the wavelength in coupled nanobeam cavities. Using these shapeable tweezers, we present micromanipulation of polystyrene microspheres trapped on a silicon chip. These results show that coupled nanobeam cavities are versatile building blocks for optical near-field engineering. They open the way to much complex integrated tweezers using networks of coupled nanobeam cavities for particles or bio-objects manipulation at a larger scale.

  12. Optic glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  13. The research progress of metrological 248nm deep ultraviolent microscope inspection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-xin; Li, Qi; Gao, Si-tian; Shi, Yu-shu; Li, Wei; Li, Shi

    2016-01-01

    In lithography process, the precision of wafer pattern to a large extent depends on the geometric dimensioning and tolerance of photomasks when accuracy of lithography aligner is certain. Since the minimum linewidth (Critical Dimension) of the aligner exposing shrinks to a few tens of nanometers in size, one-tenth of tolerance errors in fabrication may lead to microchip function failure, so it is very important to calibrate these errors of photomasks. Among different error measurement instruments, deep ultraviolent (DUV) microscope because of its high resolution, as well as its advantages compared to scanning probe microscope restrained by measuring range and scanning electron microscope restrained by vacuum environment, makes itself the most suitable apparatus. But currently there is very few DUV microscope adopting 248nm optical system, means it can attain 80nm resolution; furthermore, there is almost no DUV microscope possessing traceable calibration capability. For these reason, the National Institute of Metrology, China is developing a metrological 248nm DUV microscope mainly consists of DUV microscopic components, PZT and air supporting stages as well as interferometer calibration framework. In DUV microscopic component, the Köhler high aperture transmit condenser, DUV splitting optical elements and PMT pinhole scanning elements are built. In PZT and air supporting stages, a novel PZT actuating flexural hinge stage nested separate X, Y direction kinematics and a friction wheel driving long range air supporting stage are researched. In interferometer framework, a heterodyne multi-pass interferometer measures XY axis translation and Z axis rotation through Zerodur mirror mounted on stage. It is expected the apparatus has the capability to calibrate one dimensional linewidths and two dimensional pitches ranging from 200nm to 50μm with expanded uncertainty below 20nm.

  14. Microscopic theory of linear and nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Johannes

    2008-12-09

    This Thesis presents a fully microscopic theory to describe terahertz (THz)-induced processes in optically-excited semiconductors. The formation process of excitons and other quasi-particles after optical excitation has been studied in great detail for a variety of conditions. Here, the formation process is not modelled but a realistic initial many-body state is assumed. In particular, the linear THz response is reviewed and it is demonstrated that correlated quasi-particles such as excitons and plasmons can be unambiguously detected via THz spectroscopy. The focus of the investigations, however, is on situations where the optically-excited many-body state is excited by intense THz fields. While weak pulses detect the many-body state, strong THz pulses control and manipulate the quasi-particles in a way that is not accessible via conventional techniques. The nonlinear THz dynamics of exciton populations is especially interesting because similarities and differences to optics with atomic systems can be studied. (orig.)

  15. Low bone mass in microscopic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakatos Péter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microscopic colitis presents with similar symptoms to classic inflammatory bowel diseases. Osteoporosis is a common complication of Crohn's disease but there are no data concerning bone metabolism in microscopic colitis. Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone density and metabolism in patients with microscopic colitis. Methods Fourteen patients microscopic colitis were included in the study, and 28 healthy persons and 28 age and gender matched Crohn's disease patients were enrolled as controls. Bone mineral density was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and the radius. Serum bone formation and bone resorption markers (osteocalcin and beta-crosslaps, respectively were measured using immunoassays. Results Low bone mass was measured in 57.14% patients with microscopic colitis. Bone mineral density at the femoral neck in patients suffering from microscopic colitis and Crohn's disease was lower than in healthy controls (0.852 ± 0.165 and 0.807 ± 0.136 vs. 1.056 ± 0.126 g/cm2; p 2; p 2. Mean beta-crosslaps concentration was higher in microscopic colitis and Crohn's disease patients than controls (417.714 ± 250.37 and 466.071 ± 249.96 vs. 264.75 ± 138.65 pg/ml; p Conclusions Low bone mass is frequent in microscopic colitis, and alterations to bone metabolism are similar to those present in Crohn's disease. Therefore, microscopic colitis-associated osteopenia could be a significant problem in such patients.

  16. The Mathematical Microscope - Making the inaccessible accessible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2011-01-01

      In this chapter we introduce a new term, the "Mathematical Microscope", as a method of using mathematics in accessing information about reality when this information is otherwise inaccessible. Furthermore, we discuss how models and experiments are related: none of which are important without...... the other. In the sciences and medicine, a link that is often missing in the chain of a system can be made visible with the aid of the mathematical microscope. The mathematical microscope serves not only as a lens to clarify a blurred picture but more important as a tool to unveil profound truths...

  17. Confocal Scanning Microscope for Nuclear Photoemulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Batusov, Yu A; Soroko, L M

    2005-01-01

    The application of the confocal scanning microscope to the objects in the nuclear photoemulsion is described. An array of 27 microtomograms of {\\it single} silver grain is shown. The cross sections of the same particle track of diameter 1 $\\mu$m, detected by means of the confocal scanning microscope with open and annular apertures, are presented. It was shown that the confocal scanning microscope opens indeed new opportunities for the nuclear photoemulsion technique to get previously inaccessible information for physics of the short-living particles.

  18. Recent Opportunity Microscopic Imager Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Yingst, R.; Team, A.

    2013-12-01

    Opportunity arrived at exposures of Endeavour crater rim rocks in August 2011, on a hill dubbed 'Cape York.' These rocks have been the goal of exploration by Opportunity for the past few years because spectral evidence for phyllosilicates was observed at this location in orbital remote sensing data. As Opportunity circum¬navigated Cape York, the Microscopic Imager (MI) was used to examine the fine-scale textures of various soils and rocky outcrops. As reported previously, Opportunity discovered multiple bright linear features along the western periphery of Cape York that have been interpreted as veins of Ca sulfate deposited in fractures within the bedrock of Cape York. Opportunity then explored the northern and eastern sides of Cape York, including the area around 'Matijevic Hill' that shows evidence for phyllosilicates in CRISM data acquired from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. One of the first outcrops examined near Matijevic Hill, dubbed 'Kirkwood,' is dominated by millimeter-size spherules. Unlike the hematite-rich concretions observed by Opportunity on Meridiani Planum, the aggregated 'newberries' in the Kirkwood exposure display internal structure and resistant rims. Compositionally, the spherule-rich rock is very similar to a nearby spherule-poor outcrop dubbed 'Whitewater Lake.' Thus these spherules have a more basalt-like composition compared to the hematite-rich concretions of the Burns Formation. The origin of the Kirkwood outcrop is uncertain, but the setting on the rim of the 22-km diameter Endeavour crater suggests that perhaps impact melting was involved in lapilli formation, possibly followed by mobilization and sorting in the ejecta blanket. Alternatively, the newberries may be diagenetic iron oxide concretions that are less well cemented than the 'blueberries' of the younger sulfate-rich Burns Formation. The Whitewater Lake outcrops contain the phyllosilicate phases observed from orbit, and are the oldest materials yet investigated by

  19. Cluster SIMS Microscope Mode Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, András; Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyatomic primary ion sources, are required to exploit the full potential of microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging, i.e. to efficiently push the limits of ultra-high spatial resolution, sample throughput and sensitivity. In this work, a C60 primary source is combined with a commercial mass microscope for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The detector setup is a pixelated detector from the Medipix/Timepix family with high-voltage post-acceleration capabilities. The mass spectral and imaging performance of the system is tested with various benchmark samples and thin tissue sections. We show that the high secondary ion yield (with respect to traditional monatomic primary ion sources) of the C60 primary ion ...

  20. Designs for a Quantum Electron Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Kruit, Pieter; Kim, Chung-Soo; Yang, Yujia; Manfrinato, Vitor R; Hammer, Jacob; Thomas, Sebastian; Weber, Philipp; Klopfer, Brannon; Kohstall, Christoph; Juffmann, Thomas; Kasevich, Mark A; Hommelhoff, Peter; Berggren, Karl K

    2015-01-01

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This 'quantum weirdness' could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or "quantum electron microscope". A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron-beam splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each ...

  1. Microscopic features of moving traffic jams

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, B S; Klenov, S L; Rehborn, H; Hiller, Andreas; Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Rehborn, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    Empirical and numerical microscopic features of moving traffic jams are presented. Based on a single vehicle data analysis, it is found that within wide moving jams, i.e., between the upstream and downstream jam fronts there is a complex microscopic spatiotemporal structure. This jam structure consists of alternations of regions in which traffic flow is interrupted and flow states of low speeds associated with "moving blanks" within the jam. Empirical features of the moving blanks are found. Based on microscopic models in the context of three-phase traffic theory, physical reasons for moving blanks emergence within wide moving jams are disclosed. Structure of moving jam fronts is studied based in microscopic traffic simulations. Non-linear effects associated with moving jam propagation are numerically investigated and compared with empirical results.

  2. 3D printing of microscopic bacterial communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jodi L. Connell; Eric T. Ritschdorff; Marvin Whiteley; Jason B. Shear

    2013-01-01

    .... Here, we describe a microscopic threedimensional (3D) printing strategy that enables multiple populations of bacteria to be organized within essentially any 3D geometry, including adjacent, nested, and free-floating...

  3. Microscopic instability in recurrent neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yuzuru; Amari, Shun-ichi; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2015-03-01

    In a manner similar to the molecular chaos that underlies the stable thermodynamics of gases, a neuronal system may exhibit microscopic instability in individual neuronal dynamics while a macroscopic order of the entire population possibly remains stable. In this study, we analyze the microscopic stability of a network of neurons whose macroscopic activity obeys stable dynamics, expressing either monostable, bistable, or periodic state. We reveal that the network exhibits a variety of dynamical states for microscopic instability residing in a given stable macroscopic dynamics. The presence of a variety of dynamical states in such a simple random network implies more abundant microscopic fluctuations in real neural networks which consist of more complex and hierarchically structured interactions.

  4. Development of HiLo Microscope and its use in In-Vivo Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreyas J.

    The functionality of achieving optical sectioning in biomedical research is invaluable as it allows for visualization of a biological sample at different depths while being free of background scattering. Most current microscopy techniques that offer optical sectioning, unfortunately, require complex instrumentation and thus are generally costly. HiLo microscopy, on the other hand, offers the same functionality and advantage at a relatively low cost. Hence, the work described in this thesis involves the design, build, and application of a HiLo microscope. More specifically, a standalone HiLo microscope was built in addition to implementing HiLo microscopy on a standard fluorescence microscope. In HiLo microscopy, optical sectioning is achieved by acquiring two different types of images per focal plane. One image is acquired under uniform illumination and the other is acquired under speckle illumination. These images are processed using an algorithm that extracts in-focus information and removes features and glare that occur as a result of background fluorescence. To show the benefits of the HiLo microscopy, several imaging experiments on various samples were performed under a HiLo microscope and compared against a traditional fluorescence microscope and a confocal microscope, which is considered the gold standard in optical imaging. In-vitro and ex-vivo imaging was performed on a set of pollen grains, and optically cleared mouse brain and heart slices. Each of these experiments showed great reduction in background scattering at different depths under HiLo microscopy. More importantly, HiLo imaging of optically cleared heart slice demonstrated emergence of different vasculature at different depths. Reduction of out-of-focus light increased the spatial resolution and allowed better visualization of capillary vessels. Furthermore, HiLo imaging was tested in an in-vivo model of a rodent dorsal window chamber model. When imaging the same sample under confocal microscope

  5. Microscopic polyangiitis: An unusual neurologic complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayet Kaaroud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic polyangiitis is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of the small vessels. Its typical clinical manifestations are rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and alveolar hemorrhage. We describe a 30-year-old woman with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Seven years later, she presented with partial loss of motor and sensory function in both lower limbs with sphincter dysfunction. This is the first reported case of epidural inflammation ascribed to microscopic poly-angiitis. Possible mechanisms include auto-immune disease.

  6. Potentialities of the digital holography in the study of the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of microscopic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo, J O; Palacios, F; Palacios, G F [Department of Physics, University of Oriente (Cuba); Muramatsu, M [Department of General Physics, University of Sao Paulo - Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gesualdi, M [Engineering center, Models and Applied Social Science, UFABC - Sao Paulo (Brazil); Font, O [Department of Bio-ingeniering, University of Oriente - Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Valin, J L [Mechanics Department, ISPJAE, Habana (Cuba); Escobedo, M; Herold, S [Department of Computation, University of Oriente (Cuba); Palacios, D F, E-mail: frpalaciosf@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear physics, University of Simon BolIva (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    A new method for microscopic object analysis is suggested in this research. We consider the diffraction theory combined with the image formation process, this combination constitutes the groundwork of many optic transformation processes that it has made possible to establish several modern applications of the Fourier optics processing and Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM). Based on these optical applications we consider to study microscopic objects with regular forms starting from its Fraunhofer diffraction pattern obtained with DHM. The first results correspond to objects with regular forms and randomly distributed in the space, the second result corresponds to objects with regular forms and periodically distributed in the space. The objects' parameters can be determined with the diffraction pattern manipulation in a simple and accurate way. The biological and materials sciences can be beneficed with this research.

  7. Theoretical model of the helium zone plate microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador Palau, Adrià; Bracco, Gianangelo; Holst, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    Neutral helium microscopy is a new technique currently under development. Its advantages are the low energy, charge neutrality, and inertness of the helium atoms, a potential large depth of field, and the fact that at thermal energies the helium atoms do not penetrate into any solid material. This opens the possibility, among others, for the creation of an instrument that can measure surface topology on the nanoscale, even on surfaces with high aspect ratios. One of the most promising designs for helium microscopy is the zone plate microscope. It consists of a supersonic expansion helium beam collimated by an aperture (skimmer) focused by a Fresnel zone plate onto a sample. The resolution is determined by the focal spot size, which depends on the size of the skimmer, the optics of the system, and the velocity spread of the beam through the chromatic aberrations of the zone plate. An important factor for the optics of the zone plate is the width of the outermost zone, corresponding to the smallest opening in the zone plate. The width of the outermost zone is fabrication limited to around 10 nm with present-day state-of-the-art technology. Due to the high ionization potential of neutral helium atoms, it is difficult to build efficient helium detectors. Therefore, it is crucial to optimize the microscope design to maximize the intensity for a given resolution and width of the outermost zone. Here we present an optimization model for the helium zone plate microscope. Assuming constant resolution and width of the outermost zone, we are able to reduce the problem to a two-variable problem (zone plate radius and object distance) and we show that for a given beam temperature and pressure, there is always a single intensity maximum. We compare our model with the highest-resolution zone plate focusing images published and show that the intensity can be increased seven times. Reducing the width of the outermost zone to 10 nm leads to an increase in intensity of more than 8000

  8. Analysis of reactive oxygen species in the guard cell of wheat stoma with confocal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongwu; Chen, Zhiwei; Shi, Peiguo; Wang, Xue; Cai, Weiwei

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the laser-scanning confocal microscope has become a routine technique and indispensable tool for cell biological studies. Previous studies indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in tobacco epidermal cells with confocal microscope. In the present studies, the probe 2',7'-dichlorof luorescein diacetate (H₂DCF-DA) was used to research the change of ROS in the guard cell of wheat stoma, and catalase (CAT) was used to demonstrate that ROS had been labeled. The laser-scanning mode of confocal microscope was XYT, and the time interval between two sections was 1.6351 s. Sixty optical sections were acquired with the laser-scanning confocal microscope, and CAT (60,000 U mg⁻¹) was added after four optical sections were scanned. Furthermore, the region of interest (ROI) was circled and the fluorescence intensity of ROS was quantified with Leica Confocal Software. The quantitative data were exported and the trend chart was made with software Excell. The results indicated that ROS were produced intracellularly in stomatal guard cells, and the quantified fluorescence intensity of ROS was declined with CAT added. It is a good method to research the instantaneous change of ROS in plant cells with confocal microscope and fluorescence probe H₂DCF-DA. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Hans Wolter - a pioneer of applied optics

    CERN Document Server

    Schrimpf, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Applied optics was one of the major topics Hans Walter was engaged in during his scientific life. He contributed to the understanding of optical properties of thin films, which could be used to design coating layers to improve the properties of optical and other surfaces. He developed the theoretical description of the basic principles of phase-contrast, schlieren and interference optics applied to enhance low contrast details and to increase the resolution in studies of biological samples. And last, but not least, Hans Wolter proposed an optical system of two grazing--incidence mirrors for use in an X--ray imaging microscope. A microscope using such an optics never was put into practice, but the optical design turned out to be well suited for telescopes.

  10. The Folding Deuteron Optical Model Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaohua; Cai, Chonghai

    2008-01-01

    For 52 target nuclei with deuteron as projectile, we calculate the reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions, as well as the $\\chi^2$ values for 11 kinds of deuteron optical model potentials: our global deuteron optical potentials and 10 folding optical potentials calculated with 2 phenomenological global nucleon optical potentials given by Koning \\textit{et al}(KD) and by Varner\\textit{et al}(CH89), and 8 microscopic nucleon optical potentials with the generalized Skyrme force parameters(GS1-6) and modified Skyrme force parameters(SKa, SKb). We find that for constructing the folding deuteron optical potential, both SKa and SKb are the best Skyrme force parameters of the microscopic nucleon optical potential proposed by Q. Shen \\textit{et al}.

  11. Optical manipulation of lipid and polymer nanotubes with optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Joseph E.; Kishore, Rani; Pfefferkorn, Candace; Wells, Jeffrey; Helmerson, Kristian; Howell, Peter; Vreeland, Wyatt; Forry, Samuel; Locascio, Laurie; Reyes-Hernandez, Darwin; Gaitan, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Using optical tweezers and microfluidics, we stretch either the lipid or polymer membranes of liposomes or polymersomes, respectively, into long nanotubes. The membranes can be grabbed directly with the optical tweezers to produce sub-micron diameter tubes that are several hundred microns in length. We can stretch tubes up to a centimeter in length, limited only by the travel of our microscope stage. We also demonstrate the cross linking of a pulled polymer nanotube.

  12. Reliable measurement of E. coli single cell fluorescence distribution using a standard microscope set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Marilisa; Bandiera, Lucia; Pasini, Alice; Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Gherardi, Alessandro; Furini, Simone; Giordano, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying gene expression at single cell level is fundamental for the complete characterization of synthetic gene circuits, due to the significant impact of noise and inter-cellular variability on the system's functionality. Commercial set-ups that allow the acquisition of fluorescent signal at single cell level (flow cytometers or quantitative microscopes) are expensive apparatuses that are hardly affordable by small laboratories. A protocol that makes a standard optical microscope able to acquire quantitative, single cell, fluorescent data from a bacterial population transformed with synthetic gene circuitry is presented. Single cell fluorescence values, acquired with a microscope set-up and processed with custom-made software, are compared with results that were obtained with a flow cytometer in a bacterial population transformed with the same gene circuitry. The high correlation between data from the two experimental set-ups, with a correlation coefficient computed over the tested dynamic range > 0.99, proves that a standard optical microscope- when coupled with appropriate software for image processing- might be used for quantitative single-cell fluorescence measurements. The calibration of the set-up, together with its validation, is described. The experimental protocol described in this paper makes quantitative measurement of single cell fluorescence accessible to laboratories equipped with standard optical microscope set-ups. Our method allows for an affordable measurement/quantification of intercellular variability, whose better understanding of this phenomenon will improve our comprehension of cellular behaviors and the design of synthetic gene circuits. All the required software is freely available to the synthetic biology community (MUSIQ Microscope flUorescence SIngle cell Quantification).

  13. High-speed video imaging and digital analysis of microscopic features in contracting striated muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Kenneth P.; Taylor, Stuart R.

    1993-02-01

    The rapid motion of microscopic features such as the cross striations of single contracting muscle cells are difficult to capture with conventional optical microscopes, video systems, and image processing approaches. An integrated digital video imaging microscope system specifically designed to capture images from single contracting muscle cells at speeds of up to 240 Hz and to analyze images to extract features critical for the understanding of muscle contraction is described. This system consists of a brightfield microscope with immersion optics coupled to a high-speed charge-coupled device (CCD) video camera, super-VHS (S- VHS) and optical media disk video recording (OMDR) systems, and a semiautomated digital image analysis system. Components are modified to optimize spatial and temporal resolution to permit the evaluation of submicrometer features in real physiological time. This approach permits the critical evaluation of the magnitude, time course, and uniformity of contractile function throughout the volume of a single living cell with higher temporal and spatial resolutions than previously possible.

  14. Review of near-field optical microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shi-fa

    2006-01-01

    This review has introduced a new near-field optical microscope (NOM)-atomic force microscope combined with photon scanning tunneling microscope (AF/PSTM).During scanning,AF/PSTM could get two optical images of refractive index image and transmissivity image,and two AFM images of topography image and phase image.A reflected near-field optical microscope (AF/RSNOM) has also been developed on AF/PSTM platform.The NOM has been reviewed in this paper and the comparison between AF/PSTM & RSNOM and the commercial A-SNOM & RNOM has also been discussed.The functions of AF/PSTM & RSNOM are much better than A-SNOM & RNOM.

  15. Classical Optics and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2009-02-01

    Preface; Introduction; 1. Abbe's sine condition; 2. Fourier optics; 3. Effect of polarization on diffraction in systems of high numerical aperture; 4. Gaussian beam optics; 5. Coherent and incoherent imaging; 6. First-order temporal coherence in classical optics; 7. The Van Cittert-Zernike theorem; 8. Partial polarization, Stokes parameters, and the Poincarè Sphere; 9. Second-order coherence and the Hanbury Brown - Twiss experiment; 10. What in the world are surface plasmons?; 11. Surface plasmon polaritons on metallic surfaces; 12. The Faraday effecy; 13. The magneto-optical Kerr effect; 14. The Sagnac interferometer; 15. Fabry-Perot etalons in polarized light; 16. The Ewald-Oseen extinction theorem; 17. Reciprocity in classical Linear optics; 18. Optical pulse compression; 19. The uncertainty principle in classical optics; 20. Omni-directional dielectric mirrors; 21. Optical vortices; 22. Geometric-optical rays, Poynting's vector, and field momenta; 23. Doppler shift, stellar aberration, and convection of light by moving Media; 24. Diffraction gratings; 25. Diffractive optical elements; 26. The talbot effect; 27. Some quirks of total internal reflection; 28. Evanescent coupling; 29. Internal and external conical refraction; 30. Transmission of light through small elliptical apertures; 31. The method of Fox and Li; 32. The beam propagation method; 33. Launching light into a Fiber; 34. The optics of demiconductor fiode Laser; 35. Michelson's dtellar interferometer; 36. Bracewell's interferometric telescope; 37. Scanning optical microscopy; 38. Zernike's method of phase contrast; 39. Polarization microscopy; 40. Nomarski's differential interference contrast microscope; 41. The Van Leeuwenhoek microscope; 42. Projection photolithography; 43. Interaction of light with subwavelength structures; 44 The Ronchi test; 45. The Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor; 46. Ellipsometry; 47. Holography and holographic interferometry; 48. Self-focusing in non-linear optical media; 49

  16. Convection in axially symmetric accretion discs with microscopic transport coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanchev, K. L.; Postnov, K. A.; Shakura, N. I.

    2017-01-01

    The vertical structure of stationary thin accretion discs is calculated from the energy balance equation with heat generation due to microscopic ion viscosity η and electron heat conductivity κ, both depending on temperature. In the optically thin discs it is found that for the heat conductivity increasing with temperature, the vertical temperature gradient exceeds the adiabatic value at some height, suggesting convective instability in the upper disc layer. There is a critical Prandtl number, Pr = 4/9, above which a Keplerian disc become fully convective. The vertical density distribution of optically thin laminar accretion discs as found from the hydrostatic equilibrium equation cannot be generally described by a polytrope but in the case of constant viscosity and heat conductivity. In the optically thick discs with radiation heat transfer, the vertical disc structure is found to be convectively stable for both absorption-dominated and scattering-dominated opacities, unless a very steep dependence of the viscosity coefficient on temperature is assumed. A polytropic-like structure in this case is found for Thomson scattering-dominated opacity.

  17. Reflection Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (RIXRALM) and its biological applications. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suckewer, S.

    1998-07-01

    The main stimulus for the development of the proposed microscope (RIXRALM) is the possibility to view the surface and near surface structure of biological materials, such as cell membranes at much higher resolution than an optical (confocal) microscope. Although the prediction resolution of RIXRALM was lower than a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the possibility to obtain images of cells (membranes) in a more natural, hydrated state and, in many cases, without staining, made the idea of a reflection X-ray microscope very attractive. The specimen can be in an H{sub 2}O saturated He atmosphere at atmospheric pressure. As the image can be obtained quickly (nsec exposure, occurring within seconds of insertion into such an environment), the cell surface can be seen in a state which is very close to its natural condition. Besides, the short exposure time eliminates the effect of motional blurring on the images. Their X-ray reflection microscope fit well in the very large gap in the size of biological objects studied in light microscopy (sub-micron size) and electron microscope (down to a few nanometers size).

  18. High contrast, depth-resolved thermoreflectance imaging using a Nipkow disk confocal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, J A; Yang, T; Tuominen, M T; Hudgings, J A

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a depth-resolved confocal thermal imaging technique that is capable of measuring the temperature distribution of an encapsulated or semi-obstructed device. The technique employs lock-in charge coupled device-based thermoreflectance imaging via a Nipkow disk confocal microscope, which is used to eliminate extraneous reflections from above or below the imaging plane. We use the confocal microscope to predict the decrease in contrast and dynamic range due to an obstruction for widefield thermoreflectance, and we demonstrate the ability of confocal thermoreflectance to maintain a high contrast and thermal sensitivity in the presence of large reflecting obstructions in the optical path.

  19. Condenser for Koehler-like illumination in transmission x-ray microscopes at undulator sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Ulrich; Lindblom, Magnus; Charalambous, Pambos; Kaulich, Burkhard; Wilhein, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    We report on a novel condenser for full-field transmission x-ray microscopes that use synchrotron radiation from an undulator source. The condenser produces a Koehler-like homogeneous intensity distribution in the sample plane and eliminates object illumination problems connected with the high degree of spatial coherence in an undulator beam. The optic consists of a large number of small linear diffraction gratings and is therefore relatively easy to manufacture. First imaging experiments with a prototype condenser were successfully performed with the Twinmic x-ray microscope at the Elettra synchrotron facility in Italy.

  20. A Study on HA Titanium Surface with Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Three kinds of titanium surface especially the HA surface are analyzed. Titanium was treated by 3 kinds of methods that were acid & alkali, calcic solution and apatite solution. Samples were observed by optic microscope and atomic force microscope ( AFM). The typical surface morphology of the acid and alkali group is little holes, and on the two HA surface the tiny protuberances is typical. The surface treated by apatite solution was smoother than the two formers. The rough surface treated with acid and alkali was propitious to Ca + , Pand proteins' adhesion, and the relatively smooth HA surface was of benefit to the cell adhesion.

  1. Condenser for Koehler-like illumination in transmission x-ray microscopes at undulator sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Ulrich; Lindblom, Magnus; Charalambous, Pambos; Kaulich, Burkhard; Wilhein, Thomas

    2006-05-15

    We report on a novel condenser for full-field transmission x-ray microscopes that use synchrotron radiation from an undulator source. The condenser produces a Koehler-like homogeneous intensity distribution in the sample plane and eliminates object illumination problems connected with the high degree of spatial coherence in an undulator beam. The optic consists of a large number of small linear diffraction gratings and is therefore relatively easy to manufacture. First imaging experiments with a prototype condenser were successfully performed with the Twinmic x-ray microscope at the Elettra synchrotron facility in Italy.

  2. Fabrication of grating-like polystyrene latex monolayer structure as three-dimensional calibration standards for scanning probe microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Guo-Dong; Zeng Zhi-Gang; Guo Zhang; Du Qiang-Guo; Yan Xue-Jian

    2009-01-01

    This paper illuminates the preparation of grating-like polystyrene latex monolayer structure, which can minimize the effects of the size deviation of spheres and the defect transfer on the accuracy as calibration samples for micro-scopes. The latex films are grown on freshly cleaved mica substrates by vertical deposition method. The concentration dependence of the structure and the topography of latex films is characterized by optical microscope, ultraviolet-visible transmission spectrum and scanning probe microscope. The origination of such a grating-like structure is also discussed.

  3. Hyperspectral microscope for in vivo imaging of microstructures and cells in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos,; Stavros, G [Livermore, CA

    2011-05-17

    An optical hyperspectral/multimodal imaging method and apparatus is utilized to provide high signal sensitivity for implementation of various optical imaging approaches. Such a system utilizes long working distance microscope objectives so as to enable off-axis illumination of predetermined tissue thereby allowing for excitation at any optical wavelength, simplifies design, reduces required optical elements, significantly reduces spectral noise from the optical elements and allows for fast image acquisition enabling high quality imaging in-vivo. Such a technology provides a means of detecting disease at the single cell level such as cancer, precancer, ischemic, traumatic or other type of injury, infection, or other diseases or conditions causing alterations in cells and tissue micro structures.

  4. Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kunal K.; Burns, Laurie D.; Cocker, Eric D.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Ziv, Yaniv; Gamal, Abbas El; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals towards relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated fluorescence microscope made from mass-producible parts, including semiconductor light source and sensor. This device enables high-speed cellular-level imaging across ∼0.5 mm2 areas in active mice. This capability allowed concurrent tracking of Ca2+ spiking in >200 Purkinje neurons across nine cerebellar microzones. During mouse locomotion, individual microzones exhibited large-scale, synchronized Ca2+ spiking. This is a mesoscopic neural dynamic missed by prior techniques for studying the brain at other length scales. Overall, the integrated microscope is a potentially transformative technology that permits distribution to many animals and enables diverse usages, such as portable diagnostics or microscope arrays for large-scale screens. PMID:21909102

  5. Microscopic colitis: clinical and pathologic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Andreas; Langner, Cord

    2015-02-01

    Microscopic colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic nonbloody diarrhea and specific histopathology features. Active disease, defined as 3 or more stools or 1 or more watery stools per day, significantly reduces quality of life. Epidemiologic studies have found the incidence and prevalence of microscopic colitis to be comparable with those of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Nevertheless, microscopic colitis is still under-recognized in clinical practice-most health care workers know little about its etiology and pathophysiology. Furthermore, there are many challenges to the diagnosis and treatment of patients. We review the epidemiologic and clinical features of this disorder and discuss its pathogenesis. We also outline the criteria for histopathologic evaluation of microscopic colitis, recently published by the European Consensus on Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and discuss a treatment algorithm created by the European Microscopic Colitis Group. Treatment options for patients with budesonide-refractory disease are discussed. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Che-Hung; Wu, Hsing-Mei

    2017-07-01

    Tympanoplasty was conventionally performed using a microscope for decades. However, since the endoscope began to be used in middle ear surgery in the 1970s, endoscopic tympanoplasty has gained increasing attention. The main objective of this study was to compare endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty with and without ossiculoplasty, demonstrating the potential advantages, disadvantages, and outcomes of each. This retrospective study included 126 patients with chronic otitis media who received tympanoplasty from 2013 to 2015 in our hospital. The clinical follow-up continued for at least 3 months postoperatively. Otoscopy and audiometry were conducted before and after the procedure. The different variables affecting surgical outcomes were thoroughly documented in each case. A total of 126 patients (131 ears) were included in this retrospective study. Moreover, 74 and 57 ears underwent endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty, respectively. The overall endoscopic tympanoplasty graft uptake rate was 97.7% (128/131). The operation time was significantly shorter in the endoscopic group statistically. A paired t test was used to compare pre- and postoperative audiometry results and showed significant differences between the endoscopic and microscopic groups. However, no statistically significant difference was observed in audiometry improvement between the two groups. No major complications were observed in any of the patients. Our study demonstrated that endoscopic tympanoplasty can be feasibly applied in middle ear surgery. The success rate, audiometry improvement, and complication rate are comparable between endoscopic tympanoplasty and conventional microscopic tympanoplasty. Moreover, the endoscopic group had smaller operation wounds and lower medical expenditures.

  7. Microscopic features of moving traffic jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hiller, Andreas; Rehborn, Hubert

    2006-04-01

    Empirical and numerical microscopic features of moving traffic jams are presented. Based on a single vehicle data analysis, it is found that within wide moving jams, i.e., between the upstream and downstream jam fronts there is a complex microscopic spatiotemporal structure. This jam structure consists of alternations of regions in which traffic flow is interrupted and flow states of low speeds associated with "moving blanks" within the jam. Moving blanks within a wide moving jam resemble electron holes in the valence band of semiconductors: As the moving blanks that propagate upstream appear due to downstream vehicle motion within the jam, so appearance of electron holes moving with the electric field results from electron motion against the electric field in the valence band of semiconductors. Empirical features of moving blanks are found. Based on microscopic models in the context of the Kerner's three-phase traffic theory, physical reasons for moving blanks emergence within wide moving jams are disclosed. Microscopic nonlinear effects of moving jam emergence, propagation, and dissolution as well as a diverse variety of hysteresis effects in freeway traffic associated with phase transitions and congested traffic propagation are numerically investigated. Microscopic structure of moving jam fronts is numerically studied and compared with empirical results.

  8. Superhydrophobic surfaces: from fluid mechanics to optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathgen, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis optical diraction was used to study the static and dynamic properties of microscopic liquid-gas interfaces that span between adjacent ridges of a superhydrophobic surface. An observed interference phenomenon at grazing incident angle led to the development of optical gratings with a l

  9. Superhydrophobic surfaces: from fluid mechanics to optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathgen, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis optical diraction was used to study the static and dynamic properties of microscopic liquid-gas interfaces that span between adjacent ridges of a superhydrophobic surface. An observed interference phenomenon at grazing incident angle led to the development of optical gratings with a

  10. Traceability of optical roughness measurements on polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Gasparin, Stefania; Carli, Lorenzo;

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation on surface roughness measurements on plastics was carried out with the objective of developing a methodology to achieve traceability of optical instruments. A ground steel surface and its replicas were measured using a stylus instrument, an optical auto-focus......% for the auto-focus instrument and 10% for confocal microscope....

  11. Calibration of the optical torque wrench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedaci, F.; Huang, Z.; Van Oene, M.; Dekker, N.H.

    2012-01-01

    The optical torque wrench is a laser trapping technique that expands the capability of standard optical tweezers to torque manipulation and measurement, using the laser linear polarization to orient tailored microscopic birefringent particles. The ability to measure torque of the order of kBT (∼4 pN

  12. The National Ignition Facility modular Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickworth, L. A., E-mail: pickworth1@llnl.gov; Ayers, J.; Bell, P.; Brejnholt, N. F.; Buscho, J. G.; Bradley, D.; Decker, T.; Hau-Riege, S.; McCarville, T.; Pardini, T.; Vogel, J.; Walton, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Current two-dimensional X-ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) uses time resolved pinhole cameras with ∼10-25 μm pinholes. This method has limitations in the smallest resolvable features that can be imaged with reasonable photon statistics for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. ICF sources have a broadband self-emission spectrum that causes the pinhole images obtained, through thin foil filters, to contain a similarly broadband spectrum complicating the interpretation of structure in the source. In order to study phenomena on the scale of ∼5 μm, such as dopant mix in the ICF capsule, a narrow energy band, higher spatial resolution microscope system with improved signal/noise has been developed using X-ray optics. Utilizing grazing incidence mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope (KBM) configuration [P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766–774 (1948)], an X-ray microscope has been designed and fielded on NIF with four imaging channels. The KBM has ∼12 × magnification, <8 μm resolution, and higher throughput in comparison to similar pinhole systems. The first KBM mirrors are coated with a multilayer mirror to allow a “narrow band” energy response at 10.2 keV with ΔE ∼ 3 keV. By adjusting the mirror coating only, the energy response can be matched to the future experimental requirements. Several mirror packs have been commissioned and are interchangeable in the diagnostic snout.

  13. Momentum space approach to microscopic effects in elastic proton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.; Wolfe, D. H.

    1984-12-01

    The microscopic nonrelativistic first-order optical potential for proton-nucleus scattering is studied in some detail. Momentum-space calculations have been performed for a number of different target nuclei at proton energies above ~100 MeV and these microscopic predictions are compared with experimental cross section, analyzing power, and spin-rotation function data. The input to these calculations consists of the free on-shell nucleon-nucleon t matrix, its nonlocal and off-shell structure, the treatment of the full-folding integral, and target densities obtained from electron scattering. Off-shell and nonlocal effects, as well as various factorization approximations, are studied. The sensitivity to uncertainties in the off-shell extension of the t matrix, within the context of the Love-Franey model, is explicity displayed. Similarly, uncertainties due to nonlocalities and incomplete knowledge of nuclear densities are shown. Explicit calculations using the t matrix of Love and Franey indicate that these effects play significant roles only for relatively large angles (θ<~60°) and/or lower energies (~150 MeV). These studies reinforce the conclusion that the lack of agreement between such first-order predictions and the data for spin observables at small angles arises from a physical effect not included in the nonrelativistic first-order theory, rather than from any uncertainty in the calculation or in its input.

  14. Point-of-Care Pathology with Miniature Microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T. C. Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in optical designs are enabling the development of miniature microscopes that can examine tissue in situ for early anatomic and molecular indicators of disease, in real time, and at cellular resolution. These new devices will lead to major changes in how diseases are detected and managed, driving a shift from today's diagnostic paradigm of biopsy followed by histopathology and recommended therapy, to non-invasive point-of-care diagnosis with possible same-session definitive treatment. This shift may have major implications for the training requirements of future physicians to enable them to interpret real-time in vivo microscopic data, and will also shape the emerging fields of telepathology and telemedicine. Implementation of new technologies into clinical practice is a complex process that requires bridging gaps between clinicians, engineers and scientists. This article provides a forward-looking discussion of these issues, with a focus on malignant and pre-malignant lesions, by first highlighting some of the clinical areas where point-of-care in vivo microscopy could address unmet needs, and then by reviewing the technological challenges that are being addressed, or need to be addressed, for in vivo microscopy to become a standard clinical tool.

  15. Tracking Submicron Particles in Microchannel Flow by Microscopic Holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗锐; 刘石

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional tracking of submicron particles in flows in a micro-channel was carried out using in-line holographic microscopy.A fixed single 0.5 μm fluorescent particle was identified and isolated from dust particles or overlapped particle pair using the laser induced fluorescent(LIF) method.Then in-line microscopic holograms of the fixed single particle were obtained at different positions on the optical axis,i.e.the defocus distances.The holograms of the single particle were used as the model templates with the known defocus distances.The particles in the in-line microscopic holograms of flow in the microchannel were then identified and located to obtain their two-dimensional positions.The defocus distances of those particles were determined by matching each hologram pattern to one of the model templates obtained in the single particle test.Finally the three-dimensional position and velocity of each particle were obtained.

  16. Towards a Microscopic Reaction Description Based on Energy Density Functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Nobre, G P A; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J; Dupuis, M; Terasaki, J; Engel, J

    2011-01-01

    A microscopic calculation of reaction cross sections for nucleon-nucleus scattering has been performed by explicitly coupling the elastic channel to all particle-hole excitations in the target and one-nucleon pickup channels. The particle-hole states may be regarded as doorway states through which the flux flows to more complicated configurations, and subsequently to long-lived compound nucleus resonances. Target excitations for $^{40,48}$Ca, $^{58}$Ni, $^{90}$Zr and $^{144}$Sm were described in a random-phase framework using a Skyrme functional. Reaction cross sections obtained agree very well with experimental data and predictions of a state-of-the-art fitted optical potential. Couplings between inelastic states were found to be negligible, while the pickup channels contribute significantly. The effect of resonances from higher-order channels was assessed. Elastic angular distributions were also calculated within the same method, achieving good agreement with experimental data. For the first time observed a...

  17. Dynamic Evolution of Microscopic Wet Cracking Noises

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffari, H O; Benson, P M

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the interaction between water and microscopic defects is one of the long-standing challenges in understanding a broad range of cracking processes. Different physical aspects of microscopic events, driven or influenced by water, have been extensively discussed in atomistic calculations but have not been accessible in microscale experiments. Through the analysis of the emitted noises during the evolution of individual, dynamic microcracking events, we show that the onset of a secondary instability known as hybrid events occurs during the fast healing phase of microcracking, which leads to (local) sudden increase of pore water pressure in the process zone, inducing a secondary instability, which is followed by a fast-locking phase on the microscopic faults (pulse-like rupture).

  18. Sharp Tips on the Atomic Force Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the eight sharp tips of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA. The microscope maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with one of the tips at the end of a beam. For the AFM image taken, the tip at the end of the upper right beam was used. The tip pointing up in the enlarged image is the size of a smoke particle at its base, or 2 microns. This image was taken with a scanning electron microscope before Phoenix launched on August 4, 2007. The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium in collaboration with Imperial College London. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Luttinger liquids from a microscopic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, Manuel; Phillips, Lawrence G.; Zinner, Nikolaj T.

    2017-01-01

    theory, and for this reason the interpretation remains untested. By applying Luttinger liquid theory in a simple setting, we show that a widely-held and repeatedly-stated belief, namely that the intrabranch terms appearing in Luttinger's model originate from microscopic intrabranch interactions......, is a misconception. We begin with the microscopic model of an interacting one-dimensional, spin-polarized Fermi gas, which we systematically transform into a Luttinger model by introducing an effective interaction, linearizing the dispersion, and renormalizing. By this method, we are able to show that the usual...... propose a new fermionic Hamiltonian which agrees with the traditional model after bosonisation, but which better reflects the underlying microscopic physics....

  20. The Titan Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Jinschek, Jörg R.

    2009-01-01

    electron microscopes (TEMs) were first adapted for use with gases [1]. Such machines are known as environmental transmission electron microscopes or ETEMs and are now in widespread use [2,3]. Although these tools are unique and represent a source of invaluable information, care has to be taken when using...... them and many additional considerations are required when compared to conventional TEM. In particular the parameter space that affects the result of an experiment increases significantly, and it becomes even more important to consider the effect of both electron/solid and electron/gas interactions...... University of Denmark (DTU) provides a unique combination of techniques for studying materials of interest to the catalytic as well as the electronics and other communities [5]. DTU’s ETEM is based on the FEI Titan platform providing ultrahigh microscope stability pushing the imaging resolution into the sub...