WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical fibers designed

  1. Optical fiber designs for beam shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Kevin; Conroy, Michael; Wang, Chih-Hao; Abramczyk, Jaroslaw; Campbell, Stuart; Oulundsen, George; Tankala, Kanishka

    2014-03-01

    A large number of power delivery applications for optical fibers require beams with very specific output intensity profiles; in particular applications that require a focused high intensity beam typically image the near field (NF) intensity distribution at the exit surface of an optical fiber. In this work we discuss optical fiber designs that shape the output beam profile to more closely correspond to what is required in many real world industrial applications. Specifically we present results demonstrating the ability to transform Gaussian beams to shapes required for industrial applications and how that relates to system parameters such as beam product parameter (BPP) values. We report on the how different waveguide structures perform in the NF and show results on how to achieve flat-top with circular outputs.

  2. Designing in-building optical fiber networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Jung, H.D.; Guignard, P.

    2010-01-01

    Optical fiber in-building networks carrying wired and wireless services can outperform CAT-5E networks regarding versatility and installation costs. POF-based point-to-point architectures are optimum for small buildings, and (optically routed) SMF-based bus architectures for larger buildings.

  3. Design of fiber optic probes for laser light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Chu, Benjamin

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative analysis is presented of the role of optical fibers in laser light scattering. Design of a general fiber optic/microlens probe by means of ray tracing is described. Several different geometries employing an optical fiber of the type used in lightwave communications and a graded index microlens are considered. Experimental results using a nonimaging fiber optic detector probe show that due to geometrical limitations of single mode fibers, a probe using a multimode optical fiber has better performance, for both static and dynamic measurements of the scattered light intensity, compared with a probe using a single mode fiber. Fiber optic detector probes are shown to be more efficient at data collection when compared with conventional approaches to measurements of the scattered laser light. Integration of fiber optic detector probes into a fiber optic spectrometer offers considerable miniaturization of conventional light scattering spectrometers, which can be made arbitrarily small. In addition static and dynamic measurements of scattered light can be made within the scattering cell and consequently very close to the scattering center.

  4. Maximum-performance fiber-optic irradiation with nonimaging designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y; Feuermann, D; Gordon, J M

    1997-10-01

    A range of practical nonimaging designs for optical fiber applications is presented. Rays emerging from a fiber over a restricted angular range (small numerical aperture) are needed to illuminate a small near-field detector at maximum radiative efficiency. These designs range from pure reflector (all-mirror), to pure dielectric (refractive and based on total internal reflection) to lens-mirror combinations. Sample designs are shown for a specific infrared fiber-optic irradiation problem of practical interest. Optical performance is checked with computer three-dimensional ray tracing. Compared with conventional imaging solutions, nonimaging units offer considerable practical advantages in compactness and ease of alignment as well as noticeably superior radiative efficiency.

  5. Inverse design of dispersion compensating optical fiber using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for designing dispersion compensating optical fibers. The method is based on the solving of the Helmholtz wave equation with a finite-difference modesolver and uses topology optimization combined with a regularization filter for the design of the refractive index...

  6. On the design of thermally loaded fiber optics feedthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Dragan Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-mechanical design aspects of various structures exposed to cyclic thermal loading have a crucial impact on their lifetime. This is particularly valid for fiber optics feedthroughs that involve several materials with significantly different thermal expansion ratios. Thermal loading in such structures may give rise to non-trivial thermally induced deformations and therewith stresses, which can be adequately predicted and assessed only by a detailed 3-D numerical simulation. This paper considers a couple of design solutions of fiber optics feedthroughs, which have exhibited certain weaknesses in their application. Numerical simulation by means of the finite element method has been conducted to reveal the weak points of the design.

  7. Noise and signal interference in optical fiber transmission systems an optimum design approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bottacchi, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive reference to noise and signal interference in optical fiber communications Noise and Signal Interference in Optical Fiber Transmission Systems is a compendium on specific topics within optical fiber transmission and the optimization process of the system design. It offers comprehensive treatment of noise and intersymbol interference (ISI) components affecting optical fiber communications systems, containing coverage on noise from the light source, the fiber and the receiver. The ISI is modeled with a statistical approach, leading to new useful computational m

  8. Analytical Modeling Tool for Design of Hydrocarbon Sensitive Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Handawi, Khalil; Vahdati, Nader; Shiryayev, Oleg; Lawand, Lydia

    2017-09-28

    Pipelines are the main transportation means for oil and gas products across large distances. Due to the severe conditions they operate in, they are regularly inspected using conventional Pipeline Inspection Gages (PIGs) for corrosion damage. The motivation for researching a real-time distributed monitoring solution arose to mitigate costs and provide a proactive indication of potential failures. Fiber optic sensors with polymer claddings provide a means of detecting contact with hydrocarbons. By coating the fibers with a layer of metal similar in composition to that of the parent pipeline, corrosion of this coating may be detected when the polymer cladding underneath is exposed to the surrounding hydrocarbons contained within the pipeline. A Refractive Index (RI) change occurs in the polymer cladding causing a loss in intensity of a traveling light pulse due to a reduction in the fiber's modal capacity. Intensity losses may be detected using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) while pinpointing the spatial location of the contact via time delay calculations of the back-scattered pulses. This work presents a theoretical model for the above sensing solution to provide a design tool for the fiber optic cable in the context of hydrocarbon sensing following corrosion of an external metal coating. Results are verified against the experimental data published in the literature.

  9. Analytical Modeling Tool for Design of Hydrocarbon Sensitive Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Al Handawi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines are the main transportation means for oil and gas products across large distances. Due to the severe conditions they operate in, they are regularly inspected using conventional Pipeline Inspection Gages (PIGs for corrosion damage. The motivation for researching a real-time distributed monitoring solution arose to mitigate costs and provide a proactive indication of potential failures. Fiber optic sensors with polymer claddings provide a means of detecting contact with hydrocarbons. By coating the fibers with a layer of metal similar in composition to that of the parent pipeline, corrosion of this coating may be detected when the polymer cladding underneath is exposed to the surrounding hydrocarbons contained within the pipeline. A Refractive Index (RI change occurs in the polymer cladding causing a loss in intensity of a traveling light pulse due to a reduction in the fiber’s modal capacity. Intensity losses may be detected using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR while pinpointing the spatial location of the contact via time delay calculations of the back-scattered pulses. This work presents a theoretical model for the above sensing solution to provide a design tool for the fiber optic cable in the context of hydrocarbon sensing following corrosion of an external metal coating. Results are verified against the experimental data published in the literature.

  10. Single mode optical fiber vibration sensor: design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis-Carranza, L. E.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.; Perez-Sanchez, G. G.; Sierra-Calderon, A.; Rodriguez-Novelo, J. C.

    2016-09-01

    This work deals with the design and development of an SMF28-based vibration detector including the fiber segment, the data acquisition via an NI-USB-6212 card, the data processing code in Visual Basic and the signal spectrum obtained via Fourier analysis. The set-up consists of a regulated voltage source at 2.6V, 300mA, which serves as the power source for a 980nm semiconductor laser operating at 150mW which is fiber coupled into a 20m-piece of SMF-28 fiber. Perpendicular to such fiber the perturbations ranged from 1 to 100 kHz, coming from a DC motor at 12 Volts. At the detection stage, a simple analog filter and a commercial photo diode were employed for data acquisition, before a transimpedance amplification stage reconstructed the signal into the National Instruments data acquisition card. At the output, the signals Fourier transformation allows the signal to be displayed in a personal computer. The presentation will include a full electrical and optical characterization of the device and preliminary sensing results, which could be suitable for structural health monitoring applications.

  11. Design of a multimodal fibers optic system for small animal optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Pagliazzi, Marco; Boschi, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Small animals optical imaging systems are widely used in pre-clinical research to image in vivo the bio-distribution of light emitting probes using fluorescence or bioluminescence modalities. In this work we presented a set of simulated results of a novel small animal optical imaging module based on a fibers optics matrix, coupled with a position sensitive detector, devoted to acquire bioluminescence and Cerenkov images. Simulations were performed using GEANT 4 code with the GAMOS architecture using the tissue optics plugin. Results showed that it is possible to image a 30 × 30 mm region of interest using a fiber optics array containing 100 optical fibers without compromising the quality of the reconstruction. The number of fibers necessary to cover an adequate portion of a small animal is thus quite modest. This design allows integrating the module with magnetic resonance (MR) in order to acquire optical and MR images at the same time. A detailed model of the mouse anatomy, obtained by segmentation of 3D MRI images, will improve the quality of optical 3D reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design of Oil Viscosity Sensor Based on Plastic Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Muhammad; Arifin, A.

    2018-03-01

    A research of plastic optical fiber based sensors have been studied for measurement of oil viscosity. This sensor was made with straight configuration, U configuration, and gamma configuration have two types, there are optical fiber sensor with cladding and without cladding. Viscosity sensor was made, dipped into an oil sample with a concentration of viscosity percentage about 270 mPa.s - 350 mPa.s. The light from the LED propagated into the optical fiber, then it was received by the photodetector converted to output power. When plastic optical fiber dipped into an oil sample, viscosity of oil affect increase of refractive index on optical fiber resulting in a bigger loss of power so the light intensity will be smaller, consequences the measured output power will be smaller. Sensitivity and resolution viscosity sensor without cladding peel showed the best result rather than viscosity sensor with cladding peel. The best result in the measurement showed in gamma configuration with 3 cm length of cladding peel and the diameter of bending 0,25 cm is the range 103,090 nWatt, sensitivity 1,289 nWatt/mPa.s, and resolution 0,776 mPa.s. This method is effectively and efficiently used as an oil viscosity sensor with high sensitivity and resolution.

  13. Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhishen; Gan, Jiulin; Heng, Xiaobo; Wu, Yuqing; Li, Qingyu; Qian, Qi; Chen, Dongdan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2015-11-16

    The purity of the synthesized orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) light in the fiber is inversely proportional to channel crosstalk level in the OAM optical fiber communication system. Here the relationship between the fiber structure and the purity is firstly demonstrated in theory. The graded-index optical fiber is proposed and designed for the OAM light propagation with the purity higher than 99.9%. 16 fiber modes (10 OAM modes) have been supported by a specific designed graded-index optical fiber with dispersion less than 35 ps/(km∙nm). Such fiber design has suppressed the intrinsic crosstalk to be lower than -30 dB, and can be potentially used for the long distance OAM optical communication system.

  14. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Assemblies for Spaceflight Environments: Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2); and others will be included.

  15. Design and analysis of three-layer-core optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siwen; Liu, Yazhuo; Chang, Guangjian

    2018-03-01

    A three-layer-core single-mode large-mode-area fiber is investigated. The three-layer structure in the core, which is composed of a core-index layer, a cladding-index layer, and a depression-index layer, could achieve a large effective area Aeff while maintaining an ultralow bending loss without deteriorating cutoff behaviors. The single-mode large mode area of 100 to 330 μm2 could be achieved in the fiber. The effective area Aeff can be further enlarged by adjusting the layer parameters. Furthermore, the bending property could be improved in this three-layer-core structure. The bending loss could decrease by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude compared with the conventional step-index fiber with the same Aeff. These characteristics of three-layer-core fiber suggest that it can be used in large-mode-area wide-bandwidth high-capacity transmission or high-power optical fiber laser and amplifier in optical communications, which could be used for the basic physical layer structure of big data storage, reading, calculation, and transmission applications.

  16. Design and implementation of a fiber optic link for a token ring local area network

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis described the design and implementation of a fiber optic link for a token ring local area network (LAN). It features the use of fiber optic channels as the transmission medium between a computer system and a wiring concentrator to convert a physical ring design into a star-wired configuration. The LAN was controlled by the TMS380 LAN Adapter chipset, which provided all diagnostic and network management features to include...

  17. Fiber optic system design for vehicle detection and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoma, Jan; Zboril, Ondrej; Fajkus, Marcel; Zavodny, Petr; Kepak, Stanislav; Bednarek, Lukas; Martinek, Radek; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Fiber optic interferometers belong to a group of highly sensitive and precise devices enabling to measure small changes in the deformation shapes, changes in pressure, temperature, vibration and so on. The basis of their activity is to evaluate the number of fringes over time, not changes in the intensity of the optical signal. The methodology described in the article is based on using the interferometer to monitor traffic density. The base of the solution is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer operating with single-mode G.652 optical fiber at the wavelength of 1550 nm excited by a DFB laser. The power distribution of the laser light into the individual arms of the interferometer is in the ratio 1:1. Realized measuring scheme was terminated by an optical receiver including InGaAs PIN photodiode. Registered signal from the photodetector was through 8 Hz high pass filter fed to the measuring card that captures the analog input voltage using an application written in LabView development environment. The interferometer was stored in a waterproof box and placed at the side of the road. Here panned individual transit of cars in his environs. Vertically across the road was placed in contact removable belt simulating a retarder, which was used when passing cars to create sufficient vibration response detecting interferometer. The results demonstrated that the individual vehicles passing around boxing showed characteristic amplitude spectra, which was unique for each object, and had sufficient value signal to noise ratio (SNR). The signal was processed by applications developed for the amplitude-frequency spectrum. Evaluated was the maximum amplitude of the signal and compared to the noise. The results were verified by repeated transit of the different types of cars.

  18. Turbidimeter Design and Analysis: A Review on Optical Fiber Sensors for the Measurement of Water Turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz Bin; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir Bin

    2009-01-01

    Turbidimeters operate based on the optical phenomena that occur when incident light through water body is scattered by the existence of foreign particles which are suspended within it. This review paper elaborates on the standards and factors that may influence the measurement of turbidity. The discussion also focuses on the optical fiber sensor technologies that have been applied within the lab and field environment and have been implemented in the measurement of water turbidity and concentration of particles. This paper also discusses and compares results from three different turbidimeter designs that use various optical components. Mohd Zubir and Bashah and Daraigan have introduced a design which has simple configurations. Omar and MatJafri, on the other hand, have established a new turbidimeter design that makes use of optical fiber cable as the light transferring medium. The application of fiber optic cable to the turbidimeter will present a flexible measurement technique, allowing measurements to be made online. Scattered light measurement through optical fiber cable requires a highly sensitive detector to interpret the scattered light signal. This has made the optical fiber system have higher sensitivity in measuring turbidity compared to the other two simple turbidimeters presented in this paper. Fiber optic sensors provide the potential for increased sensitivity over large concentration ranges. However, many challenges must be examined to develop sensors that can collect reliable turbidity measurements in situ. PMID:22408507

  19. Turbidimeter Design and Analysis: A Review on Optical Fiber Sensors for the Measurement of Water Turbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zubir Bin MatJafri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Turbidimeters operate based on the optical phenomena that occur when incident light through water body is scattered by the existence of foreign particles which are suspended within it. This review paper elaborates on the standards and factors that may influence the measurement of turbidity. The discussion also focuses on the optical fiber sensor technologies that have been applied within the lab and field environment and have been implemented in the measurement of water turbidity and concentration of particles. This paper also discusses and compares results from three different turbidimeter designs that use various optical components. Mohd Zubir and Bashah and Daraigan have introduced a design which has simple configurations. Omar and MatJafri, on the other hand, have established a new turbidimeter design that makes use of optical fiber cable as the light transferring medium. The application of fiber optic cable to the turbidimeter will present a flexible measurement technique, allowing measurements to be made online. Scattered light measurement through optical fiber cable requires a highly sensitive detector to interpret the scattered light signal. This has made the optical fiber system have higher sensitivity in measuring turbidity compared to the other two simple turbidimeters presented in this paper. Fiber optic sensors provide the potential for increased sensitivity over large concentration ranges. However, many challenges must be examined to develop sensors that can collect reliable turbidity measurements in situ.

  20. Design and development of an optical fiber sensor for hydrogen detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotton, Cedric

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen detection is an environmental priority. Numerous hydrogen sensors have been developed, but none of them meet the industry requirements. Optical fiber sensors, electrically isolated, are excellent candidates for operating in explosive environments. Our goal is to develop an intrinsic optical fiber sensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance. In this thesis, we study two optical fiber hydrogen sensors. The first sensor, based on amplitude modulation, consists of a thin Pd layer deposited on the multimode fiber core, after removing the optical cladding. The second design, based on wavelength modulation, consists of replacing the single Pd layer by a Au/SiO 2 /Pd multilayer stack. We demonstrate in this thesis that plasmonic sensors may be a solution to develop fast and reliable fiber hydrogen sensors. Finally, we study Mg alloys as hydrogen sensitive material in order to improve the detection range of hydrogen sensors. (author)

  1. Design of differential optical absorption spectroscopy long-path telescopes based on fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, André; Tschritter, Jens; Platt, Ulrich

    2011-02-10

    We present a new design principle of telescopes for use in the spectral investigation of the atmosphere and the detection of atmospheric trace gases with the long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A combination of emitting and receiving fibers in a single bundle replaces the commonly used coaxial-Newton-type combination of receiving and transmitting telescope. This very simplified setup offers a higher light throughput and simpler adjustment and allows smaller instruments, which are easier to handle and more portable. The higher transmittance was verified by ray-tracing calculations, which result in a theoretical factor threefold improvement in signal intensity compared with the old setup. In practice, due to the easier alignment and higher stability, up to factor of 10 higher signal intensities were found. In addition, the use of a fiber optic light source provides a better spectral characterization of the light source, which results in a lower detection limit for trace gases studied with this instrument. This new design will greatly enhance the usability and the range of applications of active DOAS instruments.

  2. Fiber Optic Microphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.; George, Thomas; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research into advanced pressure sensors using fiber-optic technology is aimed at developing compact size microphones. Fiber optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic noise, and are very sensitive, light weight, and highly flexible. In FY 98, NASA researchers successfully designed and assembled a prototype fiber-optic microphone. The sensing technique employed was fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The sensing head is composed of an optical fiber terminated in a miniature ferrule with a thin, silicon-microfabricated diaphragm mounted on it. The optical fiber is a single mode fiber with a core diameter of 8 micron, with the cleaved end positioned 50 micron from the diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is made up of a 0.2 micron thick silicon nitride membrane whose inner surface is metallized with layers of 30 nm titanium, 30 nm platinum, and 0.2 micron gold for efficient reflection. The active sensing area is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. The measured differential pressure tolerance of this diaphragm is more than 1 bar, yielding a dynamic range of more than 100 dB.

  3. Design of a fiber-optic interrogator module for telecommunication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, Philipp; Koch, Alexander W.; Plattner, Markus; Hurni, Andreas; Manhart, Markus

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present the results of the radiation tests performed on the optical components of the fiber-optic interrogator module as a part of the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system. The HSB-system is developed in the frame of an ESAARTES program and will be verified as flight demonstrator onboard the German Heinrich Hertz satellite in 2016. The HSB system is based on a modular concept which includes sensor interrogation modules based on I2C electrical and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fiber-optical sensor elements. Onboard fiber-optic sensing allows the implementation of novel control and monitoring methods. For read-out of multiple FBG sensors, a design based on a tunable laser diode as well as a design based on a spectrometer is considered. The expected and tested total ionizing dose (TID) applicable to the HSB system is in the range between 100 krad and 300 krad inside the satellite in the geostationary orbit over a life time of 15 years. We present radiation test results carried out on critical optical components to be used in the fiber-optic interrogation module. These components are a modulated grating Y-branch (MGY) tunable laser diode acting as light source for the tuning laser approach, the line detector of a spectrometer, photodetectors and the FBG sensors acting as sensor elements. A detailed literature inquiry of radiation effects on optical fibers and FBG sensors, is also included in the paper. The fiber-optic interrogator module implemented in the HSB system is based on the most suitable technology, which sustains the harsh environment in the geostationary orbit.

  4. Fiber optics: A brief introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruchalla, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    A basic introduction into the principles of fiber optics is presented. A review of both the underlying physical principles and the individual elements of typical fiber-optic systems are presented. The optical phenomenon of total internal reflection is reviewed. The basic construction of the optical fiber is presented. Both step-index and graded-index fiber designs are reviewed. Multimode and single-mode fiber constructions are considered and typical performance parameters given. Typical optical-fiber bandwidth and loss characteristics are compared to various common coaxial cables, waveguides, and air transmission. The constructions of optical-fiber cables are reviewed. Both loose-tube and tightly-buffered designs are considered. Several optical connection approaches are presented. Photographs of several representative optical connectors are included. Light Emitting Diode and Laser Diode emitters for fiber-optic applications are reviewed, and some advantages and shortcomings of each are considered. The phenomenon of modal noise is briefly explained. Both PIN and Avalanche photodetectors are reviewed and their performance parameters compared. Methods of data transmission over optical fiber are introduced. Principles of Wavelength, Frequency, and Time Division Multiplexing are briefly presented. The technology of fiber-optic sensors is briefly reviewed with basic principles introduced. The performance of a fiber-optic strain sensor is included as a practical example. 7 refs., 10 figs

  5. Application Specific Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Bishnu P.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we have attempted to provide a unified summary description of the most important propagation characteristics of an optical fiber followed by discussion on several variety of special fibers for realizing fiber amplifiers, dispersion compensating fibers, microstructured optical fibers, and so on. Even though huge progress has been made on development of optical fibers for telecom application, a need for developing special fibers, not necessarily for telecom alone, has arisen. Th...

  6. Fiber optic connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Muhs, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

  7. Design of control system for optical fiber drawing machine driven by double motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue Chen; Bo, Yu Ming; Wang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Micro channel Plate (MCP) is a kind of large-area array electron multiplier with high two-dimensional spatial resolution, used as high-performance night vision intensifier. The high precision control of the fiber is the key technology of the micro channel plate manufacturing process, and it was achieved by the control of optical fiber drawing machine driven by dual-motor in this paper. First of all, utilizing STM32 chip, the servo motor drive and control circuit was designed to realize the dual motor synchronization. Secondly, neural network PID control algorithm was designed for controlling the fiber diameter fabricated in high precision; Finally, the hexagonal fiber was manufactured by this system and it shows that multifilament diameter accuracy of the fiber is +/- 1.5μm.

  8. FIBER OPTIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir BATUR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been many important and valuable developments in the communication industry. The huge increase in the sound, data and visual communications has caused a parallel increase in the demand for systems with wider capacity, higher speed and higher quality. Communication systems that use light to transfer data are immensely increased. There have recently many systems in which glass or plastic fiber cables were developed for light wave to be transmitted from a source to a target place. Fiber optic systems, are nowadays widely used in energy transmission control systems, medicine, industry and lighting. The basics of the system is, movement of light from one point to another point in fiber cable with reflections. Fiber optic lighting systems are quite secure than other lighting systems and have flexibility for realizing many different designs. This situation makes fiber optics an alternative for other lighting systems. Fiber optic lighting systems usage is increasing day-by-day in our life. In this article, these systems are discussed in detail.

  9. A Novel Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Using Eccentric-Core Fiber Design for Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiao; Tong, Xinglin; Deng, Chengwei; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Pengfei; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Liu, Fang

    2018-05-13

    A novel Mach-Zehnder interferometer using eccentric-core fiber (ECF) design for optical coherence tomography (OCT) is proposed and demonstrated. Instead of the commercial single-mode fiber (SMF), the ECF is used as one interference arm of the implementation. Because of the offset location of the eccentric core, it is sensitive to directional bending and the optical path difference (OPD) of two interference arms can be adjusted with high precision. The birefringence of ECF is calculated and experimentally measured, which demonstrates the polarization sensitivity of the ECF proposed in the paper is similar to that of SMF. Such a structure can replace the reference optical delay line to form an all-fiber passive device. A mirror is used as a sample for analyzing the ECF bending responses of the system. Besides, four pieces of overlapping glass slides as sample are experimentally measured as well.

  10. Ultrafast all-optical integrator based on a fiber Bragg grating: proposal and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Miguel A; Muriel, Miguel A

    2008-06-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for the implementation of an all-optical integrator based on a uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in reflection that is designed to present a decreasing exponential impulse response. The proposed FBG integrator is readily feasible and can perform close to ideal integration of few-picosecond and subpicosecond pulses.

  11. Fiber Singular Optics

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Volyar

    2002-01-01

    The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

  12. Optimum design of Nd-doped fiber optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Lumholt, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The waveguide parameters for a Nd-doped fluoride (Nd:ZBLANP) fiber amplifier have been optimized for small-signal and booster operation using an accurate numerical model. The optimum cutoff wavelength is shown to be 800 nm and the numerical aperture should be made as large as possible. Around 80%......% booster quantum conversion efficiency can be reached for an input power of 10 dBm and a pump power of 100 mW by the use of one filter...

  13. Fiber design and realization of point-by-point written fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Stecher, Matthias; Town, Graham E.

    2012-01-01

    the gratings make the point-by-point grating writing technique very interesting and would appear to be able to fill this technological gap. On the other end this technique is hardly applicable for microstructured fibers because of the writing beam being scattered by the air-holes. We report on the design...... and because they allow to tune the guiding parameters by modifying the microstructure. Now a days the only technique used to write gratings in such fibers is the phase mask technique with UV light illumination. Despite the good results that have been obtained, a limited flexibility on the grating design...... and the very long times required for the writing of FBGs raise some questions about the possibility of exporting POF FBGs and the sensors based on them from the laboratory bench to the mass production market. The possibility of arbitrary design of fiber Bragg gratings and the very short time required to write...

  14. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  15. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  16. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations

  17. Design and Analysis of an Optical Coupler for Concentrated Solar Light Using Optical Fibers in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Aslian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated sunlight that is transmitted by fiber optics has been used for generating electricity, heat, and daylight. On the other hand, multijunction photovoltaic cells provide high efficiency for generating electricity from highly concentrated sunlight. This study deals with designing and simulating a high-efficiency coupler, employing a mathematical model to connect sunlight with fiber optics for multiple applications. The coupler concentrates and distributes irradiated light from a primary concentrator. In this study, a parabolic dish was used as the primary concentrator, a coupler that contains nine components called a compound truncated pyramid and a cone (CTPC, all of which were mounted on a plate. The material of both the CTPC and the plate was BK7 optical glass. Fiber optics cables and multijunction photovoltaic cells were connected to the cylindrical part of the CTPC. The fibers would transmit the light to the building to provide heat and daylight, whereas multijunction photovoltaic cells generate electricity. Theoretical and simulation results showed high performance of the designed coupler. The efficiency of the coupler was as high as 92%, whereas the rim angle of the dish increased to an optimum angle. Distributed sunlight in the coupler increased the flexibility and simplicity of the design, resulting in a system that provided concentrated electricity, heat, and lighting for residential buildings.

  18. Priority design parameters of industrialized optical fiber sensors in civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Jiang, Lizhong; Xiang, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Considering the mechanical effects and the different paths for transferring deformation, optical fiber sensors commonly used in civil engineering have been systematically classified. Based on the strain transfer theory, the relationship between the strain transfer coefficient and allowable testing error is established. The proposed relationship is regarded as the optimal control equation to obtain the optimal value of sensors that satisfy the requirement of measurement precision. Furthermore, specific optimization design methods and priority design parameters of the classified sensors are presented. This research indicates that (1) strain transfer theory-based optimization design method is much suitable for the sensor that depends on the interfacial shear stress to transfer the deformation; (2) the priority design parameters are bonded (sensing) length, interfacial bonded strength, elastic modulus and radius of protective layer and thickness of adhesive layer; (3) the optimization design of sensors with two anchor pieces at two ends is independent of strain transfer theory as the strain transfer coefficient can be conveniently calibrated by test, and this kind of sensors has no obvious priority design parameters. Improved calibration test is put forward to enhance the accuracy of the calibration coefficient of end-expanding sensors. By considering the practical state of sensors and the testing accuracy, comprehensive and systematic analyses on optical fiber sensors are provided from the perspective of mechanical actions, which could scientifically instruct the application design and calibration test of industrialized optical fiber sensors.

  19. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  20. Fiber optic coupled multipass gas minicell, design assembly thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Bora, Mihail; Engel, Michael A.; McCarrick, James F.; Moran, Bryan D.

    2016-01-12

    A method directs a gas of interest into a minicell and uses an emitting laser to produce laser emission light that is directed into the minicell and onto the gas of interest. The laser emission light is reflected within the cell to make multipasses through the gas of interest. After the multipasses through the gas of interest the laser light is analyzed to produces gas spectroscopy data. The minicell receives the gas of interest and a transmitting optic connected to the minicell that directs a beam into the minicell and onto the gas of interest. A receiving optic connected to the minicell receives the beam from the gas of interest and directs the beam to an analyzer that produces gas spectroscopy data.

  1. Engineering modes in optical fibers with metamaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Min; Mortensen, Asger; Qiu, Min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a preliminary theoretical study on optical fibers with fine material inclusions whose geometrical inhomogeneity is almost indistinguishable by the operating wavelength.We refer to such fibers as metamaterial optical fibers, which can conceptually be considered...... as an extension from the previously much publicized microstructured optical fibers. Metamaterials can have optical properties not obtainable in naturally existing materials, including artificial anisotropy as well as graded material properties. Therefore, incorporation of metamaterial in optical fiber designs can...

  2. Design of a transimpedance amplifier for a bio-optical fiber sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pola, L.; Camasa, J.; Gomez B, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a fairly detailed model for a photodiode coupled to an operational amplifier in the trans impedance circuit configuration, for the applications in Biotechnology. An optical signal of the fiber optic biosensor is detected by a photodiode and its photocurrent generated is introduced in the trans impedance amplifier. The proposed design uses a photodiode in photovoltaic mode, and its photocurrent is coupled to an amplifier with positive output. Finally, the trans impedance amplifier presents reliable design characteristics such as accuracy, stability, low noise, and the ability to measure photocurrent from 1nA to 100μA. (Author)

  3. Micro sized implantable ball lens-based fiber optic probe design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-02-01

    A micro sized implantable ball lens-based fiber optic probe design is described for continuous monitoring of brain activity in freely behaving mice. A prototype uses a 500-micron ball lens and a highly flexible 350-micron-diameter fiber bundle, which are enclosed by a 21G stainless steel sheath. Several types and thickness of brain tissue, consisting of fluorescent probes such as GFP, GCaMP3 calcium indicator, are used to evaluate the performance of the imaging probe. Measured working distance is approximately 400-μm, but is long enough to detect neural activities from cortical and cerebellar tissues of mice brain.

  4. Optical Fiber Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  5. High speed fiber optics local area networks: Design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.

    1988-01-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: (1) the network medium and its topology; (2) the medium access control; and (3) the network interface. Considerable progress has been made in all areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given in Section 2, including references to papers which appeared in the literature, as well as to Ph.D. dissertations and technical reports published at Stanford University.

  6. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  7. Fiber optics in SHIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.; Parker, J.

    1978-01-01

    SHIVA is a twenty arm laser which is controlled with a network of fifty computers, interconnected with digital fiber optic links. Three different fiber optic systems employed on the Shiva laser will be described. Two of the systems are for digital communications, one at 9600 baud and the other at 1 megabaud. The third system uses fiber optics to distribute diagnostic triggers with subnanosecond jitter

  8. All-optical Hilbert transformer based on a single phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating: design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Azaña, José

    2009-02-01

    A simple all-fiber design for implementing an all-optical temporal Hilbert transformer is proposed and numerically demonstrated. We show that an all-optical Hilbert transformer can be implemented using a uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a properly designed amplitude-only grating apodization profile incorporating a single pi phase shift in the middle of the grating length. All-optical Hilbert transformers capable of processing arbitrary optical waveforms with bandwidths up to a few hundreds of gigahertz can be implemented using feasible FBGs.

  9. Phototype design and testing of two fiber-optic spectrochemical emission sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.B.; Nelson, D.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Matson, B.S.; Eschbach, P.A.

    1988-09-01

    A unique radio frequency-induced helium plasma (RFIHP) sensor and a spark discharge (SD) sensor were designed, and prototype units were developed and tested. Both sensors use an atomic excitation source coupled to a fiber-optic cable and optical spectrometer to monitor in situ the emission intensity of selected elements of interest in the ambient air. Potential applications include vadose zone monitoring of volatile species. The RFIHP sensor was designed to measure the total chlorine concentration from carbon tetrachloride (and other volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons), and the SD sensor was designed to measure in situ concentrations of chlorine-containing compounds. The results of this research demonstrate proof of concept of the theory, but suggest further refinements are necessary to achieve detection sensitivities sufficiently low to be useful for monitoring concentrations of selected elements in vadose zone air. 9 refs., 10 figs

  10. Handbook of fiber optics theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Chai

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Yeh supplies a firm theoretical foundation in such topics as propagation of light through fibers, fiber fabrication, loss mechanisms, and dispersion properties. He then expands from this into such practical areas as fiber splicing, measuring loss in fibers, fiber-based communications networks, remote fiber sensors, and integrated optics. Whether involved in fiber optics research, design, or practical implementation of systems, this handbook will be extremely useful.Key Features* Here is a comprehensive, ""one-stop"" reference with state-of-the-art information on fiber optics Included is da

  11. Multimode optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  12. Overview of Fiber-Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaula, Ramon P.; Moore, Emery L.

    1987-01-01

    Design, development, and sensitivity of sensors using fiber optics reviewed. State-of-the-art and probable future developments of sensors using fiber optics described in report including references to work in field. Serves to update previously published surveys. Systems incorporating fiber-optic sensors used in medical diagnosis, navigation, robotics, sonar, power industry, and industrial controls.

  13. Catching Attention in Fiber Optics Class

    OpenAIRE

    Kezerashvili, R. Ya.; Leng, L.

    2004-01-01

    Following a brief review on the history and the current development of fiber optics, the significance of teaching fiber optics for science and non-science major college students is addressed. Several experimental demonstrations designed to aid the teaching and learning process in fiber optics lectures are presented. Sample laboratory projects are also proposed to help the students to understand the physical principles of fiber optics.

  14. Fiber optic hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  15. Superlattice Microstructured Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Cho, Lok-Hin; Lu, Chao; Wai, Ping-Kong Alex; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-01-01

    A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10−4 is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure. PMID:28788693

  16. Design and evaluation of FDDI fiber optics networkfor Ethernets, VAX's and Ingraph work stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicki, M. Chris

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate the FDDI Fiber Optics Network for Ethernets, VAX's, and Ingraph work stations. From the KSC Headquarters communication requirement, it would be necessary to develop the FDDI network based on IEEE Standards outlined in the ANSI X3T9.5, Standard 802.3 and 802.5 topology - direct link via intermediate concentrator and bridge/router access. This analysis should examine the major factors that influence the operating conditions of the Headquarters Fiber plant. These factors would include, but are not limited to the interconnecting devices such as repeaters, bridges, routers and many other relevant or significant FDDI characteristics. This analysis is needed to gain a better understanding of overall FDDI performance.

  17. Design and evaluation of FDDI fiber optics networkfor Ethernets, VAX's and Ingraph work stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicki, M. Chris

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate the FDDI Fiber Optics Network for Ethernets, VAX's, and Ingraph work stations. From the KSC Headquarters communication requirement, it would be necessary to develop the FDDI network based on IEEE Standards outlined in the ANSI X3T9.5, Standard 802.3 and 802.5 topology - direct link via intermediate concentrator and bridge/router access. This analysis should examine the major factors that influence the operating conditions of the Headquarters Fiber plant. These factors would include, but are not limited to the interconnecting devices such as repeaters, bridges, routers and many other relevant or significant FDDI characteristics. This analysis is needed to gain a better understanding of overall FDDI performance.

  18. Design of fiber optic based respiratory sensor for newborn incubator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhia, Arika; Devara, Kresna; Abuzairi, Tomy; Poespawati, N. R.; Purnamaningsih, Retno W.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the design of respiratory sensor using fiber optic for newborn incubator application. The sensor works based on light intensity losses difference obtained due to thorax movement during respiration. The output of the sensor launched to support electronic circuits to be processed in Arduino Uno microcontroler such that the real-time respiratory rate (breath per minute) can be presented on LCD. Experiment results using thorax expansion of newborn simulator show that the system is able to measure respiratory rate from 10 up to 130 breaths per minute with 0.595% error and 0.2% hysteresis error.

  19. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors in TPS: Arc Jet Model Design & Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard; Feldman, Jay; Ellerby, Donald; Monk, Joshua; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Switzer, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Techniques for using fiber optics with Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) have been developed by IFOS Corp. for use in thermal protection systems (TPS) on spacecraft heat shield materials through NASA Phase 1 and 2 SBIR efforts and have been further improved in a recent collaboration between IFOS and NASA that will be described here. Fiber optic temperature sensors offer several potential advantages over traditional thermocouple sensors including a) multiplexing many sensors in a single fiber to increase sensor density in a given array or to provide spatial resolution, b) improved thermal property match between sensor and TPS to reduce heat flow disruption, c) lack of electrical conductivity.

  20. Nonlinear fiber optics formerly quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    1995-01-01

    The field of nonlinear fiber optics has grown substantially since the First Edition of Nonlinear Fiber Optics, published in 1989. Like the First Edition, this Second Edition is a comprehensive, tutorial, and up-to-date account of nonlinear optical phenomena in fiber optics. It synthesizes widely scattered research material and presents it in an accessible manner for students and researchers already engaged in or wishing to enter the field of nonlinear fiber optics. Particular attention is paid to the importance of nonlinear effects in the design of optical fiber communication systems. This is

  1. Optical fibers and RF a natural combination

    CERN Document Server

    Romeiser, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    The optical fiber industry has experienced a period of consolidation and reorganization and is now poised for a new surge in growth. To take advantage of that growth, and to respond to the demand to use fiber more efficiently, designers need a better understanding of fiber optics. Taking the approach that optical fibers are an extension of RF-based communications, the author explains basic optical concepts, applications, and systems; the nature and performance characteristics of optical fibers; and optical sources, connectors and splices. Subsequent chapters explore current applications of fib

  2. Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William Lance; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic sensing technology has emerged in recent years offering tremendous advantages over conventional aircraft instrumentation systems. The advantages of fiber optic sensors over their conventional counterparts are well established; they are lighter, smaller, and can provide enormous numbers of measurements at a fraction of the total sensor weight. After a brief overview of conventional and fiber-optic sensing technology, this paper presents an overview of the research that has been conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in recent years to advance this promising new technology. Research and development areas include system and algorithm development, sensor characterization and attachment, and real-time experimentally-derived parameter monitoring for ground- and flight-based applications. The vision of fiber optic smart structure technology is presented and its potential benefits to aerospace vehicles throughout the lifecycle, from preliminary design to final retirement, are presented.

  3. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  4. Optical fiber spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Weixin; Tian Guocheng; Ye Guoan; Zhou Zhihong; Cheng Weiwei; Huang Lifeng; Liu Suying; Tang Yanji; Hu Jingxin; Zhao Yonggang

    1998-12-01

    A method called 'Two Arm's Photo out and Electricity Send-back' is introduced. UV-365 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 5 meters long optical fiber. Another method called 'One Arm's Photo out and Photo Send-back' is also introduced. λ 19 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 10 meters long optical fiber. Optical fiber spectrophotometer can work as its main set. So it is particularly applicable to radio activity work

  5. Fiber Optics: No Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  6. Fiber optics welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  7. Design of an ultrafast all-optical differentiator based on a fiber Bragg grating in transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Miguel A; Muriel, Miguel A

    2008-11-01

    We propose and analyze a first-order optical differentiator based on a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in transmission. It is shown in the examples that a simple uniform-period FBG in a very strong coupling regime (maximum reflectivity very close to 100%) can perform close to ideal temporal differentiation of the complex envelope of an arbitrary-input optical signal.

  8. Single-mode optical fiber design with wide-band ultra low bending-loss for FTTH application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watekar, Pramod R; Ju, Seongmin; Han, Won-Taek

    2008-01-21

    We propose a new design of a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) which exhibits ultra low bend sensitivity over a wide communication band (1.3 microm to 1.65 microm). A five-cladding fiber structure has been proposed to minimize the bending loss, estimated to be as low as 4.4x10(-10) dB/turn for the bend radius of 10 mm.

  9. A Newly Designed Fiber-Optic Based Earth Pressure Transducer with Adjustable Measurement Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Zhen Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel fiber-optic based earth pressure sensor (FPS with an adjustable measurement range and high sensitivity is developed to measure earth pressures for civil infrastructures. The new FPS combines a cantilever beam with fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors and a flexible membrane. Compared with a traditional pressure transducer with a dual diaphragm design, the proposed FPS has a larger measurement range and shows high accuracy. The working principles, parameter design, fabrication methods, and laboratory calibration tests are explained in this paper. A theoretical solution is derived to obtain the relationship between the applied pressure and strain of the FBG sensors. In addition, a finite element model is established to analyze the mechanical behavior of the membrane and the cantilever beam and thereby obtain optimal parameters. The cantilever beam is 40 mm long, 15 mm wide, and 1 mm thick. The whole FPS has a diameter of 100 mm and a thickness of 30 mm. The sensitivity of the FPS is 0.104 kPa/με. In addition, automatic temperature compensation can be achieved. The FPS’s sensitivity, physical properties, and response to applied pressure are extensively examined through modeling and experiments. The results show that the proposed FPS has numerous potential applications in soil pressure measurement.

  10. Fiber-optic sensor design for chemical process and environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, R. S.; Wang, L.; Machavaram, V. R.; Pandita, S. D.; Chen, R.; Kukureka, S. N.; Fernando, G. F.

    2009-10-01

    "Curing" is a term that is used to describe the cross-linking reactions in a thermosetting resin system. Advanced fiber-reinforced composites are being used increasingly in a number of industrial sectors including aerospace, marine, sport, automotive and civil engineering. There is a general realization that the processing conditions that are used to manufacture the composite can have a major influence on its hot-wet mechanical properties. This paper is concerned with the design and demonstration of a number of sensor designs for in situ monitoring of the cross-linking reactions of a commercially available thermosetting resin system. Simple fixtures were constructed to enable a pair of cleaved optical fibers with a defined gap between the end-faces to be held in position. The resin system was introduced into this gap and the cure kinetics were followed by transmission infrared spectroscopy. A semi-empirical model was used to describe the cure process using the data obtained at different cure temperatures. The same sensor system was used to detect the ingress of moisture into the cured resin system.

  11. Optical pulse generation using fiber lasers and integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.F.; Burkhart, S.C.; VanWonterghem, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated an optical pulse forming system using fiber and integrated optics, and have designed a multiple-output system for a proposed fusion laser facility. Our approach is an advancement over previous designs for fusion lasers, and an unusual application of fiber lasers and integrated optics

  12. Design and characterization of a wearable macrobending fiber optic sensor for human joint angle determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana S.; Catarino, André; Correia, Miguel V.; Frazão, Orlando

    2013-12-01

    The work presented here describes the development and characterization of intensity fiber optic sensor integrated in a specifically designed piece of garment to measure elbow flexion. The sensing head is based on macrobending incorporated in the garment, and the increase of curvature number was studied in order to investigate which scheme provided a good result in terms of sensitivity and repeatability. Results showed the configuration that assured a higher sensitivity (0.644 dBm/deg) and better repeatability was the one with four loops. Ultimately, this sensor can be used for rehabilitation purposes to monitor human joint angles, namely, elbow flexion on stroke survivors while performing the reach functional task, which is the most common upper-limb human gesture.

  13. Design and implementation of a sensor for environmental control based on fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Becerra, Yamelys; Orlando Torres, Cesar; Giacometto, Francisco J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we developed and implemented experimentally a prototype sensor, with application to environmental monitoring, The prototype sensor is constituted by a capillary in which the gaseous fluid is set to move (gas or pollutant) and using the intensity of light transmitted through an optical fiber, we could obtain measurements of light intensity according to the presence of the pollutant, in our case correlated measures or levels of intensity of SO2 with the intensity of light that the sensor designed was able to measure, the sensor had two indicators of pollution lighting a red color when levels exceed the regulations (Resolution 909 of 2008) and green when everything is in its normal, the signal was issued electronically by a phototransistor fdt317 reference. With intensity meter Newport. And respectively a detector upon detection of the presence of the contaminant to infrared light showed an amount proportional to the rate of contamination.

  14. Optical fiber switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  15. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  16. Design and prototyping of self-centering optical single-mode fiber alignment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebraert, Evert; Gao, Fei; Thienpont, Hugo; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The European Commission’s goal of providing each European household with at least a 30 Mb s −1 Internet connection by 2020 would be facilitated by a widespread deployment of fibre-to-the-home, which would in turn be sped up by the development of connector essential components, such as high-precision alignment features. Currently, the performance of state-of-the-art physical contact optical fiber connectors is limited by the tolerance on the cladding of standard telecom-grade single-mode fiber (SMF), which is typically smaller than  ±1 μ m. We propose to overcome this limit by developing micro-spring-based self-centering alignment structures (SCAS) for SMF-connectors. We design these alignment structures with robustness and low-cost replication in mind, allowing for large-scale deployment. Both theoretical and finite element analysis (FEA) models are used to determine the optimal dimensions of the beams of which the micro-springs of the SCAS are comprised. Two topologies of the SCAS, consisting of three and four micro-springs respectively, are investigated for two materials: polysulfone (PSU) and polyetherimide (PEI). These materials hold great potential for high-performance fiber connectors while being compatible with low-cost production and with the harsh environmental operation conditions of those connectors. The theory and FEA agree well (<3% difference) for a simple micro-spring. When including a pedestal on the micro-spring (to bring it further away from the fiber) and for shorter spring lengths the agreement worsens. This is due to spring compression effects not being taken into account in our theoretical model. Prototypes are successfully fabricated using deep proton writing and subsequently characterized. The controlled insertion of an SMF in the SCAS is investigated and we determine that a force of 0.11 N is required. The fiber insertion also causes an out-of-plane deformation of the micro-springs in the SCAS of about 7 μ m, which is no

  17. Effective Design for Optical CDMA Based on Radio over Fiber (RoF Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi C. B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of OCDMA coding systems utilizing the radio over fiber (RoF technique is presented. It has been done by means of conventional OptiSystem simulation tools, where the propagation of radio signals up to 50 km using standard single mode fiber (SMF was investigated. The analysis was made based on the performance of eye diagram, bit rate, bit error rate and optical received power.

  18. Design of high-order all-optical temporal differentiators based on multiple-phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulishov, Mykola; Azaña, José

    2007-05-14

    A simple and general approach for designing practical all-optical (all-fiber) arbitrary-order time differentiators is introduced here for the first time. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Nth time derivative of an input optical waveform can be obtained by reflection of this waveform in a single uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) incorporating N &pi-phase shifts properly located along its grating profile. The general design procedure of an arbitrary-order optical time differentiator based on a multiple-phase-shifted FBG is described and numerically demonstrated for up to fourth-order time differentiation. Our simulations show that the proposed approach can provide optical operation bandwidths in the tens-of-GHz regime using readily feasible FBG structures.

  19. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  20. [The recent development of fiber-optic chemical sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wei, Jian-ping; Yang, Bo; Gao, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Li-wei; Yang, Xue-feng

    2014-08-01

    The present article provides a brief review of recent research on fiber-optic chemical sensor technology and the future development trends. Especially, fiber-optic pH chemical sensor, fiber-optic ion chemicl sensor, and fiber-optic gas chemical sensor are introduced respectively. Sensing film preparation methods such as chemical bonding method and sol-gel method were briefly reviewed. The emergence of new type fiber-microstructured optical fiber opened up a new development direction for fiber-optic chemical sensor. Because of its large inner surface area, flexible design of structure, having internal sensing places in fibers, it has rapidly become an important development direction and research focus of the fiber-optic chemical sensors. The fiber-optic chemical sensor derived from microstructured optical fiber is also discussed in detail. Finally, we look to the future of the fiber-optic chemical sensor.

  1. Fiber Optic Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D.; Bush, J.; Davis, P.

    1997-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processes to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (microrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  2. Fiber optic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.R.; Bayliss, S.C.; Bracken, D.S.; Bush, I.J.; Davis, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microrad to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 rad of phase shift per mW of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  3. Optical fiber meta-tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Maria; Micco, Alberto; Crescitelli, Alessio; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Consales, Marco; Esposito, Emanuela; La Ferrara, Vera; Galdi, Vincenzo; Cusano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    We report on the first example of a "meta-tip" configuration that integrates a metasurface on the tip of an optical fiber. Our proposed design is based on an inverted-Babinet plasmonic metasurface obtained by patterning (via focused ion beam) a thin gold film deposited on the tip of an optical fiber, so as to realize an array of rectangular aperture nanoantennas with spatially modulated sizes. By properly tuning the resonances of the aperture nanoantennas, abrupt variations can be impressed in the field wavefront and polarization. We fabricated and characterized several proof-of-principle prototypes operating an near-infrared wavelengths, and implementing the beam-steering (with various angles) of the cross-polarized component, as well as the excitation of surface waves. Our results pave the way to the integration of the exceptional field-manipulation capabilities enabled by metasurfaces with the versatility and ubiquity of fiber-optics technological platforms.

  4. Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

  5. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  6. Design of fiber optic electronic seal system based on C8051 microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Yuming; Chen Rongye; Zuo Guangxia; Song Cang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents fiber optic electronic seal system, witch uses C8051 microcontroller as core, matching other circuits such as optical signal detection module, movement detection module, temperature detection module and power module, etc. The results show that the seal system can record the tampering events' information accurately and quickly no matter there is one tamper event or more, and the ability of anti-tamper is improved. (authors)

  7. Designing microstructured polymer optical fibers for cascaded quadratic soliton compression of femtosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The dispersion of index-guiding microstructured polymer optical fibers is calculated for second-harmonic generation. The quadratic nonlinearity is assumed to come from poling of the polymer, which in this study is chosen to be the cyclic olefin copolymer Topas. We found a very large phase mismatc...

  8. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  9. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  10. Optical fiber communications

    CERN Document Server

    Keiser, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The fourth edition of this popular text and reference book presents the fundamental principles for understanding and applying optical fiber technology to sophisticated modern telecommunication systems. Optical-fiber-based telecommunication networks have become a major information-transmission-system, with high capacity links encircling the globe in both terrestrial and undersea installations. Numerous passive and active optical devices within these links perform complex transmission and networking functions in the optical domain, such as signal amplification, restoration, routing, and switching. Along with the need to understand the functions of these devices comes the necessity to measure both component and network performance, and to model and stimulate the complex behavior of reliable high-capacity networks.

  11. Design and characterization of a real time particle radiography system based on scintillating optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Bonanno, D. L.; Bongiovanni, D. G.; Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Sipala, V.; Gallo, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication and characterization of a charged particle imaging system composed of a tracker and a residual range detector (RRD) is described. The tracker is composed of four layers of scintillating fibers (SciFi), 500 μm side square section, arranged to form two planes orthogonal to each other. The fibers are coupled to two Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays by means of a channel reduction system patented by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Presti, 2015) [1]. Sixty parallel layers of the same fibers used in the tracker compose the RRD. The various layers are optically coupled to a MPPC array by means of wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers. The sensitive area of the two detectors is 9×9 cm2. The results of the measurements, acquired by the prototypes with CATANA (Cirrone, 2008) [2] proton beam, and a comparison with the simulations of the detectors are presented.

  12. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2008-01-01

    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  13. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures

  14. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  15. Fiber optic neutron imaging system: calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, R.M.; Gow, C.E.; Thayer, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two neutron imaging experiments using fiber optics have been performed at the Nevada Test Site. In each experiment, an array of scintillator fluor tubes is exposed to neutrons. Light is coupled out through radiation resistant PCS fibers (8-m long) into high-bandwidth, graded index fibers. For image reconstruction to be accurate, common timing differences and transmission variations between fiber optic channels are needed. The calibration system featured a scanning pulsed dye laser, a specially designed fiber optic star coupler, a tektronix 7912AD transient digitizer, and a DEC PDP 11/34 computing system

  16. Chemistry Research of Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-27

    BROADENING IN OPTICAL FIBERS Herbert B. Rosenstock* Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375 ABSTRACT A light pulse transmitted through a fiber...Marcatili, Marcuse , and Personick, "Dispersion Properties of Fibers" (Ch. 4 in "Optical Fiber Telecommunications," S. E. Miller and A. C. Chynoweth, eds

  17. Fiber optic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D.; Bush, J.; Davis, P.

    1998-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using fiber for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (μrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  18. An Adaptive Damping Network Designed for Strapdown Fiber Optic Gyrocompass System for Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The strapdown fiber optic gyrocompass (strapdown FOGC system for ships primarily works on external horizontal damping and undamping statuses. When there are large sea condition changes, the system will switch frequently between the external horizontal damping status and the undamping status. This means that the system is always in an adjustment status and influences the dynamic accuracy of the system. Aiming at the limitations of the conventional damping method, a new design idea is proposed, where the adaptive control method is used to design the horizontal damping network of the strapdown FOGC system. According to the size of acceleration, the parameters of the damping network are changed to make the system error caused by the ship’s maneuvering to a minimum. Furthermore, the jump in damping coefficient was transformed into gradual change to make a smooth system status switch. The adaptive damping network was applied for strapdown FOGC under the static and dynamic condition, and its performance was compared with the conventional damping, and undamping means. Experimental results showed that the adaptive damping network was effective in improving the dynamic performance of the strapdown FOGC.

  19. Laboratory sensor design for fiber-optic detection of 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Knopf, M.A.

    1994-06-01

    The goal of the fiber-optic detection of 85 Kr project is to produce a sensor to detect 85 Kr in real-time from either an airborne or ground-based platform. The 85 Kr gas is a fission product which is released in large quantities during fuel reprocessing and in minor quantities during nuclear reactor operations. Thus an airborne plume of 85 Kr is a radioactive signature of proliferation. Since 85 Kr has a 10.72 year half life, it is difficult for a proliferator to contain the gas for several half lives to avoid releasing the radioactive signature of proliferation. The long half life also results in a plume that can extend several kilometers from the source, which allows initial proliferation monitoring from large distances. The sensor can be used to make stand-alone, real-time measurements of 85 Kr that can be used as direct evidence for proliferation and/or as a screening sensor to determine when to collect air samples for further laboratory analysis. This report provides a summary of the 85 Kr beta sensor design that PNL will use in the laboratory to: (1) demonstrate the measurement technique, (2) establish minimum detection limits, and (3) optimize the sensor design for the final airborne sensor package. The goal of the final airborne sensor package will be to measure 85 Kr at activity levels as low as or as close to ambient background levels as possible with a reasonably sized sensor

  20. Improved Optical Fiber Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Calculations, based on exact theory of optical fiber, have shown how to increase optical efficiency sensitivity of active-core, step-index-profile optical-fiber fluorosensor. Calculations result of efforts to improve efficiency of optical-fiber chemical sensor of previous concept described in "Making Optical-Fiber Chemical Sensors More Sensitive" (LAR-14525). Optical fiber chemical detector of enhanced sensitivity made in several configurations. Portion of fluorescence or chemiluminescence generated in core, and launched directly into bound electromagnetic modes that propagate along core to photodetector.

  1. Fiber Optics and Library Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Michael

    1984-01-01

    This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the key terminology, and speculates about the way fiber optics will change our world. Applications of fiber optics to library systems in three major areas--linkage of a number of mainframe computers, local area networks, and main trunk communications--are highlighted. (EJS)

  2. Fiber optic sensing for telecommunication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Arnd; Glier, Markus; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Lars; Müller, Mathias; Rapp, Stephan; Kurvin, Charles; Ernst, Thomas; McKenzie, Iain; Karafolas, Nikos

    2017-11-01

    Modern telecommunication satellites can benefit from the features of fiber optic sensing wrt to mass savings, improved performance and lower costs. Within the course of a technology study, launched by the European Space Agency, a fiber optic sensing system has been designed and is to be tested on representative mockups of satellite sectors and environment.

  3. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  4. Introduction to optical fiber sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moukdad, S.

    1991-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors have many advantages over other types of sensors, for example: Low weight, immunity from EMI, electrical isolation, chemical passivity, and high sensitivity. In this seminar, a brief explanation of the optical fiber sensors, their use, and their advantages will be given. After, a description of the main optical fiber sensor components will be presented. Principles of some kinds of optical fiber sensors will be presented, and the principle of the fiber-optic rotation sensor and its realization will be discussed in some details, as well as its main applications. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Supersymmetric Transformations in Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Andrés; Llorente, Roberto; García-Meca, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) has recently emerged as a tool to design unique optical structures with degenerate spectra. Here, we study several fundamental aspects and variants of one-dimensional SUSY in axially symmetric optical media, including their basic spectral features and the conditions for degeneracy breaking. Surprisingly, we find that the SUSY degeneracy theorem is partially (totally) violated in optical systems connected by isospectral (broken) SUSY transformations due to a degradation of the paraxial approximation. In addition, we show that isospectral constructions provide a dimension-independent design control over the group delay in SUSY fibers. Moreover, we find that the studied unbroken and isospectral SUSY transformations allow us to generate refractive-index superpartners with an extremely large phase-matching bandwidth spanning the S +C +L optical bands. These singular features define a class of optical fibers with a number of potential applications. To illustrate this, we numerically demonstrate the possibility of building photonic lanterns supporting broadband heterogeneous supermodes with large effective area, a broadband all-fiber true-mode (de)multiplexer requiring no mode conversion, and different mode-filtering, mode-conversion, and pulse-shaping devices. Finally, we discuss the possibility of extrapolating our results to acoustics and quantum mechanics.

  6. Analysis and Design of a Fiber-optic Probe for DNA Sensors Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1147-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molau, Nicole [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vail, Curtis [Accu.Photonics, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2018-01-24

    In 1995, a challenge in the field of genetics dealt with the acquisition of efficient DNA sequencing techniques for reading the 3 billion base-pairs that comprised the human genome. AccuPhotonics, Inc. proposed to develop and manufacture a state-of-the-art near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) fiber-optic probe that was expected to increase probe efficiency by two orders of magnitude over the existing state-of-the-art and to improve resolution to 10Å. The detailed design calculation and optimization of electrical properties of the fiber-optic probe tip geometry would be performed at LLNL, using existing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic (EM) codes.

  7. Design, Manufacturing and Experimental Validation of Optical Fiber Sensors Based Devices for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela CORICCIATI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of optical fiber sensors is a promising and rising technique used for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM, because permit to monitor continuously the strain and the temperature of the structure where they are applied. In the present paper three different types of smart devices, that are composite materials with an optical fiber sensor embedded inside them during the manufacturing process, are described: Smart Patch, Smart Rebar and Smart Textile, which are respectively a plate for local exterior intervention, a rod for shear and flexural interior reinforcement and a textile for an external whole application. In addition to the monitoring aim, the possible additional function of these devices could be the reinforcement of the structures where they are applied. In the present work, after technology manufacturing description, the experimental laboratory characterization of each device is discussed. At last, smart devices application on medium scale masonry walls and their validation by mechanical tests is described.

  8. Laboratory Equipment Type Fiber Optic Refractometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Carome

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Using fiber optics and micro optics technologies we designed aninnovative fiber optic index of refraction transducer that has uniqueproperties. On the base of this transducer a laboratory equipment typefiber optic refractometer was developed for liquid index of refractionmeasurements. Such refractometer may be used for medical,pharmaceutical, industrial fluid, petrochemical, plastic, food, andbeverage industry applications. For example, it may be used formeasuring the concentrations of aqueous solutions: as the concentrationor density of a solute increase, the refractive index increasesproportionately. The paper describes development work related to designof laboratory type fiber optic refractometer and describes experimentsto evaluation of its basic properties.

  9. Design of a fiber optical sensor for atmospheric electric field measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdasaryan, H.V.; Knyazyan, T.M.; Daryan, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    All-optical sensor for atmospheric electric field detection and measurement is suggested and numerically modelled. Thin electro- optical crystal sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) forming multilayer Gires-Tournois (G-T) microresonator is used as a sensitive part of the electric field sensor. In the sensor device, an optical fiber delivers the wideband light spectrum to the sensing multilayer structure of G-T microresonator. The reflectance spectrum of the sensor contains information on the electric field strength and direction. The relevant reflectance peaks’ shift in the reflected spectrum can be observed by an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). Numerical modelling has been done by the method of single expression that is a suitable tool for multi-boundary problems solution. The obtained results of modelling will be useful in a new type of non-distorting sensor’s elaboration for atmospheric electric field detection and measurement. (author)

  10. Design and Optimization of Dual Optical Fiber MEMS Pressure Sensor For Biomedical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagang, Guo; Po, Samuel Ng Choon; Hock, Francis Tay Eng; Rongming, Lin

    2006-01-01

    A novel Single Deeply Corrugated Diaphragm (SDCD) based dual optical fiber Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for blood pressure measurement is proposed. Both mechanical and optical simulations are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and superior performance of the proposed sensor. Result shows that less than 2% nonlinearity can be achieved for the proposed sensor using optimal Fabry-Perot microcavity. Also, the fabrication process of the proposed sensor is given, instead of complicated fusion bonding process, only bulk and surface micromachining techniques are required which facilitate the mass production of such biocompatible and disposable pressure sensors

  11. Design and characterization of a real time particle radiography system based on scintillating optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Bonanno, D.L.; Bongiovanni, D.G.; Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Sipala, V.; Gallo, G.

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication and characterization of a charged particle imaging system composed of a tracker and a residual range detector (RRD) is described. The tracker is composed of four layers of scintillating fibers (SciFi), 500 μm side square section, arranged to form two planes orthogonal to each other. The fibers are coupled to two Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays by means of a channel reduction system patented by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Presti, 2015) . Sixty parallel layers of the same fibers used in the tracker compose the RRD. The various layers are optically coupled to a MPPC array by means of wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers. The sensitive area of the two detectors is 9×9 cm"2. The results of the measurements, acquired by the prototypes with CATANA (Cirrone, 2008) proton beam, and a comparison with the simulations of the detectors are presented. - Highlights: • A real time charged particle imaging system is described. • The system is composed of a position sensitive and a residual range detectors. • The sensitive area of the system is composed of submillimeter scintillating fibers. • The read-out is based on a patented channel reduction system. • The results of the measurements with proton beam are presented.

  12. Design and characterization of a real time particle radiography system based on scintillating optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhitano, F., E-mail: fabio.longhitano@ct.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione Catania (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania (Italy); Bonanno, D.L.; Bongiovanni, D.G.; Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Cagliari (Italy); Gallo, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    The fabrication and characterization of a charged particle imaging system composed of a tracker and a residual range detector (RRD) is described. The tracker is composed of four layers of scintillating fibers (SciFi), 500 μm side square section, arranged to form two planes orthogonal to each other. The fibers are coupled to two Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays by means of a channel reduction system patented by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Presti, 2015) . Sixty parallel layers of the same fibers used in the tracker compose the RRD. The various layers are optically coupled to a MPPC array by means of wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers. The sensitive area of the two detectors is 9×9 cm{sup 2}. The results of the measurements, acquired by the prototypes with CATANA (Cirrone, 2008) proton beam, and a comparison with the simulations of the detectors are presented. - Highlights: • A real time charged particle imaging system is described. • The system is composed of a position sensitive and a residual range detectors. • The sensitive area of the system is composed of submillimeter scintillating fibers. • The read-out is based on a patented channel reduction system. • The results of the measurements with proton beam are presented.

  13. Photometric device using optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisde, Gilbert; Perez, J.-J.

    1981-02-01

    Remote measurements in radioactive environment are now possible with optical fibers. Measurement instruments developed by CEA are constitued of: - an optical probe (5 mm to 1 meter optical path length), - a photometric measurement device, - optical fiber links. 'TELEPHOT' is a photometric device for industrial installations. It is uses interferentiel filters for 2 to 5 simultaneous wave lengths. 'CRUDMETER' measures the muddiness of water. It can be equipped with a high sensitivity cell of 50 cm optical path length tested up to 250 bars. Coupling a double beam spectrophotometer to a remote optical probe, up to 1 meter optical path length, is carried out by means of an optical device using optical fibers links, eventually several hundred meter long. For these equipments special step index large core fibers, 1 to 1.5 mm in diameter, have been developed as well connectors. For industrial control and research these instruments offer new prospect thanks to optical fibers use [fr

  14. Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of work done on NASA Grant NAG-1-443. The work covers the period from July 1, 1992 to December 1, 1998. During this period several distinct but related research studies and work tasks were undertaken. These different subjects are enumerated below with a description of the work done on each of them. The focus of the research was the development of optical fibers for use as distributed temperature and stress sensors. The initial concept was to utilize the utilize the temperature and stress dependence of emission from rare earth and transition metal ions substitutionally doped into crystalline or glass fibers. During the course of investigating this it became clear that fiber Bragg gratings provided a alternative for making the desired measurements and there was a shift of research focus on to include the photo-refractive properties of germano-silicate glasses used for most gratings and to the possibility of developing fiber laser sources for an integrated optical sensor in the research effort. During the course of this work several students from Christopher Newport University and other universities participated in this effort. Their names are listed below. Their participation was an important part of their education.

  15. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ahm

    1991-05-01

    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  16. Study on pH Effect in Process of an Entero-gastric Fiber-optic Sensor Design

    OpenAIRE

    Guo-ping, Chen; Rong-min, Xia; Jun, Gong; Wen-de, Shou

    2002-01-01

    The pH effect on design of a fiber optic sensor newly developed for monitoring entero-gastric reflux is investigated. The research has been carried out by utilizing the sensor to measure characteristic absorption of bilirubin standard solution (used as a calibrator) at different pH values from about 1 to 8. The results show explicitly that the estimation error according to the calibration curves with pH

  17. Optical fibers for FTTH application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Tosik, Grzegorz; Lisik, Zbigniew; Bedyk, Michal; Kubiak, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the specifics of FTTH (Fiber To The Home) networks in terms of requirements for optical fibers has been presented. Optical fiber samples used in FTTH applications acquired from the worldwide leading manufacturers were subjected to small diameter mandrel wraps tests. The detailed procedures of performed tests and the measurement results has been presented.

  18. Shedding Light on Fiber Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the principles of fiber optics as a medium for light-wave communication. Current uses of fiber systems on college campuses include voice, video, and local area network applications. A group of seven school districts in Minnesota are linked via fiber-optic cables. Other uses are discussed. (MLF)

  19. Optical Communication over Plastic Optical Fibers Integrated Optical Receiver Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Atef, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This book presents high-performance data transmission over plastic optical fibers (POF) using integrated optical receivers having good properties with multilevel modulation, i.e. a higher sensitivity and higher data rate transmission over a longer plastic optical fiber length. Integrated optical receivers and transmitters with high linearity are introduced for multilevel communication. For binary high-data rate transmission over plastic optical fibers, an innovative receiver containing an equalizer is described leading also to a high performance of a plastic optical fiber link. The cheap standard PMMA SI-POF (step-index plastic optical fiber) has the lowest bandwidth and the highest attenuation among multimode fibers. This small bandwidth limits the maximum data rate which can be transmitted through plastic optical fibers. To overcome the problem of the plastic optical fibers high transmission loss, very sensitive receivers must be used to increase the transmitted length over POF. The plastic optical fiber li...

  20. A Novel Low-Power-Consumption All-Fiber-Optic Anemometer with Simple System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Fang; Duan, Zhihui; Liu, Zexu; Liu, Zigeng; Wu, Zhenlin; Gu, Yiying; Sun, Changsen; Peng, Wei

    2017-09-14

    A compact and low-power consuming fiber-optic anemometer based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) coated tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is presented. TFBG as a near infrared in-fiber sensing element is able to excite a number of cladding modes and radiation modes in the fiber and effectively couple light in the core to interact with the fiber surrounding mediums. It is an ideal in-fiber device used in a fiber hot-wire anemometer (HWA) as both coupling and sensing elements to simplify the sensing head structure. The fabricated TFBG was immobilized with an SWCNT film on the fiber surface. SWCNTs, a kind of innovative nanomaterial, were utilized as light-heat conversion medium instead of traditional metallic materials, due to its excellent infrared light absorption ability and competitive thermal conductivity. When the SWCNT film strongly absorbs the light in the fiber, the sensor head can be heated and form a "hot wire". As the sensor is put into wind field, the wind will take away the heat on the sensor resulting in a temperature variation that is then accurately measured by the TFBG. Benefited from the high coupling and absorption efficiency, the heating and sensing light source was shared with only one broadband light source (BBS) without any extra pumping laser complicating the system. This not only significantly reduces power consumption, but also simplifies the whole sensing system with lower cost. In experiments, the key parameters of the sensor, such as the film thickness and the inherent angle of the TFBG, were fully investigated. It was demonstrated that, under a very low BBS input power of 9.87 mW, a 0.100 nm wavelength response can still be detected as the wind speed changed from 0 to 2 m/s. In addition, the sensitivity was found to be -0.0346 nm/(m/s) under the wind speed of 1 m/s. The proposed simple and low-power-consumption wind speed sensing system exhibits promising potential for future long-term remote monitoring and on-chip sensing in

  1. Design and realization of temperature measurement system based on optical fiber temperature sensor for wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zeng, Shuang; Liu, Xiulan; Jin, Yuan; Li, Xianglong; Wang, Xiaochen

    2018-02-01

    The electric vehicles (EV) have become accepted by increasing numbers of people for the environmental-friendly advantages. A novel way to charge the electric vehicles is through wireless power transfer (WPT). The wireless power transfer is a high power transfer system. The high currents flowing through the transmitter and receiver coils increasing temperature affects the safety of person and charging equipment. As a result, temperature measurement for wireless power transfer is needed. In this paper, a temperature measurement system based on optical fiber temperature sensors for electric vehicle wireless power transfer is proposed. Initially, the thermal characteristics of the wireless power transfer system are studied and the advantages of optical fiber sensors are analyzed. Then the temperature measurement system based on optical fiber temperature sensor is designed. The system consists of optical subsystem, data acquisition subsystem and data processing subsystem. Finally, the system is tested and the experiment result shows that the system can realize 1°C precision and can acquire real-time temperature distribution of the coils, which can meet the requirement of the temperature measuring for wireless power transfer.

  2. Essentials of modern optical fiber communication

    CERN Document Server

    Noé, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    This is a concise introduction into optical fiber communication. It covers important aspects from the physics of optical wave propagation and amplification to the essentials of modulation formats and receivers. The combination of a solid coverage of necessary fundamental theory with an in-depth discussion of recent relevant research results enables the reader to design modern optical fiber communication systems. The book serves both graduate students and professionals. It includes many worked examples with solutions for lecturers. For the second edition, Reinhold Noé made many changes and additions throughout the text so that this concise book presents the essentials of optical fiber communication in an easy readable and understandable way.

  3. Fiber-optic seismic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G. W.; Udd, E.

    1985-01-01

    A vibration sensor is constructed by providing two preferably matched coils of fiber-optic material. When the sensor experiences vibration, a differential pressure is exerted on the two fiber coils. The differential pressure results in a variation in the relative optical path lengths between the two fibers so that light beams transmitted through the two fibers are differently delayed, the phase difference therebetween being a detectable indication of the vibration applied to the sensor

  4. Multi-Purpose Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand Design for Extra-Vehicular Activity Manipulation Tasks using Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IFOS proposes to design and build fiber-optically sensorized robotic fingers that can sense force and, objects using only tactile feedback, similar to the skin on a...

  5. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements

  6. System for testing optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

  7. Fiber-Optic Sensor Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Constructs and evaluates fiber-optic sensors for a variety of measurands. These measurands include acoustic, pressure, magnetic, and electric field as well...

  8. Intelligent Fiber Optic Sensor for Estimating the Concentration of a Mixture-Design and Working Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Borecki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction and working principles of an intelligent fiber-optic intensity sensor used for examining the concentration of a mixture in conjunction with water. It can find applications e.g. in waste-water treatment plant for selection of a treatment process. The sensor head is the end of a large core polymer optical fiber, which constitutes one arm of an asymmetrical coupler. The head works on the reflection intensity basis. The reflected signal level depends on the Fresnel reflection from the air and from the mixture examined when the head is immersed in it. The sensor head is mounted on a lift. For detection purposes the signal can be measured on head submerging, submersion, emerging and emergence. Therefore, the measured signal depends on the surface tension, viscosity, turbidity and refraction coefficient of the solution. The signal coming from the head is processed electrically in an opto-electronic interface. Then it is fed to a neural network. The novelty of the proposed sensor lies in that it contains an asymmetrical coupler and a neural network that works in the generalization mode. The sensor resolution depends on the efficiency of the asymmetrical coupler, the precision of the opto-electronic signal conversion and the learning accuracy of the neural network. Therefore, the number and quality of the points used for the learning process is very important. By way of example, the paper describes a sensor intended for examining the concentration of liquid soap in water.

  9. Fiber optics physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschke, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. It began with telephone, then came telefax and email. Today we use search engines, music downloads and internet videos, all of which require shuffling of bits and bytes by the zillions. The key to all this is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat all other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul; wireless devices rely on fibers, too. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative ...

  10. Mode conversion in hybrid optical fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2012-04-01

    Designing of all in-line fiber optic systems with a supercontinuum light source gives some issues. The use of a standard single mode fiber (SMF) as an input do not secure single mode transmission in full wavelength range. In the paper, the experimental results of the tested hybrid fiber optic coupler were presented. It was manufactured by fusing a standard single mode fiber (SMF28) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process is based on the standard fused biconical taper technique. Two types of large mode area fibers (LMA8 and LAM10 NKT Photonics) with different air holes arrangements were used as the photonic crystal fiber. Spectral characteristics within the range of 800 nm - 1700 nm were presented. All process was optimized to obtain a mode conversion between SMF and PCF and to reach a single mode transmission in the PCF output of the coupler.

  11. Fundamentals of plastic optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Polymer photonics is an interdisciplinary field which demands excellence both in optics (photonics) and materials science (polymer). However, theses disciplines have developed independently, and therefore the demand for a comprehensive work featuring the fundamentals of photonic polymers is greater than ever.This volume focuses on Polymer Optical Fiber and their applications. The first part of the book introduces typical optical fibers according to their classifications of material, propagating mode, and structure. Optical properties, the high bandwidth POF and transmission loss are discussed,

  12. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Miguel V.

    In this paper we present the main research activities of the Laboratorio de Fibras Opticas del Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de la Universidad de Valencia. We show some of the main results obtained for devices based on tapered fibers, fiber Bragg gratings, acousto-optic effects and photonic crystal fibers.

  13. High-temperature fiber optic pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to a program to develop fiber optic methods to measure diaphragm deflection. The end application is intended for pressure transducers capable of operating to 540 C. In this paper are reported the results of a laboratory study to characterize the performance of the fiber-optic microbend sensor. The data presented include sensitivity and spring constant. The advantages and limitations of the microbend sensor for static pressure measurement applications are described. A proposed design is presented for a 540 C pressure transducer using the fiber optic microbend sensor.

  14. Optical fiber powered pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, P.; Neveux, L.; Ostrowsky, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the system described, a pressure sensor and its associated electronics are optically powered by a 20 mw laser and a photovoltaic cell via an optical fiber. The sensor is periodically interrogated and sends the measures obtained back to the central unit using an LED and a second fiber. The results obtained as well as the expected evolution will be described

  15. Fiber optic based optical tomography sensor for monitoring plasma uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benck, Eric C.; Etemadi, Kasra

    2001-01-01

    A new type of fiber optic based optical tomography sensor has been developed for in situ monitoring of plasma uniformity. Optical tomography inverts optical emission measurements into the actual plasma distribution without assuming radial symmetry. The new sensor is designed to operate with only two small windows and acquire the necessary data in less than a second. Optical tomography is being tested on an ICP-GEC RF plasma source. Variations in plasma uniformity are measured as a function of different plasma conditions

  16. Design and implementation of a prototype micropositioning and fusion of optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fabio; Torres, Cesar; Mattos, Lorenzo

    2011-09-01

    We developed an automated system in micro and optical fiber fusion, using stepper motors of 3.6 ° (1.8 ° Medium step) with a threaded system for displacements in the order of microns, a LM016 LCD for User message management, a PIC16F877A microcontroller to control the prototype. We also used internal modules: TMR0, EEPROM, PWM (pulse width modulation) control using a pulse opto-cupped the discharge circuit high voltage (20 to 35 kilovolt transformer for FLYBACK fusion) The USART (Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) for serial interface with the PC. The software platform developed under Visual Basic 6.0, which lets you manipulate the prototype from the PC. The entire program is optimized for microcontroller interrupt, macro-functions and is written in MPLAB 7.31. The prototype is now finished.

  17. Fiber-optic technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A history of fiber technology is presented. The advantages of fiber optics are discussed (bandwidth, cost, weight and size, nonmetallic construction and isolation). Some aspects of the disadvantages of fiber systems briefly discussed are fiber and cable availability, fiber components, radiation effects, receivers and transmitters, and material dispersion. Particular emphasis over the next several years will involve development of fibers and systems optimized for use at wavelengths near 1.3 μm and development of wavelengths multiplexers for simultaneous system operation at several wavelengths

  18. Optical fiber inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

  19. Fiber optic sensor and method for making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartuli, James Scott; Bousman, Kenneth Sherwood; Deng, Kung-Li; McEvoy, Kevin Paul; Xia, Hua

    2010-05-18

    A fiber optic sensor including a fiber having a modified surface integral with the fiber wherein the modified surface includes an open pore network with optical agents dispersed within the open pores of the open pore network. Methods for preparing the fiber optic sensor are also provided. The fiber optic sensors can withstand high temperatures and harsh environments.

  20. Modeling and Validation of Performance Limitations for the Optimal Design of Interferometric and Intensity-Modulated Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, Erik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-07

    Optical fiber sensors offer advantages over traditional electromechanical sensors, making them particularly well-suited for certain measurement applications. Generally speaking, optical fiber sensors respond to a desired measurand through modulation of an optical signal's intensity, phase, or wavelength. Practically, non-contacting fiber optic displacement sensors are limited to intensity-modulated and interferometric (or phase-modulated) methodologies. Intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensors relate target displacement to a power measurement. The simplest intensity-modulated sensor architectures are not robust to environmental and hardware fluctuations, since such variability may cause changes in the measured power level that falsely indicate target displacement. Differential intensity-modulated sensors have been implemented, offering robustness to such intensity fluctuations, and the speed of these sensors is limited only by the combined speed of the photodetection hardware and the data acquisition system (kHz-MHz). The primary disadvantages of intensity-modulated sensing are the relatively low accuracy (?m-mm for low-power sensors) and the lack of robustness, which consequently must be designed, often with great difficulty, into the sensor's architecture. White light interferometric displacement sensors, on the other hand, offer increased accuracy and robustness. Unlike their monochromatic-interferometer counterparts, white light interferometric sensors offer absolute, unambiguous displacement measurements over large displacement ranges (cm for low-power, 5 mW, sources), necessitating no initial calibration, and requiring no environmental or feedback control. The primary disadvantage of white light interferometric displacement sensors is that their utility in dynamic testing scenarios is limited, both by hardware bandwidth and by their inherent high-sensitivity to Doppler-effects. The decision of whether to use either an intensity

  1. Fiber Optics Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschke, Fedor

    2010-01-01

    Telephone, telefax, email and internet -- the key ingredient of the inner workings is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data-carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul. This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative applications, provided they are understood well enough. A case in point is the use of so-called solitons, i.e. special pulses of light which have the wonderful prope...

  2. Design for improved maintenance of the fiber-optic cable system (As carried out in a concurrent engineering environment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoulet, P. C.

    The author describes a number of maintenance improvements in the Fiber Optic Cable System (FOCS). They were achieved during a production phase pilot concurrent engineering program. Listed in order of importance (saved maintenance time and material) by maintenance level, they are: (1) organizational level: improved fiber optic converter (FOC) BITE; (2) Intermediate level: reduced FOC adjustments from 20 to 2; partitioned FOC into electrical and optical parts; developed cost-effective fault isolation test points and test using standard test equipment; improved FOC chassis to have lower mean time to repair; and (3) depot level: revised test requirements documents (TRDs) for common automatic test equipment and incorporated ATE testability into circuit and assemblies and application-specific integrated circuits. These improvements met this contract's tailored logistics MIL-STD 1388-1A requirements of monitoring the design for supportability and determining the most effective support equipment. Important logistics lessons learned while accomplishing these maintainability and supportability improvements on the pilot concurrent engineering program are also discussed.

  3. Fiber optic-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1991-01-01

    The NRL fiber optic biosensor is a device which measures the formation of a fluorescent complex at the surface of an optical fiber. Antibodies and DNA binding proteins provide the mechanism for recognizing an analyze and immobilizing a fluorescent complex on the fiber surface. The fiber optic biosensor is fast, sensitive, and permits analysis of hazardous materials remote from the instrumentation. The fiber optic biosensor is described in terms of the device configuration, chemistry for protein immobilization, and assay development. A lab version is being used for assay development and performance characterization while a portable device is under development. Antibodies coated on the fiber are stable for up to two years of storage prior to use. The fiber optic biosensor was used to measure concentration of toxins in the parts per billion (ng/ml) range in under a minute. Immunoassays for small molecules and whole bacteria are under development. Assays using DNA probes as the detection element can also be used with the fiber optic sensor, which is currently being developed to detect biological warfare agents, explosives, pathogens, and toxic materials which pollute the environment.

  4. VPIsystems industry training program on computer-aided design of fiber optic communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Andre; Chan, David K. C.

    2002-05-01

    In industry today, professional Photonic Design Automation (PDA) tools are a necessity to enable fast development cycles for the design of optical components, systems and networks. The training of industrial personnel is of great importance in facilitating the full usability of PDA tools tailored to meet these demands. As the market leader of design and planning tools for system integrators and manufacturers of optical transmission systems and components, VPIsystems offers a set of two-day training courses. Attendees are taught on the design of metro WDM networks, high speed DWDM and ultra long-haul WDM systems, analogue and digital cable access systems, EDFA and Raman amplifiers, as well as active devices and circuits. The course work compromises of: (1) lectures on physical and modeling background topics; (2) creation of typical simulation scenarios and; (3) the analysis of results. This course work is facilitated by guided, hands-on lab exercises using VPIsystems software for a variety of practical design situations. In classes of up to 15, each attendee is allocated a computer, thereby allowing for a thorough and speedy training for the individual in all of the covered topics as well as for any extra-curriculum topics to be covered. Since 1999, more than 750 people have graduated from over 60 training courses. In this paper, details of VPIsystems Industry training program will be presented.

  5. Design, analysis, and initial testing of a fiber-optic shear gage for three-dimensional, high-temperature flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Matthew W.

    This investigation concerns the design, analysis, and initial testing of a new, two-component wall shear gage for 3D, high-temperature flows. This gage is a direct-measuring, non-nulling design with a round head surrounded by a small gap. Two flexure wheels are used to allow small motions of the floating head. Fiber-optic displacement sensors measure how far the polished faces of counterweights on the wheels move in relation to a fixed housing as the primary measurement system. No viscous damping was required. The gage has both fiber-optic instrumentation and strain gages mounted on the flexures for validation of the newer fiber optics. The sensor is constructed of Haynes RTM 230RTM, a high-temperature nickel alloy. The gage housing is made of 316 stainless steel. All components of the gage in pure fiber-optic form can survive to a temperature of 1073 K. The bonding methods of the backup strain gages limit their maximum temperature to 473 K. The dynamic range of the gage is from 0--500 Pa (0--10g) and higher shears can be measured by changing the floating head size. Extensive use of finite element modeling was critical to the design and analysis of the gage. Static structural, modal, and thermal analyses were performed on the flexures using the ANSYS finite element package. Static finite element analysis predicted the response of the flexures to a given load, and static calibrations using a direct force method confirmed these results. Finite element modal analysis results were within 16.4% for the first mode and within 30% for the second mode when compared with the experimentally determined modes. Vibration characteristics of the gage were determined from experimental free vibration data after the gage was subjected to an impulse. Uncertainties in the finished geometry make this level of error acceptable. A transient thermal analysis examined the effects of a very high heat flux on the exposed head of the gage. The 100,000 W/m2 heat flux used in this analysis is

  6. Polymer optical fiber bragg grating sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Yuan, Scott Wu; Andresen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings are reported. We have written fiber Bragg gratings for 1550 nm and 850 nm operations, characterized their temperature and strain response, and tested their performance in a prototype accelerometer....

  7. Applications of fiber optic sensors in concrete structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingyun; Zhang, Wentao; Sun, Baochen; Du, Yanliang

    2007-11-01

    The research of fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) sensors and their applications in concrete structural health monitoring are presented in this paper. Different types of fiber optic EFPI sensors are designed and fabricated. Experiments are carried out to test the performance of the sensors. The results show that the sensors have good linearity and stability. The applications of the fiber optic EFPI sensors in concrete structural health monitoring are also introduced. Ten fiber optic sensors are embedded into one section of the Liaohe Bridge in Qinghuangdao-Shenyang Railway. Field test demonstrates that the results of fiber optic sensors agree well with conventional strain gauges.

  8. Fiber Optics: A Bright Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an overview of the impact of fiber optics on telecommunications and its application to information processing and library services, including information retrieval, news services, remote transmission of library services, and library networking. (RAA)

  9. Optical Fiber Thermometer Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Ekbal Bin; Mohd. Noor, Uzer

    2018-03-01

    Fiber Bragg grating has generated much interest in use as sensors to measure strain, temperature, and other physical parameters. It also the most common component used to develop this sensor with the advantages of simple, intrinsic sensing elements, electrically passive operation, EMI immunity, high sensitivity, compact size and potentially low cost [6]. This paper reports the design of an optical fiber thermometer based on fiber Bragg gratings. The system was developed for detecting temperature and strain by monitoring the shift of Bragg wavelength. The shifting of Bragg wavelength is used to indicate the temperature and strain due to the change in the surrounding temperature and strain. When the temperature and strain reach the exact wavelength level of the system, the temperature and strain value will display on the Arduino liquid crystal display (LCD). The optical fiber will provide the broadband light source and after passing the FBG the Bragg wavelength into the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). The system is based on FBG as a physical quantity sensor. The temperatures measured is taken from the water bath and that of the strain is provided by amount of slotted mass used. The outcome of this project is to characterize the Bragg wavelength shifting from the fiber Bragg grating output. As the conclusion, this project provides an efficient optical fiber thermometer in measuring temperature and strain in order to replace the use of conventional electrical instruments.

  10. Power Budget Analysis of Fiber Optics Communication Links Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the development of optical fiber communication system most telecommunication companies now prefer to use optical fiber transmission medium for higher information bandwidth. The design of such a system involves many aspects such as the type of source to be used, the kind of fiber to be employed and detector.

  11. A microbent fiber optic pH sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas Lee, S.; Aneeshkumar, B.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors developed for measuring pH values usually employ an unclad and unstrained section of the fiber. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of a microbent fiber optic sensor that can be used for pH sensing. In order to obtain the desired performance, a permanently

  12. Radiation damage in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.; Ogle, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Optical fibers provide important advantages over coaxial cables for many data transmission applications. Some of these applications require that the fibers transmit data during a radiation pulse. Other applications utilize the fiber as a radiation-to-light transducer. In either case, radiation-induced luminescence and absorption must be understood. Most studies of radiation effects in fibers have emphasized time scales of interest in telecommunication systems, from the msec to hour range. Few studies have concentrated on response at times below 1 + s. At Los Alamos, both laboratory electron accelerators and nuclear tests have been used as radiation sources to probe this early time region. The use of a fiber (or any optical medium) as a Cerenkov radiation-to-light transducer is discussed. Since the radiation induces attenuation in the medium, the light output is not proportional to the radiation input. The nonlinearity introduced by this attenuation is calculated

  13. A new fiber optic sensor for inner surface roughness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Liu, Shoubin; Hu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    In order to measure inner surface roughness of small holes nondestructively, a new fiber optic sensor is researched and developed. Firstly, a new model for surface roughness measurement is proposed, which is based on intensity-modulated fiber optic sensors and scattering modeling of rough surfaces. Secondly, a fiber optical measurement system is designed and set up. Under the help of new techniques, the fiber optic sensor can be miniaturized. Furthermore, the use of micro prism makes the light turn 90 degree, so the inner side surface roughness of small holes can be measured. Thirdly, the fiber optic sensor is gauged by standard surface roughness specimens, and a series of measurement experiments have been done. The measurement results are compared with those obtained by TR220 Surface Roughness Instrument and Form Talysurf Laser 635, and validity of the developed fiber optic sensor is verified. Finally, precision and influence factors of the fiber optic sensor are analyzed.

  14. Bridge SHM system based on fiber optical sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Fan, Dian; Fu, Jiang-hua; Huang, Xing; Jiang, De-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The latest progress of our lab in recent 10 years on the area of bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) based on optical fiber sensing technology is introduced. Firstly, in the part of sensing technology, optical fiber force test-ring, optical fiber vibration sensor, optical fiber smart cable, optical fiber prestressing loss monitoring method and optical fiber continuous curve mode inspection system are developed, which not only rich the sensor types, but also provides new monitoring means that are needed for the bridge health monitoring system. Secondly, in the optical fiber sensing network and computer system platform, the monitoring system architecture model is designed to effectively meet the integration scale and effect requirement of engineering application, especially the bridge expert system proposed integration of sensing information and informatization manual inspection to realize the mode of multi index intelligence and practical monitoring, diagnosis and evaluation. Finally, the Jingyue bridge monitoring system as the representative, the research on the technology of engineering applications are given.

  15. Optical fibers and their instrumentation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisde, Gilbert.

    1982-09-01

    The use of optical fibers in instrumentation requires a knowledge of their properties as ''photon carriers'' and ''sensors''. New instrumentation design implies a satisfactory evaluation of the entire measurement circuit, including the emitter, optical coupling, optical fiber with its physical, spectral and physico-chemical properties, the connector, receiver, signal amplifier and data processing system. An example, is provided of the development of a new technique in physico-chemical instrumentation: remote spectrophotometry. Three aspects are discussed: 1) industrial measurement in ''process control'' using the Telephot (R), 2) remote spectral measurement, 3) opical multiplexing. This is followed by a review of various optical fiber based instrumental techniques used in the fields of medicine (endoscopy, fluorothermy, laser surgery), solar energy industrial applications subject to electrical disturbances (position sensors, strain measurements), and in physico-chemical analysis (fluorescence, redox potentials) [fr

  16. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  17. Fiber optic fire detection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic application of paint was, and still is, the most technically feasible method of reducing VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions, while reducing the cost to apply the coatings. Prior to the use of electrostatics, only two sides of the traditional fire triangle were normally present in the booth, fuel (solvent), and oxygen (air). Now the third leg (the ignition source) was present at virtually all times during the production operation in the form of the electrostatic charge and the resulting energy in the system. The introduction of fiber optics into the field of fire detection was for specific application to the electrostatic painting industry, but specifically, robots used in the application of electrostatic painting in the automotive industry. The use of fiber optics in this hazard provided detection for locations that have been previously prohibited or inaccessible with the traditional fire detection systems. The fiber optic technology that has been adapted to the field of fire detection operates on the principle of transmission of photons through a light guide (optic fiber). When the light guide is subjected to heat, the cladding on the light guide melts away from the core and allows the light (photons) to escape. The controller, which contains the emitter and receiver is set-up to distinguish between partial loss of light and a total loss of light. Glass optical fibers carrying light offer distinct advantages over wires or coaxial cables carrying electricity as a transmission media. The uses of fiber optic detection will be expanded in the near future into such areas as aircraft, cable trays and long conveyor runs because fiber optics can carry more information and deliver it with greater clarity over longer distances with total immunity to all kinds of electrical interference

  18. A fiber-optic polarimetric demonstration kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftimov, T; Dimitrova, T L; Ivanov, G

    2012-01-01

    A simple and multifunctional fiber-optic polarimetric kit on the basis of highly birefringent single-mode fibers is presented. The fiber-optic polarimetric kit allows us to perform the following laboratory exercises: (i) fiber excitation and the measurement of numerical aperture, (ii) polarization preservation and (iii) obtain polarization-sensitive fiberized interferometers.

  19. The strength and failure of silica optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, C; Bai, R X; Yu, H; Canning, J; Law, S

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical strength and failure behavior of conventional and microstructured silica optical fibers was investigated using a tensile test and fracture mechanics and numerical analyses. The effect of polymer coating on failure behavior was also studied. The results indicate that all these fibers fail in a brittle manner and failure normally starts from fiber surfaces. The failure loads observed in coated fibers are higher than those in bare fibers. The introduction of air holes reduces fiber strength and their geometrical arrangements have a remarkable effect on stress distribution in the longitudinal direction. These results are potentially useful for the design, fabrication and evaluation of optical fibers for a wide range of applications.

  20. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  1. Fiber Optic Bragg Gratings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Battiato, James

    1998-01-01

    Coupled mode theory was used to model reflection fiber gratings. The effects of experimental parameters on grating characteristics were modeled for both uniform and non-uniform grating profiles using this approach...

  2. Fiber Optic Detection of Action Potentials in Axons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smela, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    In prior exploratory research, we had designed a fiber optic sensor utilizing a long period Bragg grating for the purpose of detecting action potentials in axons optically, through a change in index...

  3. Demonstration of theoretical and experimental simulations in fiber optics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tianfu; Wang, Xiaolin; Shi, Jianhua; Lei, Bing; Liu, Wei; Wang, Wei; Hu, Haojun

    2017-08-01

    "Fiber optics" course plays a supporting effect in the curriculum frame of optics and photonics at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Moreover, the course can be treated as compulsory for students specialized in the fiber-related field, such as fiber communication, fiber sensing and fiber light source. The corresponding content in fiber optics requires the knowledge of geometrical and physical optics as background, including basic optical theory and fiber components in practice. Thus, to help the students comprehend the relatively abundant and complex content, it is necessary to investigate novel teaching method assistant the classic lectures. In this paper, we introduce the multidimensional pattern in fiber-optics teaching involving theoretical and laboratory simulations. First, the theoretical simulations is demonstrated based on the self-developed software named "FB tool" which can be installed in both smart phone with Android operating system and personal computer. FB tool covers the fundamental calculations relating to transverse modes, fiber lasers and nonlinearities and so on. By comparing the calculation results with other commercial software like COMSOL, SFTool shows high accuracy with high speed. Then the laboratory simulations are designed including fiber coupling, Erbium doped fiber amplifiers, fiber components and so on. The simulations not only supports students understand basic knowledge in the course, but also provides opportunities to develop creative projects in fiber optics.

  4. Fiber optics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Azzawi, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser, our fascination with the photon has led to one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields of technology. New advances in fiber optic devices, components, and materials make it more important than ever to stay current. Comprising chapters drawn from the author's highly anticipated book Photonics: Principles and Practices, Fiber Optics: Principles and Practices offers a detailed and focused treatment for anyone in need of authoritative information on this critical area underlying photonics.Using a consistent approach, the author leads you step-by-step throug

  5. Fiber-optic coupled pressure transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, C.R.; Wingate, F.P.; Ballard, E.O.

    1979-01-01

    A fiber-optic coupled pressure transducer was developed for measurement of pressure transients produced by fast electrical discharges in laser cavities. A detailed description of the design and performance will be given. Shock tube performance and measurements in direct electrical discharge regions will be presented

  6. Microstructured optical fiber refractive index sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Town, Graham E.; McCosker, Ravi; Yuan, Scott Wu

    2010-01-01

    We describe a dual-core microstructured optical fiber designed for refractive index sensing of fluids. We show that by using the exponential dependence of intercore coupling on analyte refractive index, both large range and high sensitivity can be achieved in the one device. We also show...

  7. Environmental performance of an elliptical core polarization maintaining optical fiber for fiber optic gyro applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Vincent P.; Squires, Emily M.; Watkins, James J.

    1994-03-01

    Corning has introduced a new polarization-maintaining optical fiber to satisfy customer requirements for a range of commercial and military FOG applications. This fiber has an elliptical core, matched-clad design, and is intended for operation in the 780 to 850 nm wavelength region. The fiber has a beat length less than 1.5 mm, attenuation rate less than 10 dB/km, and a typical coiled h-parameter less than 1.5 X 10-4 m-1 in the designated operating wavelength range. It has a cladding diameter of 80 micrometers and a coating diameter of 185 micrometers . The coating is an acrylate system, similar to that used in telecommunications optical fibers. We report on the performance of this elliptical core fiber for a variety of environmental exposures representative of an automotive application.

  8. Enhancing Optical Communications with Brand New Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morioka, Toshio; Awaji, Yoshinari; Ryf, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have often been considered to offer effectively infinite capacity to support the rapid traffic growth essential to our information society. However, as demand has grown and technology has developed, we have begun to realize that there is a fundamental limit to fiber capacity of ~ 100...... Tb/s per fiber for systems based on conventional single-core single-mode optical fiber as the transmission medium. This limit arises from the interplay of a number of factors including the Shannon limit, optical fiber nonlinearities, the fiber fuse effect, as well as optical amplifier bandwidth...... new fibers for space-division multiplexing and mode-division multiplexing....

  9. Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab develops, tests and evaluates high speed fiber optic network components as well as network protocols. In addition, this...

  10. Fiber Optic Augmented Reality System (FOARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovation: Fiber Optics Augmented Reality System. This system in form of a mobile app interacts real time with the actual FOSS(Fiber Optics Sensing System) data and...

  11. Fiber optic evanescent wave biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveneck, Gert L.; Ehrat, Markus; Widmer, H. M.

    1991-09-01

    The role of modern analytical chemistry is not restricted to quality control and environmental surveillance, but has been extended to process control using on-line analytical techniques. Besides industrial applications, highly specific, ultra-sensitive biochemical analysis becomes increasingly important as a diagnostic tool, both in central clinical laboratories and in the doctor's office. Fiber optic sensor technology can fulfill many of the requirements for both types of applications. As an example, the experimental arrangement of a fiber optic sensor for biochemical affinity assays is presented. The evanescent electromagnetic field, associated with a light ray guided in an optical fiber, is used for the excitation of luminescence labels attached to the biomolecules in solution to be analyzed. Due to the small penetration depth of the evanescent field into the medium, the generation of luminescence is restricted to the close proximity of the fiber, where, e.g., the luminescent analyte molecules combine with their affinity partners, which are immobilized on the fiber. Both cw- and pulsed light excitation can be used in evanescent wave sensor technology, enabling the on-line observation of an affinity assay on a macroscopic time scale (seconds and minutes), as well as on a microscopic, molecular time scale (nanoseconds or microseconds).

  12. Optical design and development of a fiber coupled high-power diode laser system for laser transmission welding of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, Eva; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon; Azkorbebeitia, Urko; Otaduy, Deitze; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics is a direct bonding technique already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobiles, microfluidics, electronics, and biomedicine. LTW evolves localized heating at the interface of two pieces of plastic to be joined. One of the plastic pieces needs to be optically transparent to the laser radiation whereas the other part has to be absorbent, being that the radiation produced by high power diode lasers is a good alternative for this process. As consequence, a tailored laser system has been designed and developed to obtain high quality weld seams with weld widths between 0.7 and 1.4 mm. The developed laser system consists of two diode laser bars (50 W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a nonimaging solution: equalization of the beam parameter product (BPP) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of step-mirrors. The power scaling was carried out by means of a multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality was performed considering ray tracing simulation (ZEMAX) and experimental validation. The welding experiments were conducted on acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), a thermoplastic frequently used in automotive, electronics and aircraft applications, doped with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). Quality of the weld seams on ABS was analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. Mechanical properties of weld seams were analyzed by mechanical shear tests. High quality weld seams were produced in ABS, revealing the potential of the laser developed in this work for a wide range of plastic welding applications.

  13. Design and evaluation of capillary coupled with optical fiber light-emitting diode induced fluorescence detection for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongyun; Li, Meng; Guo, Lihong; Yuan, Hongyan; Wang, Chunling; Xiao, Dan

    2013-09-01

    A new detector, capillary coupled with optical fiber LED-induced fluorescence detector (CCOF-LED-IFD, using CCOF for short), is introduced for CE. The strategy of the present work was that the optical fiber and separation capillary were, in the parallel direction, fastened in a fixation capillary with larger inner diameter. By employing larger inner diameter, the fixation capillary allowed the large diameter of the optical fiber to be inserted into it. By transmitting an enhanced excitation light through the optical fiber, the detection sensitivity was improved. The advantages of the CCOF-CE system were validated by the detection of riboflavin, and the results were compared to those obtained by the in-capillary common optical fiber LED-induced fluorescence detector (IC-COF-LED-IFD, using COF for short). The LODs of CCOF-CE and COF-CE were 0.29 nM and 11.0 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. The intraday (n = 6) repeatability and interday (n = 6) reproducibility of migration time and corresponding peak area for both types of CE were all less than 1.10 and 3.30%, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was judged by employing standard addition method, and recoveries obtained were in the range of 98.0-102.4%. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the proposed system was largely improved, and that its reproducibility and accuracy were satisfactory. The proposed system was successfully applied to separate and determine riboflavin in real sample. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Applications of fiber optics in physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckle, T.H.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to provide technical information useful for the development of fiber-optic communications and intrusion detection subsystems relevant to physical protection. There are major sections on fiber-optic technology and applications. Other topics include fiber-optic system components and systems engineering. This document also contains a glossary, a list of standards and specifications, and a list of fiber-optic equipment vendors

  15. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  16. Design of an optical temporal integrator based on a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating in transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoc Ngo, Nam

    2007-10-15

    We present a theoretical study of a new application of a simple pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (PSFBG) in transmission mode as a high-speed optical temporal integrator. The PSFBG consists of two concatenated identical uniform FBGs with a pi phase shift between them. When the reflectivities of the FBGs are extremely close to 100%, the transmissive PSFBG can perform the time integral of the complex envelope of an arbitrary input optical signal with high accuracy. As an example, the integrator is numerically shown to be able to convert an input Gaussian pulse into an optical step signal.

  17. Fiber Optics: Deregulate and Deploy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwinski, Jan H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes fiber optic technology, explains its use in education and commercial settings, and recommends regulations and legislation that will speed its use to create broadband information networks. Topics discussed include distance learning; interactive video; costs; and the roles of policy makers, lawmakers, public advocacy groups, and consumers.…

  18. All-optical fiber compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Luben M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple all-optical fiber compressor, based on an idea of dispersion management using a fiber of positive dispersion in the first part and of negative dispersion in the second one at the working wavelength, is investigated. The method allows a combination of the advantages of the classic fiber-grating and of the multisoliton compression. It is possible to improve substantially the quality of the compressed pulse compared to the multisoliton compression. The compression factor could be increased up to 2-2.5 times when the fraction of the input pulse energy appearing within the compressed pulse enhances more than 2 times. Thus, the peak power of the compressed pulse is able to increase about 5 times and the quality of the obtained pulses should be comparable with those obtained by the fiber-grating compressor

  19. Application technology for optical fiber in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Chul Jung; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Woong Ki; Yoon, Tae Seob; Sohn, Surg Won; Kim, Chang Hoi; Hwang, Suk Yong; Baik, Sung Hum; Kwon, Seong Ouk

    1987-12-01

    Lately, the optical fiber increasingly used in such adverse environments as nuclear power plant, radiation facilities because of their endurant properties against heat, radiation, corrosion, etc. Moreover, the transmission of signal through optical fiber does not induce interference from the electromagnetic wave. Basic theory about the optical fiber technology was studied and the developed techniques for nuclear facilities were reviewed. Since the radiations change the characteristics of the optical fiber, the effects of γ-ray irradiation on single mode and multimode optical fiber were examined. The image transmission system through optical fiber bundle was designed, constructed, and tested. Its software system was also updated. It can be used for remote internal inspection in adverse environment. (Author)

  20. Flexible optical fiber sensor based on polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaysir, Md Rejvi; Stefani, Alessio; Lwin, Richard

    Polyurethane (PU) based hollow core fibers are investigated as optical sensors. The flexibility of PU fibers makes it suitable for sensing mechanical perturbations. We fabricated a PU fiber using the fiber drawing method, characterized the fiber and experimentally demonstrated a simple way...... to measure deformation, in the form of applied pressure....

  1. Career Directions--Fiber Optic Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber that is roughly the diameter of a human hair. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. Each optical fiber is capable of carrying an enormous amount of…

  2. How to design fiber optic sensors that work: basic technology, main problems, pitfalls, and potential solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Dakin, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Summary• Overview of optical fibre sensor types(Classified according to operating principles)• Difference between intrinsic and extrinsic sensors• Intensity-based sensors• Spectrally-encoded sensors• Propagation-time-encoded sensors• Interferometric sensors• Discussion of how to avoid problems and make practical sensors• Multiplexed and distributed sensors

  3. Precision-analog fiber-optic transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1981-06-01

    This article describes the design, experimental development, and construction of a DC-coupled precision analog fiber optic link. Topics to be covered include overall electrical and mechanical system parameters, basic circuit organization, modulation format, optical system design, optical receiver circuit analysis, and the experimental verification of the major design parameters

  4. Erbium Doped Fiber Optic Gravimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G G; Pérez-Torres, J R; Flores-Bravo, J A; Álvarez-Chávez, J A; Martínez-Piñón, F

    2017-01-01

    Gravimeters are devices that can be used in a wide range of applications, such as mining, seismology, geodesy, archeology, geophysics and many others. These devices have great sensibility, which makes them susceptible to external vibrations like electromagnetic waves. There are several technologies regarding gravimeters that are of use in industrial metrology. Optical fiber is immune to electromagnetic interference, and together with long period gratings can form high sensibility sensors of small size, offering advantages over other systems with different technologies. This paper shows the development of an optical fiber gravimeter doped with Erbium that was characterized optically for loads going from 1 to 10 kg in a bandwidth between 1590nm to 1960nm, displaying a weight linear response against power. Later on this paper, the experimental results show that the previous described behavior can be modeled as characteristic function of the sensor. (paper)

  5. Magneto-Optic Field Coupling in Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Gregory P. (Inventor); Mohanchandra, Panduranga K. (Inventor); Emmons, Michael C. (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The invention is a magneto-optic coupled magnetic sensor that comprises a standard optical fiber Bragg grating system. The system includes an optical fiber with at least one Bragg grating therein. The optical fiber has at least an inner core and a cladding that surrounds the inner core. The optical fiber is part of an optical system that includes an interrogation device that provides a light wave through the optical fiber and a system to determine the change in the index of refraction of the optical fiber. The cladding of the optical fiber comprises at least a portion of which is made up of ferromagnetic particles so that the ferromagnetic particles are subject to the light wave provided by the interrogation system. When a magnetic field is present, the ferromagnetic particles change the optical properties of the sensor directly.

  6. Fiber-optic Sensor Demonstrator (FSD) integration with PROBA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Arnd; Glier, Markus; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Lars; Müller, Mathias; Rapp, Stephan; Kurvin, Charles; Ernst, Thomas; McKenzie, Iain; Karafolas, Nikos

    2017-11-01

    Modern telecommunication satellites can benefit from the features of fiber optic sensing wrt to mass savings, improved performance and lower costs. Within the course of a technology study, launched by the European Space Agency, a fiber optic sensing system has been designed and is to be tested on representative mockups of satellite sectors and environment.

  7. An electromagnetically actuated fiber optic switch using magnetized ferromagnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandojirao-S, Praveen; Dhaubanjar, Naresh; Phuyal, Pratibha C.; Chiao, Mu; Chiao, J.-C.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of a fiber optic switch actuated electromagnetically. The ferromagnetic gel coated optical fiber is actuated using external electromagnetic fields. The ferromagnetic gel consists of ferromagnetic powders dispersed in epoxy. The fabrication utilizes a simple cost-effective coating setup. A direct fiberto-fiber alignment eliminates the need for complementary optical parts and the displacement of fiber switches the laser coupling. The magnetic characteristics of magnetized ferromagnetic materials are performed using alternating gradient magnetometer and the magnetic hysteresis curves are measured for different ferromagnetic materials including iron, cobalt, and nickel. Optical fiber switches with various fiber lengths are actuated and their static and dynamic responses for the same volume of ferromagnetic gel are summarized. The highest displacement is 1.345 mm with an input current of 260mA. In this paper, the performance of fiber switches with various coating materials is presented.

  8. Design and test of a novel accelerometer made-up of an optical-fiber embedded within a polymer resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihon Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a transducer for an optical-fiber accelerometer based on a polarization analysis. The transducer is made up of a fiber section embedded within a resin placed between two metallic pieces. Due to the acceleration, the resin is crushed between the metallic pieces, deforming the fiber section and inducing birefringence in the latter. This birefringence modifies the light polarization state, which can be used as an acceleration measurement. The sensor characteristics (sensitivity and resonance frequency are numerically and experimentally determined. Sine accelerations at 120 Hz with amplitudes going from 5 m/s2 to 13 m/s2 have been successfully measured. The resonance frequency for the transducer crushing mode is above 5000 Hz, but low-frequency vibration modes exist, disturbing the measurements.

  9. Generalized fiber Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella

    2011-06-15

    A twofold generalization of the optical schemes that perform the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is given: new passive planar architectures are presented where the 2 × 2 3 dB couplers are replaced by M × M hybrids, reducing the number of required connections and phase shifters. Furthermore, the planar implementation of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) is also described, with a waveguide grating router (WGR) configuration and a properly modified slab coupler.

  10. Optical Fiber Grating based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis differenct optical fiber gratings are used for sensor purposes. If a fiber with a core concentricity error (CCE) is used, a directional dependent bend sensor can be produced. The CCE direction can be determined by means of diffraction. This makes it possible to produce long......-period gratings in a fiber with a CCE direction parallel or perpendicular to the writing direction. The maximal bending sensitivity is independent on the writing direction, but the detailed bending response is different in the two cases. A temperature and strain sensor, based on a long-period grating and two...... sampled gratings, was produced and investigated. It is based on the different temperature and strain response of these gratings. Both a transfer matrix method and an overlap calculation is performed to explain the sensor response. Another type of sensor is based on tuning and modulation of a laser...

  11. Biosensing with optical fiber gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaioli, Francesco; Baldini, Francesco; Tombelli, Sara; Trono, Cosimo; Giannetti, Ambra

    2017-06-01

    Optical fiber gratings (OFGs), especially long-period gratings (LPGs) and etched or tilted fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), are playing an increasing role in the chemical and biochemical sensing based on the measurement of a surface refractive index (RI) change through a label-free configuration. In these devices, the electric field evanescent wave at the fiber/surrounding medium interface changes its optical properties (i.e. intensity and wavelength) as a result of the RI variation due to the interaction between a biological recognition layer deposited over the fiber and the analyte under investigation. The use of OFG-based technology platforms takes the advantages of optical fiber peculiarities, which are hardly offered by the other sensing systems, such as compactness, lightness, high compatibility with optoelectronic devices (both sources and detectors), and multiplexing and remote measurement capability as the signal is spectrally modulated. During the last decade, the growing request in practical applications pushed the technology behind the OFG-based sensors over its limits by means of the deposition of thin film overlays, nanocoatings, and nanostructures, in general. Here, we review efforts toward utilizing these nanomaterials as coatings for high-performance and low-detection limit devices. Moreover, we review the recent development in OFG-based biosensing and identify some of the key challenges for practical applications. While high-performance metrics are starting to be achieved experimentally, there are still open questions pertaining to an effective and reliable detection of small molecules, possibly up to single molecule, sensing in vivo and multi-target detection using OFG-based technology platforms.

  12. Biosensing with optical fiber gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiavaioli Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber gratings (OFGs, especially long-period gratings (LPGs and etched or tilted fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs, are playing an increasing role in the chemical and biochemical sensing based on the measurement of a surface refractive index (RI change through a label-free configuration. In these devices, the electric field evanescent wave at the fiber/surrounding medium interface changes its optical properties (i.e. intensity and wavelength as a result of the RI variation due to the interaction between a biological recognition layer deposited over the fiber and the analyte under investigation. The use of OFG-based technology platforms takes the advantages of optical fiber peculiarities, which are hardly offered by the other sensing systems, such as compactness, lightness, high compatibility with optoelectronic devices (both sources and detectors, and multiplexing and remote measurement capability as the signal is spectrally modulated. During the last decade, the growing request in practical applications pushed the technology behind the OFG-based sensors over its limits by means of the deposition of thin film overlays, nanocoatings, and nanostructures, in general. Here, we review efforts toward utilizing these nanomaterials as coatings for high-performance and low-detection limit devices. Moreover, we review the recent development in OFG-based biosensing and identify some of the key challenges for practical applications. While high-performance metrics are starting to be achieved experimentally, there are still open questions pertaining to an effective and reliable detection of small molecules, possibly up to single molecule, sensing in vivo and multi-target detection using OFG-based technology platforms.

  13. Ionizing radiation detector using multimode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.J.; Poret, J.C.; Rosen, M.; Rifkind, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    An optical ionizing radiation detector, based on the attenuation of 850-nm light in 50/125-μm multimode fibers, is described. The detector is especially well suited for application on spacecraft because of its small design. The detection element consists of a section of coiled fibers that has been designed to strip higher-order optical modes. Cylindrical radiation shields with atomic numbers ranging from Z = 13 (aluminum too) Z = 82 (lead) were placed around the ionizing radiation detector so that the effectiveness of the detector could be measured. By exposing the shields and the detector to 1.25-MeV cobalt 60 radiation, the mass attenuation coefficients of the shields were measured. The detector is based on the phenomenon that radiation creates optical color centers in glass fibers. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy performed on the 50/125-μm fibers showed the presence of germanium oxide and phosphorus-based color centers. The intensity of these centers is directly related to the accumulated gamma radiation

  14. Design and UV writing of advanced Bragg gratings in optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plougmann, Nikolai

    2004-01-01

    : · Development of a novel polarization control method for UV writing of advanced Bragg gratings with arbitrary refractive index modulation profile including multiple pi-phase shifts. · Development of a novel efficient technique for Bragg grating design which allows calculating an index modulation profile...

  15. Fiber-optic communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive account of fiber-optic communication systems. The 3rd edition of this book is used worldwide as a textbook in many universities. This 4th edition incorporates recent advances that have occurred, in particular two new chapters. One deals with the advanced modulation formats (such as DPSK, QPSK, and QAM) that are increasingly being used for improving spectral efficiency of WDM lightwave systems. The second chapter focuses on new techniques such as all-optical regeneration that are under development and likely to be used in future communication systems. All othe

  16. Coherent Fiber Optic Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    design, build, test design, build, test Hankey / Wood Johnson / Hankey Delivery of hardware to RADC Figure 2.1 Programme Activities -2.4- 3. DIGITAL...complexity. -3.45- C%j C~J -) LA f-. r- M M O Ln LA - 4 -4 C r- t-- $k0 to mr LCA %0 r-. -4 CVr) m~ qtt .: LO LA ’.0 4- C)) to r. I~ t.o X: C~j e. C\\J...adequate specification were used and selection for improved performance was feasible. Use of in-house lasers enabled custom packaging of the chip to

  17. Fiber optic vibration sensor using bifurcated plastic optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Bidin, N.; Yasin, M.

    2016-11-01

    An extrinsic fiber optic vibration sensor is demonstrated for a fiber optic displacement sensor based on a bundled multimode fiber to measure a vibration frequency ranging from 100 until 3000 Hz. The front slope has a sensitivity of 0.1938mV/mm and linearity of 99.7% within a measurement range between 0.15-3.00 mm. By placing the diaphragm of the concave load-speaker within the linear range from the probe, the frequency of the vibration can be measured with error percentage of less than 1.54%. The graph of input against output frequency for low, medium and high frequency range show very high linearity up to 99%. Slope for low, medium, and high frequency range are calculated as 1.0026, 0.9934, and 1.0007 respectively. Simplicity, long term stability, low power consumption, wide dynamic and frequency ranges, noise reduction, ruggedness, linearity and light weight make it promising alternative to other well-establish methods for vibration frequency measurement.

  18. Design of pseudo-symmetric high bit rate, bend insensitive optical fiber applicable for high speed FTTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makouei, Somayeh; Koozekanani, Z. D.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, with sophisticated modification on modal-field distribution and introducing new design procedure, the single-mode fiber with ultra-low bending-loss and pseudo-symmetric high bit-rate of uplink and downlink, appropriate for fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) operation is presented. The bending-loss reduction and dispersion management are done by the means of Genetic Algorithm. The remarkable feature of this methodology is designing a bend-insensitive fiber without reduction of core radius and MFD. Simulation results show bending loss of 1.27×10-2 dB/turn at 1.55 μm for 5 mm curvature radius. The MFD and Aeff are 9.03 μm and 59.11 μm2. Moreover, the upstream and downstream bit-rates are approximately 2.38 Gbit/s-km and 3.05 Gbit/s-km.

  19. Fiber optic cabling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Barry J; Gilmore, Mike

    2002-01-01

    ... to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1P 0LP. Applications for the copy...

  20. Use of optical fibers in spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of single or small numbers of fiber optic fibers in astronomical spectroscopy with the goal of greater spectrophotometric and radial velocity accuracy is discussed. The properties of multimode step index fibers which are most important for this application are outlined, as are laboratory tests of currently available fibers.

  1. Cobra Fiber-Optic Positioner Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Braun, David F.; Kaluzny, Joel V.

    2013-01-01

    A prime focus spectrometer (PFS), along with corrective optics, will mount in place of the secondary mirror of the Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This will allow simultaneous observations of cosmologic targets. It will enable large-scale galactic archeology and dark energy surveys to help unlock the secrets of the universe. To perform these cosmologic surveys, an array of 2,400 optical fibers needs to be independently positioned within the 498-mm-diameter focal plane of the PFS instrument to collect light from galaxies and stars for spectrographic analyses. To allow for independent re-positioning of the fibers, a very small positioner (7.7 mm in diameter) is required. One hundred percent coverage of the focal plane is also required, so these small actuators need to cover a patrol region of 9.5 mm in diameter. To optimize the amount of light that can be collected, the fibers need to be placed within 5 micrometers of their intended target (either a star or galaxy). The Cobra Fiber Positioner was designed to meet the size and accuracy requirements stated above. Cobra is a two-degrees-of-freedom mechanism that can position an optical fiber in the focal plane of the PFS instrument to a precision of 5 micrometers. It is a theta-phi style positioner containing two rotary piezo tube motors with one offset from the other, which enables the optic fibers to be placed anywhere in a small circular patrol region. The patrol region of the actuator is such that the array of 2,400 positioners allows for full coverage of the instrument focal plane by overlapping the patrol areas. A second-generation Cobra positioner was designed based on lessons learned from the original prototype built in 2009. Improvements were made to the precision of the ceramic motor parts, and hard stops were redesigned to minimize friction and prevent jamming. These changes resulted in reducing the number of move iterations required to position the optical fiber within 5 micrometers of its target. At

  2. Enabling technologies for fiber optic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Farnan, Martin; Karabacak, Devrez M.; Singer, Johannes M.

    2016-04-01

    In order for fiber optic sensors to compete with electrical sensors, several critical parameters need to be addressed such as performance, cost, size, reliability, etc. Relying on technologies developed in different industrial sectors helps to achieve this goal in a more efficient and cost effective way. FAZ Technology has developed a tunable laser based optical interrogator based on technologies developed in the telecommunication sector and optical transducer/sensors based on components sourced from the automotive market. Combining Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technology with the above, high speed, high precision, reliable quasi distributed optical sensing systems for temperature, pressure, acoustics, acceleration, etc. has been developed. Careful design needs to be considered to filter out any sources of measurement drifts/errors due to different effects e.g. polarization and birefringence, coating imperfections, sensor packaging etc. Also to achieve high speed and high performance optical sensing systems, combining and synchronizing multiple optical interrogators similar to what has been used with computer/processors to deliver super computing power is an attractive solution. This path can be achieved by using photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology which opens the doors to scaling up and delivering powerful optical sensing systems in an efficient and cost effective way.

  3. Lab-on-fiber electrophoretic trace mixture separating and detecting an optofluidic device based on a microstructured optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghua; Guo, Xiaohui; Li, Song; Kong, Depeng; Liu, Zhihai; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2016-04-15

    We report an in-fiber integrated electrophoretic trace mixture separating and detecting an optofluidic optical fiber sensor based on a specially designed optical fiber. In this design, rapid in situ separation and simultaneous detection of mixed analytes can be realized under electro-osmotic flow in the microstructured optical fiber. To visually display the in-fiber separating and detecting process, two common fluorescent indicators are adopted as the optofluidic analytes in the optical fiber. Results show that a trace amount of the mixture (0.15 μL) can be completely separated within 3.5 min under a high voltage of 5 kV. Simultaneously, the distributed information of the separated analytes in the optical fiber can be clearly obtained by scanning along the optical fiber using a 355 nm laser. The emission from the analytes can be efficiently coupled into the inner core and guides to the remote end of the optical fiber. In addition, the thin cladding around the inner core in the optical fiber can prevent the fluorescent cross talk between the analytes in this design. Compared to previous optical fiber optofluidic devices, this device first realizes simultaneously separating treatment and the detection of the mixed samples in an optical fiber. Significantly, such an in-fiber integrated separating and detecting optofluidic device can find wide applications in various analysis fields involves mixed samples, such as biology, chemistry, and environment.

  4. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheem, Sang K.

    2003-07-22

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  5. Microbending losses in multimode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Mudassar, A.A.; Hamza, M.Y.; Ikram, M.

    2003-01-01

    Microbending losses of optical fiber have been studied for different amplitude and shape of the deformer. Experimental results show that grooves of angel 60 degree cause more losses as compared to the grooves 90 degree. Intensity modulation induced by micro bends is considered as transudation mechanism for detecting environmental changes such as pressure, temperature, acceleration and magnetic and electric fields. An accelerometer has been designed on this principle and tested up to the acceleration of 65g. (author)

  6. Spectrally efficient polymer optical fiber transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, Sebastian; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) is an attractive transmission medium for high speed communication links in automotive infotainment networks, in industrial automation, and in home networks. Growing demands for quality of service, e.g., for IPTV distribution in homes and for Ethernet based industrial control networks will necessitate Gigabit speeds in the near future. We present an overview on recent advances in the design of spectrally efficient and robust Gigabit-over-SI-POF transmission systems.

  7. All-optical, thermo-optical path length modulation based on the vanadium-doped fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasec, Ziga; Campelj, Stanislav; Donlagic, Denis

    2013-05-20

    This paper presents an all-fiber, fully-optically controlled, optical-path length modulator based on highly absorbing optical fiber. The modulator utilizes a high-power 980 nm pump diode and a short section of vanadium-co-doped single mode fiber that is heated through absorption and a non-radiative relaxation process. The achievable path length modulation range primarily depends on the pump's power and the convective heat-transfer coefficient of the surrounding gas, while the time response primarily depends on the heated fiber's diameter. An absolute optical length change in excess of 500 µm and a time-constant as short as 11 ms, were demonstrated experimentally. The all-fiber design allows for an electrically-passive and remote operation of the modulator. The presented modulator could find use within various fiber-optics systems that require optical (remote) path length control or modulation.

  8. Fiber optics in the BNL Booster radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Booster instrumentation uses analog and digital fiber optic links, designed to withstand at least 50 krads without performance degradation. The links use inexpensive and commercially available components that operate at a center wavelength of 820 nm. The analog link operates to 30 MHz over a 200 m fiber and can provide insertion gain. The digital link provides 60 ns timing pulses without the dispersive effects of coaxial cables. The optical fiber is a step-index hard clad silica type with a 200 micron core. This paper presents the component selection criteria, link design, installation, testing and performance for the optical links in the Booster instrumentation systems

  9. Fiber optic chemical sensors: The evolution of high- density fiber-optic DNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jane A.

    2001-06-01

    Sensors were developed for multianalyte monitoring, fermentation monitoring, lactate analysis, remote oxygen detection for use in bioremediation monitoring and in a fuel spill clean-up project, heavy metal analysis, and high density DNA microarrays. The major focus of this thesis involved creating and improving high-density DNA gene arrays. Fiber optic sensors are created using fluorescent indicators, polymeric supports, and optical fiber substrates. The fluorescent indicator is entrapped in a polymer layer and attached to the tip of the optical fiber. The tip of the fiber bearing the sensing layer (the distal end) is placed in the sample of interest while the other end of the fiber (the proximal end) is connected to an analysis system. Any length of fiber can be used without compromising the integrity or sensitivity of the system. A fiber optic oxygen sensor was designed incorporating an oxygen sensitive fluorescent dye and a gas permeable polymer attached to an optical fiber. The construction simplicity and ruggedness of the sensor enabled its deployment for in situ chemical oxidation and bioremediation studies. Optical fibers were also used as the substrate to detect biomolecules in solution. To monitor bioprocesses, the production of the analyte of interest must be coupled with a species that is optically measurable. For example, oxygen is consumed in many metabolic functions. The fiber optic oxygen sensor is equipped with an additional sensing layer. Upon contact with a specific biochemical in the sample, a reaction occurs in the additional sensing layer that either consumes or produces oxygen. This dual layer system was used to monitor the presence of lactate, an important metabolite for clinical and bioprocess analysis. In many biological and environmental systems, the generation of one species occurs coincidentally with the generation or consumption of another species. A multianalyte sensor was prepared that can monitor the simultaneous activity of pH, CO2

  10. Time domain optical spectrometry with fiber optic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    Spectrometers which use optical fibers to obtain time domain spectral dispersion are reviewed. Pulse transmission through fiber optic waveguides is discussed and the basic requirements for sources and detectors are given. Multiplex spectrometry and time-of-flight spectrometry are then discussed. Resolution, fiber requirements, instrumentation and specific spectrometers are presented

  11. Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-09-15

    We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60  mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3  ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths.

  12. Analog Fiber Optic Link with DC-100 MHz Bandwidth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, C. A; Girardi, P. G; Lohrmann, Dieter R

    2008-01-01

    An analog fiber optic link covering the frequency range from DC to 100 MHz was designed, constructed, and tested, in order to connect a 10 kA pulse current probe to oscilloscopes for oscillographing...

  13. Soliton robustness in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menyuk, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Simulations and experiments indicate that solitons in optical fibers are robust in the presence of Hamiltonian deformations such as higher-order dispersion and birefringence but are destroyed in the presence of non-Hamiltonian deformations such as attenuation and the Raman effect. Two hypotheses are introduced that generalize these observations and give a recipe for when deformations will be Hamiltonian. Concepts from nonlinear dynamics are used to make these two hypotheses plausible. Soliton stabilization with frequency filtering is also briefly discussed from this point of view

  14. Tunable photonic bandgap fiber based devices for optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Scolari, Lara; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    In future all optical networks one of the enabling technologies is tunable elements including reconfigurable routers, switches etc. Thus, the development of a technology platform that allows construction of tuning components is critical. Lately, microstructured optical fibers, filled with liquid......, for example a liquid crystal that changes optical properties when subjected to, for example, an optical or an electrical field. The utilization of these two basic properties allows design of tunable optical devices for optical networks. In this work, we focus on applications of such devices and discuss recent...... crystals, have proven to be a candidate for such a platform. Microstructured optical fibers offer unique wave-guiding properties that are strongly related to the design of the air holes in the cladding of the fiber. These wave-guiding properties may be altered by filling the air holes with a material...

  15. Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio; Bang, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are reported. We have written 3mm FBGs for 1550nm operation, characterized their temperature and strain response, and tested their performance in a prototype accelerometer.......Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are reported. We have written 3mm FBGs for 1550nm operation, characterized their temperature and strain response, and tested their performance in a prototype accelerometer....

  16. Extended-length fiber optic carbon dioxide monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alonso, Jesus; Lieberman, Robert A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of fiber optic distributed intrinsic sensors for dissolved carbon dioxide, based on the use optical fibers fabricated so that their entire lengths are chemically sensitive. These fibers use a polymer-clad, silica-core structure where the cladding undergoes a large, reversible, change in optical absorbance in the presence of CO2. The local "cladding loss" induced by this change is thus a direct indication of the carbon dioxide concentration in any section of the fiber. To create these fibers, have developed a carbon dioxide-permeable polymer material that adheres well to glass, is physically robust, has a refractive index lower than fused silica, and acts as excellent hosts for a unique colorimetric indicator system that respond to CO2. We have used this proprietary material to produce carbon-dioxide sensitive fibers up to 50 meters long, using commercial optical fiber fabrication techniques. The sensors have shown a measurement range of dissolved CO2 of 0 to 1,450 mg/l (0 to 100% CO2 saturation), limit of detection of 0.3 mg/l and precision of 1.0 mg/l in the 0 to 50 mg/l dissolved CO2 range, when a 5 meter-long sensor fiber segment is used. Maximum fiber length, minimum detectable concentration, and spatial resolution can be adjusted by adjusting indicator concentration and fiber design.

  17. Optical fiber cabling technologies for flexible access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Hisashi

    2008-07-01

    Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) outside plant infrastructure should be so designed and constructed as to flexibly deal with increasing subscribers and system evolution to be expected in the future, taking minimization of total cost (CAPEX and OPEX) into consideration. With this in mind, fiber access architectures are reviewed and key technologies on optical fiber and cable for supporting flexible access network are presented. Low loss over wide wavelength (low water peak) and bend-insensitive single mode fiber is a future proof solution. Enhanced separable ribbon facilitates mid-span access to individual fibers in a cable installed, improving fiber utilizing efficiency and flexibility of distribution design. It also contributes to an excellent low PMD characteristic which could be required for video RF overlay system or high capacity long reach metro-access convergence network in the future. Bend-insensitive fiber based cabling technique including field installable connector greatly improves fiber/cable handling in installation and maintenance work.

  18. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam Y

    2009-01-01

    Designed for a one-semester course on fiber-optics systems and communication links, this book provides a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers.

  19. Dynamic Characterization of Polymer Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Andresen, Søren; Yuan, Wu

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing interest in fiber sensors based on polymer optical fibers, it becomes fundamental to determine the real applicability and reliability of this type of sensor. The viscoelastic nature of polymers gives rise to questions about the mechanical behavior of the fibers. In particular...

  20. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. ... and Lin [3] and Ghatak et al [4] have studied the use of optical fibers as sensing elements. ... at the interface, an evanescent wave propagates parallel to the interface. .... the ends of the fiber are fixed with fiber holders on either side.

  1. Radiation damage in commercial optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Franceschini, F.A.; Serra, A.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results obtained by exposure of commercial optical fibers to 60 Co γ-ray irradiation, are reported. The possibility of utilizing these fibers as far as a total dose of 6000 rad in the light spectrum is shown. It is also shown that it is possible to obtain total recovery of irradiated fibers by annealing at 500 0 C. (author)

  2. Air driven fiber optic coupled pulser system for ZT-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.; Brousseau, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of an air powered fiber optic coupled pulser system for initiating various high-voltage systems in the ZT-40 experiment is displayed. The air fiber optic system provides complete electrical isolation of the experimental high-voltage circuits from the digital timing and control circuits. In addition, this pulser system prevents cross talk between individual output channels and eliminates trigger system ground loops. The system uses an additional fiber optic bundle to confirm pulser output in the screen room

  3. "A Fiber Optic Ethernet With Inherent Migration Capability To FDDI"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kenneth D.; Chan, Tammy S.

    1988-12-01

    A Local Area Network (LAN) designed to a standard commercial interface, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.3 or Ethernet, has been developed using fiber optics as the physical medium. The LAN, WhisperNet, operates in an active ring and thus has an inherent low cost migration path to a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) implementation.

  4. Optical Fiber Grating Hydrogen Sensors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jixiang; Zhu, Li; Wang, Gaopeng; Xiang, Feng; Qin, Yuhuan; Wang, Min; Yang, Minghong

    2017-03-12

    In terms of hydrogen sensing and detection, optical fiber hydrogen sensors have been a research issue due to their intrinsic safety and good anti-electromagnetic interference. Among these sensors, hydrogen sensors consisting of fiber grating coated with sensitive materials have attracted intensive research interests due to their good reliability and distributed measurements. This review paper mainly focuses on optical fiber hydrogen sensors associated with fiber gratings and various materials. Their configurations and sensing performances proposed by different groups worldwide are reviewed, compared and discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the challenges for fiber grating hydrogen sensors are also addressed.

  5. Optical fiber sensors for harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juncheng; Wang, Anbo

    2007-02-06

    A diaphragm optic sensor comprises a ferrule including a bore having an optical fiber disposed therein and a diaphragm attached to the ferrule, the diaphragm being spaced apart from the ferrule to form a Fabry-Perot cavity. The cavity is formed by creating a pit in the ferrule or in the diaphragm. The components of the sensor are preferably welded together, preferably by laser welding. In some embodiments, the entire ferrule is bonded to the fiber along the entire length of the fiber within the ferrule; in other embodiments, only a portion of the ferrule is welded to the fiber. A partial vacuum is preferably formed in the pit. A small piece of optical fiber with a coefficient of thermal expansion chosen to compensate for mismatches between the main fiber and ferrule may be spliced to the end of the fiber.

  6. Fiber Optics: A New World of Possibilities in Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John

    1990-01-01

    The background and history of light and fiber optics are discussed. Applications for light passed either directly or indirectly through optical fibers are described. Suggestions for science activities that use fiber optics are provided. (KR)

  7. Radiation cured coatings for fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketley, A.D.; Morgan, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    A continuous protective coating is formed on a fiber optic by coating the fiber optic in a bath of a liquid radiation curable composition at a temperature up to 90 0 C and exposing the coated conductor to ultraviolet or high energy ionizing radiation to cure the coating

  8. A microstructured Polymer Optical Fiber Biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliyanov, Grigoriy Andreev; Jensen, Jesper Bo; Hoiby, Poul E.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate selective detection of fluorophore labeled antibodies from minute samples probed by a sensor layer of the complementary biomolecules immobilized inside the air holes of microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers.......We demonstrate selective detection of fluorophore labeled antibodies from minute samples probed by a sensor layer of the complementary biomolecules immobilized inside the air holes of microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers....

  9. 355-nm hypersensitization of optical fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canagasabey, A.; Canning, J.; Groothoff, N.

    2003-01-01

    A study is presented on 355-nm hypersensitization of optical fibers. It is found that the intrinsic 244-nm photosensitivity of boron-codoped germanosilicate optical fibers is enhanced by 355-nm hypersensitization. Hypersensitization through standard polymer coating is also demonstrated.

  10. A novel thermoset polymer optical fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, T.A C; Steendam, R; Pennings, A.J; Hadziioannou, G

    Polymer optical fibers are being investigated with a view to overcoming some of the disadvantages of glass optical fibers in communications applications. Dense cross-linked polymers, such as the polyisocyanurate discussed here (see figure), have been found to be superior in some respects to the

  11. Application of the fractional Fourier transform to the design of LCOS based optical interconnects and fiber switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brian; Zhang, Zichen; Yang, Haining; Redmond, Maura M; Collings, Neil; Liu, Jinsong; Lin, Ruisheng; Jeziorska-Chapman, Anna M; Moore, John R; Crossland, William A; Chu, D P

    2012-04-20

    It is shown that reflective liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM) based interconnects or fiber switches that use defocus to reduce crosstalk can be evaluated and optimized using a fractional Fourier transform if certain optical symmetry conditions are met. Theoretically the maximum allowable linear hologram phase error compared to a Fourier switch is increased by a factor of six before the target crosstalk for telecom applications of -40 dB is exceeded. A Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm incorporating a fractional Fourier transform modified for use with a reflective LCOS SLM is used to optimize multi-casting holograms in a prototype telecom switch. Experiments are in close agreement to predicted performance.

  12. Dispersion Compensation of Fiber Optic Systems for KSC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaitis, Samuel P.; Hand, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Installed fibers such as those at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are optimized for use at 1310 nm because they have zero dispersion at that wavelength. An installed fiber system designed to operate at 1310 nm will operate at a much lower data rate when operated at 1550 nm because the dispersion is not zero at 1550 nm. Using dispersion measurements of both installed and dispersion compensating fibers, we compensated a 21.04 km length of installed fiber with 4.25 km of dispersion compensating fiber. Using the compensated fiber-optic link, we reduced the dispersion to 0.494 ps/nm-km, from an uncompensated dispersion of 16.8 ps/nm-km. The main disadvantage of the compensated link using DC fiber was an increase in attenuation. Although the increase was not necessarily severe, it could be significant when insertion losses, connector losses, and fiber attenuation are taken into account.

  13. Fiber optic applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collette, P.; Kwapien, D.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic technology possesses many desirable attributes for applications in commercial nuclear power plants. The non-electrical nature of fiber optics is an important factor in an industry governed by federal safety regulations such as Class 1E isolation and separation criteria. Immunity from Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), an increasing industry problem area, is another significant characteristic. Because of the extremely wide bandwidth offered, fiber optics better addresses the data acquistion and communication requirements of the complex processes of a nuclear power plant. Potential for fiber optic sensor applications exists within the nuclear industry because their small size and physical flexibility allows access into normally inaccessible areas. They possess high accuracy and allow environmentally sensitive electronics to be remotely located. The purpose of this paper is to explore current applications for fiber optic technology in modern nuclear plants, document examples of present day usage in C-E plants and suggest possible future application areas

  14. Pulsed laser damage to optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.W.; Gillies, G.T.; Magnuson, D.W.; Pagano, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes some observations of pulsed laser damage to optical fibers with emphasis on a damage mode characterized as a linear fracture along the outer core of a fiber. Damage threshold data are presented which illustrate the effects of the focusing lens, end-surface preparation, and type of fiber. An explanation based on fiber-beam misalignment is given and is illustrated by a simple experiment and ray trace

  15. Optical fiber-applied radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Ryuichi; Uranaka, Yasuo; Izumi, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    A technique to measure radiation by using plastic scintillation fibers doped radiation fluorescent (scintillator) to plastic optical fiber for a radiation sensor, was developed. The technique contains some superiority such as high flexibility due to using fibers, relatively easy large area due to detecting portion of whole of fibers, and no electromagnetic noise effect due to optical radiation detection and signal transmission. Measurable to wide range of and continuous radiation distribution along optical fiber cable at a testing portion using scintillation fiber and flight time method, the optical fiber-applied radiation sensing system can effectively monitor space radiation dose or apparatus operation condition monitoring. And, a portable type scintillation optical fiber body surface pollution monitor can measure pollution concentration of radioactive materials attached onto body surface by arranging scintillation fiber processed to a plate with small size and flexibility around a man to be tested. Here were described on outline and fundamental properties of various application products using these plastic scintillation fiber. (G.K.)

  16. Optical fiber communication — An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabrication of single mode fibers is very difficult and so the fiber is .... of waveguide dispersion depends on the fiber design like core radius, since the .... production reducing the water content in the fiber to below 10 parts per billion. 5. ..... Connectors of the same type must be compatible from one manufacturer to another. 3.

  17. Radiation resistance of optical fibers, (10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Tsunemi; Ara, Katsuyuki; Morimoto, Naoki; Sanada, Kazuo; Inada, Koichi.

    1991-01-01

    Optical fibers have many excellent characteristics such as the light weight of the material, insulation, the noninductivity of electromagnetic interference noise, the wide band of signal transmission, and small loss. Also in the field of atomic energy, the utilization of optical fibers is positively expanded, and the research on the method of application and so on has been advanced. However in optical fibers, there is the problem that color centers are formed at the relatively low level of radiation, and they are colored. Accordingly, for effectively utilizing optical fibers in radiation environment, it is indispensable to improve their radiation resistance. For the purpose of solving this problem, the authors have carried out the basic research on the effect that radiation exerts to optical fibers and the development of the optical fibers having excellent radiation resistance. For the purpose of expanding the range of application of GeO 2 -doped silica core fibers including GI type in radiation regions, the transmission characteristics of the fibers during irradiation were examined by using the Cl content as the parameter. Therefore, the results are reported. The fibers put to the test, the testing method and the results are described. (K.I.)

  18. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, Alexander Eugen

    1957-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  19. Design of a fiber optic multi-tapped computer bus for a pulsed power control system application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritton, D.G.; Berkbigler, L.W.; Oicles, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Control system techniques developed and proven on the Shiva laser have been extended to incorporate new electronic and electo-optic devices as well as conform to unique operational requirements of the 300 terawatt Nova laser system. This paper describes one segment of the control system being designed for the Nova laser currently under design/construction at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The specific segment covered is the control system bus structure responsible for power conditioning and real-time control functions

  20. Optofluidic in-fiber interferometer based on hollow optical fiber with two cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tingting; Yang, Xinghua; Liu, Zhihai; Yang, Jun; Li, Song; Kong, Depeng; Qi, Xiuxiu; Yu, Wenting; Long, Qunlong; Yuan, Libo

    2017-07-24

    We demonstrate a novel integrated optical fiber interferometer for in-fiber optofluidic detection. It is composed of a specially designed hollow optical fiber with a micro-channel and two cores. One core on the inner surface of the micro-channel is served as sensing arm and the other core in the annular cladding is served as reference arm. Fusion-and-tapering method is employed to couple light from a single mode fiber to the hollow optical fiber in this device. Sampling is realized by side opening a microhole on the surface of the hollow optical fiber. Under differential pressure between the end of the hollow fiber and the microhole, the liquids can form steady microflows in the micro-channel. Simultaneously, the interference spectrum of the interferometer device shifts with the variation of the concentration of the microfluid in the channel. The optofluidic in-fiber interferometer has a sensitivity of refractive index around 2508 nm/RIU for NaCl. For medicine concentration detection, its sensitivity is 0.076 nm/mmolL -1 for ascorbic acid. Significantly, this work presents a compact microfluidic in-fiber interferometer with a micro-channel which can be integrated with chip devices without spatial optical coupling and without complex manufacturing procedure of the waveguide on the chips.

  1. Fiber optic D dimer biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Robert S.; Grant, Sheila A.

    1999-01-01

    A fiber optic sensor for D dimer (a fibrinolytic product) can be used in vivo (e.g., in catheter-based procedures) for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. It has been estimated that strokes and stroke-related disorders cost Americans between $15-30 billion annually. Relatively recently, new medical procedures have been developed for the treatment of stroke. These endovascular procedures rely upon the use of microcatheters. These procedures could be facilitated with this sensor for D dimer integrated with a microcatheter for the diagnosis of clot type, and as an indicator of the effectiveness, or end-point of thrombolytic therapy.

  2. An in-fiber integrated optofluidic device based on an optical fiber with an inner core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghua; Yuan, Tingting; Teng, Pingping; Kong, Depeng; Liu, Chunlan; Li, Entao; Zhao, Enming; Tong, Chengguo; Yuan, Libo

    2014-06-21

    A new kind of optofluidic in-fiber integrated device based on a specially designed hollow optical fiber with an inner core is designed. The inlets and outlets are built by etching the surface of the optical fiber without damaging the inner core. A reaction region between the end of the fiber and a solid point obtained after melting is constructed. By injecting samples into the fiber, the liquids can form steady microflows and react in the region. Simultaneously, the emission from the chemiluminescence reaction can be detected from the remote end of the optical fiber through evanescent field coupling. The concentration of ascorbic acid (AA or vitamin C, Vc) is determined by the emission intensity of the reaction of Vc, H2O2, luminol, and K3Fe(CN)6 in the optical fiber. A linear sensing range of 0.1-3.0 mmol L(-1) for Vc is obtained. The emission intensity can be determined within 2 s at a total flow rate of 150 μL min(-1). Significantly, this work presents information for the in-fiber integrated optofluidic devices without spatial optical coupling.

  3. Fiber-optic polarization diversity detection for rotary probe optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anthony M D; Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Yang, Victor X D; Lam, Stephen; MacAulay, Calum; Lane, Pierre

    2014-06-15

    We report a polarization diversity detection scheme for optical coherence tomography with a new, custom, miniaturized fiber coupler with single mode (SM) fiber inputs and polarization maintaining (PM) fiber outputs. The SM fiber inputs obviate matching the optical lengths of the X and Y OCT polarization channels prior to interference and the PM fiber outputs ensure defined X and Y axes after interference. Advantages for this scheme include easier alignment, lower cost, and easier miniaturization compared to designs with free-space bulk optical components. We demonstrate the utility of the detection system to mitigate the effects of rapidly changing polarization states when imaging with rotating fiber optic probes in Intralipid suspension and during in vivo imaging of human airways.

  4. Teaching stellar interferometry with polymer optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illarramendi, M. A.; Arregui, L.; Zubia, J.; Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this manuscript we show the design of a simple experiment that reproduces the operation of the Michelson stellar interferometer by using step-index polymer optical fibers. The emission of stellar sources, single or binary stars, has been simulated by the laser light emerging from the output surface of the 2 meter-long polymer optical fiber. This light has an emission pattern that is similar to the emission pattern of stellar sources - circular, uniform, spatially incoherent, and quasi-monochromatic. Light coming from the fiber end faces passes through two identical pinholes located on a lid covering the objective of a small telescope, thus producing interference. Interference fringes have been acquired using a camera that is coupled to a telescope. The experiments have been carried out both outdoors in the daytime and indoors. By measuring the fringe visibilities, we have determined the size of our artificial stellar sources and the distance between them, when placing them at distances of 54 m from the telescope in the indoor measurements and of 75 m in the outdoor ones.

  5. Recovering Signals from Optical Fiber Interferometric Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    electronic functions to be combined onto a single -integrated circuit on- a silicon (or other) substrate. These custom -designed circuits are known by...largely unknown to the ordinary :itizen and seldom mentioned in the- popular press. Yet optical fiber sensors have attracted considerable- interest...write the-power in output leg I by performing the same interchange on Equation (95). a3(L) 12 {2B 2B1 -cos(3KL)I + B3B;[5+4cos(3KL)] 2 18 - B2B ;e(4-"?1 +e

  6. Recent Development in Optical Fiber Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Bosch Ojeda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable developments can be seen in the field of optical fibre biosensors in the last decade. More sensors for specific analytes have been reported, novel sensing chemistries or transduction principles have been introduced, and applications in various analytical fields have been realised. This review consists of papers mainly reported in the last decade and presents about applications of optical fiber biosensors. Discussions on the trends in optical fiber biosensor applications in real samples are enumerated.

  7. Nanostructured sapphire optical fiber for sensing in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Kai; Ma, Yiwei; Tian, Fei; Du, Henry

    2017-05-01

    We describe an innovative and scalable strategy of transforming a commercial unclad sapphire optical fiber to an allalumina nanostructured sapphire optical fiber (NSOF) that overcomes decades-long challenges faced in the field of sapphire fiber optics. The strategy entails fiber coating with metal Al followed by subsequent anodization to form anodized alumina oxide (AAO) cladding of highly organized pore channel structure. We show that Ag nanoparticles entrapped in AAO show excellent structural and morphological stability and less susceptibility to oxidation for potential high-temperature surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). We reveal, with aid of numerical simulations, that the AAO cladding greatly increases the evanescent-field overlap both in power and extent and that lower porosity of AAO results in higher evanescent-field overlap. This work has opened the door to new sapphire fiber-based sensor design and sensor architecture.

  8. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  9. Nonlinear fiber-optic strain sensor based on four-wave mixing in microstructured optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Bobo; Yuan, Scott Wu; Frosz, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a nonlinear fiber-optic strain sensor, which uses the shifts of four-wave mixing Stokes and anti-Stokes peaks caused by the strain-induced changes in the structure and refractive index of a microstructured optical fiber. The sensor thus uses the inherent nonlinearity of the fiber a...

  10. Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

  11. Behavior of optical fibers under heavy irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, T.; Sagawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    Several kinds of optical diagnostics are planned in a fusion reactor. Complicated optical systems such as periscopes are thought to be primary candidates for optical measurements, especially for visible wavelengths. However, optical fibers have several advantages over such optical systems. Also, the optical fibers could be a far better transmission line for signals under a high electromagnetic field. However, they have been considered vulnerable to heavy irradiation. In this study, several kinds of optical fibers were irradiated in the JMTR fission reactor. The optical transmissivity in fibers was measured in situ during fast neutron and gamma irradiation, up to doses of 2 x 10 24 n m -2 and 5 x 10 9 Gy, respectively. The irradiation temperature ranged from 300 to 700 K. For pure ionizing irradiation environments, some methods for improving the radiation resistance of optical fibers were indicated. The results showed that effects of the irradiation associated with fast neutrons would be different from the effects of pure ionizing irradiation. Some fibers were found to withstand the heavy irradiation, especially in an infrared wavelength range. (orig.)

  12. Realization of fiber optic displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Lakomski, Mateusz

    2018-03-01

    Fiber optic sensors are very promising because of their inherent advantages such as very small size, hard environment tolerance and impact of electromagnetic fields. In this paper three different types of Intensity Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors (I-FODS) are presented. Three configurations of I-FODS were realized in two varieties. In the first one, the cleaved multimode optical fibers (MMF) were used to collect reflected light, while in the second variety the MMF ended with ball lenses were chosen. To ensure an accurate alignment of optical fibers in the sensor head the MTP C9730 optical fiber ferrules were used. In this paper the influence of distribution of transmitting and detecting optical fibers on sensitivity and linear range of operation of developed I-FODS were investigated. We have shown, that I-FODS with ball lenses receive average 10.5% more reflected power in comparison to the cleaved optical fibers and they increase linearity range of I-FODS by 33%. In this paper, an analysis of each type of the realized sensor and detailed discussion are given.

  13. Microstructured optical fibers - Fundamentals and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2006-01-01

    In recent years optical fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane have attracted much attention from both researchers and industry. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect. Among the many unique applications offered...... by these fibers are mode guidance in air, highly flexible dispersion engineering, and the use of very heterogeneous material combinations. In this paper, we review the different types and applications of microstructured optical fibers, with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  14. Engineering surface plasmon based fiber-optic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawan, Anuj; Muth, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Ordered arrays of nanoholes with subwavelength diameters, and submicron array periodicity were fabricated on the tips of gold-coated optical fibers using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. This provided a convenient platform for evaluating extraordinary transmission of light through subwavelength apertures and allowed the implementation of nanostructures for surface plasmon engineered sensors. The fabrication procedure was straightforward and implemented on single mode and multimode optical fibers as well as etched and tapered fiber tips. Control of the periodicity and spacing of the nanoholes allowed the wavelength of operation to be tailored. Large changes in optical transmission were observed at the designed wavelengths, depending on the surrounding refractive index, allowing the devices to be used as fiber-optic sensors

  15. Engineering surface plasmon based fiber-optic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhawan, Anuj [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Muth, John F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)], E-mail: muth@unity.ncsu.edu

    2008-04-15

    Ordered arrays of nanoholes with subwavelength diameters, and submicron array periodicity were fabricated on the tips of gold-coated optical fibers using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. This provided a convenient platform for evaluating extraordinary transmission of light through subwavelength apertures and allowed the implementation of nanostructures for surface plasmon engineered sensors. The fabrication procedure was straightforward and implemented on single mode and multimode optical fibers as well as etched and tapered fiber tips. Control of the periodicity and spacing of the nanoholes allowed the wavelength of operation to be tailored. Large changes in optical transmission were observed at the designed wavelengths, depending on the surrounding refractive index, allowing the devices to be used as fiber-optic sensors.

  16. Achievable information rates for fiber optics : applications and computations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarado, A.; Fehenberger, T.; Chen, Bin; Willems, F.M.J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, achievable information rates (AIR) for fiber optical communications are discussed. It is shown that AIRs such as the mutual information and generalized mutual information are good design metrics for coded optical systems. The theoretical predictions of AIRs are compared to the

  17. Optical fiber cable chemical stripping fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor); Coleman, Alexander M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An elongated fixture handle member is connected to a fixture body member with both members having interconnecting longitudinal central axial bores for the passage of an optical cable therethrough. The axial bore of the fixture body member, however, terminates in a shoulder stop for the outer end of a jacket of the optical cable covering both an optical fiber and a coating therefor, with an axial bore of reduced diameter continuing from the shoulder stop forward for a predetermined desired length to the outer end of the fixture body member. A subsequent insertion of the fixture body member including the above optical fiber elements into a chemical stripping solution results in a softening of the exposed external coating thereat which permits easy removal thereof from the optical fiber while leaving a desired length coated fiber intact within the fixture body member.

  18. Utilization of Faraday Mirror in Fiber Optic Current Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fiala

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiber optic sensors dispose of some advantages in the field of electrical current and magnetic field measurement, like large bandwidth, linearity, light transmission possibilities. Unfortunately, they suffer from some parasitic phenomena. The crucial issue is the presence of induced and latent linear birefringence, which is imposed by the fiber manufacture imperfections as well as mechanical stress by fiber bending. In order to the linear birefringence compensation a promising method was chosen for pulsed current sensor design. The method employs orthogonal polarization conjugation by the back direction propagation of the light wave in the fiber. The Jones calculus analysis presents its propriety. An experimental fiber optic current sensor has been designed and realized. The advantage of the proposed method was proved considering to the sensitivity improvement.

  19. Characterization of Fiber Optic CMM Probe System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.W.Swallow

    2007-05-15

    This report documents a study completed on the fiber optic probe system that is a part of the Werth optical CMM. This study was necessary due to a lack of documentation from the vendor for the proper use and calibration of the fiber probe, and was performed in support of the Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) development program at the FM&T. As a result of this study, a better understanding of the fiber optic probe has been developed, including guidelines for its proper use and calibration.

  20. Fiber optic communications fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication systems have advanced dramatically over the last four decades, since the era of copper cables, resulting in low-cost and high-bandwidth transmission. Fiber optics is now the backbone of the internet and long-distance telecommunication. Without it we would not enjoy the benefits of high-speed internet, or low-rate international telephone calls. This book introduces the basic concepts of fiber-optic communication in a pedagogical way. The important mathematical results are derived by first principles rather than citing research articles. In addition, physical interpre

  1. Introduction to fiber optics: Sensors for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R Y; Agrawal, Y K

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the introduction of fiber optics, a fusion of science and engineering and describes the materials generally used for its construction along with the procedure used to design the fibers. It gives an idea of the materials used for the construction along with the pros and cons associated with them and various factors governing the emission of ultraviolet, infrared or visible radiations. The central core revolves around the applications of optical fibers in the medical and biomedical field and extending the use of the same in pharmaceutical industry as probes in quality control and dosage form analysis.

  2. Advanced specialty fiber designs for high power fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guancheng

    The output power of fiber lasers has increased rapidly over the last decade. There are two major limiting factors, namely nonlinear effects and transverse mode instability, prohibiting the power scaling capability of fiber lasers. The nonlinear effects, originating from high optical intensity, primarily limit the peak power scaling. The mode instability, on the other hand, arises from quantum-defect driven heating, causing undesired mode coupling once the power exceeds the threshold and degradation of beam quality. The mode instability has now become the bottleneck for average output power scaling of fiber lasers. Mode area scaling is the most effective way to mitigate nonlinear effects. However, the use of large mode area may increase the tendency to support multiple modes in the core, resulting in lower mode instability threshold. Therefore, it is critical to maintain single mode operation in a large mode area fiber. Sufficient higher order mode suppression can lead to effective single-transverse-mode propagation. In this dissertation, we explore the feasibility of using specialty fiber to construct high power fiber lasers with robust single-mode output. The first type of fiber discussed is the resonantly-enhanced leakage channel fiber. Coherent reflection at the fiber outer boundary can lead to additional confinement especially for highly leaky HOM, leading to lower HOM losses than what are predicted by conventional finite element mothod mode solver considering infinite cladding. In this work, we conducted careful measurements of HOM losses in two leakage channel fibers (LCF) with circular and rounded hexagonal boundary shapes respectively. Impact on HOM losses from coiling, fiber boundary shapes and coating indexes were studied in comparison to simulations. This work demonstrates the limit of the simulation method commonly used in the large-mode-area fiber designs and the need for an improved approach. More importantly, this work also demonstrates that a

  3. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  4. Program description of FIBRAM (Fiber Optic Radiation Attenuation Model): a radiation attenuation model for optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, W.J.

    1987-06-01

    The report describes a fiber-optics system model and its computer implementation. This implementation can calculate the bit error ratio (BER) versus time for optical fibers that have been exposed to gamma radiation. The program is designed so that the user may arbitrarily change any or all of the system input variables and produce separate outputs. The primary output of the program is a table of the BER as a function of time. This table may be stored on magnetic media and later incorporated into computer graphic programs. The program was written in FORTRAN 77 for the IBM PC/AT/XT computers. Flow charts and program listings are included in the report

  5. Transient attenuation in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.A.; Kelly, R.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high energy pulsed electron beams were used to generate radiation-induced transient attenuation in high-OH, Suprasil core, PCS fibers, demonstrating the energy dependence of the radiation damage and recovery mechanisms. A radiation resistant low-OH fiber was studied and its performance contrasted to that of high-OH materials. Several fibers with differing core compositions were also studied

  6. Numerical Investigations on a Distributed Fiber-Optic Lighting System with an End Reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuhua; Gong Huaping; Tu Yumeng; Meng Ying

    2011-01-01

    A novel distributed fiber-optic decorative lighting system with the reflection coating on the extremity of fiber-optic is designed, which used the multi-mold optical fiber made up of large core diameter(Diameter of core and cladding is 105μm and 125μm, respectly). After introducing the distributional optical fiber decorative lighting system briefly, the ralationship between corrosion depth of the optical fiber core and the leakage of fiber-optic has been analyzed with the Rsoft, and then the relationship of the lighting power and the uniformity of lighting power with the leakage rate of optical fiber lamp, the reflective of reflection coating has been discussed.The simulation analysis shows that, when the core diameter is corroded to 80∼85 μm, the leakage rate of optical fiber may achieve 5.0%, which suits the optical fiber decorative lighting. Considering all kinds of factors, when optical fiber lamp's quantity is 20, the coating index of reflection is 95%, optical fiber lamp's leakage of light rate is 5.0%, and the optical fiber lamp's distance is 1 meter, the quite high illuminating power may be achieved, as well as the good lighting uniformity.Finally the experimental study of decorative lighting system is given. And the experimental result is in keeping well with the theory simulation conclusion.

  7. High Performance Graded Index Polymer Optical Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garito, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    ...) plastic optical fibers (POF) and graded index (GI) POFs are reported. A set of criteria and analyses of physical parameters are developed in context to the major issues of POF applications in short-distance communication systems...

  8. Embedded fiber optic ultrasonic sensors and generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorighi, John F.; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar; Achenbach, Jan D.

    1995-04-01

    Ultrasonic sensors and generators based on fiber-optic systems are described. It is shown that intrinsic fiber optic Fabry-Perot ultrasound sensors that are embedded in a structure can be stabilized by actively tuning the laser frequency. The need for this method of stabilization is demonstrated by detecting piezoelectric transducer-generated ultrasonic pulses in the presence of low frequency dynamic strains that are intentionally induced to cause sensor drift. The actively stabilized embedded fiber optic Fabry-Perot sensor is also shown to have sufficient sensitivity to detect ultrasound that is generated in the interior of a structure by means of a high-power optical fiber that pipes energy from a pulsed laser to an embedded generator of ultrasound.

  9. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIP Sensors proposes to develop a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array System for measuring air flow pressure at multiple points on the skin of aircrafts for Flight...

  10. Fiber Optic Communications Technology. A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Joseph A.

    Fiber optic communications (communications over very pure glass transmission channels of diameter comparable to a human hair) is an emerging technology which promises most improvements in communications capacity at reasonable cost. The fiber transmission system offers many desirable characteristics representing improvements over conventional…

  11. Nonlinear soliton matching between optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Christian; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Thomsen, Carsten L.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a generic nonlinear coupling coefficient, η2 NL ¼ ηjγ=β2jfiber2=jγ=β2jfiber1, which gives a quantitative measure for the efficiency of nonlinear matching of optical fibers by describing how a fundamental soliton couples from one fiber into another. Specifically, we use η...

  12. Optical fibers and sensors for chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.J.; Boisde, G.

    1988-01-01

    The idea of using optical fibers in nuclear environment occurs as soon as 1967, too soon for practical realizations. In 1973 the first glass fibers were made available in Switzerland. From 1973 to 1988 three periods show the development: conception from 1973 to 1978, technique strengthening from 1978 to 1983 and nuclear and non nuclear industrial development since 1983. 45 refs., 27 figs [fr

  13. Qualification of Fiber Optic Cables for Martian Extreme Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Lindensmith, Christian A.; Roberts, William T.; Rainen, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Means have been developed for enabling fiber optic cables of the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer instrument to survive ground operations plus the nominal 670 Martian conditions that include Martian summer and winter seasons. The purpose of this development was to validate the use of the rover external fiber optic cabling of ChemCam for space applications under the extreme thermal environments to be encountered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Flight-representative fiber optic cables were subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling of the same diurnal depth (or delta T) as expected in flight, but for three times the expected number of in-flight thermal cycles. The survivability of fiber optic cables was tested for 600 cumulative thermal cycles from -130 to +15 C to cover the winter season, and another 1,410 cumulative cycles from -105 to +40 C to cover the summer season. This test satisfies the required 3 times the design margin that is a total of 2,010 thermal cycles (670 x 3). This development test included functional optical transmission tests during the course of the test. Transmission of the fiber optic cables was performed prior to and after 1,288 thermal cycles and 2,010 thermal cycles. No significant changes in transmission were observed on either of the two representative fiber cables subject through the 3X MSL mission life that is 2,010 thermal cycles.

  14. New development in optical fibers for data center applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Shubochkin, Roman; Zhu, Benyuan

    2015-01-01

    VCSEL-multimode optical fiber based links is the most successful optical technology in Data Centers. Laser-optimized multimode optical fibers, OM3 and OM4, have been the primary choice of physical media for 10 G serial, 4 x 10 G parallel, 10 x 10 G parallel, and 4 x 25 G parallel optical solutions in IEEE 802.3 standards. As the transition of high-end servers from 10 Gb/s to 40 Gb/s is driving the aggregation of speeds to 40 Gb/s now, and to 100 Gb/s and 400 Gb/s in near future, industry experts are coming together in IEEE 802.3bs 400 Gb/s study group and preliminary discussion of Terabit transmission for datacom applications has also been commenced. To meet the requirement of speed, capacity, density, power consumption and cost for next generation datacom applications, optical fiber design concepts beyond the standard OM3 and OM4 MMFs have a revived research and developmental interest, for example, wide band multimode optical fiber using multiple dopants for coarse wavelength division multiplexing; multicore multimode optical fiber using plural multimode cores in a single fiber strand to improve spatial density; and perhaps 50 Gb/s per lane and few mode fiber in spatial division multiplexing for ultimate capacity increase in far future. This talk reviews the multitude of fiber optic media being developed in the industry to address the upcoming challenges of datacom growth. We conclude that multimode transmission using low cost VCSEL technology will continue to be a viable solution for datacom applications.

  15. Automatic on-line detection system design research on internal defects of metal materials based on optical fiber F-P sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Liu; Shan, Ning; Chao, Ban; Caoshan, Wang

    2016-10-01

    Metal materials have been used in aerospace and other industrial fields widely because of its excellent characteristics, so its internal defects detection is very important. Ultrasound technology is used widely in the fields of nondestructive detection because of its excellent characteristic. But the conventional detection instrument for ultrasound, which has shortcomings such as low intelligent level and long development cycles, limits its development. In this paper, the theory of ultrasound detection is analyzed. A computational method of the defects distributional position is given. The non-contact type optical fiber F-P interference cavity structure is designed and the length of origin cavity is given. The real-time on-line ultrasound detecting experiment devices for internal defects of metal materials is established based on the optical fiber F-P sensing system. The virtual instrument of automation ultrasound detection internal defects is developed based on LabVIEW software and the experimental study is carried out. The results show that this system can be used in internal defect real-time on-line locating of engineering structures effectively. This system has higher measurement precision. Relative error is 6.7%. It can be met the requirement of engineering practice. The system is characterized by simple operation, easy realization. The software has a friendly interface, good expansibility, and high intelligent level.

  16. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1998-01-01

    As a new method of radiation measurements, several optical methods using optical fiber sensors have been developed. One is the application of 'radio-luminescence' from the optical fiber itself such as plastic scintillating fibers. Other researches are made to develop the 'combined-sensors' by combination of optical fibers and scintillating materials. Using the time domain method of optical fiber sensors, the profile of radiation distribution along the optical fiber can be easily determined. A multi-parameter sensing system for measurement of radiation, temperature, stress, etc, are also expected using these optical fiber sensors. (author)

  17. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Robert W.; Robichaud, Roger E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  18. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Fiber Ring Laser Demodulation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Peng-Zhao; Wang, Jian-Zhang

    2018-02-08

    A review for optical fiber sensors based on fiber ring laser (FRL) demodulation technology is presented. The review focuses on the principles, main structures, and the sensing performances of different kinds of optical fiber sensors based on FRLs. First of all, the theory background of the sensors has been discussed. Secondly, four different types of sensors are described and compared, which includes Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) typed sensors, Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) typed sensors, Sagnac typed sensors, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) typed sensors. Typical studies and main properties of each type of sensors are presented. Thirdly, a comparison of different types of sensors are made. Finally, the existing problems and future research directions are pointed out and analyzed.

  19. Fibercore AstroGain fiber: multichannel erbium doped fibers for optical space communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mark; Gray, Rebecca; Hankey, Judith; Gillooly, Andy

    2014-03-01

    Fibercore have developed AstroGainTM fiber optimized for multichannel amplifiers used in optical satellite communications and control. The fiber has been designed to take full advantage of the photo-annealing effect that results from pumping in the 980nm region. The proprietary trivalent structure of the core matrix allows optimum recovery following radiation damage to the fiber, whilst also providing a market leading Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) efficiency. Direct measurements have been taken of amplifier efficiency in a multichannel assembly, which show an effective photo-annealing recovery of up to 100% of the radiation induced attenuation through excitation of point defects.

  20. Optical fiber pressure sensor based on fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongcao

    In oil field, it is important to measure the high pressure and temperature for down-hole oil exploration and well-logging, the available traditional electronic sensor is challenged due to the harsh, flammable environment. Recently, applications based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor in the oil industry have become a popular research because of its distinguishing advantages such as electrically passive operation, immunity to electromagnetic interference, high resolution, insensitivity to optical power fluctuation etc. This thesis is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the design of high pressure sensor based on FBG is described. Several sensing elements based on FBG for high pressure measurements have been proposed, for example bulk-modulus or free elastic modulus. But the structure of bulk-modulus and free elastic modulus is relatively complex and not easy to fabricate. In addition, the pressure sensitivity is not high and the repeatability of the structure has not been investigated. In this thesis, a novel host material of carbon fiber laminated composite (CFLC) for high pressure sensing is proposed. The mechanical characteristics including principal moduli in three directions and the shape repeatability are investigated. Because of it's Young's modulus in one direction and anisotropic characteristics, the pressure sensor made by CFLC has excellent sensitivity. This said structure can be used in very high pressure measurement due to carbon fiber composite's excellent shape repetition even under high pressure. The experimental results show high pressure sensitivity of 0.101nm/MPa and high pressure measurement up to 70MPa. A pressure sensor based on CFLC and FBG with temperature compensation has been designed. In the second section, the design of low pressure sensor based on FBG is demonstrated. Due to the trade off between measurement range and sensitivity, a sensor for lower pressure range needs more sensitivity. A novel material of carbon

  1. Dynamically tunable optical bottles from an optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuhao; Yan, Lu; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have long been used to impose spatial coherence to shape free-space optical beams. Recent work has shown that one can use higher order fiber modes to create more exotic beam profiles. We experimentally generate optical bottles from Talbot imaging in the coherent superposition of two...... fiber modes excited with long period gratings, and obtain a 28 μm × 6 μm bottle with controlled contrast up to 10.13 dB. Our geometry allows for phase tuning of one mode with respect to the other, which enables us to dynamically move the bottle in free space....

  2. Characterization of fiber optic cables under large tensile loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, J.W.; Looney, L.D.; Peterson, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic cables designed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have to withstand an unusually harsh environment. Cables have been manufactured under a 6 year old DOE specification that has been slightly modified as the cable requirements are better understood. In order to better understand the cable properties a unique capability has been established at the NTS. Instrumentation has been developed to characterize the transmission properties of 1 km of fiber optic cable placed under a controlled tensile load up to 1500 lbs. The properties measured are cable tension, cable elongation, induced attenuation, attenuation vs. location, fiber strain, bandwidth, and ambient temperature. Preforming these measurements on cables from the two qualified NTS fiber optic cable manufacturers, Siecor and Andrew Corp., led to a new set of specifications

  3. Fiber-Optic Vibration Sensor Based on Multimode Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lujo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a fiberoptic vibration sensor based on the monitoring of the mode distribution in a multimode optical fiber. Detection of vibrations and their parameters is possible through observation of the output speckle pattern from the multimode optical fiber. A working experimental model has been built in which all used components are widely available and cheap: a CCD camera (a simple web-cam, a multimode laser in visible range as a light source, a length of multimode optical fiber, and a computer for signal processing. Measurements have shown good agreement with the actual frequency of vibrations, and promising results were achieved with the amplitude measurements although they require some adaptation of the experimental model. Proposed sensor is cheap and lightweight and therefore presents an interesting alternative for monitoring large smart structures.

  4. Fiber optic sensor applications in field testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors (F.O.S.) are defined, and the application of this technology to measuring various phenomonon in diverse and hostile environments are discussed. F.O.S. advantages and disavantages both technically and operationally are summarized. Three sensor techniques - intensity, interferometric, and polarization - are then discussed in some detail. General environmental instrumentation and controls that support the Nuclear Weapons Test Program at the Nevada Test Site are discussed next to provide the reader with a basic understanding of the programmatic task. This will aid in recognizing the various difficulties of the traditional measurement techniques at the NTS and the potential advantages that fiber optic measurement systems can provide. An F.O.S. development program is then outlined, depicting a plan to design and fabricate a prototype sensor to be available for field testing by the end of FY84. We conclude with future plans for further development of F.O.S. to measure more of the desired physical parameters for the Test Program, and to eventually become an integral part of an overall measurement and control system

  5. Benefits of glass fibers in solar fiber optic lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotinen, Tarja T; Lingfors, David H S

    2013-09-20

    The transmission properties and coupling of solar light have been studied for glass core multimode fibers in order to verify their benefits for a solar fiber optic lighting system. The light transportation distance can be extended from 20 m with plastic fibers to over 100 m with the kind of glass fibers studied here. A high luminous flux, full visible spectrum, as well as an outstanding color rendering index (98) and correlated color temperature similar to the direct sun light outside have been obtained. Thus the outstanding quality of solar light transmitted through these fibers would improve the visibility of all kinds of objects compared to fluorescent and other artificial lighting. Annual relative lighting energy savings of 36% in Uppsala, Sweden, and 76% in Dubai were estimated in an office environment. The absolute savings can be doubled by using glass optical fibers, and are estimated to be in the order of 550 kWh/year in Sweden and 1160 kWh/year in Dubai for one system of only 0.159 m(2) total light collecting area. The savings are dependent on the fiber length, the daily usage time of the interior, the type of artificial lighting substituted, the system light output flux, and the available time of sunny weather at the geographic location.

  6. Adaptive fiber optics collimator based on flexible hinges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Pengfei; Si, Lei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu

    2014-08-20

    In this manuscript, we present a new design for an adaptive fiber optics collimator (AFOC) based on flexible hinges by using piezoelectric stacks actuators for X-Y displacement. Different from traditional AFOC, the new structure is based on flexible hinges to drive the fiber end cap instead of naked fiber. We fabricated a real AFOC based on flexible hinges, and the end cap's deviation and resonance frequency of the device were measured. Experimental results show that this new AFOC can provide fast control of tip-tilt deviation of the laser beam emitting from the end cap. As a result, the fiber end cap can support much higher power than naked fiber, which makes the new structure ideal for tip-tilt controlling in a high-power fiber laser system.

  7. Evanescent field refractometry in planar optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher; Jantzen, Alexander; Gray, Alan C; Gow, Paul C; Carpenter, Lewis G; Bannerman, Rex H S; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R

    2018-02-15

    This Letter demonstrates a refractometer in integrated optical fiber, a new optical platform that planarizes fiber using flame hydrolysis deposition (FHD). The unique advantage of the technology is survivability in harsh environments. The platform is mechanically robust, and can survive elevated temperatures approaching 1000°C and exposure to common solvents, including acetone, gasoline, and methanol. For the demonstrated refractometer, fabrication was achieved through wet etching an SMF-28 fiber to a diameter of 8 μm before FHD planarization. An external refractive index was monitored using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), written into the core of the planarized fiber. A direct comparison to alternative FBG refractometers is made, for which the developed platform is shown to have comparable sensitivity, with the added advantage of survivability in harsh environments.

  8. Fiber-Optic Optical-Microwave Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Used to conduct programs of basic science and applied research in the development of laser sources, high-power fiber amplifiers, photonic control of phased...

  9. Distributed fiber optic system for oil pipeline leakage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, R.; Liu, N.; Rumple, C.; Hara, Elmer H.

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel approach for the detection of leakage in oil pipelines using methods of fiber optic distributed sensors, a presence-of-oil based actuator, and Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). While the basic concepts of our approach are well understood, the integration of the components into a complete system is a real world engineering design problem. Our focus has been on the development of the actuator design and testing using installed dark fiber. Initial results are promising, however environmental studies into the long term effects of exposure to the environment are still pending.

  10. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  11. Two mode optical fiber in space optics communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Martin

    2017-11-01

    In our contribution we propose to use of a two-mode optical fiber as a primary source in a transmitting optical head instead of the laser diode. The distribution of the optical intensity and the complex degree of the coherence on the output aperture of the lens that is irradiated by a step-index weakly guiding optical fiber is investigated. In our treatment we take into account weakly guided modes with polarization corrections to the propagation constant and unified theory of second order coherence and polarization of electromagnetic beams.

  12. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering For Optical Fiber Gyrocopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Julian P.; We, Albert C.; Keur, M.; Lukas, Greg; Ott, Daniel M...; Sriram, S.

    1988-03-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes are of interest for low-cost, high performance rotation sensors. Integrated optical implementations of the processing optics offer the hope of mass-production, and associated cost reductions. The development of a suitable integrated optical system has been reported by other authors at a wavelength of 850nm [1]. Despite strong technical advantages at 1.3μm wavelength [2], no results have yet appeared. This wavelength is preferred for telecommunications applications applications, thus significantly reduced fiber costs may be realized. Lithium niobate is relatively immune from the photorefractive effect at this wavelength, whereas it is not at at 850nm [3].

  13. FIBER OPTICS: Fibre optics: Forty years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed.

  14. Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor for Measuring Cholesterol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Budiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple design of a cholesterol concentration detection is proposed and demonstrated using a fiber optic displacement sensor based on an intensity modulation technique. The proposed sensor uses a bundled plastic optical fiber (POF as a probe in conjunction with a flat mirror as a target. It is obtained that the peak voltage reduces with increasing cholesterol concentration. The sensor is capable of measuring the cholesterol concentration ranging from 0 to 300 ppm in a distilled water with a measured sensitivity of 0.01 mV/ppm, a linearity of more than 99.62 % and a resolution of 3.9188 ppm. The proposed sensor also shows a high degree of stability and good repeatability. The simplicity of design, accuracy, flexible dynamic range, and the low cost of fabrication are favorable attributes of the sensor and beneficial for real- field applications. Fiber optic sensors

  15. Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer inside an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Mingjie; Leong, Wuiseng; Chen, Zilong; Lan, Shau-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Precision measurement with light-pulse grating atom interferometry in free space have been used in the study of fundamental physics and applications in inertial sensing. Recent development of photonic band-gap fibers allows light for traveling in hollow region while preserving its fundamental Gaussian mode. The fibers could provide a very promising platform to transfer cold atoms. Optically guided matter waves inside a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber can mitigate diffraction limit problem and has the potential to bring research in the field of atomic sensing and precision measurement to the next level of compactness and accuracy. Here, we will show our experimental progress towards an atom interferometer in optical fibers. We designed an atom trapping scheme inside a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber to create an optical guided matter waves system, and studied the coherence properties of Rubidium atoms in this optical guided system. We also demonstrate a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer in the optical waveguide. This interferometer is promising for precision measurements and designs of mobile atomic sensors.

  16. The effect of irradiation process on the optical fiber coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeyu; Xiao, Chun; Rong, Liang; Ji, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Protective fiber coating decides the mechanical strength of an optical fiber as well as its resistance against the influence of environment, especially in some special areas like irradiation atmospheres. According to the experiment in this paper, it was found that the tensile force and peeling force of resistant radiation optical fiber was improved because of the special optical fiber coating.

  17. Chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. eShiryaev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments on chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers (HC-MOFs are presented. The comparative analysis of simulated optical properties for chalcogenide HC-MOFs of negative-curvature with different size and number of capillaries is given. The technique for the manufacture of microstructured chalcogenide preforms, which includes the assembly of the substrate glass tube and 8-10 capillaries, is described. Further trends to improve the optical transmission in chalcogenide NCHCFs are considered.

  18. Radiation resistant characteristics of optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasuji, Masaaki; Tanaka, Gotaro; Watanabe, Minoru; Kyodo, Tomohisa; Mukunashi, Hiroaki

    1983-01-01

    It is required to develop the optical fibers with good radiation resistivity because the fibers cause the increase of transmission loss due to glass colouring when they are used under the presence of radiation such as γ-ray. Generally, it is known that SI (step index) fibers are more resistive to radiation than GI (graded index) fibers. However, since a wide band can not be obtained with SI fibers, the development of radiation resistive GI optical fibers is desirable. In this report, the production for trial of the GI fibers of fluorine-doped silica core, the examination of radiation effect on their optical transmission loss by exposing them to γ-ray, thermal and fast neutron beams and also of mechanical strength are described. The GI fibers of fluorine-doped silica core show better radiation resistivity than Ge-doped ones. The B- and F-doped GI fibers show small increase of loss due to γ-ray, but large increase of loss due to thermal neutron beam. This is supposed to be caused by the far greater neutron absorption cross-section of boron than that of other elements. Significant increase of loss was not recognized when 14 MeV fast neutrons (8.6 x 10 4 n/cm 2 .s) were applied by 1.8 x 10 9 n/cm 2 . It was found that ETFE-covered fiber cores generated fluorine-containing gas due to γ irradiation, and the strength was remarkably lowered, but the lowering of strength can be prevented by adding titanium-white to the covering material. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Theoretical Design of a Depolarized Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (IFOG on SMF-28 Single-Mode Standard Optical Fiber Based on Closed-Loop Sinusoidal Phase Modulation with Serrodyne Feedback Phase Modulation Using Simulation Tools for Tactical and Industrial Grade Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón José Pérez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents, by means of computational simulation tools, a full analysis and design of an Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (IFOG prototype based on a closed-loop configuration with sinusoidal bias phase- modulation. The complete design of the different blocks, optical and electronic, is presented, including some novelties as the sinusoidal bias phase-modulation and the use of an integrator to generate the serrodyne phase-modulation signal. The paper includes detailed calculation of most parameter values, and the plots of the resulting signals obtained from simulation tools. The design is focused in the use of a standard single-mode optical fiber, allowing a cost competitive implementation compared to commercial IFOG, at the expense of reduced sensitivity. The design contains an IFOG model that accomplishes tactical and industrial grade applications (sensitivity ≤ 0.055 °/h. This design presents two important properties: (1 an optical subsystem with advanced conception: depolarization of the optical wave by means of Lyot depolarizers, which allows to use a sensing coil made by standard optical fiber, instead by polarization maintaining fiber, which supposes consequent cost savings and (2 a novel and simple electronic design that incorporates a linear analog integrator with reset in feedback chain, this integrator generating a serrodyne voltage-wave to apply to Phase-Modulator (PM, so that it will be obtained the interferometric phase cancellation. This particular feedback design with sawtooth-wave generated signal for a closed-loop configuration with sinusoidal bias phase modulation has not been reported till now in the scientific literature and supposes a considerable simplification with regard to previous designs based on similar configurations. The sensing coil consists of an 8 cm average diameter spool that contains 300 m of standard single-mode optical-fiber (SMF-28 type realized by quadrupolar winding. The working

  20. Theoretical Design of a Depolarized Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (IFOG) on SMF-28 Single-Mode Standard Optical Fiber Based on Closed-Loop Sinusoidal Phase Modulation with Serrodyne Feedback Phase Modulation Using Simulation Tools for Tactical and Industrial Grade Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ramón José; Álvarez, Ignacio; Enguita, José María

    2016-04-27

    This article presents, by means of computational simulation tools, a full analysis and design of an Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (IFOG) prototype based on a closed-loop configuration with sinusoidal bias phase- modulation. The complete design of the different blocks, optical and electronic, is presented, including some novelties as the sinusoidal bias phase-modulation and the use of an integrator to generate the serrodyne phase-modulation signal. The paper includes detailed calculation of most parameter values, and the plots of the resulting signals obtained from simulation tools. The design is focused in the use of a standard single-mode optical fiber, allowing a cost competitive implementation compared to commercial IFOG, at the expense of reduced sensitivity. The design contains an IFOG model that accomplishes tactical and industrial grade applications (sensitivity ≤ 0.055 °/h). This design presents two important properties: (1) an optical subsystem with advanced conception: depolarization of the optical wave by means of Lyot depolarizers, which allows to use a sensing coil made by standard optical fiber, instead by polarization maintaining fiber, which supposes consequent cost savings and (2) a novel and simple electronic design that incorporates a linear analog integrator with reset in feedback chain, this integrator generating a serrodyne voltage-wave to apply to Phase-Modulator (PM), so that it will be obtained the interferometric phase cancellation. This particular feedback design with sawtooth-wave generated signal for a closed-loop configuration with sinusoidal bias phase modulation has not been reported till now in the scientific literature and supposes a considerable simplification with regard to previous designs based on similar configurations. The sensing coil consists of an 8 cm average diameter spool that contains 300 m of standard single-mode optical-fiber (SMF-28 type) realized by quadrupolar winding. The working wavelength will be

  1. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS), in collaboration with North Carolina State University, successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg...

  2. Noncontact measurement of high temperature using optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, R. O.

    1990-01-01

    The primary goal of this research program was the investigation and application of noncontact temperature measurement techniques using optical techniques and optical fiber methods. In particular, a pyrometer utilizing an infrared optical light pipe and a multiwavelength filtering approach was designed, revised, and tested. This work was motivated by the need to measure the temperatures of small metallic pellets (approximately 3 mm diameter) in free fall at the Microgravity Materials Processing Drop Tube at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. In addition, research under this program investigated the adaptation of holography technology to optical fiber sensors, and also examined the use of rare-earth dopants in optical fibers for use in measuring temperature. The pyrometer development effort involved both theoretical analysis and experimental tests. For the analysis, a mathematical model based on radiative transfer principles was derived. Key parameter values representative of the drop tube system, such as particle size, tube diameter and length, and particle temperature, were used to determine an estimate of the radiant flux that will be incident on the face of an optical fiber or light pipe used to collect radiation from the incandescent falling particle. An extension of this work examined the advantage of inclining or tilting the collecting fiber to increase the time that the falling particle remains in the fiber field-of-view. Those results indicate that increases in total power collected of about 15 percent may be realized by tilting the fiber. In order to determine the suitability of alternative light pipes and optical fibers, and experimental set-up for measuring the transmittance and insertion loss of infrared fibers considered for use in the pyrometer was assembled. A zirconium fluoride optical fiber and several bundles of hollow core fiber of varying diameters were tested. A prototype two-color pyrometer was assembled and tested at Virginia Tech, and then

  3. Recent Developments in Fiber Optics Humidity Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbe, Joaquin; Corres, Jesus M; Arregui, Francisco J; Matias, Ignacio R

    2017-04-19

    A wide range of applications such as health, human comfort, agriculture, food processing and storage, and electronic manufacturing, among others, require fast and accurate measurement of humidity. Sensors based on optical fibers present several advantages over electronic sensors and great research efforts have been made in recent years in this field. The present paper reports the current trends of optical fiber humidity sensors. The evolution of optical structures developed towards humidity sensing, as well as the novel materials used for this purpose, will be analyzed. Well-known optical structures, such as long-period fiber gratings or fiber Bragg gratings, are still being studied towards an enhancement of their sensitivity. Sensors based on lossy mode resonances constitute a platform that combines high sensitivity with low complexity, both in terms of their fabrication process and the equipment required. Novel structures, such as resonators, are being studied in order to improve the resolution of humidity sensors. Moreover, recent research on polymer optical fibers suggests that the sensitivity of this kind of sensor has not yet reached its limit. Therefore, there is still room for improvement in terms of sensitivity and resolution.

  4. Direct Writing of Fiber Bragg Grating in Microstructured Polymer Optical Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Stecher, Matthias; Town, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    We report point-by-point laser direct writing of a 1520-nm fiber Bragg grating in a microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF). The mPOF is specially designed such that the microstructure does not obstruct the writing beam when properly aligned. A fourth-order grating is inscribed in the m......POF with only a 2.5-s writing time....

  5. Multiparameter fiber optic sensing system for monitoring enhanced geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challener, William A

    2014-12-04

    The goal of this project was to design, fabricate and test an optical fiber cable which supports multiple sensing modalities for measurements in the harsh environment of enhanced geothermal systems. To accomplish this task, optical fiber was tested at both high temperatures and strains for mechanical integrity, and in the presence of hydrogen for resistance to darkening. Both single mode (SM) and multimode (MM) commercially available optical fiber were identified and selected for the cable based on the results of these tests. The cable was designed and fabricated using a tube-within-tube construction containing two MM fibers and one SM fiber, and without supporting gel that is not suitable for high temperature environments. Commercial fiber optic sensing instruments using Raman DTS (distributed temperature sensing), Brillouin DTSS (distributed temperature and strain sensing), and Raleigh COTDR (coherent optical time domain reflectometry) were selected for field testing. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, packaged, and calibrated for high pressure measurements at high temperatures and spliced to the cable. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor was also spliced to the cable. A geothermal well was selected and its temperature and pressure were logged. The cable was then deployed in the well in two separate field tests and measurements were made on these different sensing modalities. Raman DTS measurements were found to be accurate to ±5°C, even with some residual hydrogen darkening. Brillouin DTSS measurements were in good agreement with the Raman results. The Rayleigh COTDR instrument was able to detect some acoustic signatures, but was generally disappointing. The FBG sensor was used to determine the effects of hydrogen darkening, but drift over time made it unreliable as a temperature or pressure sensor. The MEMS sensor was found to be highly stable and accurate to better than its 0.1% calibration.

  6. Fiber cavities with integrated mode matching optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Takahashi, Hiroki; Podoliak, Nina; Horak, Peter; Keller, Matthias

    2017-07-17

    In fiber based Fabry-Pérot Cavities (FFPCs), limited spatial mode matching between the cavity mode and input/output modes has been the main hindrance for many applications. We have demonstrated a versatile mode matching method for FFPCs. Our novel design employs an assembly of a graded-index and large core multimode fiber directly spliced to a single mode fiber. This all-fiber assembly transforms the propagating mode of the single mode fiber to match with the mode of a FFPC. As a result, we have measured a mode matching of 90% for a cavity length of ~400 μm. This is a significant improvement compared to conventional FFPCs coupled with just a single mode fiber, especially at long cavity lengths. Adjusting the parameters of the assembly, the fundamental cavity mode can be matched with the mode of almost any single mode fiber, making this approach highly versatile and integrable.

  7. Fiber-optic multipoint radiation sensing system using waveguide scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Yoda, Masaki; Tanaka, Koutarou; Masumaru, Tarou; Morimoto, Souichirou.

    1996-01-01

    Novel fiber-optic radiation sensors and a multipoint measurement method that takes advantage of them have been developed. The new sensor design, which we call a 'waveguide scintillator', consists of a scintillating material and a wavelength-shifting fiber (WLSF). The WLSF is embedded in the scintillating material, and each end is connected to a transparent optical fiber. These waveguide scintillators can be connected in series along an optical fiber loop to form a radiation monitoring system, and each end of the fiber loop is terminated with a photodetector. This new radiation monitoring arrangement dispenses with the need for electronic apparatus at each measuring point and consequently improves resistance to noise. Furthermore, it offers the advantages of multipoint monitoring - meaning that radiation intensity can be measured at multiple sensors - using only two photodetectors. We have examined the light output characteristics and time resolution of a prototype arrangement of these new waveguide scintillators, thus confirming the feasibility of multipoint measurements using a system of multiple waveguide scintillators connected in series in an optical fiber loop. (author)

  8. Process, product, and waste-stream monitoring with fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.

    1983-07-01

    Fiber optic technology, motivated by communications and defense applications, has advanced significantly the past ten years. In particular, advances have been made in visible radiation transmission efficiency with concurrent reductions in fiber size, weight, and cost. Researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) coupled these advances in fiber optic technology with analytical fluorescence analysis to establish a new technology - remote fiber fluorimetry (RFF). Laser-based RFF offers the potential to measure and monitor from one central and remote laboratory, on-line, and in near real time, trace (ppM) to substantial (g/L) concentrations of selected chemical species in typical process, product, and waste streams. The fluorimeter consists of a fluorescence or Raman spectrometer; unique coupling optics that separates input excitation (laser) radiation from return (fluorescence) radiation; a fiber optic cable; and an optrode - a terminal that interfaces the fiber to the measurement point, which is designed to respond quantitatively to a particular chemical species. At LLNL, research is underway into optrodes that measure pressure, temperature, and pH and those that detect and quantify various actinides, sulfates, inorganic chloride, hydrogen sulfide, aldehydes, and alcohols

  9. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  10. Optical Fiber for High-Power Optical Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kurokawa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined optical fibers suitable for avoiding such problems as the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input. We found that the threshold power for fiber fuse propagation in photonic crystal fiber (PCF and hole-assisted fiber (HAF can exceed 18 W, which is more than 10 times that in conventional single-mode fiber (SMF. We considered this high threshold power in PCF and HAF to be caused by a jet of high temperature fluid penetrating the air holes. We showed examples of two kinds of failures at bends in conventional SMF when the input power was 9 W. We also observed the generation of a fiber fuse under a condition that caused a bend-loss induced failure. We showed that one solution for the failures at bends is to use optical fibers with a low bending loss such as PCF and HAF. Therefore, we consider PCF and HAF to be attractive solutions to the problems of the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input.

  11. Refractive Index Measurement of Liquids Based on Microstructured Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on microstructured optical fiber sensors developed in recent years for liquid RI sensing. The review is divided into three parts: the first section introduces a general view of the most relevant refractometric sensors that have been reported over the last thirty years. Section 2 discusses several microstructured optical fiber designs, namely, suspended-core fiber, photonic crystal fiber, large-core air-clad photonic crystal fiber, and others. This part is also divided into two main groups: the interferometric-based and resonance-based configurations. The sensing methods rely either on full/selective filling of the microstructured fiber air holes with a liquid analyte or by simply immersing the sensing fiber into the liquid analyte. The sensitivities and resolutions are tabled at the end of this section followed by a brief discussion of the obtained results. The last section concludes with some remarks about the microstructured fiber-based configurations developed for RI sensing and their potential for future applications.

  12. Accurate mode characterization of two-mode optical fibers by in-fiber acousto-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcusa-Sáez, E; Díez, A; Andrés, M V

    2016-03-07

    Acousto-optic interaction in optical fibers is exploited for the accurate and broadband characterization of two-mode optical fibers. Coupling between LP 01 and LP 1m modes is produced in a broadband wavelength range. Difference in effective indices, group indices, and chromatic dispersions between the guided modes, are obtained from experimental measurements. Additionally, we show that the technique is suitable to investigate the fine modes structure of LP modes, and some other intriguing features related with modes' cut-off.

  13. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor Insert for High Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard James (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Zarnescu, Livia (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) test plug has optical fibers with FBGs embedded in the optical fiber arranged in a helix, an axial fiber, and a combination of the two. Optionally, one of the optical fibers is a sapphire FBG for measurement of the highest temperatures in the TPS plug. The test plug may include an ablating surface and a non-ablating surface, with an engagement surface with threads formed, the threads having a groove for placement of the optical fiber. The test plug may also include an optical connector positioned at the non-ablating surface for protection of the optical fiber during insertion and removal.

  14. Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

  15. Strain measurement using multiplexed fiber optic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Il Bum; Kim, Chi Yeop; Yoon, Dong Jin; Lee, Seung Seok

    2003-01-01

    FBG(Fiber Bragg grating) sensor, which is one of the fiber optic sensors for the application of smart structures, can not only measure one specific point but also multiple points by multiplexing techniques. We have proposed a novel multiplexing technique of FBG sensor by the intensity modulation of light source. This technique is applicable to WDM(Wavelength Division Multiplexing) technique and number of sensors in this system can be increased by using this technique with WDM technique.

  16. Field test investigation of high sensitivity fiber optic seismic geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Min, Li; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Faxiang; Sun, Zhihui; Li, Shujuan; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Zhong; Hao, Guanghu

    2017-10-01

    Seismic reflection, whose measured signal is the artificial seismic waves ,is the most effective method and widely used in the geophysical prospecting. And this method can be used for exploration of oil, gas and coal. When a seismic wave travelling through the Earth encounters an interface between two materials with different acoustic impedances, some of the wave energy will reflect off the interface and some will refract through the interface. At its most basic, the seismic reflection technique consists of generating seismic waves and measuring the time taken for the waves to travel from the source, reflect off an interface and be detected by an array of geophones at the surface. Compared to traditional geophones such as electric, magnetic, mechanical and gas geophone, optical fiber geophones have many advantages. Optical fiber geophones can achieve sensing and signal transmission simultaneously. With the development of fiber grating sensor technology, fiber bragg grating (FBG) is being applied in seismic exploration and draws more and more attention to its advantage of anti-electromagnetic interference, high sensitivity and insensitivity to meteorological conditions. In this paper, we designed a high sensitivity geophone and tested its sensitivity, based on the theory of FBG sensing. The frequency response range is from 10 Hz to 100 Hz and the acceleration of the fiber optic seismic geophone is over 1000pm/g. sixteen-element fiber optic seismic geophone array system is presented and the field test is performed in Shengli oilfield of China. The field test shows that: (1) the fiber optic seismic geophone has a higher sensitivity than the traditional geophone between 1-100 Hz;(2) The low frequency reflection wave continuity of fiber Bragg grating geophone is better.

  17. Tunable light source for fiber optic lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Bierman, Andrew; Finney, Mark J.; Edwards, Ian K.

    1997-09-01

    This paper examines the possibility of tuning the lamp spectrum to compensate for color distortions in fiber optic lighting systems. Because most optical fibers have strong absorption in the blue and red wavelength regions, white light entering and propagating down an optical fiber suffers varied amounts of attenuation as a function of wavelength. As a result, the light exiting the optical fiber has a greenish tint that the lighting design community considers undesirable in interior lighting applications. HID lamps are commonly used for the light source in this industry. Certain classes of HID lamps tend to shift in color when their operating position or the input voltage to the lamp is changed. An experimental study is being conducted to characterize the color shift properties of a small HID lamp as a function of tilt and input voltage. The study also examines the possibility of exploiting this color shift to compensate for the color distortions caused by optical fibers. The details of the experiment and the results are presented in this manuscript.

  18. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA's substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA

  19. Optical fiber applied to radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, Francisco A.B.; Costa, Antonella L.; Oliveira, Arno H. de; Vasconcelos, Danilo C., E-mail: fanbra@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: danilochagas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    In the last years, the production of optical fibers cables has make possible the development of a range of spectroscopic probes for in situ analysis performing beyond nondestructive tests, environmental monitoring, security investigation, application in radiotherapy for dose monitoring, verification and validation. In this work, a system using an optical fiber cable to light signal transmission from a NaI(Tl) radiation detector is presented. The innovative device takes advantage mainly of the optical fibers small signal attenuation and immunity to electromagnetic interference to application for radiation detection systems. The main aim was to simplify the detection system making it to reach areas where the conventional device cannot access due to its lack of mobility and external dimensions. Some tests with this innovative system are presented and the results stimulate the continuity of the researches. (author)

  20. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  1. Focusing over Optical Fiber Using Time Reversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Porto da Silva, Edson; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A time-reversal array in multimode fiber is proposed for lossless remotely controlled switching using passive optical splitters. The signal to be transmitted is digitally pre-distorted so that it is routed through the physical layer in order to arrive at only one receiver in an array. System...... performance in the presence of additive white gaussian noise, modal group delay, and timing error is investigated numerically for single-mode and 10-mode fiber. Focusing using a two-transmitter array and 44 km of single- mode fiber is demonstrated experimentally for 3 GBd QPSK signals with a bit error rate...

  2. Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

  3. Optic fiber pulse-diagnosis sensor of traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, J. S.; Jin, W.; Zhao, B. N.; Zhang, X. L.; Wang, C.; Li, S. J.; Zhang, F. X.; Peng, G. D.

    2013-09-01

    The wrist-pulse is a kind of signals, from which a lot of physiological and pathological status of patients are deduced according to traditional Chinese medicine theories. This paper designs a new optic fiber wrist-pulse sensor that based on a group of FBGs. Sensitivity of the optic fiber wrist-pulse measurement system reaches 0.05% FS and the range reaches 50kPa. Frequency response is from 0 Hz to 5 kHz. A group of typical pulse signal is given out in the paper to compare different status of patient. It will improve quantification of pulse diagnosis greatly.

  4. Fiber optic strain measurements using an optically-active polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Leonard J.; Neumeister, Gary C.

    1992-03-01

    A study encompassing the use of an optically-active polymer as the strain-sensing medium in an organic matrix composite was performed. Several compounds were synthesized for use as the inner cladding material for silica fiber-optic cores. These materials include a diacetylene containing polyamide. It is possible to dynamically modify the optical properties of these materials through changes in applied strain or temperature. By doing so the characteristic absorption in the visible is reversibly shifted to a higher energy state. The polymer-coated fiber-optic cores were initially studied in epoxy resin. Additionally, one of the polyamide/diacetylene polymers was studied in a spin-fiber form consisting of 15 micron filaments assembled in multifilament tows. The most promising configuration and materials were then investigated further by embedding in graphite/epoxy composite laminates. In each case the shift in the visible absorption peak was monitored as a function of applied mechanical strain.

  5. Experimental stress–strain analysis of tapered silica optical fibers with nanofiber waist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleis, S.; Hoinkes, T.; Wuttke, C.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally determine tensile force–elongation diagrams of tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist. The tapered optical fibers are produced from standard silica optical fibers using a heat and pull process. Both, the force–elongation data and scanning electron microscope images of the rupture points indicate a brittle material. Despite the small waist radii of only a few hundred nanometers, our experimental data can be fully explained by a nonlinear stress–strain model that relies on material properties of macroscopic silica optical fibers. This is an important asset when it comes to designing miniaturized optical elements as one can rely on the well-founded material characteristics of standard optical fibers. Based on this understanding, we demonstrate a simple and non-destructive technique that allows us to determine the waist radius of the tapered optical fiber. We find excellent agreement with independent scanning electron microscope measurements of the waist radius

  6. Triaxial fiber optic magnetic field sensor for MRI applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filograno, Massimo L.; Pisco, Marco; Catalano, Angelo; Forte, Ernesto; Aiello, Marco; Soricelli, Andrea; Davino, Daniele; Visone, Ciro; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we report a fiber-optic triaxial magnetic field sensor, based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) integrated with giant magnetostrictive material, the Terfenol-D. The realized sensor has been designed and engineered for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) applications. A full magneto-optical characterization of the triaxial sensing probe has been carried out, providing the complex relationship among the FBGs wavelength shift and the applied magnetostatic field vector. Finally, the developed fiber optic sensors have been arranged in a sensor network composed of 20 triaxial sensors for mapping the magnetic field distribution in a MRI-room at a diagnostic center in Naples (SDN), equipped with Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) instrumentation. Experimental results reveal that the proposed sensor network can be efficiently used in MRI centers for performing quality assurance tests, paving the way for novel integrated tools to measure the magnetic dose accumulated day by day by MRI operators.

  7. Femtosecond laser inscription of asymmetric directional couplers for in-fiber optical taps and fiber cladding photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Jason R; Fernandes, Luís A; Herman, Peter R

    2015-06-29

    Precise alignment of femtosecond laser tracks in standard single mode optical fiber is shown to enable controllable optical tapping of the fiber core waveguide light with fiber cladding photonic circuits. Asymmetric directional couplers are presented with tunable coupling ratios up to 62% and bandwidths up to 300 nm at telecommunication wavelengths. Real-time fiber monitoring during laser writing permitted a means of controlling the coupler length to compensate for micron-scale alignment errors and to facilitate tailored design of coupling ratio, spectral bandwidth and polarization properties. Laser induced waveguide birefringence was harnessed for polarization dependent coupling that led to the formation of in-fiber polarization-selective taps with 32 dB extinction ratio. This technology enables the interconnection of light propagating in pre-existing waveguides with laser-formed devices, thereby opening a new practical direction for the three-dimensional integration of optical devices in the cladding of optical fibers and planar lightwave circuits.

  8. Poly aniline Nano fiber as Modified Cladding for Optical Fiber Sensor to Detect Acetone Vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhiruddin maddu; Ahmad aminuddin; Setyanto Tri Wahyudi; Hamdani Zain

    2008-01-01

    In this research, we used poly aniline nano fiber as modified cladding material for a fiber optic sensor system to detect the acetone vapor. The sensor was designed based on variation of evanescent field absorption on the core-modified cladding interface when exposed with varied acetone vapor. Poly aniline nano fiber synthesized by interfacial polymerization was coated onto the un-cladded core and acts as sensing element. Response of the fiber optic sensor was investigated by measuring the transmission light intensity via fiber optic sensor system while exposed with acetone vapor. Based on the sensor response curve, it is obtained a very fast response time of 30 s and recovery time of 10 s. The fiber optic sensor also exhibits a good reversibility and repeatability. Sensitivity of the sensor to variation of acetone vapor pressure was obtained 1.25 %/mmHg, that means the transmission intensity of the sensor changes 1.25 % for acetone vapor change of 1 mmHg. (author)

  9. Lasers and optical fibers in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Katzir, Abraham

    1993-01-01

    The increasing use of fiber optics in the field of medicine has created a need for an interdisciplinary perspective of the technology and methods for physicians as well as engineers and biophysicists. This book presents a comprehensive examination of lasers and optical fibers in an hierarchical, three-tier system. Each chapter is divided into three basic sections: the Fundamentals section provides an overview of basic concepts and background; the Principles section offers an in-depth engineering approach; and the Advances section features specific information on systems an

  10. Optical fiber end-facet polymer suspended-mirror devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mian; Wu, Jushuai; Zhang, A. Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Wai, P. K. A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel optical fiber device based on a polymer suspended mirror on the end facet of an optical fiber. With an own-developed optical 3D micro-printing technology, SU-8 suspended-mirror devices (SMDs) were successfully fabricated on the top of a standard single-mode optical fiber. Optical reflection spectra of the fabricated SU- 8 SMDs were measured and compared with theoretical analysis. The proposed technology paves a way towards 3D microengineering of the small end-facet of optical fibers to develop novel fiber-optic sensors.

  11. Glass and Process Development for the Next Generation of Optical Fibers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ballato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Applications involving optical fibers have grown considerably in recent years with intense levels of research having been focused on the development of not only new generations of optical fiber materials and designs, but also on new processes for their preparation. In this paper, we review the latest developments in advanced materials for optical fibers ranging from silica, to semi-conductors, to particle-containing glasses, to chalcogenides and also in process-related innovations.

  12. Optical and electrical characterizations of multifunctional silver phosphate glass and polymer-based optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Maxime; Ledemi, Yannick; Morency, Steeve; de Lima Filho, Elton Soares; Messaddeq, Younès

    2017-03-03

    In recent years, the fabrication of multifunctional fibers has expanded for multiple applications that require the transmission of both light and electricity. Fibers featuring these two properties are usually composed either of a single material that supports the different characteristics or of a combination of different materials. In this work, we fabricated (i) novel single-core step-index optical fibers made of electrically conductive AgI-AgPO 3 -WO 3 glass and (ii) novel multimaterial fibers with different designs made of AgI-AgPO 3 -WO 3 glass and optically transparent polycarbonate and poly (methyl methacrylate) polymers. The multifunctional fibers produced show light transmission over a wide range of wavelengths from 500 to 1000 nm for the single-core fibers and from 400 to 1000 nm for the multimaterial fibers. Furthermore, these fibers showed excellent electrical conductivity with values ranging between 10 -3 and 10 -1  S·cm -1 at room temperature within the range of AC frequencies from 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Multimodal taper-tipped fibre microprobes were then fabricated and were characterized. This advanced design could provide promising tools for in vivo electrophysiological experiments that require light delivery through an optical core in addition to neuronal activity recording.

  13. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, A.

    2008-04-15

    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  14. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A.

    2008-04-01

    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  15. Handbook of optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Malacara-Hernández, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Optical Design, Third Edition covers the fundamental principles of geometric optics and their application to lens design in one volume. It incorporates classic aspects of lens design along with important modern methods, tools, and instruments, including contemporary astronomical telescopes, Gaussian beams, and computer lens design. Written by respected researchers, the book has been extensively classroom-tested and developed in their lens design courses. This well-illustrated handbook clearly and concisely explains the intricacies of optical system design and evaluation. It also di

  16. Fiber optic spectrophotometer with photodiode linear array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, F.; Vernet, P.

    1988-01-01

    Spectrophotometric measurements are used in a great number of industrial processes, in nuclear environment and with optical precision components. Especially the evolution of a chemical process or of an optical coating could be followed by these measurements. Spectrophotometers, using optical fibers to transport the signal out of the instrument make possible the measurement ''in-situ'' and in real time. The advantage of using a diode array to detect the signal is an instantaneous measurement all over the spectral range without moving parts. It allows an excellent reproductibility. The instrument is controlled by a micro computer. The spectrophotometer is described and technical performance presented. An extension using optical fibers on a ''classical'' spectrophotometer (a H.P. one) is also described and technical performance presented

  17. Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Hoiby, Poul Erik; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the first incorporation of a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) into biochip applications. A 16-mm-long piece of MOF is incorporated into an optic-fluidic coupler chip, which is fabricated in PMMA polymer using a CO2 laser. The developed chip configuration allows...... the continuous control of liquid flow through the MOF and simultaneous optical characterization. While integrated in the chip, the MOF is functionalized towards the capture of a specific single-stranded DNA string by immobilizing a sensing layer on the microstructured internal surfaces of the fiber. The sensing...... layer contains the DNA string complementary to the target DNA sequence and thus operates through the highly selective DNA hybridization process. Optical detection of the captured DNA was carried out using the evanescent-wave-sensing principle. Owing to the small size of the chip, the presented technique...

  18. Optical fiber sensors for medical applications: practical engineering considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, J.A.C.; Cheng, L.K.; Wieringa, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    The advantages of optical fibers as medical sensors are recognized world wide nowadays. Insensitivity to electromagnetic disturbances and relative small dimensions are the most well known properties. The advantages of fiber optic sensors are especially valuable within environments with high

  19. Strength measurement of optical fibers by bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srubshchik, Leonid S.

    1999-01-01

    A two-point bending technique has been used not only to measure the breaking stress of optical fiber but also to predict its static and dynamic fatigue. The present theory of this test is based on elastica theory of rod. However, within the limits of elastica theory the tensile and shear stresses cannot be determined. In this paper we study dynamic and static problems for optical fiber in the two- point bending test on the base of geometrically exact theory in which rod can suffer flexure, extension, and shear. We obtain the governing partial differential equations taking into account the fact that the lateral motion of the fiber is restrained by the presence of flat parallel plates. We develop the computational methods for solving the initial and equilibrium free-boundary nonlinear planar problems. We derive the formulas for predicting of the tensile strength from strength in the bending and calculate one example.

  20. Scintillating Optical Fiber Imagers for biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrippolito, R.

    1990-01-01

    S.O.F.I (Scintillating Optical Fiber Imager) is a detector developed to replace the autoradiographic films used in molecular biology for the location of radiolabelled ( 32 P) DNA molecules in blotting experiments. It analyses samples on a 25 x 25 cm 2 square area still 25 times faster than autoradiographic films, with a 1.75 and 3 mm resolution for two orthogonal directions. This device performs numerised images with a dynamic upper than 100 which allows the direct quantitation of the analysed samples. First, this thesis describes the S.O.F.I. development (Scintillating Optical Fibers, coding of these fibers and specific electronic for the treatment of the Multi-Anode Photo-Multiplier signals) and experiments made in collaboration with molecular biology laboratories. In a second place, we prove the feasibility of an automatic DNA sequencer issued from S.O.F.I [fr

  1. Fiber optical asssembly for fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltch, Martin S.; Gray, Perry Clayton; Rubenstein, Richard

    2015-08-18

    System is provided for detecting the presence of an analyte of interest in a sample, said system comprising an elongated, transparent container for a sample; an excitation source in optical communication with the sample, wherein radiation from the excitation source is directed along the length of the sample, and wherein the radiation induces a signal which is emitted from the sample; and, at least two linear arrays disposed about the sample holder, each linear array comprising a plurality of optical fibers having a first end and a second end, wherein the first ends of the fibers are disposed along the length of the container and in proximity thereto; the second ends of the fibers of each array are bundled together to form a single end port.

  2. Folded cladding porous shaped photonic crystal fiber with high sensitivity in optical sensing applications: Design and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Kumar Paul

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A micro structure folded cladding porous shaped with circular air hole photonic crystal fiber (FP-PCF is proposed and numerically investigated in a broader wavelength range from 1.4 µm to 1.64 µm (E+S+C+L+U for chemical sensing purposes. Employing finite element method (FEM with anisotropic perfectly matched layer (PML various properties of the proposed FP-PCF are numerically inquired. Filling the hole of core with aqueous analyte ethanol (n = 1.354 and tuning different geometric parameters of the fiber, the sensitivity order of 64.19% and the confinement loss of 2.07 × 10-5 dB/m are attained at 1.48 µm wavelength in S band. The investigated numerical simulation result strongly focuses on sensing purposes; because this fiber attained higher sensitivity with lower confinement loss over the operating wavelength. Measuring time of sensitivity, simultaneously confinement loss also inquired. It reflects that confinement loss is highly dependable on PML depth but not for sensitivity. Beside above properties numerical aperture (NA, nonlinearity, and effective area are also computed. This FP-PCF also performed as sensor for other alcohol series (methanol, propanol, butanol, pentanol. Optimized FP-PCF shows higher sensitivity and low confinement loss carrying high impact in the area of chemical as well as gas sensing purposes. Surely it is clear that install such type of sensor will flourish technology massively.         Keywords: Confinement loss, Effective area, Index guiding FP-PCF, Numerical aperture, Nonlinear coefficient, Sensitivity

  3. FIBER OPTIC BIOSENSOR FOR DNA DAMAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a fiber optic biosensor for the rapid and sensitive detection of radiation-induced or chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage. The assay is based on the hybridization and temperature-induced dissociation (melting curves) of synthetic oligonucleotides. The...

  4. Cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Genty, G; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We report on a theoretical and experimental study of cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics. We show that the usual energy-momentum conservation of Bragg scattering can be considerably relaxed via cascade-induced phase-matching. Experimentally we demonstrate frequency translation over six- and 11-fold cascades, in excellent agreement with derived phase-matching conditions.

  5. Standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, V.; Santbergen, R.; Tijssen, M.; Zeman, M.

    2011-01-01

    A study is presented giving the response of three types of fiber-optic interferometers by which a standing wave through an object is investigated. The three types are a Sagnac, Mach–Zehnder and Michelson–Morley interferometer. The response of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer is similar to the Sagnac

  6. Use of a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier and dual-ring architecture design to produce a stable multi-wavelength fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Lu, Shao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a multi-wavelength laser source produced by utilizing a C-band reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) with a dual-ring fiber cavity. Here, the laser cavity consists of an RSOA, a 1 × 2 optical coupler, a 2 × 2 optical coupler and a polarization controller. As a result, thirteen to eighteen wavelengths around the L band could be generated simultaneously when the bias current of the C-band RSOA was driven at 30–70 mA. In addition, the output stabilities of the power and wavelength are also discussed. (paper)

  7. Use of a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier and dual-ring architecture design to produce a stable multi-wavelength fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Lu, Shao-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a multi-wavelength laser source produced by utilizing a C-band reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) with a dual-ring fiber cavity. Here, the laser cavity consists of an RSOA, a 1 × 2 optical coupler, a 2 × 2 optical coupler and a polarization controller. As a result, thirteen to eighteen wavelengths around the L band could be generated simultaneously when the bias current of the C-band RSOA was driven at 30-70 mA. In addition, the output stabilities of the power and wavelength are also discussed.

  8. High-Order Modulation for Optical Fiber Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Seimetz, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Catering to the current interest in increasing the spectral efficiency of optical fiber networks by the deployment of high-order modulation formats, this monograph describes transmitters, receivers and performance of optical systems with high-order phase and quadrature amplitude modulation. In the first part of the book, the author discusses various transmitter implementation options as well as several receiver concepts based on direct and coherent detection, including designs of new structures. Hereby, both optical and electrical parts are considered, allowing the assessment of practicability and complexity. In the second part, a detailed characterization of optical fiber transmission systems is presented, regarding a wide range of modulation formats. It provides insight in the fundamental behavior of different formats with respect to relevant performance degradation effects and identifies the major trends in system performance.

  9. Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospíšilová, Marie; Kuncová, Gabriela; Trögl, Josef

    2015-09-30

    This review summarizes principles and current stage of development of fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCS) and biosensors (FOBS). Fiber optic sensor (FOS) systems use the ability of optical fibers (OF) to guide the light in the spectral range from ultraviolet (UV) (180 nm) up to middle infrared (IR) (10 μm) and modulation of guided light by the parameters of the surrounding environment of the OF core. The introduction of OF in the sensor systems has brought advantages such as measurement in flammable and explosive environments, immunity to electrical noises, miniaturization, geometrical flexibility, measurement of small sample volumes, remote sensing in inaccessible sites or harsh environments and multi-sensing. The review comprises briefly the theory of OF elaborated for sensors, techniques of fabrications and analytical results reached with fiber-optic chemical and biological sensors.

  10. Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospíšilová, Marie; Kuncová, Gabriela; Trögl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes principles and current stage of development of fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCS) and biosensors (FOBS). Fiber optic sensor (FOS) systems use the ability of optical fibers (OF) to guide the light in the spectral range from ultraviolet (UV) (180 nm) up to middle infrared (IR) (10 µm) and modulation of guided light by the parameters of the surrounding environment of the OF core. The introduction of OF in the sensor systems has brought advantages such as measurement in flammable and explosive environments, immunity to electrical noises, miniaturization, geometrical flexibility, measurement of small sample volumes, remote sensing in inaccessible sites or harsh environments and multi-sensing. The review comprises briefly the theory of OF elaborated for sensors, techniques of fabrications and analytical results reached with fiber-optic chemical and biological sensors. PMID:26437407

  11. Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Pospíšilová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes principles and current stage of development of fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCS and biosensors (FOBS. Fiber optic sensor (FOS systems use the ability of optical fibers (OF to guide the light in the spectral range from ultraviolet (UV (180 nm up to middle infrared (IR (10 μm and modulation of guided light by the parameters of the surrounding environment of the OF core. The introduction of OF in the sensor systems has brought advantages such as measurement in flammable and explosive environments, immunity to electrical noises, miniaturization, geometrical flexibility, measurement of small sample volumes, remote sensing in inaccessible sites or harsh environments and multi-sensing. The review comprises briefly the theory of OF elaborated for sensors, techniques of fabrications and analytical results reached with fiber-optic chemical and biological sensors.

  12. Micromachined fiber optic Fabry-Perot underwater acoustic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyin; Shao, Zhengzheng; Hu, Zhengliang; Luo, Hong; Xie, Jiehui; Hu, Yongming

    2014-08-01

    One of the most important branches in the development trend of the traditional fiber optic physical sensor is the miniaturization of sensor structure. Miniature fiber optic sensor can realize point measurement, and then to develop sensor networks to achieve quasi-distributed or distributed sensing as well as line measurement to area monitoring, which will greatly extend the application area of fiber optic sensors. The development of MEMS technology brings a light path to address the problems brought by the procedure of sensor miniaturization. Sensors manufactured by MEMS technology possess the advantages of small volume, light weight, easy fabricated and low cost. In this paper, a fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric underwater acoustic probe utilizing micromachined diaphragm collaborated with fiber optic technology and MEMS technology has been designed and implemented to actualize underwater acoustic sensing. Diaphragm with central embossment, where the embossment is used to anti-hydrostatic pressure which would largely deflect the diaphragm that induce interferometric fringe fading, has been made by double-sided etching of silicon on insulator. By bonding the acoustic-sensitive diaphragm as well as a cleaved fiber end in ferrule with an outer sleeve, an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer has been constructed. The sensor has been interrogated by quadrature-point control method and tested in field-stable acoustic standing wave tube. Results have been shown that the recovered signal detected by the sensor coincided well with the corresponding transmitted signal and the sensitivity response was flat in frequency range from 10 Hz to 2kHz with the value about -154.6 dB re. 1/μPa. It has been manifest that the designed sensor could be used as an underwater acoustic probe.

  13. Portable fiber-optic taper coupled optical microscopy platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming; Yu, Yan; Huang, Hui; Ou, Jinping

    2017-04-01

    The optical fiber taper coupled with CMOS has advantages of high sensitivity, compact structure and low distortion in the imaging platform. So it is widely used in low light, high speed and X-ray imaging systems. In the meanwhile, the peculiarity of the coupled structure can meet the needs of the demand in microscopy imaging. Toward this end, we developed a microscopic imaging platform based on the coupling of cellphone camera module and fiber optic taper for the measurement of the human blood samples and ascaris lumbricoides. The platform, weighing 70 grams, is based on the existing camera module of the smartphone and a fiber-optic array which providing a magnification factor of 6x.The top facet of the taper, on which samples are placed, serves as an irregular sampling grid for contact imaging. The magnified images of the sample, located on the bottom facet of the fiber, are then projected onto the CMOS sensor. This paper introduces the portable medical imaging system based on the optical fiber coupling with CMOS, and theoretically analyzes the feasibility of the system. The image data and process results either can be stored on the memory or transmitted to the remote medical institutions for the telemedicine. We validate the performance of this cell-phone based microscopy platform using human blood samples and test target, achieving comparable results to a standard bench-top microscope.

  14. Real-time In-Flight Strain and Deflection Monitoring with Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Dryden's efforts to develop in-flight monitoring based on Fiber Optics. One of the motivating factors for this development was the breakup of the Helios aircraft. On Ikhana the use of fiber optics for wing shape sensing is being developed. They are being used to flight validate fiber optic sensor measurements and real-time wing shape sensing predictions on NASA's Ikhana vehicle; validate fiber optic mathematical models and design tools; Assess technical viability and, if applicable, develop methodology and approach to incorporate wing shape measurements within the vehicle flight control system, and develop and flight validate advanced approaches to perform active wing shape control.

  15. 21 CFR 872.4620 - Fiber optic dental light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiber optic dental light. 872.4620 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4620 Fiber optic dental light. (a) Identification. A fiber optic dental light is a device that is a light, usually AC-powered, that consists of glass or...

  16. 46 CFR 111.60-6 - Fiber optic cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiber optic cable. 111.60-6 Section 111.60-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-6 Fiber optic cable. Each fiber optic cable must— (a) Be...

  17. Femtosecond Laser Structuring in Optical Fiber and Transparent Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Peter R.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond laser processing is optimized for writing optical circuits, optical resonators, and microfluidic devices inside the cladding of single-mode optical fiber that couple efficiently with the fiber core waveguide. The laser processes open new directions towards Labon-a-Fiber.

  18. Fiber optical sensing on-board communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, A.; Lemke, N. M. K.; Roner, M.; Obermaier, J.; Putzer, P.; Kuhenuri Chami, N.

    2017-11-01

    Striving constantly to reduce mass, AIT effort and overall cost of the classical point-to-point wired temperature sensor harness on-board telecommunication satellites, OHB System (formerly Kayser-Threde) has introduced the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system. As a future spacecraft platform element, HSB relies on electrical remote sensor units as well as fiber-optical sensors, both of which can serially be connected in a bus architecture. HSB is a modular measurement system with many applications, also thanks to the opportunities posed by the digital I²C bus. The emphasis, however, is on the introduction of fiber optics and especially fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors as disruptive innovation for the company's satellite platforms. The light weight FBG sensors are directly inscribed in mechanically robust and radiation tolerant fibers, reducing the need for optical fiber connectors and splices to a minimum. Wherever an FBG sensor shall be used, the fiber is glued together with a corresponding temperature transducer to the satellites structure or to a subsystem. The transducer is necessary to provide decoupling of mechanical stress, but simultaneously ensure a high thermal conductivity. HSB has been developed in the frame of an ESA-ARTES program with European and German co-funding and will be verified as flight demonstrator on-board the German Heinrich Hertz satellite (H2Sat). In this paper the Engineering Model development of HSB is presented and a Fiber-optical Sensor Multiplexer for a more flexible sensor bus architecture is introduced. The HSB system aims at telecommunication satellite platforms with an operational life time beyond 15 years in geostationary orbit. It claims a high compatibility in terms of performance and interfaces with existing platforms while it was designed with future applications with increased radiation exposure already in mind. In its basic configuration HSB consists of four modules which are the Power Supply Unit, the HSB

  19. An all-optical fiber optic photoacoustic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thathachary, Supriya V.; Motameni, Cameron; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2018-02-01

    A highly sensitive fiber-optic Fabry-Perot photoacoustic transducer is proposed in this work. The transducer will consist of separate transmit and receive fibers. The receiver will be composed of a Fabry-Perot Ultrasound sensor with a selfwritten waveguide with all-optical ultrasound detection with high sensitivity. In previous work, we have shown an increase in resonator Q-factor from 1900 to 3200 for a simulated Fabry-Perot ultrasound detector of 45 μm thickness upon including a waveguide to limit lateral power losses. Subsequently, we demonstrated a prototype device with 30nm gold mirrors and a cavity composed of the photosensitive polymer Benzocyclobutene. This 80 µm thick device showed an improvement in its Q-factor from 2500 to 5200 after a selfaligned waveguide was written into the cavity using UV exposure. Current work uses a significantly faster fabrication technique using a combination of UV-cured epoxies for the cavity medium, and the waveguide within it. This reduces the fabrication time from several hours to a few minutes, and significantly lowers the cost of fabrication. We use a dip-coating technique to deposit the polymer layer. Future work will include the use of Dielectric Bragg mirrors in place of gold to achieve better reflectivity, thereby further improving the Q-factor of the device. The complete transducer presents an ideal solution for intravascular imaging in cases where tissue differentiation is desirable, an important feature in interventional procedures where arterial perforation is a risk. The final design proposed comprises the transducer within a guidewire to guide interventions for Chronic Total Occlusions, a disease state for which there are currently no invasive imaging options.

  20. Neural networks within multi-core optic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eyal; Malka, Dror; Shemer, Amir; Shahmoon, Asaf; Zalevsky, Zeev; London, Michael

    2016-07-07

    Hardware implementation of artificial neural networks facilitates real-time parallel processing of massive data sets. Optical neural networks offer low-volume 3D connectivity together with large bandwidth and minimal heat production in contrast to electronic implementation. Here, we present a conceptual design for in-fiber optical neural networks. Neurons and synapses are realized as individual silica cores in a multi-core fiber. Optical signals are transferred transversely between cores by means of optical coupling. Pump driven amplification in erbium-doped cores mimics synaptic interactions. We simulated three-layered feed-forward neural networks and explored their capabilities. Simulations suggest that networks can differentiate between given inputs depending on specific configurations of amplification; this implies classification and learning capabilities. Finally, we tested experimentally our basic neuronal elements using fibers, couplers, and amplifiers, and demonstrated that this configuration implements a neuron-like function. Therefore, devices similar to our proposed multi-core fiber could potentially serve as building blocks for future large-scale small-volume optical artificial neural networks.

  1. From space qualified fiber optic gyroscope to generic fiber optic solutions available for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buret, Thomas; Ramecourt, David; Napolitano, Fabien

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this article is to present how the qualification of the Fiber Optic Gyroscope technology from IXSEA has been achieved through the qualification of a large range of optical devices and related manufacturing processes. These qualified optical devices and processes, that are now fully mastered by IXSEA through vertical integration of the technology, can be used for other space optical sensors. The example of the SWARM project will be discussed.

  2. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Olsen, Khris B.

    1992-01-01

    A method of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis and optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis.

  3. Data acquisition remote node powered over the communications optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Antonio J.N.; Sousa, Jorge; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Large nuclear fusion reactors, like ITER, will have harsh electromagnetic environments nearby the machine. Foreseeing the necessity for special data acquisition remote nodes, on difficult access locations and as close as possible to the experimental devices, motivated the system design. The architecture is based on the power-over-fiber technology recent advancements and respective implementation aim is to attain a proof of concept for the fusion technology field and others, e.g., high energy physics, industry, etc. The design intends the replacement of traditional copper cables and power supplies, vulnerable to electromagnetic interference, by the communications optical fiber of the data acquisition remote node. Optical fibers provide galvanic isolation, immunity to noisy electromagnetic environments and simultaneously can supply power to the remote node electronics. System architecture uses a laser power converter (array of photovoltaic cells) to convert the laser light, from the optical fiber, into electricity. The generated electrical power is enough for powering the remote node electronics and optoelectronics, such as an ADC, a low power FPGA and an optical transmitter. The laser power converter is also used as the communications receiver and from which the acquisition clock is recovered, providing synchronism between remote data acquisition nodes. Descriptions of the system architecture, tested implementations and future improvements are presented.

  4. Fiber optic configurations for local area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassehi, M. M.; Tobagi, F. A.; Marhic, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    A number of fiber optic configurations for a new class of demand assignment multiple-access local area networks requiring a physical ordering among stations are proposed. In such networks, the data transmission and linear-ordering functions may be distinguished and be provided by separate data and control subnetworks. The configurations proposed for the data subnetwork are based on the linear, star, and tree topologies. To provide the linear-ordering function, the control subnetwork must always have a linear unidirectional bus structure. Due to the reciprocity and excess loss of optical couplers, the number of stations that can be accommodated on a linear fiber optic bus is severely limited. Two techniques are proposed to overcome this limitation. For each of the data and control subnetwork configurations, the maximum number of stations as a function of the power margin, for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal couplers, is computed.

  5. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  6. Fiber Optic Sensors For Detection of Toxic and Biological Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Yuan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection of public and military personnel from chemical and biological warfareagents is an urgent and growing national security need. Along with this idea, we havedeveloped a novel class of fiber optic chemical sensors, for detection of toxic and biologicalmaterials. The design of these fiber optic sensors is based on a cladding modificationapproach. The original passive cladding of the fiber, in a small section, was removed and thefiber core was coated with a chemical sensitive material. Any change in the opticalproperties of the modified cladding material, due to the presence of a specific chemicalvapor, changes the transmission properties of the fiber and result in modal powerredistribution in multimode fibers. Both total intensity and modal power distribution (MPDmeasurements were used to detect the output power change through the sensing fibers. TheMPD technique measures the power changes in the far field pattern, i.e. spatial intensitymodulation in two dimensions. Conducting polymers, such as polyaniline and polypyrrole,have been reported to undergo a reversible change in conductivity upon exposure tochemical vapors. It is found that the conductivity change is accompanied by optical propertychange in the material. Therefore, polyaniline and polypyrrole were selected as the modifiedcladding material for the detection of hydrochloride (HCl, ammonia (NH3, hydrazine(H4N2, and dimethyl-methl-phosphonate (DMMP {a nerve agent, sarin stimulant},respectively. Several sensors were prepared and successfully tested. The results showeddramatic improvement in the sensor sensitivity, when the MPD method was applied. In thispaper, an overview on the developed class of fiber optic sensors is presented and supportedwith successful achieved results.

  7. Optical-domain Compensation for Coupling between Optical Fiber Conjugate Vortex Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time optical-domain compensation for coupling between conjugate vortex modes in optical fibers. We introduce a novel method for reconstructing the complex propagation matrix of the optical fiber with straightforward implementation.......We demonstrate for the first time optical-domain compensation for coupling between conjugate vortex modes in optical fibers. We introduce a novel method for reconstructing the complex propagation matrix of the optical fiber with straightforward implementation....

  8. Optic Fibers as a Broadcasting Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf QARKAXHIJA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast brodcasting of an information is always a challange from our daily activities. Through fast broadcasting of the information always created pre-eminence in military activities, business, researching, etc. From ancient times we know that information was orally and hand in hand broadcasted which in most of the times casused in loss of information and due to this also in loss of activities which are mentioned above. Due to information technology notably computer networks and internet overtime information started broadcasting faster. Information started broadcasting through copper wires and through wireless. Big applications started to develop with the increased use of Internet, high quality broadcasting (HD, video on demand broadcasting (VoD, triple pay broadcasting (three services on a medium, etc., then these two mediums couldn’t complete all these requests. Therfore after these problems, optic fiber began to be used as a broadcasting medium which eleminated all the defects of other mediums. Importance of this paper work is telling developing stages of optic fiber, it’s characteristics and it’s losses. Then it is shown that which devises enforce the signal of fibers and in the end all three mediums that we mentioned are compared on the basis of attributes. Findings form the paper will only enforce that knowledge we had before about optic fiber, the best broadcasting medium.

  9. Optical fiber strain sensor using fiber resonator based on frequency comb Vernier spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Liang; Lu, Ping; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A novel (to our best knowledge) optical fiber strain sensor using a fiber ring resonator based on frequency comb Vernier spectroscopy is proposed and demonstrated. A passively mode-locked optical fiber laser is employed to generate a phased-locked frequency comb. Strain applied to the optical fib...

  10. Fluoride contamination sensor based on optical fiber grating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Mangesh S.; Laxmeshwar, Lata S.; Akki, Jyoti F.; Raikar, P. U.; Kumar, Jitendra; Prakash, Om; Raikar, U. S.

    2017-11-01

    A number of distinct advantages of the optical fiber technology in the field of sensors and communications which leads to enormous applications. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) developed from the fabrication of photosensitive fiber through phase mask technique is used in the present report. The designed fiber sensor used for the detection and determination of contaminants in drinking water at ppm & ppb level and it is considered as a special type of concentration sensor. The test samples of drinking water have been collected from different regions. In this paper we have calibrated the FBG sensor to detect Flouride concentration in drinking water in the range of 0.05-8 ppm. According to WHO, the normal range of fluoride content in drinking water is about 0.7 ppm to 1.5 ppm. The results for resultant spectral shifts for test samples are closely agree with standard values.

  11. A cryogenic optical feedthrough using polarization maintaining fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M J; Collins, C J; Speake, C C

    2016-03-01

    Polarization maintaining optical fibers can be used to transmit linearly polarized light over long distances but their use in cryogenic environments has been limited by their sensitivity to temperature changes and associated mechanical stress. We investigate experimentally how thermal stresses affect the polarization maintaining fibers and model the observations with Jones matrices. We describe the design, construction, and testing of a feedthrough and fiber termination assembly that uses polarization maintaining fiber to transmit light from a 633 nm HeNe laser at room temperature to a homodyne polarization-based interferometer in a cryogenic vacuum. We report on the efficiency of the polarization maintaining properties of the feedthrough assembly. We also report that, at cryogenic temperatures, the interferometer can achieve a sensitivity of 8 × 10(-10) rad/√Hz at 0.05 Hz using this feedthrough.

  12. Engineering the development of optical fiber sensors for adverse environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    During the last decade, many optical fiber sensors have been developed for particular applications in harsh environments with limited success. Off-the-shelf optical fiber sensors and measurement systems are not available, partly because they have not been engineered to meet tough environmental requirements necessary for applications outside the laboratory. Moreover, no generalized computer-aided tools exist to help advance their development, design, and use. Computer-aided design tools currently being developed are described in this paper. Structural finite element analyses have been coupled with optoelastic analyses of both all-fiber interferometers and serial microbend sensors for distributed measurement of various physical quantities. The combined analyses have been parameterized and implemented on personal computers and work stations for use as design/development tools that can be used to determine the performance of different sensor configurations in various environments. Potentially, these computer-aided tools could be used for failure diagnosis and redesign of existing optical fiber sensors. Performances predicted by the computer simulations are verified with experimental data and numerical analyses from the literature. The long-term goal is to develop user-friendly software packages for both sensor manufacturers and end users

  13. Scalable Optical-Fiber Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Peterson, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Scalable arbitrary fiber extension network (SAFEnet) is conceptual fiber-optic communication network passing digital signals among variety of computers and input/output devices at rates from 200 Mb/s to more than 100 Gb/s. Intended for use with very-high-speed computers and other data-processing and communication systems in which message-passing delays must be kept short. Inherent flexibility makes it possible to match performance of network to computers by optimizing configuration of interconnections. In addition, interconnections made redundant to provide tolerance to faults.

  14. Theoretical Analysis of the Optical Propagation Characteristics in a Fiber-Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Zheng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor is widely used for its high precision and real-time analysis. Fiber-optic SPR sensor is easy for miniaturization, so it is commonly used in the development of portable detection equipment. It can also be used for remote, real-time, and online detection. In this study, a wavelength modulation fiber-optic SPR sensor is designed, and theoretical analysis of optical propagation in the optical fiber is also done. Compared with existing methods, both the transmission of a skew ray and the influence of the chromatic dispersion are discussed. The resonance wavelength is calculated at two different cases, in which the chromatic dispersion in the fiber core is considered. According to the simulation results, a novel multi-channel fiber-optic SPR sensor is likewise designed to avoid defaults aroused by the complicated computation of the skew ray as well as the chromatic dispersion. Avoiding the impact of skew ray can do much to improve the precision of this kind of sensor.

  15. Monitoring techniques for the manufacture of tapered optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Kevin; Correia, Ricardo; Staines, Stephen E; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2015-10-01

    The use of a range of optical techniques to monitor the process of fabricating optical fiber tapers is investigated. Thermal imaging was used to optimize the alignment of the optical system; the transmission spectrum of the fiber was monitored to confirm that the tapers had the required optical properties and the strain induced in the fiber during tapering was monitored using in-line optical fiber Bragg gratings. Tapers were fabricated with diameters down to 5 μm and with waist lengths of 20 mm using single-mode SMF-28 fiber.

  16. Analysis of Plasmonics Based Fiber Optic Sensing Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyed, Hamed

    The work described in this PhD Thesis focuses on the post-processing of optical fibers and their enhancement as sensing element. Since the majority of sensors presented are based in Fabry-Perot interferometers, an historical overview of this category of optical fiber sensors is firstly presented. This review considers the works published since the early years, in the beginning of the 1980s, until the middle of 2015. The incorporation of microcavities at the tip of a single mode fiber was extensively studied, particularly for the measurement of nitrogen and methane gas pressure. These cavities were fabricated using hollow core silica tubes and a hollow core photonic crystal fiber. Following a different approach, the microcavities were incorporated between two sections of single mode fiber. In this case, the low sensitivity to temperature makes these microcavities highly desirable for the measurement of strain at high temperatures. Competences in post-processing techniques such as the chemical etching and the writing of periodical structures in the fiber core by means of an excimer or a femtosecond laser were also acquired in the course of the PhD programme. One of the works consisted in the design and manufacturing of a double clad optical fiber. The refractive index of the inner cladding was higher than the one of the outer cladding and the core. Thus, light was guided in the inner cladding instead of propagating in the core. This situation was overcome by applying chemical etching, thus removing the inner cladding. The core, surrounded by air, was then able to guide light. Two different applications were found for this fiber, as a temperature sensor and as an optical refractometer. In the last, the optical phase changes with the liquid refractive index. Two different types of fiber Bragg gratings were characterized in strain and temperature. Sensing structures obtained through the phase mask technique at the tip of an optical fiber were subjected to chemical

  17. Application-specific specialty microstructured optical fibers for mid-IR and THz photonics (Invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pal, Bishnu P.; Barh, Ajanta; Varshney, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    A review of several of our designed specialty microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) for mid-IR and THz generation and transmission including high power transmission is presented. Extensive results on performance of the designed MOFs are described....

  18. Collapsed optical fiber: A novel method for improving thermoluminescence response of optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdiraji, G. Amouzad, E-mail: ghafour@um.edu.my [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Adikan, F.R. Mahamd [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    A new technique is shown to provide improved thermoluminescence (TL) response from optical fibers, based on collapsing down hollow capillary optical fibers (COF) into flat fibers (FF), producing fused inner walls and consequent defects generation. Four different fused silica preform tubes are used to fabricate in-house COFs and FFs, i.e., ultra-pure (F300), relatively pure silica (PS), germanium-doped (Ge), and Ge–Boron-doped (GeB). The optical fibers are then subjected to 6 MeV electron irradiation. While the results show similar TL response from F300-COF and -FF, the TL response of PS-COF is improved by a factor of 6 by collapsing it down to a FF. By doping Ge into the F300 tube, the TL response of the resultant Ge-COF shows an improvement of 3 times over that of F300-COF, while an improvement of a factor of 12 is obtained by producing a Ge-FF. In GeB preform, by collapsing the capillary fiber into a FF, an improvement in TL response of 31 times that of GeB-COF is obtained. TL glow curve analysis shows an additional peak to be generated in the FFs compared to that observed in the COFs. The TL intensity value of the new peak is significantly increased in the doped FFs compared to the undoped FFs. The results suggest that defects generation occurs as a result of the fusing/collapsing technique, providing a TL response from the optical fibers that can substantially improve upon that of existing TL system sensitivities. - Highlights: • A new method for increasing TL response of optical fiber is presented. • By collapsing capillary fiber wall surface, TL response of the fiber increased. • By adding impurity in the collapsing area, TL response significantly improved.

  19. Processing of optical combs with fiber optic parametric amplifiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Radan; Kakande, J.; Richardson, D.J.; Petropoulos, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 9 (2012), s. 10059-10070 ISSN 1094-4087 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber -optic parametric amplifier * Phase sensitive * Spectral coverage Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.546, year: 2012

  20. Fiber optic sensors IV; Proceedings of the Third European Congress on Optics, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 13, 14, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Ralf T. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber-optic sensor (FOS) technology are examined in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to components for FOSs, special fibers for FOSs, interferometry, FOS applications, and sensing principles and influence. Particular attention is given to solder glass sealing technology for FOS packaging, the design of optical-fiber current sensors, pressure and temperature effects on beat length in highly birefringent optical fibers, a pressure FOS based on vibrating-quartz-crystal technology, remote sensing of flammable gases using a fluoride-fiber evanescent probe, a displacement sensor with electronically scanned white-light interferometer, the use of multimode laser diodes in low-coherence coupled-cavity interferometry, electronic speckle interferometry compensated for environmentally induced phase noise, a dual-resolution noncontact vibration and displacement sensor based on a two-wavelength source, and fiber optics in composite materials.

  1. Recent progress in distributed optical fiber Raman photon sensors at China Jiliang University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Yi; Gong, Huaping; Yu, Xiangdong; Liu, Honglin; Jin, Yongxing; Kang, Juan; Li, Chenxia; Zhang, Wensheng; Zhang, Wenping; Niu, Xiaohui; Sun, Zhongzhou; Zhao, Chunliu; Dong, Xinyong; Jin, Shangzhong

    2012-06-01

    A brief review of recent progress in researches, productions and applications of full distributed fiber Raman photon sensors at China Jiliang University (CJLU) is presented. In order to improve the measurement distance, the accuracy, the space resolution, the ability of multi-parameter measurements, and the intelligence of full distributed fiber sensor systems, a new generation fiber sensor technology based on the optical fiber nonlinear scattering fusion principle is proposed. A series of new generation full distributed fiber sensors are investigated and designed, which consist of new generation ultra-long distance full distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh scattering photon sensors integrated with a fiber Raman amplifier, auto-correction full distributed fiber Raman photon temperature sensors based on Raman correlation dual sources, full distributed fiber Raman photon temperature sensors based on a pulse coding source, full distributed fiber Raman photon temperature sensors using a fiber Raman wavelength shifter, a new type of Brillouin optical time domain analyzers (BOTDAs) integrated with a fiber Raman amplifier for replacing a fiber Brillouin amplifier, full distributed fiber Raman and Brillouin photon sensors integrated with a fiber Raman amplifier, and full distributed fiber Brillouin photon sensors integrated with a fiber Brillouin frequency shifter. The Internet of things is believed as one of candidates of the next technological revolution, which has driven hundreds of millions of class markets. Sensor networks are important components of the Internet of things. The full distributed optical fiber sensor network (Rayleigh, Raman, and Brillouin scattering) is a 3S (smart materials, smart structure, and smart skill) system, which is easy to construct smart fiber sensor networks. The distributed optical fiber sensor can be embedded in the power grids, railways, bridges, tunnels, roads, constructions, water supply systems, dams, oil and gas pipelines and other

  2. Fiber-optic dosimeters for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Enbang; Archer, James

    2017-10-01

    According to the figures provided by the World Health Organization, cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 8.8 million deaths in 2015. Radiation therapy, which uses x-rays to destroy or injure cancer cells, has become one of the most important modalities to treat the primary cancer or advanced cancer. The newly developed microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), which uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of x-ray microbeams (typically 50 μm wide and separated by 400 μm) produced by synchrotron sources, represents a new paradigm in radiotherapy and has shown great promise in pre-clinical studies on different animal models. Measurements of the absorbed dose distribution of microbeams are vitally important for clinical acceptance of MRT and for developing quality assurance systems for MRT, hence are a challenging and important task for radiation dosimetry. On the other hand, during the traditional LINAC based radiotherapy and breast cancer brachytherapy, skin dose measurements and treatment planning also require a high spatial resolution, tissue equivalent, on-line dosimeter that is both economical and highly reliable. Such a dosimeter currently does not exist and remains a challenge in the development of radiation dosimetry. High resolution, water equivalent, optical and passive x-ray dosimeters have been developed and constructed by using plastic scintillators and optical fibers. The dosimeters have peak edge-on spatial resolutions ranging from 50 to 500 microns in one dimension, with a 10 micron resolution dosimeter under development. The developed fiber-optic dosimeters have been test with both LINAC and synchrotron x-ray beams. This work demonstrates that water-equivalent and high spatial resolution radiation detection can be achieved with scintillators and optical fiber systems. Among other advantages, the developed fiber-optic probes are also passive, energy independent, and radiation hard.

  3. Shipboard Smoke Detection with Optical Fiber Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitesel, Henry

    1994-01-01

    ...) and scattering across an air gap. Utilizing spectrographic techniques and dual detector designs potentially compensates for optical power changes, ambient light changes, dirt coatings, and water coatings...

  4. Contributed Review: A review of the investigation of rare-earth dopant profiles in optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidiroglou, F.; Baxter, G. [Optical Technology Research Laboratory, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, P.O. Box 14428, Melbourne, VIC 8001 (Australia); Roberts, A. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Rare-earth doped optical fibers have captivated the interest of many researchers around the world across the past three decades. The growth of this research field has been stimulated primarily through their application in optical communications as fiber lasers and amplifiers, although rare-earth doped optical fiber based devices are now finding important uses in many other scientific and industrial areas (for example, medicine, sensing, the military, and material processing). Such wide commercial interest has provided a strong incentive for innovative fiber designs, alternative glass compositions, and novel fabrication processes. A prerequisite for the ongoing progress of this research field is developing the capacity to provide high resolution information about the rare-earth dopant distribution profiles within the optical fibers. This paper constitutes a comprehensive review of the imaging techniques that have been utilized in the analysis of the distribution of the rare-earth ion erbium within the core of optical fibers.

  5. Frequency-Shifted Interferometry — A Versatile Fiber-Optic Sensing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-optic sensing is a field that is developing at a fast pace. Novel fiber-optic sensor designs and sensing principles constantly open doors for new opportunities. In this paper, we review a fiber-optic sensing technique developed in our research group called frequency-shifted interferometry (FSI. This technique uses a continuous-wave light source, an optical frequency shifter, and a slow detector. We discuss the operation principles of several FSI implementations and show their applications in fiber length and dispersion measurement, locating weak reflections along a fiber link, fiber-optic sensor multiplexing, and high-sensitivity cavity ring-down measurement. Detailed analysis of FSI system parameters is also presented.

  6. Neptunium detector using fiber-optic light guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, W.A.; Killeen, T.E.; Herold, T.R.

    1981-01-01

    A colorimeter has been constructed and installed to detect neptunium (IV) on-line as it elutes from an ion exchange column in a plant process stream. Because of the high radiation and corrosive atmosphere at the monitoring location, the instrument was designed using remote electronics and glass fiber optic cables. The five-foot cables transmit pulsed white light into a glass monitoring window in a containment box and return the transmitted portion to a photosensor. A simple spring clamp was designed to couple the cables to the monitoring window without modifying existing processes. Details of the design, installation, and operational problems are discussed. Other applications and modifications of the present colorimeter for other actinides, as well as preliminary results on a fiber optic spectrophotometer, are presented

  7. Fiber optic systems for colorimetry and scattered colorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; Ciaccheri, Leonardo

    2005-09-01

    An innovative series of optical fiber sensors based on spectroscopic interrogation is presented. The sensors are custom-designed for a wide range of applications, including gasoline colorimetry, chromium monitoring of sewage, museum lighting control, for use with a platform for interrogating an array of absorption-based chemical sensors, as well as for color and turbidity measurements. Two types of custom-design instrumentation have been developed, both making use of LED light sources and a low-cost optical fiber spectrometer to perform broadband spectral measurements in the visible spectral range. The first was designed especially to address color-based sensors, while the second assessed the combined color and turbidity of edible liquids such as olive oil. Both are potentially exploitable in other industrial and environmental applications.

  8. Irradiation of fiber optics in the SSC tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, C.E.

    1990-03-01

    The salient question is not whether optical fiber will survive in the Super Conducting Supercollider (SSC) tunnel, but rather how long will it survive. Current estimates indicate that single mode fiber under ideal conditions will have an expected lifetime of at least 25 years. Future development of optical fiber will lead to longer service lifetimes and increased radiation hardness. But conservatively speaking, current production optical fibers can probably not be depended upon for more than 25 years of service even under ideal conditions

  9. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fiber optic monitoring of composites during cure in an autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druy, Mark A.; Elandjian, Lucy; Stevenson, William A.; Driver, Richard D.; Leskowitz, Garett M.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time in situ monitoring of the chemical states of epoxy resins was investigated during cure in an autoclave using infrared evanescent spectroscopy. Fiber evanescent sensors were developed which may be sandwiched between the plies of the prepreg sample. A short length of sapphire fiber was used as the sensor cell portion of the fiber probe. Heavy metal fluoride glass optical fiber cables were designed for connecting the FTIR spectrometer to the sensor fiber within the autoclave. The sapphire fibers have outstanding mechanical thermal properties which should permit their use as an embedded link in all thermoset composites. The system is capable of operation at a temperature of 250 C for periods up to 8 hours without major changes to the fiber transmission. A discussion of the selection of suitable sensor fibers, the construction of a fiber-optic interface, and the interpretation of in situ infrared spectra of the curing process is presented.

  10. Brillouin lasing in single-mode tapered optical fiber with inscribed fiber Bragg grating array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Popov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A tapered optical fiber has been manufactured with an array of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG inscribed during the drawing process. The total fiber peak reflectivity is 5% and the reflection bandwidth is ∼3.5 nm. A coherent frequency domain reflectometry has been applied for precise profiling of the fiber core diameter and grating reflectivity both distributed along the whole fiber length. These measurements are in a good agreement with the specific features of Brillouin lasing achieved in the semi-open fiber cavity configuration. Keywords: Tapered optical fibers, Fiber Bragg gratings, Random lasers

  11. Erbium-doped fiber ring resonator for resonant fiber optical gyro applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunming; Zhao, Rui; Tang, Jun; Xia, Meijing; Guo, Huiting; Xie, Chengfeng; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jun

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports a fiber ring resonator with erbium-doped fiber (EDF) for resonant fiber optical gyro (RFOG). To analyze compensation mechanism of the EDF on resonator, a mathematical model of the erbium-doped fiber ring resonator (EDFRR) is established based on Jones matrix to be followed by the design and fabrication of a tunable EDFRR. The performances of the fabricated EDFRR were measured and the experimental Q-factor of 2 . 47 × 108 and resonant depth of 109% were acquired separately. Compared with the resonator without the EDF, the resonant depth and Q-factor of the proposed device are increased by 2.5 times and 14 times, respectively. A potential optimum shot noise limited resolution of 0 . 042∘ / h can be obtained for the RFOG, which is promising for low-cost and high precise detection.

  12. In-line optical fiber metallic mirror reflector for monolithic common path optical coherence tomography probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwarpal; Reddy, Rohith; Sharma, Gargi; Verma, Yogesh; Gardecki, Joseph A; Tearney, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    Endoscopic optical coherence tomography probes suffer from various artifacts due to dispersion imbalance and polarization mismatch between reference and sample arm light. Such artifacts can be minimized using a common path approach. In this work, we demonstrate a miniaturized common path probe for optical coherence tomography using an inline fiber mirror. A common path optical fiber probe suitable for performing high-resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging was developed. To achieve common path functionality, an inline fiber mirror was fabricated using a thin gold layer. A commercially available swept source engine was used to test the designed probe in a cadaver human coronary artery ex vivo. We achieved a sensitivity of 104 dB for this probe using a swept source optical coherence tomography system. To test the probe, images of a cadaver human coronary artery were obtained, demonstrating the quality that is comparable to those obtained by OCT systems with separate reference arms. Additionally, we demonstrate recovery of ranging depth by use of a Michelson interferometer in the detection path. We developed a miniaturized monolithic inline fiber mirror-based common path probe for optical coherence tomography. Owing to its simplicity, our design will be helpful in endoscopic applications that require high-resolution probes in a compact form factor while reducing system complexity. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:230-235, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Optical Fibers in Nuclear Reactor Radiation Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    1992-01-01

    A performance evaluation of fiber optics under radiation conditions similar to those encountered in nuclear power plants is reported. The evaluation was accomplished by the creation of an analytical model for atomic scale radiation damage in silica glass and by the execution of an extensive fiber performance measurement program. The analytic model calculates displacement and electronic damage rates for silica glass subjected to a specified nuclear reactor radiation environment. It accomplishes this by first generating the primary charged particle spectrum produced in silica irradiated in a nuclear reactor. The resultant spectra are then applied to the integral equations describing radiation damage in polyatomic solids. The experimental measurements were selected to span the range of fiber types, radiation environments, temperatures, and light powers expected to be used in nuclear power plants. The basic experimental protocol was to expose the optical fibers to either a nuclear reactor or a ^{60}Co radiation environment while simultaneously monitoring fiber light transmission. Experimental temperatures were either ~23 ^circC or ~100 ^circC and light powers were either -30 dBm or -60 dBm. Measurements were made at each of the three standard communications wavelengths (850 nm, 1300 nm, and 1550 nm). Several conclusions are made based on these performance measurements. First, even near the core of a nuclear reactor the vast majority of the dose to silica glass is due to gamma rays. Even with the much lower doses (factor of roughly 40) neutrons cause much more displacement damage than gamma rays (35 times the oxygen displacement rate and 500 times the silicon displacement rate). Even with neutrons having many times the displacement rate as compared with gamma rays, little if any difference is observed in the transmission losses for gamma only as compared to mixed neutron/gamma transmission losses. Therefore, atomic displacement is not a significant damage mechanism for

  14. Direct writing of fiber optic components in photonic crystal fibers and other specialty fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luis Andre; Sezerman, Omur; Best, Garland; Ng, Mi Li; Kane, Saidou

    2016-04-01

    Femtosecond direct laser writing has recently shown great potential for the fabrication of complex integrated devices in the cladding of optical fibers. Such devices have the advantage of requiring no bulk optical components and no breaks in the fiber path, thus reducing the need for complicated alignment, eliminating contamination, and increasing stability. This technology has already found applications using combinations of Bragg gratings, interferometers, and couplers for the fabrication of optical filters, sensors, and power monitors. The femtosecond laser writing method produces a local modification of refractive index through non-linear absorption of the ultrafast laser pulses inside the dielectric material of both the core and cladding of the fiber. However, fiber geometries that incorporate air or hollow structures, such as photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), still present a challenge since the index modification regions created by the writing process cannot be generated in the hollow regions of the fiber. In this work, the femtosecond laser method is used together with a pre-modification method that consists of partially collapsing the hollow holes using an electrical arc discharge. The partial collapse of the photonic band gap structure provides a path for femtosecond laser written waveguides to couple light from the core to the edge of the fiber for in-line power monitoring. This novel approach is expected to have applications in other specialty fibers such as suspended core fibers and can open the way for the integration of complex devices and facilitate miniaturization of optical circuits to take advantage of the particular characteristics of the PCFs.

  15. Reconfigurable optical interconnection network for multimode optical fiber sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. T.; Robinson, D.; Lu, H.; Wang, M. R.; Jannson, T.; Baumbick, R.

    1992-01-01

    A single-source, single-detector architecture has been developed to implement a reconfigurable optical interconnection network multimode optical fiber sensor arrays. The network was realized by integrating LiNbO3 electrooptic (EO) gratings working at the Raman Na regime and a massive fan-out waveguide hologram (WH) working at the Bragg regime onto a multimode glass waveguide. The glass waveguide utilized the whole substrate as a guiding medium. A 1-to-59 massive waveguide fan-out was demonstrated using a WH operating at 514 nm. Measured diffraction efficiency of 59 percent was experimentally confirmed. Reconfigurability of the interconnection was carried out by generating an EO grating through an externally applied electric field. Unlike conventional single-mode integrated optical devices, the guided mode demonstrated has an azimuthal symmetry in mode profile which is the same as that of a fiber mode.

  16. Analog data transmission via fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros, E.L.; Burgueno, G.F.

    1986-10-01

    In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particulary susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission

  17. Analog data transmission via fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros, E.L.; Burgueno, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particularly susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission

  18. Active Star Architectures For Fiber Optics Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Yoseph L.

    1988-12-01

    Ethernet, and the closely related IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD standard (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection), is probably the widest used method for high speed Local Area Networks (LANs). The original Ethernet medium was baseband coax but the wide acceptance of the system necessitated the ability to use Ethernet on a variety of media. So far the use of Ethernet on Thin Coax (CheaperNet), Twisted Pair (StarLan) and Broadband Coax has been standardized. Recently, an increased interest in Fiber Optic based LANs resulted in a formation of an IEEE group whose charter is to recommend approaches for Active and Passive Fiber Optic Ethernet systems. The various approaches which are being considered are described in this paper with an emphasis on Active Star based systems.

  19. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Moore, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    A recently developed technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in composite materials by performing temperature measurements with fiber optic Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of composites with subsurface defects. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The data obtained from grating sensors were analyzed with thermal modeling techniques of conventional thermography to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. Results were compared with the calculations using numerical simulation techniques. Methods and limitations for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  20. Fiber Optic Thermal Detection of Composite Delaminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.

    2011-01-01

    A recently developed technique is presented for thermographic detection of delaminations in composites by performing temperature measurements with fiber optic Bragg gratings. A single optical fiber with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors was bonded to the surface of a composite with subsurface defects. The investigated structure was a 10-ply composite specimen with prefabricated delaminations of various sizes and depths. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The data obtained from grating sensors were analyzed with thermal modeling techniques of conventional thermography to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. Results were compared and found to be consistent with the calculations using numerical simulation techniques. Also discussed are methods including various heating sources and patterns, and their limitations for performing in-situ structural health monitoring.

  1. The CEBAF fiber optic phase reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, K.; Simrock, S.; Hovater, C.; Krycuk, A.

    1995-01-01

    The specified phase stability of the CEBAF RF distribution system is 2.9 degree rms per linac. Stability is achieved through the use of a temperature and pressure regulated coaxial drive line. Purpose of the fiber optic phase reference system is to monitor the relative phase at the beginning and ending of this drive line, between linacs, injector and separator to determine drift due to ambient temperature fluctuations. The system utilizes an Ortel 1310 nm single mode laser driving Sumitumo optical fiber to distribute a reference signal at 1497 MHz. Phase of this reference signal is compared to the 1427 MHz (LO) and the 70 MHz (IF) via a 360 degree phase detector. The detected information is then routed to the CEBAF control system for display with a specified resolution of ±0.2 degree over a 20 degree phase delta

  2. A fiber optic synchronization system for LUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.; Staples, J.W.; Doolittle, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    The LUX femtosecond light source concept would support pump-probe experiments that need to synchronize laser light pulses with electron-beam-generated X-ray pulses to less than 50 fs at the experimenter endstations. To synchronize multiple endstation lasers with the X-ray pulse, we are developing a fiber-distributed optical timing network. A high frequency clock signal is distributed via fiber to RF cavities (controlling X-ray probe pulse timing) and mode-locked lasers at endstations (controlling pump pulse timing). The superconducting cavities are actively locked to the optical clock phase. Most of the RF timing error is contained within a 10 kHz bandwidth, so these errors and any others affecting X-ray pulse timing (such as RF gun phase) can be detected and transmitted digitally to correct laser timing at the endstations. Time delay through the fibers will be stabilized by comparing a retro-reflected pulse from the experimenter endstation end with a reference pulse from the sending en d, and actively controlling the fiber length

  3. Chemical tapering of polymer optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Affa Rozana Abdul; Afiqah Nasution, Amna; Hanim Suranin, Aisyah; Athirah Taib, Nur; Maisarah Mukhtar, Wan; Dasuki, Karsono Ahmad; Annuar Ehsan, Abang

    2017-11-01

    Polymer optical fibers (POFs) have significant advantages over numerous sensing applications. The key element in developing sensor is by removing the cladding of the fiber. The use of organic solvent is one of the methods to create tapered POF in order to expose the core region. In this study, the etching chemicals involved is acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and acetone-methanol mixture. The POF is immersed in 100%, 80%, and 50% of acetone and MIBK dilution. In addition, the mixture of acetone and methanol is also used for POF etching by the ratio 2:1 of the volume. Acetone has shown to be the most reactive solvent towards POF due to its fastest etching rate compared to MIBK and acetone-methanol mixture. The POF is immersed and lifted from the solution for a specific time, depending on the power loss properties for the purpose of producing unclad POF. In comparison to silica fiber optic, the advantages of POF in terms of its simple technique and easy handling enable it to produce unclad POF without damaging the core region. The surface roughness of the POF is investigated under the microscope after being immersed into different solvent. This method of chemical tapering of POF can be used as the fundamental technique for sensor development. Next, the unclad fiber is immersed into ethanol solutions in order to determine the reaction of unclad POF towards its surrounding. The findings show that this particular sensor is sensitive towards concentration changes ranging between 10 wt% to 50 wt%.

  4. Refractive index retrieving of polarization maintaining optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, W. A.; Wahba, H. H.; Shams El-Din, M. A.; Abd El-Sadek, I. G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the cross-section images, of two different types of polarization maintaining (PM) optical fibers, are employed to estimate the optical phase variation due to transverse optical rays passing through these optical fibers. An adaptive algorithm is proposed to recognize the different areas constituting the PM optical fibers cross-sections. These areas are scanned by a transverse beam to calculate the optical paths for given values of refractive indices. Consequently, the optical phases across the PM optical fibers could be recovered. PM optical fiber is immersed in a matching fluid and set in the object arm of Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The produced interferograms are analyzed to extract the optical phases caused by the PM optical fibers. The estimated optical phases could be optimized to be in good coincidence with experimentally extracted ones. This has been achieved through changing of the PM optical fibers refractive indices to retrieve the correct values. The correct refractive indices values are confirmed by getting the best fit between the estimated and the extracted optical phases. The presented approach is a promising one because it provides a quite direct and accurate information about refractive index, birefringence and beat length of PM optical fibers comparing with different techniques handle the same task.

  5. Fiber optical assembly for fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, II, Robert W.; Rubenstein, Richard; Piltch, Martin; Gray, Perry

    2010-12-07

    A system for analyzing a sample for the presence of an analyte in a sample. The system includes a sample holder for containing the sample; an excitation source, such as a laser, and at least one linear array radially disposed about the sample holder. Radiation from the excitation source is directed to the sample, and the radiation induces fluorescent light in the sample. Each linear array includes a plurality of fused silica optical fibers that receive the fluorescent light and transmits a fluorescent light signal from the first end to an optical end port of the linear array. An end port assembly having a photo-detector is optically coupled to the optical end port. The photo-detector detects the fluorescent light signal and converts the fluorescent light signal into an electrical signal.

  6. A Special Fiber Optic Sensor for Measuring Wheel Loads of Vehicles on Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman W. Garrick

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from an investigation on a special optical fiber as a load sensor for application in Weigh-in-Motion (WIM systems to measure wheel loads of vehicles traveling at normal speed on highways. The fiber used has a unique design with two concentric light guiding regions of different effective optical path lengths, which has the potential to enable direct measurement of magnitudes as well as locations of forces acting at multiple points along a single fiber. The optical characteristic of the fiber for intended sensing purpose was first assessed by a simple fiber bending experiment and by correlating the bend radii with the output light signal intensities. A simple laboratory load transmitting/fiber bending device was then designed and fabricated to appropriately bend the optical fiber under applied loads in order to make the fiber work as load sensor. The device with the optical fiber was tested under a universal loading machine and an actual vehicle wheel in the laboratory. The test results showed a good relationship between the magnitude of the applied load and the output optical signal changes. The results also showed a good correlation between the time delay between the inner and outer core light pulses and the distance of the applied load as measured from the output end of the fiber.

  7. Leakage-free, guidance of light in hollow core optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. Despite their tremendous success optical fibers of today are limited by the laws of total internal reflection. During the past five years, however, it has become increasingly evident, that a new operational principle of optical fibers is possible, namely guidance due to p...... design of the analyzed fiber is depicted. The central air hole corresponds to the core of the fiber, while the surrounding periodic air/silica region is the cladding structure. The fiber is assumed invariant in the longitudinal direction....

  8. Fiber optic gyroscopes for vehicle navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Tatsuya; Soekawa, Hirokazu; Yuhara, Toshiya; Kajioka, Hiroshi; Oho, Shigeru; Sonobe, Hisao

    1994-03-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes (FOGs) have been developed for vehicle navigation systems and are used in Toyota Motor Corporation models Mark II, Chaser and Cresta in Japan. Use of FOGs in these systems requires high reliability under a wide range of conditions, especially in a temperature range between -40 and 85 degree(s)C. In addition, a high cost-performance ratio is needed. We have developed optical and electrical systems that are inexpensive and can perform well. They are ready to be mass-produced. FOGs have already been installed in luxury automobiles, and will soon be included in more basic vehicles. We have developed more inexpensive FOGs for this purpose.

  9. Optical fiber telecommunications systems and networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E

    2013-01-01

    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  10. Optical fiber telecommunications components and subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E

    2013-01-01

    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  11. Fiber optics in high dose radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the behavior of state-of-the-art optical fiber waveguides in high dose (greater than or equal to 10 5 rad), steady state radiation fields is presented. The influence on radiation-induced transmission loss due to experimental parameters such as dose rate, total dose, irradiation history, temperature, wavelength, and light intensity, for future work in high dose environments are given

  12. Evaluation of fiber-optic connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Two fiber optic connectors for field use in high efficiency, long distance systems are described and evaluated in this report. The transmission testing arrangement and other considerations are included with the test results. Techniques for optimizing the transmission through these connectors are also described and the results are reported. Many desirable characteristics of connectors for field use are considered and compared to the ITT and Amphenol connectors tested here

  13. Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, Stanton L.

    2009-01-01

    A novel scintillating optical fiber is presented using a composite micro-structured quartz optical fiber. Scintillating materials are introduced into the multiple inclusions of the fiber. This creates a composite optical fiber having quartz as a cladding with an organic scintillating material core. X-ray detection using these fibers is compared to a collimated cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. Results show a good correlation between the fiber count rate trend and that of the CdTe detector.

  14. Hybrid Piezoelectric/Fiber-Optic Sensor Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mark; Qing, Xinlin

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber-optic (HyPFO) sensor sheets are undergoing development. They are intended for use in nondestructive evaluation and long-term monitoring of the integrity of diverse structures, including aerospace, aeronautical, automotive, and large stationary ones. It is anticipated that the further development and subsequent commercialization of the HyPFO sensor systems will lead to economic benefits in the form of increased safety, reduction of life-cycle costs through real-time structural monitoring, increased structural reliability, reduction of maintenance costs, and increased readiness for service. The concept of a HyPFO sensor sheet is a generalization of the concept of a SMART Layer(TradeMark), which is a patented device that comprises a thin dielectric film containing an embedded network of distributed piezoelectric actuator/sensors. Such a device can be mounted on the surface of a metallic structure or embedded inside a composite-material structure during fabrication of the structure. There is has been substantial interest in incorporating sensors other than piezoelectric ones into SMART Layer(TradeMark) networks: in particular, because of the popularity of the use of fiber-optic sensors for monitoring the "health" of structures in recent years, it was decided to incorporate fiber-optic sensors, giving rise to the concept of HyPFO devices.

  15. Optical microscope and tapered fiber coupling apparatus for a dilution refrigerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A J R; Popowich, G G; Hauer, B D; Kim, P H; Fredrick, A; Rojas, X; Doolin, P; Davis, J P

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a system for tapered fiber measurements of optomechanical resonators inside a dilution refrigerator, which is compatible with both on- and off-chip devices. Our apparatus features full three-dimensional control of the taper-resonator coupling conditions enabling critical coupling, with an overall fiber transmission efficiency of up to 70%. Notably, our design incorporates an optical microscope system consisting of a coherent bundle of 37,000 optical fibers for real-time imaging of the experiment at a resolution of ∼1 μm. We present cryogenic optical and optomechanical measurements of resonators coupled to tapered fibers at temperatures as low as 9 mK.

  16. Information transmission via fiber optics in the shiva laser control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fiber Optic Serial Link package performs the functions of transmission and reception of signals over a pair of fiber optic cables and the I/O of serial data to a local device in EIA format. Present sysems requirements include fiber cable transmission length of up to 150 m and baud rates up to 9600, although the design criterium of transmission at 19.2 KB has been met. Fiber optic links are used between the central control area and each of the alignment control subsystems, in addition to sending timing signals over long distances between subsystems

  17. Fiber-optic coupling based on nonimaging expanded-beam optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, B; Ng, J; Kasimoff, I; Jannson, T

    1989-12-01

    We have fabricated and experimentally tested low-cost and mass-producible multimode fiber-optic couplers and connectors based on nonimaging beam-expanding optics and Liouville's theorem. Analysis indicates that a pair coupling loss of -0.25 dB can be achieved. Experimentally, we measured insertion losses as low as -0.38 dB. The beam expanders can be mass produced owing to the use of plastic injection-molding fabrication techniques and packaged in standard connector housings. This design is compatible with the fiber geometry and can yield highly stable coupling owing to its high tolerance for misalignments.

  18. Seismic damage identification for steel structures using distributed fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shuang; Cai, C S; Ou, Jinping

    2009-08-01

    A distributed fiber optic monitoring methodology based on optic time domain reflectometry technology is developed for seismic damage identification of steel structures. Epoxy with a strength closely associated to a specified structure damage state is used for bonding zigzagged configured optic fibers on the surfaces of the structure. Sensing the local deformation of the structure, the epoxy modulates the signal change within the optic fiber in response to the damage state of the structure. A monotonic loading test is conducted on a steel specimen installed with the proposed sensing system using selected epoxy that will crack at the designated strain level, which indicates the damage of the steel structure. Then, using the selected epoxy, a varying degree of cyclic loading amplitudes, which is associated with different damage states, is applied on a second specimen. The test results show that the specimen's damage can be identified by the optic sensors, and its maximum local deformation can be recorded by the sensing system; moreover, the damage evolution can also be identified.

  19. Characterization of Scintillating X-ray Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporea, Dan; Mihai, Laura; Vâţă, Ion; McCarthy, Denis; O'Keeffe, Sinead; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a set of tests carried out in order to evaluate the design characteristics and the operating performance of a set of six X-ray extrinsic optical fiber sensors. The extrinsic sensor we developed is intended to be used as a low energy X-ray detector for monitoring radiation levels in radiotherapy, industrial applications and for personnel dosimetry. The reproducibility of the manufacturing process and the characteristics of the sensors were assessed. The sensors dynamic range, linearity, sensitivity, and reproducibility are evaluated through radioluminescence measurements, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray imaging investigations. Their response to the operating conditions of the excitation source was estimated. The effect of the sensors design and implementation, on the collecting efficiency of the radioluminescence signal was measured. The study indicated that the sensors are efficient only in the first 5 mm of the tip, and that a reflective coating can improve their response. Additional tests were done to investigate the concentricity of the sensors tip against the core of the optical fiber guiding the optical signal. The influence of the active material concentration on the sensor response to X-ray was studied. The tests were carried out by measuring the radioluminescence signal with an optical fiber spectrometer and with a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter. PMID:24556676

  20. Liquid crystalline fiber optic colorimeter for hydrostatic pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Tomasz R.; Bajdecki, Waldemar K.; Domanski, Andrzej W.; Karpierz, Miroslaw A.; Konopka, Witold; Nasilowski, T.; Sierakowski, Marek W.; Swillo, Marcin; Dabrowski, Roman S.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, Edward; Wasowski, Janusz

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents results of tests performed on a fiber optic system of liquid crystalline transducer for hydrostatic pressure monitoring based on properties of colorimetry. The system employs pressure-induced deformations occurring in liquid crystalline (LC) cells configured in a homogeneous Frederiks geometry. The sensor is compared of a round LC cell placed inside a specially designed pressure chamber. As a light source we used a typical diode operating at red wavelength and modulated using standard techniques. The pressure transducer was connected to a computer with a specially designed interface built on the bas of advanced ADAM modules. Results indicate that the system offers high response to pressure with reduced temperature sensitivity and, depending on the LC cell used, can be adjusted for monitoring of low hydrostatic pressures up to 6 MPa. These studies have demonstrated the feasibility of fiber optic liquid crystal colorimeter for hydrostatic pressure sensing specially dedicated to pipe- lines, mining instrumentation, and process-control technologies.

  1. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  2. Hollow-core optical fiber incorporating a metamaterial cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An optical fiber (100, 200, 300) for guidance of electromagnetic radiation with an operational wavelength l, the fiber (100, 200, 300) having a longitudinal direction along a longitudinal axis and a transverse direction in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, the fiber (100, 200, 300...... further relates to a method relating to and the use of the inventive fiber....

  3. Micromachining structured optical fibers using focused ion beam milling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martelli, C.; Olivero, P.; Canning, J.; Groothoff, N.; Gibson, B.; Huntington, S.

    2007-01-01

    A focused ion beam is used to mill side holes in air-silica structured fibers. By way of example, side holes are introduced in two types of air-structured fiber, (1) a photonic crystal four-ring fiber and (2) a six-hole single-ring step-index structured fiber. © 2007 Optical Society of America.

  4. Fiber optic micro sensor for the measurement of tendon forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrmann Gregory P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fiber optic sensor developed for the measurement of tendon forces was designed, numerically modeled, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated. The sensor incorporated fiber Bragg gratings and micro-fabricated stainless steel housings. A fiber Bragg grating is an optical device that is spectrally sensitive to axial strain. Stainless steel housings were designed to convert radial forces applied to the housing into axial forces that could be sensed by the fiber Bragg grating. The metal housings were fabricated by several methods including laser micromachining, swaging, and hydroforming. Designs are presented that allow for simultaneous temperature and force measurements as well as for simultaneous resolution of multi-axis forces. The sensor was experimentally evaluated by hydrostatic loading and in vitro testing. A commercial hydraulic burst tester was used to provide uniform pressures on the sensor in order to establish the linearity, repeatability, and accuracy characteristics of the sensor. The in vitro experiments were performed in excised tendon and in a dynamic gait simulator to simulate biological conditions. In both experimental conditions, the sensor was found to be a sensitive and reliable method for acquiring minimally invasive measurements of soft tissue forces. Our results suggest that this sensor will prove useful in a variety of biomechanical measurements.

  5. Fiber optic micro sensor for the measurement of tendon forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Gregory P; Hidler, Joseph; Mirotznik, Mark S

    2012-10-03

    A fiber optic sensor developed for the measurement of tendon forces was designed, numerically modeled, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated. The sensor incorporated fiber Bragg gratings and micro-fabricated stainless steel housings. A fiber Bragg grating is an optical device that is spectrally sensitive to axial strain. Stainless steel housings were designed to convert radial forces applied to the housing into axial forces that could be sensed by the fiber Bragg grating. The metal housings were fabricated by several methods including laser micromachining, swaging, and hydroforming. Designs are presented that allow for simultaneous temperature and force measurements as well as for simultaneous resolution of multi-axis forces.The sensor was experimentally evaluated by hydrostatic loading and in vitro testing. A commercial hydraulic burst tester was used to provide uniform pressures on the sensor in order to establish the linearity, repeatability, and accuracy characteristics of the sensor. The in vitro experiments were performed in excised tendon and in a dynamic gait simulator to simulate biological conditions. In both experimental conditions, the sensor was found to be a sensitive and reliable method for acquiring minimally invasive measurements of soft tissue forces. Our results suggest that this sensor will prove useful in a variety of biomechanical measurements.

  6. Polarimetry noise in fiber-based optical coherence tomography instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ellen Ziyi; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    High noise levels in fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) have broadly limited its clinical utility. In this study we investigate contribution of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) to the polarimetry noise. We develop numerical models of the PS-OCT system including PMD and validate these models with empirical data. Using these models, we provide a framework for predicting noise levels, for processing signals to reduce noise, and for designing an optimized system. PMID:21935044

  7. IEEE 802.3 Fiber Optic Inter-Repeater Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Peter J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a fiber optic inter-repeater link (FOIRL), used for connecting two remote copper segments of an IEEE 802.3 local area network. The rationale for the design, the signalling used and the collision detection mechanism is discussed. The evolution of the draft international standard for the FOIRL and the concurrence amongst various manufacturers is also presented. Finally some examples of typical applications, highlighting the ease of installation, are given.

  8. Development of optical fiber frequency and time distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, G.

    1982-01-01

    The development of ultra stable optical fiber distribution systems for the dissemination of frequency and timing references is reported. The ultimate design goals for these systems are a frequency stability of 10 to the -17 power for tau or = 100 sec and time stability of + or - 0.1 ns for 1 year and operation over distances or = 30 km. A prototype system is reviewed and progress is discussed.

  9. The fiber-optic imaging and manipulation of neural activity during animal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Murayama, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    Recent progress with optogenetic probes for imaging and manipulating neural activity has further increased the relevance of fiber-optic systems for neural circuitry research. Optical fibers, which bi-directionally transmit light between separate sites (even at a distance of several meters), can be used for either optical imaging or manipulating neural activity relevant to behavioral circuitry mechanisms. The method's flexibility and the specifications of the light structure are well suited for following the behavior of freely moving animals. Furthermore, thin optical fibers allow researchers to monitor neural activity from not only the cortical surface but also deep brain regions, including the hippocampus and amygdala. Such regions are difficult to target with two-photon microscopes. Optogenetic manipulation of neural activity with an optical fiber has the advantage of being selective for both cell-types and projections as compared to conventional electrophysiological brain tissue stimulation. It is difficult to extract any data regarding changes in neural activity solely from a fiber-optic manipulation device; however, the readout of data is made possible by combining manipulation with electrophysiological recording, or the simultaneous application of optical imaging and manipulation using a bundle-fiber. The present review introduces recent progress in fiber-optic imaging and manipulation methods, while also discussing fiber-optic system designs that are suitable for a given experimental protocol. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. A fiber optic temperature sensor based on multi-core microstructured fiber with coupled cores for a high temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, A.; Markiewicz, K.; Szostkiewicz, L.; Kolakowska, A.; Fidelus, J.; Stanczyk, T.; Wysokinski, K.; Budnicki, D.; Ostrowski, L.; Szymanski, M.; Makara, M.; Poturaj, K.; Tenderenda, T.; Mergo, P.; Nasilowski, T.

    2018-02-01

    Sensors based on fiber optics are irreplaceable wherever immunity to strong electro-magnetic fields or safe operation in explosive atmospheres is needed. Furthermore, it is often essential to be able to monitor high temperatures of over 500°C in such environments (e.g. in cooling systems or equipment monitoring in power plants). In order to meet this demand, we have designed and manufactured a fiber optic sensor with which temperatures up to 900°C can be measured. The sensor utilizes multi-core fibers which are recognized as the dedicated medium for telecommunication or shape sensing, but as we show may be also deployed advantageously in new types of fiber optic temperature sensors. The sensor presented in this paper is based on a dual-core microstructured fiber Michelson interferometer. The fiber is characterized by strongly coupled cores, hence it acts as an all-fiber coupler, but with an outer diameter significantly wider than a standard fused biconical taper coupler, which significantly increases the coupling region's mechanical reliability. Owing to the proposed interferometer imbalance, effective operation and high-sensitivity can be achieved. The presented sensor is designed to be used at high temperatures as a result of the developed low temperature chemical process of metal (copper or gold) coating. The hermetic metal coating can be applied directly to the silica cladding of the fiber or the fiber component. This operation significantly reduces the degradation of sensors due to hydrolysis in uncontrolled atmospheres and high temperatures.

  11. Fiber optic temperature sensors for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, David T.; Palmer, Gail; Bechtel, James H.

    2003-07-01

    Recent developments in fiber-optic sensor technology have demonstrated the utility of fiber-optic sensors for both medical and industrial applications. Fiber sensors based on fluorescent decay of rare earth doped materials allow rapid and accurate temperature measurement in challenging environments. Here we review the principles of operation of these sensors with a rare earth doped probe material and demonstrate why this material is an excellent choice for these types of sensors. The decay time technique allows accurate temperature determination from two measurements of the fluorescence intensity at a well-defined time interval. With this method, all instrumental and extraneous environmental effect will cancel, thus providing an accurate temperature measurement. Stability data will be presented for the fiber-optic probes. For medical applications, new breakthroughs in RF ablation technology and electro-surgical procedures are being introduced as alternative, less invasive treatment for removal of small tumors and for removal of plaque within arteries as a preventive treatment that avoids open heart surgery. The availability of small diameter temperature probes (230 microns or 450 microns in diameter) offers a whole new scope to temperature measurement. Accurate and reliable temperature monitoring during any laser treatment procedure or RF ablation at the surgical site is critical. Precise, NIST traceable reliable results are needed to prevent overheating or underheating during treatment. In addition, how interventional catheters are used in hyperthermia studies and the advantages to having flexible cables and multiple sensors are discussed. Preliminary data is given from an animal study where temperature was monitored in a pig during an RF study.

  12. Virtual-reality-based educational laboratories in fiber optic engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dana; Turczynski, Craig; Rice, Jonny; Kozhevnikov, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Researchers and educators have observed great potential in virtual reality (VR) technology as an educational tool due to its ability to engage and spark interest in students, thus providing them with a deeper form of knowledge about a subject. The focus of this project is to develop an interactive VR educational module, Laser Diode Characteristics and Coupling to Fibers, to integrate into a fiber optics laboratory course. The developed module features a virtual laboratory populated with realistic models of optical devices in which students can set up and perform an optical experiment dealing with laser diode characteristics and fiber coupling. The module contains three increasingly complex levels for students to navigate through, with a short built-in quiz after each level to measure the student's understanding of the subject. Seventeen undergraduate students learned fiber coupling concepts using the designed computer simulation in a non-immersive desktop virtual environment (VE) condition. The analysis of students' responses on the updated pre- and post tests show statistically significant improvement of the scores for the post-test as compared to the pre-test. In addition, the students' survey responses suggest that they found the module very useful and engaging. The conducted study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed instructional technology for engineering education, where both the model of instruction and the enabling technology are equally important, in providing a better learning environment to improve students' conceptual understanding as compared to other instructional approaches.

  13. Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor With Dynamic Demodulation Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekki, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed in-house a method to detect pressure fluctuations using a fiber-optic sensor and dynamic signal processing. This work was in support of the Intelligent Systems Controls and Operations project under NASA's Information Technology Base Research Program. We constructed an optical pressure sensor by attaching a fiber-optic Bragg grating to a flexible membrane and then adhering the membrane to one end of a small cylinder. The other end of the cylinder was left open and exposed to pressure variations from a pulsed air jet. These pressure variations flexed the membrane, inducing a strain in the fiber-optic grating. This strain was read out optically with a dynamic spectrometer to record changes in the wavelength of light reflected from the grating. The dynamic spectrometer was built in-house to detect very small wavelength shifts induced by the pressure fluctuations. The spectrometer is an unbalanced interferometer specifically designed for maximum sensitivity to wavelength shifts. An optimum pathlength difference, which was determined empirically, resulted in a 14-percent sensitivity improvement over theoretically predicted path-length differences. This difference is suspected to be from uncertainty about the spectral power difference of the signal reflected from the Bragg grating. The figure shows the output of the dynamic spectrometer as the sensor was exposed to a nominally 2-kPa peak-to-peak square-wave pressure fluctuation. Good tracking, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratios are evident even though the sensor was constructed as a proof-of-concept and was not optimized in any way. Therefore the fiber-optic Bragg grating, which is normally considered a good candidate as a strain or temperature sensor, also has been shown to be a good candidate for a dynamic pressure sensor.

  14. An optical fiber expendable seawater temperature/depth profile sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Shizhe; Zhang, Keke; Yan, Xingkui; Yang, Xianglong; Bai, Xuejiao; Liu, Shixuan

    2017-10-01

    Marine expendable temperature/depth profiler (XBT) is a disposable measuring instrument which can obtain temperature/depth profile data quickly in large area waters and mainly used for marine surveys, scientific research, military application. The temperature measuring device is a thermistor in the conventional XBT probe (CXBT)and the depth data is only a calculated value by speed and time depth calculation formula which is not an accurate measurement result. Firstly, an optical fiber expendable temperature/depth sensor based on the FBG-LPG cascaded structure is proposed to solve the problems of the CXBT, namely the use of LPG and FBG were used to detect the water temperature and depth, respectively. Secondly, the fiber end reflective mirror is used to simplify optical cascade structure and optimize the system performance. Finally, the optical path is designed and optimized using the reflective optical fiber end mirror. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of temperature and depth sensing based on FBG-LPG cascade structure is about 0.0030C and 0.1%F.S. respectively, which can meet the requirements of the sea water temperature/depth observation. The reflectivity of reflection mirror is in the range from 48.8% to 72.5%, the resonant peak of FBG and LPG are reasonable and the whole spectrum are suitable for demodulation. Through research on the optical fiber XBT (FXBT), the direct measurement of deep-sea temperature/depth profile data can be obtained simultaneously, quickly and accurately. The FXBT is a new all-optical seawater temperature/depth sensor, which has important academic value and broad application prospect and is expected to replace the CXBT in the future.

  15. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, F; Ahmad, A [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering; Ahmed, A Z [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Bureau of Reseaarch and Consultancy

    2006-12-15

    of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings.

  16. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, A.Z.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings

  17. Cladding modes of optical fibers: properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Oleg V; Nikitov, Sergei A; Gulyaev, Yurii V

    2006-01-01

    One of the new methods of fiber optics uses cladding modes for controlling propagation of radiation in optical fibers. This paper reviews the results of studies on the propagation, excitation, and interaction of cladding modes in optical fibers. The resonance between core and cladding modes excited by means of fiber Bragg gratings, including tilted ones, is analyzed. Propagation of cladding modes in microstructured fibers is considered. The most frequently used method of exciting cladding modes is described, based on the application of long-period fiber gratings. Examples are presented of long-period gratings used as sensors and gain equalizers for fiber amplifiers, as well as devices for coupling light into and out of optical fibers. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  18. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-03

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  19. Optical-fiber interferometer for velocity measurements with picosecond resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Jidong; Tan Hua; Wang Xiang; Ma Yun; Hu Shaolou; Wang Xiaosong

    2006-01-01

    The conventional Doppler laser-interference velocimeters are made up of traditional optical elements such as lenses and mirrors and will generally restrict its applications in multipoint velocity measurements. By transfering the light from multimode optical fiber to single-mode optical fiber and using the currently available conventional telecommunications elements, the authors have constructed a velocimeter called all-fiber displacement interferometer system for any reflector. The unique interferometer system is only made up of fibers or fiber-coupled components. The viability of this technique is demonstrated by measuring the velocity of an interface moving at velocity of 2133 m/s with 50 ps time resolution. In addition, the concept of optical-fiber mode conversion would provide a way to develop various optical-fiber sensors

  20. Fiber-optic couplers as displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Martin C.; Gerdt, David W.; Adkins, Charles M.

    2003-04-01

    We introduce the novel concept of using a fiber-optic coupler as a versatile displacement sensor. Comparatively long fiber-optic couplers, with a coupling region of approximately 10 mm, are manufactured using standard communication SM fiber and placed in a looped-back configuration. The result is a displacement sensor, which is robust and highly sensitive over a wide dynamic range. This displacement sensor resolves 1-2 μm over distances of 1-1.5 mm and is characterized by the essential absence of a 'spring constant' plaguing other strain gauge-type sensors. Consequently, it is possible to couple to extremely weak vibrations, such as the skin displacement affected by arterial heart beat pulsations. Used as a wrist-worn heartbeat monitor, the fidelity of the arterial pulse signal has been shown to be so high that it is possible to not only determine heartbeat and breathing rates, but to implement a new single-point blood pressure measurement scheme which does not squeeze the arm. In an application as a floor vibration sensor for the non-intrusive monitoring of independently living elderly, the sensor has been shown to resolve the distinct vibration spectra of different persons and different events.

  1. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor using Multimode Interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Perez, V I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; Basurto-Pensado, M A; LiKamWa, P; May-Arrioja, D A

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of multimode interference (MMI) and self-image formation, we developed a novel intrinsic optical fiber pressure sensor. The sensing element consists of a section of multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The MMI pressure sensor is based on the intensity changes that occur in the transmitted light when the effective refractive index of the MMF is changed. Basically, a thick layer of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is placed in direct contact with the MMF section, such that the contact area between the PDMS and the fiber will change proportionally with the applied pressure, which results in a variation of the transmitted light intensity. Using this configuration, a good correlation between the measured intensity variations and the applied pressure is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 3 μV/psi, for a range of 0-60 psi, and the maximum resolution of our system is 0.25 psi. Good repeatability is also observed with a standard deviation of 0.0019. The key feature of the proposed pressure sensor is its low fabrication cost, since the cost of the MMF is minimal.

  2. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor using Multimode Interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Perez, V I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J [INAOE, Apartado Postal 51 y 216, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Basurto-Pensado, M A [CIICAp, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); LiKamWa, P [CREOL, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); May-Arrioja, D A, E-mail: iruiz@inaoep.mx, E-mail: mbasurto@uaem.mx, E-mail: delta_dirac@hotmail.com, E-mail: daniel_may_arrioja@hotmail.com [UAT Reynosa Rodhe, Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of multimode interference (MMI) and self-image formation, we developed a novel intrinsic optical fiber pressure sensor. The sensing element consists of a section of multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The MMI pressure sensor is based on the intensity changes that occur in the transmitted light when the effective refractive index of the MMF is changed. Basically, a thick layer of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is placed in direct contact with the MMF section, such that the contact area between the PDMS and the fiber will change proportionally with the applied pressure, which results in a variation of the transmitted light intensity. Using this configuration, a good correlation between the measured intensity variations and the applied pressure is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 3 {mu}V/psi, for a range of 0-60 psi, and the maximum resolution of our system is 0.25 psi. Good repeatability is also observed with a standard deviation of 0.0019. The key feature of the proposed pressure sensor is its low fabrication cost, since the cost of the MMF is minimal.

  3. Recent Progress in Distributed Fiber Optic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Bao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rayleigh, Brillouin and Raman scatterings in fibers result from the interaction of photons with local material characteristic features like density, temperature and strain. For example an acoustic/mechanical wave generates a dynamic density variation; such a variation may be affected by local temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence. By detecting changes in the amplitude, frequency and phase of light scattered along a fiber, one can realize a distributed fiber sensor for measuring localized temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence over lengths ranging from meters to one hundred kilometers. Such a measurement can be made in the time domain or frequency domain to resolve location information. With coherent detection of the scattered light one can observe changes in birefringence and beat length for fibers and devices. The progress on state of the art technology for sensing performance, in terms of spatial resolution and limitations on sensing length is reviewed. These distributed sensors can be used for disaster prevention in the civil structural monitoring of pipelines, bridges, dams and railroads. A sensor with centimeter spatial resolution and high precision measurement of temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence can find applications in aerospace smart structures, material processing, and the characterization of optical materials and devices.

  4. Fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, M. J., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    We have developed a hand-held fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for scanning of the oral cavity We have produced, using this scanning device, in viva cross-sectional images of hard and soft dental tissues in human volunteers Clinically relevant anatomical structures, including the gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction, were visible in all the images The dento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone were identifiable in approximately two thirds of the images These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in viva OCT images of human dental tissue.

  5. The Influence of Motion and Stress on Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Jeremy D.; Hill, Gary J.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Taylor, Trey; Soukup, Ian; Moreira, Walter; Cornell, Mark E.; Good, John; Anderson, Seth; Fuller, Lindsay; Lee, Hanshin; Kelz, Andreas; Rafal, Marc; Rafferty, Tom; Tuttle, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    We report on extensive testing carried out on the optical fibers for the VIRUS instrument. The primary result of this work explores how 10+ years of simulated wear on a VIRUS fiber bundle affects both transmission and focal ratio degradation (FRD) of the optical fibers. During the accelerated lifetime tests we continuously monitored the fibers for signs of FRD. We find that transient FRD events were common during the portions of the tests when motion was at telescope slew rates, but dropped t...

  6. Microstructured Fibers: Design and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes

    2006-01-01

    Holey fibers, in which airholes are introduced in the cladding region and extended in the axial direction of the fiber, have been known since the early days of silica waveguide research. Early work demonstrated the first low-loss fibers, which featured very small silica cores held in air by thin...

  7. Nanomechanical Optical Fiber with Embedded Electrodes Actuated by Joule Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhenggang; Segura, Martha; Podoliak, Nina; Feng, Xian; White, Nicholas; Horak, Peter

    2014-07-31

    Nanomechanical optical fibers with metal electrodes embedded in the jacket were fabricated by a multi-material co-draw technique. At the center of the fibers, two glass cores suspended by thin membranes and surrounded by air form a directional coupler that is highly temperature-dependent. We demonstrate optical switching between the two fiber cores by Joule heating of the electrodes with as little as 0.4 W electrical power, thereby demonstrating an electrically actuated all-fiber microelectromechanical system (MEMS). Simulations show that the main mechanism for optical switching is the transverse thermal expansion of the fiber structure.

  8. Nanomechanical Optical Fiber with Embedded Electrodes Actuated by Joule Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhenggang; Segura, Martha; Podoliak, Nina; Feng, Xian; White, Nicholas; Horak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Nanomechanical optical fibers with metal electrodes embedded in the jacket were fabricated by a multi-material co-draw technique. At the center of the fibers, two glass cores suspended by thin membranes and surrounded by air form a directional coupler that is highly temperature-dependent. We demonstrate optical switching between the two fiber cores by Joule heating of the electrodes with as little as 0.4 W electrical power, thereby demonstrating an electrically actuated all-fiber microelectromechanical system (MEMS). Simulations show that the main mechanism for optical switching is the transverse thermal expansion of the fiber structure. PMID:28788148

  9. Fiber optic pressure sensors in skin-friction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Fiber optic lever pressure sensors intended for use in a low speed wind tunnel environment were designed, constructed and tested for the measurement of normal and shear displacements associated with the pressures acting on a flat aluminum plate. On-site tests performed along with several static and dynamic measurements made have established that, with proper modifications and improvements, the design concepts are acceptable and can be utilized for their intended use. Several elastomers were investigated for use in sensors and for their incorporation into these sensors. Design and assembly techniques for probes and complete sensors were developed.

  10. Study of Optical Fiber Sensors for Cryogenic Temperature Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel-Soto, Veronica; Leandro, Daniel; Lopez-Aldaba, Aitor; Beato-López, Juan Jesus; Pérez-Landazábal, José Ignacio; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Jamier, Raphael; Roy, Philippe; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2017-11-30

    In this work, the performance of five different fiber optic sensors at cryogenic temperatures has been analyzed. A photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer, two Sagnac interferometers, a commercial fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating interrogated in a random distributed feedback fiber laser have been studied. Their sensitivities and resolutions as sensors for cryogenic temperatures have been compared regarding their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the results have been compared with the given by a commercial optical backscatter reflectometer that allowed for distributed temperature measurements of a single mode fiber.

  11. Scintillating optical fibers for fine-grained hodoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.R.; Strand, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Fast detectors with fine spatial resolution will be needed to exploit high event rates at ISABELLE. Scintillating optical fibers for fine grained hodoscopes have been developed by the authors. A commercial manufacturer of optical fibers has drawn and clad PVT scintillator. Detection efficiencies greater than 99% have been achieved for a 1 mm fiber with a PMT over lengths up to 60 cm. Small diameter PMT's and avalanche photodiodes have been tested with the fibers. Further improvements are sought for the fiber and for the APD's sensitivity and coupling efficiency with the fiber

  12. Study of Optical Fiber Sensors for Cryogenic Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica De Miguel-Soto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of five different fiber optic sensors at cryogenic temperatures has been analyzed. A photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer, two Sagnac interferometers, a commercial fiber Bragg grating (FBG, and a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating interrogated in a random distributed feedback fiber laser have been studied. Their sensitivities and resolutions as sensors for cryogenic temperatures have been compared regarding their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the results have been compared with the given by a commercial optical backscatter reflectometer that allowed for distributed temperature measurements of a single mode fiber.

  13. Interferometric optical fiber microcantilever beam biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wavering, Thomas A.; Meller, Scott A.; Evans, Mishell K.; Pennington, Charles; Jones, Mark E.; VanTassell, Roger; Murphy, Kent A.; Velander, William H.; Valdes, E.

    2000-12-01

    With the proliferation of biological weapons, the outbreak of food poisoning occurrences, and the spread of antibiotic resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria, the demand has arisen for portable systems capable of rapid, specific, and quantitative target detection. The ability to detect minute quantities of targets will provide the means to quickly assess a health hazardous situation so that the appropriate response can be orchestrated. Conventional test results generally require hours or even several days to be reported, and there is no change for real-time feedback. An interferometric optical fiber microcantilever beam biosensor has successfully demonstrated real time detection of target molecules. The microcantilever biosensor effectively combines advanced technology from silicon micromachining, optical fiber sensor, and biochemistry to create a novel detection device. This approach utilizes affinity coatings on micromachiend cantilever beams to attract target molecules. The presence of the target molecule causes bending in the cantilever beam, which is monitored using an optical displacement system. Dose-response trials have shown measured responses at nanogram/ml concentrations of target molecules. Sensitivity is expected to extend from the nanogram to the picogram range of total captured mass as the microcantilever sensors are optimized.

  14. Chemical tapering of polymer optical fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Affa Rozana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer optical fibers (POFs have significant advantages over numerous sensing applications. The key element in developing sensor is by removing the cladding of the fiber. The use of organic solvent is one of the methods to create tapered POF in order to expose the core region. In this study, the etching chemicals involved is acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK, and acetone-methanol mixture. The POF is immersed in 100%, 80%, and 50% of acetone and MIBK dilution. In addition, the mixture of acetone and methanol is also used for POF etching by the ratio 2:1 of the volume. Acetone has shown to be the most reactive solvent towards POF due to its fastest etching rate compared to MIBK and acetone-methanol mixture. The POF is immersed and lifted from the solution for a specific time, depending on the power loss properties for the purpose of producing unclad POF. In comparison to silica fiber optic, the advantages of POF in terms of its simple technique and easy handling enable it to produce unclad POF without damaging the core region. The surface roughness of the POF is investigated under the microscope after being immersed into different solvent. This method of chemical tapering of POF can be used as the fundamental technique for sensor development. Next, the unclad fiber is immersed into ethanol solutions in order to determine the reaction of unclad POF towards its surrounding. The findings show that this particular sensor is sensitive towards concentration changes ranging between 10 wt% to 50 wt%.

  15. Optimize Etching Based Single Mode Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Dr. Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a description of etching process for fabrication single mode optical fiber sensors. The process of fabrication demonstrates an optimized etching based method to fabricate single mode fiber (SMF) optic sensors in specified constant time and temperature. We propose a single mode optical fiber based temperature sensor, where the temperature sensing region is obtained by etching its cladding diameter over small length to a critical value. It is observed that th...

  16. Metal-coated optical fibers for high temperature sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelus, Janusz D.; Wysokiński, Karol; Stańczyk, Tomasz; Kołakowska, Agnieszka; Nasiłowski, Piotr; Lipiński, Stanisław; Tenderenda, Tadeusz; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    An novel low-temperature method was used to enhance the corrosion resistance of copper or gold-coated optical fibers. A characterization of the elaborated materials and reports on selected studies such as cyclic temperature tests together with tensile tests is presented. Gold-coated optical fibers are proposed as a component of optical fiber sensors working in oxidizing atmospheres under temperatures exceeding 900 °C.

  17. IMPACT STUDY OF ANISOTROPIC OPTICAL FIBERS WINDING WITH DIFFERENT TENSION VALUE ON THE H-PARAMETER INVARIANCE DEGREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Mukhtubayev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. We have investigated the effect of anisotropic optical fibers winding with an elliptical sheath subjecting to stress on the H-parameter invariance degree. This type of optical fiber is used in the manufacture of fiber loop in fiber-optic gyroscopes. Method of Research. The method of research is based on the application of Michelson polarization scanning interferometer as a measuring device. Superluminescent diode with a central wavelength of 1575 nm and a half-width of the spectrum equal to 45 nm is used as a radiation source. The studies were carried out with anisotropic optical fiber with 50 m long elliptical sheath subjecting to stress. The fiber was wound with one layer turn to turn on the coil with a diameter of 18 cm, which is used in the design of fiber-optic gyroscope. The tension force of the optical fiber was controlled during winding on a special machine. Main Results. It was found that at the increase of tension force from 0.05 N to 0.8 H the value of H-parameter increases from 7×10-6 1/m up to 178×10-6 1/m, respectively; i.e. the coupling coefficient of orthogonal modes in the test fiber is being increased. Thus, it is necessary to consider the longitudinal tension force of fiber in the design and manufacture of the fiber-optic sensors of high accuracy class: the less the fiber winding power, the higher invariance degree of distributed H-parameter. The longitudinal tension force of anisotropic optical fiber with elliptical sheath subjecting to stress equal to 0.2 N is recommended in the process of designing fiber-optic gyroscopes. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of Michelson scanning interferometer is usable in the production process for quality determination of the optical fiber winding: no local defects, value controlling of fiber H-parameter.

  18. Novel Fiber-Optic Ring Acoustic Emission Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Han, Xiaole; Xia, Dong; Liu, Taolin; Lang, Hao

    2018-01-13

    Acoustic emission technology has been applied to many fields for many years. However, the conventional piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors cannot be used in extreme environments, such as those with heavy electromagnetic interference, high pressure, or strong corrosion. In this paper, a novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor is proposed. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, and corrosion resistance. First, the principle of a novel fiber-optic ring sensor is introduced. Different from piezoelectric and other fiber acoustic emission sensors, this novel sensor includes both a sensing skeleton and a sensing fiber. Second, a heterodyne interferometric demodulating method is presented. In addition, a fiber-optic ring sensor acoustic emission system is built based on this method. Finally, fiber-optic ring acoustic emission experiments are performed. The novel fiber-optic ring sensor is glued onto the surface of an aluminum plate. The 150 kHz standard continuous sinusoidal signals and broken lead signals are successfully detected by the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In addition, comparison to the piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor is performed, which shows the availability and reliability of the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In the future, this novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor will provide a new route to acoustic emission detection in harsh environments.

  19. Novel Fiber-Optic Ring Acoustic Emission Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission technology has been applied to many fields for many years. However, the conventional piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors cannot be used in extreme environments, such as those with heavy electromagnetic interference, high pressure, or strong corrosion. In this paper, a novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor is proposed. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, and corrosion resistance. First, the principle of a novel fiber-optic ring sensor is introduced. Different from piezoelectric and other fiber acoustic emission sensors, this novel sensor includes both a sensing skeleton and a sensing fiber. Second, a heterodyne interferometric demodulating method is presented. In addition, a fiber-optic ring sensor acoustic emission system is built based on this method. Finally, fiber-optic ring acoustic emission experiments are performed. The novel fiber-optic ring sensor is glued onto the surface of an aluminum plate. The 150 kHz standard continuous sinusoidal signals and broken lead signals are successfully detected by the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In addition, comparison to the piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor is performed, which shows the availability and reliability of the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In the future, this novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor will provide a new route to acoustic emission detection in harsh environments.

  20. Demonstration of a Fiber Optic Regression Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to provide localized, real-time monitoring of material regression rates in various applications has the potential to provide a new stream of data for development testing of various components and systems, as well as serving as a monitoring tool in flight applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the regression of a combusting solid fuel surface, the ablation of the throat in a chemical rocket or the heat shield of an aeroshell, and the monitoring of erosion in long-life plasma thrusters. The rate of regression in the first application is very fast, while the second and third are increasingly slower. A recent fundamental sensor development effort has led to a novel regression, erosion, and ablation sensor technology (REAST). The REAST sensor allows for measurement of real-time surface erosion rates at a discrete surface location. The sensor is optical, using two different, co-located fiber-optics to perform the regression measurement. The disparate optical transmission properties of the two fiber-optics makes it possible to measure the regression rate by monitoring the relative light attenuation through the fibers. As the fibers regress along with the parent material in which they are embedded, the relative light intensities through the two fibers changes, providing a measure of the regression rate. The optical nature of the system makes it relatively easy to use in a variety of harsh, high temperature environments, and it is also unaffected by the presence of electric and magnetic fields. In addition, the sensor could be used to perform optical spectroscopy on the light emitted by a process and collected by fibers, giving localized measurements of various properties. The capability to perform an in-situ measurement of material regression rates is useful in addressing a variety of physical issues in various applications. An in-situ measurement allows for real-time data regarding the erosion rates, providing a quick method for

  1. Single event effect ground test results for a fiber optic data interconnect and associated electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBel, K.A.; Hawkins, D.K.; Cooley, J.A.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Seidleck, C.M.; Marshall, P.; Dale, C.; Gates, M.M.; Kim, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    As spacecraft unlock the potential of fiber optics for spaceflight applications, system level bit error rates become of concern to the system designer. The authors present ground test data and analysis on candidate system components

  2. Fiber-coupling efficiency of Gaussian-Schell model beams through an ocean to fiber optical communication link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beibei; Shi, Haifeng; Zhang, Yixin

    2018-06-01

    We theoretically study the fiber-coupling efficiency of Gaussian-Schell model beams propagating through oceanic turbulence. The expression of the fiber-coupling efficiency is derived based on the spatial power spectrum of oceanic turbulence and the cross-spectral density function. Our work shows that the salinity fluctuation has a greater impact on the fiber-coupling efficiency than temperature fluctuation does. We can select longer λ in the "ocean window" and higher spatial coherence of light source to improve the fiber-coupling efficiency of the communication link. We also can achieve the maximum fiber-coupling efficiency by choosing design parameter according specific oceanic turbulence condition. Our results are able to help the design of optical communication link for oceanic turbulence to fiber sensor.

  3. Eliminating Crystals in Non-Oxide Optical Fiber Preforms and Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; LaPointe, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Non ]oxide fiber optics such as heavy metal fluoride and chalcogenide glasses are extensively used in infrared transmitting applications such as communication systems, chemical sensors, and laser fiber guides for cutting, welding and medical surgery. The addition of rare earths such as erbium, enable these materials to be used as fiber laser and amplifiers. Some of these glasses however are very susceptible to crystallization. Even small crystals can lead to light scatter and a high attenuation coefficient, limiting their usefulness. Previously two research teams found that microgravity suppressed crystallization in heavy metal fluoride glasses. Looking for a less expensive method to suppress crystallization, ground based research was performed utilizing an axial magnetic field. The experiments revealed identical results to those obtained via microgravity processing. This research then led to a patented process for eliminating crystals in optical fiber preforms and the resulting optical fibers. In this paper, the microgravity results will be reviewed as well as patents and papers relating to the use of magnetic fields in various material and glass processing applications. Finally our patent to eliminate crystals in non ]oxide glasses utilizing a magnetic field will be detailed.

  4. Fiber optic medical and fluorescent sensors and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 23, 24, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, D.R.; Milanovich, F.P.; Vurek, G.G.; Walt, D.R. (3M Center, Saint Paul, MN (United States) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States) Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL (United States) Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Papers are presented on such topics as the optical measurement of blood gases; waveguide ellipsometry biosensors; a novel fiber-optic radiation sensor for in vivo dosimetry; and a fiber-optic sensor for simultaneous oxygen saturation and blood pressure measurements. Fluorescent sensors are then considered with reference to sensor fabrication and design, and fluorescence sensing schemes, indicators, and reagents.

  5. Development of an optical fiber flow velocity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Toshio; Kamoto, Kenji; Abe, Kyutaro; Izumo, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    A new optical fiber flow velocity sensor was developed by using an optical fiber information network system in sewer drainage pipes. The optical fiber flow velocity sensor operates without electric power, and the signals from the sensor can be transmitted over a long distance through the telecommunication system in the optical fiber network. Field tests were conducted to check the performance of the sensor in conduits in the pumping station and sewage pond managed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Test results confirmed that the velocity sensor can be used for more than six months without any trouble even in sewer drainage pipes.

  6. Compact Fiber Optic Strain Sensors (cFOSS) Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are reducing the Fiber Optic Sensing Sysme (FOSS) technology’s size, power requirement, weight, and cost to effectively extend...

  7. Fast modal decomposition for optical fibers using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Meng; Lin, Zhiquan; Li, Guowei; Situ, Guohai

    2017-07-26

    Eigenmode decomposition of the light field at the output end of optical fibers can provide fundamental insights into the nature of electromagnetic-wave propagation through the fibers. Here we present a fast and complete modal decomposition technique for step-index optical fibers. The proposed technique employs digital holography to measure the light field at the output end of the multimode optical fiber, and utilizes the modal orthonormal property of the basis modes to calculate the modal coefficients of each mode. Optical experiments were carried out to demonstrate the proposed decomposition technique, showing that this approach is fast, accurate and cost-effective.

  8. Experimental refractive index determination of the optic fiber's core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezelsoy, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the Fresnel's fundamental Law was used to be able to obtain the refractive index of the fiber optic's core. The intensity of light reflected from the boundary between two mediums was measured by the optical powermeter (Melles Griot, Universal optical powermeter). In recent technology, the light that is illuminated from the light source can be transported to the boundary region and measured with minimum loss by using the optic fibers which make the measurement more sensitively. The liquid and the optic fiber's core whose refractive indices will be measured are the two mediums and the surface of the optic fiber's core is the boundary region. By dipping the fiber optic probe to the liquids, the reflected light intensities were measured with powermeter via Silicon Detector for single mode fiber and multimode fiber respectively to obtain the refractive index of the optic fiber's core. At this work, because of the using the diode laser with 661,4 nm (FWHM) and He-Ne laser with 632,8 nm (FWHM) the refractive indices were measured at this wavelengthes with the Refractometer (Abbe 60-70, Bellingham+Stanley). If the refractive indices of two mediums are equal, the light doesn't reflect from the boundary. The graphic is drawn depend upon the refractive index of the liquids versus the back reflected light energy and from the minimum point of the curve the effective refractive index of the fiber optic's core is calculated for 661,4 nm and 780 nm

  9. Analysis of seawater flow through optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández López, Sheila; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Rodriguez Sinobar, Leonor; Benitez, Javier; Rossi, Riccardo; Laresse de Tetto, Antonia

    2015-04-01

    The relation between sea and coastal aquifer is very important to the human populations living in coastal areas. The interrelation involves the submarine ground water discharge of relatively fresh water to the sea and the intrusion of sea water into the aquifer, which impairs the quality of ground water. The main process in seawater intrusion is managed by fluid-density effects which control the displacement of saline water. The underlain salinity acts as the restoring force, while hydrodynamic dispersion and convection lead to a mixing and vertical displacement of the brine. Because of this, a good definition of this saltwater-freshwater interface is needed what is intimately joined to the study of the movements (velocity fields) of fresh and salt water. As it is well known, the flow of salt water studied in seawater intrusion in stationary state, is nearly null or very low. However, in the rest of cases, this flux can be very important, so it is necessary its study to a better comprehension of this process. One possible manner of carry out this analysis is through the data from optical fiber. So, to research the distribution and velocity of the fresh and saltwater in the aquifer, a fiber optic system (OF) has been installed in Argentona (Baix Maresme, Catalonia). The main objective is to obtain the distributed temperature measurements (OF-DTS) and made progress in the interpretation of the dynamic processes of water. For some applications, the optical fiber acts as a passive temperature sensor but in our case, the technique Heated Active Fiber Optic will be used. This is based on the thermal response of the ground as a heat emission source is introduced. The thermal properties of the soil, dependent variables of soil water content, will make a specific temperature distribution around the cable. From the analyzed data we will deduce the velocity field, the real objective of our problem. To simulate this phenomenon and the coupled transport and flow problem

  10. Architecture for fiber-optic sensors and actuators in aircraft propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomb, W. L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a design for fiber-optic sensing and control in advanced aircraft Electronic Engine Control (EEC). The recommended architecture is an on-engine EEC which contains electro-optic interface circuits for fiber-optic sensors. Size and weight are reduced by multiplexing arrays of functionally similar sensors on a pairs of optical fibers to common electro-optical interfaces. The architecture contains interfaces to seven sensor groups. Nine distinct fiber-optic sensor types were found to provide the sensing functions. Analysis revealed no strong discriminator (except reliability of laser diodes and remote electronics) on which to base a selection of preferred common interface type. A hardware test program is recommended to assess the relative maturity of the technologies and to determine real performance in the engine environment.

  11. Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, M.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Trögl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 10 (2015), s. 25208-25259 ISSN 1424-8220 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fiber-optic sensor * chemical sensors * enzymatic sensor Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2015

  12. High-power fiber optic cable with integrated active sensors for live process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomster, Ola; Blomqvist, Mats; Bergstrand, Hans; Pålsson, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    In industrial applications using high-brilliance lasers at power levels up to and exceeding 20 kW and similarly direct diode lasers of 10 kW, there is an increasing demand to continuously monitor component status even in passive components such as fiber-optic cables. With fiber-optic cables designed according to the European Automotive Industry fiber standard interface there is room for integrating active sensors inside the connectors. In this paper we present the integrated active sensors in the new Optoskand QD fiber-optic cable designed to handle extreme levels of power losses, and how these sensors can be employed in industrial manufacturing. The sensors include photo diodes for detection of scattered light inside the fiber connector, absolute temperature of the fiber connector, difference in temperature of incoming and outgoing cooling water, and humidity measurement inside the fiber connector. All these sensors are connected to the fiber interlock system, where interlock break enable functions can be activated when measured signals are higher than threshold levels. It is a very fast interlock break system as the control of the signals is integrated in the electronics inside the fiber connector. Also, since all signals can be logged it is possible to evaluate what happened inside the connector before the interlock break instance. The communication to the fiber-optic connectors is via a CAN interface. Thus it is straightforward to develop the existing laser host control to also control the CAN-messages from the QD sensors.

  13. SABER Optical Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R

    2006-01-01

    SABER, the South Arc Beam Experimental Region, is a proposed new beam line facility designed to replace the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC. In this paper, we outline the optical design features and beam parameters now envisioned for SABER. A magnetic chicane to compress positron bunches for SABER and a bypass line that could transport electrons or positrons from the two-thirds point of the linac to SABER, bypassing the LCLS systems, are also discussed

  14. All-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits: integrating nanowire plasmonics with fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyuan; Li, Wei; Guo, Xin; Lou, Jingyi; Tong, Limin

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate all-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits by integrating Ag nanowires with optical fibers. Relying on near-field coupling, we realize a photon-to-plasmon conversion efficiency up to 92% in a fiber-based nanowire plasmonic probe. Around optical communication band, we assemble an all-fiber resonator and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with Q-factor of 6 × 10(6) and extinction ratio up to 30 dB, respectively. Using the MZI, we demonstrate fiber-compatible plasmonic sensing with high sensitivity and low optical power.

  15. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth treatment of both linear fiber-optic systems and their key enabling devices. It presents a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers. To the second edition of this book important new aspects of linear fiber-optic transmission technologies are added, such as high level system architectural issues, algorithms for deriving the optimal frequency assignment, directly modulated or externally modulated laser t...

  16. Theory of Fiber Optical Bragg Grating: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, H.

    2003-01-01

    The reflected signature of an optical fiber Bragg grating is analyzed using the transfer function method. This approach is capable to cast all relevant quantities into proper places and provides a better physical understanding. The relationship between reflected signal, number of periods, index of refraction, and reflected wave phase is elucidated. The condition for which the maximum reflectivity is achieved is fully examined. We also have derived an expression to predict the reflectivity minima accurately when the reflected wave is detuned. Furthermore, using the segmented potential approach, this model can handle arbitrary index of refraction profiles and compare the strength of optical reflectivity of different profiles. The condition of a non-uniform grating is also addressed.

  17. Optimum plastic scintillator and optical fiber combination for brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnfield, Mark R.; Gaballa, Hani E.; Zwicker, Robert D.; Islam, Quazi; Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: There have been several recent reports using plastic scintillators to measure dose in photon and electron beams. External beam measurements agreed well with standard ion chamber dosimetry. This was implemented by using two identical, parallel optical fibers with a small piece of plastic scintillator attached to one. We have constructed a similar device for application to brachytherapy. Brachytherapy dosimetry is a more difficult problem than external beam because of high dose gradients and widely ranging photon energies. Based on detailed spectral measurements, we have designed a dosimeter specifically to meet the unique, stringent needs of brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: The work consisted of two stages. In the first stage, we measured the optical spectra emitted by commercial plastic scintillators and silica core optical fibers in the presence of a 10 Curie iridium 192 HDR source. In the second stage, the spectral information was used to select an optimum combination of scintillator and fiber which were incorporated in the dosimeter. Equipment for the spectral measurements included a 0.1 meter monochromator with a sensitive photomultiplier (PMT) with flat response across the visible. The resolution of spectral scans was 4 nm. The dosimeter was constructed with a 1mm x 3mm piece of plastic scintillator bonded with optical cement to a 0.6 mm diameter silica core optical fiber. A second, identical optical fiber running alongside the first, with no scintillator attached, was used for background subtraction. Two PMTs with high sensitivity in the visible were used at the fiber distal ends. There was a space for an optical filter between the fiber and the PMTs, whose purpose is described below. The PMTs were connected to a differential pair whose output was transferred to a current source for measurement by a standard electrometer. Results: The scintillation spectra of six different types of silica core optical fibers in the presence of the

  18. Fiber-Optic Current Sensor Validation with Triggered Lightning Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    A fiber optic current sensor based on the Faraday Effect is developed that is highly suitable for aircraft installation and can measure total current enclosed in a fiber loop down to DC. Other attributes include being small, light-weight, non-conducting, safe from electromagnetic interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. The Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Measuring the induced light polarization rotation in fiber loops yields the total current enclosed. Two sensor systems were constructed and installed at Camp Blanding, Florida, measuring rocket-triggered lightning. The systems were similar in design but with different laser wavelengths, sensitivities and ranges. Results are compared to a shunt resistor as reference. The 850nm wavelength system tested in summer 2011 showed good result comparison early. However, later results showed gradual amplitude increase with time, attributed to corroded connections affecting the 50-ohm output termination. The 1550nm system also yielded good results in the summer 2012. The successful measurements demonstrate the fiber optic sensor's accuracies in capturing real lightning currents, and represent an important step toward future aircraft installation.

  19. Fiber-Optic Sensor for Aircraft Lightning Current Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George G.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    An electric current sensor based on Faraday rotation effect in optical fiber was developed for measuring aircraft lightning current. Compared to traditional sensors, the design has many advantages including the ability to measure total current and to conform to structure geometries. The sensor is also small, light weight, non-conducting, safe from interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. Potential applications include characterization of lightning current waveforms, parameters and paths, and providing environmental data for aircraft certifications. In an optical fiber as the sensing medium, light polarization rotates when exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. By forming closed fiber loops around a conductor and applying Ampere s law, measuring the total light rotation yields the enclosed current. A reflective polarimetric scheme is used, where polarization change is measured after the polarized light travels round-trip through the sensing fiber. The sensor system was evaluated measuring rocket-triggered lightning over the 2011 summer. Early results compared very well against a reference current shunt resistor, demonstrating the sensor s accuracy and feasibility in a lightning environment. While later comparisons show gradually increasing amplitude deviations for an undetermined cause, the overall waveforms still compared very well.

  20. Irradiation tests of radiation resistance optical fibers for fusion diagnostic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi; Shikama, Tatsuo; Nishitani, Takeo; Yamamoto, Shin; Nagata, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Bun; Toh, Kentaro; Hori, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    To promote development of radiation-resistant core optical fibers, the ITER-EDA (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-Engineering Design Activity) recommended carrying out international round-robin irradiation tests of optical fibers to establish a reliable database for their applications in the ITER plasma diagnostics. Ten developed optical fibers were irradiation-tested in a Co-60 gamma cell, a Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Also, some of them were irradiation tested in a fast neutron irradiation facility of FNS (Fast Neutron Source), especially to study temperature dependence of neutron-associated irradiation effects. Included were several Japanese fluorine doped fibers and one Japanese standard fiber (purified and undoped silica core), as well as seven Russian fibers. Some of Russian fibers were drawn by Japanese manufactures from Russian made pre-form rods to study effects of manufacturing processes to radiation resistant properties. The present paper will describe behaviors of growth of radiation-induced optical transmission loss in the wavelength range of 350-1750nm. Results indicate that role of displacement damages by fast neutrons are very important in introducing permanent optical transmission loss. Spectra of optical transmission loss in visible range will depend on irradiation temperatures and material parameters of optical fibers.

  1. Design of photonic bandgap fibers by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Sigmund, Ole; Feurer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A method based on topology optimization is presented to design the cross section of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for minimizing energy loss by material absorption. The optical problem is modeled by the timeharmonic wave equation and solved with the finite element program Comsol Multiphysics...

  2. Compact fiber optic gyroscopes for platform stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, William C.; Yee, Ting K.; Coward, James F.; McClaren, Andrew; Pechner, David A.

    2013-09-01

    SA Photonics has developed a family of compact Fiber Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs) for platform stabilization applications. The use of short fiber coils enables the high update rates required for stabilization applications but presents challenges to maintain high performance. We are able to match the performance of much larger FOGs by utilizing several innovative technologies. These technologies include source noise reduction to minimize Angular Random Walk (ARW), advanced digital signal processing that minimizes bias drift at high update rates, and advanced passive thermal packaging that minimizes temperature induced bias drift while not significantly affecting size, weight, or power. In addition, SA Photonics has developed unique distributed FOG packaging technologies allowing the FOG electronics and photonics to be packaged remotely from the sensor head or independent axis heads to minimize size, weight, and power at the sensing location(s). The use of these technologies has resulted in high performance, including ARW less than 0.001 deg/rt-hr and bias drift less than 0.004 deg/hr at an update rate of 10 kHz, and total packaged volume less than 30 cu. in. for a 6 degree of freedom FOG-based IMU. Specific applications include optical beam stabilization for LIDAR and LADAR, beam stabilization for long-range free-space optical communication, Optical Inertial Reference Units for HEL stabilization, and Ka band antenna pedestal pointing and stabilization. The high performance of our FOGs also enables their use in traditional navigation and positioning applications. This paper will review the technologies enabling our high-performance compact FOGs, and will provide performance test results.

  3. Development of plasma bolometers using fiber-optic temperature sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, M. L., E-mail: reinkeml@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Han, M.; Liu, G. [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Eden, G. G. van [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Evenblij, R.; Haverdings, M. [Technobis, Pyrietstraat 2, 1812 SC Alkmaar (Netherlands); Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry–Pérot cavity when broadband light, λ{sub o} ∼ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber. Changes in temperature alter the optical path length of the cavity primarily through the thermo-optic effect, resulting in a shift of fringes reflected from the pillar detected using an I-MON 512 OEM spectrometer. While initially designed for use in liquids, this sensor has ideal properties for use as a plasma bolometer: a time constant, in air, of ∼150 ms, strong absorption in the spectral range of plasma emission, immunity to local EMI, and the ability to measure changes in temperature remotely. Its compact design offers unique opportunities for integration into the vacuum environment in places unsuitable for a resistive bolometer. Using a variable focus 5 mW, 405 nm, modulating laser, the signal to noise ratio versus power density of various bolometer technologies are directly compared, estimating the noise equivalent power density (NEPD). Present tests show the fiber-optic bolometer to have NEPD of 5-10 W/m{sup 2} when compared to those of the resistive bolometer which can achieve <0.5 W/m{sup 2} in the laboratory, but this can degrade to 1-2 W/m{sup 2} or worse when installed on a tokamak. Concepts are discussed to improve the signal to noise ratio of this new fiber-optic bolometer by reducing the pillar height and adding thin metallic coatings, along with improving the spectral resolution of the interrogator.

  4. An inexpensive high-temperature optical fiber thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Allred, David D.

    2017-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose tip is coated with a highly conductive, opaque material. When heated, this sensing tip becomes an isothermal cavity that emits like a blackbody. This emission is used to predict the sensing tip temperature. In this work, analytical and experimental research has been conducted to further advance the development of optical fiber thermometry. An inexpensive optical fiber thermometer is developed by applying a thin coating of a high-temperature cement onto the tip of a silica optical fiber. An FTIR spectrometer is used to detect the spectral radiance exiting the fiber. A rigorous mathematical model of the irradiation incident on the detection system is developed. The optical fiber thermometer is calibrated using a blackbody radiator and inverse methods are used to predict the sensing tip temperature when exposed to various heat sources. - Highlights: • An inexpensive coating for an optical fiber thermometer sensing tip is tested. • Inverse heat transfer methods are used to estimate the sensing tip temperature. • An FTIR spectrometer is used as the detector to test the optical fiber thermometer using various heat sources.

  5. Development of an optical fiber SERS microprobe for minimally invasive sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah Al; Juodkazis, Saulius; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2018-02-01

    Numerous potential biomedical sensing applications of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) have been reported, but its practical use has been limited by the lack of a robust sensing platform. Optical fiber SERS probes show great promise, but are limited by the prominent silica Raman background, which requires the use of bulky optics for filtering the signal collection and excitation delivery paths. In the present study, a SERS microprobe has been designed and developed to eliminate the bottlenecks outlined above. For efficient excitation and delivery of the SERS signal, both hollow core photonic crystal fiber and double clad fiber have been investigated. While the hollow core fiber was still found to have excessive silica background, the double clad fiber allows efficient signal collection via the multi-mode inner cladding. A micro filtering mechanism has been designed, which can be integrated into the tip of the optical fiber SERS probe, providing filtering to suppress silica Raman background and thus avoiding the need for bulky optics. The design also assists in the efficient collection of SERS signal from the sample by rejecting Rayleigh scattered light from the sample. Optical fiber cleaving using ultra-short laser pulses was tested for improved control of the fiber tip geometry. With this miniaturized and integrated filtering mechanism, it is expected that the developed probe will promote the use of SERS for minimally invasive biomedical monitoring and sensing applications in future. The probe could potentially be placed inside a small gauge hypodermic needle and would be compatible with handheld portable spectrometers.

  6. Fiber fuse light-induced continuous breakdown of silica glass optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the fiber fuse phenomenon that causes a serious problem for the present optical communication systems. High-power light often brings about catastrophic damage to optical devices. Silica glass optical fibers with ultralow transmission loss are not the exception. A fiber fuse appears in a heated region of the fiber cable delivering a few watts of light and runs toward the light source destroying its core region. Understanding this phenomenon is a necessary first step in the development of future optical communication systems. This book provides supplementary videos and photog

  7. 78 FR 16296 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination... United States after importation of certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications... Fiber IP (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. of Singapore (``Avago Fiber IP''); Avago General IP and Avago...

  8. Development and evaluation of optical fiber NH3 sensors for application in air quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wieck, Lucas; Tao, Shiquan

    2013-02-01

    Ammonia is a major air pollutant emitted from agricultural practices. Sources of ammonia include manure from animal feeding operations and fertilizer from cropping systems. Sensor technologies with capability of continuous real time monitoring of ammonia concentration in air are needed to qualify ammonia emissions from agricultural activities and further evaluate human and animal health effects, study ammonia environmental chemistry, and provide baseline data for air quality standard. We have developed fiber optic ammonia sensors using different sensing reagents and different polymers for immobilizing sensing reagents. The reversible fiber optic sensors have detection limits down to low ppbv levels. The response time of these sensors ranges from seconds to tens minutes depending on transducer design. In this paper, we report our results in the development and evaluation of fiber optic sensor technologies for air quality monitoring. The effect of change of temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide concentration on fiber optic ammonia sensors has been investigated. Carbon dioxide in air was found not interfere the fiber optic sensors for monitoring NH3. However, the change of humidity can cause interferences to some fiber optic NH3 sensors depending on the sensor's transducer design. The sensitivity of fiber optic NH3 sensors was found depends on temperature. Methods and techniques for eliminating these interferences have been proposed.

  9. Fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepaniak, Michael J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1993-01-01

    A fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor. The biosensor is particularly suitable for use in microscale work in situ. In one embodiment, the biosensor comprises a reaction chamber disposed adjacent the distal end of a waveguide and adapted to receive therein a quantity of a sample containing an analyte. Leading into the chamber is a plurality of capillary conduits suitable for introducing into the chamber antibodies or other reagents suitable for selective interaction with a predetermined analyte. Following such interaction, the contents of the chamber may be subjected to an incident energy signal for developing fluorescence within the chamber that is detectable via the optical fiber and which is representative of the presence, i.e. concentration, of the selected analyte. Regeneration of the biosensor is accomplished by replacement of the reagents and/or the analyte, or a combination of these, at least in part via one or more of the capillary conduits. The capillary conduits extend from their respective terminal ends that are in fluid communication with the chamber, away from the chamber to respective location(s) remote from the chamber thereby permitting in situ location of the chamber and remote manipulation and/or analysis of the activity with the chamber.

  10. Research on distributed optical fiber sensing data processing method based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Meifang; Wang, Luling; Wang, Jinming; Yan, Junhong; Zuo, Jing

    2018-01-01

    The pipeline leak detection and leak location problem have gotten extensive attention in the industry. In this paper, the distributed optical fiber sensing system is designed based on the heat supply pipeline. The data processing method of distributed optical fiber sensing based on LabVIEW is studied emphatically. The hardware system includes laser, sensing optical fiber, wavelength division multiplexer, photoelectric detector, data acquisition card and computer etc. The software system is developed using LabVIEW. The software system adopts wavelet denoising method to deal with the temperature information, which improved the SNR. By extracting the characteristic value of the fiber temperature information, the system can realize the functions of temperature measurement, leak location and measurement signal storage and inquiry etc. Compared with traditional negative pressure wave method or acoustic signal method, the distributed optical fiber temperature measuring system can measure several temperatures in one measurement and locate the leak point accurately. It has a broad application prospect.

  11. Miniaturized Optical Tweezers Through Fiber-End Microfabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Liberale, Carlo

    2014-07-30

    Optical tweezers represent a powerful tool for a variety of applications both in biology and in physics, and their miniaturization and full integration is of great interest so as to reduce size (towards portable systems), and to minimize the required intervention from the operator. Optical fibers represent a natural solution to achieve this goal, and here we review the realization of single-fiber optical tweezers able to create a purely optical three-dimensional trap. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  12. Miniaturized Optical Tweezers Through Fiber-End Microfabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Liberale, Carlo; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Rajamanickam, Vijayakumar; Ferrara, Lorenzo; Bragheri, Francesca; Minzioni, Paolo; Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cristiani, Ilaria; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers represent a powerful tool for a variety of applications both in biology and in physics, and their miniaturization and full integration is of great interest so as to reduce size (towards portable systems), and to minimize the required intervention from the operator. Optical fibers represent a natural solution to achieve this goal, and here we review the realization of single-fiber optical tweezers able to create a purely optical three-dimensional trap. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  13. Optical Characterization of Doped Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymer-Optical-Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ayesta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The emission properties of a graded-index thermoplastic polymer optical fiber and a step-index thermosetting one, both doped with rhodamine 6G, have been studied. The work includes a detailed analysis of the amplified spontaneous emission together with a study of the optical gains and losses of the fibers. The photostability of the emission of both types of fibers has also been investigated. Comparisons between the results of both doped polymer optical fibers are presented and discussed.

  14. Fiber-optical microphones and accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio; Bang, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Polymer optical fibers (POFs) are ideal for applications as the sensing element in fiber-optical microphones and accelerometers based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) due to their reduced Young’s Modulus of 3.2GPa, compared to 72GPa of Silica. To maximize the sensitivity and the dynamic range...... of the device the outer diameter and the length of the sensing fiber segment should be as small as possible. To this end we have fabricated 3mm FBGs in single-mode step-index POFs of diameter 115 micron, using 325nm UV writing and a phase-mask technique. 6mm POF sections with FBGs in the center have been glued...... to standard Silica SMF28 fibers. These POF FBGs have been characterized in terms of temperature and strain to find operating regimes with no hysteresis. Commercial fast wavelength interrogators (KHz) are shown to be able to track the thin POF FBGs and they are finally applied in a prototype accelerometer...

  15. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

  16. Single Mode Fiber Optic Transceiver Using Short Wavelength Active Devices In Long Wavelength Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Frederick J.; Campbell, Daniel R.; Corke, Michael; Stowe, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Presently, single mode optical fiber technology is being utilized in systems to supply telephone service to the subscriber. However, in an attempt to be competitive with copper based systems, there are many development programs underway to determine the most cost effective solution while still providing a service that will either satisfy or be upgradeable to satisfy the demands of the consumer for the next 10 to 20 years. One such approach is to combine low cost laser transmitters and silicon receivers, which have been developed for the "compact disc" industry, with fiber that operates in the single mode regime at 1300 nm. In this paper, an optical transceiver will be presented, consisting of a compact disc laser, a silicon detector and a single mode coupler at 1300 nm. A possible system layout is presented which operates at 780 nm bi-directionally for POTS and upgradeable to 1300 nm for video services. There are several important design criteria that have to be considered in the development of such a system which will be addressed. These include: 1. Optimization of coupled power from laser to fiber while maintaining stable launched conditions over a wide range of environmental conditions. 2. Consideration of the multimode operation of the 1300 nm single mode fiber while operating in the 780 nm wavelength region. 3. Development of a low cost pseudo-wavelength division multiplexer for 1300 nm single mode/780 nm multimode operation and a low cost dual mode 50/50, 780 nm splitter using 1300 nm fiber. Details will be given of the design criteria and solution in terms of optimized design. Results of the performance of several prototype devices will be given with indications of the merits of this approach and where further development effort should be applied.

  17. Sensing characteristics of birefringent microstructured polymer optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szczurowski, Marcin K.; Frazao, Orlando; Baptista, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally studied several sensing characteristics of a birefringent microstructured polymer optical fiber. The fiber exhibits a birefringence of the order 2×10-5 at 1.3 μm because of two small holes adjacent to the core. In this fiber, we measured spectral dependence of phase and group mo...

  18. Electrically Insulated Sensing of Respiratory Rate and Heartbeat Using Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Suaste-Gómez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory and heart rates are among the most important physiological parameters used to monitor patients’ health. It is important to design devices that can measure these parameters without risking or altering the subject’s health. In this context, a novel sensing method to monitor simultaneously the heartbeat and respiratory rate signals of patients within an electrically safety environment was developed and tested. An optical fiber-based sensor was used in order to detect two optical phenomena. Photo-plethysmography and the relation between bending radius and attenuation of optical fiber were coupled through a single beam light traveling along this fiber.

  19. Optical modeling of fiber organic photovoltaic structures using a transmission line method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonas, N; Stathopoulos, N A; O'Connor, B T; Bedeloglu, A Celik; Savaidis, S P; Vasiliadis, S

    2017-12-01

    An optical model has been developed and evaluated for the calculation of the external quantum efficiency of cylindrical fiber photovoltaic structures. The model is based on the transmission line theory and has been applied on single and bulk heterojunction fiber-photovoltaic cells. Using this model, optimum design characteristics have been proposed for both configurations, and comparison with experimental results has been assessed.

  20. Utilization of Infrared Fiber Optic in the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fiber optics are finding a place in the automotive industry. Illumination is the primary application today. Soon, however, fiber optics will be used for data communications and sensing applications. Silica fiber optics and plastic fibers are sufficient for illumination and communication applications however, sensing applications involving high temperature measurement and remote gas analysis would benefit from the use of infrared fiber optics. Chalcogonide and heavy metal fluoride glass optical fibers are two good candidates for these applications. Heavy metal fluoride optical fibers are being investigated by NASA for applications requiring transmission in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Zirconium-Barium-Lanthanum-Aluminum-Sodium-Fluoride (ZBLAN) is one such material which has been investigated. This material has a theoretical attenuation coefficient 100 times lower than that of silica and transmits into the mid-IR. However, the measured attenuation coefficient is higher than silica due to impurities and crystallization. Impurities can be taken care of by utilizing cleaner experimental protocol. It has been found that crystallization can be suppressed by processing in reduced gravity. Fibers processed in reduced gravity on the KC135 reduced gravity aircraft were found to be free of crystals while those processed on the ground were found to have crystals. These results will be presented along with plans for producing continuous lengths of ZBLAN optical fiber on board the International Space Station.