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Sample records for optical interface created

  1. Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber

    CERN Document Server

    Vetsch, E; Sagué, G; Schmidt, R; Dawkins, S T; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2009-01-01

    Trapping and optically interfacing laser-cooled neutral atoms is an essential requirement for their use in advanced quantum technologies. Here we simultaneously realize both of these tasks with cesium atoms interacting with a multi-color evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber. The atoms are localized in a one-dimensional optical lattice about 200 nm above the nanofiber surface and can be efficiently interrogated with a resonant light field sent through the nanofiber. Our technique opens the route towards the direct integration of laser-cooled atomic ensembles within fiber networks, an important prerequisite for large scale quantum communication schemes. Moreover, it is ideally suited to the realization of hybrid quantum systems that combine atoms with, e.g., solid state quantum devices.

  2. Optical encryption interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  3. Interfacing superconducting qubits and single optical photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Sumanta; Faez, Sanli; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient light-matter interface at optical frequencies between a superconducting qubit and a single photon. The desired interface is based on a hybrid architecture composed of an organic molecule embedded inside an optical waveguide and electrically coupled to a superconducting qubit

  4. FGB: A Graphical and Haptic User Interface for Creating Graphical, Haptic User Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,THOMAS G.; BRECKENRIDGE,ARTHURINE; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.

    1999-10-18

    The emerging field of haptics represents a fundamental change in human-computer interaction (HCI), and presents solutions to problems that are difficult or impossible to solve with a two-dimensional, mouse-based interface. To take advantage of the potential of haptics, however, innovative interaction techniques and programming environments are needed. This paper describes FGB (FLIGHT GHUI Builder), a programming tool that can be used to create an application specific graphical and haptic user interface (GHUI). FGB is itself a graphical and haptic user interface with which a programmer can intuitively create and manipulate components of a GHUI in real time in a graphical environment through the use of a haptic device. The programmer can create a GHUI without writing any programming code. After a user interface is created, FGB writes the appropriate programming code to a file, using the FLIGHT API, to recreate what the programmer created in the FGB interface. FGB saves programming time and increases productivity, because a programmer can see the end result as it is created, and FGB does much of the programming itself. Interestingly, as FGB was created, it was used to help build itself. The further FGB was in its development, the more easily and quickly it could be used to create additional functionality and improve its own design. As a finished product, FGB can be used to recreate itself in much less time than it originally required, and with much less programming. This paper describes FGB's GHUI components, the techniques used in the interface, how the output code is created, where programming additions and modifications should be placed, and how it can be compared to and integrated with existing API's such as MFC and Visual C++, OpenGL, and GHOST.

  5. Interfacing superconducting qubits and single optical photons

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sumanta; Sørensen, Anders S

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient light-matter interface at optical frequencies between a superconducting qubit and a single photon. The desired interface is based on a hybrid architecture composed of an organic molecule embedded inside an optical waveguide and electrically coupled to a superconducting qubit far from the optical axis. We show that high fidelity, photon-mediated, entanglement between distant superconducting qubits can be achieved with incident pulses at the single photon level. Such low light level is highly sought for to overcome the decoherence of the superconducting qubit caused by absorption of optical photons.

  6. GCL – An Easy Way for Creating Graphical User Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Trzaska

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphical User Interfaces (GUI can be created using several approaches. Beside using visual editors or a manually written source code, it is possible to employ a declarative method. Such a solution usually allows working on a higher abstraction level which saves the developers' time and reduces errors. The approach can follow many ideas. One of them is based on utilizing a Domain Specific Language (DSL. In this paper we present the results of our research concerning a DSL language called GCL (GUI Creating Language. The prototype is implemented as a library for Java with an API emulating the syntax and semantics of a DSL language. A programmer, using a few keywords, is able to create different types of GUIs, including forms, panels, dialogs, etc. The widgets of the GUI are built automatically during the run-time phase based on a given data instance (an ordinary Java object and optionally are to be customized by the programmer. The main contribution of our work is delivering a working library for a popular platform. The library could be easily ported for other programming languages such the MS C#.

  7. A reversible optical to microwave quantum interface

    CERN Document Server

    Barzanjeh, Sh; Milburn, G J; Tombesi, P; Vitali, D

    2011-01-01

    Quantum technology, like many mature classical technologies, will ultimately integrate distinct modules to achieve a function that transcends the capability of any one of them. We describe a reversible quantum interface between an optical and a microwave photon using a hybrid device based on the common interaction of microwave and optical fields with a nano-mechanical resonator in a superconducting circuit, which is one of the major challenges in the field. The scheme provides a path for generating a traveling microwave field strongly entangled with an optical mode, thus bridging the gap between quantum optical and solid state implementations of quantum information. This is an effective source of (bright) two-mode squeezing with an optical idler (signal) and a microwave signal (idler) and as such enables a continuous variable teleportation protocol.

  8. Creating Java to Native Code Interfaces with Janet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Bubak

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Java is growing in appropriateness and usability for high performance computing. With this increasing adoption, issues relating to combining Java with existing codes in other languages become more important. The Java Native Interface (JNI API is portable but too inconvenient to be used directly owing to its low-level API. This paper presents Janet — a highly expressive Java language extension and preprocessing tool that enables convenient integration of native code with Java programs. The Janet methodology overcomes some of the limitations of JNI and generates Java programs that execute with little or no degradation despite the flexibility and generality of the interface.

  9. fgui: A Method for Automatically Creating Graphical User Interfaces for Command-Line R Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas J; Laird, Nan M

    2009-04-01

    The fguiR package is designed for developers of R packages, to help rapidly, and sometimes fully automatically, create a graphical user interface for a command line R package. The interface is built upon the Tcl/Tk graphical interface included in R. The package further facilitates the developer by loading in the help files from the command line functions to provide context sensitive help to the user with no additional effort from the developer. Passing a function as the argument to the routines in the fgui package creates a graphical interface for the function, and further options are available to tweak this interface for those who want more flexibility.

  10. Vertical-coupling optical interface for on-chip optical interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hirohito; Nozawa, Michinao; Kinoshita, Masao; Ohashi, Keishi

    2011-01-17

    We present a vertical-coupling optical interface with a grating coupler for transmitting and receiving optical signals between single-mode optical fibers and microphotonic waveguides with a view to realize on-chip optical interconnection. The optical interface consisting of a simple grating structure with a reflective mirror and an optical power combiner exhibits high optical coupling efficiency and wide tolerance range for the misalignment of optical fibers. The optical interface exhibits high coupling efficiency even if the optical input is almost vertical to the chip surface.

  11. Creating Tangible Interfaces by Augmenting Physical Objects with Multimodal Language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, David R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Cohen, Philip R.(Oregon Graduate Institute)

    2001-01-01

    Rasa is a tangible augmented reality environment that digitally enhances the existing paper-based command and control capability in a military command post. By observing and understanding the users' speech, pen, and touch-based multimodal language, Rasa computationally augments the physical objects on a command post map, linking these items to digital representations of the same; for example, linking a paper map to the world and Post-it notes to military units. Herein, we give a thorough account of Rasa's underlying multiagent framework, and its recognition, understanding, and multimodal integration components. Moreover, we examine five properties of language: generativity, comprehensibility, compositionality, referentiality, and, at times, persistence--that render it suitable as an augmentation approach, contrasting these properties to those of other augmentation methods. It is these properties of language that allow users of Rasa to augment physical objects, transforming them into tangible interfaces.

  12. Capturing Semantic Meaning on User Interface Presence By Creating Its Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elviawaty Muisa Zamzami

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Screenshots, known for years as capturing Graphical User Interface by means of print screen button or capturing software, is not only beneficial for creating user guide or user manual document, but also for reverse engineering process. This paper presents a new way of capturing the data appear on a screen by creating the ontology of its interface. Data capturing based on the interaction style of interface or windowing system, known as WIMP (Window Icon Menu Pointer. The Ontology model used as template, called as WIMP-UI. OWL is used as ontology language, Portg as editor tools, and Pellet reasoner for reasoning.

  13. Establishing a fiber-optic-based optical neural interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamantidis, Antoine R; Zhang, Feng; de Lecea, Luis; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-08-01

    Selective expression of opsins in genetically defined neurons makes it possible to control a subset of neurons without affecting nearby cells and processes in the intact brain, but light must still be delivered to the target brain structure. Light scattering limits the delivery of light from the surface of the brain. For this reason, we have developed a fiber-optic-based optical neural interface (ONI), which allows optical access to any brain structure in freely moving mammals. The ONI system is constructed by modifying the small animal cannula system from PlasticsOne. The system for bilateral stimulation consists of a bilateral cannula guide that has been stereotactically implanted over the target brain region, a screw cap for securing the optical fiber to the animal's head, a fiber guard modified from the internal cannula adapter, and a bare fiber whose length is customized based on the depth of the target region. For unilateral stimulation, a single-fiber system can be constructed using unilateral cannula parts from PlasticsOne. We describe here the preparation of the bilateral ONI system and its use in optical stimulation of the mouse or rat brain. Delivery of opsin-expressing virus and implantation of the ONI may be conducted in the same surgical session; alternatively, with a transgenic animal no opsin virus is delivered during the surgery. Similar procedures are useful for deep or superficial injections (even for neocortical targets, although in some cases surface light-emitting diodes or cortex-apposed fibers can be used for the most superficial cortical targets).

  14. Linear momentum increase and negative optical forces at dielectric interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajorndejnukul, Veerachart; Ding, Weiqiang; Sukhov, Sergey; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Dogariu, Aristide

    2013-10-01

    Light carries momenta that can be transferred to objects. Relying on gradient forces created by structured light, one can trap and move microscopic particles. Aside from the conservative action of gradient forces, light always pushes an object along its direction of propagation. Here, we demonstrate that gradientless light fields can exert pulling forces on arbitrary objects in a purely passive dielectric environment and without resorting to non-paraxial illumination, interference of multiple beams, gain or other exotic materials. The forces acting against the flow of light arise naturally due to the appropriate amplification of the photon linear momentum when light is scattered from one dielectric medium into another with higher refractive index. This situation opens up a number of intriguing prospects for optical forces and their effects on surface-bound objects. Here, we demonstrate that this new mechanism can be used to manipulate objects over macroscopic distances along dielectric interfaces.

  15. High-speed Integrated Circuits for electrical/Optical Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Christoffer Felix

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a continuation of the effort to increase the bandwidth of communicationnetworks. The thesis presents the results of the design of several high-speed electrical ircuits for an electrical/optical interface. These circuits have been a contribution to the ESTA project in collaboration ...... as examples. Finally, it is concluded that the VIP-2 process is suitable technology for creating circuits for 100 Gb/s communication networks. Keywords: Indium Phosphide (InP), DHBT, VCO, Colpitt, Static Divider, CDR, PLL, Transceiver...... represents the avant-garde of InP technology, with ft and fmax well above 300 GHz. Principles of high speed design are presented and described as a useful background before proceeding to circuits. A static divider is used as an example to illustrate many of the design principles. Theory and fundamentals...

  16. Technological Aspects of Creating Large-size Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of the telescope creation, first of all, depends both on a choice of the optical scheme to form optical radiation and images with minimum losses of energy and information and on a choice of design to meet requirements for strength, stiffness, and stabilization characteristics in real telescope operation conditions. Thus, the concept of creating large-size telescopes, certainly, involves the use of adaptive optics methods and means.The level of technological capabilities to realize scientific and engineering ideas define a successful development of large-size optical telescopes in many respects. All developers pursue the same aim that is to raise an amount of information by increasing a main mirror diameter of the telescope.The article analyses the adaptive telescope designs developed in our country. Using a domestic ACT-25 telescope as an example, it considers creation of large-size optical telescopes in terms of technological aspects. It also describes the telescope creation concept features, which allow reaching marginally possible characteristics to ensure maximum amount of information.The article compares a wide range of large-size telescopes projects. It shows that a domestic project to create the adaptive ACT-25 super-telescope surpasses its foreign counterparts, and there is no sense to implement Euro50 (50m and OWL (100m projects.The considered material gives clear understanding on a role of technological aspects in development of such complicated optic-electronic complexes as a large-size optical telescope. The technological criteria of an assessment offered in the article, namely specific informational content of the telescope, its specific mass, and specific cost allow us to reveal weaknesses in the project development and define a reserve regarding further improvement of the telescope.The analysis of results and their judgment have shown that improvement of optical largesize telescopes in terms of their maximum

  17. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of soft matter interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roke, Sylvie

    2009-07-13

    Soft matter consists of complex molecules that can undergo drastic structural transformations under mild changes of chemical and physical conditions. Since a wide variety of chemical, physical and biological processes occur at soft matter interfaces, they can exhibit complex behavior. This is even more so for interfaces of colloidal soft matter since the relative amount of interface material increases by orders of magnitude. Herein, we focus on new developments that enable us to obtain detailed molecular structural changes in the topmost molecular layers of soft matter interfaces composed of complex bio-molecules. In particular, the possibilities to probe interfaces of colloidal soft matter systems are discussed.

  18. Interface phonon effect on optical spectra of quantum nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, Alexander Yu., E-mail: maslov.ton@mail.ioffe.r [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Polytechnicheskaya st., 26, 194021 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Proshina, Olga V.; Rusina, Anastasia N. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Polytechnicheskaya st., 26, 194021 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    This paper deals with theory of large radius polaron effect in quantum wells, wires and dots. The interaction of charge particles and excitons with both bulk and interface optical phonons is taken into consideration. The analytical expression for polaron binding energy is obtained for different types of nanostructures. It is shown that the contribution of interface phonons to the polaron binding energy may exceed the bulk phonon part. The manifestation of polaron effects in optical spectra of quantum nanostructures is discussed.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL LEVELLING AT THE INTERFACE OF OPTICAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Sirůčková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of refraction and its impact on levelling at the interface of optical environments. It describes the influence of a vertical refraction and shows the results of investigating the effect of the refraction in the course of levelling at the interface of optical environments.The results of the experiment were obtained by levelling through the building of the National Technical Library in Prague Dejvice.

  20. Creating and Probing Graphene Electron Optics with Local Scanning Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroscio, Joseph

    Ballistic propagation and the light-like dispersion of graphene charge carriers make graphene an attractive platform for optics-inspired graphene electronics where gate tunable potentials can control electron refraction and transmission. In analogy to optical wave propagation in lenses, mirrors and metamaterials, gate potentials can be used to create a negative index of refraction for Veselago lensing and Fabry-Pérot interferometers. In circular geometries, gate potentials can induce whispering gallery modes (WGM), similar to optical and acoustic whispering galleries albeit on a much smaller length scale. Klein scattering of Dirac carriers plays a central role in determining the coherent propagation of electron waves in these resonators. In this talk, I examine the probing of electron resonators in graphene confined by linear and circular gate potentials with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The tip in the STM tunnel junction serves both as a tunable local gate potential, and as a probe of the graphene states through tunneling spectroscopy. A combination of a back gate potential, Vg, and tip potential, Vb, creates and controls a circular pn junction that confines the WGM graphene states. The resonances are observed in two separate channels in the tunneling spectroscopy experiment: first, by directly tunneling into the state at the bias energy eVb, and, second, by tunneling from the resonance at the Fermi level as the state is gated by the tip potential. The second channel produces a fan-like set of WGM peaks, reminiscent of the fringes seen in planar geometries by transport measurements. The WGM resonances split in a small applied magnetic field, with a large energy splitting approaching the WGM spacing at 0.5 T. These results agree well with recent theory on Klein scattering in graphene electron resonators. This work is done in collaboration with Y. Zhao, J. Wyrick, F.D. Natterer, J. F. Rodriquez-Nieva, C. Lewandoswski, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, N. B

  1. An optical nanofiber-based interface for single molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Skoff, Sarah M; Schauffert, Hardy; Rauschenbeutel, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Optical interfaces for quantum emitters are a prerequisite for implementing quantum networks. Here, we couple single molecules to the guided modes of an optical nanofiber. The molecules are embedded within a crystal that provides photostability and due to its inhomogeneous environment, a means to spectrally address single molecules. Single molecules are excited and detected solely via the nanofiber interface without the requirement of additional optical access. In this way, we realize a fully fiber-integrated system that is scalable and may become a versatile constituent for quantum hybrid systems.

  2. Survival of Heterogeneous Stress Distributions Created by Precursory Slip at Frictional Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiguet, Mathilde; Kammer, David S.; Gillet, Philippe; Molinari, Jean-François

    2013-10-01

    We study the dynamics of successive slip events at a frictional interface with finite-element simulations. Because of the viscous properties of the material, the stress concentrations created by the arrest of precursory slip are not erased by the propagation of the following rupture but reappear with the relaxation of the material. We show that the amplitude of the stress concentrations follows an exponential decay, which is controlled by the bulk material properties. These results highlight the importance of viscosity in the heterogeneous stress state of a frictional interface and reveal the “memory effect” that affects successive ruptures.

  3. Optogenetics: opsins and optical interfaces in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamantidis, Antoine R; Zhang, Feng; de Lecea, Luis; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-08-01

    Optogenetics is defined as the integration of optics and genetics to control well-defined events within specified cells of living tissue. In this introduction, we focus on the basic techniques necessary for employing microbial opsins as optogenetic tools in mammalian brains. We provide a guide for the fundamentals of optogenetic application-selecting an opsin, implementing expression of opsins based on the neuroscientific experimental requirements, and adapting the corresponding optical hardware for delivery of light into mammalian brains.

  4. Incorporating an optical waveguide into a neural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Vanessa; Delima, Terri L.; Felix, Sarah H.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Shah, Kedar G.; Sheth, Heeral; Tooker, Angela C.

    2016-11-08

    An optical waveguide integrated into a multielectrode array (MEA) neural interface includes a device body, at least one electrode in the device body, at least one electrically conducting lead coupled to the at least one electrode, at least one optical channel in the device body, and waveguide material in the at least one optical channel. The fabrication of a neural interface device includes the steps of providing a device body, providing at least one electrode in the device body, providing at least one electrically conducting lead coupled to the at least one electrode, providing at least one optical channel in the device body, and providing a waveguide material in the at least one optical channel.

  5. Tunneling into a quantum confinement created by a single-step nanolithography of conducting oxide interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniv, E.; Ron, A.; Goldstein, M.; Palevski, A.; Dagan, Y.

    2016-07-01

    A unique nanolithography technique compatible with conducting oxide interfaces, which requires a single lithographic step with no additional amorphous deposition or etching, is presented. It is demonstrated on a SrTiO3/LaAlO3 interface where a constriction is patterned in the electron liquid. We find that an additional backgating can further confine the electron liquid into an isolated island. Conductance and differential conductance measurements show resonant tunneling through the island. The data at various temperatures and magnetic fields are analyzed and the effective island size is found to be of the order of 10 nm. The magnetic field dependence suggests the absence of spin degeneracy in the island. Our method is suitable for creating superconducting and oxide-interface-based electronic devices.

  6. Reconfigurable optical switches with monolithic electrical-to-optical interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, P. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Zolper, J.C.; Lear, K.L.; Vawter, G.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leibenguth, R.E.; Adams, A.C. [AT and T Bell Labs., Breinigsville, PA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be integrated with heterojunction phototransistors (HPTs) and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) on the same wafer to form high speed optical and optoelectronic switches, respectively, that can be optically or electrically addressed. This permits the direct communication and transmission of data between distributed electronic processors through an optical switching network. The experimental demonstration of an integrated optoelectronic HBT/VCSEL switch combining a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) with a VCSEL is described below, using the same epilayer structure upon which binary HPT/VCSEL optical switches are also built. The monolithic HBT/VCSEL switch has high current gain, low power dissipation, and a high optical to electrical conversion efficiency. Its modulation has been measured and modeled.

  7. Visualization-by-Sketching: An Artist's Interface for Creating Multivariate Time-Varying Data Visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David; Keefe, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    We present Visualization-by-Sketching, a direct-manipulation user interface for designing new data visualizations. The goals are twofold: First, make the process of creating real, animated, data-driven visualizations of complex information more accessible to artists, graphic designers, and other visual experts with traditional, non-technical training. Second, support and enhance the role of human creativity in visualization design, enabling visual experimentation and workflows similar to what is possible with traditional artistic media. The approach is to conceive of visualization design as a combination of processes that are already closely linked with visual creativity: sketching, digital painting, image editing, and reacting to exemplars. Rather than studying and tweaking low-level algorithms and their parameters, designers create new visualizations by painting directly on top of a digital data canvas, sketching data glyphs, and arranging and blending together multiple layers of animated 2D graphics. This requires new algorithms and techniques to interpret painterly user input relative to data "under" the canvas, balance artistic freedom with the need to produce accurate data visualizations, and interactively explore large (e.g., terabyte-sized) multivariate datasets. Results demonstrate a variety of multivariate data visualization techniques can be rapidly recreated using the interface. More importantly, results and feedback from artists support the potential for interfaces in this style to attract new, creative users to the challenging task of designing more effective data visualizations and to help these users stay "in the creative zone" as they work.

  8. Interface diffusion kinetics and lifetime scaling in multilayer Bragg optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Bruijn, S.; Yakshin, Andrey; Nedelcu, I.; Bijkerk, Frederik; van de Kruijs, R.W.E.

    2011-01-01

    The internal structure of Mo/Si multilayers is investigated during and after thermal annealing. Multilayer period compaction is shown to result from diffusion induced MoSi2 interlayer growth, reducing optical contrast and changing the reflected wavelength. We focus on early-stage interface growth

  9. Optical label-controlled transparent metro-access network interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich

    This thesis presents results obtained during the course of my PhD research on optical signal routing and interfacing between the metropolitan and access segments of optical networks. Due to both increasing capacity demands and variety of emerging services types, new technological challenges...... are arising for seamlessly interfacing metropolitan and access networks. Therefore, in this PhD project, I have analyzed those technological challenges and identified the key aspects to be addressed. I have also proposed and experimentally verified a number of solutions to metropolitan and access networks...... interfacing and signal routing. Equipment and infrastructure simplification was recognized as the path towards more efficient metropolitan and access networks providing a spectrum of high-bandwidth services to large number of users. Several approaches have been proposed and developed in order to enable...

  10. Control of interface nanoscale structure created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Someswara R; Akgun, Bulent; Satija, Sushil K; Jiang, Hao; Enlow, Jesse; Bunning, Timothy J; Foster, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    Tailoring the structure of films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to specific applications requires a depth-resolved understanding of how the interface structures in such films are impacted by variations in deposition parameters such as feed position and plasma power. Analysis of complementary X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XR, NR) data provide a rich picture of changes in structure with feed position and plasma power, with those changes resolved on the nanoscale. For plasma-polymerized octafluorocyclobutane (PP-OFCB) films, a region of distinct chemical composition and lower cross-link density is found at the substrate interface for the range of processing conditions studied and a surface layer of lower cross-link density also appears when plasma power exceeds 40 W. Varying the distance of the feed from the plasma impacts the degree of cross-linking in the film center, thickness of the surface layer, and thickness of the transition region at the substrate. Deposition at the highest power, 65 W, both enhances cross-linking and creates loose fragments with fluorine content higher than the average. The thickness of the low cross-link density region at the air interface plays an important role in determining the width of the interface built with a layer subsequently deposited atop the first.

  11. Optically oriented electron spin transmission across ferromagnet/semiconductor interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, T.; Suzuki, I.; Wada, E.; Shirahata, Y.; Naito, T.; Itoh, M.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2011-10-01

    Electron spin transmission across ferromagnetic metal/semiconductor interfaces with different ferromagnetic contacts, i.e., Fe and FeGa, is studied using optical spin orientation method. The bias dependence of spin dependent photocurrent, which is the difference between the photocurrents excited with left- and right- handed circularly polarized lights, is found to show a dip-like feature at -0.058 and 0.021 V for Fe and FeGa contacts, respectively. The origin of the bias dependence of the spin dependent photocurrent is discussed on the basis of the Breit-Wigner type resonant tunneling process via interface resonant states, comparing the results for the both contacts. The results also indicate that the control of interface states is crucial to achieve efficient spin filtering effect at the ferromagnet/semiconductor interfaces.

  12. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limitedshort-wavelength optical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman,Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli,Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-08-03

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-{angstrom} and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date.

  13. Refraction at a curved dielectric interface - Geometrical optics solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.-W.; Sheshadri, M. S.; Mittra, R.; Jamnejad, V.

    1982-01-01

    The transmission of a spherical or plane wave through an arbitrarily curved dielectric interface is solved by the geometrical optics theory. The transmitted field is proportional to the product of the conventional Fresnel's transmission coefficient and a divergence factor (DF), which describes the cross-sectional variation (convergence or divergence) of a ray pencil as the latter propagates in the transmitted region. The factor DF depends on the incident wavefront, the curvatures of the interface, and the relative indices of the two media. Explicit matrix formulas for calculating DF are given, and its physical significance is illustrated via examples.

  14. Creating widely accessible spatial interfaces: mobile VR for managing persistent pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David; Korsakov, Fedor; Jolton, Joseph; Keefe, Francis J; Haley, Alex; Keefe, Daniel F

    2013-01-01

    Using widely accessible VR technologies, researchers have implemented a series of multimodal spatial interfaces and virtual environments. The results demonstrate the degree to which we can now use low-cost (for example, mobile-phone based) VR environments to create rich virtual experiences involving motion sensing, physiological inputs, stereoscopic imagery, sound, and haptic feedback. Adapting spatial interfaces to these new platforms can open up exciting application areas for VR. In this case, the application area was in-home VR therapy for patients suffering from persistent pain (for example, arthritis and cancer pain). For such therapy to be successful, a rich spatial interface and rich visual aesthetic are particularly important. So, an interdisciplinary team with expertise in technology, design, meditation, and the psychology of pain collaborated to iteratively develop and evaluate several prototype systems. The video at http://youtu.be/mMPE7itReds demonstrates how the sine wave fitting responds to walking motions, for a walking-in-place application.

  15. Nonlinear interface optical switch structure for dual mode switching revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussjager, Rebecca J.; Osman, Joseph M.; Chaiken, Joseph

    1998-07-01

    There is a need for devices which will allow integration of photonic/optical computing subsystems into electronic computing architectures. This presentation reviews the nonlinear interface optical switch (NIOS) concept and then describes a new effect, the erasable optical memory (EOM) effect. We evaluate an extension of the NIOS device to allow simultaneous optical/electronic, i.e. dual mode, switching of light utilizing the EOM effect. Specific devices involve the fabrication of thin film tungsten (VI) oxide (WO3) and tungsten (V) oxide (W2O5) on the hypotenuse of glass (BK-7), fused silica (SiO2) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) right angle prisms. Chemical reactions and temporal response tests were performed and are discussed.

  16. Dispersive Optical Interface Based on Nanofiber-Trapped Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Dawkins, S T; Reitz, D; Vetsch, E; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2011-01-01

    We dispersively interface an ensemble of one thousand atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding a tapered optical nanofiber. This method relies on the azimuthally-asymmetric coupling of the ensemble with the evanescent field of an off-resonant probe beam, transmitted through the nanofiber. The resulting birefringence and dispersion are significant; we observe a phase shift per atom of $\\sim$\\,1\\,mrad at a detuning of six times the natural linewidth, corresponding to an effective resonant optical density per atom of 2.7\\,%. Moreover, we utilize this strong dispersion to non-destructively determine the number of atoms.

  17. Phase-Change Optical Disk Having a Nitride Interface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Noboru; Otoba, Mayumi; Kawahara, Katsumi; Miyagawa, Naoyasu; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Akahira, Nobuo; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki

    1998-04-01

    A thin nitride layer formed at the interface of a Ge Sb Te recording layer and a ZnS SiO2 protective layer successfully suppresses the phenomenon that reflectivity or signal amplitude becomes markedly small due to repeated overwrites. Based on secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) observations, the 5-nm-thick interface layer was found to restrain sulfur atoms in the ZnS SiO2 layer from diffusing into the Ge Sb Te layer and from changing the optical characteristics of the layer. Among several nitride materials, germanium nitride (Ge N) sputtered film is found to have the most suitable properties as an interface layer: high barrier effect and good adhesiveness with Ge Sb Te and ZnS SiO2 layers. The optical disk having the Ge N interface layer achieves more than 5×105 cycles of overwrites with almost no changes in signal amplitude, reflectivity and jitter based on DVD-RAM specifications. The disk shows no degradation such as cracking, peeling, and corrosion after exposure to accelerated environmental conditions of 90°C and 80% RH for 200 h.

  18. Creating Mobile and Web Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for NASA Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, D.; Chambers, L. H.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at the NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia houses almost three petabytes of data, a collection that increases every day. To put it into perspective, it is estimated that three petabytes of data storage could store a digitized copy of all printed material in U.S. research libraries. There are more than ten other NASA data centers like the ASDC. Scientists and the public use this data for research, science education, and to understand our environment. Most importantly these data provide the potential for all of us make new discoveries. NASA is about making discoveries. Galileo was quoted as saying, "All discoveries are easy to understand once they are discovered. The point is to discover them." To that end, NASA stores vast amounts of publicly available data. This paper examines an approach to create web applications that serve NASA data in ways that specifically address the mobile web application technologies that are quickly emerging. Mobile data is not a new concept. What is new, is that user driven tools have recently become available that allow users to create their own mobile applications. Through the use of these cloud-based tools users can produce complete native mobile applications. Thus, mobile apps can now be created by everyone, regardless of their programming experience or expertise. This work will explore standards and methods for creating dynamic and malleable application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow users to access and use NASA science data for their own needs. The focus will be on experiences that broaden and increase the scope and usage of NASA science data sets.

  19. Creating new functional circuits for action via brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsborn, Amy L; Carmena, Jose M

    2013-11-05

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are an emerging technology with great promise for developing restorative therapies for those with disabilities. BMIs also create novel, well-defined functional circuits for action that are distinct from the natural sensorimotor apparatus. Closed-loop control of BMI systems can also actively engage learning and adaptation. These properties make BMIs uniquely suited to study learning of motor and non-physical, abstract skills. Recent work used motor BMIs to shed light on the neural representations of skill formation and motor adaptation. Emerging work in sensory BMIs, and other novel interface systems, also highlight the promise of using BMI systems to study fundamental questions in learning and sensorimotor control. This paper outlines the interpretation of BMIs as novel closed-loop systems and the benefits of these systems for studying learning. We review BMI learning studies, their relation to motor control, and propose future directions for this nascent field. Understanding learning in BMIs may both elucidate mechanisms of natural motor and abstract skill learning, and aid in developing the next generation of neuroprostheses.

  20. Meso-/micro-optical system interface coupling solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Boye, Robert R. (01713 Photonic Microsystems Technology)

    2005-10-01

    Optoelectronic microsystems are more and more prevalent as researchers seek to increase transmission bandwidths, implement electrical isolation, enhance security, or take advantage of sensitive optical sensing methods. Board level photonic integration techniques continue to improve, but photonic microsystems and fiber interfaces remain problematic, especially upon size reduction. Optical fiber is unmatched as a transmission medium for distances ranging from tens of centimeters to kilometers. The difficulty with using optical fiber is the small size of the core (approximately 9 {micro}m for the core of single mode telecommunications fiber) and the tight requirement on spot size and input numerical aperture (NA). Coupling to devices such as vertical cavity emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photodetectors presents further difficulties since these elements work in a plane orthogonal to the electronics board and typically require additional optics. This leads to the need for a packaging solution that can incorporate dissimilar materials while maintaining the tight alignment tolerances required by the optics. Over the course of this LDRD project, we have examined the capabilities of components such as VCSELs and photodetectors for high-speed operation and investigated the alignment tolerances required by the optical system. A solder reflow process has been developed to help fulfill these packaging requirements and the results of that work are presented here.

  1. Si-based optical I/O for optical memory interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyoungho; Shin, Dongjae; Byun, Hyunil; Cho, Kwansik; Na, Kyoungwon; Ji, Hochul; Pyo, Junghyung; Hong, Seokyong; Lee, Kwanghyun; Lee, Beomseok; Shin, Yong-hwack; Kim, Junghye; Kim, Seong-gu; Joe, Insung; Suh, Sungdong; Choi, Sanghoon; Han, Sangdeok; Park, Yoondong; Choi, Hanmei; Kuh, Bongjin; Kim, Kichul; Choi, Jinwoo; Park, Sujin; Kim, Hyeunsu; Kim, Kiho; Choi, Jinyong; Lee, Hyunjoo; Yang, Sujin; Park, Sungho; Lee, Minwoo; Cho, Minchang; Kim, Saebyeol; Jeong, Taejin; Hyun, Seokhun; Cho, Cheongryong; Kim, Jeong-kyoum; Yoon, Hong-gu; Nam, Jeongsik; Kwon, Hyukjoon; Lee, Hocheol; Choi, Junghwan; Jang, Sungjin; Choi, Joosun; Chung, Chilhee

    2012-01-01

    Optical interconnects may provide solutions to the capacity-bandwidth trade-off of recent memory interface systems. For cost-effective optical memory interfaces, Samsung Electronics has been developing silicon photonics platforms on memory-compatible bulk-Si 300-mm wafers. The waveguide of 0.6 dB/mm propagation loss, vertical grating coupler of 2.7 dB coupling loss, modulator of 10 Gbps speed, and Ge/Si photodiode of 12.5 Gbps bandwidth have been achieved on the bulk-Si platform. 2x6.4 Gbps electrical driver circuits have been also fabricated using a CMOS process.

  2. Nonlinear optical studies of aqueous interfaces, polymers, and nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Robert Michael

    -transfer-to-solvent band and a Langmuir adsorption model are used to determine the affinity of bromide for both the air/water and dodecanol/water interfaces in the molar concentration regime. The Gibbs free energy of adsorption for the former is determined to be -1.4 kJ/mol with a lower 90% confidence limit of -4.1 kJ/mol. For the dodecanol/water interface the data are best fit with a Gibbs free energy of +8 kJ/mol with an estimated a lower limit of -4 kJ/mol. Adsorption of ions to the air/water interface in the millimolar regime is a particularly interesting phenomenon. In Chapter 4, the affinity of sodium chloride and sodium bromide to the air/water interface is probed by UV-SHG. Both salts exhibit a strong adsorption, with free energies greater than -20 kJ/mol. Interestingly, sodium chloride exhibits a stronger affinity for the interface than does sodium iodide, which was previously studied by Poul Peterson. This is counter to both experimental and theoretical results for higher concentrations. It has been predicted that ion adsorption is dictated by strong and opposing electrostatic and entropic forces. The change in order of ion interfacial affinity can be explained by relatively small changes in these forces at different concentrations and ionic strengths. In Chapters 5 and 6, other work using nonlinear optical techniques is described. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy is a promising tool for chemically selective imaging based on molecular vibrations. While CARS is currently used as a biological imaging tool, many variations are still being developed, perhaps the most important being multiplex CARS microscopy. Multiplex CARS has the advantage of comparing images based on different molecular vibrations without changing the excitation wavelengths. In Chapter 5, I demonstrate both high spectral and spatial resolution multiplex CARS imaging of polymer films using a simple scheme for chirped CARS with a spectral bandwidth of 300 cm-1. In Chapter 6, the nonlinear optical

  3. Programmable logic controller optical fibre sensor interface module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Gary; Wild, Graham; Hinckley, Steven

    2011-12-01

    Most automated industrial processes use Distributed Control Systems (DCSs) or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for automated control. PLCs tend to be more common as they have much of the functionality of DCSs, although they are generally cheaper to install and maintain. PLCs in conjunction with a human machine interface form the basis of Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, combined with communication infrastructure and Remote Terminal Units (RTUs). RTU's basically convert different sensor measurands in to digital data that is sent back to the PLC or supervisory system. Optical fibre sensors are becoming more common in industrial processes because of their many advantageous properties. Being small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and immune to electromagnetic interference, means they are an ideal solution for a variety of diverse sensing applications. Here, we have developed a PLC Optical Fibre Sensor Interface Module (OFSIM), in which an optical fibre is connected directly to the OFSIM located next to the PLC. The embedded fibre Bragg grating sensors, are highly sensitive and can detect a number of different measurands such as temperature, pressure and strain without the need for a power supply.

  4. Software Development: 3D Animations and Creating User Interfaces for Realistic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Orlando Enrique

    2015-01-01

    My fall 2015 semester was spent at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center working in the Integrated Graphics, Operations, and Analysis Laboratory (IGOAL). My first project was to create a video animation that could tell the story of OMICS. OMICS is a term being used in the field of biomedical science to describe the collective technologies that study biological systems, such as what makes up a cell and how it functions with other systems. In the IGOAL I used a large 23 inch Wacom monitor to draw storyboards, graphics, and line art animations. I used Blender as the 3D environment to sculpt, shape, cut or modify the several scenes and models for the video. A challenge creating this video was to take a term used in biomedical science and describe it in such a way that an 8th grade student can understand. I used a line art style because it would visually set the tone for what we thought was an educational style. In order to get a handle on the perspective and overall feel for the animation without overloading my workspace, I split up the 2 minute animation into several scenes. I used Blender's python scripting capabilities which allowed for the addition of plugins to add or modify tools. The scripts can also directly interact with the objects to create naturalistic patterns or movements. After collecting the rendered scenes, I used Blender's built-in video editing workspace to output the animation. My second project was to write software that emulates a physical system's interface. The interface was to simulate a boat, ROV, and winch system. Simulations are a time and cost effective way to test complicated data and provide training for operators without having to use expensive hardware. We created the virtual controls with 3-D Blender models and 2-D graphics, and then add functionality in C# using the Unity game engine. The Unity engine provides several essential behaviors of a simulator, such as the start and update functions. A framework for Unity, which was developed in

  5. Challenges of Malaysian Developers in Creating Good Interfaces for Interactive Courseware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Norfadilah

    2010-01-01

    There are many reasons why interface design for interactive courseware fails to support quality of learning experiences. The causes such as the level of interactivity, the availability of the interfaces to interact with the end users and a lack of deep knowledge about the role of interface design by the designers in the development process are…

  6. Quantum optical feedback control for creating strong correlations in many-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Ivanov, Denis A; Mekhov, Igor B

    2016-01-01

    Light enables manipulating many-body states of matter, and atoms trapped in optical lattices is a prominent example. However, quantum properties of light are completely neglected in all quantum gas experiments. Extending methods of quantum optics to many-body physics will enable phenomena unobtainable in classical optical setups. We show how using the quantum optical feedback creates strong correlations in bosonic and fermionic systems. It balances two competing processes, originating from different fields: quantum backaction of weak optical measurement and many-body dynamics, resulting in stabilized density waves, antiferromagnetic and NOON states. Our approach is extendable to other systems promising for quantum technologies.

  7. Optical properties of the fluid-fluid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhuis, E. M.; Bedeaux, D.

    1990-04-01

    In this paper we derive formulae for the optical properties (reflection, transmission and ellipsometric coefficients) of a fluid-fluid interface. An expansion to the second order in the interfacial thickness is used. Deviations of the above-mentioned coefficients from the value found using a step function profile for the refractive index (Fresnel) are found to be the sum of three terms. The first follows from the so-called intrinsic profile using the standard theory for stratified media. The second is due to capillary waves and was already analyzed in two earlier papers [B.J.A. Zielinska, D. Bedeaux and J. Vlieger, Physica A 107 (1981) 91; 117 (1983) 28]. The third is due to the modification of the relevant correlation functions in the neigbourhood of the interface due to fluctuations with a wavelength comparable to or smaller than the bulk correlation length. A comparison is made with experimental results close to the critical point. We discuss how the introduction of the rigidity of the interface as suggested by Meunier [J. Phys. (Paris) 48 (1987) 1819] may reduce the contributions due to capillary waves to the reflection and the ellipsometric coefficients. Expressions for these coefficients are given explicitly contain both the rigidity as well as the large wavevector cutoff used by Sengers and van Leeuwen [Phys. Rev. A 39 (1989) 6346] in their analysis of the behaviour of the surface tension. The rigidity is found not to affect the scaling behaviour of these coefficients near the critical point. For zero rigidity the expressions for the capillary wave contributions reduce to those given in the two earlier papers while for an infinite cutoff wavevector they reduce to those given by Meunier.

  8. Origin of optical bistability and hysteretic reflectivity on account of nonlinearity at optically induced gallium silica interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind; Nagar, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    The origin of optical bistability and hysterectic reflectivity on account of nonlinearity at optically induced Gallium silica interface has been investigated. Assuming the wave to be incident from the gallium nano particle layer side at gallium silica interface. The coupling between incident and reflected waves has shown nonlinear effects on Snell's law and Fresnel law. Effect of these nonlinear processes optical bistability and hysterectic reflectivity theoretically has been investigated. Theoretical results obtained are consistent with the available experimental results.

  9. Interface design and contemporary: human creating new guidelines for high-tech products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnan, Andreia Salvan; Ribeiro, Giovana Freitas Rabelo; Gonçalves, Maria Goretti Souza; Câmara, Jairo José Drummond; Baptista, Sandra Motta

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary electronic industry offers a wide range of products. Usually touch sensitive and with few buttons and a lot of functions these products not always have a friendly interface. The human x design interface based on electronics' ergonomics is the focus of this research. An evolutionary analysis of the electronics industry design within a contemporary context clarifies this relation and proposes new guidelines for a more conscious design.

  10. Vibration Spectrums of Polar Interface Optical Phonons in GaAs/AlAs Cylindrical Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li

    2005-01-01

    The dispersions of the top interface optical phonons and the side interface optical phonons in cylindrical quantum dots are solved by using the dielectric continuum model. Our calculation mainly focuses on the frequency dependence of the IO phonon modes on the wave-vector and quantum number in the cylindrical quantum dot system.Results reveal that the frequency of top interface optical phonon sensitively depends on the discrete wave-vector in z direction and the azimuthal quantum number, while that of the side interface optical phonon mode depends on the radial and azimuthal quantum numbers. These features are obviously different from those in quantum well, quantum well wire,and spherical quantum dot systems. The limited frequencies of interface optical modes for the large wave-vector or quantum number approach two certain constant values, and the math and physical reasons for this feature have been explained reasonably.

  11. Studies of interfaces and vapors with Optical Second Harmonic Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, Christopher Shane [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-01

    Optical Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) has been applied to the study of soap-like molecules adsorbed to the water-air interface. By calibrating the signal from a soluble monolayer with that of an insoluble homolog, absolute measurements of the surface density could be obtained and related to the bulk concentration and surface tension. We could then demonstrate that the soluble surfactant forms a single monolayer at the interface. Furthermore, it deviates significantly from the ideal case in that its activity coefficients are far from 1, yet those coefficients remain constant over a broad range of surface pressures. We present evidence of a first-order phase transition taking place during the adsorption of this soluble monolayer. We consider the effects of the non-ideal behavior and the phase transition on the microscopic model of adsorption, and formulate an alternative to the Langmuir picture of adsorption which is just as simple, yet it can more easily allow for non-ideal behavior. The second half of this thesis considers the problem of SHG in bulk metal vapors. The symmetry of the vapor forbids SHG, yet it has been observed. We consider several models whereby the symmetry of the vapor is broken by the presence of the laser and compare their predictions to new observations we have made using a few-picosecond laser pulse. The two-lobed output beam profile shows that it is the vapor-plus-beam combination whose symmetry is important. The dependence on vapor pressure demonstrates the coherent nature of the radiation, while the dependence on buffer gas pressure hints at a change of the symmetry in time. The time-dependence is measured directly with a preliminary pump-probe measurement. The magnitude and intensity dependence of the signal are also measured. All but one of the models are eliminated by this comparison.

  12. Aladin transmit-receive optics (TRO): the optical interface between laser, telescope and spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosebach, Herbert; Erhard, Markus; Camus, Fabrice

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents the design and key technologies of the Transmit-Receive Optics (TRO) for the Aladin lidar instrument. The TRO as the central optical interface on the Aladin instrument leading the optical signals from the laser source to the emitting/receiving telescope, and vice versa, the received back scattered signals from the telescope to the spectrometers for Doppler shift evaluation. Additionally, the TRO contains a calibration branch bypassing the telescope and aims at levelling out the received signals in terms of wavelength and signal height changes due to wavelength and intensity variations of the laser. The opto-mechanical concept of the TRO consists of afocal optical groups, which are connected by parallel beams. Extreme requirements have been defined for the TRO on the end-to-end transmission (>=73 %) with an associated effective bandwidth of less than 1 nm over the 200 - 1100 nm spectral range. The achieved solution is presented in this paper. A further feature of the TRO is the use of two so-called aberration generators on the emitting and calibration branch, with which an artificial astigmatism can be realised for eye safety reasons. Its effect on astigmatism is presented. This article also addresses the effort on stray light suppression, which is of extreme importance for the TRO. Special ion plated (IP) optical coatings have been used with superior performance for the TRO, particulary on laser energy resistance and air/vacuum stability. The development of special mounting technologies of optical elements to meet the stringent WFE, stability, and stray light requirements for the TRO are described. Key words : Aeolus Satellite, ALADIN instrument, Lidar, optical design, UV optics manufacturing technologies

  13. ExperimentDesigner A Tcl/Tk Interface for Creating Experiments in EPICS

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Hairong

    2005-01-01

    ExperimentDesigner is a Tcl/Tk interface that allows users to easily design and run complicated experiments using a convenient graphical user interface (GUI). Features include: process variable monitoring, which pauses the experiment when values are out of range; user-defined initialization, execution, and finalization sequences; support of complex execution chains containing actions such as setting controls, reading values, running external programs, interacting with the user, etc.; collection of output data for convenient postprocessing; saving and loading of experiment configurations; convenient use of SDDS Toolkit programs; and execution of experiments from the command line without a GUI.

  14. Open Knowledge Maps: Creating a Visual Interface to the World’s Scientific Knowledge Based on Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of Open Knowledge Maps is to create a visual interface to the world’s scientific knowledge. The base for this visual interface consists of so-called knowledge maps, which enable the exploration of existing knowledge and the discovery of new knowledge. Our open source knowledge mapping software applies a mixture of summarization techniques and similarity measures on article metadata, which are iteratively chained together. After processing, the representation is saved in a database for use in a web visualization. In the future, we want to create a space for collective knowledge mapping that brings together individuals and communities involved in exploration and discovery. We want to enable people to guide each other in their discovery by collaboratively annotating and modifying the automatically created maps. Das Ziel von Open Knowledge Map ist es, ein visuelles Interface zum wissenschaftlichen Wissen der Welt bereitzustellen. Die Basis für die dieses Interface sind sogenannte “knowledge maps”, zu deutsch Wissenslandkarten. Wissenslandkarten ermöglichen die Exploration bestehenden Wissens und die Entdeckung neuen Wissens. Unsere Open Source Software wendet für die Erstellung der Wissenslandkarten eine Reihe von Text Mining Verfahren iterativ auf die Metadaten wissenschaftlicher Artikel an. Die daraus resultierende Repräsentation wird in einer Datenbank für die Anzeige in einer Web-Visualisierung abgespeichert. In Zukunft wollen wir einen Raum für das kollektive Erstellen von Wissenslandkarten schaffen, der die Personen und Communities, welche sich mit der Exploration und Entdeckung wissenschaftlichen Wissens beschäftigen, zusammenbringt. Wir wollen es den NutzerInnen ermöglichen, einander in der Literatursuche durch kollaboratives Annotieren und Modifizieren von automatisch erstellten Wissenslandkarten zu unterstützen.

  15. Taking Control of Enrollment Management at Small Private Universities: Creating an Interactive Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Elliot

    2007-01-01

    Enrollment management is a process critical to most small private universities that rely on tuition for a significant portion of their operating budgets. Often these universities rely on outside consultants to help them in performing this important process. This case study describes how university assets were used to create an interactive…

  16. How to Create, Modify, and Interface Aspen In-House and User Databanks for System Configuration 2:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D W

    2000-10-27

    The goal of this document is to provide detailed instructions to create, modify, interface, and test Aspen User and In-House databanks with minimal frustration. The level of instructions are aimed at a novice Aspen Plus simulation user who is neither a programming nor computer-system expert. The instructions are tailored to Version 10.1 of Aspen Plus and the specific computing configuration summarized in the Title of this document and detailed in Section 2. Many details of setting up databanks depend on the computing environment specifics, such as the machines, operating systems, command languages, directory structures, inter-computer communications software, the version of the Aspen Engine and Graphical User Interface (GUI), and the directory structure of how these were installed.

  17. How to Create, Modify, and Interface Aspen In-House and User Databanks for System Configuration 1:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D W

    2000-10-27

    The goal of this document is to provide detailed instructions to create, modify, interface, and test Aspen User and In-House databanks with minimal frustration. The level of instructions are aimed at a novice Aspen Plus simulation user who is neither a programming nor computer-system expert. The instructions are tailored to Version 10.1 of Aspen Plus and the specific computing configuration summarized in the Title of this document and detailed in Section 2. Many details of setting up databanks depend on the computing environment specifics, such as the machines, operating systems, command languages, directory structures, inter-computer communications software, the version of the Aspen Engine and Graphical User Interface (GUI), and the directory structure of how these were installed.

  18. Intelligent Virtual Agent: Creating a Multi-modal 3D Avatar Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Mark; Mac Namee, Brian; Kelleher, John

    2009-01-01

    Human-computer interactions can be greatly enhanced by the use of 3D avatars, representing both human users and computer systems in 3D virtual spaces. This allows the human user to interface with the computer system in a natural and intuitive human-to-human dialog (human face-to-face conversation). Hence, continuing to blur the boundaries between the real and virtual worlds. This proposed avatar system will go a step further and will use a camera to track the user’s head and eye movements dur...

  19. Evaluation of the marginal fit at implant-abutment interface by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Keisuke; Akiba, Norihisa; Sadr, Alireza; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2014-05-01

    Vertical misfit of implant-abutment interface can affect the success of implant treatment; however, currently available modalities have limitations to detect these gaps. This study aimed to evaluate implant-abutment gaps in vitro using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Vertical misfit gaps sized 50, 100, 150, or 200 μm were created between external hexagonal implants and titanium abutments (Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden). A porcine gingival tissue slice, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mm in thickness, was placed on each implant-abutment interface. The gaps were evaluated by swept-source OCT at a center wavelength of 1330 nm (Panasonic Healthcare, Ehime, Japan) with beam angles of 90, 75 and 60 deg to the implant long-axis. The results suggested that while the measurements were precise, gap size and gingival thickness affected the sensitivity of detection. Gaps sized 100 μm and above could be detected with good accuracy under 0.5- or 1.0-mm-thick gingiva (GN). Around 70% of gaps sized 150 μm and above could be detected under 1.5-mm-thick GN. On the other hand, 80% of gaps under 2.0-mm-thick GN were not detected due to attenuation of near-infrared light through the soft tissue. OCT appeared as an effective tool for evaluating the misfit of implant-abutment under thin layers of soft tissue.

  20. Moessbauer optics of synchrotron radiation at an isotope interface

    CERN Document Server

    Belyakov, V A

    2000-01-01

    Coherent inelastic Moessbauer scattering (CIMS) of synchrotron radiation (SR) at an isotope interface (plane interface between two regions differing only in the concentration of the Moessbauer isotope) is investigated theoretically. Main attention is paid to the CIMS component resulting from SR quanta absorption by Moessbauer nuclei accompanied by creation or annihilation of the phonons in sample and following recoilless reemission of Moessbauer quanta.

  1. Modeling and performance analysis of IP access interface in optical transmission networks with packet switching

    OpenAIRE

    Lackovic, Marko; Bungarzeanu, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    The article analyzes the influence of the Internet Protocol (IP) access interface on the packet loss probability and delay times in the optical packet switched network. The network and node model have been proposed, and the structure of the IP access interface, including assembler and holder, have been included in the analysis. It has been shown that the increase of the maximum optical packet sizes, as well as use of the holding feature as contention resolution mechanism, decrease the packet ...

  2. Interferometric velocity measurements through a fluctuating gas-liquid interface employing adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Leithold, Christoph; Czarske, Jürgen

    2013-12-16

    Optical transmission through fluctuating interfaces of mediums with different refractive indexes is limited by the occurring distortions. Temporal fluctuations of such distortions deteriorate optical measurements. In order to overcome this shortcoming we propose the use of adaptive optics. For the first time, an interferometric velocity measurement technique with embedded adaptive optics is presented for flow velocity measurements through a fluctuating air-water interface. A low order distortion correction technique using a fast deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack camera with high frame rate is employed. The obtained high control bandwidth enables precise measurements also at fast fluctuating media interfaces. This methodology paves the way for several kinds of optical flow measurements in various complex environments.

  3. Silicon grating structures for optical fiber interfacing and III-V/silicon opto-electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelkens, Gunther; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Li, Yanlu; Muneeb, Muhammad; Hattasan, Nannicha; Ryckeboer, Eva; Deconinck, Yannick; Van Thourhout, Dries; Baets, Roel

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we review our work on efficient, broadband and polarization independent interfaces between a silicon-on-insulator photonic IC and a single-mode optical fiber based on grating structures. The high alignment tolerance and the fact that the optical fiber interface is out-of-plane provide opportunities for easy packaging and wafer-scale testing of the photonic IC. Next to fiber-chip interfaces we will discuss the use of silicon grating structures in III-V on silicon optoelectronic components such as integrated photodetectors and microlasers.

  4. Fabrication quality analysis of a fiber optic refractive index sensor created by CO2 laser machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Hsing; Yeh, Bo-Kuan; Tang, Jaw-Luen; Wu, Wei-Te

    2013-03-26

    This study investigates the CO2 laser-stripped partial cladding of silica-based optic fibers with a core diameter of 400 μm, which enables them to sense the refractive index of the surrounding environment. However, inappropriate treatments during the machining process can generate a number of defects in the optic fiber sensors. Therefore, the quality of optic fiber sensors fabricated using CO2 laser machining must be analyzed. The results show that analysis of the fiber core size after machining can provide preliminary defect detection, and qualitative analysis of the optical transmission defects can be used to identify imperfections that are difficult to observe through size analysis. To more precisely and quantitatively detect fabrication defects, we included a tensile test and numerical aperture measurements in this study. After a series of quality inspections, we proposed improvements to the existing CO2 laser machining parameters, namely, a vertical scanning pathway, 4 W of power, and a feed rate of 9.45 cm/s. Using these improved parameters, we created optical fiber sensors with a core diameter of approximately 400 μm, no obvious optical transmission defects, a numerical aperture of 0.52 ± 0.019, a 0.886 Weibull modulus, and a 1.186 Weibull-shaped parameter. Finally, we used the optical fiber sensor fabricated using the improved parameters to measure the refractive indices of various solutions. The results show that a refractive-index resolution of 1.8 × 10(-4) RIU (linear fitting R2 = 0.954) was achieved for sucrose solutions with refractive indices ranging between 1.333 and 1.383. We also adopted the particle plasmon resonance sensing scheme using the fabricated optical fibers. The results provided additional information, specifically, a superior sensor resolution of 5.73 × 10(-5) RIU, and greater linearity at R2 = 0.999.

  5. Novel applications of optical techniques to the study of buried semiconductor interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed electronic and structural information about buried semiconductor interfaces obtained through application of optical techniques is discussed. The measurements described include the determination of band discontinuities, strain, and disorder associated with semiconductor heterointerfaces. The contactless and nondestructive nature of these optical techniques is particularly important for the study of heterointerfaces which are inherently inaccessible to direct electrical or physical contact.

  6. Managing the Civil-Military Interface in the EU: Creating an Organisation Fit for Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Martin Norheim-Martinsen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of ESDP/CSDP in 1999 has been accompanied by the anticipation that the European Union will represent a unique strategic actor because of its ability to mix civilian and military crisis management instruments as part of a comprehensive approach. But to what extent is this characteristic reflected in the EU’s civil-military organisation? The EU is clearly not a state, but it does embody certain non-intergovernmental characteristics that set it beyond a 'normal' inter-state organisation or alliance, the expansion of the role of the administrative level being one of them. The development of a well-functioning civil-military organisation is important in this regard, but appropriate benchmarks for what such an organisation would look like are missing from the current EU debate. A problem is that, when focusing on the novelty and uniqueness of the EU’s comprehensive approach, institutional change is often treated as a good in itself. However, by contrasting and using two classical models for organising civil-military relations – Samuel Huntington’s so-called 'normal', or separated model, and Morris Janowitz’ 'constabulary', or integrated model – as benchmarks, the article shows that institutional innovations have largely sustained a separation of the civil-military interface, despite the stated objective of developing an EU 'culture of coordination'. This situation reflects the inherent tension between a traditional civil-military culture with deep roots in the Member States, on the one hand, and an evolving 'in-house' civil-military culture within the Council Secretariat, on the other. When it comes to ESDP/CSDP, certain Member States have used institutional reform as a way to push through national agendas, producing frequent but often ineffective institutional change. At the same time, there has been a lack of attention inside the Council Secretariat paid to effective measures for breaking down professional and cultural

  7. Optical second harmonic generation phase measurement at interfaces of some organic layers with indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngah Demon, Siti Zulaikha [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 923-1292 Ishikawa (Japan); Department of Physics, Centre of Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 53 000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Miyauchi, Yoshihiro [Department of Applied Physics, School of Applied Sciences, National Defense Academy of Japan, 239-8686 Kanagawa (Japan); Mizutani, Goro, E-mail: mizutani@jaist.ac.jp [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 923-1292 Ishikawa (Japan); Matsushima, Toshinori; Murata, Hideyuki [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 923-1292 Ishikawa (Japan)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • SHG phase from the interfaces of ITO/CuPc and ITO/pentacene was observed. • Optical dispersion of the organic thin film was taken into account. • Phase shift from bare ITO was 140° for ITO/CuPc and 160° for ITO/pentacene. - Abstract: We observed phase shift in optical second harmonic generation (SHG) from interfaces of indium tin oxide (ITO)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and ITO/pentacene. Phase correction due to Fresnel factors of the sample was taken into account. The phase of SHG electric field at the ITO/pentacene interface, ϕ{sub interface} with respect to the phase of SHG of bare substrate ITO was 160°, while the interface of ITO/CuPc had a phase of 140°.

  8. Evanescent-field spectroscopy using structured optical fibers: detection of charge-transfer at the porphyrin-silica interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Cicero; Canning, John; Reimers, Jeffrey R; Sintic, Maxine; Stocks, Danial; Khoury, Tony; Crossley, Maxwell J

    2009-03-04

    The fabrication of porphyrin thin films derived from dichloro[5,10,15,20-tetra(heptyl)porphyrinato]tin(IV) [Cl-Sn(THP)-Cl] in the holes of photonic crystal fibers over 90 cm in length is described. Evanescent field spectroscopy (EFS) is used to investigate the interfacial properties of the films, with the high surface optical intensity and the long path length combining to produce significant absorption. By comparison with results obtained for similar films formed from Cl-Sn(THP)-Cl inside fused-silica cuvettes and on glass slides, the film is shown to be chemisorbed as a surface Si-O-Sn(THP)-X (X = Cl or OH) species. In addition to the usual porphyrin Q and Soret bands, new absorptions in the in-fiber films are observed by EFS at 445 nm and between 660-930 nm. The 660-930 nm band is interpreted as a porphyrin to silicon charge-transfer transition and postulated to arise following chemisorption at mechanical-strain induced defect sites on the silica surface. Such defect sites are caused by the optical fiber production process and are less prevalent on other glass surfaces. EFS within optical fibers therefore offers new ways for understanding interface phenomena such as surface adsorbates on glass. Such understanding will benefit all devices that exploit interface phenomena, both in optical fibers and other integrated waveguide forms. They may be directly exploited to create ultrasensitive molecular detectors and could yield novel photonic devices.

  9. Using Qualitative Methods to Create a Home Health Web Application User Interface for Patients with Low Computer Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Rosa R; Cooper, Emily; Wysocki, Andrea; Gravenstein, Stefan; Clark, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the investment in public reporting for a number of healthcare settings, evidence indicates that consumers do not routinely use available data to select providers. This suggests that existing reports do not adequately incorporate recommendations for consumer-facing reports or web applications. Healthcentric Advisors and Brown University undertook a multi-phased approach to create a consumer-facing home health web application in Rhode Island. This included reviewing the evidence base review to identify design recommendations and then creating a paper prototype and wireframe. We performed qualitative research to iteratively test our proposed user interface with two user groups, home health consumers and hospital case managers, refining our design to create the final web application. To test our prototype, we conducted two focus groups, with a total of 13 consumers, and 28 case manager interviews. Both user groups responded favorably to the prototype, with the majority commenting that they felt this type of tool would be useful. Case managers suggested revisions to ensure the application conformed to laws requiring Medicare patients to have the freedom to choose among providers and could be incorporated into hospital workflow. After incorporating changes and creating the wireframe, we conducted usability testing interviews with 14 home health consumers and six hospital case managers. We found that consumers needed prompting to navigate through the wireframe; they demonstrated confusion through both their words and body language. As a result, we modified the web application's sequence, navigation, and function to provide additional instructions and prompts. Although we designed our web application for low literacy and low health literacy, using recommendations from the evidence base, we overestimated the extent to which older adults were familiar with using computers. Some of our key learnings and recommendations run counter to general web design principles

  10. Using very large scale integrated optics (VLSIO) to create high-complexity optoelectronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lawrence C.; Roberts, Charles W.; Piscani, Emil C.; Dubey, Madan; Jones, Kenneth A.; McLane, George F.

    1996-01-01

    Optics has the fundamental capability of dramatically improving computer performance via the reduction of capacitance for intrinsic high bandwidth communications and low power usage. Yet optical devices have not displaced silicon VLSI in any measure to date. The reason is clear. When placed into systems, the optical devices have not had significantly greater performance in equally complex information processing circuits and similarly low manufacturing cost. An approach demonstrated here uses the same system integration techniques that have been successful for silicon electronics, only applied to optics. Essential for creation of Very Large Scale Integrated Optics, with over 50,000 high speed logic gates per square centimeter, is a new class of Ultra High Confinement (UHC) waveguides. These waveguides are created with high index difference (as high as 4.0 to 1.0) between guide and cladding. The waveguides have been demonstrated with infrared cross sections less than 5% of a square free space wavelength. These waveguides can be manufactured today only in the mid- infrared, but the concepts should scale to the near-infrared as lithography improves. Waveguide corners have been designed and demonstrated with a bend radius of less than one free space wavelength. Resonators have been designed which have over 100 times smaller volume than VCSELs, yet efficiently interconnected laterally in high densities. A connector to the UHC waveguides has been developed and demonstrated using diffractive optical element arrays on the back side of the substrate. The coupler arrays can allow up to 10,000 Gaussian beam connections per square centimeter. This connectivity also has advantages for low-cost 3D packaging for reduced cost and thermal dissipation. Experimental results on the above concepts and components will be presented.

  11. Merging Static and Dynamic Depth Cues with Optical-Flow Recovery for Creating Stereo Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsuan Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for estimating the depth information of a general monocular image sequence and then creating a 3D stereo video is proposed. Distinguishing between foreground and background is possible without additional information, and then foreground pixels are moved to create the binocular image. The proposed depth estimation method is based on coarse-to-fine strategy. By applying the CID method in the spatial domain, the sharpness and the contrast of an image can be improved by the distance of the region based on its color. Then a coarse depth map of the image can be generated. An optical-flow method based on temporal information is then used to search and compare the block motion status between previous and current frames, and then the distance of the block can be estimated according to the amount of block motion. Finally, the static and motion depth information is integrated to create the fine depth map. By shifting foreground pixels based on the depth information, a binocular image pair can be created. A sense of 3D stereo can be obtained without glasses by an autostereoscopic 3D display.

  12. Measuring the optical chirality of molecular aggregates at liquid-liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watarai, Hitoshi; Adachi, Kenta

    2009-10-01

    Some new experimental methods for measuring the optical chirality of molecular aggregates formed at liquid-liquid interfaces have been reviewed. Chirality measurements of interfacial aggregates are highly important not only in analytical spectroscopy but also in biochemistry and surface nanochemistry. Among these methods, a centrifugal liquid membrane method was shown to be a highly versatile method for measuring the optical chirality of the liquid-liquid interface when used in combination with a commercially available circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimeter, provided that the interfacial aggregate exhibited a large molar absorptivity. Therefore, porphyrin and phthalocyanine were used as chromophoric probes of the chirality of itself or guest molecules at the interface. A microscopic CD method was also demonstrated for the measurement of a small region of a film or a sheet sample. In addition, second-harmonic generation and Raman scattering methods were reviewed as promising methods for detecting interfacial optical molecules and measuring bond distortions of chiral molecules, respectively.

  13. Brain machine interfaces combining microelectrode arrays with nanostructured optical biochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Gonzalez, Timothy; Ghafer-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Chodavarapu, Vamsy; Musallam, Sam; Andrews, Mark

    2009-02-01

    Neural microelectrodes are an important component of neural prosthetic systems which assist paralyzed patients by allowing them to operate computers or robots using their neural activity. These microelectrodes are also used in clinical settings to localize the locus of seizure initiation in epilepsy or to stimulate sub-cortical structures in patients with Parkinson's disease. In neural prosthetic systems, implanted microelectrodes record the electrical potential generated by specific thoughts and relay the signals to algorithms trained to interpret these thoughts. In this paper, we describe novel elongated multi-site neural electrodes that can record electrical signals and specific neural biomarkers and that can reach depths greater than 8mm in the sulcus of non-human primates (monkeys). We hypothesize that additional signals recorded by the multimodal probes will increase the information yield when compared to standard probes that record just electropotentials. We describe integration of optical biochemical sensors with neural microelectrodes. The sensors are made using sol-gel derived xerogel thin films that encapsulate specific biomarker responsive luminophores in their nanostructured pores. The desired neural biomarkers are O2, pH, K+, and Na+ ions. As a prototype, we demonstrate direct-write patterning to create oxygen-responsive xerogel waveguide structures on the neural microelectrodes. The recording of neural biomarkers along with electrical activity could help the development of intelligent and more userfriendly neural prosthesis/brain machine interfaces as well as aid in providing answers to complex brain diseases and disorders.

  14. The inverted pendulum, interface phonons and optic Tamm states

    CERN Document Server

    Combe, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of waves in periodic media is related to the parametric oscillators. We transpose the possibility that a parametric pendulum oscillates in the vicinity of its unstable equilibrium positions to the case of waves in lossless unidimensional periodic media. This concept formally applies to any kind of wave. We apply and develop it to the case of phonons in realizable structures and evidence new classes of phonons. Discussing the case of electromagnetic waves, we show that our concept is related to optic Tamm states one but extends it to periodic Optic Tamm state.

  15. Optomechanical Light-Matter Interface with Optical Wavelength Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-21

    Conversion Hailin Wang Department of Physics , University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 Lin Tian School of Natural Science, University of California...the physical process can be exactly mapped to a cooling equation where the mechanical noise is extracted away from the system. In the physical ... electromechanical systems. Mechanically-mediated 14 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. optical wavelength conversion, including

  16. Theory of optical-tweezers forces near a plane interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutra, Rafael de Sousa; Neto, P. A. Maia; Nussenzveig, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Optical-tweezers experiments in molecular and cell biology often take place near the surface of the microscope slide that defines the bottom of the sample chamber. There, as elsewhere, force measurements require forcecalibrated tweezers. In bulk, one can calculate the tweezers force from first...

  17. The optical theorem for local source excitation of a particle near a plane interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, Yuri; Wriedt, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Based on classic Maxwell's theory and the Gauss Theorem we extended the Optical Theorem to the case of a penetrable particle excited by a local source deposited near a plane interface. We demonstrate that the derived Extinction Cross-Section involves the total point source radiating cross-section and some definite integrals responsible for the scattering by the interface. The derived extinction cross-section can be employed to estimate the quantum yield and the optical antenna efficiency without computation of the absorption cross-section.

  18. Multi-level cascaded electromagnetically induced transparency in cold atoms using an optical nanofibre interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ravi; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    Ultrathin optical fibres integrated into cold atom setups are proving to be ideal building blocks for atom-photon hybrid quantum networks. Such optical nanofibres (ONF) can be used for the demonstration of nonlinear optics and quantum interference phenomena in atomic media. Here, we report on the observation of multilevel cascaded electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using an optical nanofibre to interface cold $^{87}$Rb atoms through the intense evanescent fields that can be achieved at ultralow probe and coupling powers. Both the probe (at 780 nm) and the coupling (at 776 nm) beams propagate through the nanofibre. The observed multipeak transparency spectra of the probe beam could offer a method for simultaneously slowing down multiple wavelengths in an optical nanofibre or for generating ONF-guided entangled beams, showing the potential of such an atom-nanofibre system for quantum information. We also demonstrate all-optical-switching in the all fibred system using the obtained EIT effect.

  19. Optical recording-guided pacing to create functional line of block during ventricular fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Krishna; Nihei, Motoki; Willmer, Anjuli; Hayashi, Hideki; Lin, Shien-Fong

    2006-03-01

    Low-energy defibrillation is very desirable in cardiac rhythm management. We previously reported that ventricular fibrillation (VF) can be synchronized with a novel synchronized pacing technique (SyncP) using low-energy pacing pulses. This study sought to create a line of block during VF using SyncP. SyncP was performed in six isolated rabbit hearts during VF using optical recording to control the delivery of pacing pulses in real time. Four pacing electrodes with interelectrode distances of 5 mm were configured in a line along and across the myocardial fiber direction. The electrodes were controlled independently (independent mode) or fired together (simultaneous mode). Significant wavefront synchronization was observed along the electrode line as indicated by a decrease in variance. With the independent SyncP protocol, the decrease in the variance was 19.3 and 13.7% (Pventricular defibrillation.

  20. Modeling of skin cooling, blood flow, and optical properties in wounds created by electrical shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu T. A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Jordan, Marion H.; Jeng, James C.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2012-02-01

    High voltage electrical injuries may lead to irreversible tissue damage or even death. Research on tissue injury following high voltage shock is needed and may yield stage-appropriate therapy to reduce amputation rate. One of the mechanisms by which electricity damages tissue is through Joule heating, with subsequent protein denaturation. Previous studies have shown that blood flow had a significant effect on the cooling rate of heated subcutaneous tissue. To assess the thermal damage in tissue, this study focused on monitoring changes of temperature and optical properties of skin next to high voltage wounds. The burns were created between left fore limb and right hind limb extremities of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by a 1000VDC delivery shock system. A thermal camera was utilized to record temperature variation during the exposure. The experimental results were then validated using a thermal-electric finite element model (FEM).

  1. Theory of tailorable optical response of two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at dielectric interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Debabrata; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at interfaces are promising candidates for novel optical metamaterials. Such systems materialise from ‘top–down’ patterning or ‘bottom–up’ self-assembly of nanoparticles at liquid/liquid or liquid/solid interfaces. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of an extended effective quasi-static four-layer-stack model for the description of plasmon-resonance-enhanced optical responses of such systems. We investigate in detail the effects of the size of nanoparticles, average interparticle separation, dielectric constants of the media constituting the interface, and the nanoparticle position relative to the interface. Interesting interplays of these different factors are explored first for normally incident light. For off-normal incidence, the strong effects of the polarisation of light are found at large incident angles, which allows to dynamically tune the reflectance spectra. All the predictions of the theory are tested against full-wave simulations, proving this simplistic model to be adequate within the quasi-static limit. The model takes seconds to calculate the system’s optical response and makes it easy to unravel the effect of each system parameter. This helps rapid rationalization of experimental data and understanding of the optical signals from these novel ‘metamaterials’, optimised for light reflection or harvesting. PMID:27652788

  2. Optical modes at the interface between two dissimilar discrete meta-materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsov, S; Makris, K G; Christodoulides, D N; Stegeman, G I; Morandotti, R; Volatier, Maïte; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard; Rüter, Christian E; Kip, Detlef

    2007-04-16

    We have studied theoretically and experimentally the properties of optical surface modes at the hetero-interface between two meta-materials. These meta-materials consisted of two 1D AlGaAs waveguide arrays with different band structures.

  3. Theory of optical-tweezers forces near a plane interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, R. S.; Neto, P. A. Maia; Nussenzveig, H. M.; Flyvbjerg, H.

    2016-11-01

    Optical-tweezers experiments in molecular and cell biology often take place near the surface of the microscope slide that defines the bottom of the sample chamber. There, as elsewhere, force measurements require force-calibrated tweezers. In bulk, one can calculate the tweezers force from first principles, as recently demonstrated. Near the surface of the microscope slide, this absolute calibration method fails because it does not account for reverberations from the slide of the laser beam scattered by the trapped microsphere. Nor does it account for evanescent waves arising from total internal reflection of wide-angle components of the strongly focused beam. In the present work we account for both of these phenomena. We employ Weyl's angular spectrum representation of spherical waves in terms of real and complex rays and derive a fast-converging recursive series of multiple reflections that describes the reverberations, including also evanescent waves. Numerical simulations for typical setup parameters evaluate these effects on the optical force and trap stiffness, with emphasis on axial trapping. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data. Thus, absolute calibration now applies to all situations encountered in practice.

  4. Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computerens interface eller grænseflade har spredt sig overalt. Mobiltelefoner, spilkonsoller, pc'er og storskærme indeholder computere – men computere indbygges også i tøj og andre hverdagslige genstande, så vi konstant har adgang til digitale data. Interface retter fokus mod, hvordan den digita...

  5. Diffractive Interface Theory: Nonlocal polarizability approach to the optics of metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Christopher M; Podolskiy, Viktor A

    2014-01-01

    We present a formalism for understanding the elecromagnetism of metasurfaces, optically thin composite films with engineered diffraction. The technique, diffractive interface theory (DIT), takes explicit advantage of the small optical thickness of a metasurface, eliminating the need for solving for light propagation inside the film and providing a direct link between the spatial profile of a metasurface and its diffractive properties. Predictions of DIT are compared with full-wave numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations, demonstrating DIT's validity and computational advantages for optically thin structures. Applications of the DIT range from understanding of fundamentals of light-matter interaction in metasurfaces to efficient analysis of generalized refraction to metasurface optimization.

  6. Diffractive interface theory: nonlocal susceptibility approach to the optics of metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher M; Inampudi, Sandeep; Podolskiy, Viktor A

    2015-02-09

    We present a formalism for understanding the electromagnetism of metasurfaces, optically thin composite films with engineered diffraction. The technique, diffractive interface theory (DIT), takes explicit advantage of the small optical thickness of a metasurface, eliminating the need for solving for light propagation inside the film and providing a direct link between the spatial profile of a metasurface and its diffractive properties. Predictions of DIT are compared with full-wave numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations, demonstrating DIT's validity and computational advantages for optically thin structures. Applications of the DIT range from understanding of fundamentals of light-matter interaction in metasurfaces to efficient analysis of generalized refraction to metasurface optimization.

  7. Study of lumineers' interfaces by means of optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Borges, Erica; Fernandes Cassimiro-Silva, Patrícia; Osório Fernandes, Luana; Leônidas Gomes, Anderson Stevens

    2015-06-01

    OCT has been used to evaluate dental materials, and is employed here to evaluate lumineers for the first time. Lumineers are used as esthetical indirect restoration, and after wearing and aging, several undesirable features such as gaps, bubbles and mismatch can appear in which would only be seen by invasive analysis. The OCT (spectral domain SD-OCT, 930nm central wavelength) was used to evaluate noninvasively the lumineer- cement-tooth interface. We analyzed 20 specimens of lumineers-teeth that were prepared in bovine teeth and randomly allocated in 4 experimental groups (n=5) with two different cementation techniques and two different types of cementing agent (RelyX U200 and RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE, with the adhesive recommended by the manufacture). The lumineers were made of lithium disilicate and obtained using a vacuum injection technique. The analysis was performed by using 2D and 3D OCT images, obtained before and after cementing and the thermal cycling process to simulate thermal stress in a oral cavity. Initial measurements showed that the SD-OCT was able to see through the 500μm thick lumineer, as delivered by the fabricant, and internal stress was observed. Failures were found in the cementing process and also after ageing simulation by thermal cycling. The adhesive failures as bubbles, gaps and degradation of the cementation line are the natural precursors of other defects reported by several studies of clinical follow-up (detachments, fractures and cracks). Bubble dimensions ranging from 146 μm to 1427 μm were measured and the OCT was validated as an investigative and precise tool for evaluation of the lumineer-cement-tooth.

  8. Optical computation based on nonlinear total reflectional optical switch at the interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianqi Zhang; Huan Xu

    2009-03-01

    A new scheme of binary half adder and full adder is proposed. It realizes a kind of all-optical computation which is based on the polarization coding technique and the nonlinear total reflectional optical switches.

  9. Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computerens interface eller grænseflade har spredt sig overalt. Mobiltelefoner, spilkonsoller, pc'er og storskærme indeholder computere – men computere indbygges også i tøj og andre hverdagslige genstande, så vi konstant har adgang til digitale data. Interface retter fokus mod, hvordan den digitale...... kunst og kultur skabes, spredes og opleves igennem interfaces. Forfatterne undersøger og diskuterer interfacets æstetik, ideologi og kultur – og analyserer aktuel interfacekunst på tværs af musik, kunst, litteratur og film. Bogen belyser interfacets oprindelse i den kolde krigs laboratorier og dets...

  10. Probing the nano-bio interface with nanoplasmonic optical probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Wu, Linxi; Khanehzar, Ali; Feizpour, Amin; Xu, Fangda; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2014-08-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles have large cross-sections in both optical and electron microscopy and plasmon coupling between noble metal nanoparticles facilitate the characterization of subdiffraction limit separations through spectral analysis of the scattered light in Plasmon Coupling Microscopy (PCM). The size compatibility of noble metal nanoparticles together with the ability to encode specific functionality in a rational fashion by control of the nanoparticle surface makes noble metal nanoparticles unique probes for a broad range of biological processes. Recent applications of the technology include i.) characterization of cellular heterogeneity in nanomaterial uptake and processing through macrophages, ii.) testing the role of viral membrane lipids in mediating viral binding and trafficking, and iii.) characterizing the spatial organization of cancer biomarkers in plasma membranes. This paper reviews some of these applications and introduces the physical and material science principles underlying them. We will also introduce the use of membrane wrapped noble metal nanoparticles, which combine the superb photophysical properties of a nanoparticle core with the biological functionality of a membrane, as probes in PCM.

  11. Charge-transfer states and optical transitions at the pentacene-TiO2 interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, M. P.; Vänskä, O.; Koval, P.; Koch, S. W.; Kira, M.; Sánchez-Portal, D.

    2017-03-01

    Pentacene molecules have recently been observed to form a well-ordered monolayer on the (110) surface of rutile TiO2, with the molecules adsorbed lying flat, head to tail. With the geometry favorable for direct optical excitation and given its ordered character, this interface seems to provide an intriguing model to study charge-transfer excitations where the optically excited electrons and holes reside on different sides of the organic–inorganic interface. In this work, we theoretically investigate the structural and electronic properties of this system by means of ab initio calculations and compute its excitonic absorption spectrum. Molecular states appear in the band gap of the clean TiO2 surface, which enables charge-transfer excitations directly from the molecular HOMO to the TiO2 conduction band. The calculated optical spectrum shows a strong polarization dependence and displays excitonic resonances corresponding to the charge-transfer states, which could stimulate new experimental work on the optical response of this interface.

  12. Automated detection of chorio-scleral interface using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Yamanari, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    A polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography based automated algorithm for segmentation of the chorio-scleral interface is presented. The algorithm employs a two-step segmentation approach. At first, local birefringence based segmentation with low precision is performed to roughly distinguish the choroid and sclera. Successively, a depth oriented slope fitting to phase retardation is applied in both the choroid and sclera. The interface is determined as the cross-point of the two phase retardation slope lines. The algorithm shows potential for functional, objective, and volumetric choroid thickness measurement.

  13. Profiles of optical surface waves formed at the metal - photorefractive crystal interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmedzhanov, I M [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-31

    Photorefractive surface waves propagating in a stationary regime along the surface of the metal - photorefractive crystal (SBN-75) interface are considered. The transverse structure of the optical field distribution is calculated in the near- and far-field zones, depending on the angle of incidence of the exciting wave. The calculation results are in good agreement with the published experimental results. It is shown that the photorefractive effect leads to a splitting of the spectrum of a surface plasmon polariton excited at the metal - photorefractive crystal interface. (surface waves)

  14. Axial interface optical phonon modes in a double-nanoshell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanyinda-Malu, C; Clares, F J; Cruz, R M de la [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, EPS Avenida de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes (Madrid) (Spain)], E-mail: clement.kanyindamalu@urjc.es, E-mail: rmc@fis.uc3m.es

    2008-07-16

    Within the framework of the dielectric continuum (DC) model, we analyze the axial interface optical phonon modes in a double system of nanoshells. This system is constituted by two identical equidistant nanoshells which are embedded in an insulating medium. To illustrate our results, typical II-VI semiconductors are used as constitutive polar materials of the nanoshells. Resolution of Laplace's equation in bispherical coordinates for the potentials derived from the interface vibration modes is made. By imposing the usual electrostatic boundary conditions at the surfaces of the two-nanoshell system, recursion relations for the coefficients appearing in the potentials are obtained, which entails infinite matrices. The problem of deriving the interface frequencies is reduced to the eigenvalue problem on infinite matrices. A truncating method for these matrices is used to obtain the interface phonon branches. Dependences of the interface frequencies on the ratio of inter-nanoshell separation to core size are obtained for different systems with several values of nanoshell interdistance. Effects due to the change of shell and embedding materials are also investigated in interface phonon modes.

  15. Achieving Low Contact Resistance by Engineering a Metal-Graphene Interface Simply with Optical Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qinghua; Wang, Xuanyun; Xia, Lishuang; Wu, Chenbo; Feng, Zhixin; Wang, Min; Zhao, Jing

    2017-06-28

    High-performance graphene-based transistors crucially depend on the creation of the high-quality graphene-metal contacts. Here we report an approach for achieving ultralow contact resistance simply with optical lithography by engineering a metal-graphene interface. Note that a significant improvement with optical lithography for the contact-treated graphene device leads to a contact resistance as low as 150 Ω·μm. The residue-free sacrificial film impedes the photoresist from further doping graphene, and all of the source and drain contact regions defined by optical lithography remain intact. This approach, being compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication processes regardless of the source of graphene, would hold promise for the large-scale production of graphene-based transistors with optical lithography.

  16. Product piracy from nature: biomimetic microstructures and interfaces for high-performance optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert; Deparnay, Arnaud; Helgert, Michael; Burkhardt, Matthias; Lohmüller, Theobald; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2008-08-01

    Micro and nanostructured optical components are evolved over millions of years in nature and show a wide application range as microlens arrays, diffractive or subwavelength structures in manifold biological systems. In this contribution we discuss the advantages and challenges to transfer the concepts based on the nature models to increase the performance of high-end optical systems in applications such as beam shaping and imaging. Especially we discuss the application of sophisticated statistical microlens arrays and diffractive structures in different fields such as lithography, inspection or for medical instruments. Additionally we focus on anti-reflection coatings which are commonly used to suppress reflection of light from the surface of optical components in the visible range. We report an innovative approach for the fast and cost-efficient fabrication of highly UV transmissive, anti-reflective optical interfaces based on self assembled gold nanoparticles.

  17. Optical simulation of photovoltaic modules with multiple textured interfaces using the matrix-based formalism OPTOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucher, Nico; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Gebrewold, Habtamu; Kiefel, Peter; Höhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Bläsi, Benedikt

    2016-07-11

    The OPTOS formalism is a matrix-based approach to determine the optical properties of textured optical sheets. It is extended within this work to enable the modelling of systems with an arbitrary number of textured, plane-parallel interfaces. A matrix-based system description is derived that accounts for the optical reflection and transmission interaction between all textured interfaces. Using OPTOS, we calculate reflectance and absorptance of complete photovoltaic module stacks, which consist of encapsulated silicon solar cells featuring textures that operate in different optical regimes. As exemplary systems, solar cells with and without module encapsulation are shown to exhibit a considerable absorptance gain if the random pyramid front side texture is combined with a diffractive rear side grating. A variation of the sunlight's angle of incidence reveals that the grating gain is almost not affected for incoming polar angles up to 60°. Considering as well the good agreement with alternative simulation techniques, OPTOS is demonstrated to be a versatile and efficient method for the optical analysis of photovoltaic modules.

  18. Cracks Near Interfaces in Composites: A Focus on Optical Materials with Graded Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    microstructural development of transparent magnesium aluminate spinel; progress was made to understand the specific role of LiF in developing 1. REPORT DATE...develop a fundamental understanding of crack growth near interfaces in optically transparent materials. Transparent magnesium aluminate spinel and a...transparent magnesium aluminate spinel (strength, transparency) is to understand the role of LiF in processing. The PIs continue to reveal the complex

  19. interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipayan Sanyal

    2005-01-01

    macroscopic conservation equations with an order parameter which can account for the solid, liquid, and the mushy zones with the help of a phase function defined on the basis of the liquid fraction, the Gibbs relation, and the phase diagram with local approximations. Using the above formalism for alloy solidification, the width of the diffuse interface (mushy zone was computed rather accurately for iron-carbon and ammonium chloride-water binary alloys and validated against experimental data from literature.

  20. Effect of microscopic interface asymmetry on optical properties of short-period InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, H.M. [Department of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Li, L.L., E-mail: lllihfcas@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, W. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Han, K. [Department of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2015-08-31

    We theoretically investigate the effect of microscopic interface asymmetry (MIA) on the optical properties of short-period InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (SLs) which can serve for the mid-infrared (mid-IR) detection. To calculate the band structures of such SLs, we use a modified eight-band Kane model which includes the MIA effect. With the band structures, we can evaluate the optical matrix elements and joint density of states for the corresponding SL systems. Based on these obtained results, we employ the Boltzmann equation approach to calculate the optical absorption coefficients for the corresponding SL systems. Theoretical calculations demonstrate that the MIA effect can greatly influence the electronic and optical properties of short-period InAs/GaSb type-II SLs. For the band structures, we find that the MIA effect causes strong interactions between different SL subbands and creates large spin splittings of these subbands. For the optical properties, the MIA effect activates the forbidden optical transition channels for TM polarization, enhances the absorption strength considerably and induces remarkable red-shifts for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations, where TE and TM refer to light polarizations along the in-plane and growth directions of SL structure. Different absorption features for TE and TM polarizations are well manifested by corresponding optical matrix elements. Moreover, in conjunction with recent experiment, we calculate the polarization-dependent absorption spectra for mid-IR InAs/GaSb type-II SLs. Our theoretical results can explain those observed experimentally. The present work sheds the significant importance of MIA effect in short-period InAs/GaSb type-II SLs. - Highlights: • Optical properties of InAs/GaSb superlattices (SLs) are studied theoretically. • The microscopic interface asymmetry (MIA) effect is considered for such SLs. • The MIA effect influences the optical properties of such SLs

  1. Transformation optics approach for Goos-Hänchen shift enhancement at metamaterial interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Lieve; Ginis, Vincent; Danckaert, Jan; Tassin, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Since its first observation in 1947, the Goos-Hänchen effect—an electromagnetic wave phenomenon where a totally reflected beam with finite cross section undergoes a lateral displacement from its position predicted by geometric optics—has been extensively investigated for various types of optical media such as dielectrics, metals and photonic crystals. Given their huge potential for guiding and sensing applications, the search for giant and tunable Goos-Hänchen shifts is still an open question in the field of optics and photonics. Metamaterials allow for unprecedented control over electromagnetic properties and thus provide an interesting platform in this quest for Goos-Hänchen shift enhancement. Over the last few years, the Goos-Hänchen effect has been investigated for specific metamaterial interfaces including graphene-on-dielectric surfaces, negative index materials and epsilon- near-zero materials. In this contribution, we generalize the approach for the investigation of the Goos-Hänchen effect based on the geometric formalism of transformation optics. Although this metamaterial design methodology is generally applied to manipulate the propagation of light through continuous media, we show how it can also be used to describe the reflections arising at the interface between a vacuum region and a transformed region with a metamaterial implementation. Furthermore, we establish an analytical model that relates the magnitude of the Goos-Hänchen shift to the underlying geometry of the transformed medium. This model shows how the dependence of the Goos-Hänchen shift on geometric parameters can be used to dramatically enhance the size of the shift by an appropriate choice of permittivity and permeability tensors. Numerical simulations of a beam with spatial Gaussian profile incident upon metamaterial interfaces verify the model and firmly establish a novel route towards Goos-Hänchen shift engineering using transformation optics.

  2. Time domain optical coherence tomography investigation of bone matrix interface in rat femurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Negruá¹±iu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Hoinoiu, Bogdan; Topala, Florin-Ionel; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2013-08-01

    The materials used to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering are derived from synthetic polymers, mainly from the polyester family, or from natural materials (e.g., collagen and chitosan). The mechanical properties and the structural properties of these materials can be tailored by adjusting the molecular weight, the crystalline state, and the ratio of monomers in the copolymers. Quality control and adjustment of the scaffold manufacturing process are essential to achieve high standard scaffolds. Most scaffolds are made from highly crystalline polymers, which inevitably result in their opaque appearance. Their 3-D opaque structure prevents the observation of internal uneven surface structures of the scaffolds under normal optical instruments, such as the traditional light microscope. The inability to easily monitor the inner structure of scaffolds as well as the interface with the old bone poses a major challenge for tissue engineering: it impedes the precise control and adjustment of the parameters that affect the cell growth in response to various mimicked culture conditions. The aim of this paper is to investigate the interface between the femur rat bone and the new bone that is obtained using a method of tissue engineering that is based on different artificial matrixes inserted in previously artificially induced defects. For this study, 15 rats were used in conformity with ethical procedures. In all the femurs a round defect was induced by drilling with a 1 mm spherical Co-Cr surgical drill. The matrixes used were Bioss and 4bone. These materials were inserted into the induced defects. The femurs were investigated at 1 week, 1 month, 2 month and three month after the surgical procedures. The interfaces were examined using Time Domain (TD) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) combined with Confocal Microscopy (CM). The optical configuration uses two single mode directional couplers with a superluminiscent diode as the source centered at 1300 nm. The scanning

  3. Role of the interface between distributed fibre optic strain sensor and soil in ground deformation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Recently the distributed fibre optic strain sensing (DFOSS) technique has been applied to monitor deformations of various earth structures. However, the reliability of soil deformation measurements remains unclear. Here we present an integrated DFOSS- and photogrammetry-based test study on the deformation behaviour of a soil foundation model to highlight the role of strain sensing fibre–soil interface in DFOSS-based geotechnical monitoring. Then we investigate how the fibre–soil interfacial behaviour is influenced by environmental changes, and how the strain distribution along the fibre evolves during progressive interface failure. We observe that the fibre–soil interfacial bond is tightened and the measurement range of the fibre is extended under high densities or low water contents of soil. The plastic zone gradually occupies the whole fibre length when the soil deformation accumulates. Consequently, we derive a theoretical model to simulate the fibre–soil interfacial behaviour throughout the progressive failure process, which accords well with the experimental results. On this basis, we further propose that the reliability of measured strain can be determined by estimating the stress state of the fibre–soil interface. These findings may have important implications for interpreting and evaluating fibre optic strain measurements, and implementing reliable DFOSS-based geotechnical instrumentation.

  4. Application of color image processing and low-coherent optical computer tomography in evaluation of adhesive interfaces of dental restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Shlyapnikova, Olga A.; Venig, Sergey B.; Genina, Elina A.; Sadovnikov, Alexandr V.

    2015-03-01

    Durability of bonded interfaces between dentin and a polymer material in resin-based composite restorations remains a clinical dentistry challenge. In the present study the evolution of bonded interfaces in biological active environment is estimated in vivo. A novel in vivo method of visual diagnostics that involves digital processing of color images of composite restorations and allows the evaluation of adhesive interface quality over time, has been developed and tested on a group of volunteers. However, the application of the method is limited to the analysis of superficial adhesive interfaces. Low-coherent optical computer tomography (OCT) has been tested as a powerful non-invasive tool for in vivo, in situ clinical diagnostics of adhesive interfaces over time. In the long-term perspective adhesive interface monitoring using standard methods of clinical diagnostics along with colour image analysis and OCT could make it possible to objectivise and prognosticate the clinical longevity of composite resin-based restorations with adhesive interfaces.

  5. Microscopic thin film optical anisotropy imaging at the solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Adelaide; De Beule, Pieter A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Optical anisotropy of thin films has been widely investigated through ellipsometry, whereby typically an optical signal is averaged over a ˜1 cm2 elliptical area that extends with increasing angle-of-incidence (AOI). Here, we report on spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry at the solid-liquid interface applied to a supported lipid bilayer (SLB). We detail how a differential spectrally resolved ellipsometry measurement, between samples with and without optically anisotropic thin film on an absorbing substrate, can be applied to recover in and out of plane refractive indices of the thin film with known film thickness, hence determining the thin film optical anisotropy. We also present how optimal wavelength and AOI settings can be determined ensuring low parameter cross correlation between the refractive indices to be determined from a differential measurement in Δ ellipsometry angle. Furthermore, we detail a Monte Carlo type analysis that allows one to determine the minimal required optical ellipsometry resolution to recover a given thin film anisotropy. We conclude by presenting a new setup for a spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry based on fiber supercontinuum laser technology, multi-wavelength diode system, and an improved liquid cell design, delivering a 5 ×-10 × ellipsometric noise reduction over state-of-the-art. We attribute this improvement to increased ellipsometer illumination power and a reduced light path in liquid through the use of a water dipping objective.

  6. Optical determination of Shockley-Read-Hall and interface recombination currents in hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarritzu, Valerio; Sestu, Nicola; Marongiu, Daniela; Chang, Xueqing; Masi, Sofia; Rizzo, Aurora; Colella, Silvia; Quochi, Francesco; Saba, Michele; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    Metal-halide perovskite solar cells rival the best inorganic solar cells in power conversion efficiency, providing the outlook for efficient, cheap devices. In order for the technology to mature and approach the ideal Shockley-Queissier efficiency, experimental tools are needed to diagnose what processes limit performances, beyond simply measuring electrical characteristics often affected by parasitic effects and difficult to interpret. Here we study the microscopic origin of recombination currents causing photoconversion losses with an all-optical technique, measuring the electron-hole free energy as a function of the exciting light intensity. Our method allows assessing the ideality factor and breaks down the electron-hole recombination current into bulk defect and interface contributions, providing an estimate of the limit photoconversion efficiency, without any real charge current flowing through the device. We identify Shockley-Read-Hall recombination as the main decay process in insulated perovskite layers and quantify the additional performance degradation due to interface recombination in heterojunctions.

  7. Ternary mixed crystal effects on electron-interface optical phonon interactions in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Wendeng, E-mail: wdhuang2005@163.com [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China) and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China); Chen Guangde; Ye Honggang [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Ren Yajie [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China)

    2013-02-01

    Based on the modified random-element isodisplacement model and dielectric continuum model, the dispersions of interface optical phonons, electron-interface phonon interaction and ternary mixed crystal effect on interface optical phonons in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN quantum wells are studied in a fully numerical manner. The results indicate that there are two indium concentration intervals that interface optical phonons exist. The indium concentration has important effects on the dispersions and electron-phonon interactions of interface optical phonons. The electron-IO phonon interactions in higher indium concentration are more important than that in lower indium concentration.

  8. Using ISO and Semantic Web standards for creating a Multilingual Medical Interface Terminology : A use case for Hearth Failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Cardillo, Elena; Warnier, Maxime; Roumier, Josepph; Jamoulle, Marc; Vander Stichele, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The correct registration and encoding of medical data in Electronic Health Records is still a major challenge for health care professionals. Efficient terminological systems are lacking to enable multilingual semantic interoperability between general practitioners, patients, medical specialists, and allied health personnel. The aim of this paper is to propose an architectural structure for a Multilingual Medical Interface Terminology. We propose a dual structure with a multilingual reference ...

  9. An easy-to-use microfluidic interconnection system to create quick and reversibly interfaced simple microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Dimaki, Maria;

    2015-01-01

    The presented microfluidic interconnection system provides an alternative for the individual interfacing of simple microfluidic devices fabricated in polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate, polycarbonate and cyclic olefin polymer. A modification of the device inlet enables the direct attachment...... pressures above 250 psi and therefore supports applications with high flow rates or highly viscous fluids. The ease of incorporation, configuration, fabrication and use make this interconnection system ideal for the rapid prototyping of simple microfluidic devices or other integrated systems that require...

  10. Creating optical near-field orbital angular momentum in a gold metasurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Ku, Chen-Ta; Tai, Yi-Hsin; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Lin, Heh-Nan; Huang, Chen-Bin

    2015-04-01

    Nanocavities inscribed in a gold thin film are optimized and designed to form a metasurface. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally the creation of surface plasmon (SP) vortex carrying orbital angular momentum in the metasurface under linearly polarized optical excitation that carries no optical angular momentum. Moreover, depending on the orientation of the exciting linearly polarized light, we show that the metasurface is capable of providing dynamic switching between SP vortex formation or SP subwavelength focusing. The resulting SP intensities are experimentally measured using a near-field scanning optical microscope and are found in excellent quantitative agreements as compared to the numerical results.

  11. The micro-flow reaction system featured the liquid-liquid interface created with ternary mixed carrier solvents in a capillary tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuhara, Yuji; Jinno, Naoya; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    A micro-flow reaction system was developed in which liquid-liquid interface was created based on the tube radial distribution of ternary mixed carrier solvents. The system was constructed from double capillary tubes having different inner diameters (100 and 250 µm i.d.). The smaller tube was inserted into the larger one through a T-type joint. The reaction of a protein with a fluorescence derivatizing reagent was adopted as a model. A water-acetonitrile mixture (3:1 volume ratio) including bovine serum albumin (hydrophilic) was delivered into the large tube from the inside through the small tube and an acetonitrile-ethyl acetate mixture (7:4 volume ratio) containing fluorescamine (hydrophobic) as a derivatizing reagent was delivered from the outside through the joint. Solutions were mixed through the double capillary tubes to promote ternary mixed carrier solvents (water-acetonitrile-ethyl acetate; 1:2:1 volume ratio). The liquid-liquid interface was created based on the tube radial distribution of ternary solvents in the larger tube. The derivatization reaction was performed in the larger, or reaction, tube in the micro-flow system. The fluorescence intensity of the fluorescamine-derivatized bovine serum albumin obtained by the system, which specifically included the kinetic liquid-liquid interface in the tube, was greater than that obtained through a batch reaction using a homogeneous solution of water-acetonitrile (1:2 volume ratio).

  12. Efficient graphene based electro-optical modulator enabled by interfacing plasmonic slot and silicon waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Xiaolong; Hu, Hao; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mortensen, N Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2016-01-01

    Graphene based electro-absorption modulators involving dielectric optical waveguides or resonators have been widely explored, suffering however from weak graphene-light interaction due to poor overlap of optical fields with graphene layers. Surface plasmon polaritons enable light concentration within subwavelength regions opening thereby new avenues for strengthening graphene-light interactions. Through careful optimization of plasmonic slot waveguides, we demonstrate efficient and compact graphene-plasmonic modulators that are interfaced with silicon waveguides and thus fully integrated in the silicon-on-insulator platform. By advantageously exploiting low-loss plasmonic slot-waveguide modes, which weakly leak into a substrate while feature strong fields within the two-layer-graphene covered slots in metal, we have successfully achieved a tunability of 0.13 dB/{\\mu}m for our fabricated graphene-plasmonic waveguide modulators with low insertion loss, which significantly exceeds the performance of previously r...

  13. Nonlinear optical and atomic systems at the interface of physics and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Garreau, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the interface between mathematics and physics, this book offers an introduction to the physics, the mathematics, and the numerical simulation of nonlinear systems in optics and atomic physics. The text covers a wide spectrum of current research on the subject, which is  an extremely active field in physics and mathematical physics, with a very broad range of implications, both for fundamental science and technological applications: light propagation in microstructured optical fibers, Bose-Einstein condensates, disordered systems, and the newly emerging field of nonlinear quantum mechanics.   Accessible to PhD students, this book will also be of interest to post-doctoral researchers and seasoned academics.

  14. Challenges in Ecohydrological Monitoring at Soil-Vegetation Interfaces: Exploiting the Potential for Fibre Optic Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalari, A.; Ciocca, F.; Krause, S.; Hannah, D. M.; Blaen, P.; Coleman, T. I.; Mondanos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Birmingham Institute of Forestry Research (BIFoR) is using Free-Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) experiments to quantify the long-term impact and resilience of forests into rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The FACE campaign critically relies on a successful monitoring and understanding of the large variety of ecohydrological processes occurring across many interfaces, from deep soil to above the tree canopy. At the land-atmosphere interface, soil moisture and temperature are key variables to determine the heat and water exchanges, crucial to the vegetation dynamics as well as to groundwater recharge. Traditional solutions for monitoring soil moisture and temperature such as remote techniques and point sensors show limitations in fast acquisition rates and spatial coverage, respectively. Hence, spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of heat and water fluxes at this interface can only be monitored to a certain degree, limiting deeper knowledge in dynamically evolving systems (e.g. in impact of growing vegetation). Fibre optics Distributed Temperature Sensors (DTS) can measure soil temperatures at high spatiotemporal resolutions and accuracy, along kilometers of optical cable buried in the soil. Heat pulse methods applied to electrical elements embedded in the optical cable can be used to obtain the soil moisture. In July 2015 a monitoring system based on DTS has been installed in a recently forested hillslope at BIFoR in order to quantify high-resolution spatial patterns and high-frequency temporal dynamics of soil heat fluxes and soil moisture conditions. Therefore, 1500m of optical cables have been carefully deployed in three overlapped loops at 0.05m, 0.25m and 0.4m from the soil surface and an electrical system to send heat pulses along the optical cable has been developed. This paper discussed both, installation and design details along with first results of the soil moisture and temperature monitoring carried out since July 2015. Moreover, interpretations

  15. Comments on: Optical computation based on nonlinear total reflectional optical switch at the interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y A Zaghloul

    2015-12-01

    As we read the paper by Jianqi Zhang and Huan Xu, Pramana – J. Phys. 72, 547 (2009), two issues became clear, that warranted writing this comment. First, the switch, which is the main building block of the devices, and which is used to route the signal, does not work as explained in Section 4.1. Accordingly, the optical router does not work as explained, either. In addition, the half adder does not work as explained and a completely different Truth Table is obtained. The full adder is left to the reader as an exercise. Secondly, the previously published work, which is closely related to the work reported, was not referenced or discussed. In the following paragraphs we discuss each issue in some detail to give the authors the opportunity to better explain their work and clear such issues.

  16. Easing access to R using 'shiny' to create graphical user interfaces: An example for the R package 'Luminescence'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Christoph; Kreutzer, Sebastian; Dietze, Michael; Fuchs, Margret C.; Schmidt, Christoph; Fischer, Manfred; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Since the release of the R package 'Luminescence' (Kreutzer et al., 2012) the functionality of the package has been greatly enhanced by implementing further functions for measurement data processing, statistical analysis and graphical output. Despite its capabilities for complex and non-standard analysis of luminescence data, working with the command-line interface (CLI) of R can be tedious at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for users without experience in programming languages. Even though much work is put into simplifying the usage of the package to continuously lower the entry threshold, at least basic knowledge of R will always be required. Thus, the potential user base of the package cannot be exhausted, at least as long as the CLI is the only means of utilising the 'Luminescence' package. But even experienced users may find it tedious to iteratively run a function until a satisfying results is produced. For example, plotting data is also at least partly subject to personal aesthetic tastes in accordance with the information it is supposed to convey and iterating through all the possible options in the R CLI can be a time-consuming task. An alternative approach to the CLI is the graphical user interface (GUI), which allows direct, interactive manipulation and interaction with the underlying software. For users with little or no experience with command-lines a GUI offers intuitive access that counteracts the perceived steep learning curve of a CLI. Even though R lacks native support for GUI functions, its capabilities of linking it to other programming languages allows to utilise external frameworks to build graphical user interfaces. A recent attempt to provide a GUI toolkit for R was the introduction of the 'shiny' package (Chang et al., 2016), which allows automatic construction of HTML, CSS and JavaScript based user interfaces straight from R. Here, we give (1) a brief introduction to the 'shiny' framework for R, before we (2) present a GUI for

  17. Using Qualitative Methods to Create a Home Health Web Application User Interface for Patients with Low Computer Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, Rosa R.; Cooper, Emily; Wysocki, Andrea; Gravenstein, Stefan; Clark, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the investment in public reporting for a number of healthcare settings, evidence indicates that consumers do not routinely use available data to select providers. This suggests that existing reports do not adequately incorporate recommendations for consumer-facing reports or web applications. Methods: Healthcentric Advisors and Brown University undertook a multi-phased approach to create a consumer-facing home health web application in Rhode Island. This included reviewi...

  18. Implementing digital holograms to create and measure complex-plane optical fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The coherent superposition of a Gaussian beam with an optical vortex can be mathematically described to occupy the complex plane. The authors provide a simple analogy between the mathematics, in the form of the complex plane, and the visual...

  19. Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

  20. Application of Radar and Optical Images to Create Copernicus High Resolution Layers: Case Studies in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surek, Gyorgy; Nador, Gizella; Friedl, Zoltan; Gyimesi, Balint; Rada, Matyas; Akos Gera, David; Hubik, Iren; Rotterne Kulesar, Aniko; Totok, Cecilia

    2016-08-01

    Injection of SAR imagery based information in the production of Copernicus High Resolution Layers can help to refine information served by optical satellite imagery, together with a-priori knowledge it may overcome the gaps caused by the cloud cover issue. However, this requires a methodological adaptation, given the different nature of SAR as compared to optical data. The methodological adaptation shall allow for an operational implementation, and shall help reducing the elapsed time between available satellite imagery. This requires the analysis of the potential use of SAR based imagery in the COPERNICUS land context, supported with case studies. In this paper the contribution of radar polarimetry for distinguishing land cover categories is evaluated.

  1. Six-month evaluation of a resin/dentin interface created by methacrylate and silorane-based materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kirita Doi SAMPAIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to compare the micro-tensile bond strength of methacrylate resin systems to a silorane-based restorative system on dentin after 24 hours and six months water storage. Material and Methods The restorative systems Adper Single Bond 2/Filtek Z350 (ASB, Clearfil SE Bond/Z350 (CF, Adper SE Plus/Z350 (ASEP and P90 Adhesive System/Filtek P90 (P90 were applied on flat dentin surfaces of 20 third molars (n=5. The restored teeth were sectioned perpendicularly to the bonding interface to obtain sticks (0.8 mm2 to be tested after 24 hours (24 h and 6 months (6 m of water storage, in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. The data was analyzed via two-way Analysis of Variance/Bonferroni post hoc tests at 5% global significance. Results Overall outcomes did not indicate a statistical difference for the resin systems (p=0.26 nor time (p=0.62. No interaction between material × time was detected (p=0.28. Mean standard-deviation in MPa at 24 h and 6 m were: ASB 31.38 (4.53 and 30.06 (1.95, CF 34.26 (3.47 and 32.75 (4.18, ASEP 29.54 (4.14 and 33.47 (2.47, P90 30.27 (2.03 and 31.34 (2.19. Conclusions The silorane-based system showed a similar performance to methacrylate-based materials on dentin. All systems were stable in terms of bond strength up to 6 month of water storage.

  2. A New Optical Oxygen Sensor Reveals Spatial and Temporal Variations of Dissolved Oxygen at Ecohydrological Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, T.; Schmidt, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Vieweg, M.; Harjung, A.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO) at highly reactive aquatic interfaces, e.g. in the hyporheic zone (HZ), is a primary indicator of redox and interlinked biogeochemical zonations. However, continuous measuring of DO over time and depths is challenging due to the dynamic and potentially heterogenic nature of the HZ. We further developed a novel technology for spatially continuous in situ vertical oxygen profiling based on optical sensing (Vieweg et al, 2013). Continuous vertical measurements to a depth of 50 cm are obtained by the motor-controlled insertion of a side-firing Polymer Optical Fiber (POF) into tubular DO probes. Our technology allows minimally invasive DO measurements without DO consumption at high spatial resolution in the mm range. The reduced size of the tubular probe (diameter 5 mm) substantially minimizes disturbance of flow conditions. We tested our technology in situ in the HZ of an intermittent stream during the drying period. Repeated DO measurements were taken over a total duration of six weeks at two locations up- and downstream of a pool-cascade sequence. We were able to precisely map the spatial DO distribution which exhibited sharp gradients and rapid temporal changes as a function of changing hydrologic conditions. Our new vertical oxygen sensing technology will help to provide new insights to the coupling of transport of DO and biogeochemical reactions at aquatic interfaces. Vieweg, M., Trauth, N., Fleckenstein, J. H., Schmidt, C. (2013): Robust Optode-Based Method for Measuring in Situ Oxygen Profiles in Gravelly Streambeds. Environmental Science & Technology. doi:10.1021/es401040w

  3. A time correlation function theory describing static field enhanced third order optical effects at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neipert, Christine; Space, Brian

    2006-12-14

    Sum vibrational frequency spectroscopy, a second order optical process, is interface specific in the dipole approximation. At charged interfaces, there exists a static field, and as a direct consequence, the experimentally detected signal is a combination of enhanced second and static field induced third order contributions. There is significant evidence in the literature of the importance/relative magnitude of this third order contribution, but no previous molecularly detailed approach existed to separately calculate the second and third order contributions. Thus, for the first time, a molecularly detailed time correlation function theory is derived here that allows for the second and third order contributions to sum frequency vibrational spectra to be individually determined. Further, a practical, molecular dynamics based, implementation procedure for the derived correlation functions that describe the third order phenomenon is also presented. This approach includes a novel generalization of point atomic polarizability models to calculate the hyperpolarizability of a molecular system. The full system hyperpolarizability appears in the time correlation functions responsible for third order contributions in the presence of a static field.

  4. Optical determination of Shockley-Read-Hall and interface recombination currents in hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarritzu, Valerio; Sestu, Nicola; Marongiu, Daniela; Chang, Xueqing; Masi, Sofia; Rizzo, Aurora; Colella, Silvia; Quochi, Francesco; Saba, Michele; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Metal-halide perovskite solar cells rival the best inorganic solar cells in power conversion efficiency, providing the outlook for efficient, cheap devices. In order for the technology to mature and approach the ideal Shockley-Queissier efficiency, experimental tools are needed to diagnose what processes limit performances, beyond simply measuring electrical characteristics often affected by parasitic effects and difficult to interpret. Here we study the microscopic origin of recombination currents causing photoconversion losses with an all-optical technique, measuring the electron-hole free energy as a function of the exciting light intensity. Our method allows assessing the ideality factor and breaks down the electron-hole recombination current into bulk defect and interface contributions, providing an estimate of the limit photoconversion efficiency, without any real charge current flowing through the device. We identify Shockley-Read-Hall recombination as the main decay process in insulated perovskite layers and quantify the additional performance degradation due to interface recombination in heterojunctions. PMID:28317883

  5. Theoretical comparison of optical traps created by standing wave and single beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemánek, Pavel; Jonáš, Alexandr; Jákl, Petr; Ježek, Jan; Šerý, Mojmír.; Liška, Miroslav

    2003-05-01

    We used generalised Lorenz-Mie scattering theory (GLMT) to compare submicron-sized particle optical trapping in a single focused beam and a standing wave. We focus especially on the study of maximal axial trapping force, minimal laser power necessary for confinement, axial trap position, and axial trap stiffness in dependency on trapped sphere radius, refractive index, and Gaussian beam waist size. In the single beam trap (SBT), the range of refractive indices which enable stable trapping depends strongly on the beam waist size (it grows with decreasing waist). On the contrary to the SBT, there are certain sphere sizes (non-trapping radii) that disable sphere confinement in standing wave trap (SWT) for arbitrary value of refractive index. For other sphere radii we show that the SWT enables confinement of high refractive index particle in wider laser beams and provides axial trap stiffness and maximal axial trapping force at least by two orders and one order bigger than in SBT, respectively.

  6. Creating biocompatible oil-water interfaces without synthesis: direct interactions between primary amines and carboxylated perfluorocarbon surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJournette, Cheryl J; Kim, Joonyul; Medlen, Haley; Li, Xiangpeng; Vincent, Luke J; Easley, Christopher J

    2013-11-05

    Currently, one of the most prominent methods used to impart biocompatibility to aqueous-in-oil droplets is to synthesize a triblock copolymer surfactant composed of perfluoropolyether and polyether blocks. The resulting surfactants (EA surfactant, KryJeffa, etc.) allow generation of highly biocompatible droplet surfaces while maintaining the heat stability of the starting material. However, production of these surfactants requires expertise in synthetic organic chemistry, creating a barrier to widespread adoption in the field. Herein, we describe a simple alternative to synthetic modification of surfactants to impart biocompatibility. We have observed that aqueous-in-oil droplet surfaces can be made biocompatible and heat stable by merely exploiting binding interactions between polyetherdiamine additives in the aqueous phase and carboxylated perfluorocarbon surfactants in the oil phase. Droplets formed under these conditions are shown to possess biocompatible surfaces capable of supporting picoliter-scale protein assays, droplet polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and droplet DNA amplification with isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). Droplets formed with polyetherdiamine aqueous additives are stable enough to withstand temperature cycling during PCR (30-40 cycles at 60-94 °C) while maintaining biocompatibility, and the reaction efficiency of RPA is shown to be similar to that with a covalently modified surfactant (KryJeffa). The binding interaction was confirmed with various methods, including FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and fluorescence microscopy. Overall, our results suggest that, by simply introducing a commercially-available, polyetherdiamine additive (Jeffamine ED-900) to the aqueous phase, researchers can avoid synthetic methods in generating biocompatible droplet surfaces capable of supporting DNA and protein analysis at the subnanoliter scale.

  7. Effect of Core/Shell Interface on Carrier Dynamics and Optical Gain Properties of Dual-Color Emitting CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchetti, Valerio; Meinardi, Francesco; Camellini, Andrea; Sirigu, Gianluca; Christodoulou, Sotirios; Bae, Wan Ki; De Donato, Francesco; Manna, Liberato; Zavelani-Rossi, Margherita; Moreels, Iwan; Klimov, Victor I; Brovelli, Sergio

    2016-07-26

    Two-color emitting colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are of interest for applications in multimodal imaging, sensing, lighting, and integrated photonics. Dual color emission from core- and shell-related optical transitions has been recently obtained using so-called dot-in-bulk (DiB) CdSe/CdS NCs comprising a quantum-confined CdSe core embedded into an ultrathick (∼7-9 nm) CdS shell. The physical mechanism underlying this behavior is still under debate. While a large shell volume appears to be a necessary condition for dual emission, comparison between various types of thick-shell CdSe/CdS NCs indicates a critical role of the interface "sharpness" and the presence of potential barriers. To elucidate the effect of the interface morphology on the dual emission, we perform side-by-side studies of CdSe/CdS DiB-NCs with nominally identical core and shell dimensions but different structural properties of the core/shell interface arising from the crystal structure of the starting CdSe cores (zincblende vs wurtzite). While both structures exhibit dual emission under comparable pump intensities, NCs with a zincblende core show a faster growth of shell luminescence with excitation fluence and a more readily realized regime of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) even under "slow" nanosecond excitation. These distinctions can be linked to the structure of the core/shell interface: NCs grown from the zincblende cores contain a ∼3.5 nm thick zincblende CdS interlayer, which separates the core from the wurtzite CdS shell and creates a potential barrier for photoexcited shell holes inhibiting their relaxation into the core. This helps maintain a higher population of shell states and simplifies the realization of dual emission and ASE involving shell-based optical transitions.

  8. MATLAB GUI (graphical user interface) for the design of GRIN components for optical systems as an educational tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Varela, A. I.; Bao-Varela, C.

    2014-07-01

    New technologies and the available computing tools are becoming more important every day in the teaching evolution. The use of Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) with MATLAB enables the implementation of practical teaching methodologies to make easier the comprehension of a given subject. In this work, we report on the application of GUIs in order to provide the students with a simple tool for a better understanding on how to design GRIN elements for optical systems. Another GUIs advantage is that they can be converted to an executable file, so any student could use the interface in their own computer without having a MATLAB license. We present a graphical interface to show the performance of an optical device for controlling beam size and for deflecting light for coupling purposes, by a simple geometrical optics study, in a tapered GRIN lens illuminated by a parallel beam of tilted rays. We also show a graphical interface to obtain the maximum coupling efficiency between fundamental modes of two single-mode fibers by a scaling operation carried out by a GRIN fiber lens. With this interface the students can vary the magnification and the image plane in order to get the more suitable GRIN fiber lens to maximize the coupling efficiency between two fibers.

  9. Investigation of creating possibilities of multi-channel optical system with discrete angular field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repin, Vladislav A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.

    2016-04-01

    Often, in practice, there is a problem of large areas of space viewing in order to fix certain parameters of moving objects. A multichannel optical-electronic monitoring system with a discrete angular field (or, as they say, artificial compound eye system) is an interesting variant to solve this problem. Such systems can be used for the analysis of various parameters of the objects, as an example for positioning of the object in wide annular zone. Using these systems we can get a wide angular field up to the full sphere due to a combination of a large number of elementary light detecting channels (like compound eyes of insects) and have a gain in the useful signal due to overlapping angular fields of channels. Currently, multichannel optoelectronic systems with discrete angular field are described and studied less than other up-to-date monitoring devices. But existing analogues are presented by experimental samples, which demonstrate the relevance of the research and design of such devices. This work presents a brief review of monitoring system with discrete angular field and theoretical description of proposed prototype. Results of experimental studies of mentioned prototype are presented as well.

  10. The application of the symmetry properties of optical second harmonic generation to studies of interfaces and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feller, M.B.

    1991-11-01

    Optical second harmonic generation has proven to be a powerful tool for studying interfaces. The symmetry properties of the process allow for surface sensitivity not available with other optical methods. In this thesis, we take advantage of these symmetry properties SHG to study a variety of interesting systems not previously studied with this technique. We show that optical second harmonic generation is an effective surface probe with a submonolayer sensitivity for media without inversion symmetry. We demonstrate the technique at a gallium arsenide surface, exploiting the different symmetry properties of the bulk and surface of the crystal to isolate the surface contribution. We also demonstrate that optical second harmonic generation can be used to determine the anisotropic orientational distribution of a surface monolayer of molecules. We apply the technique to study homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cells. To further explore the LC-polymer interface, we used SHG to study the surface memory effect. The surface memory effect is the rendering of an isotropic interface anisotropic by putting it in contact with an anisotropic bulk. Last, we describe some preliminary measurements of a time-resolved spectroscopic study of the phenomenon of second harmonic generation in a gas. The construction of a 500 microjoule pulsed, tunable laser source is described.

  11. The application of the symmetry properties of optical second harmonic generation to studies of interfaces and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feller, Marla Beth [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Optical second harmonic generation has proven to be a powerful tool for studying interfaces. The symmetry properties of the process allow for surface sensitivity not available with other optical methods. In this thesis, we take advantage of these symmetry properties SHG to study a variety of interesting systems not previously studied with this technique. We show that optical second harmonic generation is an effective surface probe with a submonolayer sensitivity for media without inversion symmetry. We demonstrate the technique at a gallium arsenide surface, exploiting the different symmetry properties of the bulk and surface of the crystal to isolate the surface contribution. We also demonstrate that optical second harmonic generation can be used to determine the anisotropic orientational distribution of a surface monolayer of molecules. We apply the technique to study homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cells. To further explore the LC-polymer interface, we used SHG to study the surface memory effect. The surface memory effect is the rendering of an isotropic interface anisotropic by putting it in contact with an anisotropic bulk. Last, we describe some preliminary measurements of a time-resolved spectroscopic study of the phenomenon of second harmonic generation in a gas. The construction of a 500 microjoule pulsed, tunable laser source is described.

  12. Interface-Optical-Phonon Modes in Quasi-one-dimensional Wurtzite Rectangular Quantum Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li

    2006-01-01

    By employing the dielectric continuum model and Loudon's uniaxial crystal model, the interface optical(IO) phonon modes in a freestanding quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) wurtzite rectangular quantum wire are derived and analyzed. Numerical calculation on a freestanding wurtzite GaN quantum wire is performed. The results reveal that the dispersion frequencies of IO modes sensitively depend on the geometric structures of the Q1D wurtzite rectangular quantum wires, the free wave-number kz in z-direction and the dielectric constant of the nonpolar matrix. The degenerating behavior of the IO modes in Q1D wurtzite rectangular quantum wire has been clearly observed in the case of small wave-number kz and large ratio of length to width of the rectangular crossing profile. The limited frequency behaviors of IO modes have been analyzed deeply, and detailed comparisons with those in wurtzite planar quantum wells and cylindrical quantum wires are also done. The present theories can be looked on as a generalization of that in isotropic rectangular quantum wires, and it can naturally reduce to the case of Q1D isotropic quantum wires once the anisotropy of the wurtzite material is ignored.

  13. The optical interface of a photonic crystal: Modeling an opal with a stratified effective index

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, Isabelle; Laliotis, Athanasios; Bloch, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An artificial opal is a compact arrangement of transparent spheres, and is an archetype of a three-dimensional photonic crystal. Here, we describe the optics of an opal using a flexible model based upon a stratified medium whose (effective) index is governed by the opal density in a small planar slice of the opal. We take into account the effect of the substrate and assume a well- controlled number of layers, as it occurs for an opal fabricated by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition. The calculations are performed with transfer matrices, and an absorptive component in the effective index is introduced to account for the light scattering. This one-dimensional formalism allows quantitative predictions for reflection and transmission, notably as a function of the ratio between the irradiation wavelength and the sphere diameter, or as a function of the incidence angle or of the polarization. It can be used for an irradiation from the substrate side or from the vacuum side and can account for defect layers. The interface...

  14. Floating dielectric slab optical interconnection between metal-dielectric interface surface plasmon polariton waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minsu; Park, Junghyun; Lee, Il-Min; Lee, Byoungho

    2009-01-19

    A simple and effective optical interconnection which connects two distanced single metal-dielectric interface surface plasmon waveguides by a floating dielectric slab waveguide (slab bridge) is proposed. Transmission characteristics of the suggested structure are numerically studied using rigorous coupled wave analysis, and design rules based on the study are given. In the wave-guiding part, if the slab bridge can support more than the fundamental mode, then the transmission efficiency of the interconnection shows strong periodic dependency on the length of the bridge, due to the multi-mode interference (MMI) effect. Otherwise, only small fluctuation occurs due to the Fabry-Pérot effect. In addition, light beating happens when the slab bridge is relatively short. In the wave-coupling part, on the other hand, gap-assisted transmission occurs at each overlapping region as a consequence of mode hybridization. Periodic dependency on the length of the overlap region also appears due to the MMI effect. According to these results, we propose design principles for achieving both high transmission efficiency and stability with respect to the variation of the interconnection distance, and we show how to obtain the transmission efficiency of 68.3% for the 1mm-long interconnection.

  15. Limitations of the commonly used simplified laterally uniform optical fiber probe-tissue interface in Monte Carlo simulations of diffuse reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglič, Peter; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Bürmen, Miran

    2015-10-01

    Light propagation models often simplify the interface between the optical fiber probe tip and tissue to a laterally uniform boundary with mismatched refractive indices. Such simplification neglects the precise optical properties of the commonly used probe tip materials, e.g. stainless steel or black epoxy. In this paper, we investigate the limitations of the laterally uniform probe-tissue interface in Monte Carlo simulations of diffuse reflectance. In comparison to a realistic probe-tissue interface that accounts for the layout and properties of the probe tip materials, the simplified laterally uniform interface is shown to introduce significant errors into the simulated diffuse reflectance.

  16. Interaction of optical and interface phonons and their anisotropy in GaAs/AlAs superlattices: Experiment and calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodin, V. A., E-mail: volodin@isp.nsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Sachkov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Sinyukov, M. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    The angular anisotropy of interface phonons and their interaction with optical phonons in (001) GaAs/AlAs superlattices are calculated and experimentally studied. Experiments were performed by Raman light scattering in different scattering geometries for phonons with the wave vector directed normally to the superlattice and along its layers. Phonon frequencies were calculated by the extended Born method taking the Coulomb interaction into account in the rigid-ion approximation. Raman scattering spectra were calculated in the Volkenshtein bond-polarizability approximation. Calculations confirmed that the angular anisotropy of phonons observed in experiments appears due to interaction (mixing) of optical phonons, in which atoms are mainly displaced normally to superlattices, with interface phonons (TO-IF modes). In the scattering geometry, when the wave vector lies in the plane of superlattice layers, the mixed TO-IF modes are observed under nonresonance conditions. The Raman spectra for TO-IF modes depend on the mixing of atoms at heteroboundaries.

  17. Interaction of optical and interface phonons and their anisotropy in GaAs/AlAs superlattices: Experiment and calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. A.; Sachkov, V. A.; Sinyukov, M. P.

    2015-05-01

    The angular anisotropy of interface phonons and their interaction with optical phonons in (001) GaAs/AlAs superlattices are calculated and experimentally studied. Experiments were performed by Raman light scattering in different scattering geometries for phonons with the wave vector directed normally to the superlattice and along its layers. Phonon frequencies were calculated by the extended Born method taking the Coulomb interaction into account in the rigid-ion approximation. Raman scattering spectra were calculated in the Volkenshtein bond-polarizability approximation. Calculations confirmed that the angular anisotropy of phonons observed in experiments appears due to interaction (mixing) of optical phonons, in which atoms are mainly displaced normally to superlattices, with interface phonons (TO-IF modes). In the scattering geometry, when the wave vector lies in the plane of superlattice layers, the mixed TO-IF modes are observed under nonresonance conditions. The Raman spectra for TO-IF modes depend on the mixing of atoms at heteroboundaries.

  18. Dynamic Mass Transfer of Hemoglobin at the Aqueous/Ionic-Liquid Interface Monitored with Liquid Core Optical Waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuwei; Yang, Xu; Zeng, Wanying; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-08-04

    Protein transfer from aqueous medium into ionic liquid is an important approach for the isolation of proteins of interest from complex biological samples. We hereby report a solid-cladding/liquid-core/liquid-cladding sandwich optical waveguide system for the purpose of monitoring the dynamic mass-transfer behaviors of hemoglobin (Hb) at the aqueous/ionic liquid interface. The optical waveguide system is fabricated by using a hydrophobic IL (1,3-dibutylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, BBimPF6) as the core, and protein solution as one of the cladding layer. UV-vis spectra are recorded with a CCD spectrophotometer via optical fibers. The recorded spectra suggest that the mass transfer of Hb molecules between the aqueous and ionic liquid media involve accumulation of Hb on the aqueous/IL interface followed by dynamic extraction/transfer of Hb into the ionic liquid phase. A part of Hb molecules remain at the interface even after the accomplishment of the extraction/transfer process. Further investigations indicate that the mass transfer of Hb from aqueous medium into the ionic liquid phase is mainly driven by the coordination interaction between heme group of Hb and the cationic moiety of ionic liquid, for example, imidazolium cation in this particular case. In addition, hydrophobic interactions also contribute to the transfer of Hb.

  19. Development of a software interface for optical disk archival storage for a new life sciences flight experiments computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Peter N.

    1989-01-01

    The current Life Sciences Laboratory Equipment (LSLE) microcomputer for life sciences experiment data acquisition is now obsolete. Among the weaknesses of the current microcomputer are small memory size, relatively slow analog data sampling rates, and the lack of a bulk data storage device. While life science investigators normally prefer data to be transmitted to Earth as it is taken, this is not always possible. No down-link exists for experiments performed in the Shuttle middeck region. One important aspect of a replacement microcomputer is provision for in-flight storage of experimental data. The Write Once, Read Many (WORM) optical disk was studied because of its high storage density, data integrity, and the availability of a space-qualified unit. In keeping with the goals for a replacement microcomputer based upon commercially available components and standard interfaces, the system studied includes a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) for interfacing the WORM drive. The system itself is designed around the STD bus, using readily available boards. Configurations examined were: (1) master processor board and slave processor board with the SCSI interface; (2) master processor with SCSI interface; (3) master processor with SCSI and Direct Memory Access (DMA); (4) master processor controlling a separate STD bus SCSI board; and (5) master processor controlling a separate STD bus SCSI board with DMA.

  20. Electronic and optical properties of dye-sensitized TiO₂ interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Mariachiara; Selloni, Annabella; Fantacci, Simona; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) represent a promising approach to the direct conversion of sunlight to electrical energy at low cost and high efficiency. DSCs are based on a film of anatase TiO₂ nanoparticles covered by adsorbed molecular dyes and immersed in a liquid redox electrolyte. Upon photoexcitation of the chemisorbed dye, electrons are injected into the TiO₂ conduction band and can travel across the nanostructured film to reach the counter-electrode, while the oxidized dye is regenerated by the redox electrolyte. In this review we present a summary of recent computational studies of the electronic and optical properties of dye-sensitized TiO2 interfaces, with the aim of providing the basic understanding of the operation principles of DSCs and establishing the conceptual basis for their design and optimization.We start with a discussion of isolated dyes in solution, focusing on the dye's atomic structure, ground and excited state oxidation potentials, and optical absorption spectra. We examine both Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes and organic "push-pull" dyes with a D-π-A structure, where the donor group (D) is an electron-rich unit, linked through a conjugated linker (π) to the electron-acceptor group (A). We show that a properly calibrated computational approach based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) combined with Time Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) can provide a good description of both the absorption spectra and ground and excited state oxidation potential values of the Ru(II) complexes. On the other hand, organic push-pull dyes are not well described by the standard DFT/TD-DFT approach. For these dyes, an excellent description of the electronic structure in gas phase can be obtained by the many body perturbation theory GW method, which has, however, a much higher computational cost.We next consider interacting dye/semiconductor systems. Key properties are the dye adsorption structure onto the semiconductor, the nature and localization of the dye

  1. Fröhlich electron-interface and -propagating optical phonon interactions in a wurtzite multi-shell cylindrical heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Shi, Jun-Jie

    2006-04-01

    Under the dielectric continuum model and Loudon's uniaxial crystal model, the polar optical phonon modes in a wurtzite multi-shell cylindrical heterostructure are analyzed and discussed. The analytical electrostatic potential functions are presented for all the five types of polar optical phonon modes including the interface optical (IO) modes, the propagating (PR) modes, the quasi-confined (QC) modes, the half-space-like (HSL) modes and the exactly confined (EC) modes. By adopting a transfer matrix method, the free IO and PR phonon fields and corresponding Fröhlich electron -IO and -PR interaction Hamiltonians are obtained via the method of electrostatic potential expansion. The analytical formulas are universal and can be applied to single, double and some complex cylindrical wurtzite quantum systems.

  2. Optical characterization of gold-cuprous oxide interfaces for terahertz emission applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramanandan, G.K.P.; Adam, A.J.L.; Ramakrishnan, G.; Petrik, P.; Hendrikx, R.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the interface between gold and thermally formed cuprous oxide, which emits terahertz radiation when illuminated with ultrafast femtosecond lasers, is in fact an AuCu/Cu2O interface due to the formation of the thermal diffusion alloy AuCu. The alloy enables the formation of a Schottky-ba

  3. Mo/Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} back interface chemical and optical properties for ultrathin CIGSe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfurth, F.; Jehl, Z. [Institut de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaieque IRDEP (EDF/CNRS/Chimie-ParisTech UMR 7174), 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Bouttemy, M. [ILV - UMR 8180, Universite de Versailles St Quentin, 45 Av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Dahan, N. [Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Tran-Van, P.; Gerard, I.; Etcheberry, A. [ILV - UMR 8180, Universite de Versailles St Quentin, 45 Av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Greffet, J.-J. [Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Powalla, M. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Industriestr. 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Voorwinden, G. [Wuerth Elektronik Research GmbH, Industriestr. 4, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Lincot, D.; Guillemoles, J.F. [Institut de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaieque IRDEP (EDF/CNRS/Chimie-ParisTech UMR 7174), 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Naghavi, N., E-mail: negar.naghavi@edf.fr [Institut de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaieque IRDEP (EDF/CNRS/Chimie-ParisTech UMR 7174), 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2012-01-15

    Chemical and optical properties of the interface between a coevaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) absorber thin film and the Mo back contact are investigated with the objective to reduce markedly the thickness of CIGSe layers from two microns down to about 100 nm. First a mechanical lift off technique allowed to separate Mo and CIGSe layers and perform X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elipsometry studies on as prepared surfaces. On the Mo side small amounts of In and Ga are observed together with the formation of an MoSe{sub 2} layer. There is no evidence of the presence of Cu. On the opposite CIGSe side a clear depletion of Cu together with an enrichment of Ga is evidenced. There is no evidence of Mo. Optical reflectivity of the interface CIGSe/Mo is studied by ellipsometry showing a low reflectivity of the interface attributed to the formation of MoSe{sub 2} layer. The enhance light absorption in ultrathin absorbers using alternative, highly reflective back contacts are finally discussed.

  4. Mo/Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 back interface chemical and optical properties for ultrathin CIGSe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfurth, F.; Jehl, Z.; Bouttemy, M.; Dahan, N.; Tran-Van, P.; Gerard, I.; Etcheberry, A.; Greffet, J.-J.; Powalla, M.; Voorwinden, G.; Lincot, D.; Guillemoles, J. F.; Naghavi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical and optical properties of the interface between a coevaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) absorber thin film and the Mo back contact are investigated with the objective to reduce markedly the thickness of CIGSe layers from two microns down to about 100 nm. First a mechanical lift off technique allowed to separate Mo and CIGSe layers and perform X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elipsometry studies on as prepared surfaces. On the Mo side small amounts of In and Ga are observed together with the formation of an MoSe2 layer. There is no evidence of the presence of Cu. On the opposite CIGSe side a clear depletion of Cu together with an enrichment of Ga is evidenced. There is no evidence of Mo. Optical reflectivity of the interface CIGSe/Mo is studied by ellipsometry showing a low reflectivity of the interface attributed to the formation of MoSe2 layer. The enhance light absorption in ultrathin absorbers using alternative, highly reflective back contacts are finally discussed.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Lens Nuclear Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT with a Liquid Optics Interface: Correlation between OCT Images and LOCS III Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Na Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To quantify whole lens and nuclear lens densities using anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (OCT with a liquid optics interface and evaluate their correlation with Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III lens grading and corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA. Methods. OCT images of the whole lens and lens nucleus of eyes with age-related nuclear cataract were analyzed using ImageJ software. The lens grade and nuclear density were represented in pixel intensity units (PIU and correlations between PIU, BCVA, and LOCS III were assessed. Results. Forty-seven eyes were analyzed. The mean whole lens and lens nuclear densities were 26.99 ± 5.23 and 19.43 ± 6.15 PIU, respectively. A positive linear correlation was observed between lens opacities (R2 = 0.187, p<0.01 and nuclear density (R2 = 0.316, p<0.01 obtained from OCT images and LOCS III. Preoperative BCVA and LOCS III were also positively correlated (R2 = 0.454, p<0.01. Conclusions. Whole lens and lens nuclear densities obtained from OCT correlated with LOCS III. Nuclear density showed a higher positive correlation with LOCS III than whole lens density. OCT with a liquid optics interface is a potential quantitative method for lens grading and can aid in monitoring and managing age-related cataracts.

  6. Influence of the interface corrugation on the subband dispersions and the optical properties of (113)-oriented GaAs/AlAs superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Lüerssen, D.; Kalt, H.;

    1996-01-01

    We report on the influence of the interface corrugation in (113)-grown GaAs/AlAs superlattices on their band-edge optical properties both in theory and experiment. We calculate the subband dispersions and the optical anisotropies in a multiband k . p formalism. The dominating contribution to the ...

  7. Interface Screenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2015-01-01

    and memories. From a transvisual perspective, the question is whether or not these (by now realized) diagrammatic modes involving the body in ubiquitous global media can be analysed in terms of the affects and events created in concrete interfaces. The examples used are filmic as felt sensations...... of an interface are invisible and not easy to describe....

  8. Correcting ray optics at curved dielectric microresonator interfaces: phase-space unification of Fresnel filtering and the Goos-Hänchen shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, Henning; Hentschel, Martina

    2006-06-23

    We develop an amended ray-optics description for reflection at the curved dielectric interfaces of optical microresonators which improves the agreement with wave optics by about one order of magnitude. The corrections are separated into two contributions of similar magnitude, corresponding to ray displacement in independent quantum-phase-space directions, which can be identified with Fresnel filtering and the Goos-Hänchen shift, respectively. Hence we unify two effects which only have been studied separately in the past.

  9. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  10. Gluing interface qualification test results and gluing process development of the EUCLID near-infrared spectro-photometer optical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghibonab, A.; Thiele, H.; Gubbini, E.; Dubowy, M.; Gal, C.; Mecsaci, A.; Gawlik, K.; Vongehr, M.; Grupp, F.; Penka, D.; Wimmer, C.; Bender, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer Optical assembly (NIOA) of EUCLID satellite requires high precision large lens holders with different lens materials, shapes and diameters. The aspherical lenses are glued into their separate CTE matched lens holder. The gluing of the lenses in their holder with 2K epoxy is selected as bonding process to minimize the stress in the lenses to achieve the required surface form error (SFE) performance (32nm) and lens position stability (+/-10μm) due to glue shrinkage. Adhesive shrinkage stress occurs during the glue curing at room temperature and operation in cryogenic temperatures, which might overstress the lens, cause performance loss, lens breakage or failure of the gluing interface. The selection of the suitable glue and required bonding parameters, design and qualification of the gluing interface, development and verification of the gluing process was a great challenge because of the low TRL and heritage of the bonding technology. The different material combinations (CaF2 to SS316L, LF5G15 and S-FTM16 to Titanium, SUPRASIL3001 to Invar M93), large diameter (168mm) and thin edge of the lenses, cryogenic nonoperational temperature (100K) and high performance accuracy of the lenses were the main design driver of the development. The different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between lens and lens holder produce large local mechanical stress. As hygroscopic crystal calcium fluoride (CaF2) is very sensitive to moisture therefore an additional surface treatment of the gluing area is necessary. Extensive tests e.g glue handling and single lap shear tests are performed to select the suitable adhesive. Interface connection tests are performed to verify the feasibility of selected design (double pad design), injection channel, the roughness and treatment of the metal and lens interfaces, glue thickness, glue pad diameter and the gluing process. CTE and dynamic measurements of the glue, thermal cycling, damp- heat, connection

  11. Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, T J [School of Informatics, University of Wales Bangor, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL70 9PX (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-21

    The incorporation of nanometric size particles in a matrix to form dielectric composites shows promise of materials (nanodielectrics) with new and improved properties. It is argued that the properties of the interfaces between the particles and the matrix, which will themselves be of nanometric dimensions, will have an increasingly dominant role in determining dielectric performance as the particle size decreases. The forces that determine the electrical and dielectric properties of interfaces are considered, with emphasis on the way in which they might influence composite behaviour. A number of examples are given in which interfaces at the nanometric level exercise both passive and active control over dielectric, optical and conductive properties. Electromechanical properties are also considered, and it is shown that interfaces have important electrostrictive and piezoelectric characteristics. It is demonstrated that the process of poling, namely subjecting macroscopic composite materials to electrical stress and raised temperatures to create piezoelectric materials, can be explained in terms of optimizing the collective response of the nanometric interfaces involved. If the electrical and electromechanical features are coupled to the long-established electrochemical properties, interfaces represent highly versatile active elements with considerable potential in nanotechnology.

  12. Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T. J.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of nanometric size particles in a matrix to form dielectric composites shows promise of materials (nanodielectrics) with new and improved properties. It is argued that the properties of the interfaces between the particles and the matrix, which will themselves be of nanometric dimensions, will have an increasingly dominant role in determining dielectric performance as the particle size decreases. The forces that determine the electrical and dielectric properties of interfaces are considered, with emphasis on the way in which they might influence composite behaviour. A number of examples are given in which interfaces at the nanometric level exercise both passive and active control over dielectric, optical and conductive properties. Electromechanical properties are also considered, and it is shown that interfaces have important electrostrictive and piezoelectric characteristics. It is demonstrated that the process of poling, namely subjecting macroscopic composite materials to electrical stress and raised temperatures to create piezoelectric materials, can be explained in terms of optimizing the collective response of the nanometric interfaces involved. If the electrical and electromechanical features are coupled to the long-established electrochemical properties, interfaces represent highly versatile active elements with considerable potential in nanotechnology.

  13. Constructive spin-orbital angular momentum coupling can twist materials to create spiral structures in optical vortex illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barada, Daisuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Juman, Guzhaliayi; Yoshida, Itsuki [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Omatsu, Takashige, E-mail: omatsu@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Molecular Chirality Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kawata, Shigeo [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Ohno, Seigo [Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    It was discovered that optical vortices twist isotropic and homogenous materials, e.g., azo-polymer films to form spiral structures on a nano- or micro-scale. However, the formation mechanism has not yet been established theoretically. To understand the mechanism of the spiral surface relief formation in the azo-polymer film, we theoretically investigate the optical radiation force induced in an isotropic and homogeneous material under irradiation using a continuous-wave optical vortex with arbitrary topological charge and polarization. It is revealed that the spiral surface relief formation in azo-polymer films requires the irradiation of optical vortices with a positive (negative) spin angular momentum and a positive (negative) orbital angular momentum (constructive spin-orbital angular momentum coupling), i.e., the degeneracy among the optical vortices with the same total angular momentum is resolved.

  14. Polar interface and surface optical vibration spectra in multi-layer wurtzite quantum wires:transfer matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li

    2006-01-01

    The polar interface optical (IO) and surface optical (SO) phonon modes and the corresponding Frohlich electronphonon-interaction Hamiltonian in a freestanding multi-layer wurtzite cylindrical quantum wire (QWR) are derived and studied by employing the transfer matrix method in the dielectric continuum approximation and Loudon's uniaxial crystal model. A numerical calculation of a freestanding wurtzite GaN/AlN QWR is performed. The results reveal that for a relatively large azimuthal quantum number m or wave-number kz in the free z-direction, there exist two branches of IO phonon modes localized at the interface, and only one branch of SO mode localized at the surface in the system.The degenerating behaviours of the IO and SO phonon modes in the wurtzite QWR have also been clearly observed for a smallkz or m. The limiting frequency properties of the IO and SO modes for large kz and m have been explained reasonably from the mathematical and physical viewpoints. The calculations of electron-phonon coupling functions show that the high-frequency IO phonon branch and SO mode play a more important role in the electron-phonon interaction.

  15. Study of interface layer effect in organic solar cells by electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Dai; Sumiyoshi, Ryota; Chen, Xiangyu; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp

    2014-03-03

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the effect of the use of bathocuproine (BCP) interface layer. The EFISHG measurements of indium–zinc–oxide (IZO)/C{sub 60}/Al diodes showed that the BCP layer inserted between C{sub 60} and Al formed an electrostatic field |E{sub i}| = 2.5 × 10{sup 4} V/cm in the C{sub 60} layer, pointing in a direction from the Al to the IZO. Accordingly, in the IZO/pentacene/C{sub 60}/BCP/Al organic solar cells (OSCs), holes (electrons) move to the IZO (Al) electrode, enhancing the short-circuit current. The EFISHG measurement is capable of directly probing internal fields in the layers used for OSCs, and is helpful for studying the contribution of the interface layer in OSCs. - Highlights: • Internal field in organic solar cells (OSCs) were directly probed. • Interface layer formed internal electric field, enhancing the OSC performance. • Maxwell–Wagner effect accounts for the internal electric field formation.

  16. Electronic Properties of Optically Switchable Photochromic Diarylethene Molecules at the Interface with Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiankun; Frisch, Johannes; Herder, Martin; Hecht, Stefan; Koch, Norbert

    2017-04-05

    Light-switching-induced changes in the electronic properties of photochromic diarylethene, i.e., 1,2-bis(2-methyl-5-p-tolylthiophen-3-yl)cyclopent-1-ene (DAE1), thin films at interfaces to a gold electrode and two polymer semiconductors are investigated by direct and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoisomerization is achieved by in situ irradiation of ultraviolet and visible light. Efficient and reversible switching between the open and closed isomers of DAE1 is evidenced at all interfaces, with profound impact on the energy-level alignment. The frontier occupied level of DAE1 changes by 0.8 eV with respect to the Au Fermi level upon switching. Corresponding sizable changes in the electron and transport level offsets between the two polymers and DAE1 in its open and closed form are determined. This gives rise to fundamentally different functionality of these interfaces in terms of charge transport. Our study proves the viability of light-controlled energy-level manipulation at various interfaces in photoswitchable opto-electronic devices.

  17. Field Trial of 40 Gb/s Optical Transport Network using Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Petersen, Martin Nordal;

    2013-01-01

    An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined....

  18. Interface control of electronic and optical properties in IV-VI and II-VI core/shell colloidal quantum dots: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Youngjin; Shapiro, Arthur; Isarov, Maya; Rubin-Brusilovski, Anna; Safran, Aron; Budniak, Adam K; Horani, Faris; Dehnel, Joanna; Sashchiuk, Aldona; Lifshitz, Efrat

    2017-01-17

    Semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted vast scientific and technological interest throughout the past three decades, due to the unique tuneability of their optoelectronic properties by variation of size and composition. However, the nanoscale size brings about a large surface-to-bulk volume ratio, where exterior surfaces have a pronounced influence on the chemical stability and on the physical properties of the semiconductor. Therefore, numerous approaches have been developed to gain efficient surface passivation, including a coverage by organic or inorganic molecular surfactants as well as the formation of core/shell heterostructures (a semiconductor core epitaxially covered by another semiconductor shell). This review focuses on special designs of core/shell heterostructures from the IV-VI and II-VI semiconductor compounds, and on synthetic approaches and characterization of the optical properties. Experimental observations revealed the formation of core/shell structures with type-I or quasi-type-II band alignment between the core and shell constituents. Theoretical calculations of the electronic band structures, which were also confirmed by experimental work, exposed surplus electronic tuning (beyond the radial diameter) with adaptation of the composition and control of the interface properties. The studies also considered strain effects that are created between two different semiconductors. It was disclosed experimentally and theoretically that the strain can be released via the formation of alloys at the core-shell interface. Overall, the core/shell and core/alloyed-shell heterostructures showed enhancement in luminescence quantum efficiency with respect to that of pure cores, extended lifetime, uniformity in size and in many cases good chemical sustainability under ambient conditions.

  19. Slumped glass optics with interfacing ribs for high angular resolution x-ray astronomy: a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitani, M.; Basso, S.; Brizzolari, C.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Salmaso, B.; Spiga, D.; Vecchi, G.; Breunig, E.; Burwitz, V.; Hartner, G. D.; Menz, B.

    2015-09-01

    The Slumped Glass Optics technology, developed at INAF/OAB since a few years, is becoming a competitive solution for the realization of the future X-ray telescopes with a very large collecting area, as e.g. the proposed Athena, with more than 2 m2 effective area at 1 keV and with a high angular resolution (5'' HEW). The developed technique is based on modular elements, named X-ray Optical Units (XOUs), made of several layers of thin foils of glass, previously formed by direct hot slumping in cylindrical configuration, and then stacked in a Wolter-I configuration, through interfacing ribs. The achievable global angular resolution of the optics relies on the surface shape accuracy of the slumped foils, on the smoothness of the mirror surfaces and on the correct integration and co-alignment of the mirror segments achieved with a dedicated Integration Machine (IMA). In this paper we provide an update of the project development, reporting on the last results achieved. In particular, we will present the results obtained with full illumination X-ray tests for the last developed prototypes.

  20. The infuence of different interfaces on electrical and optical characteristics of Te doped ALGaAsSB/ALAsSB Bragg Mirrors on InP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C Harmand

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The electrical and optical properties of non-doped and Te doped 6.5 periods AlGaAsSb/AlAsSb Bragg mirrors on InP grown by MBE with different types of interfaces between ternary and quaternary layers are reported. The techniques employed were photoluminescence, refectivity and IxV measurements. The digital alloy gradient interface seems to be the best alternative to optimize conduction without significant refectivity losses.

  1. Optics of an opal modeled with a stratified effective index and the effect of the interface

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, Isabelle; Laliotis, Athanasios; Bloch, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Reflection and transmission for an artificial opal are described through a model of stratified medium based upon a one-dimensional variation of an effective index. The model is notably applicable to a Langmuir-Blodgett type disordered opal. Light scattering is accounted for by a phenomenological absorption. The interface region between the opal and the substrate -or the vacuum- induces a periodicity break in the photonic crystal arrangement, which exhibits a prominent influence on the reflection, notably away from the Bragg reflection peak. Experimental results are compared to our model. The model is extendable to inverse opals, stacked cylinders, or irradiation by evanescent waves

  2. Tele-counseling and social-skill trainings using JGNII optical network and a mirror-interface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Sayuri; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Onozawa, Akira; Hosoya, Eiichi; Harada, Ikuo; Okunaka, Junzo

    2007-09-01

    "Tele-presence" communication using JGNII - an exclusive optical-fiber network system - was applied to social-skills training in the form of child-rearing support. This application focuses on internet counseling and social training skills that require interactive verbal and none-verbal communications. The motivation for this application is supporting local communities by constructing tele-presence education and entertainment systems using recently available, inexpensive IP networks. This latest application of tele-presence communication uses mirror-interface system which provides to users in remote locations a shared quasi-space where they can see themselves as if they were in the same room by overlapping video images from remote locations.

  3. Experience with wavefront sensor and deformable mirror interfaces for wide-field adaptive optics systems

    CERN Document Server

    Basden, A G; Bharmal, N A; Bitenc, U; Brangier, M; Buey, T; Butterley, T; Cano, D; Chemla, F; Clark, P; Cohen, M; Conan, J -M; de Cos, F J; Dickson, C; Dipper, N A; Dunlop, C N; Feautrier, P; Fusco, T; Gach, J L; Gendron, E; Geng, D; Goodsell, S J; Gratadour, D; Greenaway, A H; Guesalaga, A; Guzman, C D; Henry, D; Holck, D; Hubert, Z; Huet, J M; Kellerer, A; Kulcsar, C; Laporte, P; Roux, B Le; Looker, N; Longmore, A J; Marteaud, M; Martin, O; Meimon, S; Morel, C; Morris, T J; Myers, R M; Osborn, J; Perret, D; Petit, C; Raynaud, H; Reeves, A P; Rousset, G; Lasheras, F Sanchez; Rodriguez, M Sanchez; Santos, J D; Sevin, A; Sivo, G; Stadler, E; Stobie, B; Talbot, G; Todd, S; Vidal, F; Younger, E J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in adaptive optics (AO) have led to the implementation of wide field-of-view AO systems. A number of wide-field AO systems are also planned for the forthcoming Extremely Large Telescopes. Such systems have multiple wavefront sensors of different types, and usually multiple deformable mirrors (DMs). Here, we report on our experience integrating cameras and DMs with the real-time control systems of two wide-field AO systems. These are CANARY, which has been operating on-sky since 2010, and DRAGON, which is a laboratory adaptive optics real-time demonstrator instrument. We detail the issues and difficulties that arose, along with the solutions we developed. We also provide recommendations for consideration when developing future wide-field AO systems.

  4. Efficient interfacing of light and surface plasmon polaritons for quantum optics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eran, Kot

    control of matter. These include applications such as efficient photon collection, single-photon switching and transistors, and long-range optical coupling of quantum bits for quantum communications. However, generating and controlling strong coherent interaction between otherwise very weakly interacting...... interaction are the window to the underlying quantum world. It is no surprise then that there has always been push to find more, and gain better control over systems in which this interaction can be studied. In the past two decades, this end was further motivated as applications were envisioned to coherent...... light and quantum emitters proves a difficult task. Current days solutions range from cavities, atomic ensembles, photonic band gaps structures, ion traps and optical latices are all being improved and studied but none has yet to emerge as superior. Recently, another proposal for such a strong coupling...

  5. Wavefront Engineering with Phase Discontinuities: Designer Interfaces for High Performance Planar Optical Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    that they can be steered using a one dimensional metamaterial made of rotated apertures, and demonstrated “fishbone” plasmonic couplers that enable...vectors. Controlled steering of Cherenkov surface plasmon wakes with a one-dimensional metamaterial We showed that by creating a running wave...and is always transverse- magnetic (TM) polarized, which eliminates polarization crosstalk within the waveguide. In contrast to conventional SPPs

  6. Optical Modeling Activities for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). 4; Overview and Introduction of Matlab Based Toolkits used to Interface with Optical Design Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This is part four of a series on the ongoing optical modeling activities for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first two discussed modeling JWST on-orbit performance using wavefront sensitivities to predict line of sight motion induced blur, and stability during thermal transients. The third investigates the aberrations resulting from alignment and figure compensation of the controllable degrees of freedom (primary and secondary mirrors), which may be encountered during ground alignment and on-orbit commissioning of the observatory. The work here introduces some of the math software tools used to perform the work of the previous three papers of this series. NASA has recently approved these in-house tools for public release as open source, so this presentation also serves as a quick tutorial on their use. The tools are collections of functions written in Matlab, which interface with optical design software (CodeV, OSLO, and Zemax) using either COM or DDE communication protocol. The functions are discussed, and examples are given.

  7. A novel method of creating a surface micromachined 3D optical assembly for MEMS-based miniaturized FTIR spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D.; Schildkraut, E. R.; Kim, J.; Connors, R. F.; Kotidis, P.; Cavicchio, D. J.

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes design, fabrication, and characterization of a miniaturized, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for the detection and identification of toxic or flammable gases. By measuring the absorption by the target material of IR radiation, unambiguous detection and identification can be achieved. The key component of the device is a micromachined Michelson interferometer capable of modulating light in the 2 - 14 μm spectral region. Two major technical achievements associated with developing a MEMS interferometer module are discussed: development of a micromirror assembly having an order of magnitude larger modulation stroke to approach laboratory instrument-grade spectral resolutions; and assembly of monolithic, millimeter-scale optical components using multi-layer surface micromachining techniques to produce an extremely low cost MEMS interferometer, which has an unprecedented optical throughput. We have manufactured and tested the device. Reported optical characterization results include a precisely aligned, static interferogram acquired from an assembled Michelson interferometer using visible light wavelengths, which promises a high sensitivity FTIR spectrometer for its size.

  8. Cold and Hot Slumped Glass Optics with interfacing ribs for high angular resolution x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitani, M.; Basso, S.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Salmaso, B.; Spiga, D.; Vecchi, G.; Banham, R.; Breuning, E.; Burwitz, V.; Hartner, G.; Menz, B.

    2016-07-01

    The Slumped Glass Optics technology, developed at INAF/OAB since a few years, is becoming a competitive solution for the realization of the future X-ray telescopes with a very large collecting area, e.g. the approved Athena, with more than 2 m2 effective area at 1 keV and with a high angular resolution (5'' HEW). The developed technique is based on modular elements, named X-ray Optical Units (XOUs), made of several layers of thin foils of glass, previously formed by direct hot slumping in cylindrical configuration and then stacked in a Wolter-I configuration, through interfacing ribs. The latest advancements in the production of thin glass substrates may allow a great simplification of this process, avoiding the preforming step via hot slumping. In fact, the strength and the flexibility of glass foils with thickness lower than 0.1 mm allow their bending up to very small radius of curvature without breaking. In this paper we provide an update of the project development, reporting on the last results achieved. In particular, we present the results obtained on several prototypes that have been assembled with different integration approaches.

  9. Efficient interfacing of light and surface plasmon polaritons for quantum optics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eran, Kot

    a nonclassicality criterion for the state of a continuous variable, local system. This is done by inferring the breakdown of classical models from quadrature measurements, expressed as the lack of iv a proper distribution function of the underlying generalized coordinates. This provides a useful tool...... light and quantum emitters proves a difficult task. Current days solutions range from cavities, atomic ensembles, photonic band gaps structures, ion traps and optical latices are all being improved and studied but none has yet to emerge as superior. Recently, another proposal for such a strong coupling...

  10. Ternary effects on the optical interface phonons in onion-like GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wen Deng, E-mail: wdhuang2005@163.com [MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China); Chen, Guang De; Ye, Hong Gang [MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Ren, Ya Jie [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China)

    2014-06-27

    The interface optical phonons and its ternary effects in onion-like quantum dots are studied by using dielectric continuum model and the modified random-element isodisplacement model. The dispersion relations, the electron–phonon interactions and ternary effects on the interface optical phonons are calculated in the GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N onion-like quantum dots. The results show that aluminium concentration has important influence on the interface optical phonons and electron–phonon interactions in GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N onion-like quantum dots. The frequencies of interface optical phonons and electron–phonon coupling strengths change linearly with increase of aluminium concentration in high frequency range, and do not change linearly with increasing aluminium concentration in low frequency range. - Highlights: • The random-element isodisplacement model and dielectric continuum model are used. • The ternary effects on IO phonons in onion-like GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N QDs are studied. • The ternary effects on electron–IO phonon coupling in QDs are studied.

  11. Uranyl-specific binding at a functionalised interface: a chemophotonic fibre optic sensor platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Neil W; Tremlett, Clare J; Melfi, Patricia J; Sessler, Jonathon D; Shaw, Andrew M

    2008-05-01

    Detection of radiological materials in the solution phase is restricted by conventional radiation-counting techniques owing to extreme attenuation. Chemical sensing of the resultant radiological species such as uranyl UO(2)(2+) is possible on the surface of a plastic or glass fibre optic. A dihydroxy isoamethryin complex is tethered to the fibre surface which has a large extinction coefficient (119 000 M(-1) cm(-1) at lambda = 439 nm) and changes colour upon binding UO(2)(2+). The spectral changes are greater on the surface than in solution and binding is specific to UO(2)(2+) with small interferences from Gd(3+). Monitoring the spectral response in three detector bands in the red, green and blue enable the optical power change to be measured with sensitivities of 1 mdB, allowing UO(2)(2+) to be detected confidently at 50-100 ppb levels. Real-time kinetic analysis enables discrimination between the target species and possible interferents.

  12. Accurate integration of segmented x-ray optics using interfacing ribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitani, Marta Maria; Basso, Stefano; Citterio, Oberto; Conconi, Paolo; Ghigo, Mauro; Pareschi, Giovanni; Proserpio, Laura; Salmaso, Bianca; Sironi, Giorgia; Spiga, Daniele; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Zambra, Alberto; Martelli, Francesco; Parodi, Giancarlo; Fumi, Pierluigi; Gallieni, Daniele; Tintori, Matteo; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Future lightweight and long-focal-length x-ray telescopes must guarantee a good angular resolution (e.g., 5 arc sec HEW) and reach an unprecedented large effective area. This goal can be reached with the slumping of borosilicate glass sheets that allow the fabrication of lightweight and low-cost x-ray optical units (XOU). These XOUs, based on mirror segments, have to be assembled together to form complete multishell Wolter-I optics. The technology for the fabrication and the integration of these XOUs is under development in Europe, funded by European Space Agency, and led by the Brera Observatory (INAF-OAB). While the achievement of the required surface accuracy on the glass segments by means of a hot slumping technique is a challenging aspect, adequate attention must be given to the correct integration and coalignment of the mirror segments into the XOUs. To this aim, an innovative assembly concept has been investigated, based on glass reinforcing ribs. The ribs connect pairs of consecutive foils, stacked into a XOU, with both structural and functional roles, providing robust monolithic stacks of mirror plates. Moreover, this integration concept allows the correction of residual low-frequency errors still present on the mirror foil profile after slumping. We present the integration concept, the related error budget, and the results achieved so far with a semi-robotic integration machine especially designed and realized to assemble slumped glass foils into XOUs.

  13. Dammann gratings as integratable micro-optical elements created by laser micronanofabrication via two-photon photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi-Dai; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Niu, Li-Gang; Wu, Dong; Wang, Wen-Quan; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2008-11-01

    Dammann gratings, as beam splitters and coherent signal generators, were produced in a short fabricating cycle by femtosecond laser fabrication via two-photon photopolymerization. These holograms that each generated 2x2, 3x3, 4x4, 5x5, and 6x6 spot sources in the fan-out demonstrated diffraction efficiency of 36%, 25%, 29%, 52%, and 49%, respectively, comparable with the theoretical values. This work shows the promising prospect of femtosecond laser fabrication in compatibly manufacturing various micro-optical devices including Dammann gratings and their integrated systems.

  14. Optical probe for determining the fat/lean interface in cuts of meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas M.; Callow, Diane S.; Jones, James F.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Spletzer, Barry L.

    2005-02-22

    An apparatus and method for locating the boundary surface between a layer of fatty tissue and lean tissue in a cut of meat, such as beef, such as slabs of meat undergoing trimming and cutting in commercial meet processing facilitates. The invention exploits the fact that fatty tissue and lean tissue have significantly different responses to incident light energy. By gauging the degree to which a generated beam of light is scattered and reflected by the tissues under evaluation, the invention permits the character of the tissue to be ascertained. An incident beam of light, such as green light, is generated and transmitted to a probe tip, which tip is inserted into the cut of meat under investigation. The light beam is emitted into the meat tissues from the probe tip, and then is scattered and reflected by the tissues, whereupon some fraction of the emitted light returns to the probe tip. The returning light energy is transmitted to a detector; relative changes in the returning light transmitted to the detector permit the operator to determine when the probe tip is approaching or penetrating the fat/lean tissue interface.

  15. Experience with wavefront sensor and deformable mirror interfaces for wide-field adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, A. G.; Atkinson, D.; Bharmal, N. A.; Bitenc, U.; Brangier, M.; Buey, T.; Butterley, T.; Cano, D.; Chemla, F.; Clark, P.; Cohen, M.; Conan, J.-M.; de Cos, F. J.; Dickson, C.; Dipper, N. A.; Dunlop, C. N.; Feautrier, P.; Fusco, T.; Gach, J. L.; Gendron, E.; Geng, D.; Goodsell, S. J.; Gratadour, D.; Greenaway, A. H.; Guesalaga, A.; Guzman, C. D.; Henry, D.; Holck, D.; Hubert, Z.; Huet, J. M.; Kellerer, A.; Kulcsar, C.; Laporte, P.; Le Roux, B.; Looker, N.; Longmore, A. J.; Marteaud, M.; Martin, O.; Meimon, S.; Morel, C.; Morris, T. J.; Myers, R. M.; Osborn, J.; Perret, D.; Petit, C.; Raynaud, H.; Reeves, A. P.; Rousset, G.; Sanchez Lasheras, F.; Sanchez Rodriguez, M.; Santos, J. D.; Sevin, A.; Sivo, G.; Stadler, E.; Stobie, B.; Talbot, G.; Todd, S.; Vidal, F.; Younger, E. J.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in adaptive optics (AO) have led to the implementation of wide field-of-view AO systems. A number of wide-field AO systems are also planned for the forthcoming Extremely Large Telescopes. Such systems have multiple wavefront sensors of different types, and usually multiple deformable mirrors (DMs). Here, we report on our experience integrating cameras and DMs with the real-time control systems of two wide-field AO systems. These are CANARY, which has been operating on-sky since 2010, and DRAGON, which is a laboratory AO real-time demonstrator instrument. We detail the issues and difficulties that arose, along with the solutions we developed. We also provide recommendations for consideration when developing future wide-field AO systems.

  16. The optical Tamm states at the interface between a photonic crystal and nanoporous silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbaev, R. G.; Vetrov, S. Ya; Timofeev, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    The optical Tamm states (OTSs) localized at the edges of a photonic crystal bounded by a nanoporous silver (NPS) film are investigated. NPS involves spherical vacuum nanopores dispersed in the metal matrix and is characterized by the effective resonance permittivity. The transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra of the structures under study at the normal incidence of light are calculated. It is shown that each Tamm state has its own frequency range where the real part of effective permittivity is negative. The light field localization at the high- and low-frequency OTSs is investigated. The specific features of spectral manifestation of the OTSs are studied in dependence on the nanopore concentration in the metal matrix and on the NPS film thickness.

  17. A combined electrochemical and optical trapping platform for measuring single cell respiration rates at electrode interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Benjamin J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, 920 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); El-Naggar, Mohamed Y., E-mail: mnaggar@usc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, 920 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Molecular and Computational Biology Section, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Metal-reducing bacteria gain energy by extracellular electron transfer to external solids, such as naturally abundant minerals, which substitute for oxygen or the other common soluble electron acceptors of respiration. This process is one of the earliest forms of respiration on earth and has significant environmental and technological implications. By performing electron transfer to electrodes instead of minerals, these microbes can be used as biocatalysts for conversion of diverse chemical fuels to electricity. Understanding such a complex biotic-abiotic interaction necessitates the development of tools capable of probing extracellular electron transfer down to the level of single cells. Here, we describe an experimental platform for single cell respiration measurements. The design integrates an infrared optical trap, perfusion chamber, and lithographically fabricated electrochemical chips containing potentiostatically controlled transparent indium tin oxide microelectrodes. Individual bacteria are manipulated using the optical trap and placed on the microelectrodes, which are biased at a suitable oxidizing potential in the absence of any chemical electron acceptor. The potentiostat is used to detect the respiration current correlated with cell-electrode contact. We demonstrate the system with single cell measurements of the dissimilatory-metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which resulted in respiration currents ranging from 15 fA to 100 fA per cell under our measurement conditions. Mutants lacking the outer-membrane cytochromes necessary for extracellular respiration did not result in any measurable current output upon contact. In addition to the application for extracellular electron transfer studies, the ability to electronically measure cell-specific respiration rates may provide answers for a variety of fundamental microbial physiology questions.

  18. A combined electrochemical and optical trapping platform for measuring single cell respiration rates at electrode interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Benjamin J; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y

    2015-06-01

    Metal-reducing bacteria gain energy by extracellular electron transfer to external solids, such as naturally abundant minerals, which substitute for oxygen or the other common soluble electron acceptors of respiration. This process is one of the earliest forms of respiration on earth and has significant environmental and technological implications. By performing electron transfer to electrodes instead of minerals, these microbes can be used as biocatalysts for conversion of diverse chemical fuels to electricity. Understanding such a complex biotic-abiotic interaction necessitates the development of tools capable of probing extracellular electron transfer down to the level of single cells. Here, we describe an experimental platform for single cell respiration measurements. The design integrates an infrared optical trap, perfusion chamber, and lithographically fabricated electrochemical chips containing potentiostatically controlled transparent indium tin oxide microelectrodes. Individual bacteria are manipulated using the optical trap and placed on the microelectrodes, which are biased at a suitable oxidizing potential in the absence of any chemical electron acceptor. The potentiostat is used to detect the respiration current correlated with cell-electrode contact. We demonstrate the system with single cell measurements of the dissimilatory-metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which resulted in respiration currents ranging from 15 fA to 100 fA per cell under our measurement conditions. Mutants lacking the outer-membrane cytochromes necessary for extracellular respiration did not result in any measurable current output upon contact. In addition to the application for extracellular electron transfer studies, the ability to electronically measure cell-specific respiration rates may provide answers for a variety of fundamental microbial physiology questions.

  19. A combined electrochemical and optical trapping platform for measuring single cell respiration rates at electrode interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Benjamin J.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2015-06-01

    Metal-reducing bacteria gain energy by extracellular electron transfer to external solids, such as naturally abundant minerals, which substitute for oxygen or the other common soluble electron acceptors of respiration. This process is one of the earliest forms of respiration on earth and has significant environmental and technological implications. By performing electron transfer to electrodes instead of minerals, these microbes can be used as biocatalysts for conversion of diverse chemical fuels to electricity. Understanding such a complex biotic-abiotic interaction necessitates the development of tools capable of probing extracellular electron transfer down to the level of single cells. Here, we describe an experimental platform for single cell respiration measurements. The design integrates an infrared optical trap, perfusion chamber, and lithographically fabricated electrochemical chips containing potentiostatically controlled transparent indium tin oxide microelectrodes. Individual bacteria are manipulated using the optical trap and placed on the microelectrodes, which are biased at a suitable oxidizing potential in the absence of any chemical electron acceptor. The potentiostat is used to detect the respiration current correlated with cell-electrode contact. We demonstrate the system with single cell measurements of the dissimilatory-metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which resulted in respiration currents ranging from 15 fA to 100 fA per cell under our measurement conditions. Mutants lacking the outer-membrane cytochromes necessary for extracellular respiration did not result in any measurable current output upon contact. In addition to the application for extracellular electron transfer studies, the ability to electronically measure cell-specific respiration rates may provide answers for a variety of fundamental microbial physiology questions.

  20. Compact photonic crystal circulator with flat-top transmission band created by cascading magneto-optical resonance cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Lin, Mi; Liu, Qiang

    2015-11-20

    A new type of compact three-port circulator with flat-top transmission band (FTTB) in a two-dimensional photonic crystal has been proposed, through coupling the cascaded magneto-optical resonance cavities to waveguides. The coupled-mode theory is applied to investigate the coupled structure and analyze the condition to achieve FTTB. According to the theoretical analysis, the structure is further optimized to ensure that the condition for achieving FTTB can be satisfied for both cavity-cavity coupling and cavity-waveguide coupling. Through the finite-element method, it is demonstrated that the design can realize a high quality, nonreciprocal circulating propagation of waves with an insertion loss of 0.023 dB and an isolation of 23.3 dB, covering a wide range of operation frequency. Such a wideband circulator has potential applications in large-scale integrated photonic circuits for guiding or isolating harmful optical reflections from load elements.

  1. Optical and Electrical Properties of TTF-MPcs (M = Cu, Zn Interfaces for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Sánchez-Vergara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structures were fabricated by a vacuum deposition method using MPc (M = Cu, Zn, with a Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF derivative, and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO and aluminum electrodes. The structure and morphology of the deposited films were studied by IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The absorption spectra of TTF derivative-MPc (M = Cu, Zn thin films deposited at room temperature were recorded in the spectral range 200–1000 nm. The optical band gap of the thin films was determined from the (αhν1/2 vs. hν plot. The direct-current (DC electrical properties of the glass/ITO/TTFderiv-MPc (M = Cu, Zn/Al structures were also investigated. Changes in conductivity of the derivative-TTF-enriched Pc compounds suggest the formation of alternative paths for carrier conduction. At low voltages, forward current density obeys an ohmic I-V relationship; at higher voltages, conduction is mostly due to a space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC mechanism.

  2. Incorporation of a Redfern Integrated Optics ORION Laser Module with an IPG Photonics Erbium Fiber Laser to Create a Frequency Conversion Photon Doppler Velocimeter for US Army Research Laboratory Measurements: Hardware, Data Analysis, and Error Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    ARL-MR-0953● Apr 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Incorporation of a Redfern Integrated Optics ORION Laser Module with an IPG...Photonics Erbium Fiber Laser to Create a Frequency- Conversion Photon Doppler Velocimeter for US Army Research Laboratory Measurements: Hardware...Laboratory Incorporation of a Redfern Integrated Optics ORION Laser Module with an IPG Photonics Erbium Fiber Laser to Create a Frequency- Conversion

  3. Utilizing ultrathin DNA/poly-lysine multilayer films to create liquid/liquid interfaces: spectroscopic characterization, interfacial reactions and nanoparticle adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Jin; Wark, Alastair W; Corn, Robert M [Department of Chemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2007-09-19

    Alternating electrostatic multilayer adsorption of poly-L-lysine (pLys) and DNA is used to create well-defined biopolymer multilayers for use as an ultrathin aqueous phase in liquid-liquid interfacial measurements. The molecular structure and thickness of the polyelectrolyte multilayers are determined using a combination of polarization modulation FT-IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-FTIRRAS) and FT-surface plasmon resonance (FT-SPR) thickness measurements. Electroactive species such as ferri/ferrocyanide ions can be incorporated into the DNA/pLys polyelectrolyte multilayers. The ion transport activity of these electroactive films when in contact with 1,2-dichoroethane is verified by electrochemical measurements. Micron-sized patterns of these multilayers are created by either photopatterning, vapour-deposited spot patterning or microfluidic stencil processing, and are used in conjunction with fluorescence and surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) to monitor (i) the intercalation of dye molecules into DNA/pLys ultrathin films, (ii) the electrostatic adsorption of gold nanoparticles onto DNA/pLys multilayers and (iii) the spatially controlled incorporation and reaction of enzymes into patterned biopolymer multilayers.

  4. Ways to Create the Radio-Optical Airspace and Surface Control System for Dispatch Services of Regional Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Skosyrev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various countries today are actively seeking concept of the future complex equipment to provide information support for the control and dispatch services of regional airports and small aircraft aerodromes. This is due to the general trend towards the air traffic intensification, especially that of small aircrafts, as well for economic reasons to reduce the cost of info-dispatching system of regional airports compared with the large airports. Radars for different-purpose are the most universal and all-weather information sensors for aerodrome control services.For regional airports where air traffic is low, the use of information and dispatching systems based on radars, air-field surveillance radars, and approach radars is unreasonably expensive. For the last few years, optoelectronic information systems for info-dispatching systems of regional airports have been developing. When using the optoelectronic information systems at the regional aerodromes in our country there are problems of ensuring the full operation of the airport systems in adverse weather conditions (snow, rain, fog and a lack of the independent control of the aircraft flight in the airport control zone.Development of new technologies in radar enabled us to design a highly informative radarand-optical complex to accept the challenges of the all-weather information sensor in control and dispatching system of regional airports. This complex, for the first time in the aerodrome radars, uses two branches of the ultra-wideband signal technology together, namely: very short pulse radar (VSPR technology and that of the wideband inter-pulse signals and integration with optoelectronic systems. Integration of passive optical-electronic and radar channels allowed us to raise the accuracy of determining the angular coordinates at small ranges, where they are most important.However, since so far there were no complexes, such as “D-RLS”, the existing regulatory documents do not reflect

  5. The optical Tamm states at the interface between a photonic crystal and a nanocomposite containing core-shell particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrov, S. Ya; Pankin, P. S.; Timofeev, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the optical Tamm states (OTSs) localized at the interface between a photonic crystal (PC) and a nanocomposite consisting of spherical nanoparticles with a dielectric core and a metallic shell, which are dispersed in a transparent matrix, and is characterized by the resonance permittivity. Spectra of transmission, reflection, and absorption of normally incident light waves by the investigated structure are calculated. The spectral manifestation of the Tamm states caused by negative values of the real part of the effective permittivity in the visible spectral range is studied. It is demonstrated that, along with the significantly extended band gap of the PC, the transmission spectrum contains an additional stopband caused by nanocomposite absorption near the resonance frequency. It is shown that the OTSs can be implemented in two band gaps of the PCs, each corresponding to a certain plasmon resonance frequency of the nanocomposite. It is established that the characteristics of the Tamm state localized at the edge of the PCs significantly depend on the ratio between the particle core volume and the total particle volume.

  6. Optical Absorption Spectra and Excitons of Dye-Substrate Interfaces: Catechol on TiO2(110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Duncan John; Migani, Annapaola

    2016-06-14

    Optimizing the photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on staggered gap heterojunctions requires a detailed understanding of sub-band gap transitions in the visible from the dye directly to the substrate's conduction band (CB) (type-II DSSCs). Here, we calculate the optical absorption spectra and spatial distribution of bright excitons in the visible region for a prototypical DSSC, catechol on rutile TiO2(110), as a function of coverage and deprotonation of the OH anchoring groups. This is accomplished by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) based on hybrid range-separated exchange and correlation functional (HSE06) density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Such a treatment is necessary to accurately describe the interfacial level alignment and the weakly bound charge transfer transitions that are the dominant absorption mechanism in type-II DSSCs. Our HSE06 BSE spectra agree semiquantitatively with spectra measured for catechol on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. Our results suggest deprotonation of catechol's OH anchoring groups, while being nearly isoenergetic at high coverages, shifts the onset of the absorption spectra to lower energies, with a concomitant increase in photovoltaic efficiency. Further, the most relevant bright excitons in the visible region are rather intense charge transfer transitions with the electron and hole spatially separated in both the [110] and [001] directions. Such detailed information on the absorption spectra and excitons is only accessible via periodic models of the combined dye-substrate interface.

  7. New strategy to create “Super Dentin” using adhesive technology: Reinforcement of adhesive–dentin interface and protection of tooth structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Nikaido

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentin bonding systems have been dramatically simplified and improved during the recent decades. Monomer penetration into dentin and its polymerization in situ creates a hybrid layer, which is essential to obtain good bonding to dentin. Moreover, the presence of an acid–base resistant zone below the hybrid layer has been documented with self-etching adhesive systems in an artificial secondary caries attack. When ultrastructure of the acid–base resistant zone is assessed by SEM and TEM observations, formation of the acid–base resistant zone is considered to be due to the monomer penetration potential and fluoride release in the adhesive systems. Natural dentin has a limited potential to resist an acid attack of secondary caries; however, the acid–base resistant zone does not purely consist of dentin in morphology, it is rather a combination of dentin and the adjacent hybrid layer. Therefore, the reinforced dentin has been called “Super Dentin” bearing the ability to prevent primary and secondary caries. Prospectively, the great potential of adhesive technology in creation of the “Super Dentin” would lead to the development of new materials for mechanical, chemical and biological protection of the dental structures.

  8. Mechanism to synthesize a ‘moving optical mark’ at solid-ambient interface for the estimation of thermal diffusivity of solid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settu Balachandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mechanism is proposed, involving a novel interaction between solid-sample supporting unsteady heat flow with its ambient-humidity; invokes phase transformation of water-vapour molecule and synthesize a ‘moving optical-mark’ at sample-ambient-interface. Under tailored condition, optical-mark exhibits a characteristic macro-scale translatory motion governed by thermal diffusivity of solid. For various step-temperature inputs via cooling, position-dependent velocities of moving optical-mark are measured at a fixed distance. A new approach is proposed. ‘Product of velocity of optical-mark and distance’ versus ‘non-dimensional velocity’ is plotted. The slope reveals thermal diffusivity of solid at ambient-temperature; preliminary results obtained for Quartz-glass is closely matching with literature.

  9. LASIP-III, a generalized processor for standard interface files. [For creating binary files from BCD input data and printing binary file data in BCD format (devised for fast reactor physics codes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosler, G.E.; O' Dell, R.D.; Resnik, W.M.

    1976-03-01

    The LASIP-III code was developed for processing Version III standard interface data files which have been specified by the Committee on Computer Code Coordination. This processor performs two distinct tasks, namely, transforming free-field format, BCD data into well-defined binary files and providing for printing and punching data in the binary files. While LASIP-III is exported as a complete free-standing code package, techniques are described for easily separating the processor into two modules, viz., one for creating the binary files and one for printing the files. The two modules can be separated into free-standing codes or they can be incorporated into other codes. Also, the LASIP-III code can be easily expanded for processing additional files, and procedures are described for such an expansion. 2 figures, 8 tables.

  10. Development of Carbon Based optically Transparent Electrodes from Pyrolyzed Photoresist for the Investigation of Phenomena at Electrified Carbon-Solution Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, Sebastian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The work presented herein describes a fundamental investigations of carbon as electrode material by using the pyrolysis of photoresist to create an optically transparent material. The development of these carbon-based optically transparent electrodes (C-OTEs) enables investigations of molecular interactions within the electrical double layer, processes that are central to a wide range of important phenomena, including the impact of changes in the surface charge density on adsorption. The electrochemical importance of carbon cannot be understated, having relevance to separations and detection by providing a wide potential window and low background current in addition to being low cost and light weight. The interactions that govern the processes at the carbon electrode surface has been studied extensively. A variety of publications from the laboratories of McCreery and Kinoshita provide in depth summaries about carbon and its many applications in electrochemistry. These studies reveal that defects, impurities, oxidation, and a variety of functional groups create adsorption sites on carbon surfaces with different characteristics. The interest in C-OTEs was sparked by the desire to study and understand the behavior of individual molecules at electrified interfaces. It draws on the earlier development of Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography (EMLC), which uses carbon as the stationary phase. EMLC takes advantage of changing the applied potential to the carbon electrode to influence the retention behavior of analytes. However, perspectives gained from, for example, chromatographic measurements reflect the integrated response of a large ensemble of potentially diverse interactions between the adsorbates and the carbon electrode. Considering the chemically and physically heterogeneous surface of electrode materials such as glassy carbon, the integrated response provides little insight into the interactions at a single molecule level. To investigate individual

  11. CFP MSA 100G光模块管理接口设计与实现%Design and implementation of CFP MSA 100G optical module management interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田园

    2016-01-01

    The CFP MSA defines the hardware interface specifications and management interface specification of CFP/CFP2/100 g CFP4 Optical module. CFP MSA management interface specification is basical technical protocol between CFP module users and CFP module suppliers and user management of the CFP Optical module is through the implementation of this protocol. By comparing the current mainstream of two kinds of CFP MDIO interface implementation plans, given 100G CFP optical module cost, power consumption, and the direction of the evolution of technology factors, the article a 100G CFP MDIO management interface design scheme, and from the two aspects of software and hardware design, combined with CFP MSA speciifcation, expounds the details of the project. This design through the strict engineering experiment, the application of the scheme, 100G CFP/CFP2 optical module has batch supply customers.%CFP MSA定义了100G CFP/CFP2/CFP4光模块的硬件接口规范和管理接口规范。CFP MSA管理接口规范是CFP模块用户和CFP模块供应商之间的基础技术协议,用户对CFP光模块的管理即通过此协议实现。文章通过对比当前主流的2种CFP MDIO接口实现方案,从100G CFP光模块的成本、功耗以及技术演进的方向等因素综合考虑,提出一种100G CFP MDIO管理接口设计方案,并从软、硬件设计2个方面,结合CFP MSA规范,对此方案进行了详细的说明。本方案设计通过了严格的工程实验验证,应用此方案的100G CFP/CFP2光模块已经批量供应客户。

  12. Creating functional peptide architectures at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrell, Matthew

    2001-03-01

    Short peptide sequences, derived from whole proteins, can be useful synthetic agents for conferring a specific biological function to a material surface. Their ability to do this depends on delivering them to the surface in a biologically recognizable form, that is in a spatial configuration that is not too different from that adopted by the peptide in the whole protein. Most functional proteins have secondary and tertiary levels of structure that are essential to their activities; peptides have simpler but no less important structures. In our work, we have focussed on peptides derived from extracellular matrix proteins. We have found that attaching synthetic lipid tails to peptides fragments gives them two very useful properties for surface modification. The hydrophobic tails give rise to a self-assembly capacity enabling these molecules to organize into membrane, monolayer and bilayer structures. Less expected is that this level of self-assembly induces a second level in the peptide headgroup. Peptides from alpha-helical and triple-helical regions of protein are induced by the lipid tails to form protein-like secondary structures and therefore to have more effective biological activity.

  13. Optical-Fiber-Based, Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectrometer for Thin-Film Absorber Characterization and Analysis of TRPL Data for CdS/CdTe Interface: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuciauskas, D.; Duenow, J. N.; Kanevce, A.; Li, J. V.; Young, M. R.; Dippo, P.; Levi, D. H.

    2012-06-01

    We describe the design of a time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectrometer for rapid semiconductor absorber characterization. Simplicity and flexibility is achieved by using single optical fiber to deliver laser pulses and to collect photoluminescence. We apply TRPL for characterization of CdS/CdTe absorbers after deposition, CdCl2 treatment, Cu doping, and back contact formation. Data suggest this method could be applied in various stages of PV device processing. Finally, we show how to analyze TRPL data for CdS/CdTe absorbers by considering laser light absorption depth and intermixing at CdS/CdTe interface.

  14. LHC Create

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    LHC Create is an upcoming 2-day workshop held at IdeaSquare in November. Participants from CERN and IPAC school of design will compete to design an exhibit that explains why CERN does what it does. The winner will have their exhibit fully realised and made available to experiments, institutes, and tourism agencies around the world.

  15. Correlation between the optical performance of TiO2-Ag-TiO2 multilayers and the interface roughness between the layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Blanckenhagen, Bernhard; Tonova, Diana

    2005-09-01

    Ag-dielectric multilayers are widely used in the production of heat reflecting filters, induced transmission filters, beam splitters, etc. The performance of such coatings in the visible part of the spectrum is sometimes strongly influenced by a plasmon absorption in the Ag-layer or a surface plasmon absorption in the Ag-dielectric interfaces. The strength of the plasmon absorption is very sensitive to the layer structure, the light polarization and the angle of incidence. As a result, the target specifications for reflection and transmission are not reached easily. We investigate PVD-deposited TiO2-Ag-TiO2 multilayers by means of optical reflection and transmission and Grazing Incidence X-ray Reflectometry (GIXR). The GIXR-method yields the individual layers thicknesses and the interface roughness. Some of the coatings have a broad absorption peak between 500 and 400nm that cannot be modeled using the bulk dielectric function of Ag. The magnitude of the absorption peak is correlated with the measured roughness of the TiO2-Ag interfaces. The analysis of the results shows the critical parameters for the deposition process.

  16. Orbital angular momentum photonic quantum interface

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2014-01-01

    High dimensional orbital angular momentum (OAM) light states are very important in enhancing the information carrying capacity in optical communications and quantum key distributions. Light at wavelengths of fiber communication windows or free space communication windows are suitable for long distance quantum communication, but most quantum processing tasks are performed in the visible wavelength ranges. The interface to bridge the wavelength gap of single photon with Gaussian shape has been realized, however, to create such interface for OAM-carrying light is a great challenge. We report the demonstration of such an interface to frequency up-conversion of herald single photon OAM state from 1560nm to 525nm with high efficiency by using nonlinear crystal in an external cavity. We show that different single photon OAM light shapes are observed directly by using single photon counting camera and the single photon entangled property is retained in the conversion process.

  17. Interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öner, S.Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with material interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics. Interface properties between the absorbing semiconductor and other employed materials are crucial for an efficient solar cell. While the optical properties are largely unaffected by a few nanometer thin layer, the electronic prop

  18. Interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öner, S.Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with material interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics. Interface properties between the absorbing semiconductor and other employed materials are crucial for an efficient solar cell. While the optical properties are largely unaffected by a few nanometer thin layer, the electronic prop

  19. The User Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Martha J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The first of three articles on the design of user interfaces for information retrieval systems discusses the need to examine types of display, prompting, and input as separate entities. The second examines the use of artificial intelligence in creating natural language interfaces, and the third outlines standards for case studies in human computer…

  20. Boston type I keratoprosthesis-donor cornea interface evaluated by high-definition spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaga Fernandez AG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ana G Alzaga Fernandez,* Nathan M Radcliffe,* Kimberly C Sippel, Mark I Rosenblatt, Priyanka Sood, Christopher E Starr, Jessica B Ciralsky, Donald J D'Amico, Szilárd KissDepartment of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this work and both are considered principal authorsBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess whether the resolution offered by two different, recently commercially available high-resolution, spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT instruments allows for detailed anatomic characterization of the critical device-donor cornea interface in eyes implanted with the Boston type I permanent keratoprosthesis.Methods: Eighteen eyes of 17 patients implanted with the Boston type I keratoprosthesis were included in this retrospective case series. All eyes were quantitatively evaluated using the Cirrus HD-OCT while a subset (five eyes was also qualitatively imaged using the Spectralis Anterior Segment Module. Images from these instruments were analyzed for evidence of epithelial migration onto the anterior surface of the keratoprosthesis front plate, and presence of a vertical gap between the posterior surface of the front plate and the underlying carrier donor corneal tissue. Quantitative data was obtained utilizing the caliper function on the Cirrus HD-OCT.Results: The mean duration between AS-OCT imaging and keratoprosthesis placement was 29 months. As assessed by the Cirrus HD-OCT, 83% of eyes exhibited epithelial migration over the edge of the front plate. Fifty-six percent of the keratoprosthesis devices displayed good apposition of the device with the carrier corneal donor tissue. When a vertical gap was present (44% of eyes, the mean gap was 40 (range 8–104 microns. The Spectralis Anterior Segment Module also displayed sufficient resolution to allow for similar characterization of the device

  1. An investigation of the thermoluminescence of Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibres for application in interface radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Rahman, A.T., E-mail: a.t.abdulrahman@surrey.ac.uk [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Material Studies, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (UiTM), Campus of Negeri Sembilan, 72000 Kuala Pilah (Malaysia); Hugtenburg, R.P. [Department of Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg UHB and School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Abdul Sani, Siti Fairus; Alalawi, A.I.M. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom); Issa, Fatma [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom); Department of Radiotherapy, Tripoli Medical Centre (TMC), Tripoli (Libya); Thomas, R. [Radiation Dosimetry Team, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom); Barry, M.A. [Department of Medical Physics, The Royal Surrey County Hospital (RSCH) NHS Trust, Guildford, GU2 7XX Surrey (United Kingdom); Nisbet, A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, The Royal Surrey County Hospital (RSCH) NHS Trust, Guildford, GU2 7XX Surrey (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom); Department of Radiological Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11432 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-07-15

    We investigate the ability of high spatial resolution ({approx} 120 {mu}m) Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} TL dosimeters to measure photoelectron dose enhancement resulting from the use of a moderate to high-Z target (an iodinated contrast media) irradiated by 90 kVp X-rays. We imagine its application in a novel radiation synovectomy technique, modelled by a phantom containing a reservoir of I{sub 2} molecules at the interface of which the doped silica dosimeters are located. Measurements outside of the iodine photoelectron range are provided for using a stepped-design that allows insertion of the fibres within the phantom. Monte Carlo simulation (MCNPX) is used for verification. At the phantom medium I{sub 2}-interface additional photoelectron generation is observed, {approx}60% above that in the absence of the I{sub 2}, simulations providing agreement to within 3%. Percentage depth doses measured away from the iodine contrast medium reservoir are bounded by published PDDs at 80 kVp and 100 kVp. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Studies of dosimetric characteristic of commercially available doped silica optical fibres. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Investigation of the potential of the dosimeter in dose enhancement measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Use of photoelectron dose enhancement as might be applied in radiation synovectomy. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Measurement of the percentage depth dose recorded by Ge-doped silica optical fibres. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle The Monte Carlo simulation provides comparison against measured data.

  2. Optical wear monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidane, Getnet S; Desilva, Upul P.; He, Chengli; Ulerich, Nancy H.

    2016-07-26

    A gas turbine includes first and second parts having outer surfaces located adjacent to each other to create an interface where wear occurs. A wear probe is provided for monitoring wear of the outer surface of the first part, and includes an optical guide having first and second ends, wherein the first end is configured to be located flush with the outer surface of the first part. A fiber bundle includes first and second ends, the first end being located proximate to the second end of the optical guide. The fiber bundle includes a transmit fiber bundle comprising a first plurality of optical fibers coupled to a light source, and a receive fiber bundle coupled to a light detector and configured to detect reflected light. A processor is configured to determine a length of the optical guide based on the detected reflected light.

  3. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  4. JLIFE: THE JEFFERSON LAB INTERACTIVE FRONT END FOR THE OPTICAL PROPAGATION CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Anne M. [JLAB; Shinn, Michelle D. [JLAB

    2013-08-01

    We present details on a graphical interface for the open source software program Optical Propagation Code, or OPC. This interface, written in Java, allows a user with no knowledge of OPC to create an optical system, with lenses, mirrors, apertures, etc. and the appropriate drifts between them. The Java code creates the appropriate Perl script that serves as the input for OPC. The mode profile is then output at each optical element. The display can be either an intensity profile along the x axis, or as an isometric 3D plot which can be tilted and rotated. These profiles can be saved. Examples of the input and output will be presented.

  5. Boston type I keratoprosthesis-donor cornea interface evaluated by high-definition spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana G Alzaga; Radcliffe, Nathan M; Sippel, Kimberly C; Rosenblatt, Mark I; Sood, Priyanka; Starr, Christopher E; Ciralsky, Jessica B; D'Amico, Donald J; Kiss, Szilárd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the resolution offered by two different, recently commercially available high-resolution, spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) instruments allows for detailed anatomic characterization of the critical device-donor cornea interface in eyes implanted with the Boston type I permanent keratoprosthesis. Eighteen eyes of 17 patients implanted with the Boston type I keratoprosthesis were included in this retrospective case series. All eyes were quantitatively evaluated using the Cirrus HD-OCT while a subset (five eyes) was also qualitatively imaged using the Spectralis Anterior Segment Module. Images from these instruments were analyzed for evidence of epithelial migration onto the anterior surface of the keratoprosthesis front plate, and presence of a vertical gap between the posterior surface of the front plate and the underlying carrier donor corneal tissue. Quantitative data was obtained utilizing the caliper function on the Cirrus HD-OCT. The mean duration between AS-OCT imaging and keratoprosthesis placement was 29 months. As assessed by the Cirrus HD-OCT, 83% of eyes exhibited epithelial migration over the edge of the front plate. Fifty-six percent of the keratoprosthesis devices displayed good apposition of the device with the carrier corneal donor tissue. When a vertical gap was present (44% of eyes), the mean gap was 40 (range 8-104) microns. The Spectralis Anterior Segment Module also displayed sufficient resolution to allow for similar characterization of the device-donor cornea interface. Spectral-domain AS-OCT permits high resolution imaging of the keratoprosthesis device-donor cornea interface. Both the Cirrus HD-OCT and the Spectralis Anterior Segment module allowed for visualization of epithelial coverage of the device-donor cornea interface, as well as identification of physical gaps. These imaging modalities, by yielding information in regard to integration of the

  6. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  7. Vibrational spectroscopy at electrified interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wieckowski, Andrzej; Braunschweig, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Reviews the latest theory, techniques, and applications Surface vibrational spectroscopy techniques probe the structure and composition of interfaces at the molecular level. Their versatility, coupled with their non-destructive nature, enables in-situ measurements of operating devices and the monitoring of interface-controlled processes under reactive conditions. Vibrational Spectroscopy at Electrified Interfaces explores new and emerging applications of Raman, infrared, and non-linear optical spectroscopy for the study of charged interfaces. The book draws from hu

  8. Virtual and Actual Humanoid Robot Control with Four-Class Motor-Imagery-Based Optical Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M. Batula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor-imagery tasks are a popular input method for controlling brain-computer interfaces (BCIs, partially due to their similarities to naturally produced motor signals. The use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS in BCIs is still emerging and has shown potential as a supplement or replacement for electroencephalography. However, studies often use only two or three motor-imagery tasks, limiting the number of available commands. In this work, we present the results of the first four-class motor-imagery-based online fNIRS-BCI for robot control. Thirteen participants utilized upper- and lower-limb motor-imagery tasks (left hand, right hand, left foot, and right foot that were mapped to four high-level commands (turn left, turn right, move forward, and move backward to control the navigation of a simulated or real robot. A significant improvement in classification accuracy was found between the virtual-robot-based BCI (control of a virtual robot and the physical-robot BCI (control of the DARwIn-OP humanoid robot. Differences were also found in the oxygenated hemoglobin activation patterns of the four tasks between the first and second BCI. These results corroborate previous findings that motor imagery can be improved with feedback and imply that a four-class motor-imagery-based fNIRS-BCI could be feasible with sufficient subject training.

  9. Magnetic anisotropy and magneto optical property of Fe/Co/Cu(001): role of the interface alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongyoo; Yang, Jeonghwa; Hong, Jisang [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method, we have investigated the role of interface alloy type on the thickness dependent magnetic properties of ultrathin Fe/Co/Cu(001) films. We have observed that the Co underlayer induces an antiferromagnetic (AFM) state in Fe/Co/Cu(001) film, but the position of AFM layer is strongly sensitive to both Fe and Co coverage. It is found that the magnetic anisotropy of Fe/Co/Cu alloy films is significantly influenced by the alloy type and the Fe film thickness. For instance, a thickness-dependent spin reorientation transition from in-plane to perpendicular to the film surface or vice versa is observed in CoFe alloy configuration whereas the perpendicular magnetization is always achieved in CuCo alloy. In particular, a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) about 270 {mu}eV /atom at 4 ML Fe thickness is observed in the CuCo alloy. In addition, we find that the magnitude of Kerr rotation angle in the presence of antiferromagnetic layer is greatly suppressed compared with that of fully ferromagnetic films.

  10. Experimental measurement of variations in the optical reflection coefficient of water-magnetic liquid interface in an electric field, wave motion, and surface instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekanov, V. V.; Kandaurova, N. V.; Chekanov, V. S.

    2014-09-01

    A variation in the reflection coefficient of an interface of two liquids (water and magnetic liquid) in the presence of an electric field is experimentally studied. An increase in the reflection coefficient of the interface is demonstrated. A surface instability of the water-magnetic liquid interface, the wave motion at the interface, and wave interference are observed.

  11. Nonlocal optical effects on the Goos-Hänchen shift at an interface of a composite material of metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J H; Leung, P T

    2013-07-01

    We present a theoretical study on the nonlocal optical effects on the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift of reflected light from a composite material of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs). Using different nonlocal effective medium models, it is observed that such effects can be significant for small MNP of sizes down to a few nanometers. For small metallic volume fractions, the composite behaves like dielectric and the nonlocal effects lead to significant different Brewster angles, at which large negative GH shifts take place. For larger volume fractions or shorter wavelengths, the composite behaves more like metals and the nonlocal effects also lead to different Brewster angles but at values close to grazing incidence. These results will have significant implications in the application of different effective medium models for the characterization of these nanometallic composites when the MNPs are down to a few nanometers in size.

  12. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  13. Particle Behavior at Anisotropically Curved Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnnis, Kathleen; Zeng, Chuan; Davidovitch, Benny; Dinsmore, Anthony; Russell, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    A particle bound to an anisotropically curved liquid interface, such as a cylinder or catenoid, cannot maintain a constant contact angle without deforming the interface. Theory suggests that the particles will experience a force that depends on the interfacial shape and migrate to minimize the total interfacial energy. To test these predictions, particles were deposited on top of liquid semi-cylinders of ionic liquid or melted polystyrene confined on chemically patterned surfaces. Particles were also deposited on liquid catenoid structures created by placing a melted polymer film under an electric field. The location of the particles on these structures was observed by optical, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. The implications for the directed assembly of particles and stability of Pickering emulsions are also discussed.

  14. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...... and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities...... of  launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces. ...

  15. Magneto-optical studies of the correlation between interface microroughness parameters and the photoluminescence line shape in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As quantum wells

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, JBB; Meneses, EA; da Silva, ECF

    1999-01-01

    In this work we analyze the relation between the interface microroughness and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra for a GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As multiple quantum well (QW) system. We show that, in spite of the complex correlation between the microscopic interface-defects parameters and the QW optical properties, the Singh and Bajaj model [Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 805 (1984)] provides a good quantitative description of the excitonic PL-FWHM. ©1999 The American Phy...

  16. At the Knowledge Interface:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Buono, Anthony; Poulfelt, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    researchers. The paper addresses this challenge in terms of moving across this interface, developing the abilities and proficiency for co-creating research that meets the needs of academics and practitioners. The competency drivers behind strengthening research-practice impact are examined within the context......-produced research projects. Based on this analysis, the implications for research-oriented consulting and our interventions with a view to developing co-created academic- and practice-oriented impact are discussed...

  17. Three-dimensionally modulated anisotropic structure for diffractive optical elements created by one-step three-beam polarization holographic photoalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kotaro; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Noda, Kohei; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    A diffractive optical element with a three-dimensional liquid crystal (LC) alignment structure for advanced control of polarized beams was fabricated by a highly efficient one-step photoalignment method. This study is of great significance because different two-dimensional continuous and complex alignment patterns can be produced on two alignment films by simultaneously irradiating an empty glass cell composed of two unaligned photocrosslinkable polymer LC films with three-beam polarized interference beam. The polarization azimuth, ellipticity, and rotation direction of the diffracted beams from the resultant LC grating widely varied depending on the two-dimensional diffracted position and the polarization states of the incident beams. These polarization diffraction properties are well explained by theoretical analysis based on Jones calculus.

  18. Three-dimensionally modulated anisotropic structure for diffractive optical elements created by one-step three-beam polarization holographic photoalignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Kotaro, E-mail: s135016@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Noda, Kohei; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Ono, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)

    2016-03-28

    A diffractive optical element with a three-dimensional liquid crystal (LC) alignment structure for advanced control of polarized beams was fabricated by a highly efficient one-step photoalignment method. This study is of great significance because different two-dimensional continuous and complex alignment patterns can be produced on two alignment films by simultaneously irradiating an empty glass cell composed of two unaligned photocrosslinkable polymer LC films with three-beam polarized interference beam. The polarization azimuth, ellipticity, and rotation direction of the diffracted beams from the resultant LC grating widely varied depending on the two-dimensional diffracted position and the polarization states of the incident beams. These polarization diffraction properties are well explained by theoretical analysis based on Jones calculus.

  19. Wave-based liquid-interface metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Fontana, P W; Shats, M

    2017-01-01

    The control of matter motion at liquid–gas interfaces opens an opportunity to create two-dimensional materials with remotely tunable properties. In analogy with optical lattices used in ultra-cold atom physics, such materials can be created by a wave field capable of dynamically guiding matter into periodic spatial structures. Here we show experimentally that such structures can be realized at the macroscopic scale on a liquid surface by using rotating waves. The wave angular momentum is transferred to floating micro-particles, guiding them along closed trajectories. These orbits form stable spatially periodic patterns, the unit cells of a two-dimensional wave-based material. Such dynamic patterns, a mirror image of the concept of metamaterials, are scalable and biocompatible. They can be used in assembly applications, conversion of wave energy into mean two-dimensional flows and for organising motion of active swimmers. PMID:28181490

  20. Optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, S. C.

    1985-12-01

    The technical contributions were as follows: (1) Optical parallel 2-D neighborhood processor and optical processor assessment technique; (2) High accuracy with moderately accurate components and optical fredkin gate architectures; (3) Integrated optical threshold computing, pipelined polynomial processor, and all optical analog/digital converter; (4) Adaptive optical associative memory model with attention; (5) Effectiveness of parallelism and connectivity in optical computers; (6) Optical systolic array processing using an integrated acoustooptic module; (7) Optical threshold elements and networks, holographic threshold processors, adaptive matched spatial filtering, and coherence theory in optical computing; (8) Time-varying optical processing for sub-pixel targets, optical Kalman filtering, and adaptive matched filtering; (9) Optical degrees of freedom, ultra short optical pulses, number representations, content-addressable-memory processors, and integrated optical Givens rotation devices; (10) Optical J-K flip flop analysis and interfacing for optical computers; (11) Matrix multiplication algorithms and limits of incoherent optical computers; (12) Architecture for machine vision with sensor fusion, pattern recognition functions, and neural net implementations; (13) Optical computing algorithms, architectures, and components; and (14) Dynamic optical interconnections, advantages and architectures.

  1. Photoelectric polarization-sensitive broadband photoresponse from interface junction states in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Jing, Lei; Suarez Morell, Eric; Dyer, Gregory C.; Wickey, Lee; Ovezmyradov, Mekan; Grine, Albert D.; Wanke, Michael C.; Shaner, Eric A.; Lau, Chun Ning; Foa Torres, Luis E. F.; Fistul, Mikhail V.; Efetov, Konstantin B.

    2017-03-01

    Graphene has established itself as a promising optoelectronic material. Many details of the photoresponse (PR) mechanisms in graphene in the THz-to-visible range have been revealed, however, new intricacies continue to emerge. Interface junctions, formed at the boundaries between parts of graphene with different number of layers or different stacking orders, and making connection between electrical contacts, provide another peculiar setup to establish PR. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an enhanced polarization sensitive photoelectric PR in graphene sheets containing interface junctions as compared to homogenous graphene sheets in the visible, infrared, and THz spectral regions. Our numerical simulations show that highly localized electronic states are created at the interface junctions, and these states exhibit a unique energy spectrum and enhanced probabilities for optical transitions. The interaction of electrons from interface junction states with electromagnetic fields generates a polarization-sensitive PR that is maximal for the polarization direction perpendicular to the junction interface.

  2. 非线性光学研究水及电解质水溶液界面——空气/电解质水溶液界面特定阴阳离子效应%Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy Studies on Water and Aqueous Solution Interfaces Specific Ion Effect Electrolyte Aqueous Solution Interfaces Electrolyte at Air/Electrolyte Aqueous Solution Interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓罡华; 王鸿飞; 郭源

    2012-01-01

    Water and electrolyte aqueous solution interfaces play crucial roles in many processes of physics, chemistry, environment, and biology. People have attempted to understand the structure and dynamics of water and electrolyte aqueous solution interfaces for decades. Recently, both experimental and theoretical studies have proved that larger and more polarizable anions attend to accumulate at the interface and affect the interfaeial water hydrogen bonding structure. In this review, we present recent progress of nonlinear optical spectroscopy studies on water and electrolyte aqueous solution interfaces with nonresonant second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS). First, we addressed the signal source of the nonresonant second harmonic generation of the air/water interface. Analysis of the experimental results showed that the SHG signal of the air/water interface can be treated fully only with dipolar contribution, which lay the foundation of nonresonant second harmonic generation in studying water and electrolyte aqueous solution interfaces. We then utilized the polarization and molecular symmetry analyses to assign the SFG-VS spectra peaks to different interfacial species at the air/water interface. These results provide detailed informations on the orientation, structure, and dynamics of water molecules at the air/water interface. Subsequently, we studied several kinds of electrolyte aqueous solution interfaces by nonresonant SHG and SFG-VS. These results showed that not only the larger and more polarizable Branion, but also the smaller and less polarizable Cl-, F- anions are enriched at the air/water interface and increased the interfacial thickness. Furthermore, we also observed the specific Na^+, K^+ cation effect on the interfacial thickness and interfacial water hydrogen bonging structure.%水及电解质溶液界面在物理、化学、环境及生物等各种过程中扮演着至关重要的角色。百年

  3. Optical technologies for intraoperative neurosurgical guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Pablo A; Roberts, David W; Lu, Fa-Ke; Golby, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Biomedical optics is a broadly interdisciplinary field at the interface of optical engineering, biophysics, computer science, medicine, biology, and chemistry, helping us understand light-tissue interactions to create applications with diagnostic and therapeutic value in medicine. Implementation of biomedical optics tools and principles has had a notable scientific and clinical resurgence in recent years in the neurosurgical community. This is in great part due to work in fluorescence-guided surgery of brain tumors leading to reports of significant improvement in maximizing the rates of gross-total resection. Multiple additional optical technologies have been implemented clinically, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and imaging, optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, and advanced quantitative methods, including quantitative fluorescence and lifetime imaging. Here we present a clinically relevant and technologically informed overview and discussion of some of the major clinical implementations of optical technologies as intraoperative guidance tools in neurosurgery.

  4. Electrically-driven optical antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Johannes; Prangsma, Jord C; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Unlike radiowave antennas, optical nanoantennas so far cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or via optically active materials in their proximity. Here, we demonstrate direct electrical driving of an optical nanoantenna featuring an atomic-scale feed gap. Upon applying a voltage, quantum tunneling of electrons across the feed gap creates broadband quantum shot noise. Its optical frequency components are efficiently converted into photons by the antenna. We demonstrate that the properties of the emitted photons are fully controlled by the antenna architecture, and that the antenna improves the quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude with respect to a non-resonant reference system. Our work represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometer scale, e.g. for on-chip wireless data communication, electrically driven single- and multiphoton sources, as well as for background-free linear and nonlinear spectroscopy and sensing with nanometer...

  5. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  6. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  7. Influence of Pentacene Interface Layer in ITO/α-NPD/Alq3/Al Organic Light Emitting Diodes by Time-Resolved Electric-Field-Induced Optical Second-Harmonic Generation Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yoshiaki; Sadakata, Atsuo; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-04-01

    By using I-V, EL-V, displacement current measurement (DCM) and time-resolved electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (TR-EFISHG) measurement, we studied the influence of interface pentacene layer inserted between ITO and a-NPD layers in ITO/α-NPD/Alq3/Al OLEDs. All experiments were carried out for the OLEDs with and without a pentacene interface layer. The I-V and EL-V measurements showed the decrease of operating voltage of EL, the DCM showed the lowering of inception voltage of carrier injection by inserting a pentacene interface layer. The TR-EFISHG measurement showed the faster accumulation of holes at the interface between the a-NPD and Alq3 layers, which resulted in the relaxation of electric field of a-NPD layer accomplished by the increase of the conductivity and the increase of the electric field in the Alq3 layer. We conclude that TR-EFISHG measurement is helpful for understanding I-V and EL-V characteristics, and can be combined with other methods to give significant information which are impacted by the interface layer.

  8. Interface gateways: defining the solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R; Zobian, M

    1994-02-01

    In summary, an interface gateway is able to quickly create and support relationships. In the healthcare environment of the 1990s, organization executives will be faced with an exponential increase in the number of provider, payor and employer alliances, affiliations and acquisitions. One of the recurring requirements in this scenario is the need to share information. Most of the data standards in existence today do not address the vast interface requirements of these organizations. However, the capabilities, flexibility and capacity of interface gateways can allow these relationships to be created and supported in a fraction of the time that conventional methods require.

  9. The user interfaces for the NRAO-Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.

    2002-12-01

    The NRAO-Green Bank Telescope, the world's largest, fully steerable radio telescope, is now in routine use by visiting astronomers. The telescope is unique because of its offset optical design and its complex suite of state-of-the-art instruments. To exploit the full powers of the system, observers and staff members require intuitive user interfaces. We will demonstrate one of the various graphical user interfaces that have been built for the telescope. The interface, written in Tcl/Tk and used predominately by staff engineers, telescope operators, and programmers, is designed for very detailed monitoring and debugging of telescope components. The interface lies on top of an object-oriented control system that provides the GUI builder a set of software methods that is the same for every GBT device, from receivers to detectors. The uniform set of methods reduces the work normally needed in creating a high-level user interface and allows for the creation of interfaces in a range of programming languages.

  10. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  11. Dynamics of the Macular Hole-Silicone Oil Tamponade Interface with Patient Positioning as Imaged by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Stephen F.; Mojana, Francesca; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe G.; Goldbaum, Michael; Freeman, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) the relationship between the retina and overlying silicone oil tamponade after macular hole surgery, and to evaluate how this relationship changes with patient positioning. Patients and Methods Retrospective consecutive case series of 10 eyes from 9 patients who underwent macular hole surgery with silicone oil tamponade and subsequent SD-OCT scans. Four of the included eyes were also imaged with patients in face-down posture to determine if the silicone-retina apposition changes with prone positioning. Finally, a single patient was additionally scanned in the lateral and supine positions. Results The posterior surface of the silicone oil bubble was well visualized in all 10 eyes. In the majority of eyes (7/10) the oil tamponade bridged across the macular hole creating a pre-foveal fluid space, but in 3 eyes the silicone oil filled the macular hole and was seen in touch with the underlying foveal depression or retinal pigment epithelium. In 75% of eyes (3/4) the silicone oil-retinal approximation did not vary with face-down position. Supine positioning clearly floated the silicone tamponade anteriorly and off of the retinal surface. Conclusions Silicone oil tamponade can either bridge across macular holes, or in a novel finding, can fill the underlying foveal depression or macular hole space. Generally, the oil position is stable between face-forward and prone SD-OCT images, suggesting that either of these patient positions allows waterproofing of the underlying macular hole. Finally, our images confirm that supine positioning should be avoided post-operatively as it leads to loss of oil-retinal tamponade. PMID:20531144

  12. Interface dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interface dermatitis includes diseases in which the primary pathology involves the dermo-epidermal junction. The salient histological findings include basal cell vacuolization, apoptotic keratinocytes (colloid or Civatte bodies, and obscuring of the dermo-epidermal junction by inflammatory cells. Secondary changes of the epidermis and papillary dermis along with type, distribution and density of inflammatory cells are used for the differential diagnoses of the various diseases that exhibit interface changes. Lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, lichen planus, graft versus host disease, erythema multiforme, fixed drug eruptions, lichen striatus, and pityriasis lichenoides are considered major interface diseases. Several other diseases (inflammatory, infective, and neoplastic may show interface changes.

  13. Lectures on random interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Funaki, Tadahisa

    2016-01-01

    Interfaces are created to separate two distinct phases in a situation in which phase coexistence occurs. This book discusses randomly fluctuating interfaces in several different settings and from several points of view: discrete/continuum, microscopic/macroscopic, and static/dynamic theories. The following four topics in particular are dealt with in the book. Assuming that the interface is represented as a height function measured from a fixed-reference discretized hyperplane, the system is governed by the Hamiltonian of gradient of the height functions. This is a kind of effective interface model called ∇φ-interface model. The scaling limits are studied for Gaussian (or non-Gaussian) random fields with a pinning effect under a situation in which the rate functional of the corresponding large deviation principle has non-unique minimizers. Young diagrams determine decreasing interfaces, and their dynamics are introduced. The large-scale behavior of such dynamics is studied from the points of view of the hyd...

  14. Transformation optics and metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C. T.; Sheng, Ping

    2010-05-01

    Underpinned by the advent of metamaterials, transformation optics offers great versatility for controlling electromagnetic waves to create materials with specially designed properties. Here we review the potential of transformation optics to create functionalities in which the optical properties can be designed almost at will. This approach can be used to engineer various optical illusion effects, such as the invisibility cloak.

  15. A database for TMT interface control documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Kim; Roberts, Scott; Brighton, Allan; Rogers, John

    2016-08-01

    The TMT Software System consists of software components that interact with one another through a software infrastructure called TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their roles. The use of common component types and shared middleware services allows standardized software interfaces for the components. A software system called the TMT Interface Database System was constructed to support the documentation of the interfaces for components based on CSW. The programmer describes a subsystem and each of its components using JSON-style text files. A command interface file describes each command a component can receive and any commands a component sends. The event interface files describe status, alarms, and events a component publishes and status and events subscribed to by a component. A web application was created to provide a user interface for the required features. Files are ingested into the software system's database. The user interface allows browsing subsystem interfaces, publishing versions of subsystem interfaces, and constructing and publishing interface control documents that consist of the intersection of two subsystem interfaces. All published subsystem interfaces and interface control documents are versioned for configuration control and follow the standard TMT change control processes. Subsystem interfaces and interface control documents can be visualized in the browser or exported as PDF files.

  16. Surface and interface states of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films investigated by optical second-harmonic generation and terahertz emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamh, S. Y.; Park, S.-H.; Lee, J. S., E-mail: jsl@gist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Photon Science, School of Physics and Chemistry, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, S.-K.; Jeon, J. H.; Chun, S. H. [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, J. H.; Kahng, S. J. [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, K.; Choi, E. J. [Department of Physics, University or Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.; Choi, S.-H. [Department of Applied Physics, College of Applied Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bansal, N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rutgers, The state University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Oh, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The state University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Park, Joonbum; Kho, Byung-Woo; Kim, Jun Sung [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the surface and interface states of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films by using the second-harmonic generation technique. Distinct from the surface of bulk crystals, the film surface and interface show the isotropic azimuth dependence of second-harmonic intensity, which is attributed to the formation of randomly oriented domains on the in-plane. Based on the nonlinear susceptibility deduced from the model fitting, we determine that the surface band bending induced in a space charge region occurs more strongly at the film interface facing the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate or capping layer compared with the interface facing the air. We demonstrate that distinct behavior of the terahertz electric field emitted from the samples can provide further information about the surface electronic state of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}.

  17. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  18. Interface Realisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly to the devel...

  19. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.;

    1999-01-01

    The wide use of solid insulating materials combinations in combinations has introduced problems in the interfaces between components. The most common insulating materials are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), silicone rubber (SIR) and ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPR). Assemblies of these materials...... have caused major failures. In the Netherlands, a major black out was caused by interface problems in 150kV cable terminations, causing a cascade of breakdowns. There is a need to investigate the reasons for this and other similar breakdowns.The major problem is expected to lie in the interface between...... two different materials. Environmental influence, surface treatment, defects in materials and interface, design, pressure and rubbing are believed to have an effect on interface degradation. These factors are believed to increase the possibility of partial discharges (PD). PD will, with time, destroy...

  20. Optical interrupter based in the internal total reflection of spatial solitons at nonlinear saturable interfaces; Interruptores opticos basados en reflexion interna total de solitones espaciales en interfaces no lineales saturables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado-Mendez, E.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Gutierrez-Hernandez, D. A.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Rojas-Lagunas, R.; Pedraza-Ortega, J. C.; Torres Cisneros, G. E. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Sanchez Mondragon, J. J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Morelos (Mexico); Flores-Alvarado, G. [Preparatoria por Cooperacion Domingo Arenas, Tlaxcala (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    We study the reflection of one-dimensional spatial soliton at the nonlinear interface between a saturable type medium and linear medium. Our study makes emphasis on determining the physical conditions under which the beam reflected by the interface is still a spatial soliton. Depended the incidence angle we find three critical regions for spatial solitons in the interface. We observed nonlinear Goos- Haechen shift is determined if reflection angle are conserved. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results in SBN61:Ce of the total internal reflection of one dimensional beam. [Spanish] Estudiamos la reflexion de un soliton espacial unidimensional en una interfase formada por un medio no lineal saturable y un medio lineal. Nuestros estudios hacen enfasis en determinar las condiciones fisicas bajo las cuales el haz reflejado por la interfase no lineal sigue siendo soliton. Encontramos tres regiones criticas para un soliton especial en la interfase, dependiendo del valor que tome el angulo de incidencia. Asi mismo observamos corrimiento Goos-Haechen no lineal que es determinante para la conservacion del angulo de reflexion. Finalmente, presentamos resultados preliminares experimentales en SBN61:Ce de la reflexion interna total de un haz unidimensional.

  1. Non-Reciprocal Optical Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Castro-Lopez, Marta; van Hulst, Niek F

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics aims to interface photonics and electronics. Finding optical, near-field analogues of much used electro-technical components is crucial to the success of such a platform. Here we present the plasmonic analogue of a non-reciprocal antenna. For non-reciprocality in a plasmonic context, the optical excitation and emission resonances of the antenna need to be an orthogonal set. We show that nonlinear excitation of metal nanoantennas creates a sufficient shift between excitation and emission wavelengths that they can be interpreted as decoupled, allowing for independent tuning of excitation and emission properties along different spatial dimensions. This leads, for given excitation wavelength and polarization, to independent optimization of emission intensity, frequency spectrum, polarization and angular spectrum. Non-reciprocal optical antennas of both gold and aluminum are characterized and shown to be useful as e.g. nonlinear signal transducers or nanoscale sources of widely tunable light.

  2. Optical Network Models and Their Application to Software-Defined Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Szyrkowiec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined networking is finding its way into optical networks. Here, it promises a simplification and unification of network management for optical networks allowing automation of operational tasks despite the highly diverse and vendor-specific commercial systems and the complexity and analog nature of optical transmission. Common abstractions and interfaces are a fundamental component for software-defined optical networking. Currently, a number of models for optical networks are available. They all claim to provide open and vendor agnostic management of optical equipment. In this work, we survey and compare the most important models and propose an intent interface for creating virtual topologies which is integrated in the existing model ecosystem.

  3. Nonlinear Optical Rectennas

    CERN Document Server

    Stolz, A; Markey, L; Francs, G Colas des; Bouhelier, A

    2013-01-01

    We introduce strongly-coupled optical gap antennas to interface optical radiation with current-carrying electrons at the nanoscale. The transducer relies on the nonlinear optical and electrical properties of an optical antenna operating in the tunneling regime. We discuss the underlying physical mechanisms controlling the conversion and demonstrate that a two-wire optical antenna can provide advanced optoelectronic functionalities beyond tailoring the electromagnetic response of a single emitter. Interfacing an electronic command layer with a nanoscale optical device may thus be facilitated by the optical rectennas discussed here.

  4. The THOSE remote interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Bachman, Kristen

    2013-05-01

    The DIA, in conjunction with the Army Research Lab (ARL), wants to create an Unmanned Ground Sensor (UGS) controller that is (a) interoperable across all controller platforms, (b) capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes and (c) backward compatible with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, a Terra Harvest controller was created that used Java JRE 1.6 and an Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) platform, named Terra Harvest Open Software Environment (THOSE). OSGi is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment for deploying functionality in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other external bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. With the addition of a web GUI used for interacting with THOSE, a natural step was then to create a common remote interface that allows 3rd party real-time interaction with the controller. This paper provides an overview of the THOSE system and its components as well as a description of the architectural structure of the remote interface, highlighting the interactions occurring between the controller and the remote interface and its role in providing a positive user experience for managing UGSS functions.

  5. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  6. Acceleration of electrons by a laser pulse at its output onto an optical surface of the vacuum - transparent medium interface. Laser synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskiy, M. Yu

    2016-05-01

    We consider the electron dynamics in the field of an electromagnetic wave produced at the vacuum - transparent medium interface upon reflection from the boundary, close to total internal reflection. The propagation velocity of a constant phase of the electromagnetic wave along the interface can vary from c/n to infinity (c is the speed of light in vacuum, and n is the refractive index of the medium at the interface). In this case, there emerge regions of positive and negative phases of the field with wavelengths, approximately equal to half the wavelength of the original laser beam, which can propagate at a speed close to that of light in vacuum. If a beam of relativistic electrons propagates along the surface, they can gain energy and accelerate, as well as radiate. With closed trajectories of electron motion, a laser synchrotron will be implemented as a result of many acceleration cycles.

  7. Creating an Internal Content Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennema, Greg

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an internal content management system that they have created at Calvin College. It is a hybrid of CMS and intranet that organizes Web site content and a variety of internal tools to help librarians complete their daily tasks. Hobbes is a Web-based tool that uses Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts written…

  8. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  10. Optoelectronics Interfaces for Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Neamtu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue interface is galvanicseparation between the signal part and the power board.Standards in the field have increased continuouslyelectro-security requirements on the rigidity of thedielectric and insulation resistance. Recommendations forclassical solutions require the use of galvanic separationoptoelectronics devices. Interfacing with a PC or DSP -controller is a target of interposition optical signals viathe power hardware commands.

  11. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Karthik V. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing.

  12. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  13. Creating XML/PHP Interface for BAN Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Vasileios; Katzis, Konstantinos; Despotou, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in medical and electronic technologies have introduced the use of Body Area Networks as a part of e-health, for constant and accurate monitoring of patients and the transmission as well as processing of the data to develop a holistic Electronic Health Record. The rising global population, different BAN manufacturers and a variety of medical systems pose the issue of interoperability between BANs and systems as well as the proper way to propagate medical data in an organized and efficient manner. In this paper, we describe BANs and propose the use of certain web technologies to address this issue.

  14. Kinetochore flexibility: creating a dynamic chromosome-spindle interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Christopher B; Khodjakov, Alexey; McEwen, Bruce F

    2012-02-01

    Kinetochores are complex macromolecular assemblies that link chromosomes to the mitotic spindle, mediate forces for chromosome motion, and generate the checkpoint signal delaying anaphase onset until all chromosomes are incorporated into the spindle. Proper execution of these functions depends on precise interactions between kinetochores and microtubules. While the molecular composition of the kinetochore is well described, structural organization of this organelle at the molecular and atomic levels is just beginning to emerge. Recent structural studies across scales suggest that kinetochores should not be viewed as rigid static scaffolds. Instead, these organelles exhibit a surprising degree of flexibility that enables rapid adaptations to various types of interactions with the mitotic spindle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gesture Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    Take away mouse and keyboard. Now, how do you interact with a computer? Especially one that has a display that is the size of an entire wall. One possibility is through gesture interfaces. Remember Minority Report? Cool stuff, but that was already five years ago.. So, what is already possible now an

  16. Manufacturing Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van F.J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering. Desi

  17. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.;

    1999-01-01

    The wide use of solid insulating materials combinations in combinations has introduced problems in the interfaces between components. The most common insulating materials are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), silicone rubber (SIR) and ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPR). Assemblies of these materials...

  18. Create Your Plate

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  19. Create Your Plate

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  20. Create Your Plate

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  1. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... somewhere in between, you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: ... Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  2. In situ nonlinear optical spectroscopy of electron-phonon couplings at alkali-doped C{sub 60}/Ag(111) interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakudji, Ernest [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Kinshasa (UNIKIN), Kinshasa (CD); Silien, Christophe [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Lis, Dan; Cecchet, Francesca; Thiry, Paul A.; Peremans, Andre; Caudano, Yves [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Nouri, Abdelkader [Laboratoire Materiaux, Ecole Normale Superieure d' Enseignement Technique (ENSET), Oran 31000 (Algeria)

    2010-08-15

    We use doubly resonant, infrared-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (DR-SFG) to probe vibrational and electronic properties of C{sub 60} and K-doped C{sub 60} monolayers adsorbed on Ag(111) single crystal under ultra-high vacuum (UHV). We recorded the interface SFG spectra for five visible wavelengths. We observe a strong dependence of the SFG intensity of the totally symmetric A{sub g}(2) mode of the fullerene while scanning the visible wavelength, due to the DR-SFG phenomenon. The SFG intensity of the A{sub g}(2) mode is the strongest at 488 nm and at 532 nm for the pure and fully doped monolayers, respectively. These results demonstrate the occurrence of electron-phonon couplings at the C{sub 60}/Ag(111) and saturated K/C{sub 60}/Ag(111) interfaces. They enable us to determine the energy of the coupled electronic transition and to link the electronic resonance to the h{sub u} (HOMO) to t{sub 1g} (LUMO + 1) transition of C{sub 60}. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  4. Creating more effective graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Naomi B

    2012-01-01

    A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr

  5. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes i...

  6. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes i...

  7. Investigation on the Interface Morphologies of Explosive Welding of Inconel 625 to Steel A516 Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Zareie, H. R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce composite plates by explosive cladding process. This is a process in which the controlled energy of explosives is used to create a metallic bond between two similar or dissimilar materials. The welding conditions were tailored through parallel geometry route with different operational parameters. In this investigation, a two-pronged study was adopted to establish the conditions required for producing successful solid state welding: (a) Analytical calculations to determine the weldability domain or welding window; (b) Metallurgical investigations of explosive welding experiments carried out under different explosive ratios to produce both wavy and straight interfaces. The analytical calculations confirm the experimental results. Optical microscopy studies show that a transition from a smooth to wavy interface occurs with an increase in explosive ratio. SEM studies show that the interface was outlined by characteristic sharp transition between two materials.

  8. Surfaces and interfaces of electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Brillson, Leonard J

    2012-01-01

    An advanced level textbook covering geometric, chemical, and electronic structure of electronic materials, and their applications to devices based on semiconductor surfaces, metal-semiconductor interfaces, and semiconductor heterojunctions. Starting with the fundamentals of electrical measurements on semiconductor interfaces, it then describes the importance of controlling macroscopic electrical properties by atomic-scale techniques. Subsequent chapters present the wide range of surface and interface techniques available to characterize electronic, optical, chemical, and structural propertie

  9. XML Interfaces to the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Steven

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe internet of things is predicated on tiny, cheap, lower power computers being embedded in devices everywhere. However such tiny devices by definition have very little memory and computing power available to support user interfaces or extended servers, and so the user interface needs to be distributed over the network. This paper describes techniques using standard technologies based on XML for creating remote user interfaces for the Internet of Things

  10. XML Interfaces to the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Steven; Foster, C.

    2015-01-01

    The internet of things is predicated on tiny, cheap, lower power computers being embedded in devices everywhere. However such tiny devices by definition have very little memory and computing power available to support user interfaces or extended servers, and so the user interface needs to be distributed over the network. This paper describes techniques using standard technologies based on XML for creating remote user interfaces for the Internet of Things

  11. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  12. Create Your Plate

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  13. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  16. Optical Experiments Simulations and Visualizations Based on MATLAB Visual Control Interface%基于MATLAB的多光学现象仿真可视化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春芳; 王浩然; 王建岗; 丁益民

    2016-01-01

    利用MATLAB自带GUI,对光学单色光杨氏双缝干涉、牛顿环、夫琅禾费衍射以及迈克尔逊干涉仪等光学实验进行可视化模拟。%Taking advantage of MATLAB's own component-GUI,implement the simulations and visualizations of the optical experiments,such as Monochromatic light,young's double-slit,Newton's rings,Fraunhofer diffrac-tion and Michelson interference.

  17. A Web Tool for Research in Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikhod'ko, Nikolay V.; Abramovsky, Viktor A.; Abramovskaya, Natalia V.; Demichev, Andrey P.; Kryukov, Alexandr P.; Polyakov, Stanislav P.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a project of developing the web platform called WebNLO for computer modeling of nonlinear optics phenomena. We discuss a general scheme of the platform and a model for interaction between the platform modules. The platform is built as a set of interacting RESTful web services (SaaS approach). Users can interact with the platform through a web browser or command line interface. Such a resource has no analogues in the field of nonlinear optics and will be created for the first time therefore allowing researchers to access high-performance computing resources that will significantly reduce the cost of the research and development process.

  18. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...... operations those threats, if realized, might cause, and which provides a framework for building organizational resilience with the capability of an effective response that safeguards the interests of its key stakeholders, reputation, brand and value- creating activities. Resilience, on the other hand...

  19. Creating Web Pages Simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The easiest way to learn how to create a Web page for your family or organization Do you want to share photos and family lore with relatives far away? Have you been put in charge of communication for your neighborhood group or nonprofit organization? A Web page is the way to get the word out, and Creating Web Pages Simplified offers an easy, visual way to learn how to build one. Full-color illustrations and concise instructions take you through all phases of Web publishing, from laying out and formatting text to enlivening pages with graphics and animation. This easy-to-follow visual guide sho

  20. Interfacing Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    these media (expressiveness, reflexivity, identity), or ar media making us run (nudging, persuasion, societal benefits). The study includes theory on interactivity, media sociology, followed by cases (twitter and personal branding, selftracking and selfreflexivity, social media and club organization, fandom......This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...

  1. A modular system architecture for agile assembly of nanocomponents using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balijepalli, Arvind; LeBrun, Thomas; Gagnon, Cedric; Lee, Yong-Gu; Dagalakis, Nicholas

    2005-09-01

    In order to realize the flexibility optical trapping offers as a nanoassembly tool, we need to develop natural and intuitive interfaces to assemble large quantities of nanocomponents quickly and cheaply. We propose a system to create such an interface that is scalable, inter-changeable and modular. Several prototypes are described, starting with simple interfaces that control a single trap in the optical tweezers instrument using a 3-dimensional Phantom haptic device. A networkbased approach is adopted early on, and a modular prototype is then described in detail. In such a design, individual modules developed on different platforms work independently and communicate with each other through a common language interface using the Neutral Messaging Language (NML) communication protocol. A natural user interface is implemented that can be used to create and manipulate traps interactively like in a CAD program. Modules such as image processing and automatic assembly are also added to help simplify routine assembly tasks. Drawing on lessons learned from the prototypes, a new system specification is formulated to better integrate the modules. Finally, conclusions are drawn on the overall viability and future of network-based systems for nanoassembly using optical tweezers.

  2. Brain-computer interfaces for arts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürkök, H.; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, A.; D'Mello, S.; Pantic, M.

    2013-01-01

    We experience positive emotions when our hedonic needs, such as virtuosity or relatedness, are satisfied. Creating art is one way of satisfying these needs, so artistic computer applications can be considered as ‘affective’. Artistic braincomputer interfaces (BCIs), which allow people to create art

  3. Creating Special Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  4. Who Creates Jobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani, Ejaz; Kerr, William R.; O'Connell, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    There is a consensus that jobs are vital in translating economic growth into lasting poverty reduction and social cohesion. But who creates jobs is an understudied field. This economic premise argues that there is a strong link between initial levels of young and small firms and subsequent job growth, as evidenced in India. The economic geography of entrepreneurship in India is still evolv...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Healthy Recipes: ... to your day with this guide. Ways to Give: Wear Your Cause on Your Sleeve - ...

  7. Creating Historical Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassler, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Describes creating for the National Archives Public Education Department a historical drama, "Second in the Realm," based on the story of the Magna Carta. Demonstrates the effectiveness of historical drama as a teaching tool. Explains the difficulties of writing such dramas and provides guidelines for overcoming these problems. (NL)

  8. Creating Dialogue by Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passila, Anne; Oikarinen, Tuija; Kallio, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to develop practice and theory from Augusto Boal's dialogue technique (Image Theatre) for organisational use. The paper aims to examine how the members in an organisation create dialogue together by using a dramaturgical storytelling framework where the dialogue emerges from storytelling facilitated by…

  9. Creating an Interactive PDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive…

  10. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    operations those threats, if realized, might cause, and which provides a framework for building organizational resilience with the capability of an effective response that safeguards the interests of its key stakeholders, reputation, brand and value- creating activities. Resilience, on the other hand...

  11. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  13. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  14. Creating Innovative Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops lessons about how and why the founders and ventures involved in knowledge intensive entrepreneurship (KIE) manage the process of venture creation. The meta-analysis of the 86 case studies is based upon as conceptual model (from a systemic literature review), linked to illustra...... of knowledge networks to create innovative opportunities....

  15. Creating a Third Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbuch, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author laments higher education's lack of concern towards the development of teaching in the public schools over the last half of the 20th century. Most of academe's work on the topic of teacher training has been done at the branches of state universities that needed to make money and create a niche. The author observes that…

  16. Creating Dialogue by Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passila, Anne; Oikarinen, Tuija; Kallio, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to develop practice and theory from Augusto Boal's dialogue technique (Image Theatre) for organisational use. The paper aims to examine how the members in an organisation create dialogue together by using a dramaturgical storytelling framework where the dialogue emerges from storytelling facilitated by…

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 03-tour.html Tour Registration Is Open It starts with you. Sign up to ride in Tour de Cure and create ... to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy Living Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  18. Performance Metrics for Haptic Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Samur, Evren

    2012-01-01

    Haptics technology is being used more and more in different applications, such as in computer games for increased immersion, in surgical simulators to create a realistic environment for training of surgeons, in surgical robotics due to safety issues and in mobile phones to provide feedback from user action. The existence of these applications highlights a clear need to understand performance metrics for haptic interfaces and their implications on device design, use and application. Performance Metrics for Haptic Interfaces aims at meeting this need by establishing standard practices for the ev

  19. The User Interface: How Does Your Product Look and Feel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strukhoff, Roger

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of user cordial interfaces to the successful marketing of optical data disk products, and describes features of several online systems. The topics discussed include full text searching, indexed searching, menu driven interfaces, natural language interfaces, computer graphics, and possible future developments. (CLB)

  20. Fiber-Coupled Diamond Quantum Nanophotonic Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Michael J.; Meuwly, Charles; Evans, Ruffin E.; Bhaskar, Mihir K.; Sipahigil, Alp; Meesala, Srujan; Machielse, Bartholomeus; Sukachev, Denis D.; Nguyen, Christian T.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Bielejec, Edward; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Lončar, Marko

    2017-08-01

    Color centers in diamond provide a promising platform for quantum optics in the solid state, with coherent optical transitions and long-lived electron and nuclear spins. Building upon recent demonstrations of nanophotonic waveguides and optical cavities in single-crystal diamond, we now demonstrate on-chip diamond nanophotonics with a high-efficiency fiber-optical interface achieving >90 % power coupling at visible wavelengths. We use this approach to demonstrate a bright source of narrow-band single photons based on a silicon-vacancy color center embedded within a waveguide-coupled diamond photonic crystal cavity. Our fiber-coupled diamond quantum nanophotonic interface results in a high flux (approximately 38 kHz) of coherent single photons (near Fourier limited at quantum networks that interface multiple emitters, both on chip and separated by long distances.

  1. Spoken Dialogue Interfaces: Integrating Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliotopoulos, Dimitris; Stavropoulou, Pepi; Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    Usability is a fundamental requirement for natural language interfaces. Usability evaluation reflects the impact of the interface and the acceptance from the users. This work examines the potential of usability evaluation in terms of issues and methodologies for spoken dialogue interfaces along with the appropriate designer-needs analysis. It unfolds the perspective to the usability integration in the spoken language interface design lifecycle and provides a framework description for creating and testing usable content and applications for conversational interfaces. Main concerns include the problem identification of design issues for usability design and evaluation, the use of customer experience for the design of voice interfaces and dialogue, and the problems that arise from real-life deployment. Moreover it presents a real-life paradigm of a hands-on approach for applying usability methodologies in a spoken dialogue application environment to compare against a DTMF approach. Finally, the scope and interpretation of results from both the designer and the user standpoint of usability evaluation are discussed.

  2. Creating Organizational Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nico; Just, Sine Nørholm; Gabrielsen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural...... insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration...... is provided of the merits of this approach by revisiting the case of Enron. Originality/value – The paper constitutes an initial exploration of how social scientific and rhetorical perspectives on organizational change may be brought closer together. It may provide the first step towards the development...

  3. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  4. Can Computers Create Humor?

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Graeme; University of Aberdeen

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that AI has always been adventurous in trying to elucidate complex aspects of human behaviour, only recently has there been research into computational modelling of humor. One obstacle to progress is the lack of a precise and detailed theory of how humor operates. Nevertheless, since the early 1990s, there have been a number of small programs that create simple verbal humor, and more recently there have been studies of the automatic classification of the humorous status of te...

  5. Creating flat design websites

    CERN Document Server

    Pratas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book contains practical, step-by-step tutorials along with plenty of explanation about designing your flat website. Each section is introduced sequentially, building up your web design skills and completing your website.Creating Flat Design Websites is ideal for you if you are starting on your web development journey, but this book will also benefit seasoned developers wanting to start developing in flat.

  6. Creating Geoscience Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskop, J.; Buskop, W.

    2013-12-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization recognizes 21 World Heritage in the United States, ten of which have astounding geological features: Wrangell St. Elias National Park, Olympic National Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Canyon, Glacier National Park, Carlsbad National Park, Mammoth Cave, Great Smokey Mountains National Park, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, and Everglades National Park. Created by a student frustrated with fellow students addicted to smart phones with an extreme lack of interest in the geosciences, one student visited each World Heritage site in the United States and created one e-book chapter per park. Each chapter was created with original photographs, and a geological discovery hunt to encourage teen involvement in preserving remarkable geological sites. Each chapter describes at least one way young adults can get involved with the geosciences, such a cave geology, glaciology, hydrology, and volcanology. The e-book describes one park per chapter, each chapter providing a geological discovery hunt, information on how to get involved with conservation of the parks, geological maps of the parks, parallels between archaeological and geological sites, and how to talk to a ranger. The young author is approaching UNESCO to publish the work as a free e-book to encourage involvement in UNESCO sites and to prove that the geosciences are fun.

  7. Interfaces habladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Soto Sanfiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y piensa al fenómeno de las Interfaces habladas (IH desde variados puntos de vista y niveles de análisis. El texto se ha concebido con los objetivos específicos de: 1.- procurar una visión panorámica de aspectos de la producción y consumo comunicativo de las IH; 2.- ofrecer recomendaciones para su creación y uso eficaz, y 3.- llamar la atención sobre su proliferación e inspirar su estudio desde la comunicación. A pesar de la creciente presencia de las IF en nues-tras vidas cotidianas, hay ausencia de textos que las caractericen y analicen por sus aspectos comunicativos. El trabajo es pertinente porque el fenómeno significa un cambio respecto a estadios comunica-tivos precedentes con consecuencias en las concepciones intelectuales y emocionales de los usuarios. La proliferación de IH nos abre a nue-vas realidades comunicativas: hablamos con máquinas.

  8. A way for studying the impact of PEDOT:PSS interface layer on carrier transport in PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM bulk hetero junction solar cells by electric field induced optical second harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Zubair, E-mail: zubairtarar@um.edu.my; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Sulaiman, Khaulah [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Taguchi, Dai; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-Okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement was employed to study the impact of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) interface layer on the carrier transport mechanism of the PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). We revealed that the electric fields in the PCDTBT and PC{sub 71}BM were allowed to be measured individually by choosing fundamental laser wavelengths of 1000 nm and 1060 nm, respectively, in dark and under illumination. The results showed that the direction of the internal electric fields in the PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM BHJ layer is reversed by introducing the PEDOT:PSS layer, and this results in longer electron transport time in the BHJ layer. We conclude that TR-EFISHG can be used as a novel way for studying the impact of interfacial layer on the transport of electrons and holes in the bulk-heterojunction OSCs.

  9. Creating a practice website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, P K

    2007-05-26

    A website is a window to the outside world. For a dental practice, it may be the first point of contact for a prospective new patient and will therefore provide them with their 'first impression'; this may be days or weeks before actually visiting the practice. This section considers the different ways of creating a dental practice website and lists some of the main dental website design companies. It also describes what factors make a successful website and offers advice on how to ensure that it complies with current regulations and recommendations.

  10. Creating Innovative Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    to illustrations of the processes, and the 86 case studies in knowledge intensive entrepreneurship in Europe. These case studies were developed during the European Union research project AEGIS (Advancing Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship and Innovation for Economic Growth and Well-being in Europe). The case...... studies do demonstrate how the individual KIE ventures are dependent upon variables and processes in the surrounding innovation systems. The overall analysis of the cases provides insight into how KIE processes link the KIE venture and the innovation system, thereby highlighting e.g. the importance...... of knowledge networks to create innovative opportunities....

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF UP RESIN/GLASSFIBRE ADHERSIVE INTERFACE MICROSTRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A fibre-optic interface stress sensor was used to characterize the mechanical property of UP resin/glassfibre adhersive interface.During the adhersion agent curing , the contract stress accompanies with dimension contracting, the thermal stress which is produced by the changes of environment temperature caused by curing heat and the procedure of interface stress transmitting were all traced and determined,the micro mechanical properties of UP resin/glassfibre adhersive interface are determined.Also, the longchain softness couple agent has effcet on decreasing the stress concentration of UP resin/glassfibre adhersive interface and enhance the interface adhersive strength is verified.

  12. Creating sustainable performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, Gretchen; Porath, Christine

    2012-01-01

    What makes for sustainable individual and organizational performance? Employees who are thriving-not just satisfied and productive but also engaged in creating the future. The authors found that people who fit this description demonstrated 16% better overall performance, 125% less burnout, 32% more commitment to the organization, and 46% more job satisfaction than their peers. Thriving has two components: vitality, or the sense of being alive and excited, and learning, or the growth that comes from gaining knowledge and skills. Some people naturally build vitality and learning into their jobs, but most employees are influenced by their environment. Four mechanisms, none of which requires heroic effort or major resources, create the conditions for thriving: providing decision-making discretion, sharing information about the organization and its strategy, minimizing incivility, and offering performance feedback. Organizations such as Alaska Airlines, Zingerman's, Quicken Loans, and Caiman Consulting have found that helping people grow and remain energized at work is valiant on its own merits-but it can also boost performance in a sustainable way.

  13. MuSim, a Graphical User Interface for Multiple Simulation Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Thomas [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Cummings, Mary Anne [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, Rolland [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neuffer, David [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    MuSim is a new user-friendly program designed to interface to many different particle simulation codes, regardless of their data formats or geometry descriptions. It presents the user with a compelling graphical user interface that includes a flexible 3-D view of the simulated world plus powerful editing and drag-and-drop capabilities. All aspects of the design can be parametrized so that parameter scans and optimizations are easy. It is simple to create plots and display events in the 3-D viewer (with a slider to vary the transparency of solids), allowing for an effortless comparison of different simulation codes. Simulation codes: G4beamline, MAD-X, and MCNP; more coming. Many accelerator design tools and beam optics codes were written long ago, with primitive user interfaces by today's standards. MuSim is specifically designed to make it easy to interface to such codes, providing a common user experience for all, and permitting the construction and exploration of models with very little overhead. For today's technology-driven students, graphical interfaces meet their expectations far better than text-based tools, and education in accelerator physics is one of our primary goals.

  14. Optical Disk Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, George L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This special feature focuses on recent developments in optical disk technology. Nine articles discuss current trends, large scale image processing, data structures for optical disks, the use of computer simulators to create optical disks, videodisk use in training, interactive audio video systems, impacts on federal information policy, and…

  15. Creating a TQM culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, G; Curto, C

    1992-11-01

    Creating a culture and environment for quality improvement is hard work that takes time and commitment. It is often frustrating and painful. For an organization to be successful in this transformation, leadership is not just important, it is vital. The leaders in TQM have new roles to play, roles that go against the grain of many of the forces that led to management success. The tasks of the leaders in a TQM organization emphasize building teamwork and removing barriers that prevent the organization from meeting customer needs. When Jamie Haughton, CEO of Corning, was asked where in his job he found the time to commit to TQM, he replied, "Continuous quality improvement is my job; it is the most important thing I do ... Quality is the primary responsibility of the leader."

  16. Creating the living brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendapudi, Neeli; Bendapudi, Venkat

    2005-05-01

    It's easy to conclude from the literature and the lore that top-notch customer service is the province of a few luxury companies and that any retailer outside that rarefied atmosphere is condemned to offer mediocre service at best. But even companies that position themselves for the mass market can provide outstanding customer-employee interactions and profit from them, if they train employees to reflect the brand's core values. The authors studied the convenience store industry in depth and focused on two that have developed a devoted following: QuikTrip (QT) and Wawa. Turnover rates at QT and Wawa are 14% and 22% respectively, much lower than the typical rate in retail. The authors found six principles that both firms embrace to create a strong culture of customer service. Know what you're looking for: A focus on candidates' intrinsic traits allows the companies to hire people who will naturally bring the right qualities to the job. Make the most of talent: In mass-market retail, talent is generally viewed as a commodity, but that outlook becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. Create pride in the brand: Service quality depends directly on employees' attachment to the brand. Build community: Wawa and QT have made concerted efforts to build customer loyalty through a sense of community. Share the business context: Employees need a clear understanding of how their company operates and how it defines success. Satisfy the soul: To win an employee's passionate engagement, a company must meet his or her needs for security, esteem, and justice.

  17. Creating Griffith Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Griffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since it began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as being the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift became reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffith began drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of Los Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Mt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made freely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. Wilson Observatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, in 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and establishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be appropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in 1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating Griffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the project were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged in creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A Scientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist Edward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help from artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth. Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the Observatory and become its

  18. Next Generation Search Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, W.; Wu, X.; Ly, L.; Goldina, T.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomers are constantly looking for easier ways to access multiple data sets. While much effort is spent on VO, little thought is given to the types of User Interfaces we need to effectively search this sort of data. For instance, an astronomer might need to search Spitzer, WISE, and 2MASS catalogs and images then see the results presented together in one UI. Moving seamlessly between data sets is key to presenting integrated results. Results need to be viewed using first class, web based, integrated FITS viewers, XY Plots, and advanced table display tools. These components should be able to handle very large datasets. To make a powerful Web based UI that can manage and present multiple searches to the user requires taking advantage of many HTML5 features. AJAX is used to start searches and present results. Push notifications (Server Sent Events) monitor background jobs. Canvas is required for advanced result displays. Lesser known CSS3 technologies makes it all flow seamlessly together. At IPAC, we have been developing our Firefly toolkit for several years. We are now using it to solve this multiple data set, multiple queries, and integrated presentation problem to create a powerful research experience. Firefly was created in IRSA, the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu). Firefly is the core for applications serving many project archives, including Spitzer, Planck, WISE, PTF, LSST and others. It is also used in IRSA's new Finder Chart and catalog and image displays.

  19. Orbital angular momentum photonic quantum interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yuan Zhou; Yan Li; Dong-Sheng Ding; Wei Zhang; Shuai Shi; Bao-Sen Shi; Guang-Can Guo

    2016-01-01

    Light-carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has great potential in enhancing the information channel capacity in both classical and quantum optical communications.Long distance optical communication requires the wavelengths of light are situated in the low-loss communication windows,but most quantum memories currently being developed for use in a quantum repeater work at different wavelengths,so a quantum interface to bridge the wavelength gap is necessary.So far,such an interface for OAM-carried light has not been realized yet.Here,we report the first experimental realization of a quantum interface for a heralded single photon carrying OAM using a nonlinear crystal in an optical cavity.The spatial structures of input and output photons exhibit strong similarity.More importantly,single-photon coherence is preserved during up-conversion as demonstrated.

  20. Spontaneous Hot-Electron Light Emission from Electron-Fed Optical Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buret, Mickael; Uskov, Alexander V; Dellinger, Jean; Cazier, Nicolas; Mennemanteuil, Marie-Maxime; Berthelot, Johann; Smetanin, Igor V; Protsenko, Igor E; Colas-des-Francs, Gérard; Bouhelier, Alexandre

    2015-09-09

    Nanoscale electronics and photonics are among the most promising research areas providing functional nanocomponents for data transfer and signal processing. By adopting metal-based optical antennas as a disruptive technological vehicle, we demonstrate that these two device-generating technologies can be interfaced to create an electronically driven self-emitting unit. This nanoscale plasmonic transmitter operates by injecting electrons in a contacted tunneling antenna feedgap. Under certain operating conditions, we show that the antenna enters a highly nonlinear regime in which the energy of the emitted photons exceeds the quantum limit imposed by the applied bias. We propose a model based upon the spontaneous emission of hot electrons that correctly reproduces the experimental findings. The electron-fed optical antennas described here are critical devices for interfacing electrons and photons, enabling thus the development of optical transceivers for on-chip wireless broadcasting of information at the nanoscale.

  1. Spontaneous hot-electron light emission from electron-fed optical antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Buret, Mickael; Dellinger, Jean; Cazier, Nicolas; Mennemanteuil, Marie-Maxime; Berthelot, Johann; Smetanin, Igor V; Protsenko, Igor E; Colas-des-Francs, Gérard; Bouhelier, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale electronics and photonics are among the most promising research areas providing functional nano-components for data transfer and signal processing. By adopting metal-based optical antennas as a disruptive technological vehicle, we demonstrate that these two device-generating technologies can be interfaced to create an electronically-driven self-emitting unit. This nanoscale plasmonic transmitter operates by injecting electrons in a contacted tunneling antenna feedgap. Under certain operating conditions, we show that the antenna enters a highly nonlinear regime in which the energy of the emitted photons exceeds the quantum limit imposed by the applied bias. We propose a model based upon the spontaneous emission of hot electrons that correctly reproduces the experimental findings. The electron-fed optical antennas described here are critical devices for interfacing electrons and photons, enabling thus the development of optical transceivers for on-chip wireless broadcasting of information at the nanos...

  2. Create a Safe Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝小琴

    2013-01-01

    随着教育的不断发展与进步,教师的作用与学生的角色已日益成为教育者与研究人员关注的焦点。但是,同时我们也应该高度重视教学课堂的重要性,努力创造一个让学生无论从心理上还是情感上都感到“安全”的教室。创造一个愉悦,友好,轻松,同时又具有很好教学效果的教学环境并不只是一种理想,笔者认为是切实可行的。本文主要探讨了如何去创造这样“安全”的教室。本文第一部分讨论了教师的形象问题,第二部分围绕师生关系展开,第三部分探讨了如何营造一种愉悦气氛,第四部分阐述了培养学生自信的重要性。%With the advancement of education ,the role of teacher and the role of learner have respectively draw increasing attention from the educators and researchers. But equal emphasis should be given to the classroom, the very place where learning takes place. And great efforts should be made to create a psychologically or emotionally safe classroom. A pleasant, friendly, relaxed but effective classroom is not something ideal as some teachers once thought, but rather practicable.This paper just discusses the ways of creating a safe classroom and gives some of my personal reflections, with Part One touching upon the image of the teacher; Part Two embracing the importance of teacher-students relationship; Part Three focusing on the pleasant climate in a safe classroom; Part Four featuring the student’s high-self-esteem.

  3. Basic research needs and opportunities at the solid-solid interface - Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Duke, C. B.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Mitchell, K. W.; Reifenberger, R.; Wood, R. F.

    1982-04-01

    The generic problems associated with solar materials solid-solid (S-S) interfaces are reviewed, and goals and techniques for ameliorating the deficiencies are outlined. Photovoltaic, photothermal, and photochemical devices considered are flat plate collectors, thin film Si cells, concentrator systems and compound cells, and polycrystalline systems. Exposure to thermal stresses, electric and radiation fields, chemicals and abrasives during the lifetime of solar cells is expected to create electric, optical, and thermal property changes in the material. Diffusion may also occur in S-S interfacial areas, and determination of the effects on the cells can presently be done using electron microscopy for examining the fine structure, diffraction pattern analysis for the interface structure, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to trace the chemical composition. Additional studies are needed to define the atomic and chemical exchange rates to establish the economic feasibility of low cost cells.

  4. Colloidal templating at a cholesteric-oil interface: assembly guided by an array of disclination lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintuvuori, J S; Pawsey, A C; Stratford, K; Cates, M E; Clegg, P S; Marenduzzo, D

    2013-05-03

    We simulate colloids (radius R ~ 1 μm) trapped at the interface between a cholesteric liquid crystal and an immiscible oil at which the helical order (pitch p) in the bulk conflicts with the orientation induced at the interface, stabilizing an ordered array of disclinations. For a weak anchoring strength W of the director field at the colloidal surface, this creates a template, favoring particle positions either on top of or midway between defect lines, depending on α=R/p. For small α, optical microscopy experiments confirm this picture, but for larger α no templating is seen. This may stem from the emergence at moderate W of a rugged energy landscape associated with defect reconnections.

  5. Description of all-optical network test bed and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Douglas; Castagnozzi, Daniel M.; Hemenway, B. R.; Parikh, Salil A.; Stevens, Mark L.; Swanson, Eric A.; Thomas, Robert E.; Ozveren, C.; Kaminow, Ivan P.

    1995-12-01

    We describe an all-optical network testbed deployed in the Boston metropolitan area, and some of the experimental applications running over the network. The network was developed by a consortium of AT&T Bell Laboratories, Digital Equipment Corporation, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a grant from ARPA. The network is an optical WDM system organized as a hierarchy consisting of local, metropolitan, and wide area nodes that support optical broadcast and routing modes. Frequencies are shared and reused to enhance network scalability. Electronic access is provided through optical terminals that support multiple services having data rates between 10 Mbps/user and 10 Gbps/user. Novel components used to implement the network include fast-tuning 1.5 micrometers distributed Bragg reflector lasers, passive wavelength routers, and broadband optical frequency converters. An overlay control network implemented at 1.3 micrometers allows reliable out-of-band control and standardized network management of all network nodes. We have created interfaces between the AON and commercially available electronic circuit-switched and packet-switched networks. We will report on network applications that can dynamically allocate optical bandwidth between electronic packet-switches based on the offered load presented by users, without requiring interfaces between users and the AON control system. We will also describe video and telemedicine applications running over the network. We have demonstrated an audio/video codec that is directly interfaced to the optical network, and is capable of transmitting high-rate digitized video signals for broadcast or videoconferencing applications. We have also demonstrated a state-of-the-art radiological workstation that uses the AON to transport 2000 X 2000 X 16 bit images from a remote image server.

  6. Creating an open mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Duncan

    2011-07-01

    Duncan Monaghan is 33 years old and in his second year of an Arts degree in Creative Writing. He is a published poet and is currently producing a music CD. Duncan has a history of bipolar disorder which was diagnosed when he was nineteen: "It worried me at first a lot. It played on my mind constantly. I felt different from everybody else--I did not understand what was happening to me." Drawing on his life experiences, Duncan has been enhancing his recovery through creativity--in poetry, lyrics, music and story. "Life for me was a constant battle of relying on medication and appointments with my case manager...until I realized I could combine my recovery with my passions as a tool to use as an outlet to many of the "mind traps" I so often found hindering my own recovery." Duncan is Aboriginal and has experience of the mental health systems in most states and territories and now lives in Brisbane. This is a shortened version of his presentation at Creating Futures 2010.

  7. Creating Heliophysics Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.; Mendez, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Center for Science Education at University of California Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory is creating concept maps for Heliophysics and would like to get input from scientists. The purpose of this effort is to identify key concepts related to Heliophysics and map their progression to show how students' understanding of Heliophysics might develop from Kindergarten through higher education. These maps are meant to tie into the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy and National Science Education Standards. It is hoped that the results of this effort will be useful for curriculum designers developing Heliophysics-related curriculum materials and classroom teachers using Heliophysics materials. The need for concept maps was identified as a result of product analysis undertaken by the NASA Heliophysics Forum Team. The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have as two of their goals to improve the characterization of the contents of the Science Mission Directorate and Public Outreach (SMD E/PO) portfolio (Objective 2.1) and assist SMD in addressing gaps in the portfolio of SMD E/PO products and project activities (Objective 2.2). An important part of this effort is receiving feedback from solar scientists regarding the inclusion of key concepts and their progression in the maps. This session will introduce the draft concept maps and elicit feedback from scientists.

  8. Creating new market space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1999-01-01

    Most companies focus on matching and beating their rivals. As a result, their strategies tend to take on similar dimensions. What ensues is head-to-head competition based largely on incremental improvements in cost, quality, or both. The authors have studied how innovative companies break free from the competitive pack by staking out fundamentally new market space--that is, by creating products or services for which there are no direct competitors. This path to value innovation requires a different competitive mind-set and a systematic way of looking for opportunities. Instead of looking within the conventional boundaries that define how an industry competes, managers can look methodically across them. By so doing, they can find unoccupied territory that represents real value innovation. Rather than looking at competitors within their own industry, for example, managers can ask why customers make the trade-off between substitute products or services. Home Depot, for example, looked across the substitutes serving home improvement needs. Intuit looked across the substitutes available to individuals managing their personal finances. In both cases, powerful insights were derived from looking at familiar data from a new perspective. Similar insights can be gleaned by looking across strategic groups within an industry; across buyer groups; across complementary product and service offerings; across the functional-emotional orientation of an industry; and even across time. To help readers explore new market space systematically, the authors developed a tool, the value curve, that can be used to represent visually a range of value propositions.

  9. Creating an Artificial Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Katherine; Krause, Sonja

    1997-03-01

    Striated skeletal muscle responds to a nerve impulse in less than 100 ms. In the past, polymeric gels and conducting polymers have been investigated for use as artificial muscle. However, the main problem with these materials is their relatively slow response (>3 seconds). On the other hand, electrorheological (ER) fluids are materials that change from a liquid to a solid upon application of an electric field. These fluids have a response on the order of a millisecond. A novel approach to artificial muscle utilizing the fast time response of ER fluids and the elasticity of polymeric gels has been investigated. A commercial sample of a two-part poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) dielectric gel was used. The PDMS was cured around two flexible electrodes 5 mm apart while a mixture of PDMS with solvent was cured between the electrodes. The solvents were either silicone oil or an ER fluid composed of crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) particles in silicone oil. The mixtures investigated were 90/10, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 10/90 PDMS/solvent. Upon application of a 6.2 kV/cm DC electric field the gel was reversibly compressed. The time response of the gel was actuator has been created using the 60/40 PDMS/ER fluid mixture.

  10. Development of the User Interface for AIR-Spec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Alcala, E.; Guth, G.; Fedeler, S.; Samra, J.; Cheimets, P.; DeLuca, E.; Golub, L.

    2016-12-01

    The airborne infrared spectrometer (AIR-Spec) is an imaging spectrometer that will observe the solar corona during the 2017 total solar eclipse. This eclipse will provide a unique opportunity to observe infrared emission lines in the corona. Five spectral lines are of particular interest because they may eventually be used to measure the coronal magnetic field. To avoid infrared absorption from atmospheric water vapor, AIR-Spec will be placed on an NSF Gulfstream aircraft flying above 14.9 km. AIR-Spec must be capable of taking stable images while the plane moves. The instrument includes an image stabilization system, which uses fiber-optic gyroscopes to determine platform rotation, GPS to calculate the ephemeris of the sun, and a voltage-driven mirror to correct the line of sight. An operator monitors a white light image of the eclipse and manually corrects for residual drift. The image stabilization calculation is performed by a programmable automatic controller (PAC), which interfaces with the gyroscopes and mirror controller. The operator interfaces with a separate computer, which acquires images and computes the solar ephemeris. To ensure image stabilization is successful, a human machine interface (HMI) was developed to allow connection between the client and PAC. In order to make control of the instruments user friendly during the short eclipse observation, a graphical user interface (GUI) was also created. The GUI's functionality includes turning image stabilization on and off, allowing the user to input information about the geometric setup, calculating the solar ephemeris, refining estimates of the initial aircraft attitude, and storing data from the PAC on the operator's computer. It also displays time, location, attitude, ephemeris, gyro rates and mirror angles.

  11. The Gigabit Link Interface Board (GLIB) ecosystem

    CERN Document Server

    Vichoudis, P; Baron, S; Barros Marin, M; Bobillier, V; Chramowitz, J; Haas, S; Hansen, M; Joos, M; Lobato Pardavila, L; Petit, P; Prosser, A; Vasey, F

    2013-01-01

    The Gigabit Link Interface Board (GLIB) project is an FPGA-based platform for users of high-speed optical links in high energy physics experiments. The major hardware component of the platform is the GLIB Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC). Additionally to the AMC, auxiliary components are developed that enhance GLIB platform's I/O bandwidth and compatibility with legacy and future triggering and/or data acquisition interfaces. This article focuses on the development of the auxiliary components that together with the GLIB AMC offer a complete solution for beam/irradiation tests of detector modules and evaluation of optical links.

  12. Digital interface for high-resolution displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.

    1999-08-01

    Commercial display interfaces are currently transitioning from analog to digital. Although this transition is in the very early stages, the military needs to begin planning their own transition to digital. There are many problems with the analog interface in high-resolution display systems that are solved by changing to a digital interface. Also, display system cost can be lower with a digital interface to a high resolution display. Battelle is under contract with DARPA to develop an advanced Display Interface (ADI) to replace the analog RGB interfaces currently used in high definition workstation displays. The goal is to create a standard digital display interface for military applications that is based on emerging commercial standards. Support for military application- specific functionality is addressed, including display test and control. The main challenges to implementing a digital display interface are described, along with approaches to address the problems. Conceptual ADI architectures are described and contrasted. The current and emerging commercial standards for digital display interfaces are reviewed in detail. Finally, the tasks required to complete the ADI effort are outlined and described.

  13. Structural and optical characterization of InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices: Influence of the change in InAs and GaSb layer thicknesses for fixed InSb-like interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arikan, Bulent, E-mail: bulentarikanx@gmail.com; Korkmaz, Melih; Aslan, Bulent; Serincan, Uğur

    2015-08-31

    In this article, we report on the molecular beam epitaxy growth and characterization of a 140 period InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice structure designed for mid infrared detection. Thickness of a period was systematically altered in each sample by changing the thickness of InAs (GaSb) layers from 9 to 7 monolayers (ML) for a fixed GaSb (InAs) layer at 9 ML (7 ML). The same InSb-like strain compensation interface was used for all samples. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis, spectral responsivity and external quantum efficiency (QE) measurements were performed to express the effects of layer thickness variations on both structural and photodetector features. The decrease in the InAs thickness resulted in the increased mismatch from 0 to + 1626 ppm and the blue shift in the 50% cut-off wavelength (λ{sub c}) from 5.41 to 4.36 μm at 77 K. The additional decrease in GaSb thickness caused further increase in the mismatch up to + 1791 ppm. The steepness of the photoresponse at the absorption band edge was quantified and presented comparatively with different photodetector parameters and material properties for a complete picture. The highest optical response was obtained from sample having 8 ML InAs and 9 ML GaSb with λ{sub c} = 4.76 μm and QE = 23.7% at 4 μm. - Highlights: • Detailed growth conditions for InAs/GaSb SLs designed for infrared detection • Precisely engineering the λ{sub c} and the ∆a{sub ⊥}/a by controlling the SL layer thicknesses • InAs layer thickness changes are more effective than the GaSb on the λ{sub c} and ∆a{sub ⊥}/a.

  14. Dynamical transitions of a driven Ising interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Manish K; Sengupta, Surajit

    2008-03-01

    We study the structure of an interface in a three-dimensional Ising system created by an external nonuniform field H(r,t) . H changes sign over a two-dimensional plane of arbitrary orientation. When the field is pulled with velocity v(e) , [i.e., H(r,t)=H(r-v(e)t) ], the interface undergoes several dynamical transitions. For low velocities it is pinned by the field profile and moves along with it, the distribution of local slopes undergoing a series of commensurate-incommensurate transitions. For large v(e) the interface depins and grows with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang exponents.

  15. Generic Interfaces for Managing Web Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Burlaca

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a generic user interface for managing web data that is incorporated in a content management system. The interface is created at run-time from a set of XML documents stored in database. We accentuate the importance of content analysis phase that leads to a well formed data model. Another important aspect is the use of context in the interface and the hierarchical model to represent multiple relationships between hierarchy items. The proposed event model acts like a glue between data management and application logic.

  16. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  17. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  18. Creating a Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Gardner, Charles O.; Gillespie, Nathan; Aggen, Steven A.; Prescott, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Peer-group deviance is strongly associated with externalizing behaviors. We have limited knowledge of the sources of individual differences in peer-group deviance. Objective To clarify genetic and environmental contributions to peer-group deviance in twins from mid-childhood through early adulthood. Design Retrospective assessments using a life-history calendar. Analysis by biometric growth curves. Setting General community. Participants Members of male-male pairs from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry personally interviewed in 1998–2004 (n=1802). Main Outcome Measure Self-reported peer-group deviance at ages 8 to 11, 12 to 14, 15 to 17, 18 to 21, and 22 to 25 years. Results Mean and variance of peer-group deviance increased substantially with age. Genetic effects on peer-group deviance showed a strong and steady increase over time. Family environment generally declined in importance over time. Individual-specific environmental influences on peer-group deviance levels were stable in the first 3 age periods and then increased as most twins left home. When standardized, the heritability of peer-group deviance is approximately 30% at ages 8 to 11 years and rises to approximately 50% across the last 3 time periods. Both genes and shared environment contributed to individual differences in the developmental trajectory of peer-group deviance. However, while the correlation between childhood peer-group deviance levels and the subsequent slope of peer-group deviance over time resulting from genetic factors was positive, the same relationship resulting from shared environmental factors was negative. Conclusions As male twins mature and create their own social worlds, genetic factors play an increasingly important role in their choice of peers, while shared environment becomes less influential. The individual specific environment increases in importance when individuals leave home. Individuals who have deviant peers in childhood, as a result of genetic vs

  19. Creating a Responsive Website: PPLD Friends--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the Pikes Peak Library District (PPLD) had a legacy website that was remotely hosted and maintained by a volunteer. They wanted a more significant presence on PPLD.org and an easier interface with which to update information. The developers decided to create a new Friends site in Drupal, using RWD, CSS3, and HTML5. The plan was to…

  20. Creating a Responsive Website: PPLD Friends--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the Pikes Peak Library District (PPLD) had a legacy website that was remotely hosted and maintained by a volunteer. They wanted a more significant presence on PPLD.org and an easier interface with which to update information. The developers decided to create a new Friends site in Drupal, using RWD, CSS3, and HTML5. The plan was to…

  1. Creating a Toilet Training Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Creating a Toilet Training Plan Page Content Article Body These are the tools ... will need to create your own toilet-training plan and implement it at the best time for ...

  2. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-02-16

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r {yields} -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t {yields} -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function {Psi} is given by the phase factor e{sup -iEt/{h_bar}} with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the

  3. Spray algorithm without interface construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kadhem Majhool, Ahmed Abed; Watkins, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    This research is aimed to create a new and robust family of convective schemes to capture the interface between the dispersed and the carrier phases in a spray without the need to build up the interface boundary. The selection of the Weighted Average Flux (WAF) scheme is due to this scheme being designed to deal with random flux scheme which is second-order accurate in space and time. The convective flux in each cell face utilizes the WAF scheme blended with Switching Technique for Advection and Capturing of Surfaces (STACS) scheme for high resolution flux limiters. In the next step, the high resolution scheme is blended with the WAF scheme to provide the sharpness and boundedness of the interface by using switching strategy. In this work, the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of non-reactive turbulent spray is set in terms of theoretical proposed methodology namely spray moments of drop size distribution, presented by Beck and Watkins [1]. The computational spray model avoids the need to segregate the local droplet number distribution into parcels of identical droplets. The proposed scheme is tested on capturing the spray edges in modelling hollow cone sprays without need to reconstruct two-phase interface. A test is made on simple comparison between TVD scheme and WAF scheme using the same flux limiter on convective flow hollow cone spray. Results show the WAF scheme gives a better prediction than TVD scheme. The only way to check the accuracy of the presented models is by evaluating the spray sheet thickness.

  4. Systems and technologies for high-speed inter-office/datacenter interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Y.; Nishizawa, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Fukutoku, M.; Yoshimatsu, T.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging requirements for inter-office/inter-datacenter short reach links for data center interconnects (DCI) and metro transport networks have led to various inter-office and inter-datacenter optical interface technologies. These technologies are bringing significant changes to systems and network architectures. In this paper, we present a system and ZR optical interface technologies for DCI and metro transport networks, then introduce the latest challenges facing the system framework. There are two trends in reach extension; one is to use Ethernet and the other is to use digital coherent technologies. The first approach achieves reach extension while using as many existing Ethernet components as possible. It offers low costs as reuses the cost-effective components created for the large Ethernet market. The second approach adopts low-cost and low power coherent DSPs that implement the minimal set long haul transmission functions. This paper introduces an architecture that integrates both trends. The architecture satisfies both datacom and telecom needs with a common control and management interface and automated configuration.

  5. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  6. After Rigid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troiano, Giovanni Maria

    Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape-changing inte......Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape...

  7. MuSim, a graphical user interface for multiple simulation programs

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Thomas J; Johnson, Rolland Paul; Neuffer, David Vincent

    2016-01-01

    MuSim is a new user-friendly program designed to interface to many different particle simulation codes, regardless of their data formats or geometry descriptions. It presents the user with a compelling graphical user interface that includes a flexible 3-D view of the simulated world plus powerful editing and drag-and-drop capabilities. All aspects of the design can be parameterized so that parameter scans and optimizations are easy. It is simple to create plots and display events in the 3-D viewer (with a slider to vary the transparency of solids), allowing for an effortless comparison of different simulation codes. Simulation codes: G4beamline 3.02 and MCNP 6.1; more are coming. Many accelerator design tools and beam optics codes were written long ago, with primitive user interfaces by today's standards. MuSim is specifically designed to make it easy to interface to such codes, providing a common user experience for all, and permitting the construction and exploration of models with very little overhead. For...

  8. Open|SpeedShop Graphical User Interface Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to create a new graphical user interface (GUI) for an existing parallel application performance and profiling tool, Open|SpeedShop. The current GUI has...

  9. Flash Builder customizing the user interface

    CERN Document Server

    Rocchi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Personalize user interface components of your projects. Example projects are grouped together in an AIR application and the appearance is totally customized. Learn how to change visual properties by means of style directives or create brand new skins by knowing and exploiting their internal architecture.

  10. More playful user interfaces: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we embed recent research advances in creating playful user interfaces in a historical context. We have observations on spending leisure time, in particular predictions from previous decades and views expressed in Science Fiction novels. We confront these views and predictions with

  11. More playful user interfaces: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, Anton

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we embed recent research advances in creating playful user interfaces in a historical context. We have observations on spending leisure time, in particular predictions from previous decades and views expressed in Science Fiction novels. We confront these views and predictions with wh

  12. Designing interfaces patterns for effective interaction design

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2005-01-01

    This convenient resource offers advice on creating user-friendly interface designs--whether they're delivered on the Web, a CD, or a smart" devices like a cell phone. Solutions to common UI design problems are expressed as a collection of patterns--each one containing concrete examples, recommendations, and warnings. Intended for designers with basic UI design knowledge

  13. Structure and optical properties of dielectric-metal-dielectric coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koltun, M.M.; Faiziev, Sh.A.; Gaziev, U.Kh.

    1976-01-01

    The conditions for production of a ZnS-Ag-ZnS coating on glass are investigated, together with the influence of each of the three layers on the optical characteristics of the coating. It is shown that the lower antireflection film in a three-layer coating serves not only to reduce reflection from the glass-metal film interface, but also creates conditions for condensation of a metal layer with small structural defects to increase the conductivity of the coating and its integral reflection coefficient in the infrared region of the spectrum.

  14. 光纤激光器接口与光纤总线传输技术研究及案例应用探究%Researching Transmission Technology Based on Fiber Laser Interface and Fiber-optic Bus & Application in Numerical Control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴淇

    2016-01-01

    应用Glink总线,研究了光纤总线与光纤激光器接口之间的传输技术,按照实时性要求使Glink子栈设备控制时序严格同步。在控制光纤激光器接口操作中,本文论述了光纤激光器接口模式和内容,以及光纤总线的传输方式,通过FPGA编程来实现其接口驱动的开发,并在数控系统中加以验证。%ApplingGlinkbus ,tostudytransmission technology between optical bus and fiber laserinterfaces. In accordance with the requirements of real-time control device makes Glink sub-stack strict timing synchronization.In the fiber laser control interface operation, the paper discusses the content and interface mode fiber lasers and the transmission of optical bus, through FPGA programming to achieve its interface-driven development, and verified in the numerical control system.

  15. After Rigid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troiano, Giovanni Maria

    to convey particular information (e.g., big-isurgent, loud-is-up). The second work presents a large-scale analysis of 340 Sci-Fi movies that identifies instances of shape-changing interfaces. Results from the analysis reveals emergent behavioral patterns of shape change, namely Reconfiguration......Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape......-changing interfaces can reconfigure their shape dynamically, providing users with new affordances and output modalities. This thesis contributes to both the field of deformable interfaces and shape-changing interfaces through empirical research. In the area of deformable interfaces, this thesis presents two studies...

  16. Interface localization near criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Delfino, Gesualdo

    2016-01-01

    The theory of interface localization in near-critical planar systems at phase coexistence is formulated from first principles. We show that mutual delocalization of two interfaces, amounting to interfacial wetting, occurs when the bulk correlation length critical exponent $\

  17. Fiber distributed data interface [FDDI] technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. Fiber Distributed Data Interface [FDDI] is the American National Standard Institute's proposed standard for a 100 Mbps token-passing ring using an optical fibre medium. The FDDI standard has become a focal point for optical technology application in the LAN environment. The market place is filling with products in every category from complete systems to optical transceivers. The 1990s see FDDI as the predominant high speed LAN and backbone. The latest edition of this report is thoroughly updated and gives a complete overview of FDDI technol

  18. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  19. Suggestion: Human Factor Based User Interface Design Tool

    OpenAIRE

    S.Q. Abbas,; Rizwan Beg; Shahnaz Fatima

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce HFBUIT, Human Factor based user interface tool that enables designers and engineers to create human factor based user interface. This tool will help the designer to utilize the knowledge about the user to configure the interface for different users, i.e. each user may have different skills, level of experience, or cognitive and physical disabilities. The tool makes it easy to knowhuman factors & to reduce the number of usability problems. HFBUIT can be used in real...

  20. Transient Grating Investigations at Liquid-Liquid Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Punzi, Angela; Brodard, Pierre; Vauthey, Eric

    2005-01-01

    A new four-wave-mixing technique with evanescent optical fields generated by total internal reflection at a liquid-liquid interface is described. Several applications of this method to measure thermoacoustic and dynamic properties near liquid-liquid interfaces are presented.

  1. Age Based User Interface in Mobile Operating System

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sumit; Singh, Paramjit; Mahajan, Aditya; 10.5121/ijcsea.2012.2215

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of different interfaces in the mobile operating system for different age groups. The different age groups identified are kids, elderly people and all others. The motive behind creating different interfaces is to make the smartphones of today's world usable to all age groups.

  2. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  3. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  4. SHAREPOINT SITE CREATING AND SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Tebenko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tools for sites building that offer users the ability to work together, an actual theme in information society and modern Web technologies. This article considers the SharePoint system, which enables to create sites of any complexity, including large portals with a complex structure of documents. Purpose of this article is to consider the main points of site creating and its setting with tools of SharePoint system, namely: a site template creating and configuring, web application environment to create and configure Web applications, change of existing and creation of new theme site, a web part setting.

  5. Optical coherence tomography imaging for evaluating the photo biomodulation effects on tissue regeneration in the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Craig B.

    2008-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method for imaging dental microstructure which has the potential of evaluating the health of periodontal tissue. OCT provides an "optical biopsy" of tissue 2-3 mm in depth. Optical biopsy is a measurement of the localized optical properties based on tissue type and pathology. This sixth modality of imaging was pioneered at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. OCT is based on the optical scattering signatures within tissue structure. With the use of a broad spectrum bandwidth light source, high resolution images, 10 times the resolution of radiographs, can detect important tissue interfaces within the periodontal sulcus and its' relationship to the attachment apparatus of the tooth. Multiple cross-sectional tomograms can be stacked to create two and three dimensional images providing information as to health of periodontal tissue important to both the clinician and researcher.

  6. Entanglement and topological interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M; Jaud, Daniel; Schmidt-Colinet, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider entanglement entropies in two-dimensional conformal field theories in the presence of topological interfaces. Tracing over one side of the interface, the leading term of the entropy remains unchanged. The interface however adds a subleading contribution, which can be interpreted as a relative (Kullback-Leibler) entropy with respect to the situation with no defect inserted. Reinterpreting boundaries as topological interfaces of a chiral half of the full theory, we rederive the left/right entanglement entropy in analogy with the interface case. We discuss WZW models and toroidal bosonic theories as examples.

  7. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  8. Interfacing with the WEB

    CERN Document Server

    Dönszelmann, M

    1995-01-01

    Interfacing to the Web or programming interfaces for the Web is used to provide dynamic information for Web users. Using the Web as a transport system of information poses three constraints: namespace, statelessness and performance. To build interfaces on either server or client side of the Web one has to meet these constraints. Several examples, currently in use in High Energy Physics Experiments are described. They range from an interface to show where buildings are located to an interface showing active values of the On-line System of the DELPHI (CERN)..

  9. The Leadership Assignment: Creating Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Raymond L.

    This book provides change-motivated leaders with an understanding of the change process and the tools to drive change. Eight change principles guide change agents in creating and sustaining change: prepare to lead change; knowledge is power; create empowering mental models; overcome resistance to change; lead change; accelerate the change process;…

  10. Creating Our Own Online Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TUTUNEA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating our own online community is easy to do, by welcoming those who have an active presence online; first of all, we must have a well developed strategy of our own "empire", starting from the idea of creating the final benefit for our cyber-consumers.

  11. The Leadership Assignment: Creating Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Raymond L.

    This book provides change-motivated leaders with an understanding of the change process and the tools to drive change. Eight change principles guide change agents in creating and sustaining change: prepare to lead change; knowledge is power; create empowering mental models; overcome resistance to change; lead change; accelerate the change process;…

  12. Creating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Lorenzen, Mark; Laursen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    This unique book reveals the procedural aspects of knowledge-based urban planning, development and assessment. Concentrating on major knowledge city building processes, and providing state-of-the-art experiences and perspectives, this important compendium explores innovative models, approaches an...

  13. Creating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Lorenzen, Mark; Laursen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    This unique book reveals the procedural aspects of knowledge-based urban planning, development and assessment. Concentrating on major knowledge city building processes, and providing state-of-the-art experiences and perspectives, this important compendium explores innovative models, approaches...

  14. Optic axis-driven new horizons for hyperbolic metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boardman Allan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad assertion here is that the current hyperbolic metamaterial world is only partially served by investigations that incorporate only some limited version of anisotropy. Even modest deviations of the optic axis from the main propagation axis lead to new phase shifts, which not only compete with those created by absorption but end up dominating them. Some progress has been attempted in the literature by introducing the terms “asymmetric hyperbolic media”, but it appears that this kind of asymmetry only involves an optic axis at an angle to the interface of a uniaxial crystal. From a device point of view, many new prospects should appear and the outcomes of the investigations presented here yield a new general theory. It is emphasised that the orientation of the optic axis is a significant determinant in the resulting optical properties. Whereas for conventional anisotropic waveguides homogeneous propagating waves occur over a limited range of angular dispositions of the optic axis it is shown that for a hyperbolic guide a critical angular setting exists, above which the guided waves are always homogeneous. This has significant implications for metawaveguide designs. The resulting structures are more tolerant to optic axis misalignment.

  15. Fiber optics welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  16. Design of optical switches by illusion optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoorian, H. R.; Abrishamian, M. S.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, illusion optics theory is employed to form Bragg gratings in an optical waveguide in order to design an optical switch. By using an illusion device at a certain distance from the waveguide, the effective refractive index of the waveguide is remotely modulated, turning the waveguide into a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) which blocks the waves at a stop band. By removing the illusion device, the waves propagate through the waveguide again. In addition, this method is used to remotely tune DBR optical properties such as resonant frequency and bandwidth in a wide range, which leads to a tunable filter for optical switching applications. Finally, using an illusion device at a distance, an optical cavity is created by inserting defects remotely in a DBR without any physical damage in the primary device.

  17. Vibrational spectroscopy of water interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Quan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The second order nonlinear optical processes of second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are powerful and versatile tools for studying all kinds of surfaces. They possess unusual surface sensitivity due to the symmetry properties of the second order nonlinear susceptibility. The technique of infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) is particularly attractive because it offers a viable way to do vibrational spectroscopy on any surfaces accessible to light with submonolayer sensitivity. In this thesis, the author applies SFG to study a number of important water interfaces. At the air/water interface, hydrophobic solid/water and liquid/water interfaces, it was found that approximately 25% of surface water molecules have one of their hydrogen pointing away from the liquid water. The large number of unsatisfied hydrogen bonds contributes significantly to the large interfacial energy of the hydrophobic surfaces. At the hydrophilic fused quartz/water interface and a fatty acid monolayer covered water surface, the structure and orientation of surface water molecules are controlled by the hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the surface OH groups and the electrostatic interaction with the surface field from the ionization of surface groups. A change of pH value in the bulk water can significantly change the relative importance of the two interactions and cause a drastic change in orientation of the surface water molecules. SFG has also been applied to study the tribological response of some model lubricant films. Monolayers of Langmuir-Blodgett films were found to disorder orientationaly under mildly high pressure and recover promptly upon removal of the applied pressure.

  18. Observations of a monotectic solidification interface morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Frazier, D. O.

    1985-01-01

    For detailed studies of the region around a solidification interface on a microscopic scale, a very thin (essentially two-dimensional) test cell may be translated across two temperature-controlled heating/cooling blocks and viewed with a microscope. Such a device is sometimes referred to as a temperature gradient microscope stage (TGS). Of particular interest in this study is the behavior of a monotectic type solution during solidification. Succinonitrile based model systems for metallic monotectic alloys, when solidified on a TGS, form an unusual 'worm-like' micromorphology. These interfaces are observable in situ under high optical magnification during growth.

  19. Industrial Engineering: creating a network!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Prado-Prado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief history of the Industrial Engineering Conference (CIO, and specially reinforces the role of the CIOs as a forum for building a network and creating log-term relationships.

  20. Creating and Nurturing Strong Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kaye M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ways to create and sustain strong teaching teams, including matching curriculum goals, complementary professional strengths, and exercise of autonomy. Elaborates the administrator's role in nurturing and supporting teamwork. (JPB)

  1. GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Terry L [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL; Yin, Shengjun [ORNL; Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL; Tadinada, Sashi [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL

    2013-06-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the objective of the GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface project is to create the capability to apply GRIZZLY 3-D finite element (thermal and stress) analysis results as input to FAVOR probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analyses. The one benefit of FAVOR to Grizzly is the PROBABILISTIC capability. This document describes the implementation of the GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface, the preliminary verification and tests results and a user guide that provides detailed step-by-step instructions to run the program.

  2. Optic glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  3. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  4. Popeye Project: ROV interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scates, C.R.; Hernandez, D.A.; Hickok, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) interface with the Popeye Project Subsea System. It describes the ROV-related plans, design philosophies, intervention tasks, tooling/equipment requirements, testing activities, and offshore installation experiences. Early identification and continuous consideration of the ROV interfaces significantly improved the overall efficiency of equipment designs and offshore operations. The Popeye Project helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deep water subsea production systems.

  5. Turbomachine Interface Sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Sealing interfaces and coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Clearance control is a major issue in power systems turbomachine design and operational life. Sealing becomes the most cost-effective way to enhance system performance. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining interface clearances in turbomachine sealing and component life. This paper focuses on conventional and innovative materials and design practices for sealing interfaces.

  6. Universal computer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dheere, RFBM

    1988-01-01

    Presents a survey of the latest developments in the field of the universal computer interface, resulting from a study of the world patent literature. Illustrating the state of the art today, the book ranges from basic interface structure, through parameters and common characteristics, to the most important industrial bus realizations. Recent technical enhancements are also included, with special emphasis devoted to the universal interface adapter circuit. Comprehensively indexed.

  7. Creating an AI modeling application for designers and developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlette, Ryan; Fu, Daniel; Jensen, Randy

    2003-09-01

    Simulation developers often realize an entity's AI by writing a program that exhibits the intended behavior. These behaviors are often the product of design documents written by designers. These individuals, while possessing a vast knowledge of the subject matter, might not have any programming knowledge whatsoever. To address this disconnect between design and subsequent development, we have created an AI application whereby a designer or developer sketches an entity's AI using a graphical "drag and drop" interface to quickly articulate behavior using a UML-like representation of state charts. Aside from the design-level benefits, the application also features a runtime engine that takes the application's data as input along with a simulation or game interface, and makes the AI operational. We discuss our experience in creating such an application for both designer and developer.

  8. Industrial Engineering: creating a network!

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos Prado-Prado

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This paper presents a brief history of the Industrial Engineering Conference (CIO), and specially reinforces the role of the CIOs as a forum for building a network and creating log-term relationships Prado-Prado, JC. (2016). Industrial Engineering: creating a network!. International Journal of Production Management and Engineering. 4(2):41-42. doi:10.4995/ijpme.2016.5964. 41 42 4 2

  9. Student-Created Vocabulary Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Donald

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is described a preliminary study at a Japanese university on student affect toward self-created vocabulary tests. In order to foster greater learner autonomy in their vocabulary study, students were tasked with selecting words they wished to learn and creating their own tests using a template provided by the teacher. At the end of the course, a survey examining student attitudes toward the activity was conducted with 140 participants. The results were encouraging as they indicat...

  10. All Men are Created Equal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婉欣

    2015-01-01

    <正>I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed:"We hold these truths to be self-evident,that all men are created equal."This is an abstract from Martin Luther King’s famous speech I Have a Dream,which we all learnt in middle school."All men are created equal",he said,and he devoted his

  11. Creating R Packages: A Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Leisch, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a practical introduction to creating R packages. We discuss how object oriented programming and S formulas can be used to give R code the usual look and feel, how to start a package from a collection of R functions, and how to test the code once the package has been created. As running example we use functions for standard linear regression analysis which are developed from scratch.

  12. Positive effects of creating mandalas

    OpenAIRE

    Toroš, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present master’s thesis is to examine the psychological effects of creating mandalas and to give recommendations for a better use of the mandalas in the practice of art assistance in order to help in this way others and oneself. Mandalas are sacred symbols, used in Hinduism and Buddhist religion practices as tools for meditation and concentration. They are geometrical representations of the creation of the cosmos and schemas of all that was created. Jung sat the foundations...

  13. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  14. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  15. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves;

    2015-01-01

    these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...

  16. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2015-01-01

    Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortc...... shape-changing interfaces be used for, (b) which parts of the design space are not well understood, and (c) why studying user experience with shape-changing interfaces is important.......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...... these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may...

  17. Design, fabrication, and testing of an optoelectronic interface connectorized module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Jeffrey T.; Grzybowski, Richard R.; Rubino, Robert A.; Newman, Leon A.; Fields, Christopher V.; DiDomenico, John A.; Donofrio, Andrew J.

    1994-10-01

    As efforts to include fiber optic technology in aircraft flight control electronics have progressed, the need has arisen for a compact optoelectronic interface with an integral multipin optical connector. The United Technologies Research Center optoelectronic Connectorized Module (CM) was designed and built to satisfy this need. This paper will discuss the background, design, fabrication and testing of a completed Connectorized Module. The prototype CM is a four channel speed sensor interface that incorporates established ceramic multichip module (MCM-C) technology with optical emitters and detectors and a multipin fiber optic connector. This combination of technologies yields a compact and rugged interface module. In addition, the CM removes optical fibers, and their associated difficult to repair pigtails, from within the electronic control box. The CM achieves this because: it contains all necessary optoelectronic circuitry, has integral electrical and optical connectors, and is mounted directly on the electronic control box wall, not on an internal circuit board. Although this CM is a speed sensor interface, the flexible nature of MCM-C technology will enable a wide variety of sensor and data communication interfaces to be implemented.

  18. Interface deformations affect the orientation transition of magnetic ellipsoidal particles adsorbed at fluid–fluid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, G.; Kruger, T.; Coveney, P.V.; Harting, J.D.R.; Bresme, F.

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing new soft materials with specific optical, mechanical and magnetic properties is a significant challenge. Assembling and manipulating colloidal particles at fluid interfaces is a promising way to make such materials. We use lattice-Boltzmann simulations to investigate the response of ma

  19. Interface deformations affect the orientation transition of magnetic ellipsoidal particles adsorbed at fluid–fluid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, G.; Kruger, T.; Coveney, P.V.; Harting, Jens Dieter Rolf; Bresme, F.

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing new soft materials with specific optical, mechanical and magnetic properties is a significant challenge. Assembling and manipulating colloidal particles at fluid interfaces is a promising way to make such materials. We use lattice-Boltzmann simulations to investigate the response of

  20. Interfaces Between Second Interfaces Between Second

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Henrique Soufen Tumolo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The book Interfaces Between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing Research was edited with the concern of bringing together various researchers who have tried to overcome the separation of the two areas, SLA and LT, by raising and discussing relevant issues related to both. The book Interfaces Between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing Research was edited with the concern of bringing together various researchers who have tried to overcome the separation of the two areas, SLA and LT, by raising and discussing relevant issues related to both.

  1. Active optical zoom system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  2. Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch

    CERN Document Server

    Hockenberry, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch: The Mini Missing Manual walks you through developing your first iPhone App and introduces you to your programming environments and tools: Cocoa Touch, Interface Builder, Xcode, and the Objective-C programming language. If you're a Java or C developer, this eBook is your fast track to App development. This eBook is adapted from parts of iPhone App Development: The Missing Manual.

  3. The properties of squeezed optical states created in lossy cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Seifoory, Hossein; Dignam, Marc M; Sipe, J E

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the properties of squeezed states generated using degenerate parametric down conversion in lossy cavities. We show that the Lindblad master equation, which governs the evolution of this system, has as its solution a squeezed thermal state with an effective temperature and squeezing parameter that depends on time. We derive analytical solutions for the time-evolution of quadrature noise, thermal photon number, squeezing parameter, and total photon number under different pumping regimes. We also find the steady state limits of the quadrature noises and discuss the $ g^{(2)} $ factor of the generated light inside the cavity in the steady state.

  4. Creating Feedback Channels With Optical Communications For Information Operations (IO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    use of online and offline QR code creation applications in industry and the availability of digital storage allow users to find, encode and decode...the persons information stored. The ability to program a Wi-Fi network’s information into a QR code is incredibly convenient as well. The ability to...coupled with negative attributes of the in-store shopping experience lead to the advancement of Internet sales. Internet connectivity and web content

  5. Hard-Soft Tissue Interface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Oliver E; Oyen, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system is comprised of three distinct tissue categories: structural mineralized tissues, actuating muscular soft tissues, and connective tissues. Where connective tissues - ligament, tendon and cartilage - meet with bones, a graded interface in mechanical properties occurs that allows the transmission of load without creating stress concentrations that would cause tissue damage. This interface typically occurs over less than 1 mm and contains a three order of magnitude difference in elastic stiffness, in addition to changes in cell type and growth factor concentrations among others. Like all engineered tissues, the replication of these interfaces requires the production of scaffolds that will provide chemical and mechanical cues, resulting in biologically accurate cellular differentiation. For interface tissues however, the scaffold must provide spatially graded chemical and mechanical cues over sub millimetre length scales. Naturally, this complicates the manufacture of the scaffolds and every stage of their subsequent cell seeding and growth, as each region has different optimal conditions. Given the higher degree of difficulty associated with replicating interface tissues compared to surrounding homogeneous tissues, it is likely that the development of complex musculoskeletal tissue systems will continue to be limited by the engineering of connective tissues interfaces with bone.

  6. Optical Robotics in Mesoscopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    of optical forces and optical torques that, in turn, requires optimization of the underlying light-matter interactions. The requirement of having tightly focused beams in optical tweezer systems exemplifies the need for optimal light-shaping in optical trapping. On the other hand, the recently demonstrated......With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and torques in advanced actuation and control at the nano- and micro-scale dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro-robotics requires the optimization...... optical lift or light foil shows that optical manipulation can be achieved, even by using unshaped light, and instead applying an appropriately shaped structure. Hence, a generic approach for optimizing lightmatter interaction will involve the combination of optimal light-shaping techniques with the use...

  7. Intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors and their multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anbo

    2007-12-11

    An intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical sensor includes a thin film sandwiched between two fiber ends. When light is launched into the fiber, two reflections are generated at the two fiber/thin film interfaces due to a difference in refractive indices between the fibers and the film, giving rise to the sensor output. In another embodiment, a portion of the cladding of a fiber is removed, creating two parallel surfaces. Part of the evanescent fields of light propagating in the fiber is reflected at each of the surfaces, giving rise to the sensor output. In a third embodiment, the refractive index of a small portion of a fiber is changed through exposure to a laser beam or other radiation. Interference between reflections at the ends of the small portion give rise to the sensor output. Multiple sensors along a single fiber are multiplexed using an optical time domain reflectometry method.

  8. Advanced chemistry of monolayers at interfaces trends in methodology and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Imae, Toyoko

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Chemistry of Monolayers at Interfaces describes the advanced chemistry of monolayers at interfaces. Focusing on the recent trends of methodology and technology, which are indispensable in monolayer science. They are applied to monolayers of surfactants, amphiphiles, polymers, dendrimers, enzymes, and proteins, which serve many uses.Introduces the methodologies of scanning probe microscopy, surface force instrumentation, surface spectroscopy, surface plasmon optics, reflectometry, and near-field scanning optical microscopy. Modern interface reaction method, lithographic tech

  9. Interface or Interlace?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Wamberg, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Departing from an analysis of the computer's indeterminate location between medium and machine, this paper problematises the idea of a clear-cut interface in complex computing, especially Augmented Reality. The idea and pratice of the interface is derived from the medium as a representational...

  10. Verden som interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Peter Weibels tekst "The World as Interface" i Passepartout # 27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07......Oversættelse af Peter Weibels tekst "The World as Interface" i Passepartout # 27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07...

  11. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  12. Creating a false memory in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Steve; Liu, Xu; Lin, Pei-Ann; Suh, Junghyup; Pignatelli, Michele; Redondo, Roger L; Ryan, Tomás J; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2013-07-26

    Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram-bearing cells in the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus (DG) or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context were labeled with channelrhodopsin-2. These neurons were later optically reactivated during fear conditioning in a different context. The DG experimental group showed increased freezing in the original context, in which a foot shock was never delivered. The recall of this false memory was context-specific, activated similar downstream regions engaged during natural fear memory recall, and was also capable of driving an active fear response. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to generate an internally represented and behaviorally expressed fear memory via artificial means.

  13. Manipulation of small particles at solid liquid interface: light driven diffusioosmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, David; Maduar, Salim R.; Santer, Mark; Lomadze, Nino; Vinogradova, Olga I.; Santer, Svetlana

    2016-11-01

    The strong adhesion of sub-micron sized particles to surfaces is a nuisance, both for removing contaminating colloids from surfaces and for conscious manipulation of particles to create and test novel micro/nano-scale assemblies. The obvious idea of using detergents to ease these processes suffers from a lack of control: the action of any conventional surface-modifying agent is immediate and global. With photosensitive azobenzene containing surfactants we overcome these limitations. Such photo-soaps contain optical switches (azobenzene molecules), which upon illumination with light of appropriate wavelength undergo reversible trans-cis photo-isomerization resulting in a subsequent change of the physico-chemical molecular properties. In this work we show that when a spatial gradient in the composition of trans- and cis- isomers is created near a solid-liquid interface, a substantial hydrodynamic flow can be initiated, the spatial extent of which can be set, e.g., by the shape of a laser spot. We propose the concept of light induced diffusioosmosis driving the flow, which can remove, gather or pattern a particle assembly at a solid-liquid interface. In other words, in addition to providing a soap we implement selectivity: particles are mobilized and moved at the time of illumination, and only across the illuminated area.

  14. Entanglement and topological interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, E.; Brunner, I.; Jaud, D.; Schmidt-Colinet, C. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper we consider entanglement entropies in two-dimensional conformal field theories in the presence of topological interfaces. Tracing over one side of the interface, the leading term of the entropy remains unchanged. The interface however adds a subleading contribution, which can be interpreted as a relative (Kullback-Leibler) entropy with respect to the situation with no defect inserted. Reinterpreting boundaries as topological interfaces of a chiral half of the full theory, we rederive the left/right entanglement entropy in analogy with the interface case. We discuss WZW models and toroidal bosonic theories as examples. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. A Novel Interface for Information Exploration and Visualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max North

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to investigate the design, implementation, and evaluation of a graphical user interface prototype, called InfoVis, for direct manipulation of databases. This prototype information exploration and visualization interface allows users to explore a database with graphical widgets such as a novel dynamic slider. Specifically, the InfoVis interface enables the user to search a database without the need to create or formulate complex syntactical query statements. The dynamic slider and other widgets are utilized to assist users in mental visualization and representation of objects and actions. A pilot empirical study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the InfoVis interface prototype. The primary results suggest that subjects who used the InfoVis interface performed at a higher level than their counterparts who did not use InfoVis interface.

  16. On Creating and Sustaining Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses an initiative aimed at creating direct and long lasting influence on the use and development of telemedicine and telehealth by healthcare professionals, patients and citizens. The initiative draws on ideas, insights, and lessons learned from Participatory Design...... (PD) as well as from innovation theory and software ecosystems. Last, but not least, the ongoing debate on public finances/economy versus tax evasion by major private companies has been an important element in shaping the vision and creating support for the initiative. This vision is about democratic...

  17. Adaptive optical zoom sensor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweatt, William C.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor

    2005-11-01

    In order to optically vary the magnification of an imaging system, continuous mechanical zoom lenses require multiple optical elements and use fine mechanical motion to precisely adjust the separations between individual or groups of lenses. By incorporating active elements into the optical design, we have designed and demonstrated imaging systems that are capable of variable optical magnification with no macroscopic moving parts. Changing the effective focal length and magnification of an imaging system can be accomplished by adeptly positioning two or more active optics in the optical design and appropriately adjusting the optical power of those elements. In this application, the active optics (e.g. liquid crystal spatial light modulators or deformable mirrors) serve as variable focal-length lenses. Unfortunately, the range over which currently available devices can operate (i.e. their dynamic range) is relatively small. Therefore, the key to this concept is to create large changes in the effective focal length of the system with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual elements by leveraging the optical power of conventional optical elements surrounding the active optics. By appropriately designing the optical system, these variable focal-length lenses can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length, and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses.

  18. Hackable User Interfaces In Astronomy with Glue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, C.; Goodman, A.; Greenfield, P.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomers typically choose between Graphical User Interfaces and custom-written computer code when exploring and analyzing data. Few tools are designed to encourage both of these workflows, despite their complementary strengths. We believe that such hybrid hackable user interfaces could enable more agile data exploration, combining the fluidity that comes from a GUI with the precision and reproducibility that comes from writing code. In this article we articulate the different strengths and weaknesses of both workflows and discuss how to enable both in a single tool. We focus on Glue (http://glue-viz.org) as a case study and examine how the goal of creating a hackable user interface has influenced the design of Glue.

  19. Characterization of silicate/Si(001) interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copel, M.; Cartier, E.; Narayanan, V.; Reuter, M. C.; Guha, S.; Bojarczuk, N.

    2002-11-01

    Many of the proposed high permittivity gate dielectrics for silicon-based microelectronics rely on a stack configuration, with an SiO2 buffer layer to provide an interface. We describe a means for creating gate dielectrics with a direct yttrium silicate-silicon interface through the solid-state reaction of yttria and silicon oxynitride, avoiding the preparation of an oxide-free silicon surface. Characterization by medium-energy ion scattering indicates complete consumption of the underlying oxide through silicate formation during high-temperature annealing. Furthermore, the silicate dielectric exhibits small flat-band voltage shifts, indicating low quantities of charge, without passivation steps. Creation of a silicate-silicon interfaces by a simple route may enable the study of an alternate class of dielectrics.

  20. Ultrafast studies of electron dynamics at metal-dielectric interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Nien-Hui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Femtosecond time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study fundamental aspects of excited electron dynamics at metal-dielectric interfaces, including layer-by-layer evolution of electronic structure and two-dimensional electron localization. On bare Ag(111), the lifetimes of image states are dominated by their position with respect to the projected bulk band structure. The n = 2 state has a shorter lifetime than the n = 1 state due to degeneracy with the bulk conduction band. As the parallel momentum of the n = 1 image electron increases, the lifetime decreases. With decreasing temperatures, the n = 1 image electrons, with zero or nonzero parallel momentum, all become longer lived. Adsorption of one to three layers of n-heptane results in an approximately exponential increase in lifetime as a function of layer thickness. This results from the formation of a tunneling barrier through which the interfacial electrons must decay, consistent with the repulsive bulk electron affinity of n-alkanes. The lifetimes of the higher quantum states indicate that the presence of the monolayer significantly reduces coupling of the image states to the bulk band structure. These results are compared with predictions of a dielectric continuum model. The study of electron lateral motion shows that optical excitation creates interfacial electrons in quasifree states for motion parallel to the n-heptane/Ag(111) interface. These initially delocalized electrons decay into a localized state within a few hundred femtoseconds. The localized electrons then decay back to the metal by tunneling through the adlayer potential barrier. The localization time depends strongly on the electron's initial parallel momentum and exhibits a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence. The experimental findings are consistent with a 2-D self-trapping process in which electrons become localized by interacting with the topmost plane of the alkane layer. The energy

  1. A Java Interface for Roche Lobe Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, D. A.; Leahy, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    A JAVA interface for calculating various properties of the Roche lobe has been created. The geometry of the Roche lobe is important for studying interacting binary stars, particularly those with compact objects which have a companion which fills the Roche lobe. There is no known analytic solution to the Roche lobe problem. Here the geometry of the Roche lobe is calculated numerically to high accuracy and made available to the user for arbitrary input mass ratio, q.

  2. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  3. SPECIAL REPORT: Creating Conference Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel F. Peden

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Capturing video at a conference is easy. Doing it so the product is useful is another matter. Many subtle problems come into play so that video and audio obtained can be used to create a final product. This article discusses what the author learned in the two years of shooting and editing video for Code4Lib conference.

  4. Can Children Really Create Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereiter, Carl; Scardamalia, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    Can children genuinely create new knowledge, as opposed to merely carrying out activities that resemble those of mature scientists and innovators? The answer is yes, provided the comparison is not to works of genius but to standards that prevail in ordinary research communities. One important product of knowledge creation is concepts and tools…

  5. We create our own reality

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    " Yes, we create our own reality. This is one of the most fundamental tenets of the ancient oriental religions, such as Buddhism. And during the last century, modern particle physics or quantum mechanics has discovered exactly the same thing" (1 page).

  6. Creating an Innovative Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how to create an innovative learning (iLearning) organization. It begins by discussing the life cycle of knowledge in an organization, followed by a description of the theoretical foundation for iLearning. Next, the article presents an example of iLearning, followed by a description of the distributed nature of work, the…

  7. Creating Great Overheads with Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribas, Cyndy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Steps in preparing effective overhead projector transparencies for college instruction are outlined, using the PowerPoint program for Windows. They include thinking analogically in translating from concept to visual form; using the features of the presentation program to create a polished product; and assuring readability (visibility, typeface…

  8. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  9. Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpe, Norm

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…

  10. Creating Space for Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As teachers struggle to balance the needs of their students with the requirements of commercial reading materials, educators need to consider how teachers will create space for children's literature in today's classrooms. In this article, 10 practical recommendations for incorporating children's literature in the reading instructional framework…

  11. Design and Implementation of an Application. Programming Interface for Volume Rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Selldin, Håkan

    2002-01-01

    To efficiently examine volumetric data sets from CT or MRI scans good volume rendering applications are needed. This thesis describes the design and implementation of an application programming interface (API) to be used when developing volume-rendering applications. A complete application programming interface has been designed. The interface is designed so that it makes writing application programs containing volume rendering fast and easy. The interface also makes created application progr...

  12. Cross-Sectional Measuring of Optical Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with problematic of measuring of optical beam in free space optics (FSO. The professional FSO link was created between two buildings standing 1,5 kilometers apart from each other. Signal passing through the atmospheric media between optical heads is affected. This happens due to effects in atmospheric media. This article describes creating of the device for measuring the intensity of optical beam in 2D space and its subsequent rendering into 3D graph.

  13. Creating the future with all finance and financial conglomerates

    CERN Document Server

    Berghe, Lutgart

    1998-01-01

    Creating the Future with All Finance and Financial Conglomerates comprises an academic search for an understanding of all finance and financial conglomerates. It presents a strategic and economic analysis of diversification strategies and the growing interface between different types of financial firms. On the basis of a solid analysis of theoretical foundations and practical value, the book develops basic concepts of creating the future: especially solutions in managing risks and fresh ideas for the development of integrated financial services. The structure of the book is logical: starting on theoretical foundations (section 1, part A) and examining the economic value of All Finance and Financial Conglomerates (part B), leads to creating a concept for the future (part C). Case studies add additional practical value to this research. The review of the subject is completed by aspects of risk management in this sector and by political guidelines for the EU single market (section 2). The book builds further on ...

  14. The interface effect

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces are back, or perhaps they never left. The familiar Socratic conceit from the Phaedrus, of communication as the process of writing directly on the soul of the other, has returned to center stage in today's discussions of culture and media. Indeed Western thought has long construed media as a grand choice between two kinds of interfaces. Following the optimistic path, media seamlessly interface self and other in a transparent and immediate connection. But, following the pessimistic path, media are the obstacles to direct communion, disintegrating self and other into misunderstanding

  15. Operator interface for vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  16. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  17. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  18. The computer graphics interface

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrugge Chauveau, Karla; Niles Reed, Theodore; Shepherd, B

    2014-01-01

    The Computer Graphics Interface provides a concise discussion of computer graphics interface (CGI) standards. The title is comprised of seven chapters that cover the concepts of the CGI standard. Figures and examples are also included. The first chapter provides a general overview of CGI; this chapter covers graphics standards, functional specifications, and syntactic interfaces. Next, the book discusses the basic concepts of CGI, such as inquiry, profiles, and registration. The third chapter covers the CGI concepts and functions, while the fourth chapter deals with the concept of graphic obje

  19. Radiation-Suppressed plasmonic open resonators designed by nonmagnetic transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyi; Wang, Xingjue; Yu, Tianyuan; Sun, Handong; Zhang, Baile

    2012-01-01

    How to confine light energy associated with surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a physical space with minimal radiation loss whereas creating maximum interacting section with surrounding environment is of particular interest in plasmonic optics. By virtue of transformation optics, we propose a design method of forming a polygonal surface-plasmonic resonator in fully open structures by applying the nonmagnetic affine transformation optics strategy. The radiation loss can be suppressed because SPPs that propagate in the designed open structures will be deceived as if they were propagating on a flat metal/dielectric interface without radiation. Because of the nonmagnetic nature of the transformation strategy, this design can be implemented with dielectric materials available in nature. An experimentally verifiable model is subsequently proposed for future experimental demonstration. Our design may find potential applications in omnidirectional sensing, light harvesting, energy storage and plasmonic lasing. PMID:23136641

  20. Interface Anywhere Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To illustrate the viability of this technology, a prototype Natural User Interface (NUI) was developed as a proof-of-concept for system control.  Gesture and...

  1. Space as interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    of interactive systems through the Ph.D. project, I have identified different significant aspects in the relation between space and interface. Based on empirical work, I distill a fragment of work concerned with cameras as the interface for bridging the gap between physical and digital space. By looking across...... multiple projects spanning over fields such as tangible user interfaces, augmented reality, and mobile computing, a conceptual framework characterizing camera-based mixed interaction spaces is developed. To show the applicability of the framework, it is deployed on one of the presented cases and discussed...... to conceptualize space as more than the physical container for human activity. I do this by investigating space as interface. Based on a theory of space and place set forth by Tuan (Tuan, 1977), and informed by an explorative research approach, I make the distinction between space and place as a Euclidian space...

  2. Tailoring Heterovalent Interface Formation with Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwangwook; Alberi, Kirstin

    2017-08-17

    Integrating different semiconductor materials into an epitaxial device structure offers additional degrees of freedom to select for optimal material properties in each layer. However, interface between materials with different valences (i.e. III-V, II-VI and IV semiconductors) can be difficult to form with high quality. Using ZnSe/GaAs as a model system, we explore the use of UV illumination during heterovalent interface growth by molecular beam epitaxy as a way to modify the interface properties. We find that UV illumination alters the mixture of chemical bonds at the interface, permitting the formation of Ga-Se bonds that help to passivate the underlying GaAs layer. Illumination also helps to reduce defects in the ZnSe epilayer. These results suggest that moderate UV illumination during growth may be used as a way to improve the optical properties of both the GaAs and ZnSe layers on either side of the interface.

  3. Nonlinear photon-assisted tunneling transport in optical gap antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Arnaud; Berthelot, Johann; Mennemanteuil, Marie-Maxime; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Markey, Laurent; Meunier, Vincent; Bouhelier, Alexandre

    2014-05-14

    We introduce strongly coupled optical gap antennas to interface optical radiation with current-carrying electrons at the nanoscale. The transducer relies on the nonlinear optical and electrical properties of an optical gap antenna operating in the tunneling regime. We discuss the underlying physical mechanisms controlling the conversion involving d-band electrons and demonstrate that a simple two-wire optical antenna can provide advanced optoelectronic functionalities beyond tailoring the electromagnetic response of a single emitter. Interfacing an electronic command layer with a nanoscale optical device may thus be facilitated by the optical rectennas discussed here.

  4. Anchored design of protein-protein interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Lewis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few existing protein-protein interface design methods allow for extensive backbone rearrangements during the design process. There is also a dichotomy between redesign methods, which take advantage of the native interface, and de novo methods, which produce novel binders. METHODOLOGY: Here, we propose a new method for designing novel protein reagents that combines advantages of redesign and de novo methods and allows for extensive backbone motion. This method requires a bound structure of a target and one of its natural binding partners. A key interaction in this interface, the anchor, is computationally grafted out of the partner and into a surface loop on the design scaffold. The design scaffold's surface is then redesigned with backbone flexibility to create a new binding partner for the target. Careful choice of a scaffold will bring experimentally desirable characteristics into the new complex. The use of an anchor both expedites the design process and ensures that binding proceeds against a known location on the target. The use of surface loops on the scaffold allows for flexible-backbone redesign to properly search conformational space. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This protocol was implemented within the Rosetta3 software suite. To demonstrate and evaluate this protocol, we have developed a benchmarking set of structures from the PDB with loop-mediated interfaces. This protocol can recover the correct loop-mediated interface in 15 out of 16 tested structures, using only a single residue as an anchor.

  5. Interface-Based Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1466, pages 163–178. Springer-Verlag, 1998. A. Chakrabarti, L. de Alfaro, T.A...Henzinger, M. Jurdziński, and F.Y.C. Mang. Interface compatibility checking for software modules. In Proc. Computer-Aided Verification, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2404...bidirectional component interfaces. In Proc. Computer-Aided Verification, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2404, pages 414–427.

  6. Creating a climate for excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, J

    1985-01-01

    Some people are motivated to achieve in a manner consistent with the goals of their organization while others pursue individual goals. The attitudes people hold determine their behavior. Therefore, the manager is charged with creating an environment that fosters employee commitment to organizational goals. To create a climate for achievement, managers must recognize that all employees want recognition. Employees perform more effectively when they understand the goals of the organization, know what is expected of them, and are part of a system that includes feedback and reinforcement. Generally, people perform more effectively in an environment with minimal threat and punishment; individual responsibility should be encouraged, rewards based on results, and a climate of trust and open communication should prevail.

  7. Leadership Networking Connect, Collaborate, Create

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Baldwin, David

    2011-01-01

    Networking is essential to effective leadership in today's organizations. Leaders who are skilled networkers have access to people, information, and resources to help solve problems and create opportunities. Leaders who neglect their networks are missing out on a critical component of their role as leaders. This book will help leaders take a new view of networking and provide insight into how to enhance their networks and become effective at leadership networking.

  8. Creating a Mobile Library Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutshall, Tom C.; Blake, Lindsay; Bandy, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    The overwhelming results were iPhones and Android devices. Since the library wasn't equipped technologically to develop an in-house application platform and because we wanted the content to work across all mobile platforms, we decided to focus on creating a mobile web-based platform. From the NLM page of mobile sites we chose the basic PubMed/…

  9. Room-temperature spin-photon interface for quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Fang-Yu; Fu, Jing-Li; Wu, Yan; Zhu, Zhi-Yan

    2017-02-01

    Although remarkable progress has been achieved recently, to construct an optical cavity where a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colour centre in diamond is coupled to an optical field in the strong coupling regime is rather difficult. We propose an architecture for a scalable quantum interface capable of interconverting photonic and NV spin qubits, which can work well without the strong coupling requirement. The dynamics of the interface applies an adiabatic passage to sufficiently reduce the decoherence from an excited state of a NV colour centre in diamond. This quantum interface can accomplish many quantum network operations like state transfer and entanglement distribution between qubits at distant nodes. Exact numerical simulations show that high-fidelity quantum interface operations can be achieved under room-temperature and realistic experimental conditions.

  10. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW) technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS) LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/). PMID:25755929

  11. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M. Benson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/.

  12. High temperature interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozar, A., E-mail: adrian.gozar@yale.edu [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bozovic, I. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T{sub c} superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T{sub c} Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  13. T:XML: A Tool Supporting User Interface Model Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaquero, Víctor; Montero, Francisco; González, Pascual

    Model driven development of user interfaces is based on the transformation of an abstract specification into the final user interface the user will interact with. The design of transformation rules to carry out this transformation process is a key issue in any model-driven user interface development approach. In this paper, we introduce T:XML, an integrated development environment for managing, creating and previewing transformation rules. The tool supports the specification of transformation rules by using a graphical notation that works on the basis of the transformation of the input model into a graph-based representation. T:XML allows the design and execution of transformation rules in an integrated development environment. Furthermore, the designer can also preview how the generated user interface looks like after the transformations have been applied. These previewing capabilities can be used to quickly create prototypes to discuss with the users in user-centered design methods.

  14. Rapid Prototyping of Hydrologic Model Interfaces with IPython

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, M. W.; Winters, K. D.; Ahmadia, A. J.; Hesser, T.; Howington, S. E.; Johnson, B. D.; Tate, J.; Kees, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    A significant gulf still exists between the state of practice and state of the art in hydrologic modeling. Part of this gulf is due to the lack of adequate pre- and post-processing tools for newly developed computational models. The development of user interfaces has traditionally lagged several years behind the development of a particular computational model or suite of models. As a result, models with mature interfaces often lack key advancements in model formulation, solution methods, and/or software design and technology. Part of the problem has been a focus on developing monolithic tools to provide comprehensive interfaces for the entire suite of model capabilities. Such efforts require expertise in software libraries and frameworks for creating user interfaces (e.g., Tcl/Tk, Qt, and MFC). These tools are complex and require significant investment in project resources (time and/or money) to use. Moreover, providing the required features for the entire range of possible applications and analyses creates a cumbersome interface. For a particular site or application, the modeling requirements may be simplified or at least narrowed, which can greatly reduce the number and complexity of options that need to be accessible to the user. However, monolithic tools usually are not adept at dynamically exposing specific workflows. Our approach is to deliver highly tailored interfaces to users. These interfaces may be site and/or process specific. As a result, we end up with many, customized interfaces rather than a single, general-use tool. For this approach to be successful, it must be efficient to create these tailored interfaces. We need technology for creating quality user interfaces that is accessible and has a low barrier for integration into model development efforts. Here, we present efforts to leverage IPython notebooks as tools for rapid prototyping of site and application-specific user interfaces. We provide specific examples from applications in near

  15. Infrared modulation spectroscopy of interfaces in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Kai; Schiff, E.A. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, 13244-1130 Syracuse, NY (United States); Ganguly, G. [BP Solar, 23168 Toano, VA (United States)

    2002-04-01

    We report infrared depletion modulation spectra for near-interface states in a-Si pin solar cells. The effect of additional visible illumination (optical bias) was explored as a means to separate the spectra for n/i and p/i interface states. We found a sharp, optical bias-induced spectral line near 0.8 eV. We attribute this line due to internal optical transitions of dopant-defect complexes in the a-SiC:H:B p-layer of the cells. We discuss the spatial location of the depletion modulation regions, and suggest that this location shifts across the n/i and p/i interfaces for cells with differing deposition and illumination conditions.

  16. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  17. User Interface Aspects of a Human-Hand Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifang Yi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the user interface design for a human-hand simulation system, a virtual environment that produces ground truth data (life-like human hand gestures and animations and provides visualization support for experiments on computer vision-based hand pose estimation and tracking. The system allows users to save time in data generation and easily create any hand gestures. We have designed and implemented this user interface with the consideration of usability goals and software engineering issues.

  18. User Interface Aspects of a Human-Hand Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifang Yi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the user interface design for a human-hand simulation system, a virtual environment that produces ground truth data (life-like human hand gestures and animations and provides visualization support for experiments on computer vision-based hand pose estimation and tracking. The system allows users to save time in data generation and easily create any hand gestures. We have designed and implemented this user interface with the consideration of usability goals and software engineering issues.

  19. Perceptual and Context Aware Interfaces on Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jingtao

    2010-01-01

    With an estimated 4.6 billion units in use, mobile phones have already become the most popular computing device in human history. Their portability and communication capabilities may revolutionize how people do their daily work and interact with other people in ways PCs have done during the past 30 years. Despite decades of experiences in creating modern WIMP (windows, icons, mouse, pointer) interfaces, our knowledge in building effective mobile interfaces is still limited, especially for eme...

  20. Tailoring thermal interfaces with nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Indira

    mobility via pre-cure gelation, and hinder crosslinking. This thesis also demonstrates novel techniques to create tailored nanowires and networks for high k nanocomposites. Branched Ag nanowires are synthesized via controlled interruptions to microwave-stimulated polyvinylpyrrolidone-directed polyol-reduction of silver nitrate. Microwave exposure results in micrometer-long nanowires passivated with polyvinylpyrrolidone. Cooling the reaction mixture by interrupting microwave exposure promotes nanocrystal nucleation at low-surfactant coverage sites. The nascent nuclei grow into nanowire branches upon further microwave exposure. Dispersions of low fractions of the branched nanowires in polydimethylsiloxane yield up to 60 % higher thermal conductivity than that obtained using unbranched nanowire fillers. A forty-fold thermal conductivity increase is obtained by in situ welding of silver nanowire fillers inside polydimethylsiloxane using microwaves. Even for ≤ 0.04 filler volume fractions, welding facilitates nanowire networking that counteracts thermal transport bottlenecks associated with the low polymer thermal conductivity and high polymer-filler interface thermal resistances. The transparency of the polymer to microwaves precludes thermal degradation, and the composites retain high mechanical compliance as indicated by thesis further explores the use of external stimuli in the form of magnetic fields to reversibly induce nanoparticle networking and gate heat transport at interfaces, a requirement in many emerging applications. It is demonstrated that magnetic field actuation of ~ 3 - 16 vol. % of magnetite or cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles in a fluid matrix yields ~16 times enhancement of the no field effective thermal conductivity, but only in a gradient magnetic field. Heat transfer modeling shows that the enhancement arises from magnetic field gradient driven bulk convection, rather than the expected nanoparticle network formation.

  1. Creating a digital medical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the steps required to complete a medical illustration in a digital format using Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. The project example is the surgical procedure for the release of the glenohumeral joint for the condition known as 'frozen shoulder'. The purpose is to demonstrate one method which an artist can use within digital media to create a colour illustration such as the release of the glenohumeral joint. Included is a general overview as how to deal with the administration of a medical illustration commission through the experience of a professional freelance artist.

  2. Optical Orientation in Ferromagnet/Semiconductor Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2008-01-01

    The physics of optical pumping of semiconductor electrons in the ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids is discussed. Optically oriented semiconductor electrons detect the magnetic state of the ferromagnetic film. In turn, the ferromagnetism of the hybrid can be controlled optically with the help of the semiconductor. Spin-spin interactions near the interface ferromagnet/semiconductor play crucial role in the optical readout and the manipulation of ferromagnetism.

  3. Study of a recombination X-ray laser scheme in a H-like nitrogen plasma created by optical field induced ionization; Etude de la faisabilite d'un laser X en recombinaison dans un plasma d'azote hydrogenoide cree par effet tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulin, S

    2001-07-01

    Thanks to their high brightness and short wavelength, X ray lasers are interesting diagnostics in many experiments because they can efficiently probe dense plasmas. Furthermore their mono-chromaticity and collimation make them interesting tools in plasma physics but also in many biology or chemistry experiments. The effective use of this diagnostic is mainly depending on its dimensions and cost. For this reason, research on X ray laser is now focused on the reduction of cost and the realization of table-top facilities. One of these research axis, based on the optical field induced ionization (OFI) of the plasma, is presented in this work. An ultra-short (60 fs) high-brightness (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) Ti:Sapphire (790 nm) laser is focused into a nitrogen pulsed gas jet. A dense (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) plasma of fully stripped nitrogen is created by the way. During the fast recombination of the plasma some population inversions between levels of principal quantum number 2 and 1 (2.4 nm) and 3 and 2 (13.4 nm) can occur depending on the plasma parameters. The creation of the plasma by OFI, laser-plasma interaction dominated by relativistic self-focusing, and recombination dynamics are studied by numerical simulations on one hand and experiments on the other hand. Temperature measurements and numerical simulations show a strong heating, destructive for the laser scheme, which can be explained by Raman instability growing. Nevertheless plasma X ray emission in the 2-20 nm range show a strong increase with the electronic density of the 13.4 nm line intensity. This behavior is consistent with a laser effect but is not detected on the 2.4 nm transition line. (author)

  4. Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on Si surfaces and interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy studies of Si(111) surfaces and interfaces are reviewed for two types of systems: (1) clean 7 x 7 and root 3 x root 3-Ag reconstructed surfaces prepared under ultra-high vacuum conditions where surface states are excited and (2) interfaces......-like interband transitions that can be referred to excitations of dangling bond surface states. Adsorption of oxygen leads to formation of a new surface resonance. Such resonances appearing in the region between the bulk critical points E-1 and E-2 are also shown to be important for Si/oxide interfaces in SOI...

  5. Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) development guidelines: User interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Loffman, R.S.; Stevens, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    This user interface document is the first in a series of development guidelines for the Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) project. This report documents the user interface design as it currently exists. These guidelines, which are specific to the current ADANS operating environment, will be used by the developers of ADANS to create a consistent, efficient, and logical user interface. A good user interface optimizes the interactions between a computer system and the personnel using the system and minimizes conditions that degrade human performance or cause human error. ADANS is still under development; as new capabilities become available to the ADANS development team, the ADANS user interface will be modified. Thus, a revision of this report is expected. 3 refs.

  6. Future of gradient index optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Hideki; Hamanaka, Kenjiro; Graham, Alan C., III; Zhu, X. Frank

    2001-11-01

    First developed over 30 years ago, gradient index lenses play an important role not only in telecommunications technology, but also in applications such as information interface and biomedical technology. Traditional manufacturing consists of doping a certain ion, A+ into the mother glass, drawing the glass into rods and then immersing the rods into s molten salt bath containing another certain ion B+. During a thermal ion exchange process, the original ion migrates out of the mother glass, and is replaced by the alternate ion, creating a refractive index variation. Current research is being conducted to improve the thermal ion exchange technology, and open new applications. This research includes extending working distances to greater than 100mm, decreasing the lens diameter, increasing the effective radius, and combining the technology with other technologies such as photolithographically etched masks to produce arrays of gradient index lenses. As a result of this ongoing research, the gradient index lens is expected to continue to be the enabling optical technology in the first decade of the new millennium and beyond.

  7. Creating your own leadership brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2002-01-01

    Building equity in a brand happens through many encounters. The initial attraction must be followed by the meeting of expectations. This creates a loyalty that is part of an emotional connection to that brand. This is the same process people go through when they first meet a leader and decide if this is a person they want to buy into. People will examine your style, your competence, and your standards. If you fail on any of these fronts, your ability to lead will be severely compromised. People expect more of leaders now, because they know and recognize good leaders. And, predictably, people are now more cynical of leaders because of the well-publicized excess of a few leaders who advanced their own causes at the expense of their people and their financial future. This will turn out to be a good thing, because it will create a higher standard of leadership that all must aspire to achieve. When the bar is raised for us, our standards of performance are also raised.

  8. OPPOSITIONS CREATING HOMOUR IN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umral Deveci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human beings, who perceive the reality of death however who do not know when it will happen, begin their life with this deficiency. Therefore, throughout their lives, they struggle to consummate and make up for the things that they perceive as deficiency or shortcomings through different ways. Humor is one of these means. The fact that deficiencies are eliminated results in superiority and relaxation. The sense of humor and relaxation simultaneously provide laughter. When theories of humor such as superiority, incongruous and relief are taken into consideration, it seems that these theories are related and support each other. Each text is whole with its form and content, which should be evaluated as a whole as much as possible. Hence this study dwells on shortcomings in jokes and in the lights of these shortcomings and theories of humor, it is intended tomake humor in stories, in terms of structural and semantic context, more concrete. Five stories/jokes randomly selected through samples are analyzed in this article. There are two basic types of opposition. The firstone is opposition that creates situation, the second one is thatcreates laughter. The first opposition depicts the shortcomings of knowledge, skill, patience arrogance and jealousyand prepares the second opposition. The opposition that creates laughter make up for shortcomings through cause and effect relationship and laughter comes out.

  9. Creating your own leadership brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2002-01-01

    Building equity in a brand happens through many encounters. The initial attraction must be followed by the meeting of expectations. This creates a loyalty that is part of an emotional connection to that brand. This is the same process people go through when they first meet a leader and decide if this is a person they want to buy into. People will examine your style, your competence, and your standards. If you fail on any of these fronts, your ability to lead will be severely compromised. People expect more of leaders now, because they know and recognize good leaders. And, predictably, people are now more cynical of leaders because of the well-publicized excess of a few leaders who advanced their own causes at the expense of their people and their financial future. This will turn out to be a good thing, because it will create a higher standard of leadership that all must aspire to achieve. When the bar is raised for us, our standards of performance are also raised.

  10. Different matrix evaluation for the bone regeneration of rats' femours using time domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Hoinoiu, Bogdan; Zaharia, Cristian; Ardelean, Lavinia; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    The osteoconductive materials are important in bone regeneration procedures. Three dimensional (3D) reconstructions were obtained from the analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate the interface between the femur rat bone and the new bone that is obtained using a method of tissue engineering that is based on two artificial matrixes inserted in previously artificially induced defects. For this study, under strict supervision 20 rats were used in conformity with ethical procedures. In all the femurs a round defect was induced by drilling with a 1 mm spherical Co-Cr surgical drill. The matrixes used were IngeniOss (for ten samples) and 4Bone(for the other ten samples). These materials were inserted into the induced defects. The femurs were investigated at 1 month, after the surgical procedures. The interfaces were examined using Time Domain (TD) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) combined with Confocal Microscopy (CM). The scanning procedure is similar to that used in any CM, where the fast scanning is en-face (line rate) and the scanning in depth is much slower (at the frame rate). The optical configuration uses two single mode directional couplers with a superluminiscent diode as the source centered at 1300 nm. The results showed open interfaces due to the insufficient healing process, as well as closed interfaces due to a new bone formation inside the defect. The conclusion of this study is that TD-OCT can act as a valuable tool in the investigation of the interface between the old bone and the one that has been newly created due to the osteoinductive process. The TD-OCT has proven a valuable tool for the non-invasive evaluation of the matrix bone interfaces.

  11. Optical quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2007-12-07

    In 2001, all-optical quantum computing became feasible with the discovery that scalable quantum computing is possible using only single-photon sources, linear optical elements, and single-photon detectors. Although it was in principle scalable, the massive resource overhead made the scheme practically daunting. However, several simplifications were followed by proof-of-principle demonstrations, and recent approaches based on cluster states or error encoding have dramatically reduced this worrying resource overhead, making an all-optical architecture a serious contender for the ultimate goal of a large-scale quantum computer. Key challenges will be the realization of high-efficiency sources of indistinguishable single photons, low-loss, scalable optical circuits, high-efficiency single-photon detectors, and low-loss interfacing of these components.

  12. Optical controlled keyboard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyński, Łukasz; Długosz, Dariusz; Niewiarowski, Bartosz; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2011-06-01

    Control systems of our computers are common devices, based on the manipulation of keys or a moving ball. Completely healthy people have no problems with the operation of such devices. Human disability makes everyday activities become a challenge and create trouble. When a man can not move his hands, the work becomes difficult or often impossible. Controlled optical keyboard is a modern device that allows to bypass the limitations of disability limbs. The use of wireless optical transmission allows to control computer using a laser beam, which cooperates with the photodetectors. The article presents the construction and operation of non-contact optical keyboard for people with disabilities.

  13. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  14. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... the user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input...... and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding...

  15. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations......The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...... history at large have been sparse. However, a small spate of publications appeared recently, so a reasonable number of papers are available. Hence this work-in-progress paints a portrait of the current history of user interfaces at large. The paper first describes a theoretical framework recruited from...

  16. An Abstract Data Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  17. Urban water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  18. LaAlO3/SrTiO3界面的电子结构及光学性质的第一性原理研究%First-principles study of electronic structure and optical properties of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐明君; 杨仕清; 梁桃华; 杨清学; 刘科

    2013-01-01

    采用基于密度泛函理论框架下的第一性原理平面波超软赝势方法,结合局域密度近似(LDA)研究了钙钛矿结构氧化物LaAlO3/SrTiO3界面的电子结构及光学性质.能带结构分析表明当形成(AlO2)-/(TiO2)0界面时其禁带宽度为1.888 eV,呈现绝缘体的性质,当形成(LaO)+/(SrO)0界面时其禁带宽度为0.021eV,呈现半导体或半金属性质.同时,对不同界面的光学性质也进行了研究,结果表明纯相的LaAlO3和SrTiO3的吸收系数、反射系数及能量损失谱强度明显高于由这两种单质形成不同界面的强度.%The electronic structure and optical properties of the perovskite oxide LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface were studied by the density functional theory (DFT) based on First-principles plane wave pseudopotential method.The energy band structure analysis shows that when the (AlO2)-/(TiO2)0 is formed,it exhibits insulating behavior with the band gap being 1.888 eV,while when the (LaO)+/(SrO)0 is formed,it exhibits semiconductor or semimetallic behavior with the band gap being 0.021 eV.Moreover,we have also investigated optical properties of the different interfaces,the results indicate that the intensities of absorption,reflectivity,and energy loss spectra of LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 are higher than the corresponding intensities of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces.

  19. Photonics surface waves on metamaterials interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Osamu; Bogdanov, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2017-09-12

    A surface wave (SW) in optics is a light wave, which is supported at an interface of two dissimilar media and propagates along the interface with its field amplitude exponentially decaying away from the boundary. The research on surface waves has been flourishing in last few decades thanks to their unique properties of surface sensitivity and field localization. These features have resulted in applications in nano-guiding, sensing, light-trapping and imaging based on the near-field techniques, contributing to the establishment of the nanophotonics as a field of research. Up to present, a wide variety of surface waves has been investigated in numerous material and structure settings. This paper reviews the recent progress and development in the physics of SWs localized at metamaterial interfaces, as well as bulk media in order to provide broader perspectives on optical surface waves in general. For each type of the surface waves, we discuss material and structural platforms. We mainly focus on experimental realizations in the visible and near-infrared wavelength ranges. We also address existing and potential application of SWs in chemical and biological sensing, and experimental excitation and characterization methods. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Politics at the interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannabiran, Gobinaath; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2010-01-01

    the process of design and into how users interact with the designed product on a day-to-day basis. This paper is an attempt to call to attention the need for a new set of methods, attitudes and approaches, along with the existing, to discuss, analyze and reflect upon the politics at the interface....... By presenting a critical analysis of two design cases, we elicit the importance of such an agenda and the implications for design in doing so. We use the Foucauldian notion of power to analyze the power relationships in these two cases and to articulate the politics at the interface. We conclude by emphasizing...

  1. Semiconductor Oxide Interface States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    0C for 30 minutes. B 9 7 and B17 curves were taken before forming gas annealing and A297 and A77 were taken after annealing in forming gas... A297 and A77’ AL .show a substantial reduction of interface states and a slight increase of positive oxide charges. The reduction of the interface...states is deduced from the voltage differences between A297 and the A77 C-V curves both above and below the cross-over point which are smaller than the

  2. Distributed User Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gallud, Jose A; Penichet, Victor M R

    2011-01-01

    The recent advances in display technologies and mobile devices is having an important effect on the way users interact with all kinds of devices (computers, mobile devices, laptops, tablets, and so on). These are opening up new possibilities for interaction, including the distribution of the UI (User Interface) amongst different devices, and implies that the UI can be split and composed, moved, copied or cloned among devices running the same or different operating systems. These new ways of manipulating the UI are considered under the emerging topic of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs). DUIs

  3. Interaction of cylindrically converging diffracted shock with uniform interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Ding, Juchun; Zhai, Zhigang; Si, Ting; Luo, Xisheng

    2017-08-01

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of an unperturbed air/SF6 interface subjected to a diffracted shock is experimentally studied by high-speed schlieren photography under cylindrical circumstances. The cylindrically converging diffracted shock (CCDS) is produced by a cylindrically uniform shock diffracting around a rigid cylinder(s), and the unperturbed interface is created by a soap film technique. The effects of coupling of multiple rigid cylinders and diverse spacings from the cylinder to interface on a flow field are highlighted. Schlieren images indicate that the amplitude of disturbances on the CCDS increases compared with the local shock radius. After the CCDS impact, a bulge is derived from the interface due to the shock-shock interaction inside the interface, and the number of bulges depends upon the number of cylinders. As the number of cylinders increases, the bulge becomes less pronounced, which is ascribed to additional shock-shock interactions inside the volume. As the distance between the cylinder and interface increases, an air cavity is first observed before the formation of a bulge. The amplitude of perturbation on the interface is found to reduce before the central reflected shock arrival because of the Rayleigh-Taylor stabilization effect. Through equating the pre-interface disturbance of the CCDS to the pre-shock perturbation of the perturbed interface, the initially linear growth rate is theoretically computed based on the impulsive model considering the Bell-Plesset effect. The theoretical results are found to deviate greatly from the experimental counterparts. Instead, taking the post-shock interface amplitude as an initial interface amplitude, the model works well. Therefore, the interface perturbations produced are notably smaller than the disturbances causing them. Moreover, the nonlinear behavior of perturbation growth is estimated by the model considering the Rayleigh-Taylor effect.

  4. Local Electronic And Dielectric Properties at Nanosized Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnell, Dawn A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Final Report to the Department of Energy for period 6/1/2000 to 11/30/2014 for Grant # DE-FG02-00ER45813-A000 to the University of Pennsylvania Local Electronic And Dielectric Properties at Nanosized Interfaces PI: Dawn Bonnell The behavior of grain boundaries and interfaces has been a focus of fundamental research for decades because variations of structure and composition at interfaces dictate mechanical, electrical, optical and dielectric properties in solids. Similarly, the consequence of atomic and electronic structures of surfaces to chemical and physical interactions are critical due to their implications to catalysis and device fabrication. Increasing fundamental understanding of surfaces and interfaces has materially advanced technologies that directly bear on energy considerations. Currently, exciting developments in materials processing are enabling creative new electrical, optical and chemical device configurations. Controlled synthesis of nanoparticles, semiconducting nanowires and nanorods, optical quantum dots, etc. along with a range of strategies for assembling and patterning nanostructures portend the viability of new devices that have the potential to significantly impact the energy landscape. As devices become smaller the impact of interfaces and surfaces grows geometrically. As with other nanoscale phenomena, small interfaces do not exhibit the same properties as do large interfaces. The size dependence of interface properties had not been explored and understanding at the most fundamental level is necessary to the advancement of nanostructured devices. An equally important factor in the behavior of interfaces in devices is the ability to examine the interfaces under realistic conditions. For example, interfaces and boundaries dictate the behavior of oxide fuel cells which operate at extremely high temperatures in dynamic high pressure chemical environments. These conditions preclude the characterization of local properties during fuel cell

  5. Creating and Testing Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinich, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to learn about the software development process, specifically the process to test and fix components of the software. The paper will cover the techniques of testing code, and the benefits of using one style of testing over another. It will also discuss the overall software design and development lifecycle, and how code testing plays an integral role in it. Coding is notorious for always needing to be debugged due to coding errors or faulty program design. Writing tests either before or during program creation that cover all aspects of the code provide a relatively easy way to locate and fix errors, which will in turn decrease the necessity to fix a program after it is released for common use. The backdrop for this paper is the Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI), a project whose goal is to simulate a launch using simulated models of the ground systems and the connections between them and the control room. The simulations will be used for training and to ensure that all possible outcomes and complications are prepared for before the actual launch day. The code being tested is the Programmable Logic Controller Interface (PLCIF) code, the component responsible for transferring the information from the models to the model Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), basic computers that are used for very simple tasks.

  6. Python fiber optic seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ystesund, K.; Bartberger, J.; Brusseau, C.; Fleming, P.; Insch, K.; Tolk, K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication of unauthorized entry. The seal includes a fingerprint feature that provides seal identity information in addition to the unique fiber optic pattern created when the seal is installed. The fiber optic cable used for the seal loop is produced with tamper resistant features that increase the difficulty of attacking that component of a seal. A Seal Reader has been developed that will record the seal signature and the fingerprint feature of the seal. A Correlator software program then compares seal images to establish a match or mismatch. SNL is also developing a Polaroid reader to permit hard copies of the seal patterns to be obtained directly from the seal.

  7. Creating genetic resistance to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, John C; Zaia, John A; Rossi, John J

    2012-10-01

    HIV/AIDS remains a chronic and incurable disease, in spite of the notable successes of combination antiretroviral therapy. Gene therapy offers the prospect of creating genetic resistance to HIV that supplants the need for antiviral drugs. In sight of this goal, a variety of anti-HIV genes have reached clinical testing, including gene-editing enzymes, protein-based inhibitors, and RNA-based therapeutics. Combinations of therapeutic genes against viral and host targets are designed to improve the overall antiviral potency and reduce the likelihood of viral resistance. In cell-based therapies, therapeutic genes are expressed in gene modified T lymphocytes or in hematopoietic stem cells that generate an HIV-resistant immune system. Such strategies must promote the selective proliferation of the transplanted cells and the prolonged expression of therapeutic genes. This review focuses on the current advances and limitations in genetic therapies against HIV, including the status of several recent and ongoing clinical studies.

  8. Can Children Really Create Knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Bereiter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Can children genuinely create new knowledge, as opposed to merely carrying out activities that resemble those of mature scientists and innovators? The answer is yes, provided the comparison is not to works of genius but to standards that prevail in ordinary research communities. One important product of knowledge creation is concepts and tools that enable further knowledge creation. This is the kind of knowledge creation of greatest value in childhood education. Examples of it, drawn from elementary school knowledge-building classrooms, are examined to show both the attainability and the authenticity of knowledge creation to enable knowledge creation. It is mainly achieved through students’ theory building, and it is a powerful way of converting declarative knowledge to productive knowledge.

  9. Optical network democratization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-06

    The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation.

  10. Vitality of optical vortices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical vortices are always created or annihilated in pairs with opposite topological charges. However, the presence of such a vortex dipole does not directly indicate whether they are associated with a creation or an annihilation event. Here we...

  11. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  12. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  13. Soldier-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-27

    understandable units. (5) Immediate Feedback : Operators should always be presented with readily understandable information so that they know...operation, system response time, and special commands. d. Feedback : Operators should always be presented with readily understandable information on...considerations (handedness, physical strength, wearing of eyeglasses, and facility of spoken English). TABLE 3. SOLDIER-COMPUTER INTERFACE CRITERIA

  14. Is the interface OK?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.

    When a peripheral device fails, software methods can be initially resorted to before the usual hardware test procedures are used. A test program is presented here that allows various peripherals, inter-faced to a Norsk Data computer, to be tested...

  15. General purpose operator interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, S. I.

    1979-07-01

    The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington is developing a general-purpose operator interface for controlling set-point driven processes. The interface concept is being developed around graphics display devices with touch-sensitive screens for direct interaction with the displays. Additional devices such as trackballs and keyboards are incorporated for the operator's convenience, but are not necessary for operation. The hardware and software are modular; only those capabilities needed for a particular application need to be used. The software is written in FORTRAN IV with minimal use of operating system calls to increase portability. Several ASCII files generated by the user define displays and correlate the display variables with the process parameters. It is also necessary for the user to build an interface routine which translates the internal graphics commands into device-specific commands. The interface is suited for both continuous flow processes and unit operations. An especially useful feature for controlling unit operations is the ability to generate and execute complex command sequences from ASCII files. This feature relieves operators of many repetitive tasks. 2 figures.

  16. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live...

  17. Source interface for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    This interface is part of the ALICE detector data link (DDL), which transmits data at 100 Mbytes/sec from the detectors to a host computer. A total of 400 DDLs will be installed on ALICE. These silicon devices have been developed especially for use in the high radiation levels produced in detector environments.

  18. Workflow User Interfaces Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vanderdonckt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una colección de patrones de diseño de interfaces de usuario para sistemas de información para el flujo de trabajo; la colección incluye cuarenta y tres patrones clasificados en siete categorías identificados a partir de la lógica del ciclo de vida de la tarea sobre la base de la oferta y la asignación de tareas a los responsables de realizarlas (i. e. recursos humanos durante el flujo de trabajo. Cada patrón de la interfaz de usuario de flujo de trabajo (WUIP, por sus siglas en inglés se caracteriza por las propiedades expresadas en el lenguaje PLML para expresar patrones y complementado por otros atributos y modelos que se adjuntan a dicho modelo: la interfaz de usuario abstracta y el modelo de tareas correspondiente. Estos modelos se especifican en un lenguaje de descripción de interfaces de usuario. Todos los WUIPs se almacenan en una biblioteca y se pueden recuperar a través de un editor de flujo de trabajo que vincula a cada patrón de asignación de trabajo a su WUIP correspondiente.A collection of user interface design patterns for workflow information systems is presented that contains forty three resource patterns classified in seven categories. These categories and their corresponding patterns have been logically identified from the task life cycle based on offering and allocation operations. Each Workflow User Interface Pattern (WUIP is characterized by properties expressed in the PLML markup language for expressing patterns and augmented by additional attributes and models attached to the pattern: the abstract user interface and the corresponding task model. These models are specified in a User Interface Description Language. All WUIPs are stored in a library and can be retrieved within a workflow editor that links each workflow pattern to its corresponding WUIP, thus giving rise to a user interface for each workflow pattern.

  19. Experimental study of an isochorically heated heterogeneous interface. A progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Juan Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Outline of the presentation: Studying possible mix / interface motion between heterogeneous low/high Z interfaces driven by 2-fluid or kinetic plasma effects (Heated to few eV, Sharp (sub µm) interface); Isochoric heating to initialize interface done with Al quasimonoenergetic ion beams on Trident; Have measured isochoric heating in individual materials intended for compound targets; Fielded experiments on Trident to measure interface motion (Gold-diamond, tin-aluminium); Measured heated-sample temperature with streaked optical pyrometry (SOP) (UT Austin led (research contract), SOP tests → heating uniformity Vs thickness on Al foils. Results are being analyzed.

  20. PAMLX: a graphical user interface for PAML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Yang, Ziheng

    2013-12-01

    This note announces pamlX, a graphical user interface/front end for the paml (for Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood) program package (Yang Z. 1997. PAML: a program package for phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood. Comput Appl Biosci. 13:555-556; Yang Z. 2007. PAML 4: Phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood. Mol Biol Evol. 24:1586-1591). pamlX is written in C++ using the Qt library and communicates with paml programs through files. It can be used to create, edit, and print control files for paml programs and to launch paml runs. The interface is available for free download at http://abacus.gene.ucl.ac.uk/software/paml.html.