WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical emission-line spectra

  1. Inferring physical properties of galaxies from their emission line spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ucci, Graziano; Gallerani, Simona; Pallottini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach based on Supervised Machine Learning (SML) algorithms to infer key physical properties of galaxies (density, metallicity, column density and ionization parameter) from their emission line spectra. We introduce a numerical code (called GAME, GAlaxy Machine learning for Emission lines) implementing this method and test it extensively. GAME delivers excellent predictive performances, especially for estimates of metallicity and column densities. We compare GAME with the most widely used diagnostics (e.g. R$_{23}$, [NII]$\\lambda$6584 / H$\\alpha$ indicators) showing that it provides much better accuracy and wider applicability range. GAME is particularly suitable for use in combination with Integral Field Unit (IFU) spectroscopy, both for rest-frame optical/UV nebular lines and far-infrared/sub-mm lines arising from Photo-Dissociation Regions. Finally, GAME can also be applied to the analysis of synthetic galaxy maps built from numerical simulations.

  2. Gravitational Redshift of Emission Lines in the AGN Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bon, Nataša; Marziani, Paola; Jovanović, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    The detection of gravitationally redshifted optical emission lines has been reported just for a few active galaxies. In this paper we give a short overview of studies that analyzed or exploited the detection of the gravitational redshift in optical AGN spectra. In addition, we tested the consistency of gravitational redshift as the physical origin of the redward shifts observed in their spectra using a sample of $\\approx$ 50 Hamburg-ESO intermediate to high redshift quasars that are among the most luminous quasars known ($10^{47} \\lesssim L \\lesssim 10^{48}$ erg/s), and are expected to host very massive black holes. To this aim we modeled the line profile with accretion disk models around a black hole.

  3. The UV-Optical Albedo of Broad Emission Line Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Korista, K T; Korista, Kirk; Ferland, Gary

    1997-01-01

    We explore the effective UV-optical albedos of a variety of types of broad emission line clouds, as well as their possible effects on the observed spectra of AGN. An important albedo source in moderately ionized ionization-bounded clouds is that due to neutral hydrogen: Rayleigh scattering of continuum photons off the extreme damping wings of Lya. The photons resulting from this scattering mechanism may contribute significantly to the Lya emission line, especially in the very broad wings. In addition, line photons emitted near 1200 Angstroms (e.g., N V 1240) that stream toward the neutral portion of the cloud may be reflected off this Rayleigh scattering mirror, so that they preferentially escape from the illuminated face. Inclusion of this effect can alter predicted emission line strengths and profiles. In more highly-ionized ionization-bounded clouds, Thompson scattering dominates the UV-optical albedo, but this albedo is lessened by the hydrogen gas opacity. These clouds are most reflective on the long wav...

  4. K band SINFONI spectra of two $z \\sim 5$ SMGs: upper limits to the un-obscured star formation from [O II] optical emission line searches

    CERN Document Server

    Couto, Guilherme S; López, Javier Piqueras; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Arribas, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present deep SINFONI K band integral field spectra of two submillimeter (SMG) galaxy systems: BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234, at $z=4.69$ and $4.55$ respectively. Spectra extracted for each object in the two systems do not show any signature of the [O II]$\\lambda\\lambda$3726,29\\AA$\\,$ emission-lines, placing upper flux limits of $3.9$ and $2.5 \\times 10^{-18}\\,$${\\rm erg\\,s^{-1}\\,\\,cm^{-2} \\,}$ for BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234, respectively. Using the relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the luminosity of the [O II] doublet from Kennicutt (1998), we estimate unobscured SFR upper limits of $\\sim$ $10-15\\,\\rm M_\\odot\\,yr^{-1} \\,$ and $\\sim$ $30-40\\,\\rm M_\\odot\\,yr^{-1} \\,$ for the objects of the two systems, respectively. For the SMGs, these values are at least two orders of magnitude lower than those derived from SED and IR luminosities. The differences on the SFR values would correspond to internal extinction of, at least, $3.4 - 4.9$ and $2.1 - 3.6$ mag in the visual for BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0...

  5. Helium shells and faint emission lines from slitless flash spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Cyril; Koutchmy, Serge

    2013-05-01

    At the time of the two last solar total eclipses of August 1st, 2008 in Siberia and July 11th, 2010 in French Polynesia, high frame rate CCD flash spectra were obtained. These eclipses occurred in quiet Sun period and after. The slitless flash spectra show two helium shells, in the weak Paschen α 4686 Å line of the ionized helium HeII and in the neutral helium HeI line at 4713 Å. The extensions of these helium shells are typically 3 Mm. In prominences, the extension of the interface with the corona is much more extended. The observations and analysis of these lines can properly be done only in eclipse conditions, when the intensity threshold reaches the coronal level, and the parasitic scattered light is virtually zero. Under the layers of 1 Mm above the limb, many faint low FIP lines were also seen in emission. These emission lines are superposed on the continuum containing absorption lines. The solar limb can be defined using the weak continuum appearing between the emission lines at the time of the second and third contact. The variations of the singly ionized iron line, the HeI and HeII lines and the continuum intensity are analyzed. The intensity ratio of ionized to neutral helium is studied for evaluating the ionization rate in low layers up to 2 Mm and also around a prominence.

  6. Helium shells and faint emission lines from slitless flash spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Bazin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available At the time of the two last solar total eclipses of August 1st, 2008 in Siberia and July 11th, 2010 in French Polynesia, high frame rate CCD flash spectra were obtained. These eclipses occurred in quiet Sun period and after. The slitless flash spectra show two helium shells, in the weak Paschen α 4686 Å line of the ionized helium HeII and in the neutral helium HeI line at 4713 Å. The extensions of these helium shells are typically 3 Mm. In prominences, the extension of the interface with the corona is much more extended. The observations and analysis of these lines can properly be done only in eclipse conditions, when the intensity threshold reaches the coronal level, and the parasitic scattered light is virtually zero. Under the layers of 1 Mm above the limb, many faint low FIP lines were also seen in emission. These emission lines are superposed on the continuum containing absorption lines. The solar limb can be defined using the weak continuum appearing between the emission lines at the time of the second and third contact. The variations of the singly ionized iron line, the HeI and HeII lines and the continuum intensity are analyzed. The intensity ratio of ionized to neutral helium is studied for evaluating the ionization rate in low layers up to 2 Mm and also around a prominence.

  7. Interpreting the Ionization Sequence in AGN Emission-Line Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Chris T; Baldwin, Jack A; Hewett, Paul C; Ferland, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the physical cause of the great range in the ionization level seen in the spectra of narrow lined active galactic nuclei (AGN). Mean field independent component analysis identifies examples of individual SDSS galaxies whose spectra are not dominated by emission due to star formation (SF), which we designate as AGN. We assembled high S/N ratio composite spectra of a sequence of these AGN defined by the ionization level of their narrow-line regions (NLR), extending down to very low-ionization cases. We used a local optimally emitting cloud (LOC) model to fit emission-line ratios in this AGN sequence. These included the weak lines that can be measured only in the co-added spectra, providing consistency checks on strong line diagnostics. After integrating over a wide range of radii and densities our models indicate that the radial extent of the NLR is the major parameter in determining the position of high to moderate ionization AGN along our sequence, providing a physical interpretation for their ...

  8. Reverberation Mapping of Optical Emission Lines in Five Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fausnaugh, M M; Bentz, M C; Denney, K D; De Rosa, G; Peterson, B M; Kochanek, C S; Pogge, R W; Adams, S M; Barth, A J; Beatty, Thomas G; Bhattacharjee, A; Borman, G A; Boroson, T A; Bottorff, M C; Brown, Jacob E; Brown, Jonathan S; Brotherton, M S; Coker, C T; Crawford, S M; Croxall, K V; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Eracleous, Michael; Joner, M D; Henderson, C B; Holoien, T W -S; Horne, Keith; Hutchison, T; Kaspi, Shai; Kim, S; King, Anthea L; Li, Miao; Lochhaas, Cassandra; Ma, Zhiyuan; MacInnis, F; Manne-Nicholas, E R; Mason, M; Montuori, Carmen; Mosquera, Ana; Mudd, Dale; Musso, R; Nazarov, S V; Nguyen, M L; Okhmat, D N; Onken, Christopher A; Ou-Yang, B; Pancoast, A; Pei, L; Penny, Matthew T; Poleski, Radoslaw; Rafter, Stephen; Romero-Colmenero, E; Runnoe, Jessie; Sand, David J; Schimoia, Jaderson S; Sergeev, S G; Shappee, B J; Simonian, Gregory V; Somers, Garrett; Spencer, M; Starkey, D; Stevens, Daniel J; Tayar, Jamie; Treu, T; Valenti, Stefano; Van Saders, J; Villanueva, S; Villforth, C; Weiss, Yaniv; Winkler, H; Zhu, W

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results from an optical reverberation mapping campaign executed in 2014, targeting the active galactic nuclei (AGN) MCG+08-11-011, NGC 2617, NGC 4051, 3C 382, and Mrk 374. Our targets have diverse and interesting observational properties, including a "changing look" AGN and a broad-line radio galaxy. Based on continuum-H$\\beta$ lags, we measure black hole masses for all five targets. We also obtain H$\\gamma$ and He{\\sc ii}\\,$\\lambda 4686$ lags for all objects except 3C 382. The He{\\sc ii}\\,$\\lambda 4686$ lags indicate radial stratification of the BLR, and the masses derived from different emission lines are in general agreement. The relative responsivities of these lines are also in qualitative agreement with photoionization models. These spectra have extremely high signal-to-noise ratios (100--300 per pixel) and there are excellent prospects for obtaining velocity-resolved reverberation signatures.

  9. The Masses of Distant Galaxies from Optical Emission Line Widths

    CERN Document Server

    Gillespie, E B; Gillespie, Elizabeth Barton; Zee, Liese van

    2002-01-01

    Promising methods for studying galaxy evolution rely on optical emission line width measurements to compare intermediate-redshift objects to galaxies with equivalent masses at the present epoch. However, emission lines can be misleading. We show empirical examples of galaxies with concentrated central star formation from a survey of galaxies in pairs; HI observations of these galaxies indicate that the optical line emission fails to sample their full gravitational potentials. We use simple models of bulge-forming bursts of star formation to demonstrate that compact optical morphologies and small half-light radii can accompany these anomalously narrow emission lines; thus late-type bulges forming on rapid (0.5-1 Gyr) timescales at intermediate redshift would exhibit properties similar to those of heavily bursting dwarfs. We conclude that some of the luminous compact objects observed at intermediate and high redshift may be starbursts in the centers of massive galaxies and/or bulges in formation.

  10. The Nuclear Region of Low Luminosity Flat Radio Spectrum Sources. II. Emission-Line Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, A C

    2004-01-01

    We report on the spectroscopic study of 19 low luminosity Flat Radio Spectrum (LL FRS) sources selected from Marcha's et al. (1996) 200 mJy sample. In the optical, these objects are mainly dominated by the host galaxy starlight. After correcting the data for this effect, we obtain a new set of spectra clearly displaying weak emission lines; such features carry valuable information concerning the excitation mechanisms at work in the nuclear regions of LL FRS sources. We have used a special routine to model the spectra and assess the intensities and velocities of the emission lines; we have analyzed the results in terms of diagnostic diagrams. Our analysis shows that 79% of the studied objects harbour a Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region (or LINER) whose contribution was swamped by the host galaxy starlight. The remaining objects display a higher ionization spectrum, more typical of Seyferts; due to the poor quality of the spectra, it was not possible to identify any possible large Balmer components. T...

  11. Emission lines between 1 and 2 keV in Cometary X-ray Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ewing, Ian; Bodewits, Dennis; Dennerl, Konrad; Lisse, Carey M; Wolk, Scott J

    2012-01-01

    We present the detection of new cometary X-ray emission lines in the 1.0 to 2.0 keV range using a sample of comets observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory and ACIS spectrometer. We have selected 5 comets from the Chandra sample with good signal-to-noise spectra. The surveyed comets are: C/1999 S4 (LINEAR), C/1999 T1 (McNaught-Hartley), 153P/2002 (Ikeya-Zhang), 2P/2003 (Encke), and C/2008 8P (Tuttle). We modeled the spectra with an extended version of our solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission model (Bodewits et al. 2007). Above 1 keV, we find Ikeya-Zhang to have strong emission lines at 1340 and 1850 eV that we identify as being created by solar wind charge exchange lines of Mg XI and Si XIII, respectively, and weaker emission lines at 1470, 1600, and 1950 eV formed by SWCX of Mg XII, Mg XI, and Si XIV, respectively. The Mg XI and XII and Si XIII and XIV lines are detected at a significant level for the other comets in our sample (LS4, MH, Encke, 8P), and these lines promise additional diagnostics to ...

  12. Intensity enhancement of O VI ultraviolet emission lines in solar spectra due to opacity

    CERN Document Server

    Keenan, F P; Madjarska, M S; Rose, S J; Bowler, L A; Britton, J; McCrink, L; Mathioudakis, M

    2014-01-01

    Opacity is a property of many plasmas, and it is normally expected that if an emission line in a plasma becomes optically thick, its intensity ratio to that of another transition that remains optically thin should decrease. However, radiative transfer calculations undertaken both by ourselves and others predict that under certain conditions the intensity ratio of an optically thick to thin line can show an increase over the optically thin value, indicating an enhancement in the former. These conditions include the geometry of the emitting plasma and its orientation to the observer. A similar effect can take place between lines of differing optical depth. Previous observational studies have focused on stellar point sources, and here we investigate the spatially-resolved solar atmosphere using measurements of the I(1032 A)/I(1038 A) intensity ratio of O VI in several regions obtained with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (...

  13. Searching for Dwarf H Alpha Emission-line Galaxies within Voids III: First Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J. Ward; Draper, Christian; McNeil, Stephen; Joner, Michael D.

    2017-02-01

    The presence or absence of dwarf galaxies with {M}r\\prime > -14 in low-density voids is determined by the nature of dark matter halos. To better understand what this nature is, we are conducting an imaging survey through redshifted Hα filters to look for emission-line dwarf galaxies in the centers of two nearby galaxy voids called FN2 and FN8. Either finding such dwarfs or establishing that they are not present is a significant result. As an important step in establishing the robustness of the search technique, we have observed six candidates from the survey of FN8 with the Gillett Gemini telescope and GMOS spectrometer. All of these candidates had emission, although none was Hα. The emission in two objects was the [O iii]λ4959, 5007 doublet plus Hβ, and the emission in the remaining four was the [O ii]λ3727 doublet, all from objects beyond the void. While no objects were within the void, these spectra show that the survey is capable of finding emission-line dwarfs in the void centers that are as faint as {M}r\\prime ˜ -12.4, should they be present. These spectra also show that redshifts estimated from our filtered images are accurate to several hundred km s-1 if the line is identified correctly, encouraging further work in finding ways to conduct redshift surveys through imaging alone.

  14. HST Emission Line Galaxies at z ~ 2: Comparing Physical Properties of Lyman Alpha and Optical Emission Line Selected Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Alex; Behrens, Christoph; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry S Grasshorn; Gronwall, Caryl; Bridge, Joanna S; Fox, Derek B; Schneider, Donald P; Trump, Jonathan R; Blanc, Guillermo A; Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Chonis, Taylor S; Finkelstein, Steven L; Hill, Gary J; Jogee, Shardha; Gawiser, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We compare the physical and morphological properties of z ~ 2 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) identified in the HETDEX Pilot Survey and narrow band studies with those of z ~ 2 optical emission line galaxies (oELGs) identified via HST WFC3 infrared grism spectroscopy. Both sets of galaxies extend over the same range in stellar mass (7.5 < logM < 10.5), size (0.5 < R < 3.0 kpc), and star-formation rate (~1 < SFR < 100). Remarkably, a comparison of the most commonly used physical and morphological parameters -- stellar mass, half-light radius, UV slope, star formation rate, ellipticity, nearest neighbor distance, star formation surface density, specific star formation rate, [O III] luminosity, and [O III] equivalent width -- reveals no statistically significant differences between the populations. This suggests that the processes and conditions which regulate the escape of Ly-alpha from a z ~ 2 star-forming galaxy do not depend on these quantities. In particular, the lack of dependence on ...

  15. Correcting for variable laser-target distances of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements with ChemCam using emission lines of Martian dust spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, A.; Cousin, A.; Lanza, N. L.; Lasue, J.; Clegg, S. M.; Berger, G.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Tokar, R. L.; Bender, S.; Forni, O.; Breves, E. A.; Dyar, M. D.; Frydenvang, J.; Delapp, D.; Gasnault, O.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A. M.; Lewin, E.; Clark, B. C.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Blaney, D.; Fabre, C.

    2014-06-01

    As part of the Mars Science Laboratory, the ChemCam instrument acquires remote laser induced breakdown spectra at distances that vary between 1.56 m and 7 m. This variation in distance affects the intensities of the measured LIBS emission lines in non-trivial ways. To determine the behavior of a LIBS emission line with distance, it is necessary to separate the effects of many parameters such as laser energy, laser spot size, target homogeneity, and optical collection efficiency. These parameters may be controlled in a laboratory on Earth but for field applications or in space this is a challenge. In this paper, we show that carefully selected ChemCam LIBS emission lines acquired from the Martian dust can be used to build an internal proxy spectroscopic standard. This in turn, allows for a direct measurement of the effects of the distance of various LIBS emission lines and hence can be used to correct ChemCam LIBS spectra for distance variations. When tested on pre-launch LIBS calibration data acquired under Martian-like conditions and with controlled and well-calibrated targets, this approach yields much improved agreement between targets observed at various distances. This work lays the foundation for future implementation of automated routines to correct ChemCam spectra for differences caused by variable distance.

  16. The optical emission lines of type 1 X-ray bright Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    La Mura, G; Ciroi, S; Cracco, V; Di Mille, F; Rafanelli, P

    2013-01-01

    A strong X-ray emission is one of the defining signatures of nuclear activity in galaxies. According to the Unified Model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), both the X-ray radiation and the prominent broad emission lines, characterizing the optical and UV spectra of Type 1 AGNs, are originated in the innermost regions of the sources, close to the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH), which power the central engine. Since the emission is concentrated in a very compact region (with typical size $r 2000 km/s) and narrow line (1000 km/s < FWHMH$_{\\rm H\\beta}\\, \\leq$ 2000 km/s) emitting objects, it has been observed that the kinematic and ionization properties of matter close to the SMBHs are related together, and, in particular, that ionization is higher in narrow line sources. Here we report on the study of the optical and X-ray spectra of a sample of Type 1 AGNs, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database, within an upper redshift limit of z = 0.35, and detected at X-ray energies. We present anal...

  17. DETECTION OF REST-FRAME OPTICAL LINES FROM X-SHOOTER SPECTROSCOPY OF WEAK EMISSION-LINE QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Gallo, Elena [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shemmer, Ohad [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Trakhtenbrot, Benny [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Luo, Bin; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Strauss, Michael A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wu, Jianfeng, E-mail: rplotkin@umich.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 6, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Over the past 15 yr, examples of exotic radio-quiet quasars with intrinsically weak or absent broad emission line regions (BELRs) have emerged from large-scale spectroscopic sky surveys. Here, we present spectroscopy of seven such weak emission line quasars (WLQs) at moderate redshifts (z = 1.4–1.7) using the X-shooter spectrograph, which provides simultaneous optical and near-infrared spectroscopy covering the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) through optical. These new observations effectively double the number of WLQs with spectroscopy in the optical rest-frame, and they allow us to compare the strengths of (weak) high-ionization emission lines (e.g., C iv) to low-ionization lines (e.g., Mg ii, Hβ, Hα) in individual objects. We detect broad Hβ and Hα emission in all objects, and these lines are generally toward the weaker end of the distribution expected for typical quasars (e.g., Hβ has rest-frame equivalent widths ranging from 15–40 Å). However, these low-ionization lines are not exceptionally weak, as is the case for high-ionization lines in WLQs. The X-shooter spectra also display relatively strong optical Fe ii emission, Hβ FWHM ≲ 4000 km s{sup −1}, and significant C iv blueshifts (≈1000–5500 km s{sup −1}) relative to the systemic redshift; two spectra also show elevated UV Fe ii emission, and an outflowing component to their (weak) Mg ii emission lines. These properties suggest that WLQs are exotic versions of “wind-dominated” quasars. Their BELRs either have unusual high-ionization components, or their BELRs are in an atypical photoionization state because of an unusually soft continuum.

  18. Correcting for variable laser-target distances of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements with ChemCam using emission lines of Martian dust spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, A. [Optical Science Center for Applied Research, Delaware State University, Dover, DE (United States); Cousin, A.; Lanza, N.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lasue, J. [Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Clegg, S.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berger, G. [Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maurice, S. [Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Tokar, R.L.; Bender, S. [Planetary Science Institute, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Forni, O. [Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Breves, E.A.; Dyar, M.D. [Dept. of Astronomy, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA (United States); Frydenvang, J. [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Delapp, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gasnault, O. [Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.M. [Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Alburquerque, NM (United States); Lewin, E. [Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Universite Grenoble l-CNRS, Grenoble (France); and others

    2014-06-01

    As part of the Mars Science Laboratory, the ChemCam instrument acquires remote laser induced breakdown spectra at distances that vary between 1.56 m and 7 m. This variation in distance affects the intensities of the measured LIBS emission lines in non-trivial ways. To determine the behavior of a LIBS emission line with distance, it is necessary to separate the effects of many parameters such as laser energy, laser spot size, target homogeneity, and optical collection efficiency. These parameters may be controlled in a laboratory on Earth but for field applications or in space this is a challenge. In this paper, we show that carefully selected ChemCam LIBS emission lines acquired from the Martian dust can be used to build an internal proxy spectroscopic standard. This in turn, allows for a direct measurement of the effects of the distance of various LIBS emission lines and hence can be used to correct ChemCam LIBS spectra for distance variations. When tested on pre-launch LIBS calibration data acquired under Martian-like conditions and with controlled and well-calibrated targets, this approach yields much improved agreement between targets observed at various distances. This work lays the foundation for future implementation of automated routines to correct ChemCam spectra for differences caused by variable distance. - Highlights: • Selected Martian dust emission lines are used to correct for variable laser-target distances. • The correction model yields improved agreement between targets observed at various distances. • The impact of the model reduces the bias between predicted and actual compositions by as much as 70%. • When implemented, the model will yield spectral corrections for various ChemCam measurements. • This work is a foundation to perform novel stand-off LIBS measurements on Earth and other planets.

  19. Simultaneous Ultraviolet and Optical Emission-line Profiles of Quasars: Implications for Black Hole Mass Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Luis C; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Greene, Jenny E; Ponti, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The X-shooter instrument on the VLT was used to obtain spectra of seven moderate-redshift quasars simultaneously covering the spectral range 3000 Ang to 2.5 microns. At z ~ 1.5, most of the prominent broad emission lines in the ultraviolet to optical region are captured in their rest frame. We use this unique dataset, which mitigates complications from source variability, to intercompare the line profiles of C IV 1549, C III] 1909, Mg II 2800, and Halpha and evaluate their implications for black hole mass estimation. We confirm that Mg II and the Balmer lines share similar kinematics and that they deliver mutually consistent black hole mass estimates with minimal internal scatter (< 0.1 dex) using the latest virial mass estimators. Although no virial mass formalism has yet been calibrated for C III], this line does not appear promising for such an application because of the large spread of its velocity width compared to lines of both higher and lower ionization; part of the discrepancy may be due to the di...

  20. SYNTHESIZED SPECTRA OF OPTICALLY THIN EMISSION LINES PRODUCED BY THE BIFROST STELLAR ATMOSPHERE CODE, INCLUDING NONEQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION EFFECTS: A STUDY OF THE INTENSITY, NONTHERMAL LINE WIDTHS, AND DOPPLER SHIFTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olluri, K.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H.; Pontieu, B. De, E-mail: kosovare.olluri@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-03-20

    In recent years realistic 3D numerical models of the solar atmosphere have become available. The models attempt to recreate the solar atmosphere and mimic observations in the best way, in order to make it possible to couple complicated observations with physical properties such as the temperatures, densities, velocities, and magnetic fields. We here present a study of synthetic spectra created using the Bifrost code in order to assess how well they fit with previously taken solar data. A study of the synthetic intensity, nonthermal line widths, Doppler shifts, and correlations between any two of these three components of the spectra first assuming statistical equilibrium is made, followed by a report on some of the effects nonequilibrium ionization will have on the synthesized spectra. We find that the synthetic intensities compare well with the observations. The synthetic observations depend on the assumed resolution and point-spread function (PSF) of the instrument, and we find a large effect on the results, especially for intensity and nonthermal line width. The Doppler shifts produce the reported persistent redshifts for the transition region (TR) lines and blueshifts for the upper TR and corona lines. The nonthermal line widths reproduce the well-known turnoff point around (2–3) × 10{sup 5} K, but with much lower values than those observed. The nonthermal line widths tend to increase with decreasing assumed instrumental resolution, also when nonequilibrium ionization is included. Correlations between the nonthermal line width of any two TR line studies as reported by Chae et al. are reproduced, while the correlations of intensity to line width are reproduced only after applying a PSF to the data. Doppler shift correlations reported by Doschek for the TR lines and correlations of Doppler shift to nonthermal line width of the Fe xii{sub 19.5} line reported by Doschek et al. are reproduced.

  1. High resolution catalogue of emission lines in the spectra of comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capria, M. T.; Cremonese, G.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Buzzoni, A.

    2003-04-01

    The comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang was observed at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in Canary Islands with the echelle spectrograph SARG during the night 19-20 of April 2002. One echelle spectrum composed by 55 orders covering the spectral range from 462 to 792 nm with R=57000 was acquired. The observations were performed in the frame of a program aimed to collect, catalogue and identify cometary emission lines in the optical part of the spectral range. In this range many important lines of daughters molecules and ions can be found; most of these lines were detected many times with low resolution spectroscopy, but the cataloguing with high resolution spectroscopy was done until now for few comets, and many lines still remain unidentified. We present here a first version of our catalogue, in which the line identification, based on wavelength coincidence only, is made using as starting line lists the ones compiled by Brown et al. [1] and Cochran and Cochran [2]. The O(1S) and O(1D) metastable lines are also clearly visible in our spectra and well separated from the other cometary and telluric lines, so we present also a preliminary estimate of the ratio of the green and red lines. [1] M.E. Brown et al. (1996) AJ, 112. [2] A. Cochran and D. Cochran (2002) Icarus, 157.

  2. The relative number of Seyfert 2 galaxies. I - Spectra of emission-line galaxies in the Wasilewski field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.; Shaw, Richard A.

    1988-04-01

    Slit spectra were obtained of all the Seyfert galaxy candidates and many other emission-line galaxies discovered (or recovered) by Wasilewski in his objective-prism survey centered on the region of North Galactic Pole. Redshifts and relative emission-line fluxes were measured for these galaxies, and all of their spectra were classified. Per unit volume of space, the relative numbers of Seyfert (1+1.5) to Seyfert (1.8+1.9) to Seyfert 2 are approximately 0.1/0.1/0.8. If the same galaxies were to evolve through all these stages, they would spend most of their AGN lifetimes as Seyfert 2s. If all Seyfert nuclei were similar objects with central broad-line regions hidden by obscuring disks to various extents, the disks would be thick and the line broadening due to any presumed rotational or radial velocity field in the plane of the disk would be greatly reduced by projection effects.

  3. Interpreting the Ionization Sequence in Star-Forming Galaxy Emission-Line Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Chris T; Baldwin, Jack A; Hewett, Paul C; Ferland, Gary J; Crider, Anthony; Meskhidze, Helen

    2016-01-01

    High ionization star forming (SF) galaxies are easily identified with strong emission line techniques such as the BPT diagram, and form an obvious ionization sequence on such diagrams. We use a locally optimally emitting cloud model to fit emission line ratios that constrain the excitation mechanism, spectral energy distribution, abundances and physical conditions along the star-formation ionization sequence. Our analysis takes advantage of the identification of a sample of pure star-forming galaxies, to define the ionization sequence, via mean field independent component analysis. Previous work has suggested that the major parameter controlling the ionization level in SF galaxies is the metallicity. Here we show that the observed SF- sequence could alternatively be interpreted primarily as a sequence in the distribution of the ionizing flux incident on gas spread throughout a galaxy. Metallicity variations remain necessary to model the SF-sequence, however, our best models indicate that galaxies with the hig...

  4. On the origin of the absorption and emission line components in the spectra of PHL 293B

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Terlevich, Roberto; Terlevich, Elena

    2015-01-01

    From the structure of PHL 293B and the physical properties of its ionizing cluster and based on results of hydrodynamic models, we point at the various events required to explain in detail the emission and absorption components seen in its optical spectrum. We ascribe the narrow and well centered emission lines, showing the low metallicity of the galaxy, to an HII region that spans through the main body of the galaxy. The broad emission line components are due to two off-centered supernova remnants evolving within the ionizing cluster volume and the absorption line profiles are due to a stationary cluster wind able to recombine at a close distance from the cluster surface, as originally suggested by Silich et al. (2004). Our numerical models and analytical estimates confirm the ionized and neutral column density values and the inferred X-ray emission derived from the observations.

  5. THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE UV AND OPTICAL Fe ii EMISSION LINES IN TYPE 1 AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacević-Dojcinović, Jelena; Popović, Luka Č., E-mail: jkovacevic@aob.bg.ac.rs, E-mail: lpopovic@aob.bg.ac.rs [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate the spectral properties of the UV (λλ2650–3050 Å) and optical (λλ4000–5500 Å) Fe ii emission features in a sample of 293 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore different correlations between their emission line properties, as well as the correlations with other emission lines from the spectral range. We find several interesting correlations and outline the most interesting results as follows. (i) There is a kinematical connection between the UV and optical Fe ii lines, indicating that the UV and optical Fe ii lines originate from the outer part of the broad line region, the so-called intermediate line region. (ii) The unexplained anticorrelations of the optical Fe ii equivalent width (EW Fe ii{sub opt}) versus EW [O iii] 5007 Å and EW Fe ii{sub opt} versus FWHM Hβ have not been detected for the UV Fe ii lines. (iii) The significant averaged redshift in the UV Fe ii lines, which is not present in optical Fe ii, indicates an inflow in the UV Fe ii emitting clouds, and probably their asymmetric distribution. (iv) Also, we confirm the anticorrelation between the intensity ratio of the optical and UV Fe ii lines and the FWHM of Hβ, and we find the anticorrelations of this ratio with the widths of Mg ii 2800 Å, optical Fe ii, and UV Fe ii. This indicates a very important role for the column density and microturbulence in the emitting gas. We discuss the starburst activity in high-density regions of young AGNs as a possible explanation of the detected optical Fe ii correlations and intensity line ratios of the UV and optical Fe ii lines.

  6. Investigating the Sensitivity of Emission Line Spectra to the Incident SED in Narrow Line Seyferts and LINERs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Christopher; Richardson, Chris T.

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates photoionization models of the Narrow Line Region (NLR) of Seyfert galaxies and Low-Ionization Nuclear Emitting Region (LINER) galaxies with the use of the astrophysical code CLOUDY. Groves et al. 2004 attempted to resolve the apparent uniformity of emission line ratios in the NLR through introducing dusty, radiation pressure-dominated photoionization models of AGN. This model assumed a simple power law relation for the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED). Grupe et al. 2010 found a correlation between αuv and αx, and by constraining αuv as a function of αx we developed a photoionization model for the ionizing spectrum of a typical Seyfert Narrow Line Region. The incident SED is based upon the spectral indices αuv, αx, αox , and the blackbody accretion disk temperature Tbb . We set the value of αox based on the average of data collected in Grupe et al. 2010, and fix the value of αuv to αx based on their linear correlation. To check the validity of our model, simulations were run across a range of blackbody accretion disk temperatures and αx, while fixing the hydrogen density, ionization parameter, and elemental abundance of clouds in the NLR. The emission lines produced by these simulations were plotted using standard diagnostic diagrams and compared to emission line data obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our model produces emission lines without significant variation between simulations with αx = 1.42, 1.17, and 2.19, with Tbb ranging from 104 K to 107 K, except with regard to [O I] λ6300/Hα, where our simulated spectra started to fall on the boundary between Seyferts and LINERs. This leads us to examine the ability of our photoionization model to create emission line spectra that are typical of LINERs, as debate still continues over the primary excitation mechanism for LINERs. To adjust our model to fit LINERs, we lower the value of the ionization parameter and discuss the preliminary results within the context of

  7. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars: gas-phase emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Blake, G. A.; Evans, N. J.

    2010-09-01

    Context. A survey of mid-infrared gas-phase emission lines of H2, H2O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer “Cores to Disks” (c2d) legacy program. Aims: The environment of embedded protostars is complex both in its physical structure (envelopes, outflows, jets, protostellar disks) and the physical processes (accretion, irradiation by UV and/or X-rays, excitation through slow and fast shocks) which take place. The mid-IR spectral range hosts a suite of diagnostic lines which can distinguish them. A key point is to spatially resolve the emission in the Spitzer-IRS spectra to separate extended PDR and shock emission from compact source emission associated with the circumstellar disk and jets. Methods: An optimal extraction method is used to separate both spatially unresolved (compact, up to a few hundred AU) and spatially resolved (extended, thousand AU or more) emission from the IRS spectra. The results are compared with the c2d disk sample and literature PDR and shock models to address the physical nature of the sources. Results: Both compact and extended emission features are observed. Warm (T_ex few hundred K) H2, observed through the pure rotational H2 S(0), S(1) and S(2) lines, and [S i] 25 μm emission is observed primarily in the extended component. [S i] is observed uniquely toward truly embedded sources and not toward disks. On the other hand hot (T_ex ⪆ 700 K) H2, observed primarily through the S(4) line, and [Ne ii] emission is seen mostly in the spatially unresolved component. [Fe ii] and [Si ii] lines are observed in both spatial components. Hot H2O emission is found in the spatially unresolved component of some sources. Conclusions: The observed emission on ≥1000 AU scales is characteristic of PDR emission and likely originates in the outflow cavities in the remnant envelope created by the stellar wind and jets from the embedded

  8. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey II: X-ray Emission and High Ionization Optical Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Berney, Simon; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Lamperti, Isabella; Schawinski, Kevin; Balokovic, Mislav; Crenshaw, D Michael; Fischer, Travis; Gehrels, Neil; Harrison, Fiona; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ichikawa, Kohei; Mushotzky, Richard; Oh, Kyuseok; Stern, Daniel; Treister, Ezequiel; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between X-ray and optical line emission in 340 nearby AGN selected above 10 keV using Swift BAT. We find a weak correlation between the extinction corrected [O III] and hard X-ray luminosity (14-195 keV) with a [OIII] large scatter (R_Pear = 0.64, sigma = 0.62 dex) and a similarly large scatter with the intrinsic 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosities (RPear=0.63, sigma = 0.63 dex). Correlations of the hard X-ray fluxes with the fluxes of high-ionization narrow lines ([O III], He II, [Ne III] and [Ne V]) are not significantly better than with the low ionization lines (Halpha, [SII]). Factors like obscuration or physical slit size are not found to be a significant part of the large scatter. In contrast, the optical emission lines show much better correlations with each other (sigma = 0.3 dex) than with the X-ray flux. The inherent large scatter questions the common usage of narrow emission lines as AGN bolometric luminosity indicators and suggests that other issues such as geometrical...

  9. DETECTION OF BROAD Hα EMISSION LINES IN THE LATE-TIME SPECTRA OF A HYDROGEN-POOR SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Lin; Masci, F. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Quimby, R. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Ofek, E.; Gal-Yam, A.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Leloudas, G.; Cia, A. de; Yaron, O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, D. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cao, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, P. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rebbapragada, Umaa D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Woźniak, P. R., E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.edu [Space and Remote Sensing, ISR-2, MS-B244 Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z = 0.3434, with a slow-evolving light curve and spectral features similar to SN2007bi. It rises in 83–148 days to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}, then decays slowly at 0.015 mag day{sup −1}. The measured ejecta velocity is ∼ 13,000 km s{sup −1}. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (70–220 M{sub ⊙}), and the total radiative and kinetic energy (E{sub rad} ∼ 10{sup 51} erg, E{sub kin} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 53} erg), are typical of slow-evolving H-poor SLSN events. However, the late-time spectrum taken at +251 days (rest, post-peak) reveals a Balmer Hα emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ∼4500 km s{sup −1} and a ∼300 km s{sup −1} blueward shift relative to the narrow component. We interpret this broad Hα emission with a luminosity of ∼2 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup −1} as resulting from the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a discrete H-rich shell, located at a distance of ∼4 × 10{sup 16} cm from the explosion site. This interaction causes the rest-frame r-band LC to brighten at late times. The fact that the late-time spectra are not completely absorbed by the shock-ionized H-shell implies that its Thomson scattering optical depth is likely ≤1, thus setting upper limits on the shell mass ≤30 M{sub ⊙}. Of the existing models, a Pulsational Pair Instability supernova model can naturally explain the observed 30 M{sub ⊙} H-shell, ejected from a progenitor star with an initial mass of (95–150) M{sub ⊙} about 40 years ago. We estimate that at least ∼15% of all SLSNe-I may have late-time Balmer emission lines.

  10. Resolving the optical emission lines of Lya blob 'B1' at z=2.38: another hidden quasar

    OpenAIRE

    Overzier, R. A.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Dijkstra, M.; Hatch, N. A.; Lehnert, M.D.; Villar-Martín, M.; Wilman, R. J.; Zirm, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    We have used the SINFONI near-infrared integral field unit on the VLT to resolve the optical emission line structure of one of the brightest (L~1e44 erg/s) and nearest (z=2.38) of all Lya blobs (LABs). The target, known in the literature as object 'B1' (Francis et al. 1996), lies at a redshift where the main optical emission lines are accessible in the observed near-infrared. We detect luminous [OIII]4959,5007A and Ha emission with a spatial extent of at least 32x40 kpc (4"x5"). The dominant ...

  11. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. V. Optical Spectroscopic Campaign and Emission-line Analysis for NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, L.; Fausnaugh, M. M.; Barth, A. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Bentz, M. C.; De Rosa, G.; Denney, K. D.; Goad, M. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Korista, K. T.; Kriss, G. A.; Pogge, R. W.; Bennert, V. N.; Brotherton, M.; Clubb, K. I.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Filippenko, A. V.; Greene, J. E.; Grier, C. J.; Vestergaard, M.; Zheng, W.; Adams, Scott M.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Bigley, A.; Brown, Jacob E.; Brown, Jonathan S.; Canalizo, G.; Comerford, J. M.; Coker, Carl T.; Corsini, E. M.; Croft, S.; Croxall, K. V.; Deason, A. J.; Eracleous, Michael; Fox, O. D.; Gates, E. L.; Henderson, C. B.; Holmbeck, E.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Jensen, J. J.; Johnson, C. A.; Kelly, P. L.; Kim, S.; King, A.; Lau, M. W.; Li, Miao; Lochhaas, Cassandra; Ma, Zhiyuan; Manne-Nicholas, E. R.; Mauerhan, J. C.; Malkan, M. A.; McGurk, R.; Morelli, L.; Mosquera, Ana; Mudd, Dale; Muller Sanchez, F.; Nguyen, M. L.; Ochner, P.; Ou-Yang, B.; Pancoast, A.; Penny, Matthew T.; Pizzella, A.; Poleski, Radosław; Runnoe, Jessie; Scott, B.; Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Shappee, B. J.; Shivvers, I.; Simonian, Gregory V.; Siviero, A.; Somers, Garrett; Stevens, Daniel J.; Strauss, M. A.; Tayar, Jamie; Tejos, N.; Treu, T.; Van Saders, J.; Vican, L.; Villanueva, S., Jr.; Yuk, H.; Zakamska, N. L.; Zhu, W.; Anderson, M. D.; Arévalo, P.; Bazhaw, C.; Bisogni, S.; Borman, G. A.; Bottorff, M. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Breeveld, A. A.; Cackett, E. M.; Carini, M. T.; Crenshaw, D. M.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Efimova, N. V.; Ely, J.; Evans, P. A.; Ferland, G. J.; Flatland, K.; Gehrels, N.; Geier, S.; Gelbord, J. M.; Grupe, D.; Gupta, A.; Hall, P. B.; Hicks, S.; Horenstein, D.; Horne, Keith; Hutchison, T.; Im, M.; Joner, M. D.; Jones, J.; Kaastra, J.; Kaspi, S.; Kelly, B. C.; Kennea, J. A.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. C.; Klimanov, S. A.; Lee, J. C.; Leonard, D. C.; Lira, P.; MacInnis, F.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I. M.; Montouri, C.; Musso, R.; Nazarov, S. V.; Netzer, H.; Norris, R. P.; Nousek, J. A.; Okhmat, D. N.; Papadakis, I.; Parks, J. R.; Pott, J.-U.; Rafter, S. E.; Rix, H.-W.; Saylor, D. A.; Schnülle, K.; Sergeev, S. G.; Siegel, M.; Skielboe, A.; Spencer, M.; Starkey, D.; Sung, H.-I.; Teems, K. G.; Turner, C. S.; Uttley, P.; Villforth, C.; Weiss, Y.; Woo, J.-H.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zu, Y.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic monitoring program targeting NGC 5548 as part of a larger multiwavelength reverberation mapping campaign. The campaign spanned 6 months and achieved an almost daily cadence with observations from five ground-based telescopes. The Hβ and He ii λ4686 broad emission-line light curves lag that of the 5100 Å optical continuum by {4.17}-0.36+0.36 {days} and {0.79}-0.34+0.35 {days}, respectively. The Hβ lag relative to the 1158 Å ultraviolet continuum light curve measured by the Hubble Space Telescope is ∼50% longer than that measured against the optical continuum, and the lag difference is consistent with the observed lag between the optical and ultraviolet continua. This suggests that the characteristic radius of the broad-line region is ∼50% larger than the value inferred from optical data alone. We also measured velocity-resolved emission-line lags for Hβ and found a complex velocity-lag structure with shorter lags in the line wings, indicative of a broad-line region dominated by Keplerian motion. The responses of both the Hβ and He ii emission lines to the driving continuum changed significantly halfway through the campaign, a phenomenon also observed for C iv, Lyα, He ii(+O iii]), and Si iv(+O iv]) during the same monitoring period. Finally, given the optical luminosity of NGC 5548 during our campaign, the measured Hβ lag is a factor of five shorter than the expected value implied by the R BLR–L AGN relation based on the past behavior of NGC 5548.

  12. Mid-Infrared Atomic Fine-Structure Emission Line Spectra of Luminous Infrared Galaxies: Spitzer/IRS Spectra of the GOALS Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Inami, H; Charmandaris, V; Groves, B; Kewley, L; Petric, A; Stierwalt, S; Díaz-Santos, T; Surace, J; Rich, J; Haan, S; Howell, J; Evans, A; Mazzarella, J; Marshall, J; Appleton, P; Lord, S; Spoon, H; Frayer, D; Matsuhara, H; Veilleux, S

    2013-01-01

    We present the data and our analysis of MIR fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/IRS high-res spectra of 202 local LIRGs observed as part of the GOALS project. We detect emission lines of [SIV], [NeII], [NeV], [NeIII], [SIII]18.7, [OIV], [FeII], [SIII]33.5, and [SiII]. Over 75% of our galaxies are classified as starburst (SB) sources in the MIR. We compare ratios of the emission line fluxes to stellar photo- and shock-ionization models to constrain the gas properties in the SB nuclei. Comparing the [SIV]/[NeII] and [NeIII]/[NeII] ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the line ratios suggest that the SB in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5Myr, metallicities of 1-2Z_sun, and ionization parameters of 2-8e7cm/s. Based on the [SIII]/[SIII] ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei has a median electron density of ~300cm-3 for sources above the low density limit. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 SB sources. A significant fraction of the ...

  13. Nuclear activity versus star formation: emission-line diagnostics at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Feltre, Anna; Gutkin, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the context of observations of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical emission from distant galaxies, we explore the emission-line properties of photoionization models of active and inactive galaxies. Our aim is to identify new line-ratio diagnostics to discriminate between gas photoionization by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star formation. We use a standard photoionization code to compute the emission from AGN narrow-line regions and compare this with calculations of the nebular emission from star-forming galaxies achieved using the same code. We confirm the appropriateness of widely used optical spectral diagnostics of nuclear activity versus star formation and explore new diagnostics at ultraviolet wavelengths. We find that combinations of a collisionally excited metal line or line multiplet, such as CIV 1548,1551, OIII]1661,1666, NIII]1750, [SiIII]1883+[SiIII]1892 and [CIII]1907+CIII]1909, with the HeII 1640 recombination line are individually good discriminants of the nature of the ionizing source...

  14. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars: gas-phase emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lahuis, Fred; Jørgensen, Jes K; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J

    2010-01-01

    A survey of mid-IR gas-phase emission lines of H2, H2O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" (c2d) legacy program. The environment of embedded protostars is complex both in its physical structure (envelopes, outflows, jets, protostellar disks) and the physical processes (accretion, irradiation by UV and/or X-rays, excitation through slow and fast shocks) which take place. A key point is to spatially resolve the emission in the Spitzer-IRS spectra. An optimal extraction method is used to separate both spatially unresolved (compact, up to a few 100 AU) and spatially resolved (extended, 1000 AU or more) emission from the IRS spectra. The results are compared with the c2d disk sample and literature PDR and shock models to address the physical nature of the sources. Both compact and extended emission features are observed. Warm (Tex few 100 K) H2, observed through the pure rotatio...

  15. Ultraviolet emission lines of Si II in cool star and solar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Laha, Sibasish; ferland, Gary J; Ramsbottom, Catherine A; Aggarwal, Kanti M; Ayres, Thomas R; Chatzikos, Marios; van Hoof, Peter A M; Williams, Robin J R

    2015-01-01

    Recent atomic physics calculations for Si II are employed within the Cloudy modelling code to analyse Hubble Space Telescope (HST) STIS ultraviolet spectra of three cool stars, Beta-Geminorum, Alpha-Centauri A and B, as well as previously published HST/GHRS observations of Alpha-Tau, plus solar quiet Sun data from the High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph. Discrepancies found previously between theory and observation for line intensity ratios involving the 3s$^{2}$3p $^{2}$P$_{J}$--3s3p$^{2}$ $^{4}$P$_{J^{\\prime}}$ intercombination multiplet of Si II at 2335 Angs are significantly reduced, as are those for ratios containing the 3s$^{2}$3p $^{2}$P$_{J}$--3s3p$^{2}$ $^{2}$D$_{J^{\\prime}}$ transitions at 1816 Angs. This is primarily due to the effect of the new Si II transition probabilities. However, these atomic data are not only very different from previous calculations, but also show large disagreements with measurements, specifically those of Calamai et. al. (1993) for the intercombination lines. New m...

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectra of 7 Hα emission line stars in MBM 18 (Brand+ 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Magnani, L.

    2012-10-01

    Data in tabular form (wavelength and flux) are presented of the spectra of seven candidate Hα emission line stars in the direction of translucent cloud MBM 18. The data were obtained on 5 different nights in 2009 and 2010 with the 3.58-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG; La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain). The spectra are shown in the appendix of the paper, only visible in the on line version. The spectra were taken with the low-resolution spectrograph DOLORES on the TNG, using long-slit spectroscopy. We used grism VHR-R, which covers a wavelength range of 6240-7720 Angstrom with a dispersion of 0.80Å/pix. The scale of the CCD detector is 0.252 arcsec/pixel. The observations were carried out with a slit width of 1 or 1.5 arcsec, depending on the seeing, resulting in a spectral resolution of 3.2Å and 4.8Å, respectively. To avoid problems with cosmic rays, 2 to 4 separate spectra per star were obtained. Two of the stars (Ha4 and Ha6) were observed simultaneously with another target (Ha1 and Ha5, respectively) by positioning the slit at an appropriate angle. The integration time was based on the brighter star in the slit, thus the signal-to-noise ratio for the other target is smaller than for the primary one. To allow absolute flux calibration the standard star Feige24 or Feige34 (for Ha5-Ha6) was observed immediately before or after the target observations, using the same instrumental setup as for the target observations. Flat-fielding was performed using 10 (5 for Ha5-Ha6) frames, which were uniformly illuminated by a halogen lamp. Wavelength calibration was performed using an arc-spectrum of an Ar, Ne+Hg, and Kr lamp, or a Ne+Hg (for Ha7) comparison lamp. A bias frame, to be subtracted from the other frames before analysis, was constructed from ten individual bias frames. Flat-, arc-, and bias-frames were obtained on the same day as the science observations and with the same instrumental setup. Data were reduced with the IRAF package. From all science frames a

  17. Intranight Optical Variability of Radio-Quiet Weak Emission Line Quasars-IV

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Parveen; Gopal-Krishna,

    2016-01-01

    We report an extension of our program to search for radio-quiet BL Lac candidates using intra-night optical variability (INOV) as a probe. The present INOV observations cover a well-defined representative set of 10 `radio-quiet weak-emission-line quasars' (RQWLQs), selected from a newly published sample of 46 such sources, derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Data release 7). Intra-night CCD monitoring of the 10 RQWLQs was carried out in 18 sessions lasting at least 3.5 hours. For each session, differential light curves (DLCs) of the target RQWLQ were derived relative to two steady comparison stars monitored simultaneously. Combining these new data with those already published by us for 15 RQWLQs monitored in 30 sessions, we estimate an INOV duty cycle of $\\sim 3\\%$ for the RQWLQs, which appears inconsistent with BL Lacs. However, the observed INOV events (which occurred in just two of the sessions) are strong (with a fractional variability amplitude $\\psi >$ 10\\%), hence blazar-like. We briefly point o...

  18. Intranight optical variability of radio-quiet weak emission line quasars - IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Chand, Hum; Gopal-Krishna

    2016-09-01

    We report an extension of our programme to search for radio-quiet BL Lac candidates using intranight optical variability (INOV) as a probe. The present INOV observations cover a well-defined representative set of 10 `radio-quiet weak-emission-line quasars' (RQWLQs), selected from a newly published sample of 46 such sources, derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Data release 7). Intranight CCD monitoring of the 10 RQWLQs was carried out in 18 sessions lasting at least 3.5 h. For each session, differential light curves of the target RQWLQ were derived relative to two steady comparison stars monitored simultaneously. Combining these new data with those already published by us for 15 RQWLQs monitored in 30 sessions, we estimate an INOV duty cycle of ˜3 per cent for the RQWLQs, which appears inconsistent with BL Lacs. However, the observed INOV events (which occurred in just two of the sessions) are strong (with a fractional variability amplitude ψ > 10 per cent), hence blazar-like. We briefly point out the prospects of an appreciable rise in the estimated INOV duty cycle for RQWLQs with a relatively modest increase in sensitivity for monitoring these rather faint objects.

  19. Optical Emission Lines from Warm Interstellar Clouds a Decisive Test of the Decaying Neutrino Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sciama, Dennis William

    1998-01-01

    Recently developed instruments such as the Taurus Tunable Filter and WHAM should be able to detect some or all of the optical emission lines H$\\alpha$, [OI] $\\lambda$6300, [SII] $\\lambda$6717, [NI] $\\lambda$ 5200 and [NII] $&$ Fitzpatrick (1993) (SF) along the line of sight to the halo star HD93521. The strengths of these lines should resolve the debate as to whether the free electrons, which SF held responsible for the observed excitation of CII in the clouds, are located mainly in the skins of the clouds or in their interiors. If the free electrons are indeed mainly located in the cloud interiors, then the substantial electron density derived by SF, and its constancy from cloud to cloud for the slow-moving clouds, when combined with their opacity to Lyman continuum radiation, lend strong support to the decaying neutrino theory for the ionisation of the interstellar medium (Sciama 1990, 1993 a, b, 1997). If the [OI] and [NI] lines are relatively strong but the [NII] line is weak, then this would lend fur...

  20. The [OIII] emission line luminosity function of optically selected type-2 AGN from zCOSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, A; Zamorani, G; Lamareille, F; Lanzuisi, G; Miyaji, T; Bolzonella, M; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Kneib, J P; Le Fèvre, O; Lilly, S J; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Bardelli, S; Brusa, M; Caputi, K; Civano, F; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Halliday, C; Hasinger, G; Koekemoer, A M; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Merloni, A; Nair, P; Pello, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Salvato, M; Silverman, J; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Guzzo, L; Leauthaud, A; Maccagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Pozzetti, L; Scaramella, R

    2009-01-01

    We present a catalog of 213 type-2 AGN selected from the zCOSMOS survey. The selected sample covers a wide redshift range (0.15optical emission line ratios, after applying a cut to the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the relevant lines. We used the standard diagnostic diagrams [OIII]/Hbeta versus [NII]/Halpha and ([OIII]/Hbeta versus [SII]/Halpha) to isolate AGN in the redshift range 0.15

  1. Diagnosis of lubricating oil by evaluating cyanide and carbon molecular emission lines in laser induced breakdown spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnasharty, I. Y.; Kassem, A. K.; Sabsabi, M.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-08-01

    To prevent engine failure it is essential to change lubricating oil regularly before it loses its protective properties. It is also necessary to monitor the physical and chemical conditions of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change intervals. The present work focuses on studying evolution of the cyanide (CN) and carbon (C 2) molecular spectral emission lines in the laser induced breakdown spectra of lubricating oil as a function of its consumption. The intensities of these molecular bands have been taken as indicator of engine oil degradation at certain mileage. Furthermore, the percentage of decay of CN and C 2 integral intensity values at the corresponding mileage was calculated in order to relate it to the degree of consumption of the motor oil. Such percentage decay of the CN and C 2 integral intensities have been found to increase gradually with increasing mileage which is accompanied with increasing depletion of engine oil. The results of using LIBS technique in the present measurements proved that it is possible to have a direct, straightforward and easy method for prediction of lubricating oil degree of consumption. This may facilitate scheduling the proper time and/or mileage intervals for changing the oil to avoid any possibility of engine failure.

  2. Early Results from the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey: C III Emission Lines in Of Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Walborn, Nolan R; Apellaniz, Jesus Maiz; Alfaro, Emilio J; Morrell, Nidia I; Barba, Rodolfo H; Arias, Julia I; Gamen, Roberto C

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of an extensive new spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, we introduce the Ofc category, which consists of normal spectra with C III \\lambda\\lambda4647-4650-4652 emission lines of comparable intensity to those of the Of defining lines N III \\lambda\\lambda4634-4640-4642. The former feature is strongly peaked to spectral type O5, at all luminosity classes, but preferentially in some associations or clusters and not others. The relationships of this phenomenon to the selective C III \\lambda5696 emission throughout the normal Of domain, and to the peculiar, variable Of?p category, for which strong C III \\lambda\\lambda4647-4650-4652 emission is a defining characteristic, are discussed. Magnetic fields have recently been detected on two members of the latter category. We also present two new extreme Of?p stars, NGC 1624-2 and CPD -28^{\\circ}2561, bringing the number known in the Galaxy to five. Modeling of the behavior of these spectral features can be expected to better define the physical paramet...

  3. Discovery of Rubidium, Cadmium, and Germanium Emission Lines in the Near-Infrared Spectra of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C; Kaplan, Kyle F; Bautista, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We identify [Rb IV] 1.5973 and [Cd IV] 1.7204 micron emission lines in high-resolution (R=40,000) near-infrared spectra of the planetary nebulae (PNe) NGC 7027 and IC 5117, obtained with the IGRINS spectrometer on the 2.7-m telescope at McDonald Observatory. We also identify [Ge VI] 2.1930 $\\mu$m in NGC 7027. Alternate identifications for these features are ruled out based on the absence of other multiplet members and/or transitions with the same upper levels. Ge, Rb, and Cd can be enriched in PNe by s-process nucleosynthesis during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage of evolution. To determine ionic abundances, we calculate [Rb IV] collision strengths and use approximations for those of [Cd IV] and [Ge VI]. Our identification of [Rb IV] 1.5973 $\\mu$m is supported by the agreement between Rb3+/H+ abundances found from this line and the 5759.55 A feature in NGC 7027. Elemental Rb, Cd, and Ge abundances are derived with ionization corrections based on similarities in ionization potential ranges between the ...

  4. Resolving the optical emission lines of Lya blob 'B1' at z=2.38: another hidden quasar

    CERN Document Server

    Overzier, R A; Dijkstra, M; Hatch, N A; Lehnert, M D; Villar-Martín, M; Wilman, R J; Zirm, A W

    2013-01-01

    We have used the SINFONI near-infrared integral field unit on the VLT to resolve the optical emission line structure of one of the brightest (L~1e44 erg/s) and nearest (z=2.38) of all Lya blobs (LABs). The target, known in the literature as object 'B1' (Francis et al. 1996), lies at a redshift where the main optical emission lines are accessible in the observed near-infrared. We detect luminous [OIII]4959,5007A and Ha emission with a spatial extent of at least 32x40 kpc (4"x5"). The dominant optical emission line component shows relatively broad lines (600-800 km/s, FWHM) and line ratios consistent with AGN-photoionization. The new evidence for AGN photoionization, combined with previously detected CIV and luminous, warm infrared emission, suggest that B1 is the site of a hidden quasar. This is confirmed by the fact that [OII] is relatively weak compared to [OIII] (extinction-corrected [OIII]/[OII] of about 3.8), which is indicative of a high, Seyfert-like ionization parameter. From the [OIII] luminosity we i...

  5. DISCOVERY OF RUBIDIUM, CADMIUM, AND GERMANIUM EMISSION LINES IN THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRA OF PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, N. C. [Department of Physics, University of West Georgia, 1601 Maple Street, Carrollton, GA 30118 (United States); Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Kaplan, Kyle F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Bautista, Manuel A., E-mail: nsterlin@westga.edu, E-mail: harriet@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: kfkaplan@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: manuel.bautista@wmich.edu [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We identify [Rb iv] 1.5973 and [Cd iv] 1.7204 μm emission lines in high-resolution (R = 40,000) near-infrared spectra of the planetary nebulae (PNe) NGC 7027 and IC 5117, obtained with the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) on the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. We also identify [Ge vi] 2.1930 μm in NGC 7027. Alternate identifications for these features are ruled out based on the absence of other multiplet members and/or transitions with the same upper levels. Ge, Rb, and Cd can be enriched in PNe by s-process nucleosynthesis during the asymptotic giant branch stage of evolution. To determine ionic abundances, we calculate [Rb iv] collision strengths and use approximations for those of [Cd iv] and [Ge vi]. Our identification of [Rb iv] 1.5973 μm is supported by the agreement between Rb{sup 3+}/H{sup +} abundances found from this line and the 5759.55 Å feature in NGC 7027. Elemental Rb, Cd, and Ge abundances are derived with ionization corrections based on similarities in ionization potential ranges between the detected ions and O and Ne ionization states. Our analysis indicates abundances 2–4 times solar for Rb and Cd in both nebulae. Ge is subsolar in NGC 7027, but its abundance is uncertain due to the large and uncertain ionization correction. The general consistency of the measured relative s-process enrichments with predictions from models appropriate for these PNe (2.0–2.5 M{sub ⊙}, [Fe/H] = −0.37) demonstrates the potential of using PN compositions to test s-process nucleosynthesis models.

  6. Estimation of Mass-Loss Rates from Emission Line Profiles in the UV Spectra of Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Robinson, R. D.; Harper, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    The photon-scattering winds of cool, low-gravity stars (K-M giants and supergiants) produce absorption features in the strong chromospheric emission lines. This provides us with an opportunity to assess important parameters of the wind, including flow and turbulent velocities, the optical depth of the wind above the region of photon creation, and the star's mass-loss rate. We have used the Lamers et al. Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) radiative transfer code along with simple models of the outer atmospheric structure to compute synthetic line profiles for comparison with the observed line profiles. The SEI code has the advantage of being computationally fast and allows a great number of possible wind models to be examined. We therefore use it here to obtain initial first-order estimates of the wind parameters. More sophisticated, but more time-consuming and resource intensive calculations will be performed at a later date, using the SEI-deduced wind parameters as a starting point. A comparison of the profiles over a range of wind velocity laws, turbulence values, and line opacities allows us to constrain the wind parameters, and to estimate the mass-loss rates. We have applied this analysis technique (using lines of Mg II, 0 I, and Fe II) so far to four stars: the normal K5-giant alpha Tau, the hybrid K-giant gamma Dra, the K5 supergiant lambda Vel, and the M-giant gamma Cru. We present in this paper a description of the technique, including the assumptions which go into its use, an assessment of its robustness, and the results of our analysis.

  7. Searching double-peaked emission line profiles in the spectra of galaxies through the symmetry of the cross-correlation function

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Lorenzo, B

    2012-01-01

    The presence of double-peaked/multicomponent emission line profiles in spectra of galaxies is commonly done by visual inspection. However, the identification of complex emission line profiles by eye is unapproachable for large databases such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) or the integral field spectroscopy surveys of galaxies (e.g. CALIFA or MaNGA). We describe a quick method involving the cross-correlation technique for detecting the presence of complex (double-peaked or multiple components) profiles in the spectra of galaxies, deriving simultaneously a first estimation of the velocity dispersions and radial velocities of the dominant gaseous component. We illustrate the proposed procedure with the well-known complex [OIII]4959,5007 profiles of the central region of NGC1068.

  8. Deep spectroscopy of the FUV-optical emission lines from a sample of radio galaxies at z~2.5: metallicity and ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, A; Vernet, J; Fosbury, R; Alighieri, S di Serego; Binette, L

    2007-01-01

    We present long-slit NIR spectra, obtained using the ISAAC instrument at the Very Large Telescope, for nine radio galaxies at z~2.5. One-dimensional spectra have been extracted and cross calibrated with optical spectra from the literature to produce line spectra spanning a rest wavelength of ~1200-7000 A. We have also produced a composite of the rest-frame UV-optical line fluxes of powerful, z~2.5 radio galaxies. We have investigated the relative strengths of Ly-alpha, H-beta, H-alpha, HeII 1640 and HeII 4687, and we find that Av can vary significantly from object to object. In addition, we identify new line ratios to calculate electron temperature: [NeV] 1575/[NeV] 3426, [NeIV] 1602/[NeIV] 2423, OIII] 1663/[OIII] 5008 and [OII] 2471/[OII]3728. We model the emission line spectra and conclude they are best explained by AGN-photoionization with the ionization parameter U varying between objects. Single slab photoionization models are unable to reproduce the high- and the low-ionization lines simultaneously: thi...

  9. Rest-Frame Optical Emission Lines in z~3.5 Lyman Break selected Galaxies: The Ubiquity of Unusually High [OIII]/Hbeta Ratios at 2 Gyr

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, B P; Gonzalez, V G; Illingworth, G D; Labbe, I; Bouwens, R; Franx, M; van Dokkum, P; Spitler, L

    2014-01-01

    We present K-band spectra of rest-frame optical emission lines for 24 star-forming galaxies at z~3.2-3.7 using MOSFIRE on the Keck 1 telescope. Strong rest-frame optical [O III] and Hbeta emission lines were detected in 18 LBGs. The median flux ratio of [O III]5007 to Hbeta is 5.1+/-0.5, a factor of 5-10x higher than in local galaxies with similar stellar masses. The observed Hbeta luminosities are in good agreement with expectations from the estimated star-formation rates, and none of our sources are detected in deep X-ray stacks, ruling out significant contamination by active galactic nuclei. Combining our sample with a variety of LBGs from the literature, including 49 galaxies selected in a very similar manner, we find a high median ratio of [OIII]/Hbeta = 4.8+0.8-1.7. This high ratio seems to be an ubiquitous feature of z~3-4 LBGs, very different from typical local star-forming galaxies at similar stellar masses. The only comparable systems at z~0 are those with similarly high specific star-formation rate...

  10. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars : gas-phase emission lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Blake, G. A.; Evans, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. A survey of mid-infrared gas-phase emission lines of H(2), H(2)O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" (c2d) legacy program. Aims. The environment of embed

  11. Dust attenuation of the nebular regions and optical emission lines of $z\\sim2$ star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    de Barros, S; Shivaei, I

    2015-01-01

    We use a sample of 149 spectroscopically confirmed UV-selected galaxies at $z\\sim 2$ to investigate the relative dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and the nebular emission lines. For each galaxy in the sample, at least one rest-frame optical emission line (H$\\alpha$/[NII]$\\lambda6583$ or [OIII]$\\lambda5007$) measurement has been taken from the litterature, and 41 galaxies have additional Spitzer/MIPS 24$\\mu$m observations that are used to infer infrared luminosities. We use a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code that predicts nebular line strengths when fitting the stellar populations of galaxies in our sample, and we perform comparisons between the predictions of our models and the observed/derived physical quantities. We find that on average our code is able to reproduce all the physical quantities (e.g., UV $\\beta$ slopes, infrared luminosities, emission line fluxes), but we need to apply a higher dust correction to the nebular emission compared to the stellar emission for the largest SF...

  12. Deriving the Extinction to Young Stellar Objects using [Fe II] Near-infrared Emission Lines: Prescriptions from GIANO High-resolution Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchioli, T.; Sanna, N.; Massi, F.; Oliva, E.

    2016-07-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) emission lines of Fe+ at 1.257, 1.321, and 1.644 μm share the same upper level; their ratios can then be exploited to derive the extinction to a line emitting region once the relevant spontaneous emission coefficients are known. This is commonly done, normally from low-resolution spectra, in observations of shocked gas from jets driven by Young Stellar Objects. In this paper we review this method, provide the relevant equations, and test it by analyzing high-resolution (R ∼ 50,000) NIR spectra of two young stars, namely the Herbig Be star HD 200775 and the Be star V1478 Cyg, which exhibit intense emission lines. The spectra were obtained with the new GIANO echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Notably, the high-resolution spectra allowed checking the effects of overlapping telluric absorption lines. A set of various determinations of the Einstein coefficients are compared to show how much the available computations affect extinction derivation. The most recently obtained values are probably good enough to allow reddening determination within 1 visual mag of accuracy. Furthermore, we show that [Fe ii] line ratios from low-resolution pure emission-line spectra in general are likely to be in error due to the impossibility to properly account for telluric absorption lines. If low-resolution spectra are used for reddening determinations, we advice that the ratio 1.644/1.257, rather than 1.644/1.321, should be used, being less affected by the effects of telluric absorption lines.

  13. The SMARTS Multi-epoch Optical Spectroscopy Atlas (SAMOSA): Using Emission Line Variability to Probe the Location of the Blazar Gamma-emitting Region

    CERN Document Server

    Isler, Jedidah C; Bailyn, C; Smith, P S; Coppi, P; Brady, M; Macpherson, E; Hasan, I; Buxton, M

    2015-01-01

    We present multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of seven southern Fermi-monitored blazars from 2008 - 2013 using the Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS), with supplemental spectroscopy and polarization data from the Steward Observatory. We find that the emission lines are much less variable than the continuum; 4 of 7 blazars had no detectable emission line variability over the 5 years. This is consistent with photoionization primarily by an accretion disk, allowing us to use the lines as a probe of disk activity. Comparing optical emission line flux with Fermi $\\gamma$-ray flux and optical polarized flux, we investigate whether relativistic jet variability is related to the accretion flow. In general, we see no such dependence, suggesting the jet variability is likely caused by internal processes like turbulence or shock acceleration rather than a variable accretion rate. However, three sources showed statistically significant emission line flares in close temporal proximity to very large...

  14. Shock-ionization in the Extended Emission-Line Region of 3C~305. The last piece of the (optical) puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Reynaldi, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    We present new Gemini spectroscopical data of the Extended Emission-Line Region of 3C~305 radio galaxy in order to achieve the final answer of the long-standing question about the ionizing mechanism. The spectra show strong kinematic disturbances within the most intense line-emitting region. The relative intensities amongst the emission lines agree with the gas being shocked during the interaction of the powerful radio jets with the ambient medium. The emission from the recombination region acts as a very effective cooling mechanism, which is supported by the presence of a neutral outflow. However, the observed intensity is almost an order of magnitude lower than expected in a pure shock model. So auto-ionizing shock models, in low-density and low-abundance regime, are required in order to account for the observed emission within the region. This scenario also supports the hypothesis that the optical emitting gas and the X-ray plasma are in pressure balance.

  15. The Search for Binary Black holes in Seyferts with Double Peaked Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Kharb, P; Subramanian, S; Paragi, Z

    2015-01-01

    We discuss results from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of two Seyfert galaxies with double peaked emission lines in their SDSS optical spectra. Such AGN are potential candidates for the presence of binary black holes, which can be resolved on parsec-scales with VLBI. Our observations do not detect twin radio cores but rather nuclear outflows in these Seyferts. These outflows could be interacting with the emission line clouds producing the double peaks in the emission lines.

  16. Deriving the extinction to young stellar objects using [FeII] near-infrared emission lines. Prescriptions from GIANO high-resolution spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pecchioli, Tommaso; Massi, Fabrizio; Oliva, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    The near-infrared emission lines of Fe$^{+}$ at 1.257, 1.321, and 1.644 $\\mu$m share the same upper level; their ratios can then be exploited to derive the extinction to a line emitting region once the relevant spontaneous emission coefficients are known. This is commonly done, normally from low-resolution spectra, in observations of shocked gas from jets driven by Young Stellar Objects. In this paper we review this method, provide the relevant equations, and test it by analyzing high-resolution ($R \\sim 50000$) near-infrared spectra oftwo young stars, namely the Herbig Be star HD 200775 and the Be star V1478 Cyg, which exhibit intense emission lines. The spectra were obtained with the new GIANO echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Notably, the high-resolution spectra allowed checking the effects of overlapping telluric absorption lines. A set of various determinations of the Einstein coefficients are compared to show how much the available computations affect extinction derivation. The m...

  17. The Diverse Nature of Optical Emission Lines in Brightest Cluster Galaxies: IFU Observations of the Central Kiloparsecs

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, L O V; Mollá, M; McGee, S L

    2009-01-01

    We present integral field spectroscopy of the nebular line emission in a sample of 9 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). The sample was chosen to probe both cooling flow and non-cooling flow clusters, as well as a range of cluster X-ray luminosities. The line emission morphology and velocity gradients suggest a great diversity in the properties of the line emitting gas. While some BGCs show evidence for filamentary or patchy emission (Abell 1060, Abell 1668 and MKW3s), others have extended emission (Abell 1204, Abell 2199), while still others have centrally concentrated emission (Abell 2052). We examine diagnostic line ratios to determine the dominant ionization mechanisms in each galaxy. Most of the galaxies show regions with AGN-like spectra, however for two BCGs, Abell 1060 and Abell 1204, the emission line diagnostics suggest regions which can be described by the emission from young stellar populations. The diversity of emission line properties in our sample of BCGs suggests that the emission mechanism is ...

  18. Gaia-ESO Survey: Gas dynamics in the Carina Nebula through optical emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, F; Magrini, L; Prisinzano, L; Mapelli, M; Micela, G; Kalari, V; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Alfaro, E; Flaccomio, E; Koposov, S; Klutsch, A; Lanzafame, A C; Pancino, E; Sacco, G G; Bayo, A; Carraro, G; Casey, A R; Costado, M T; Franciosini, E; Hourihane, A; Lardo, C; Lewis, J; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Worley, C; Zaggia, S; Zwitter, T; Dorda, R

    2016-01-01

    We present observations from the Gaia-ESO Survey in the lines of H$\\alpha$, [N II], [S II] and He I of nebular emission in the central part of the Carina Nebula. We investigate the properties of the two already known kinematic components (approaching and receding, respectively), which account for the bulk of emission. Moreover, we investigate the features of the much less known low-intensity high-velocity (absolute RV $>$50 km/s) gas emission. We show that gas giving rise to H$\\alpha$ and He I emission is dynamically well correlated, but not identical, to gas seen through forbidden-line emission. Gas temperatures are derived from line-width ratios, and densities from [S II] doublet ratios. The spatial variation of N ionization is also studied, and found to differ between the approaching and receding components. The main result is that the bulk of the emission lines in the central part of Carina arises from several distinct shell-like expanding regions, the most evident found around $\\eta$ Car, the Trumpler 14...

  19. Resolving the Optical Emission Lines of Lyα Blob "B1" at z = 2.38: Another Hidden Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, R. A.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Dijkstra, M.; Hatch, N. A.; Lehnert, M. D.; Villar-Martín, M.; Wilman, R. J.; Zirm, A. W.

    2013-07-01

    We have used the SINFONI near-infrared integral field unit on the Very Large Telescope to resolve the optical emission line structure of one of the brightest (L Lyα ≈ 1044 erg s-1) and nearest (z ≈ 2.38) of all Lyα blobs (LABs). The target, known in the literature as object "B1", lies at a redshift where the main optical emission lines are accessible in the observed near-infrared. We detect luminous [O III] λλ4959, 5007 and Hα emission with a spatial extent of at least 32 × 40 kpc (4'' × 5''). The dominant optical emission line component shows relatively broad lines (600-800 km s-1, FWHM) and line ratios consistent with active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. The new evidence for AGN photoionization, combined with previously detected C IV and luminous, warm infrared emission, suggest that B1 is the site of a hidden quasar. This is confirmed by the fact that [O II] is relatively weak compared with [O III] (extinction-corrected [O III]/[O II] of about 3.8), which is indicative of a high, Seyfert-like ionization parameter. From the extinction-corrected [O III] luminosity we infer a bolometric AGN luminosity of ~3 × 1046 erg s-1, and further conclude that the obscured AGN may be Compton-thick given existing X-ray limits. The large line widths observed are consistent with clouds moving within the narrow-line region of a luminous QSO. The AGN scenario is capable of producing sufficient ionizing photons to power the Lyα, even in the presence of dust. By performing a census of similar objects in the literature, we find that virtually all luminous LABs harbor obscured quasars. Based on simple duty-cycle arguments, we conclude that AGNs are the main drivers of the Lyα in LABs rather than the gravitational heating and subsequent cooling suggested by cold stream models. We also conclude that the empirical relation between LABs and overdense environments at high redshift must be due to a more fundamental correlation between AGNs (or massive galaxies) and

  20. Gaia-ESO Survey: Gas dynamics in the Carina nebula through optical emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, F.; Bonito, R.; Magrini, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Mapelli, M.; Micela, G.; Kalari, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Worley, C.; Zaggia, S.; Zwitter, T.; Dorda, R.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: We present observations from the Gaia-ESO Survey in the lines of Hα, [N II], [S II], and He I of nebular emission in the central part of the Carina nebula. Methods: We investigate the properties of the two already known kinematic components (approaching and receding), which account for the bulk of emission. Moreover, we investigate the features of the much less known low-intensity high-velocity (absolute RV >50 km s-1) gas emission. Results: We show that gas giving rise to Hα and He I emission is dynamically well correlated with but not identical to gas seen through forbidden-line emission. Gas temperatures are derived from line-width ratios, and densities from [S II] doublet ratios. The spatial variation of N ionization is also studied, and found to differ between the approaching and receding components. The main result is that the bulk of the emission lines in the central part of Carina arise from several distinct shell-like expanding regions, the most evident found around η Car, the Trumpler 14 core, and the star WR25. These "shells" are non-spherical and show distortions probably caused by collisions with other shells or colder, higher-density gas. Some of them are also partially obscured by foreground dust lanes, while very little dust is found in their interior. Preferential directions, parallel to the dark dust lanes, are found in the shell geometries and physical properties, probably related to strong density gradients in the studied region. We also find evidence that the ionizing flux emerging from η Car and the surrounding Homunculus nebula varies with polar angle. The high-velocity components in the wings of Hα are found to arise from expanding dust reflecting the η Car spectrum. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia-ESO Large Public Survey (program 188.B-3002).Full Tables 1-3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  1. THE SMARTS MULTI-EPOCH OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY ATLAS (SaMOSA): AN ANALYSIS OF EMISSION LINE VARIABILITY IN SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE FERMI BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isler, Jedidah C. [Chancellor’s Faculty Fellow, Syracuse University, Department of Physics, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Urry, C. M.; Bailyn, C.; Coppi, P.; Brady, M.; MacPherson, E.; Hasan, I.; Buxton, M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Smith, P. S., E-mail: jcisler@syr.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tuscon, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We present multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of seven southern Fermi-monitored blazars from 2008 to 2013 using the Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS), with supplemental spectroscopy and polarization data from the Steward Observatory. We find that the emission lines are much less variable than the continuum; four of seven blazars had no detectable emission line variability over the 5 yr observation period. This is consistent with photoionization primarily by an accretion disk, allowing us to use the lines as a probe of disk activity. Comparing optical emission line flux with Fermi γ-ray flux and optical polarized flux, we investigate whether relativistic jet variability is related to the accretion flow. In general, we see no such dependence, suggesting that the jet variability is likely caused by internal processes like turbulence or shock acceleration rather than a variable accretion rate. However, three sources showed statistically significant emission line flares in close temporal proximity to very large Fermi γ-ray flares. While we do not have sufficient emission line data to quantitatively assess their correlation with the γ-ray flux, it appears that in some cases the jet might provide additional photoionizing flux to the broad-line region (BLR), which implies that some γ-rays are produced within the BLR, at least for these large flares.

  2. Multiwavelength campaign on Mrk 509 XV. A global modeling of the broad emission lines in the Optical, UV and X-ray bands

    CERN Document Server

    Costantini, E; Kaastra, J S; Bianchi, S; Branduardi-Raymont, G; Cappi, M; De Marco, B; Ebrero, J; Mehdipour, M; Petrucci, P -O; Paltani, S; Ponti, G; Steenbrugge, K C; Arav, N

    2016-01-01

    We model the broad emission lines present in the optical, UV and X-ray spectra of Mrk 509, a bright type 1 Seyfert galaxy. The broad lines were simultaneously observed during a large multiwavelength campaign, using the XMM-Newton-OM for the optical lines, HST-COS for the UV lines and XMM-Newton-RGS and Epic for the X-ray lines respectively. We also used FUSE archival data for the broad lines observed in the far-ultra-violet. The goal is to find a physical connection among the lines measured at different wavelengths and determine the size and the distance from the central source of the emitting gas components. We used the "Locally optimally emission Cloud" (LOC) model which interprets the emissivity of the broad line region (BLR) as regulated by powerlaw distributions of both gas density and distances from the central source. We find that one LOC component cannot model all the lines simultaneously. In particular, we find that the X-ray and UV lines likely may originate in the more internal part of the AGN, at ...

  3. Theoretical Modeling of Emission-Line galaxies: New Classification Parameters for Mid-Infrared and Optical Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Meléndez, M; Martínez-Paredes, M; Kraemer, S B; Mendoza, C

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out extensive and detailed photoionization modeling to successfully constrain the locations of different emission-line galaxies in optical and mid-infrared diagnostic diagrams. Our model grids cover a wide range in parameter space for the active galaxy continuum and starburst galaxies with different stellar population laws and metallicities. We compare the predicted AGN and star-formation mid-infrared line ratios [Ne III]15.56mm/[Ne II]12.81mm and [O IV]25.89mm/[Ne III]15.56mm to the observed values, and find that the best fit for the AGN is via a two-zone approximation. This two-zone approximation is a combination of a matter-bounded component, where [Ne III] and [O IV] are emitted efficiently, and a radiation-bounded component that maximizes [Ne II] emission. We overlay the predictions from this two-zone approximation onto the optical [O III]l5007/Hbeta and [N II]l6583/Halpha diagnostic diagram derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to find that the high-density and low-ionization radiat...

  4. Indirect Estimates of the Total Gas Content of SDSS-IV/MaNGA Galaxies from Optical Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremonti, Christina A.; Pace, Zachary; Andrews, Brett; Law, David R.; Li, Cheng; Martinsson, Thomas; Masters, Karen; Stark, David; Sanchez, Sebastian; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    To understand galaxy evolution it is critical to obtain a census of both the stellar and gaseous contents of galaxies. The SDSS-IV MaNGA survey will deliver exquisite stellar mass maps of ~10,000 nearby galaxies. However, radio surveys capable of providing matched resolution gas data for a large fraction of the MaNGA sample are a decade or more away. We are therefore exploring a new technique for obtaining maps of the total gas content directly from the MaNGA data. Following the method outlined in Brinchmann et al. 2013, we use the dust optical depth and the nebular metallicity measured from optical emission lines to estimate the total gas surface density in individual spaxels. We combine this with estimates of the stellar mass in each spaxel to produce spatially resolved estimates of the gas mass fraction. We compare trends in the global gas mass fraction with stellar mass and NUV-r color to those found in the literature. We explore how the radial gas mass fraction gradients of MaNGA galaxies correlate with other properties such as total stellar mass, specific star formation rate (SFR/M*), concentration, and environment.

  5. 自动识别发射线恒星光谱的新方法%A New Automated Method to Identify Emission Line Star from Massive Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘景昌; 张彩明; 韦鹏; 罗阿理; 赵永恒

    2012-01-01

    Stellar spectra are characterized by obvious absorption lines or absorption bands, while those with emission lines are usually special stars such as cataclysmic variable stars (CVs), HerbigAe/Be etc. The further study of this kind of spectra is meaningful. The present paper proposed a new method to identify emission line stars (ELS) spectra automatically. After the continuum normalization is done for the original spectral flux, line detection is made by comparing the normalized flux with the mean and standard deviation of the flux in its neighbor region. The results of the experiment on massive spectra from SDSS DR8 indicate that the method can identify ELS spectra completely and accurately. Since no complex transformation and computation are involved in this method, the identifying process is fast and it is ideal for the ELS detection in large sky survey projects like LAMOST and SDSS.%恒星光谱一般具有明显的吸收线或者吸收带特征,而具有发射线的恒星光谱对应着特殊类型的恒星、如激变变星、Herbig Ae/Be等.对这些光谱的后续研究有着重要的意义.本文提出了一种能够自动识别发射线恒星光谱的方法.该方法首先对光谱进行连续谱归一化,然后通过比较谱线对应的流量及其邻域流量的均值和标准差,来判断是否存在发射线.对SDSS DR8大样本数据的实验表明,该方法能够完整、准确地识别发射线恒星.而且,由于该方法不涉及复杂的变换和运算,因而识别速度非常快,可用于诸如LAMOST和SDSS这样大型光谱巡天项目中发现发射线恒星光谱.

  6. The 3D-HST Survey: Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/G141 grism spectra, redshifts, and emission line measurements for $\\sim 100,000$ galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Momcheva, Ivelina G; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Skelton, Rosalind E; Whitaker, Katherine E; Nelson, Erica J; Fumagalli, Mattia; Maseda, Michael V; Leja, Joel; Franx, Marijn; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bezanson, Rachel; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Dickey, Claire; Schreiber, Natascha M Förster; Illingworth, Garth; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Lange, Johannes Ulf; Lundgren, Britt F; Magee, Daniel; Marchesini, Danilo; Oesch, Pascal; Pacifici, Camilla; Patel, Shannon G; Price, Sedona; Tal, Tomer; Wake, David A; van der Wel, Arjen; Wuyts, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    We present reduced data and data products from the 3D-HST survey, a 248-orbit HST Treasury program. The survey obtained WFC3 G141 grism spectroscopy in four of the five CANDELS fields: AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-S, and UDS, along with WFC3 $H_{140}$ imaging, parallel ACS G800L spectroscopy, and parallel $I_{814}$ imaging. In a previous paper (Skelton et al. 2014) we presented photometric catalogs in these four fields and in GOODS-N, the fifth CANDELS field. Here we describe and present the WFC3 G141 spectroscopic data, again augmented with data from GO-1600 in GOODS-N. The data analysis is complicated by the fact that no slits are used: all objects in the WFC3 field are dispersed, and many spectra overlap. We developed software to automatically and optimally extract interlaced 2D and 1D spectra for all objects in the Skelton et al. (2014) photometric catalogs. The 2D spectra and the multi-band photometry were fit simultaneously to determine redshifts and emission line strengths, taking the morphology of the galaxie...

  7. Space telescope and optical reverberation mapping project. IV. Anomalous behavior of the broad ultraviolet emission lines in NGC 5548

    OpenAIRE

    Goad, Michael R.; Korista, Kirk T.; De Rosa, Gisella; Kriss, Gerard A.; Edelson, Rick A.; Barth, Aaron J.; Ferland, Gary J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Netzer, Hagai; Peterson, Bradley M.; Bentz, Misty Cherie; Bisogni, S.; Crenshaw, Daniel Michael; Denney, Kelly D.; Ely, Justin C.

    2016-01-01

    During an intensive Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) UV monitoring campaign of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 performed from 2014 February to July, the normally highly correlated far UV continuum and broad emission line variations decorrelated for ∼60-70 days, starting ∼75 days after the first HST/COS observation. Following this anomalous state, the flux and variability of the broad emission lines returned to a more normal state. This transient behavior, character...

  8. Searching for narrow absorption and emission lines in XMM-Newton spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; D'Avanzo, P; Ghirlanda, G; Melandri, A; Pescalli, A; Salafia, O S; Salvaterra, R; Tagliaferri, G; Vergani, S D

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic search for narrow emission and absorption features in the X-ray spectra of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. Using XMM-Newton data, both EPIC and RGS spectra, of six bright (fluence >10^{-7} erg cm^{-2}) and relatively nearby (z=0.54-1.41) GRBs, we performed a blind search for emission or absorption lines that could be related to a high cloud density or metal-rich gas in the environ close to the GRBs. We detected five emission features in four of the six GRBs with an overall statistical significance, assessed through Monte Carlo simulations, of <3.0 sigma. Most of the lines are detected around the observed energy of the oxygen edge at ~0.5 keV, suggesting that they are not related to the GRB environment but are most likely of Galactic origin. No significant absorption features were detected. A spectral fitting with a free Galactic column density (N_H) testing different models for the Galactic absorption confirms this origin because we found an indication of an...

  9. HST/COS Spectra of DF Tau and V4046 SGR: First Detection of Molecular Hydrogen Absorption Against the Ly$\\alpha$ Emission Line

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hao; France, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detection of molecular hydrogen (H$_{2}$) absorption in the Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission line profiles of two classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs), DF Tau and V4046 Sgr, observed by \\emph{HST}/COS. This absorption is the energy source for many of the Lyman-band H$_{2}$ fluorescent lines commonly seen in the far-ultraviolet spectra of CTTSs. We find that the absorbed energy in the H$_{2}$ pumping transitions from a portion of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ line significantly differ from the amount of energy in the resulting fluorescent emission. By assuming additional absorption in the H I Lyman-$\\alpha$ profile along our light of sight, we can correct the H$_{2}$ absorption/emission ratios so that they are close to unity. The required H I absorption for DF Tau is at a velocity close to the radial velocity of the star, consistent with H I absorption in the edge-on disk and interstellar medium. For V4046 Sgr, a nearly face-on system, the required absorption is between +100 km/s and +290 km/s, most likely resultin...

  10. Mid-infrared spectra of optically selected type 2 quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zakamska, Nadia L; Strauss, Michael A; Krolik, Julian H

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 quasars are luminous Active Galactic Nuclei whose central engines are seen through large amounts of gas and dust. We present Spitzer spectra of twelve type 2 quasars selected on the basis of their optical emission line properties. Within this sample, we find a surprising diversity of spectra, from those that are featureless to those showing strong PAH emission, deep silicate absorption at 10 micron, hydrocarbon absorption, high-ionization emission lines and H_2 rotational emission lines. About half of the objects in the sample are likely Compton-thick, including the two with the deepest Si absorption. The median star-formation luminosity of the objects in our sample measured from the strength of the PAH features is 5x10^11 L_sun, much higher than for field galaxies or for any other AGN sample, but similar to other samples of type 2 quasars. This suggests an evolutionary link between obscured quasars and peak star formation activity in the host galaxy. Despite the high level of star formation, the bolom...

  11. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. IV. Anomalous behavior of the broad ultraviolet emission lines in NGC 5548

    CERN Document Server

    Goad, M R; De Rosa, G; Kriss, G A; Edelson, R; Barth, A J; Ferland, G J; Kochanek, C S; Netzer, H; Peterson, B M; Bentz, M C; Bisogni, S; Crenshaw, D M; Denney, K D; Ely, J; Fausnaugh, M M; Grier, C J; Gupta, A; Horne, K D; Kaastra, J; Pancoast, A; Pei, L; Pogge, R W; Skielboe, A; Starkey, D; Vestergaard, M; Zu, Y; Anderson, M D; Arevalo, P; Bazhaw, C; Borman, G A; Boroson, T A; Bottorff, M C; Brandt, W N; Breeveld, A A; Brewer, B J; Cackett, E M; Carini, M T; Croxall, K V; Bonta, E Dalla; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A; Dietrich, M; Efimova, N V; Evans, P A; Filippenko, A V; Flatland, K; Gehrels, N; Geier, S; Gelbord, G M; Gonzalez, L; Gorjian, V; Grupe, D; Hall, P B; Hicks, S; Horenstein, D; Hutchison, T; Im, M; Jensen, J J; Joner, M D; Jones, J; Kaspi, S; Kelly, B C; Kennea, J A; Kim, M; Kim, S C; Klimanov, S A; Larionov, V M; Lee, J C; Leonard, D C; Lira, P; MacInnis, F; Manne-Nicholas, E R; Mathur, S; McHardy, I M; Montouri, C; Musso, R; Nazarov, S V; Norris, R P; Nousek, J A; Okhmat, D N; Papadakis, I; Parks, J R; Pott, J -U; Rafter, S E; Rix, H -W; Saylor, D A; Schimoia, J S; Schnulle, K; Sergeev, S G; Siegel, M; Spencer, M; Sung, H -I; Teems, K G; Treu, T; Turner, C S; Uttley, P; Villforth, C; Weiss, Y; Woo, J -H; Yan, H; Young, S; Zheng, W -K

    2016-01-01

    During an intensive Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) UV monitoring campaign of the Seyfert~1 galaxy NGC 5548 performed from 2014 February to July, the normally highly correlated far-UV continuum and broad emission-line variations decorrelated for ~60 to 70 days, starting ~75 days after the first HST/COS observation. Following this anomalous state, the flux and variability of the broad emission lines returned to a more normal state. This transient behavior, characterised by significant deficits in flux and equivalent width of the strong broad UV emission lines, is the first of its kind to be unambiguously identified in an active galactic nucleus reverberation mapping campaign. The largest corresponding emission-line flux deficits occurred for the high-ionization collisionally excited lines, C IV and Si IV(+O IV]), and also He II(+O III]), while the anomaly in Ly-alpha was substantially smaller. This pattern of behavior indicates a depletion in the flux of photons with E_{\\rm ph} >...

  12. Classification and analysis of emission-line galaxies using mean field independent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, James T; Richardson, Chris T; Ferland, Gary J; Baldwin, Jack A

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the optical spectra of narrow emission-line galaxies, based on mean field independent component analysis (MFICA). Samples of galaxies were drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and used to generate compact sets of `continuum' and `emission-line' component spectra. These components can be linearly combined to reconstruct the observed spectra of a wider sample of galaxies. Only 10 components - five continuum and five emission line - are required to produce accurate reconstructions of essentially all narrow emission-line galaxies; the median absolute deviations of the reconstructed emission-line fluxes, given the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the observed spectra, are 1.2-1.8 sigma for the strong lines. After applying the MFICA components to a large sample of SDSS galaxies we identify the regions of parameter space that correspond to pure star formation and pure active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission-line spectra, and produce high S/N reconstructions of these spectra. The phys...

  13. Optical spectroscopy of SDSS J004054.65-0915268: three possible scenarios for the classification. A z \\sim 5 BL Lacertae, blue FSRQ or a weak emission line quasar

    CERN Document Server

    Landoni, M; Bianco, A; Tavecchio, F; Bonnoli, G; Ghisellini, G

    2015-01-01

    The haunt of high redshift BL Lacerate objects is day by day more compelling, to firmly understand their intrinsic nature and evolution. SDSS J004054.65-0915268 is, at the moment, one of the most distant BL Lac candidate at z \\sim 5 (Plotkin et al 2010). We present a new optical-near IR spectrum obtained with ALFOSC-NOT with a new, custom designed dispersive grating aimed to detect broad emission lines that could disprove this classification. In the obtained spectra we do not detect any emission features and we provide an upper limit to the luminosity of the C IV broad emission line. Therefore, the nature of the object is then discussed, building the overall spectral energy distribution and fitting it with three different models. Our fits, based on the SED modeling with different possible scenarios, cannot rule out the possibility that this source is indeed a BL Lac object although, the absence of optical variability and lack of strong radio flux, they seems to suggest that the observed optical emission origi...

  14. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF SDSS J004054.65-0915268: THREE POSSIBLE SCENARIOS FOR THE CLASSIFICATION. A z ∼ 5 BL LACERTAE, A BLUE FSRQ, OR A WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landoni, M.; Zanutta, A.; Bianco, A.; Tavecchio, F.; Bonnoli, G.; Ghisellini, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The haunt of high-redshift BL Lacerate objects is day by day more compelling to firmly understand their intrinsic nature and evolution. SDSS J004054.65-0915268 is, at the moment, one of the most distant BL Lac candidates, at z ∼ 5. We present a new optical-near-IR spectrum obtained with ALFOSC-NOT with a new, custom designed dispersive grating aimed to detect broad emission lines that could disprove this classification. In the obtained spectra, we do not detect any emission features and we provide an upper limit to the luminosity of the C iv broad emission line. Therefore, the nature of the object is then discussed, building the overall spectral energy distribution (SED) and fitting it with three different models. Our fits, based on SED modeling with different possible scenarios, cannot rule out the possibility that this source is indeed a BL Lac object, though the absence of optical variability and the lack of strong radio flux seem to suggest that the observed optical emission originates from a thermalized accretion disk.

  15. Database of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  16. Novel calibrations of virial black hole mass estimators in active galaxies based on X-ray luminosity and optical/NIR emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, F; Onori, F; Bianchi, S

    2016-01-01

    Accurately weigh the masses of SMBH in AGN is currently possible for only a small group of local and bright broad-line AGN through reverberation mapping (RM). Statistical demographic studies can be carried out considering the empirical scaling relation between the size of the BLR and the AGN optical continuum luminosity. However, there are still biases against low-luminosity or reddened AGN, in which the rest-frame optical radiation can be severely absorbed/diluted by the host and the BLR emission lines could be hard to detect. Our purpose is to widen the applicability of virial-based SE relations to reliably measure the BH masses also for low-luminosity or intermediate/type 2 AGN that are missed by current methodology. We achieve this goal by calibrating virial relations based on unbiased quantities: the hard X-ray luminosities, in the 2-10 keV and 14-195 keV bands, that are less sensitive to galaxy contamination, and the FWHM of the most important rest-frame NIR and optical BLR emission lines. We built a sa...

  17. The Radio-optical Spectra of BL Lacs and Possible Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett-Thorpe, J.

    I consider the suggestion that, in a complete sample of flat-spectrum radio sources with available optical spectra (Marcha et al 1996), the strong emission line objects, or those with passive elliptical spectra are close relatives of the BL Lacs. New observations at four frequencies from 8 to 43GHz are presented, together with evidence for radio variability. Combined with other radio and optical data from the literature, we are able to construct the non-thermal SEDs and use these to address the questions: are the optically passive objects potentially `unrecognised' BL Lacs (either intrinsically weak and/or hidden by starlight)? What is the relationship between the surprising number of strong emission-line objects and the BL Lacs?

  18. Spectral optical monitoring of the double peaked emission line AGN Arp 102B: II. Variability of the broad line properties

    CERN Document Server

    Popovic, L C; Ilic, D; Burenkov, A N; Chavushyan, V H; Kollatschny, W; Kovacevic, A; Valdes, J R; Leon-Tavares, J; Bochkarev, N G; Patino-Alvarez, V; Torrealba, J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a long-term (26 years, from 1987 to 2013) variability in the broad spectral line properties of the radio galaxy Arp 102B, an active galaxy with broad double-peaked emission lines. We use observations presented in Paper I (Shapovalova et al. 2013) in the period from 1987 to 2011, and a new set of observations performed in 2012--2013. To explore the BLR geometry, and clarify some contradictions about the nature of the BLR in Arp 102B we explore variations in the H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ line parameters during the monitored period. We fit the broad lines with three broad Gaussian functions finding the positions and intensities of the blue and red peaks in H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$. Additionally we fit averaged line profiles with the disc model. We find that the broad line profiles are double-peaked and have not been changed significantly in shapes, beside an additional small peak that, from time to time can be seen in the blue part of the H$\\alpha$ line. The positions of the blue and red peaks { have n...

  19. RESOLVING THE OPTICAL EMISSION LINES OF Ly{alpha} BLOB ''B1'' AT z = 2.38: ANOTHER HIDDEN QUASAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overzier, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Nesvadba, N. P. H. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Dijkstra, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Hatch, N. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Lehnert, M. D. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8111, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Villar-Martin, M. [Centro de Astrobioloia (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Wilman, R. J. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH13LE (United Kingdom); Zirm, A. W., E-mail: overzier@astro.as.utexas.edu [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-07-10

    We have used the SINFONI near-infrared integral field unit on the Very Large Telescope to resolve the optical emission line structure of one of the brightest (L{sub Ly{alpha}} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) and nearest (z Almost-Equal-To 2.38) of all Ly{alpha} blobs (LABs). The target, known in the literature as object {sup B}1{sup ,} lies at a redshift where the main optical emission lines are accessible in the observed near-infrared. We detect luminous [O III] {lambda}{lambda}4959, 5007 and H{alpha} emission with a spatial extent of at least 32 Multiplication-Sign 40 kpc (4'' Multiplication-Sign 5''). The dominant optical emission line component shows relatively broad lines (600-800 km s{sup -1}, FWHM) and line ratios consistent with active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. The new evidence for AGN photoionization, combined with previously detected C IV and luminous, warm infrared emission, suggest that B1 is the site of a hidden quasar. This is confirmed by the fact that [O II] is relatively weak compared with [O III] (extinction-corrected [O III]/[O II] of about 3.8), which is indicative of a high, Seyfert-like ionization parameter. From the extinction-corrected [O III] luminosity we infer a bolometric AGN luminosity of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}, and further conclude that the obscured AGN may be Compton-thick given existing X-ray limits. The large line widths observed are consistent with clouds moving within the narrow-line region of a luminous QSO. The AGN scenario is capable of producing sufficient ionizing photons to power the Ly{alpha}, even in the presence of dust. By performing a census of similar objects in the literature, we find that virtually all luminous LABs harbor obscured quasars. Based on simple duty-cycle arguments, we conclude that AGNs are the main drivers of the Ly{alpha} in LABs rather than the gravitational heating and subsequent cooling suggested by cold stream models. We

  20. Relation between Starlight and Nebular Emission Lines of Star-Forming Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Lin Lu; Hong-Yan Zhou; Ting-Gui Wang; Zhen-Quan Zhuang; Xiao-Bo Dong; Jun-Xian Wang; Cheng Li

    2005-01-01

    We present an exercise that intends to establish a relationship between the strength of nebular emission lines and optical stellar features in the spectrum of a galaxy. After accurately subtracting the stellar continuum and the underlying stellar absorption, we made reliable measurements of the emission lines of all the galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 (SDSS DR2). More than 4000 star-forming galaxies with high S/N ratio of both the stellar spectrum and the emission lines are selected. These galaxy spectra are fitted with the 10 PCs of Yip et al., after all the emission line regions have been filtered out. We find that the flux of hydrogen Balmer emission lines, Hα and Hβ can be well recovered from the PCs, while the metal lines are not well reproduced. The fluxes of Hα and Hβ measured from the PC-reconstructed spectra and from the observed spectra agree well with an rms scatter of only ~ 0.1 dex. This result suggests that, with moderate spectral resolution and S/N ratio, the optical stellar spectrum of a galaxy can serve as an indicator of star formation rate.

  1. Rest-frame Optical Emission Lines in z ˜ 3.5 Lyman-break-selected Galaxies: The Ubiquity of Unusually High [OIII]/Hβ Ratios at 2 Gyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, B. P.; Oesch, P. A.; González, V. G.; Illingworth, G. D.; Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R.; Franx, M.; van Dokkum, P.; Spitler, L.

    2016-03-01

    We present K-band spectra of rest-frame optical emission lines for 24 star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 3.2-3.7 using MOSFIRE on the Keck I telescope. Strong rest-frame optical [O iii] and Hβ emission lines were detected in 18 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). The median flux ratio of [O iii]λ5007 to Hβ is {5.1}-0.5+0.5. This is a factor of 5-10 times higher than in local galaxies with similar stellar masses. None of our sources are detected in deep X-ray stacks, ruling out significant contamination by active galactic nuclei. Combining our sample with a variety of LBGs from the literature, including 49 galaxies selected in a very similar manner, we find a high median ratio of [O iii]/Hβ = {4.8}-1.7+0.8. This high ratio seems to be a ubiquitous feature of z ˜ 3-4 LBGs, very different from typical local star-forming galaxies at similar stellar masses. The only comparable systems at z ˜ 0 are those with similarly high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), though ˜5 times lower stellar masses. High SSFRs may result in a higher ionization parameter, higher electron density, or harder ionizing radiation, which, combined different elemental abundances, result in a much higher [O iii]/Hβ line ratio. This implies a strong relation between a global property of a galaxy, the SSFR, and the local conditions of ISM in star-forming regions. Partially based on data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope operated by AURA, Inc. for NASA under contract NAS5-26555. Partially based on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  2. Dissecting the Power Sources of Low-Luminosity Emission-Line Galaxy Nuclei via Comparison of HST-STIS and Ground-Based Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Constantin, Anca; Ho, Luis C; Barth, Aaron J; Filippenko, Alexei V; Castillo, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of ~100 nearby line-emitting galaxy nuclei, we have built the currently definitive atlas of spectroscopic measurements of H_alpha and neighboring emission lines at subarcsecond scales. We employ these data in a quantitative comparison of the nebular emission in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based apertures, which offer an order-of-magnitude difference in contrast, and provide new statistical constraints on the degree to which Transition Objects and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are powered by an accreting black hole at <10 pc. We show that while the small-aperture observations clearly resolve the nebular emission, the aperture dependence in the line ratios is generally weak, and this can be explained by gradients in the density of the line-emitting gas: the higher densities in the more nuclear regions potentially flatten the excitation gradients, suppressing the forbidden emission. The Transition Objects show a threefold increase in the incidence of broad H_...

  3. Design of a portable optical emission tomography system for microwave induced compact plasma for visible to near-infrared emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Kavita; Munshi, Prabhat; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2016-03-01

    A new non-invasive diagnostic system is developed for Microwave Induced Plasma (MIP) to reconstruct tomographic images of a 2D emission profile. A compact MIP system has wide application in industry as well as research application such as thrusters for space propulsion, high current ion beams, and creation of negative ions for heating of fusion plasma. Emission profile depends on two crucial parameters, namely, the electron temperature and density (over the entire spatial extent) of the plasma system. Emission tomography provides basic understanding of plasmas and it is very useful to monitor internal structure of plasma phenomena without disturbing its actual processes. This paper presents development of a compact, modular, and versatile Optical Emission Tomography (OET) tool for a cylindrical, magnetically confined MIP system. It has eight slit-hole cameras and each consisting of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear image sensor for light detection. The optical noise is reduced by using aspheric lens and interference band-pass filters in each camera. The entire cylindrical plasma can be scanned with automated sliding ring mechanism arranged in fan-beam data collection geometry. The design of the camera includes a unique possibility to incorporate different filters to get the particular wavelength light from the plasma. This OET system includes selected band-pass filters for particular argon emission 750 nm, 772 nm, and 811 nm lines and hydrogen emission Hα (656 nm) and Hβ (486 nm) lines. Convolution back projection algorithm is used to obtain the tomographic images of plasma emission line. The paper mainly focuses on (a) design of OET system in detail and (b) study of emission profile for 750 nm argon emission lines to validate the system design.

  4. The optical spectra of X-shaped radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Landt, Hermine; Healey, Stephen E

    2010-01-01

    X-shaped radio galaxies are defined by their peculiar large-scale radio morphology. In addition to the classical double-lobed structure they have a pair of low-luminosity wings that straddles the nucleus at almost right angles to the active lobes, thus giving the impression of an 'X'. In this paper we study for the first time the optical spectral properties of this object class using a large sample (~50 sources). We find that the X-shaped radio population is composed roughly equally of sources with weak and strong emission line spectra, which makes them, in combination with the well-known fact that they preferentially have radio powers intermediate between those of Fanaroff-Riley type I (FR I) and type II (FR II) radio galaxies, the archetypal transition population. We do not find evidence in support of the proposition that the X-shape is the result of a recent merger: X-shaped radio sources do not have unusually broad emission lines, their nuclear environments are in general not dusty, and their host galaxie...

  5. Boötes-HiZELS: an optical to near-infrared survey of emission-line galaxies at z = 0.4-4.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthee, Jorryt; Sobral, David; Best, Philip; Smail, Ian; Bian, Fuyan; Darvish, Behnam; Röttgering, Huub; Fan, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    We present a sample of ∼1000 emission-line galaxies at z = 0.4-4.7 from the ∼0.7deg2 High-z Emission-Line Survey in the Boötes field identified with a suite of six narrow-band filters at ≈0.4-2.1 μm. These galaxies have been selected on their Ly α (73), [O II] (285), H β/[O III] (387) or H α (362) emission line, and have been classified with optical to near-infrared colours. A subsample of 98 sources have reliable redshifts from multiple narrow-band (e.g. [O II]-H α) detections and/or spectroscopy. In this survey paper, we present the observations, selection and catalogues of emitters. We measure number densities of Ly α, [O II], H β/[O III] and H α and confirm strong luminosity evolution in star-forming galaxies from z ∼ 0.4 to ∼5, in agreement with previous results. To demonstrate the usefulness of dual-line emitters, we use the sample of dual [O II]-H α emitters to measure the observed [O II]/H α ratio at z = 1.47. The observed [O II]/H α ratio increases significantly from 0.40 ± 0.01 at z = 0.1 to 0.52 ± 0.05 at z = 1.47, which we attribute to either decreasing dust attenuation with redshift, or due to a bias in the (typically) fibre measurements in the local Universe that only measure the central kpc regions. At the bright end, we find that both the H α and Ly α number densities at z ≈ 2.2 deviate significantly from a Schechter form, following a power law. We show that this is driven entirely by an increasing X-ray/active galactic nucleus fraction with line luminosity, which reaches ≈100 per cent at line luminosities L ≳ 3 × 1044 erg s-1.

  6. Optimal fitting of Gaussian-apodized or under-resolved emission lines in Fourier transform spectra providing new insights on the velocity structure of NGC 6720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas B.; Prunet, Simon; Drissen, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    An analysis of the kinematics of NGC 6720 is performed on the commissioning data obtained with SITELLE, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope's new imaging Fourier transform spectrometer. In order to measure carefully the small broadening effect of a shell expansion on an unresolved emission line, we have determined a computationally robust implementation of the convolution of a Gaussian with a sinc instrumental line shape which avoids arithmetic overflows. This model can be used to measure line broadening of typically a few km s-1 even at low spectral resolution (R halo in [N II] and Hα and found that the brightest bubbles are originating from two bipolar structures with a velocity difference of more than 35 km s-1 lying at the poles of a possibly unique halo shell expanding at a velocity of more than 15 km s-1.

  7. Dissecting the Power Sources of Low-Luminosity Emission-Line Galaxy Nuclei via Comparison of HST-STIS and Ground-Based Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Anca; Shields, Joseph C.; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Castillo, Christopher A.

    2015-12-01

    Using a sample of ∼100 nearby line-emitting galaxy nuclei, we have built the currently definitive atlas of spectroscopic measurements of Hα and neighboring emission lines at subarcsecond scales. We employ these data in a quantitative comparison of the nebular emission in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based apertures, which offer an order-of-magnitude difference in contrast, and provide new statistical constraints on the degree to which transition objects and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are powered by an accreting black hole at ≲10 pc. We show that while the small-aperture observations clearly resolve the nebular emission, the aperture dependence in the line ratios is generally weak, and this can be explained by gradients in the density of the line-emitting gas: the higher densities in the more nuclear regions potentially flatten the excitation gradients, suppressing the forbidden emission. The transition objects show a threefold increase in the incidence of broad Hα emission in the high-resolution data, as well as the strongest density gradients, supporting the composite model for these systems as accreting sources surrounded by star-forming activity. The narrow-line LINERs appear to be the weaker counterparts of the Type 1 LINERs, where the low accretion rates cause the disappearance of the broad-line component. The enhanced sensitivity of the HST observations reveals a 30% increase in the incidence of accretion-powered systems at z ≈ 0. A comparison of the strength of the broad-line emission detected at different epochs implies potential broad-line variability on a decade-long timescale, with at least a factor of three in amplitude. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  8. DISSECTING THE POWER SOURCES OF LOW-LUMINOSITY EMISSION-LINE GALAXY NUCLEI VIA COMPARISON OF HST-STIS AND GROUND-BASED SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Anca; Castillo, Christopher A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (United States); Shields, Joseph C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Using a sample of ∼100 nearby line-emitting galaxy nuclei, we have built the currently definitive atlas of spectroscopic measurements of Hα and neighboring emission lines at subarcsecond scales. We employ these data in a quantitative comparison of the nebular emission in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based apertures, which offer an order-of-magnitude difference in contrast, and provide new statistical constraints on the degree to which transition objects and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are powered by an accreting black hole at ≲10 pc. We show that while the small-aperture observations clearly resolve the nebular emission, the aperture dependence in the line ratios is generally weak, and this can be explained by gradients in the density of the line-emitting gas: the higher densities in the more nuclear regions potentially flatten the excitation gradients, suppressing the forbidden emission. The transition objects show a threefold increase in the incidence of broad Hα emission in the high-resolution data, as well as the strongest density gradients, supporting the composite model for these systems as accreting sources surrounded by star-forming activity. The narrow-line LINERs appear to be the weaker counterparts of the Type 1 LINERs, where the low accretion rates cause the disappearance of the broad-line component. The enhanced sensitivity of the HST observations reveals a 30% increase in the incidence of accretion-powered systems at z ≈ 0. A comparison of the strength of the broad-line emission detected at different epochs implies potential broad-line variability on a decade-long timescale, with at least a factor of three in amplitude.

  9. Novel calibrations of virial black hole mass estimators in active galaxies based on X-ray luminosity and optical/near-infrared emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, F.; La Franca, F.; Onori, F.; Bianchi, S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. It is currently only possible to accurately weigh, through reverberation mapping (RM), the masses of super massive black holes (BHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGN) for a small group of local and bright broad line AGN. Statistical demographic studies can be carried out considering the empirical scaling relation between the size of the broad line region (BLR) and the AGN optical continuum luminosity. There are still biases, however, against low-luminosity or reddened AGN, in which the rest-frame optical radiation can be severely absorbed or diluted by the host galaxy and the BLR emission lines can be hard to detect. Aims: Our purpose is to widen the applicability of virial-based single-epoch (SE) relations to measure reliably the BH masses for low-luminosity or intermediate and type 2 AGN, which the current methodology misses. We achieve this goal by calibrating virial relations based on unbiased quantities: the hard X-ray luminosities in the 2-10 keV and 14-195 keV bands that are less sensitive to galaxy contamination, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the most important rest-frame near-infrared (NIR) and optical BLR emission lines. Methods: We built a sample of RM AGN with both X-ray luminosity, broad optical and NIR FWHM measurements available to calibrate new virial BH mass estimators. Results: We found that the FWHM of the Hα, Hβ, and NIR lines (i.e. Paα, Paβ, and He iλ10830) all correlate with each other with negligible or small offsets. This result allowed us to derive virial BH mass estimators based on either the 2-10 keV or 14-195 keV luminosity. We also took into account the recent determination of the different virial coefficients, f, for pseudo- and classical bulges. By splitting the sample according to the bulge type and adopting separate f factors, we found that our virial relations predict BH masses of AGN hosted in pseudo-bulges 0.5 dex smaller than in classical bulges. Assuming the same average f factor for both populations

  10. Properties of long-term optical variability of active galactic nuclei with double-peaked broad low-ionization emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, XueGuang

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we study properties of long-term optical variability of a large sample of 106 SDSS spectroscopically confirmed AGN with double-peaked broad low-ionization emission lines (double-peaked emitters). The long-term optical light curves over 8 years are collected from the Catalina Sky Surveys Data Release 2. And, the Damped Random Walk (DRW) process is applied to describe the long-term variability of the double-peaked emitters. Meanwhile, the same DRW process is applied to long-term optical light curves of more than 7000 spectroscopically confirmed normal quasars in the SDSS Stripe82 Database. Then, we can find that the DRW process determined rest-frame intrinsic variability timescales $\\ln(\\tau/{\\rm days})$ are about 5.8 and about 4.8 for the double-peaked emitters and for the normal quasars, respectively. The statistically longer intrinsic variability timescales can be confirmed in the double-peaked emitters, after considerations of necessary effects, such as the effects from different distrib...

  11. CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer

    2011-12-01

    CORA analyzes emission line spectra with low count numbers and fits them to a line using the maximum likelihood technique. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise, the software derives the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. CORA has been applied to an X-ray spectrum with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory.

  12. Rest-frame Optical Emission Lines in Far-Infrared Selected Galaxies at z<1.7 from the FMOS-COSMOS Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Silverman, J D; Kashino, D; Chu, J; Zahid, H; Hasinger, G; Kewley, L; Matsuoka, K; Nagao, T; Riguccini, L; Salvato, M; Schawinski, K; Taniguchi, Y; Treister, E; Capak, P; Daddi, E; Ohta, K

    2015-01-01

    We have used FMOS on Subaru to obtain near-infrared spectroscopy of 123 far-infrared selected galaxies in COSMOS and obtain the key rest-frame optical emission lines. This is the largest sample of infrared galaxies with near-infrared spectroscopy at these redshifts. The far-infrared selection results in a sample of galaxies that are massive systems that span a range of metallicities in comparison with previous optically selected surveys, and thus has a higher AGN fraction and better samples the AGN branch. We establish the presence of AGN and starbursts in this sample of (U)LIRGs selected as Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-MIPS detections in two redshift bins (z~0.7 and z~1.5) and test the redshift dependence of diagnostics used to separate AGN from star-formation dominated galaxies. In addition, we construct a low redshift (z~0.1) comparison sample of infrared selected galaxies and find that the evolution from z~1.5 to today is consistent with an evolving AGN selection line and a range of ISM conditions and metall...

  13. Detection of Broad H$\\alpha$ Emission Lines in the Late-time Spectra of a Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Lin; Ofek, E; Gal-Yam, A; Mazzali, P; Perley, D; Vreeswijk, P; Leloudas, G; de Cia, A; Masci, F; Cenko, S B; Cao, Y; Kulkarni, S R; Nugent, P E; Rebbapragada, Umaa D; Woźniak, P R; Yaron, O

    2015-01-01

    iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z=0.3434, with properties similar to SN2007bi. It rises within (83-148)days (rest-frame) to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of 1.3x$10^{44}$erg/s, then decays very slowly at 0.015mag. per day. The measured ejecta velocity is 13000km/s. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (67-220$M_\\odot$), the total radiative and kinetic energy ($10^{51}$ & 2x$10^{53}$erg respectively), is typical of SLSN-R events. However, the late-time spectrum taken at +251days reveals a Balmer Halpha emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ~4500km/s and has a ~300km/s blue-ward shift relative to the narrow component. We interpret this broad Halpha emission line as the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a H-rich circumstellar medium (CSM) shell, located at a distance of ~4x$10^{16}$cm from the explosion site. This eje...

  14. Optimal fitting of gaussian-apodized or under-resolved emission lines in Fourier Transform spectra providing new insights on the velocity structure of NGC 6720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas B.; Prunet, Simon; Drissen, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of the kinematics of NGC 6720 is performed on the commissioning data obtained with SITELLE, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope's new imaging Fourier transform spectrometer. In order to measure carefully the small broadening effect of a shell expansion on an unresolved emission line, we have determined a computationally robust implementation of the convolution of a Gaussian with a sinc instrumental line shape which avoids arithmetic overflows. This model can be used to measure line broadening of typically a few km s-1 even at low spectral resolution (R less than 5000). We have also designed the corresponding set of Gaussian apodizing functions that are now used by ORBS, the SITELLE's reduction pipeline. We have implemented this model in ORCS, a fitting engine for SITELLE's data, and used it to derive the [S II] density map of the central part of the nebula. The study of the broadening of the [N II] lines shows that the Main Ring and the Central Lobe are two different shells with different expansion velocities. We have also derived deep and spatially resolved velocity maps of the Halo in [N II] and Hα and found that the brightest bubbles are originating from two bipolar structures with a velocity difference of more than 35 km s-1 lying at the poles of a possibly unique Halo shell expanding at a velocity of more than 15 km s-1.

  15. A search for iron emission lines in the Chandra X-ray spectra of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Cackett, E M; Homan, J; Van der Klis, M; Lewin, W H G; Méndez, M; Raymond, J; Steeghs, D; Wijnands, R

    2008-01-01

    While iron emission lines are well studied in black hole systems, both in X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei, there has been less of a focus on these lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). However, recent observations with Suzaku and XMM-Newton have revealed broad asymmetric iron line profiles in 4 neutron star LMXBs, confirming an inner disk origin for these lines in neutron star systems. Here, we present a search for iron lines in 6 neutron star LMXBs. For each object we have simultaneous Chandra and RXTE observations at 2 separate epochs, allowing for both a high resolution spectrum, as well as broadband spectral coverage. Out of the six objects in the survey, we only find significant iron lines in two of the objects, GX 17+2 and GX 349+2. However, we cannot rule out that there are weak, broad lines present in the other sources. The equivalent width of the line in GX 17+2 is consistent between the 2 epochs, while in GX 349+2 the line equivalent width increases by a factor of ~3 betwe...

  16. Optimal fitting of gaussian-apodized or under-resolved emission lines in Fourier Transform spectra providing new insights on the velocity structure of NGC 6720

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Thomas B; Drissen, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the kinematics of NGC 6720 is performed on the commissioning data obtained with SITELLE, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope's new imaging Fourier transform spectrometer. In order to measure carefully the small broadening effect of a shell expansion on an unresolved emission line, we have determined a computationally robust implementation of the convolution of a Gaussian with a sinc instrumental line shape which avoids arithmetic overflows. This model can be used to measure line broadening of typically a few km/s even at low spectral resolution (R less than 5000). We have also designed the corresponding set of Gaussian apodizing functions that are now used by ORBS, the SITELLE's reduction pipeline. We have implemented this model in ORCS, a fitting engine for SITELLE's data, and used it to derive the [SII] density map of the central part of the nebula. The study of the broadening of the [NII] lines shows that the Main Ring and the Central Lobe are two different shells with different expansion vel...

  17. Properties of long-term optical variability of active galactic nuclei with double-peaked broad low-ionization emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Guang; Feng, Long-Long

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study properties of the long-term optical variability of a large sample of 106 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopically confirmed active galactic nuclei (AGN) with double-peaked broad low-ionization emission lines (double-peaked emitters). The long-term optical light curves over 8 yr are collected from the Catalina Sky Surveys Data Release 2, and the Damped Random Walk (DRW) process is applied to describe the long-term variability of the double-peaked emitters. Meanwhile, the same DRW process is applied to long-term optical light curves of more than 7000 spectroscopically confirmed normal quasars in the SDSS Stripe82 Database. Then, we can find that the DRW process determined rest-frame intrinsic variability time-scales ln (τ /d) are about 5.8 and about 4.8 for the double-peaked emitters and for the normal quasars, respectively. The statistically longer intrinsic variability time-scales can be confirmed in the double-peaked emitters, after considerations of necessary effects, such as the effects from different distributions of redshift, black hole mass, and accretion rate between the double-peaked emitters and the normal quasars. Moreover, a radial dependence of the accretion rate dot{m}R ∝ R^β with larger values of β could be an acceptable interpretation of the longer intrinsic variability time-scales in the double-peaked emitters. Therefore, there are different intrinsic properties of emission regions between the double-peaked emitters and the normal quasars. The double-peaked emitters can be well treated as an unique subclass of AGN.

  18. Spectral optical monitoring of a double-peaked emission line AGN Arp 102B: I. Variability of spectral lines and continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Shapovalova, A I; Burenkov, A N; Chavushyan, V H; Ilic, D; Kollatschny, W; Kovacevic, A; Bochkarev, N G; Valdes, J R; Torrealba, J; Patino-Alvarez, V; Leon-Tavares, J; Benitez, E; Carrasco, L; Dultzin, D; Mercado, A; Zhdanova, V E

    2013-01-01

    Here we present results of the long-term (1987-2010) optical spectral monitoring of the broad line radio galaxy Arp 102B, a prototype of active galactic nuclei with the double-peaked broad emission lines, usually assumed to be emitted from an accretion disk. To explore the structure of the broad line region (BLR), we analyze the light curves of the broad H\\alpha and H\\beta lines and the continuum flux. We aim to estimate the dimensions of the broad-line emitting regions and the mass of the central black hole. We use the CCF to find lags between the lines and continuum variations. We investigate in more details the correlation between line and continuum fluxes, moreover we explore periodical variations of the red-to-blue line flux ratio using Lomb-Scargle periodograms. The line and continuum light curves show several flare-like events. The fluxes in lines and in the continuum are not showing a big change (around 20%) during the monitoring period. We found a small correlation between the line and continuum flux...

  19. The Emission Line Sequence of Normal Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sodré, L; Stasinska, Grazyna

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed the emission line properties in the integrated spectra of 15 normal spiral galaxies. We show that very clear trends appear when plotting relevant emission line ratios or equivalent widths as a function of galaxy spectral types, obtained with a Principal Component Analysis of the continua and absorption features of spectra. The equivalent widths of all the lines analyzed correlate extremely well with spectral types, implying that each of them can be considered a good indicator of the spectral type in normal galaxies. The position of most galaxies of our sample in classical emission line diagnostic diagrams follows that of individual giant HII regions in spiral galaxies, but for the earliest type galaxies, the emission line pattern resembles more that of LINERs. Therefore, the direct interpretation of equivalent widths in terms of star formation rates would be misleading in such cases. The observed trends in the emission line ratios as a function of galaxy spectral type suggest a decrease of O/...

  20. Quantifying correlations between galaxy emission lines and stellar continua

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Róbert; Yip, Ching-Wa; Szalay, Alexander S; Csabai, István

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the correlations between continuum properties and emission line equivalent widths of star-forming and active galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Since upcoming large sky surveys will make broad-band observations only, including strong emission lines into theoretical modelling of spectra will be essential to estimate physical properties of photometric galaxies. We show that emission line equivalent widths can be fairly well reconstructed from the stellar continuum using local multiple linear regression in the continuum principal component analysis (PCA) space. Line reconstruction is good for star-forming galaxies and reasonable for galaxies with active nuclei. We propose a practical method to combine stellar population synthesis models with empirical modelling of emission lines. The technique will help generate more accurate model spectra and mock catalogues of galaxies to fit observations of the new surveys. More accurate modelling of emission lines is also expected to improve template-base...

  1. High-redshift SDSS Quasars with Weak Emission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a promine...

  2. Optical absorption spectra of Ag-11 isomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground-stale confi......The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground...

  3. The Of emission lines near 4650 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, A. B.; Gilroy, K. K.; Hill, G. M.

    1989-09-01

    Rectified, normalized, high S/N intensity tracings of nine Of stars were obtained from Reticon spectra in the 4550-4800-A region. The well-known relatively sharp Of emission lines are seen to stand on pedestals of broad weak emission somewhat like the broad emission lines from WR stars. It is suggested that cascades following dielectronic recombination may be an important process driving some lines of N III, C III, and C IV into the emission of Of stars, and that the sharp Of lines come from plasma that is stationary with respect to the star. The broad emission features show an extensive low-density wind from each star. The results imply that the detection of two, more or less equal, broad jumps in the rest spectra of galaxies at about 4640 and 4686 A is more indicative of Of stars than of WR stars.

  4. Ultraviolet and Optical Emission Line Outflows in the Heavily Obscured Quasar SDSS J000610.67+121501.2: At the Scale of the Dusty Torus and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan; Shi, Xiheng; Pan, Xiang; Wang, Ji; Jiang, Ning; Ji, Tuo; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Huiyuan

    2017-02-01

    Broad emission line outflows of active galactic nuclei have been proposed for many years but are very difficult to quantitatively study because of the coexistence of the gravitationally bound and outflow emission. We present detailed analysis of a heavily reddened quasar, SDSS J000610.67+121501.2, whose normal ultraviolet broad emission lines (BELs) are heavily suppressed by the dusty torus as a natural “coronagraph,” and thus the blueshifted BELs (BBELs) can be reliably measured. The physical properties of the emission-line outflows are derived as follows: ionization parameter U∼ {10}-0.5, column density {N}{{H}}∼ {10}22.0 cm‑2, covering fraction of ∼0.1, and upper limit density of {n}{{H}}∼ {10}5.8 cm‑3. The outflow gases are located at least 41 pc away from the central engine, which suggests that they have expanded to the scale of the dust torus or beyond. Besides, Lyα shows a narrow symmetric component, to our surprise, which is undetected in any other lines. After inspecting the narrow emission line region and the star-forming region as the origin of the Lyα narrow line, we propose that the end result of outflows, diffusing gases in the larger region, acts as the screen of Lyα photons. Future high spatial resolution spectrometry and/or spectropolarimetric observations are needed to make a final clarification.

  5. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF LOW-DIMENSIONAL SEMICONDUCTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Y Chiragwandi Z; G(o..)thberg P; Willander M

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the optical spectra of low-dimensional semiconductor systems by calculating all possible optical transitions between electronic states. Optical absorption and emission have been obtained under different carrier population conditions and in different photon wavelengths. The line-shapes of the peaks in the optical spectrum are determined by the density of electronic states of the system, and the symmetries and intensities of these peaks can be improved by reducing the dimensionality of the system. Optical gain requires in general a population inversion, whereas for a quantum-dot system, there exists a threshold value of the population inversion.

  6. Evaluation of Optical Depths and Self-Absorption of Strontium and Aluminum Emission Lines in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarraj, Bader A; Bhatt, Chet R; Yueh, Fang Yu; Singh, Jagdish P

    2017-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a widely used laser spectroscopic technique in various fields, such as material science, forensic science, biological science, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In most LIBS work, the analysis is performed using radiative transitions from atomic emissions. In this study, the plasma temperature and the product [Formula: see text] (the number density N and the absorption path length [Formula: see text]) were determined to evaluate the optical depths and the self-absorption of Sr and Al lines. A binary mixture of strontium nitrate and aluminum oxide was used as a sample, consisting of variety of different concentrations in powder form. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were collected by varying various parameters, such as laser energy, gate delay time, and gate width time to optimize the LIBS signals. Atomic emission from Sr and Al lines, as observed in the LIBS spectra of different sample compositions, was used to characterize the laser induced plasma and evaluate the optical depths and self-absorption of LIBS.

  7. Evolution of emission line activity in intermediate mass young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Manoj, P; Maheswar, G; Muneer, S

    2006-01-01

    We present optical spectra of 45 intermediate mass Herbig Ae/Be stars. Together with the multi-epoch spectroscopic and photometric data compiled for a large sample of these stars and ages estimated for individual stars by using pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks, we have studied the evolution of emission line activity in them. We find that, on average, the H_alpha emission line strength decreases with increasing stellar age in HAeBe stars, indicating that the accretion activity gradually declines during the PMS phase. This would hint at a relatively long-lived (a few Myr) process being responsible for the cessation of accretion in Herbig Ae/Be stars. We also find that the accretion activity in these stars drops substantially by ~ 3 Myr. This is comparable to the timescale in which most intermediate mass stars are thought to lose their inner disks, suggesting that inner disks in intermediate mass stars are dissipated rapidly after the accretion activity has fallen below a certain level. We, further find a r...

  8. Plasma simulations of emission line regions in high energy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris T.

    This dissertation focuses on understanding two different, but in each case extreme, astrophysical environments: the Crab Nebula and emission line galaxies. These relatively local objects are well constrained by observations and are test cases of phenomena seen at high-z where detailed observations are rare. The tool used to study these objects is the plasma simulation code known as Cloudy. The introduction provides a brief summary of relevant physical concepts in nebular astrophysics and presents the basic features and assumptions of Cloudy. The first object investigated with Cloudy, the Crab Nebula, is a nearby supernova remnant that previously has been subject to photoionization modeling to reproduce the ionized emission seen in the nebula's filamentary structure. However, there are still several unanswered questions: (1) What excites the H2 emitting gas? (2) How much mass is in the molecular component? (3) How did the H2 form? (4) What is nature of the dust grains? A large suite of observations including long slit optical and NIR spectra over ionized, neutral and molecular gas in addition to HST and NIR ground based images constrain a particularly bright region of H2 emission, Knot 51, which exhibits a high excitation temperature of ˜3000 K. Simulations of K51 revealed that only a trace amount of H2 is needed to reproduce the observed emission and that H2 forms through an uncommon nebular process known as associative detachment. The final chapters of this dissertation focus on interpreting the narrow line region (NLR) in low-z emission line galaxies selected by a novel technique known as mean field independent component analysis (MFICA). A mixture of starlight and radiation from an AGN excites the gas present in galaxies. MFICA separates galaxies over a wide range of ionization into subsets of pure AGN and pure star forming galaxies allowing simulations to reveal the properties responsible for their observed variation in ionization. Emission line ratios can

  9. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  10. High-redshift SDSS Quasars with Weak Emission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a prominent...... tail of the Lya + N v equivalent width distribution, and we compare them to quasars with more typical emission-line properties and to low-redshift active galactic nuclei with weak/absent emission lines, namely BL Lac objects. We find that WLQs exhibit hot (T ~ 1000 K) thermal dust emission and have...... rest-frame 0.1-5 µm spectral energy distributions that are quite similar to those of normal quasars. The variability, polarization, and radio properties of WLQs are also different from those of BL Lacs, making continuum boosting by a relativistic jet an unlikely physical interpretation. The most...

  11. The early-type strong emission-line supergiants of the Magellanic Clouds - A spectroscopic zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a spectroscopic survey of 21 early-type extreme emission line supergiants of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds using IUE and optical spectra are presented. The combined observations are discussed and the literature on each star in the sample is summarized. The classification procedures and the methods by which effective temperatures, bolometric magnitudes, and reddenings were assigned are discussed. The derived reddening values are given along with some results concerning anomalous reddening among the sample stars. The derived mass, luminosity, and radius for each star are presented, and the ultraviolet emission lines are described. Mass-loss rates are derived and discussed, and the implications of these observations for the evolution of the most massive stars in the Local Group are addressed.

  12. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  13. HST WFC3 Early Release Science: Emission-Line Galaxies from IR Grism Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Straughn, A N; Kuemmel, M; Walsh, J R; Cohen, S H; Gardner, J P; Windhorst, R A; O'Connell, R W; Pirzkal, N; Meurer, G; McCarthy, P J; Hathi, N P; Malhotra, S; Rhoads, J; Balick, B; Bond, H E; Calzetti, D; Disney, M J; Dopita, M A; Frogel, J A; Hall, D N B; Holtzman, J A; Kimble, R A; Luppino, G; Paresce, F; Saha, A; Silk, J I; Trauger, J T; Walker, A R; Whitmore, B C; Young, E T

    2010-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission--line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6--1.6 microns from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L (0.6--0.95 micron) grism data in GOODS--South, extending the wavelength covereage well past the G800L red cutoff. The ERS grism field was observed at a depth of 2 orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which are presented here. ELGs are studied via the \\Ha, \\OIII, and \\OII\\ emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2$\\cle$z$\\cle$1.6, 1.2$\\cle$z$\\cle$2.4 and 2.0$\\cle$z$\\cle$3.6 respectively in the G102 (0.8--1.1 microns; R$\\sim$210) and G141 (1.1--1.6 microns; R$\\sim$130) grisms. The higher spectral resolution afforded by the WFC3 grisms also reveals emission lines not detectable with the G800L grism (e.g., \\SII\\ and \\SIII\\ lines). From these relatively shallow observations, line luminosities, star--formation rates, and grism s...

  14. CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.

    2002-07-01

    The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.

  15. The Optical Spectra of X-Shaped Radio Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sky Survey ( SDSS ; Abazajian et al. 2009) but has only narrow emission lines in its spectrum (see Fig. A1), and J0245+1047, whose X- shaped radio...spectroscopically observed by the SDSS (Data Release 5; see Fig. A1). For another seven sources, namely, J0113+0106, J0115−0000, J0245+1047, J1309−0012...of this task to deblend the indi- vidual features. However, this procedure was not necessary in the case of the SDSS spectra, whose spectral resolution

  16. Kpc-scale Properties of Emission-line Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Miller, Sarah H.; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Ferguson, Henry C.; Guo, Yicheng; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Papovich, Casey

    2014-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the resolved properties of emission-line galaxies at kpc-scale to investigate how small-scale and global properties of galaxies are related. 119 galaxies with high-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectra are selected to cover a wide range in morphologies over the redshift range 0.2

  17. Quantifying correlations between galaxy emission lines and stellar continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Róbert; Dobos, László; Yip, Ching-Wa; Szalay, Alexander S.; Csabai, István

    2016-03-01

    We analyse the correlations between continuum properties and emission line equivalent widths of star-forming and active galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Since upcoming large sky surveys will make broad-band observations only, including strong emission lines into theoretical modelling of spectra will be essential to estimate physical properties of photometric galaxies. We show that emission line equivalent widths can be fairly well reconstructed from the stellar continuum using local multiple linear regression in the continuum principal component analysis (PCA) space. Line reconstruction is good for star-forming galaxies and reasonable for galaxies with active nuclei. We propose a practical method to combine stellar population synthesis models with empirical modelling of emission lines. The technique will help generate more accurate model spectra and mock catalogues of galaxies to fit observations of the new surveys. More accurate modelling of emission lines is also expected to improve template-based photometric redshift estimation methods. We also show that, by combining PCA coefficients from the pure continuum and the emission lines, automatic distinction between hosts of weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quiescent star-forming galaxies can be made. The classification method is based on a training set consisting of high-confidence starburst galaxies and AGNs, and allows for the similar separation of active and star-forming galaxies as the empirical curve found by Kauffmann et al. We demonstrate the use of three important machine learning algorithms in the paper: k-nearest neighbour finding, k-means clustering and support vector machines.

  18. Optical, mass, and auger spectra from e-bombarded KBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, E.T.; Kamada, M.

    1988-01-01

    We have measured the mass spectrum and optical emission lines of neutral potassium atoms ejected from KBr at T = 300/degree/K and 443/degree/K bombarded by 2-keV electrons. The room-temperature data may be complicated by the nonstoichiometry of the alkali-enriched sample surface and seem difficult to interpret. The high-temperature sample, which maintains the proper stoichiometry, produces data in support of gas-phase excitation of alkali atoms desorbed from the surface. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Mid-IR Properties of an Unbiased AGN Sample of the Local Universe. 1; Emission-Line Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K. A.; Melendez, M.; Muhotzky, R. F.; Kraemer, S.; Engle, K.; Malumuth. E.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C.; Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Winter, L. M.; Armus, L.

    2010-01-01

    \\Ve compare mid-IR emission-lines properties, from high-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra of a statistically-complete hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z AGN detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift. The luminosity distribution for the mid-infrared emission-lines, [O IV] 25.89 microns, [Ne II] 12.81 microns, [Ne III] 15.56 microns and [Ne V] 14.32 microns, and hard X-ray continuum show no differences between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 populations, although six newly discovered BAT AGNs are shown to be under-luminous in [O IV], most likely the result of dust extinction in the host galaxy. The overall tightness of the mid-infrared correlations and BAT luminosities suggests that the emission lines primarily arise in gas ionized by the AGN. We also compared the mid-IR emission-lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of star-forming galaxies and LINERs. We found that the BAT AGN fall into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the [O IV]/[Ne III] quantities. From this we found that sources that have been previously classified in the mid-infrared/optical as AGN have smaller emission line ratios than those found for the BAT AGNs, suggesting that, in our X-ray selected sample, the AGN represents the main contribution to the observed line emission. Overall, we present a different set of emission line diagnostics to distinguish between AGN and star forming galaxies that can be used as a tool to find new AGN.

  20. The Rest-Frame Optical Morphology of Emission Line Galaxies at 2 < z < 3: Evidence for Inside-Out Formation in Low-Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Alex; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Gawiser, Eric; Bowman, William; Bridge, Joanna S; Gebhardt, Henry S Grasshorn; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    We compare the rest-frame ultraviolet and rest-frame optical morphologies of 2 2 star-forming systems of all sizes and masses become smaller and more compact as one shifts the observing window from the UV to the optical. We argue that this offset is due to inside-out galaxy formation over the first ~ 2 Gyr of cosmic time.

  1. The behavior of quasar C IV emission-line properties with orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Runnoe, Jessie C; DiPompeo, M A; Shang, Zhaohu

    2013-01-01

    With a quasar sample designed for studying orientation effects, we investigate the orientation dependence of characteristics of the C IV 1549 broad emission line in approximately 50 Type 1 quasars with z=0.1-1.4. Orientation is measured for the sample via radio core dominance. In our analysis we include measurements of the continuum luminosity and the optical-to-X-ray spectral slope, spectral properties commonly included in the suite known as "Eigenvector 1", and the full-width at half maximum, full-width at one-quarter-maximum, shape, blueshift, and equivalent width of the C IV broad emission line. We also investigate a new prescription that we recently developed for predicting the velocity line width of the H-beta broad emission line based on the velocity line width of the C IV line and the ratio of continuum subtracted peak fluxes of Si IV + O IV] at 1400 A to C IV. In addition to a correlation analysis of the ultraviolet spectral properties and radio core dominance, we provide composite spectra of edge-on...

  2. Newly Identified Rydberg Emission Lines in Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David K.; Rudy, R. J.; Bernstein, L. S.

    2008-09-01

    Newly Identified Rydberg Emission Lines in Novae David K. Lynch, Richard. J. Rudy (The Aerospace Corporation) & Lawrence S. Bernstein (Spectral Sciences, Inc.) Novae spectra in the near infrared frequently show a set of six emission lines that have not been positively identified (Williams, Longmore, & Geballe 1996, MNRAS, 279, 804; Lynch et al. 2001, AJ, 122, 2013; Rudy et al. 2002 ApJ, 573, 794; Lynch et al. 2004 Astron. J. 127, 1089-1097). These lines are at 0.8926, 1.1114, 1.1901, 1.5545, 2.0996 and 2.425 µm ± 0.005 µm. Krautter et al. (1984 A&A 137, 304) suggested that three of the lines were due to rydberg (hydrogenic) transitions in an unspecified atomic species that was in the 4th or 5th ionization stage (core charge = 4 & 5). We believe that Krautter et al.'s explanation is correct based on 4 additional lines that we have identified in the visible and near infrared spectrum of V723 Cassiopeiae. The observed Rydberg lines appear to originate from high angular momentum states with negligible quantum defects. The species cannot be determined with any certainty because in rydberg states, the outer electron sees a nucleus shielded by the inner electrons and together the inner atom appears to have a charge of +1, like hydrogen. As a result, the atom looks hydrogenic and species such as CV, NV, OV, MgV, SiV, etc. have their rydberg transitions at very similar wavelengths. All the lines represent permitted transitions, most likely formed by recombination. Atoms with core charges 4, 5 & 6 are rarely seen in the astrophysical environment because an extremely hot radiation field is necessary to ionize them. Thermonuclear runaways on the surface of a white dwarf can reach millions of degrees K, and thus there are enough X-ray photons available to achieve the necessary high ionization levels.

  3. H Emission Line Morphologies in Markarian Starburst Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Chitre; U. C. Joshi

    2001-06-01

    We present broad band and narrow band H emission line images of a sample of optically selected starburst galaxies from the Markarian lists. The emission line morphology is studied and global properties like luminosities, equivalent widths and star formation rates are derived. The radial distribution of H flux and the EW are determined using concentric aperture photometry on the emission line and the continuum images. H flux is generally found to peak in the nuclear region and fall off outwards. The EW is found to peak off-center in most of the cases implying that though the intensity of emission is maximum at the nucleus, the star formation activity relative to the underlying continuum often peaks away from the center in Markarian starburst galaxies.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 4 AGN optical spectra (Simmonds+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Thuan, T. X.; Izotov, Y. I.; Stern, D.; Harrison, F. A.

    2016-11-01

    We targeted with dedicated Chandra observations the four most extreme ELGs reported by Izotov and Thuan (2008ApJ...687..133I) (J1025+1402, J1047+0739, J0045+1339, and J1222+3602). For completeness, we also report the results of archival Chandra observations for three weaker objects (J1536+3122, J0840+4707, and J1404+5423) in the parent Izotov et al. (2007ApJ...671.1297I) sample which also have broad Hα emission lines. New optical spectra for galaxies J0045+1339, J1025+1402, J1047+0739, and J1222+3602 were obtained using the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5m telescope using the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) in both the blue and red wavelength ranges. The sources were observed on several occasions between 2007-2015. New optical spectra for galaxies J0045+1339 and J1222+3602 were obtained using the MODS instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) on UT 2013 October 27 and UT 2015 May 18, respectively. (2 data files).

  5. Accretion Rates for T Tauri Stars Using Nearly Simultaneous Ultraviolet and Optical Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Laura; Calvet, Nuria; Herczeg, Gregory; Blaty, Alex; Walter, Frederick; Ardila, David; Alexander, Richard; Edwards, Suzan; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Brown, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    We analyze the accretion properties of 21 low-mass T Tauri stars using a data set of contemporaneous near-UV (NUV) through optical observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the ground-based Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System, a unique data set because of the nearly simultaneous broad wavelength coverage. Our data set includes accreting T Tauri stars in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, η Chamaeleon, and the TW Hydra Association. For each source we calculate the accretion rate (\\dot{M}) by fitting the NUV and optical excesses above the photosphere, produced in the accretion shock, introducing multiple accretion components characterized by a range in energy flux (or density) for the first time. This treatment is motivated by models of the magnetospheric geometry and accretion footprints, which predict that high-density, low filling factor accretion spots coexist with low-density, high filling factor spots. By fitting the UV and optical spectra with multiple accretion components, we can explain excesses which have been observed in the near-IR. Comparing our estimates of \\dot{M} to previous estimates, we find some discrepancies; however, they may be accounted for when considering assumptions for the amount of extinction and variability in optical spectra. Therefore, we confirm many previous estimates of the accretion rate. Finally, we measure emission line luminosities from the same spectra used for the \\dot{M} estimates, to produce correlations between accretion indicators (Hβ, Ca II K, C II], and Mg II) and accretion properties obtained simultaneously.

  6. Lines of Circumstellar C2, CN, and CH$^+$ in the Optical Spectra of Post-Agb Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J; Van Dishoeck, E F; Bakker, Eric J.; Lambert, David L.; Dishoeck, Ewine F. van

    1996-01-01

    Recent optical spectra of post-AGB stars show the presence of C2, CN, and CH+ originating in the circumstellar shell. We present here new, higher resolution spectra which provide constraints on the physical parameters and information on the line profiles. An empirical curve of growth for the C2 Phillips and CN Red system lines in the spectrum of HD 56126 yields b = 0.50 (+0.59, -0.23) km/s. CH+ (0,0) emission lines in the spectrum of the Red Rectangle have been resolved with a FWHM approx 8.5 pm 0.8 km/s. The circumstellar CN lines of IRAS 08005--2356 are resolved into two separate components with a velocity separation of Delta v = 5.7 pm 2.0 km/s. The line profiles of CN of HD 235858 have not been resolved.

  7. Emission Line Profiles and Images of Geometrically Thin and Optically Thick Accretion Disks%几何薄光学厚吸积盘谱线轮廓及成像研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘彩娟

    2009-01-01

    假设位于黑洞赤道面上做圆形轨道运动的吸积盘是几何薄、光学厚的.利用光子追踪法计算在Kerr度规下的光子运动轨迹,通过数值计算研究薄吸积盘的相对论谱线轮廓及成像.在大角度观测时,吸积盘下表面的光子对谱线轮廓及成像的影响是显著的.%In the paper, it is programmed to get relativistic iron lines profile and flux images of accretion disks. The simplest case of a geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disk around a Kerr(spinning) black hole is focused.Ray tracing method is used in the trajectory of the photon in the Kerr metric, by numerical calculation to model theoretical emission line profiles and disk images. We get relativistic iron lines profile which is about flux varies as frequency varies and images of accretion disks. Viewing at large inclinations,because of contribution of the photons under the surface of the disk,the line profile appear double-peaked profile and the images are significantly changed.

  8. Strong Optical and UV Intermediate-Width Emission Lines in the Quasar SDSS J232444.80-094600.3: Dust-Free and Intermediate-Density Gas at the Skin of Dusty Torus ?

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhenzhen; Hao, Lei; Wang, Shufen; Ji, Tuo; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Emission lines from the broad emission line region (BELR) and the narrow emission line region (NELR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are extensively studied. However, between these two regions emission lines are rarely detected. We present a detailed analysis of a quasar SDSS J232444.80-094600.3 (SDSS J2324$-$0946), which is remarkable for its strong intermediate-width emission lines (IELs) with FWHM $\\approx$ 1800 \\kmps. The IEL component is presented in different emission lines, including the permitted lines \\lya\\ $\\lambda$1216, \\civ\\ $\\lambda$1549, semiforbidden line \\ciii\\ $\\lambda$1909, and forbidden lines \\oiii\\ $\\lambda\\lambda$4959, 5007. With the aid of photo-ionization models, we found that the IELs are produced by gas with a hydrogen density of $n_{\\rm H} \\sim 10^{6.2}-10^{6.3}~\\rm cm^{-3}$, a distance to the central ionizing source of $R \\sim 35-50$ pc, a covering factor of CF $\\sim$ 6\\%, and a dust-to-gas ratio of $\\leq 4\\%$ times of SMC. We suggest that the strong IELs of this quasar are produce...

  9. Spectrophotometry of emission-line stars in the magellanic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannan, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The strong emission lines in the most luminous stars in the Magellanic Clouds indicate that these stars have such strong stellar winds that their photospheres are so masked that optical absorption lines do not provide an accurate measure of photospheric conditions. In the research funded by this grant, temperatures and gravities of emission-line stars both in the Large (LMC) and Small Magellanic Clouds (SMC) have been measured by fitting of continuum ultraviolet-optical fluxes observed with IUE with theoretical model atmospheres. Preliminary results from this work formed a major part of an invited review 'The Distribution of Types of Luminous Blue Variables'. Interpretation of the IUE observations obtained in this grant and archive data were also included in a talk at the First Boulder-Munich Hot Stars Workshop. Final results of these studies are now being completed for publication in refereed journals.

  10. Tracing Quasar Narrow-Line Regions Across Redshift: A Library of High S/N Optical Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Tammour, A; Richards, G T

    2015-01-01

    In a single optical spectrum, the quasar narrow-line region (NLR) reveals low density, photoionized gas in the host galaxy interstellar medium, while the immediate vicinity of the central engine generates the accretion disk continuum and broad emission lines. To isolate these two components, we construct a library of high S/N optical composite spectra created from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR7). We divide the sample into bins of continuum luminosity and Hbeta FWHM that are used to construct median composites at different redshift steps up to 0.75. We measure the luminosities of the narrow-emission lines [NeV]3427, [NeIII]3870, [OIII]5007, and [OII]3728 with ionization potentials (IPs) of 97, 40, 35, and 13.6 eV respectively. The high IP lines' luminosities show no evidence of increase with redshift consistent with no evolution in the AGN SED or the host galaxy ISM illuminated by the continuum. In contrast, we find that the [OII] line becomes stronger at higher redshifts, and we interpret this as a co...

  11. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64 GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4' /2' , these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliff 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2' and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8 Mfi, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  12. Optical Spectra of Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64~GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3~cm (4arcsec/2arcsec, these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2arcsec and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8~$M_odot$, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33\\% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  13. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Maslennikov, K. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Pulkovskoye Shosse, 65/1, 196140, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Boldycheva, A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  14. The Type Ic SN 2007gr: a census of the ejecta from late-time optical-infrared spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzali, P A; Valenti, S; Kotak, R; Hunter, D

    2010-01-01

    Nebular spectra of Supernovae (SNe) offer an unimpeded view of the inner region of the ejecta, where most nucleosynthesis takes place. Optical spectra cover most, but not all of the emitting elements, and therefore offer only a partial view of the products of the explosion. Simultaneous optical-infrared spectra, on the other hand, contain emission lines of all important elements, from C and O through to the Intermediate Mass Elements (IME) Mg, Si, S, Ca, and to Fe and Ni. In particular, Si and S are best seen in the IR. The availability of IR data makes it possible to explore in greater detail the results of the explosion. SN\\,2007gr is the first Type Ic SN for which such data are available. Modelling the spectra with a NLTE code reveals that the inner ejecta contain $\\sim 1 \\Msun$ of material within a velocity of $\\approx 4500$\\,\\kms. %The spectrum is powered by \\Nifs, in an amount ($0.076 \\Msun$) consistent with that %derived from the early-time data. The same mass of \\Nifs\\ derived from the light curve pea...

  15. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  16. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Lihong V. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method...

  17. PROFIT: a new alternative for emission-line PROfile FITting

    CERN Document Server

    Riffel, Rogemar A

    2010-01-01

    I briefly describe a simple routine for emission-line profiles fitting by Gaussian curves or Gauss-Hermite series. The PROFIT (line-PROfile FITting) routine represent a new alternative for use in fits data cubes, as those from Integral Field Spectroscopy or Fabry-Perot Interferometry, and may be useful to better study the emission-line flux distributions and gas kinematics in distinct astrophysical objects, such as the central regions of galaxies and star forming regions. The PROFIT routine is written in IDL language and is available at http://www.ufsm.br/rogemar/software.html. The PROFIT routine was used to fit the [Fe II]1.257um emission-line profiles for about 1800 spectra of the inner 350 pc of the Seyfert galaxy Mrk1066 obtained with Gemini NIFS and shows that the line profiles are better reproduced by Gauss-Hermite series than by the commonly used Gaussian curves. The two-dimensional map of the h_3 Gauss-Hermite moment shows its highest absolute values in regions close to the edge of the radio structure...

  18. VARIABILITY IN OPTICAL SPECTRA OF {epsilon} ORIONIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Gregory B. [Department of Physics, Adrian College, Adrian, MI 49221 (United States); Morrison, Nancy D., E-mail: gthompson@adrian.edu, E-mail: nmorris@utnet.utoledo.edu [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We present the results of a time series analysis of 130 echelle spectra of {epsilon} Ori (B0 Ia), acquired over seven observing seasons between 1998 and 2006 at Ritter Observatory. The equivalent widths of H{alpha} (net) and He I {lambda}5876 were measured and radial velocities were obtained from the central absorption of He I {lambda}5876. Temporal variance spectra (TVS) revealed significant wind variability in both H{alpha} and He I {lambda}5876. The He I TVS have a double-peaked profile consistent with radial velocity oscillations. A periodicity search was carried out on the equivalent width and radial velocity data, as well as on wavelength-binned spectra. This analysis has revealed several periods in the variability with timescales of two to seven days. Many of these periods exhibit sinusoidal modulation in the associated phase diagrams. Several of these periods were present in both H{alpha} and He I, indicating a possible connection between the wind and the photosphere. Due to the harmonic nature of these periods, stellar pulsations may be the origin of some of the observed variability. Periods on the order of the rotational period were also detected in the He I line in the 1998-1999 season and in both lines during the 2004-2005 season. These periods may indicate rotational modulation due to structure in the wind.

  19. Peculiar Emission Line Generation from Ultra-Rapid Quasi-Periodic Oscillations of Exotic Astronomical Objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E. F. Borra

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to alert astronomers, particularly those using spectroscopic surveys, to the fact that exotic astronomical objects (e.g. quasars or active galactic nuclei) that send ultra-rapid quasi periodic pulses of optical light would generate spectroscopic features that look like emission lines. This gives a simple technique to find quasi periodic pulses separated by times smaller than a nanosecond. One should look for emission lines that cannot be identified with known spectral lines in spectra. Such signals, generated by slower pulses, could also be found in the far infra-red, millimeter and radio regions, where they could be detected as objects unusually bright in a single narrow-band filter or channel. The outstanding interest of the technique comes from its simplicity so that it can be used to find ultra-rapid quasi-periodic oscillators in large astronomical surveys. A very small fraction of objects presently identified as Lyman α emitters that do not have other spectral features to confirm the Lyman $\\alpha$ redshift, may possibly be quasi-periodic oscillators. However this is only a hypothesis that needs more observations for confirmation.

  20. A new sample of X-ray selected narrow emission-line galaxies. II. Looking for True Seyfert 2

    CERN Document Server

    Pons, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    A sample of X-ray and optically selected narrow emission-line galaxies (769 sources) from the 3XMM catalogue cross-correlated with SDSS (DR9) catalogue has been studied. Narrow-emission line active galactic nuclei (AGN; type-2) have been selected on the basis of their emission line ratios and/or X-ray luminosity. We have looked for X-ray unobscured type-2 AGN. As X-ray spectra were not available for our whole sample, we have checked the reliability of using the X-ray hardness ratio (HR) as a probe of the level of obscuration and we found a very good agreement with full spectral fitting results, with only 2% of the sources with apparently unobscured HR turning out to have an obscured spectrum. Despite the fact that type-2 AGN are supposed to be absorbed based on the Unified Model, about 60% of them show no sign or very low level of X-ray obscuration. After subtraction of contaminants to the sample, that is Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 and Compton-thick AGN, the fraction of unobscured Sy2 drops to 47%. For these sourc...

  1. Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Simpkins, Blake; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-10-01

    A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.

  2. Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hong; Guo, Junpeng, E-mail: guoj@uah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Simpkins, Blake; Caldwell, Joshua D. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave., SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.

  3. The Covering Factor of Warm Dust in Weak Emission-Line Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Weak emission-line active galactic nuclei (WLAGNs) are radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that have nearly featureless optical spectra. We investigate the ultraviolet to mid-infrared spectral energy distributions of 73 WLAGNs (0.4

  4. Optical Spectra and Color of Silver Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. Dmitruk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In present work, the color features of the aqueous silver suspensions were investigated. Color systems CIE XYZ and CIELAB are considered. In the case of low concentrations of nanoparticles chromaticity coordinates were determined from the transmission spectra of the colloids. For high concentrations of nanoparticles, when the multiple scattering effects play a key role and the medium turns to be turbid, the color of nanoparticles was found using the Kubelka-Munk relation. Experimental data is compared with that calculated from the Mie theory. Color features of a planar array of non-interacting silver nanoparticles are discussed for the first time.

  5. Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.

  6. Extremely Red Quasars from SDSS, BOSS and WISE: Classification of Optical Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Nicholas P; Zakamska, Nadia L; Richards, Gordon T; Villforth, Carolin; Strauss, Michael A; Greene, Jenny E; Alexandroff, Rachael; Brandt, W Niel; Liu, Guilin; Myers, Adam D; Paris, Isabelle; Schneider, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    Quasars with extremely red colours are an interesting population that can test ideas about quasar evolution as well as orientation and geometric effects in the so-called AGN unified model. To identify such a population we search the quasar catalogs of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for quasars with extremely high infrared-to-optical ratios. We identify 65 objects with r(AB)-W4(Vega)>14 mag (i.e., F_nu(22um)/F_nu(r) > ~1000). This sample spans a redshift range of 0.282.6 objects that are detected in the W4-band but not W1 or W2 (i.e., "W1W2-dropouts"). The SDSS/BOSS spectra show that the majority of the objects are reddened Type 1 quasars, Type 2 quasars (both at low and high redshift) or objects with deep low-ionization broad absorption lines (BALs) that suppress the observed r-band flux. In addition, we identify a class of Type 1 permitted broad-emission line objects at z~2-3 which are characterized by...

  7. Reddening, Emission-Line, and Intrinsic Absorption Properties in the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy Akn 564

    CERN Document Server

    Crenshaw, D M; Turner, T J; Collier, S J; Peterson, B M; Brandt, W N; Clavel, J; George, I M; Horne, K; Kriss, G A; Mathur, S; Netzer, H; Pogge, R W; Pounds, K A; Romano, P; Shemmer, O; Wamsteker, W

    2002-01-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope UV and optical spectra of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy Akn 564 to investigate its internal reddening and properties of its emission-line and intrinsic UV absorption gas. We find that the extinction curve of Akn 564, derived from a comparison of its UV/optical continuum to that of an unreddened NLS1, lacks a 2200 A bump and turns up towards the UV at a longer wavelength (4000 A) than the standard Galactic, LMC, and SMC curves. However, it does not show the extremely steep rise to 1200 A that characterizes the extinction curve of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3227. The emission-lines and continuum experience the same amount of reddening, indicating the presence of a dust screen that is external to the narrow-line region (NLR). Echelle spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph show intrinsic UV absorption lines due to Ly-alpha, N V, C IV, Si IV, and Si III, centered at a radial velocity of -190 km/s (relative to the host galaxy). Photoionization models of the UV ab...

  8. Optical Spectra and Light Curves of Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Filippenko, A V

    2003-01-01

    I review recent optical observations of supernovae (SNe) conducted by my group. The Lick Observatory Supernova Search with the 0.76-m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope is currently the world's most successful search for nearby SNe. We also use this telescope to obtain multicolor light curves of SNe. One of the more interesting SNe we discovered is SN 2000cx, which differs from all previously observed SNe Ia. Another very strange SN Ia that we studied is SN 2002cx, many of whose properties are opposite those of SN 2000cx. Extensive data on SNe II-P 1999em and 1999gi were used to derive distances with the expanding photosphere method. Results from spectropolarimetry suggest that the deeper we peer into the ejecta of core-collapse SNe, the greater the asphericity. We are using Hubble Space Telescope data to identify, or set limits on, the progenitors of core-collapse SNe.

  9. KPC-Scale Properties of Emission-line Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Mobasher, Bahram; Candels

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed -combined spectroscopic and photometric- study of resolved properties of galaxies at kpc scale and investigate how small-scale and global properties of galaxies are related. The sample consists of 119 galaxies to z~1.3 with the unique feature of having very high-resolution spectroscopic data from long exposure observations with the KECK/DEIMOS. Using HST/ACS and WFC3 data taken as part of the CANDELS project, we produce resolved rest-frame (U-V) color, stellar mass and star formation surface densities, stellar age and extinction maps and profiles along the galaxies rotation axes. We model the optical nebular emission lines using the high-resolution DEIMOS spectra and construct the optical line ratio profiles diagnostic of metallicity (R23) and nebular extinction (Ha/Hb). We find that the nebular dust extinction profile, inferred from Balmer decrement, is in agreement with the average extinction derived from the resolved SED modeling. Using the R23 metallicity profiles we examine, for the first time, the mass metallicity relation across galaxies and explore how this relation changes as a function of spatial position. We identify red and blue 'regions' of statistical significance within individual galaxies, using their rest-frame color maps. As expected, for any given galaxy, the red regions are found to have higher stellar mass surface densities and older ages compared to the blue regions. Furthermore, we quantify the spatial distribution of red and blue regions with respect to both redshift and stellar mass, finding that the stronger concentration of red regions toward the centers of galaxies is not a significant function of either redshift or stellar mass. We find that the 'main sequence' of star forming galaxies exists among both red and blue regions inside galaxies, with the median of blue regions forming a tighter relation with a slope of 1.1±0.1 and a scatter of ˜ 0.2 dex compared to red regions with a slope of 1.3 ± 0.1 and a scatter

  10. Interface phonon effect on optical spectra of quantum nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, Alexander Yu., E-mail: maslov.ton@mail.ioffe.r [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Polytechnicheskaya st., 26, 194021 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Proshina, Olga V.; Rusina, Anastasia N. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Polytechnicheskaya st., 26, 194021 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    This paper deals with theory of large radius polaron effect in quantum wells, wires and dots. The interaction of charge particles and excitons with both bulk and interface optical phonons is taken into consideration. The analytical expression for polaron binding energy is obtained for different types of nanostructures. It is shown that the contribution of interface phonons to the polaron binding energy may exceed the bulk phonon part. The manifestation of polaron effects in optical spectra of quantum nanostructures is discussed.

  11. Demonstrations of Optical Spectra with a Video Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The use of a video camera may markedly improve demonstrations of optical spectra. First, the output electrical signal from the camera, which provides full information about a picture to be transmitted, can be used for observing the radiant power spectrum on the screen of a common oscilloscope. Second, increasing the magnification by the camera…

  12. An Atlas of Starburst Galaxy Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.; Ferland, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations of high ionization lines (e.g. [Ne V] and He II λ4686) from star-forming regions have prompted a need to study the production mechanisms of these high ionization lines. Our study addresses the following questions: 1. What are specific cloud parameters that influence the strength of emission lines in starburst galaxies? 2. How can these parameters be tuned in simulations to match observations? We adopt the locally optimally emitting cloud model, a model previously used to study AGN, for our study of star-forming regions. We present the results of hundreds of photoionization simulations spanning 15 orders of magnitude in hydrogen ionizing photon flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density. We vary both properties of the starbursts (SEDs, evolutionary histories, ages), as well as cloud properties (such as the abundances and metallicity), tracking nearly 100 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Finally, we compare these results to the results of other studies on star-forming regions. The results of our photoionization calculations should prove useful for the analysis of starburst galaxy emission-line data.

  13. Evidence of the Link between Broad Emission Line Regions and Accretion Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Xu; Xin-Wu Cao

    2007-01-01

    There is observational evidence that broad-line regions (BLRs) exist in most active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but their origin is still unclear. One scenario is that the BLRs originate from winds accelerated from the hot coronae of the disks, and the winds are suppressed when the black hole is accreting at low rates. This model predicts a relation between (m) ((m) = (M)/(M)Edd) and the FWHM of broad emission lines. We estimate the central black hole masses for a sample of bright AGNs by using their broad Hβ line-widths and optical luminosities. The dimensionless accretion rates (m) = (M)/(M)Edd are derived from the optical continuum luminosities by using two different models: using an empirical relation between the bolometric luminosity Lbol and the optical luminosity ((m) = Lbol/LEdd, a fixed radiative efficiency is adopted); and calculating the optical spectra of accretion disks as a function of (m). We find a significant correlation between the derived (m) and the observed line width of Hβ,FWHM∝ (m)-0.37, which almost overlaps the disk-corona model calculations, if the viscosity α≈ 0.1 - 0.2 is adopted. Our results provide strong evidence for the physical link between the BLRs and accretion disks in AGNs.

  14. Searching of New Emission-Line Stars using the Astroinformatics Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Škoda, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Using data mining techniques applied on emission line characteristics of Be stars spectra we attempted to find new Be stars candidates in SDSS SEGUE survey. The mid-resolution spectra of confirmed Be stars obtained from VO-compatible archive of Ond\\v{r}ejov observatory 2m telescope were transformed to the spectral resolution of SDSS and important characteristics of emission line profiles were estimated, to be used as a training base of supervised learning methods. The obtained knowledge base of the characteristic shapes and sizes of Be emission lines was finally used to identify new potential candidates in SDSS spectral survey. The several newly found Be stars candidates justify our approach and approve Astroinformatics as a viable research methodology.

  15. Optical filters with fractal transmission spectra based on diffractive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Yero, Omel; Mínguez-Vega, Gladys; Fernández-Alonso, Mercedes; Lancis, Jesús; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Climent, Vicent; Monsoriu, Juan A

    2009-03-01

    The duality between the axial irradiance distribution originated by any circularly symmetric diffracting aperture under monochromatic illumination and its diffracted spectral intensity at a fixed on-axis point under broadband illumination is highlighted and experimentally investigated. Two applications are derived from this basic result. On the one hand, we suggest the use of a broadband source and a spectrometer for a single-shot measurement of the axial response of pupil filters. Second, we implement a spectral filter having a transmission spectrum with a fractal structure of frequencies. Experimental results and potential applications in synthetic spectra designs are provided.

  16. CONSTRAINING THE MILKY WAY'S HOT GAS HALO WITH O VII AND O VIII EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: mjmil@umich.edu, E-mail: jbregman@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    The Milky Way hosts a hot (≈2 × 10{sup 6} K), diffuse, gaseous halo based on detections of z = 0 O VII and O VIII absorption lines in quasar spectra and emission lines in blank-sky spectra. Here we improve constraints on the structure of the hot gas halo by fitting a radial model to a much larger sample of O VII and O VIII emission line measurements from XMM-Newton/EPIC-MOS spectra compared to previous studies (≈650 sightlines). We assume a modified β-model for the halo density distribution and a constant-density Local Bubble from which we calculate emission to compare with the observations. We find an acceptable fit to the O VIII emission line observations with χ{sub red}{sup 2} (dof) = 1.08 (644) for best-fit parameters of n{sub o}r{sub c}{sup 3β}=1.35±0.24 cm{sup –3} kpc{sup 3β} and β = 0.50 ± 0.03 for the hot gas halo and negligible Local Bubble contribution. The O VII observations yield an unacceptable χ{sub red}{sup 2} (dof) = 4.69 (645) for similar best-fit parameters, which is likely due to temperature or density variations in the Local Bubble. The O VIII fitting results imply hot gas masses of M(<50 kpc) = 3.8{sub −0.3}{sup +0.3}×10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙} and M(<250 kpc) = 4.3{sub −0.8}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}, accounting for ≲50% of the Milky Way's missing baryons. We also explore our results in the context of optical depth effects in the halo gas, the halo gas cooling properties, temperature and entropy gradients in the halo gas, and the gas metallicity distribution. The combination of absorption and emission line analyses implies a sub-solar gas metallicity that decreases with radius, but that also must be ≥0.3 Z {sub ☉} to be consistent with the pulsar dispersion measure toward the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  17. Fluorescence spectra of atomic ensembles in a magneto-optical trap as an optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Seokchan; Kang, Sungsam; Kim, Wook-Rae; Kim, Jung-Ryul; An, Kyungwon

    2015-01-01

    We present a study on characteristics of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) as an optical lattice. Fluorescence spectra of atoms trapped in a MOT with a passively phase-stabilized beam configuration have been measured by means of the photon-counting heterodyne spectroscopy. We observe a narrow Rayleigh peak and well-resolved Raman sidebands in the fluorescence spectra which clearly show that the MOT itself behaves as a three-dimensional optical lattice. Optical-lattice-like properties of the phase-stabilized MOT such as vibrational frequencies and lineshapes of Rayleigh peak and Raman sidebands are investigated systematically for various trap conditions.

  18. Optical transmission spectra in quasiperiodic multilayered photonic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, F F de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Albuquerque, E L [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M S [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Maranhao, 65025-001 Sao LuIs-MA (Brazil)

    2006-10-10

    Optical transmission spectra in quasiperiodic multilayered photonic structures, composed of both positive (SiO{sub 2}) and negative refractive index materials, are calculated by using a theoretical model based on the transfer matrix approach for normal incidence geometry. The quasiperiodic structures are substitutional sequences, characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (e.g. Fibonacci sequence) or singular continuous (e.g. Thue-Morse and double-period sequences). The transmission spectra for the case where both refractive indices can be approximated by a different constant show a unique mirror symmetrical profile, with no counterpart for the positive refractive index case, as well as a striking self-similar behaviour related to the Fibonacci sequence. For a more realistic frequency-dependent refractive index, the transmission spectra are characterized by a rich transmission profile of Bragg peaks with no more self-similarity or mirror symmetry.

  19. Optical transmission spectra in quasiperiodic multilayered photonic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, F. F.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Vasconcelos, M. S.

    2006-10-01

    Optical transmission spectra in quasiperiodic multilayered photonic structures, composed of both positive (SiO2) and negative refractive index materials, are calculated by using a theoretical model based on the transfer matrix approach for normal incidence geometry. The quasiperiodic structures are substitutional sequences, characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (e.g. Fibonacci sequence) or singular continuous (e.g. Thue-Morse and double-period sequences). The transmission spectra for the case where both refractive indices can be approximated by a different constant show a unique mirror symmetrical profile, with no counterpart for the positive refractive index case, as well as a striking self-similar behaviour related to the Fibonacci sequence. For a more realistic frequency-dependent refractive index, the transmission spectra are characterized by a rich transmission profile of Bragg peaks with no more self-similarity or mirror symmetry.

  20. Local Group Galaxy Emission-line Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, Cindy; Baildon, Taylor; Mehta, Shail; Garcia, Edgar; Massey, Philip; Hodge, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the Local Group Galaxy Emission-line Survey of Hα emission regions in M31, M33 and seven dwarf galaxies in (NGC6822, IC10, WLM, Sextans A and B, Phoenix and Pegasus). Using data from the Local Group Galaxy Survey (LGGS - see Massey et al, 2006), we used continuum-subtracted Ha emission line images to define emission regions with a faint flux limit of 10 -17 ergs-sec-1-cm-2above the background. We have obtained photometric measurements for roughly 7450 Hα emission regions in M31, M33 and five of the seven dwarf galaxies (no regions for Phoenix or Pegasus). Using these regions, with boundaries defined by Hα-emission flux limits, we also measured fluxes for the continuum-subtracted [OIII] and [SII] images and constructed a catalog of Hα fluxes, region sizes and [OIII]/ Hα and [SII]/ Hα line ratios. The HII region luminosity functions and size distributions for the spiral galaxies M31 and M33 are compared with those of the dwarf galaxies NGC 6822 and IC10. For M31 and M33, the average [SII]/ Hα and [OIII]/ Hα line ratios, plotted as a function of galactocentric radius, display a linear trend with shallow slopes consistent with other studies of metallicity gradients in these galaxies. The galaxy-wide averages of [SII]/ Hα line ratios correlate with the masses of the dwarf galaxies following the previously established dwarf galaxy mass-metallicity relationship. The slope of the luminosity functions for the dwarf galaxies varies with galaxy mass. The Carleton Catalog of this Local Group Emission-line Survey will be made available on-line.

  1. Optical spectra of UX Ari with BOOTES-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Garcia, M. D.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Jelinek, M.

    2014-07-01

    Following the detection and subsequent monitoring of the new outburst from the RS CVn UX Ari by SWIFT and MAXI (ATEL#5907, #6315 , #6319 ), the 0.6m TELMA robotic telescope at the BOOTES-2 astronomical station Malaga (Spain), obtained optical 4000-9000 A spectra starting at 2014-07-19, 01:32:24.382 UT and ending at 04:25:55.652 UT.

  2. Optical Spectra of Hemoglobin Taken from Alcohol Dependent Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Dudok K.; Dudok T.; Vlokh I.; Vlokh R.

    2005-01-01

    Optical spectra of CNMetHb and CNMetHb-Coomassi G-250, taken from the blood of humans with alcohol dependence, are studied in the spectral range of 450–750nm. The shifts in the spectral absorption maxima of CNMetHb-Coomassi G-250 complexes are observed for the diseased persons with alcohol dependence. The obtained results show that the hemoglobin structure of alcohol dependent humans is changed.

  3. The ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution of weak emission line quasars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, R.A.; Shemmer, O.; Diamond-Stanic, A.M.; Fan, X.; Anderson, S.F.; Brandt, W.N.; Plotkin, R.M.; Richards, G.T.; Schneider, D.P.; Strauss, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS

  4. Photometric classification of emission line galaxies with Machine Learning methods

    CERN Document Server

    Cavuoti, Stefano; D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Longo, Giuseppe; Paolillo, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an application of machine learning based methods to the identification of candidate AGN from optical survey data and to the automatic classification of AGNs in broad classes. We applied four different machine learning algorithms, namely the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP), trained respectively with the Conjugate Gradient, Scaled Conjugate Gradient and Quasi Newton learning rules, and the Support Vector Machines (SVM), to tackle the problem of the classification of emission line galaxies in different classes, mainly AGNs vs non-AGNs, obtained using optical photometry in place of the diagnostics based on line intensity ratios which are classically used in the literature. Using the same photometric features we discuss also the behavior of the classifiers on finer AGN classification tasks, namely Seyfert I vs Seyfert II and Seyfert vs LINER. Furthermore we describe the algorithms employed, the samples of spectroscopically classified galaxies used to train the algorithms, the procedure follow...

  5. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  6. The Baldwin effect in the narrow emission lines of AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kai; Gaskell, C Martin; Dong, Xiao-Bo

    2012-01-01

    The anti-correlations between the equivalent widths of emission lines and the continuum luminosity in AGNs, known as the Baldwin effect are well established for broad lines, but are less well studied for narrow lines. In this paper we explore the Baldwin effect of narrow emission lines over a wide range of ionization levels and critical densities using a large sample of broad-line, radio-quiet AGNs taken from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 4. These type1 AGNs span three orders of magnitude in continuum luminosity. We show that most narrow lines show a similar Baldwin effect slope of about -0.2 while the significant deviations of the slopes for [NII] 6583, [OII] 3727, [NeV] 3425, and the narrow component of Ha can be explained by the influence of metallicity, star-formation contamination and possibly by difference in the shape of the UV-optical continuum. The slopes do not show any correlation with either the ionization potential or the critical density. We show that a combination of 50% variatio...

  7. The Gaia satellite: a tool for Emission Line Stars and Hot Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martayan, Christophe; Blomme, Ronny; Jonckheere, Anthony; Borges, Marcelo; De Batz, Bertrand; Leroy, Bernard; Sordo, Rosanna; Bouret, Jean-Claude; Martins, Fabrice; Zorec, Jean; Neiner, Coralie; Nazé, Yael; Alecian, Evelyne; Floquet, Michele; Hubert, Anne-Marie; Briot, Danielle; Miroshnichenko, Anatholy; Kolka, Indrek; Stee, Philippe; Lanz, Thierry; Meynet, Georges

    2008-01-01

    The Gaia satellite will be launched at the end of 2011. It will observe at least 1 billion stars, and among them several million emission line stars and hot stars. Gaia will provide parallaxes for each star and spectra for stars till V magnitude equal to 17. After a general description of Gaia, we present the codes and methods, which are currently developed by our team. They will provide automatically the astrophysical parameters and spectral classification for the hot and emission line stars in the Milky Way and other close Local Group galaxies such as the Magellanic Clouds.

  8. Excitation Mechanisms of Near-Infrared Emission Lines in LINER Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehle, Anna

    2017-01-01

    I will present high spatial resolution, integral field spectroscopic observations of the nearby LINER (low ionization nuclear emission line region) galaxy NGC 404. LINERs are found at the centers of ~1/3 of galaxies within 40 Mpc, but their physical nature is not well understood. Although NGC 404 is thought to host a intermediate mass black hole at its center, it is unclear whether accretion onto the black hole or another mechanism such as shock excitation drives its LINER emission. We use the OSIRIS near-infrared integral field spectrograph at Keck Observatory behind laser guide star adaptive optics to map the strength and kinematics of [FeII], H2, and hydrogen recombination lines in the nucleus of NGC 404. These observations have a spatial pixel sampling of 0.5 pc and span the central 30 pc of the galaxy. We find that the ionized and molecular gas show differences in their morphology and kinematics on parsec scales. In particular, there are regions with line ratios of [FeII]/Pa-β that are much higher than previously seen in spatially integrated spectra, significantly restricting the possible excitation mechanisms of the near-infrared emission lines in this source. We are also applying these analysis techniques to 10 additional nearby LINERs, a part of a larger sample of 14 sources, to understand what drives the emission lines in these active galaxies. As a part of this program, I worked on the upgrade of the detector in the OSIRIS spectrograph, which has allowed observations for this survey obtained since January 2016 to be taken with increased instrument sensitivity of a factor of ~2 at J-band wavelengths (1.2 - 1.4 microns) and ~1.6 at H- and K-band wavelengths (1.5 - 2.4 microns). I will present results from the LINER survey, the OSIRIS detector upgrade, and also touch on related work using stellar orbits around the Milky Way supermassive black hole Sgr A* to constrain the mass and distance to our own Galactic Center.

  9. HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL AND NIR SPECTRA OF HBC 722

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Sunkyung [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Green, Joel D.; Cochran, William D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Kang, Wonseok; Lee, Sang-Gak [National Youth Space Center, 200 Deokheungyangjjok-gil, Dongil-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do 548-951 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Hyun-Il, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: sunkyung@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: joel@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wdc@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wskang@kywa.or.kr, E-mail: sanggak@kywa.or.kr, E-mail: hisung@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of high resolution (R ≥ 30,000) optical and near-IR spectroscopic monitoring observations of HBC 722, a recent FU Orionis object that underwent an accretion burst in 2010. We observed HBC 722 in the optical/near-IR with the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph, Hobby–Eberly Telescope-HRS, and Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph, at various points in the outburst. We found atomic lines with strongly blueshifted absorption features or P Cygni profiles, both evidence of a wind driven by the accretion. Some lines show a broad double-peaked absorption feature, evidence of disk rotation. However, the wind-driven and disk-driven spectroscopic features are anti-correlated in time; the disk features became strong as the wind features disappeared. This anti-correlation might indicate that the rebuilding of the inner disk was interrupted by the wind pressure during the first 2 years. The half-width at half-depth of the double-peaked profiles decreases with wavelength, indicative of the Keplerian rotation; the optical spectra with the disk feature are fitted by a G5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 70 km s{sup −1} while the near-IR disk features are fitted by a K5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 50 km s{sup −1}. Therefore, the optical and near-IR spectra seem to trace the disk at 39 and 76 R{sub ⊙}, respectively. We fit a power-law temperature distribution in the disk, finding an index of 0.8, comparable to optically thick accretion disk models.

  10. A Narrowband Emission-Line Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Alex Jonah Robert; Points, Sean; Smith, Chris; MCELS Team

    2017-01-01

    The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are unique in providing sites to study the interstellar medium (ISM) and its components at all scales, from small to global. The UM/CTIO Magellanic Cloud Emission-Line Survey (MCELS) began as a deep imaging survey of both of these nearby galaxies in the emission of Hα, [S II], and [O III]. These emission-line images are being used in detailed optical and multi-wavelength studies of planetary nebulae (PNe), H II regions, supernova remnants (SNRs), superbubbles, and supergiant shells. Here we present a deep and wide view of the 104 K ionized gas in the ISM of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using narrowband filters: Hα and [S II]. We present large-scale continuum subtracted optical emission-line mosaics of the 8x8 deg. central region of the LMC created from the combination of thousands of observations taken over hundreds of nights, providing a detailed view of most of the gaseous extent of the galaxy. With these mosaics in hand we conduct a systematic analysis of the physical conditions of 59 known X-ray SNRs in the LMC. For 50 of these SNRs, Hα and [S II] flux values along with [S II] / Hα emission-line ratios have been derived. All derived [S II] / Hα emission-line ratios ≥ 0.4, strengthening their identification as true remnants. We compare our values to spectroscopic values in the literature.

  11. Consistency of spherical, gravity-dominated dynamics with quasar high-ionization emission-line profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T. R.; Wilkes, B. J.; Krolik, J. H.; Green, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Line profile data are used to test a simple kinematic model - spherically symmetric gravitational free fall - in which the number of free parameters is limited by requiring physical self-consistency. The predictions of this model are fitted to high-resolution spectra of the stronger rest-frame UV emission lines in 12 quasars with z of about 2. It is found that if all the lines are radiated predominantly from the illuminated faces of the emission-line clouds, the profiles of Ly-alpha, N V 1240 A, and C IV 1549 A can be simultaneously well fitted with very similar parameters for all 12 quasars. It is concluded that spherically symmetric gravitational free fall does not correctly describe the dynamics of quasar broad emission-line regions.

  12. Tracing the origins of permitted emission lines in RU Lupi down to AU scales

    CERN Document Server

    Podio, L; Bacciotti, F; Antoniucci, S; Nisini, B; Dougados, C; Takami, M

    2007-01-01

    Most of the observed emission lines and continuum excess from young accreting low mass stars (Classical T Tauri stars -- CTTSs) take place in the star-disk or inner disk region. These regions have a complex emission topology still largely unknown. In this paper the magnetospheric accretion and inner wind contributions to the observed permitted He and H near infrared (NIR) lines of the bright southern CTTS RU Lupi are investigated for the first time. Previous optical observations of RU Lupi showed a large H-alpha profile, due to the emission from a wind in the line wings, and a micro-jet detected in forbidden lines. We extend this analysis to NIR lines through seeing-limited high spectral resolution spectra taken with VLT/ISAAC, and adaptive optics (AO) aided narrow-band imaging and low spectral resolution spectroscopy with VLT/NACO. Using spectro-astrometric analysis we investigate the presence of extended emission down to very low spatial scales (a few AU). The HeI 10830 line presents a P Cygni profile whose...

  13. PyNeb: Analysis of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luridiana, V.; Morisset, C.; Shaw, R. A.

    2013-04-01

    PyNeb (previously PyNebular) is an update and expansion of the IRAF package NEBULAR; rewritten in Python, it is designed to be more user-friendly and powerful, increasing the speed, easiness of use, and graphic visualization of emission lines analysis. In PyNeb, the atom is represented as an n-level atom. For given density and temperature, PyNeb solves the equilibrium equations and determines the level populations. PyNeb can compute physical conditions from suitable diagnostic line ratios and level populations, critical densities and line emissivities, and can compute and display emissivity grids as a function of Te and Ne. It can also deredden line intensities, read and manage observational data, and plot and compare atomic data from different publications, and compute ionic abundances from line intensities and physical conditions and elemental abundances from ionic abundances and icfs.

  14. Mg II h + k emission lines as stellar activity indicators of main sequence F-K stars

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, Andrea P

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to use the IUE spectra in the analysis of magnetic activity of main sequence F-K stars. Combining IUE observations of MgII and optical spectroscopy of Ca II, the registry of ctivity of stars can be extended in time. We retrieved all the high-resolution spectra of F, G, and K main sequence stars observed by IUE (i.e. 1623 spectra of 259 F to K dwarf stars). We obtained the continuum surface flux near the Mg II h+k lines near 2800 \\AA and the MgII line-core surface flux from the IUE spectra. We obtained a relation between the mean continuum flux near the MgII lines with the colour $B-V$ of the star. For a set of 117 nearly simultaneous observations of Mg II and Ca II fluxes of 21 F5 to K3 main sequence stars, we obtained a colour dependent relation between the Mount Wilson CaII S-index and the MgII emission line-core flux. As an application of this calibration, we computed the Mount Wilson index for all the dF to dK stars which have high resolution IUE spectra. For some of the ...

  15. Emission line outflows in PKS1549-79 the effects of the early stages of radio source evolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Tadhunter, C N; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T A; Dickson, R

    2001-01-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations of the southern radio galaxy PKS1549-79 (z =0.152).Despite the flat spectrum character of the radio emission from this source, our optical spectra show no sign of the broad permitted lines and non-stellar continuum characteristic of quasar nuclei and broad line radio galaxies. However, the high ionization forbidden lines, including [OIII]5007,4959, are unusually broad for a narrow line radio galaxy (FWHM 1350 km/s), and are blueshifted by 600 km/s relative to the low ionization lines such as[OII]3726,3729. The [OII] lines are also considerably narrower (FWHM 650 km/s) than the [OIII] lines, and have a redshift consistent with that of the recently-detected HI 21cm absorption line system. Whereas the kinematics of the [OIII] emission lines are consistent with outflow in an inner narrow line region, the properties of the [OII] emission lines suggest that they are emitted by a more extended and quiescent gaseous component. We argue that, given the radio properties of the ...

  16. Metallicities of Emission-Line Galaxies from HST ACS PEARS and HST WFC3 ERS Grism Spectroscopy at 0.6 < z < 2.4

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Lifang; Rhoads, James; Pirzkal, Nor; Straughn, Amber; Finkelstein, Steven; Cohen, Seth; Kuntschner, Harald; Kümmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy; Windhorst, Rogier A; O'Connell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Galaxies selected on the basis of their emission line strength show low metallicities, regardless of their redshifts. We conclude this from a sample of faint galaxies at redshifts between 0.6 < z < 2.4, selected by their prominent emission lines in low-resolution grism spectra in the optical with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and in the near-infrared using Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Using a sample of 11 emission line galaxies (ELGs) at 0.6 < z < 2.4 with luminosities of -22 < M_B < -19, which have [OII], H\\beta, and [OIII] line flux measurements from the combination of two grism spectral surveys, we use the R23 method to derive the gas-phase oxygen abundances: 7.5 < 12+log(O/H) < 8.5. The galaxy stellar masses are derived using Bayesian based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (\\piMC^2) fitting of their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), and span the mass range 8.1 < log(M_*/M_\\sun) < 10.1. These galaxies show a mass-metallicity (M-L) and Lumin...

  17. The emission-line regions in the nucleus of NGC 1313 probed with GMOS-IFU: a supergiant/hypergiant candidate and a kinematically cold nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.

    2017-04-01

    NGC 1313 is a bulgeless nearby galaxy, classified as SB(s)d. Its proximity allows high spatial resolution observations. We performed the first detailed analysis of the emission-line properties in the nuclear region of NGC 1313, using an optical data cube obtained with the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph. We detected four main emitting areas, three of them (regions 1, 2 and 3) having spectra typical of H II regions. Region 1 is located very close to the stellar nucleus and shows broad spectral features characteristic of Wolf-Rayet stars. Our analysis revealed the presence of one or two WC4-5 stars in this region, which is compatible with results obtained by previous studies. Region 4 shows spectral features (as a strong Hα emission line, with a broad component) typical of a massive emission-line star, such as a luminous blue variable, a B[e] supergiant or a B hypergiant. The radial velocity map of the ionized gas shows a pattern consistent with rotation. A significant drop in the values of the gas velocity dispersion was detected very close to region 1, which suggests that the young stars there were formed from this cold gas, possibly keeping low values of velocity dispersion. Therefore, although detailed measurements of the stellar kinematics were not possible (due to the weak stellar absorption spectrum of this galaxy), we predict that NGC 1313 may also show a drop in the values of the stellar velocity dispersion in its nuclear region.

  18. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-Luminous Quasar with Outflows in both Absorption and Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jiang-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-01-01

    SDSS J1634+2049 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with LIR= 10^11.91 Lsun. We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ~ 140 Msun yr^-1, estimated from either the PAH emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hb, HeI5876,10830 and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ~900 km/s, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines , while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in NaID and HeI*3889,10830, indicative of the AGN outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs with CLOUDY, the physical properties of the absorption-line outflow are derived as follows: 10^4 < n_H <= 10^5 cm^-3, 10^-1.3 <= U <= 10^-0.7 and 10^22.5<= N_H <= 10^22.9 cm^-2 , similar to those derived for the emission-line outflows. Th...

  19. Aperture corrections for disk galaxy properties derived from the CALIFA survey. Balmer emission lines in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Iglesias-Páramo, J; Galbany, L; Sánchez, S F; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Mast, D; García-Benito, R; Husemann, B; Aguerri, J A L; Alves, J; Bekeraité, S; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Catalán-Torrecilla, C; de Amorim, A L; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A; Ellis, S; Falcón-Barroso, J; Flores, H; Florido, E; Gallazzi, A; Gomes, J M; Delgado, R M González; Haines, T; Hernández-Fernández, J D; Kehrig, C; López-Sánchez, A R; Lyubenova, M; Marino, R A; Mollá, M; Monreal-Ibero, A; Mourão, A; Papaderos, P; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Spekkens, K; Stanishev, V; van de Ven, G; Walcher, C J; Wisotzki, L; Zibetti, S; Ziegler, B

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the effect of the aperture size on derived galaxy properties for which we have spatially-resolved optical spectra. We focus on some indicators of star formation activity and dust attenuation for spiral galaxies that have been widely used in previous work on galaxy evolution. We have used 104 spiral galaxies from the CALIFA survey for which 2D spectroscopy with complete spatial coverage is available. From the 3D cubes we have derived growth curves of the most conspicuous Balmer emission lines (Halpha, Hbeta) for circular apertures of different radii centered at the galaxy's nucleus after removing the underlying stellar continuum. We find that the Halpha flux (f(Halpha)) growth curve follows a well defined sequence with aperture radius showing low dispersion around the median value. From this analysis, we derive aperture corrections for galaxies in different magnitude and redshift intervals. Once stellar absorption is properly accounted for, the f(Halpha)/f(Hbeta) ratio growth curve shows...

  20. Study of Opacity Effects on Emission Lines at EXTRAP T2R RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancalie, Viorica; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    We have investigated the influence of opacity on hydrogen (H-α and Ly-β) and Li-like oxygen emission lines from the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. We used the Atomic Data Analysis System (AzDAS) based on the escape factor approximation for radiative transfer to calculate metastable and excited population densities via a collisional-radiative model. Population escape factor, emergent escape factor and modified line profiles are plotted vs. optical depth. The simulated emission line ratios in the density/temperature plane are in good agreement with experimental data for electron density and temperature measurements.

  1. Emission Line Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in WINGS clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Bettoni, D; Poggianti, B M; Moretti, A; Fasano, G; Fritz, J; Cava, A; Varela, J; Omizzolo, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of the emission line galaxies members of 46 low redshift (0.04 < z < 0.07) clusters observed by WINGS (WIde-field Nearby Galaxy cluster Survey, Fasano et al. 2006). Emission line galaxies were identified following criteria that are meant to minimize biases against non-star forming galaxies and classified employing diagnostic diagrams. We have examined the emission line properties and frequencies of star forming galaxies, transition objects and active galactic nuclei (AGNs: LINERs and Seyferts), unclassified galaxies with emission lines, and quiescent galaxies with no detectable line emission. A deficit of emission line galaxies in the cluster environment is indicated by both a lower frequency with respect to control samples, and by a systematically lower Balmer emission line equivalent width and luminosity (up to one order of magnitude in equivalent width with respect to control samples for transition objects) that implies a lower amount of ionised gas per unit mass and a lower s...

  2. Economical Emission-Line Mapping: ISM Properties of Nearby Protogalaxy Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Optical emission line imaging can produce a wealth of information about the conditions of the interstellar medium, but a full set of custom emission-line filters for a professional-grade telescope camera can cost many thousands of dollars. A cheaper alternative is to use commercially-produced 2-inch narrow-band astrophotography filters. In order to use these standardized filters with professional-grade telescope cameras, custom filter mounts must be manufactured for each individual filter wheel. These custom filter adaptors are produced by 3-D printing rather than standard machining, which further lowers the total cost.I demonstrate the feasibility of this technique with H-alpha, H-beta, and [OIII] emission line mapping of the low metallicity star-forming galaxies IC10 and NGC 1569, taken with my astrophotography filter set on three different 2-meter class telescopes in Southern Arizona.

  3. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Elusive Amorphous Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2015-01-01

    New and accurate laboratory results are reported for amorphous methane (CH4) ice near 10 K for the study of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the outer Solar System. Near- and mid-infrared (IR) data, including spectra, band strengths, absorption coefficients, and optical constants, are presented for the first time for this seldom-studied amorphous solid. The apparent IR band strength near 1300 cm(exp -1) (7.69 micrometer) for amorphous CH4 is found to be about 33% higher than the value long used by IR astronomers to convert spectral observations of interstellar CH4 into CH4 abundances. Although CH4 is most likely to be found in an amorphous phase in the ISM, a comparison of results from various laboratory groups shows that the earlier CH4 band strength at 1300 cm(exp -1) (7.69 micrometer) was derived from IR spectra of ices that were either partially or entirely crystalline CH4 Applications of the new amorphous-CH4 results are discussed, and all optical constants are made available in electronic form.

  4. Interpreting broad emission-line variations I : Factors influencing the emission-line response

    CERN Document Server

    Goad, M R

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the measured broad emission-line responsivity dlog f_line/dlog f_cont to continuum variations in the context of straw-man BLR geometries of varying size with fixed BLR boundaries, and for which the intrinsic emission-line responsivity is known a priori. We find for a generic emission-line that the measured responsivity, delay and maximum of the cross-correlation function are correlated for characteristic continuum variability timescales T_char less than the maximum delay for that line tau_max(line) for a particular choice of BLR geometry and observer orientation. The above correlations are manifestations of geometric dilution arising from reverberation effects within the spatially extended BLR. When present, geometric dilution reduces the measured responsivity, delay and maximum of the cross-correlation function. We also find that the measured responsivity and delay show a strong dependence on light-curve duration, with shorter campaigns resulting in smaller than expected val...

  5. The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS)

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, C N; Maiolino, R; Goldie, D J; Acedo, E de Lera; Wagg, J; Blundell, R; Paine, S; Zeng, L

    2014-01-01

    The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS) is a pathfinder program to demonstrate on-chip spectrometry at millimetre wavelengths. CAMELS will observe at frequencies from 103-114.7 GHz, providing 512 channels with a spectral resolution of R = 3000. In this paper we describe the science goals of CAMELS, the current system level design for the instrument and the work we are doing on the detailed designs of the individual components. In addition, we will discuss our efforts to understand the impact that the design and calibration of the filter bank on astronomical performance. The shape of the filter channels, the degree of overlap and the nature of the noise all effect how well the parameters of a spectral line can be recovered. We have developed a new and rigorous method for analysing performance, based on the concept of Fisher information. This can in be turn coupled to a detailed model of the science case, allowing design trade-offs to be properly investigated.

  6. High Resolution Optical and NIR Spectra of HBC 722

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Green, Joel D; Cochran, William D; Kang, Wonseok; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sung, Hyun-Il

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of high resolution (R$\\ge$30,000) optical and near-IR spectroscopic monitoring observations of HBC 722, a recent FU Orionis object that underwent an accretion burst in 2010. We observed HBC 722 in optical/near-IR with the BOES, HET-HRS, and IGRINS spectrographs, at various points in the outburst. We found atomic lines with strongly blueshifted absorption features or P Cygni profiles, both evidence of a wind driven by the accretion. Some lines show a broad double-peaked absorption feature, evidence of disk rotation. However, the wind-driven and disk-driven spectroscopic features are anti-correlated in time; the disk features became strong as the wind features disappeared. This anti-correlation might indicate that the rebuilding of the inner disk was interrupted by the wind pressure during the first two years. The Half-Width at Half-Depth (HWHD) of the double-peaked profiles decreases with wavelength, indicative of the Keplerian rotation; the optical spectra with the disk feature are fitt...

  7. Optical spectra and lattice dynamics of molecular crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhizhin, GN

    1995-01-01

    The current volume is a single topic volume on the optical spectra and lattice dynamics of molecular crystals. The book is divided into two parts. Part I covers both the theoretical and experimental investigations of organic crystals. Part II deals with the investigation of the structure, phase transitions and reorientational motion of molecules in organic crystals. In addition appendices are given which provide the parameters for the calculation of the lattice dynamics of molecular crystals, procedures for the calculation of frequency eigenvectors of utilizing computers, and the frequencies and eigenvectors of lattice modes for several organic crystals. Quite a large amount of Russian literature is cited, some of which has previously not been available to scientists in the West.

  8. C IV emission-line properties and systematic trends in quasar black hole mass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.

    2016-09-01

    Black hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z ≳ 2.1, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity width of the C IV λ λ1548, 1550 broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the C IV emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries (`blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km s-1 to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. We have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the Hα λ6565 emission line, for 19 luminous (LBol = 46.5-47.5 erg s-1) Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars, at redshifts 2 blueshifts present in the population. A strong correlation between C IV velocity width and blueshift is found and, at large blueshifts, >2000 km s-1, the velocity widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Black hole masses, based on the full width at half-maximum of the C IV emission line, can be overestimated by a factor of 5 at large blueshifts. A larger sample of quasar spectra with both C IV and H β, or Hα, emission lines will allow quantitative corrections to C IV-based black hole masses as a function of blueshift to be derived. We find that quasars with large C IV blueshifts possess high Eddington luminosity ratios and that the fraction of high-blueshift quasars in a flux-limited sample is enhanced by a factor of approximately 4 relative to a sample limited by black hole mass.

  9. UV optical absorption spectra analysis of beryl crystals from Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isotani, Sadao, E-mail: sisotani@if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Regina Blak, Ana; Watanabe, Shigueo [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    The spectral decomposition analysis was applied to the optical absorption spectra of green and colorless beryl crystals from the Brazilian Eastern Pegmatitic province in the natural state, submitted to heat treatment and irradiated with UV light. The attributions of the lines were made taking into account highly accurate quantum mechanical calculations. The deconvolution of the green beryl spectra revealed four lines, two of them around 12,000 cm{sup -1} (1.5 eV) and two of them around 34,000 cm{sup -1} (4.2 eV) attributed to Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively. The deconvolution of the colorless beryl spectra without any treatment, after heating and for the same heat treatment followed by UV light irradiation revealed five lines. The analysis of ratio relations showed that the lines at 36,400 cm{sup -1} (4.5 eV) and 41,400 cm{sup -1} (5.1 eV) belongs to a single defect attributed to a silicon dangling bond defect (=Si:). Discussions and comparison with reported defects in quartz have supported the allocation of the lines at 61,000 cm{sup -1} (7.6 eV) and 43,800 cm{sup -1} (5.4 eV) to diamagnetic oxygen vacancy defect (ident toSi-Siident to) and unrelaxed (ident toSi...Siident to) defect, respectively. Finally, the line at 39,100 cm{sup -1} (4.8 eV), quite polarized along the c-axis, was attributed to a (Fe{sup 2+}OH{sup -}) defect in the structural channels.

  10. Time variation of emission lines structure in the spectrum of HR Delfini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaev, M.B. (AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Shemakhinskaya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)

    1983-04-01

    It is found that H..beta.., HeII lambda4686 and (OIII)lambdalambda4959, 5007 emission lines in the spectrum of nova HR Del had in 1981 four-component structure, as they did earlier. A comparison with 1968-1978 spectra reveals the changes in relative intensities of the internal and external components of these lines. It is concluded that time variations of physical conditions occur in some condensation in the envelope of HR Del.

  11. VERY STRONG EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, H.; Colbert, J.; Shim, H. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Siana, B.; Bridge, C. [Department of Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Scarlata, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McCarthy, P.; Dressler, A.; Hathi, N. P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Teplitz, H. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Henry, A.; Martin, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bunker, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fosbury, R. A. E. [Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-12-20

    The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey uses the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared grism capabilities to obtain slitless spectra of thousands of galaxies over a wide redshift range including the peak of star formation history of the universe. We select a population of very strong emission-line galaxies with rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) higher than 200 A. A total of 176 objects are found over the redshift range 0.35 < z < 2.3 in the 180 arcmin{sup 2} area that we have analyzed so far. This population consists of young and low-mass starbursts with high specific star formation rates (sSFR). After spectroscopic follow-up of one of these galaxies with Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, we report the detection at z = 0.7 of an extremely metal-poor galaxy with 12 + log(O/H) =7.47 {+-} 0.11. After estimating the active galactic nucleus fraction in the sample, we show that the high-EW galaxies have higher sSFR than normal star-forming galaxies at any redshift. We find that the nebular emission lines can substantially affect the total broadband flux density with a median brightening of 0.3 mag, with some examples of line contamination producing brightening of up to 1 mag. We show that the presence of strong emission lines in low-z galaxies can mimic the color-selection criteria used in the z {approx} 8 dropout surveys. In order to effectively remove low-redshift interlopers, deep optical imaging is needed, at least 1 mag deeper than the bands in which the objects are detected. Without deep optical data, most of the interlopers cannot be ruled out in the wide shallow HST imaging surveys. Finally, we empirically demonstrate that strong nebular lines can lead to an overestimation of the mass and the age of galaxies derived from fitting of their spectral energy distribution (SED). Without removing emission lines, the age and the stellar mass estimates are overestimated by a factor of 2 on average and up to a factor of 10 for the high-EW galaxies

  12. Unreported Emission Lines of Rb, Ce, La, Sr, Y, Zr, Pb and Se Detected Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, K. H.; Mackie, J.; Dyar, M. D.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    Information on emission lines for major and minor elements is readily available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as part of the Atomic Spectra Database. However, tabulated emission lines are scarce for some minor elements and the wavelength ranges presented on the NIST database are limited to those included in existing studies. Previous work concerning minor element calibration curves measured using laser-induced break-down spectroscopy found evidence of Zn emission lines that were not documented on the NIST database. In this study, rock powders were doped with Rb, Ce, La, Sr, Y, Zr, Pb and Se in concentrations ranging from 10 percent to 10 parts per million. The difference between normalized spectra collected on samples containing 10 percent dopant and those containing only 10 parts per million were used to identify all emission lines that can be detected using LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) in a ChemCam-like configuration at the Mount Holyoke College LIBS facility. These emission spectra provide evidence of many previously undocumented emission lines for the elements measured here.

  13. A High Fraction of Double-peaked Narrow Emission Lines in Powerful Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Lyu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    One percent of redshift z~0.1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) show velocity splitting of a few hundred km/s in the narrow emission lines in spatially integrated spectra. Such line profiles have been found to arise from the bulk motion of ionized gas clouds associated with galactic-scale outflows, merging pairs of galaxies each harboring a supermassive black hole (SMBH), and/or galactic-scale disk rotation. It remains unclear, however, how the frequency of narrow-line velocity splitting may depend on AGN luminosity. Here we study the correlation between the fraction of Type 2 AGNs with double-peaked narrow emission lines and AGN luminosity as indicated by [O III]5007 emission-line luminosity L_[O III]. We combine the sample of Liu et al. (2010) at z~0.1 with a new sample of 178 Type 2 AGNs with double-peaked [O III] emission lines at z~0.5. We select the new sample from a parent sample of 2089 Type 2 AGNs from the SDSS-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a statistically significant (~4.2\\sigma) ...

  14. Identification of Emission Lines in the Low-Ionization Strontium Filament Near Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, H; Johansson, S; Smith, N

    2004-01-01

    We have obtained deep spectra from 1640 to 10100A with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) of the Strontium Filament, a largely neutral emission nebulosity lying close to the very luminous star Eta Carinae and showing an uncommon spectrum. Over 600 emission lines, both permitted and forbidden, have been identified. The majority originates from neutral or singly-ionized iron group elements (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni). Sr is the only neutron capture element detected. The presence of Sr II, numerous strong Ti II and V II lines and the dominance of Fe I over Fe II are notable discoveries. While emission lines of hydrogen, helium, and nitrogen are associable with other spatial structures at other velocities within the Homunculus, no emission lines from these elements correspond to the spatial structure or velocity of the Sr Filament. Moreover, no identified Sr Filament emission line requires an ionization or excitation energy above approximately 8 eV. Ionized gas extends spatially along the apertur...

  15. Ly\\alpha\\ emission line reconstruction for high-$z$ QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Greig, Bradley; McGreer, Ian D; Gallerani, Simona; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an intrinsic Ly\\alpha\\ emission line profile reconstruction method for high-$z$ quasars (QSOs). This approach utilises a covariance matrix of emission line properties obtained from a large, moderate-$z$ ($2 \\leq z \\leq 2.5$), high signal to noise (S/N > 15) sample of BOSS QSOs. For each QSO, we complete a Monte Carlo Markov Chain fitting of the continuum and emission line properties and perform a visual quality assessment to construct a large database of robustly fit spectra. With this dataset, we construct a covariance matrix to describe the correlations between the high ionisation emission lines Ly\\alpha, C IV, Si IV + O IV] and C III], and find it to be well approximated by an $N$-dimensional Gaussian distribution. This covariance matrix characterises the correlations between the line width, peak height and velocity offset from systemic while also allowing for the existence of broad and narrow line components for Ly\\alpha\\ and C IV. We illustrate how this covariance matrix allows us to statist...

  16. CIV Emission Line Properties and Systematic Trends in Quasar Black Hole Mass Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Coatman, Liam; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T

    2016-01-01

    Black-hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z > 2.1, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity-width of the CIV broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity-widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the CIV-emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries (`blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km/s to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. We have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the H$\\alpha$ emission line, for 19 luminous ($L_{Bol}$ = 46.5-47.5 erg/s) Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars, at redshifts 2 2000 km/s, the velocity-widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Black-hole masses, based on the full width at half maximum of the CIV-emission line, can be overestimated by a factor of...

  17. Kpc-scale Properties of Emission-line Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Ferguson, Henry C; Guo, Yicheng; Koekemoer, Anton M; Koo, David C; Papovich, Casey

    2014-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the resolved properties of emission-line galaxies at kpc-scale to investigate how small-scale and global properties of galaxies are related. 119 galaxies with high-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectra are selected to cover a wide range in morphologies over the redshift range 0.2

  18. Galaxy emission line classification using 3D line ratio diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Frédéric P A; Kewley, Lisa J; Sutherland, Ralph S; Scharwaechter, Julia; Basurah, Hassan M; Ali, Alaa; Amer, Morsi A

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams have become a key tool in understanding the excitation mechanisms of galaxies. The curves used to separate the different regions - HII-like or else excited by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) - have been refined over time but the core technique has not evolved significantly. However, the classification of galaxies based on their emission line ratios really is a multi-dimensional problem. Here we exploit recent software developments to explore the potential of three-dimensional (3D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We introduce a specific set of 3D diagrams, the ZQE diagrams, which separate the oxygen abundance and the ionisation parameter of HII region-like spectra, and which also enable us to probe the excitation mechanism of the gas. By examining these new 3D spaces interactively, we define a new set of 2D diagnostics, the ZE diagnostics, which can provide the metallicity of objects excited by hot young stars, and which cleanly separate HII region-like obje...

  19. Optical Absorption Spectra of Hydrous Wadsleyite to 32 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Goncharov, A. F.; Jacobsen, S. D.; Bina, C. R.; Frost, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    Optical absorption spectra of high-pressure minerals can be used as indirect tools to calculate radiative conductivity of the Earth's interior [e.g., 1]. Recent high-pressure studies show that e.g. ringwoodite, γ-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4, does not become opaque in the near infrared and visible region, as previously assumed, but remains transparent to 21.5 GPa [2]. Therefore, it has been concluded that radiative heat transfer does not necessarily become blocked at high pressures of the mantle and ferromagnesian minerals actually could contribute to the heat flow in the Earth's interior [2]. In this study we use gem-quality single-crystals of hydrous Fe-bearing wadsleyite, β-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4, that were synthesized at 18 GPa and 1400 °C in a multianvil apparatus. Crystals were analyzed by Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. For absorption measurements a double-polished 50 μm sized single-crystal of wadsleyite was loaded in a diamond-anvil cell with neon as pressure medium. Optical absorption spectra were recorded at ambient conditions as well as up to 32 GPa from 400 to 50000 cm-1. At ambient pressure the absorption spectrum reveals two broad bands at - 10000 cm-1 and -15000 cm-1, and an absorption edge in the visible-ultraviolet range. With increasing pressure the absorption spectrum changes, both bands continuously shift to higher frequencies as has been observed for ringwoodite [2], but is contrary to earlier presumptions for wadsleyite [3]. Here, we will discuss band assignment along with the influence of iron, compare our results to previous absorption studies of mantle materials [2], and analyze possible implications for radiative conductivity of the transition zone. References: [1] Goncharov et al. (2008), McGraw Yearbook Sci. Tech., 242-245. [2] Keppler & Smyth (2005), Am. Mineral., 90 1209-1212. [3] Ross (1997), Phys. Chem. Earth, 22 113-118.

  20. Optical-optical double-resonant multiphoton ionization spectra of Rydberg states of nitrogen dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Gui-Yin; Zhang Lian-Shui; Sun Bo; Han Xiao-Feng; Yu Wei

    2005-01-01

    The optical-optical double-resonant multiphoton ionization(OODR-MPI) technique has been applied to the study of the Rydberg states of nitrogen dioxide. The results show that ,althougy the OODR-MPI spectra of NO2 are composed of regular progression bands at different pump laser intensities, their ionization pathways are different.The NO2 mollecule is ionized through the (3+1+1)double-resonant process as the pump laser intensity is in a high value, or else it is through the (1+2+1)rpocess.The final resonant states in the two ionizing processes have been attributed to different Rydberg states.

  1. Optical Spectra and Color Nature of Lithium Amphiboles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Konovalenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical absorption spectra of two lithium amphiboles of the pedrisite group from rare-metal peg-matites of the Sangilen rare-metal province in the southeastern part of Tyva have been studied. One of them – a limit magnesian fluoro-sodium pedrisite of yellow-green color – was taken from the rocks hosting pegmatites, and another one – fluoro-sodium ferro-pedrisite of violet-blue color – was taken from pegmatites as such. It has been demonstrated that the color of the yellow-green mineral is associated with absorption bands of Cr3+ ions in the octahedral coordination. Absorption bands of Cr3+ ions in the spectrum of fluoro-sodium pedrisite are formed by a transmission window in the yellow-green region of the spectrum. Therefore, the color of this sample is yellow-green. The color of violet-blue pedrisite is de-fined by intensive absorption bands of charge transfer Fe2+ → Fe3+ 550, 680 nm. Very strong absorption bands of 550 and 680 nm are formed by a transmission window in the violet-blue region of the spectrum. Thus, the color of ferro-pedrisite is violet-blue.

  2. Optical spectra of lactoperoxidase as a function of solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelent, B; Yano, T; Ohlsson, P-I; Smith, M L; Paul, J; Vanderkooi, J M

    2005-12-01

    The iron of lactoperoxidase is predominantly high-spin at ambient temperature. Optical spectra of lactoperoxidase indicate that the iron changes from high-spin to low-spin in the temperature range from room temperature to 20 K. The transformation is independent of whether the enzyme is in glycerol/water or solid sugar glass. Addition of the inhibitor benzohydroxamic acid increases the amount of the low-spin form, and again the transformation is independent of whether the protein is in an aqueous solution or a nearly anhydrous sugar. In contrast to lactoperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase remains high-spin over the temperature excursion in both solvents and with addition of benzohydroxamic acid. We conclude that details of the heme pocket of lactoperoxidase allow ligation changes with temperature that are dependent upon the apoprotein but independent of solvent fluctuations. At low pH, lactoperoxidase shows a solvent-dependent transition; the high-spin form is predominant in anhydrous sugar glass, but in the presence of water, the low-spin form is also present in abundance. The active site of lactoperoxidase is not as tightly constrained at low pH as at neutrality, though the enzyme is active over a wide pH range.

  3. Spectroscopy of unusual emission-line stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    1988-01-01

    New spectroscopic observations are reported for ten stars that have been identified in the literature as having H-alpha emission with suspected F, G, or K spectral types. Three of the stars are shown to be BE stars, two are confirmed as early-type supergiants, three show composite (F or K + B) spectra, one is a 'post-T Tauri' star, and one is an ordinary F star without emission.

  4. Spectroscopy of an unusual emission line M star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Greenstein, Jesse L.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Moderate-resolution spectroscopy of an unusual late-type faint emission-line star, PC 0025 + 0047, is reported. A very strong (greater than 250 A equivalent width) an H-alpha emission line was detected by the present automated line search algorithm. The spectrum was found to have two unresolved emission lines (H-alpha and H-beta) near zero velocity, superposed on the absorption spectrum of a very red M dwarf which has strong K I, and relatively weak bands of TiO. From the weakness of the subordinate lines of Na I (8192 A) and other spectral features, it is inferred that it is definitely a cooler, and probably fainter, analog of LHS 2924. The strength of the emission lines indicates that PC 0025 + 0447 is very young and may be a fading predecessor brown drawf at an estimated M(bol) approaching 14m at a distance of about 60 pc.

  5. Broad Fe-emission line in the new X-ray transient XTE J1652-453

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Beike

    2010-01-01

    Broad iron-emission lines, as detected in X-ray spectra of black-hole binaries, are thought to be reflection signatures of the inner part of the accretion disk and could be used to explore the physical properties of the emitting region close to the black hole. Here we present the recent results of t

  6. The SDSS-IV eBOSS emission-line galaxy pilot survey

    CERN Document Server

    Comparat, J; Jouvel, S; Raichoor, A; Kneib, J-P; Yeche, C; Abdalla, F B; Cras, C Le; Maraston, C; Wilkinson, D M; Zhu, G; Jullo, E; Prada, F; Schlegel, D; Xu, Z; Zou, H; Bautista, J; Bizyaev, D; Bolton, A; Brownstein, J R; Dawson, K S; Gaulme, S Escoffier P; Kinemuchi, K; Malanushenko, E; Malanushenko, V; Mariappan, V; Newman, J A; Oravetz, D; Pan, K; Percival, W J; Prakash, A; Schneider, D P; Simmons, A; Allam, T M C Abbott S; Banerji, M; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Capozzi, D; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Castander, F J; Cunha, C E; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Estrada, J; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; March, M; Marshall, J L; Miquel, R; Plazas, A A; Reil, K; Roe, N; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Rykoff, E S; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Walker, A R; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-IV/eBOSS) will observe approximately 270,000 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) to measure the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation standard ruler (BAO) at redshift 0.9. To test different ELG selection algorithms, based on data from several imaging surveys, 9,000 spectra were observed with the SDSS spectrograph as a pilot survey. First, we provide a detailed description of each target selection algorithm tested. Then, using visual inspection and redshift quality flags, we find that the automated spectroscopic redshifts assigned by the pipeline meet the quality requirements for a robust BAO measurement. Also, we show the correlations between sky emission, signal-to-noise ratio in the emission lines and redshift error. As a result, we provide robust redshift distributions for the different target selection schemes tested. Finally, we infer two optimal target selection algorithms to be applied on DECam photometry that fulfill the eBOSS ...

  7. Rendering Optical Effects Based on Spectra Representation in Complex Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Weiming

    2006-01-01

    http://www.springerlink.com/; Rendering the structural color of natural objects or modern industrial products in the 3D environment is not possible with RGB-based graphics platforms and software and very time consuming, even with the most efficient spectra representation based methods previously proposed. Our framework allows computing full spectra light object interactions only when it is needed, i.e. for the part of the scene that requires simulating special spectra sensitive phenomena. Ach...

  8. Optical spectra of ultracool dwarfs with the Southern African Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, C.; Miszalski, B.; Väisänen, P.; Koen, T.

    2017-03-01

    New spectra of 81 ultracool dwarfs (spectral types M7 and later) are discussed. Spectral classifications of 49 objects are available in the literature, while 32 objects are newly classified. The known spectral types were used to test an automated classification scheme, which relies primarily on template fitting, supplemented by matching of spectral indices calibrated against the template spectra. An attempt was made to quantify the uncertainty in the spectral types, which is generally better than two subclasses. Objects for which spectral types differ by more than one subclass from the literature classifications are discussed individually. Discrepancies between automated classifications based on, respectively, template fitting and spectral index matching, may be useful for flagging objects with unusual spectra. Aside from the 32 first-time classifications, alternative classifications are presented for 32 previously classified dwarfs. Very large (equivalent width greater than 130 Å) Hα flares are reported for the known ultracool dwarf binary 2MASS J15200224-4422419; curiously, the object does not appear to have quiescent emission lines. Non-zero equivalent-width measurements are listed for a further 29 objects.

  9. Winds in collision. I - Geometric implications of the emission lines for V 1016 Cyg and HM Sge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, L. A.; Salzer, J.; Wallerstein, G.; Brugel, E.

    1984-01-01

    Emission line profiles and radial velocity data obtained from spectra in the visual region are presented for V1016 Cyg and HM Sge. The profiles of the forbidden emission lines are found to be inconsistent with spherical symmetry for the hot nebular material. It is argued that part of the nebular material in a detached binary system where both stars have spontaneous winds will naturally assume the shape of a curved, roughly conical, shell. The data can be satisfactorily interpreted in terms of the interaction of a low-velocity wind from a red giant with a high-velocity wind from a white dwarf in a detached binary system. This scheme provides a natural assignment of emission line forming regions to different portions of the interaction shell and the two winds, explaining both the profiles and the velocities of the features.

  10. The Nature of Active Galactic Nuclei with Velocity Offset Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A

    2016-01-01

    We obtained Keck/OSIRIS near-IR adaptive optics-assisted integral-field spectroscopy to probe the morphology and kinematics of the ionized gas in four velocity-offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These objects possess optical emission lines that are offset in velocity from systemic as measured from stellar absorption features. At a resolution of ~0.18", OSIRIS allows us to distinguish which velocity offset emission lines are produced by the motion of an AGN in a dual supermassive black hole system, and which are produced by outflows or other kinematic structures. In three galaxies, J1018+2941, J1055+1520 and J1346+5228, the spectral offset of the emission lines is caused by AGN-driven outflows. In the remaining galaxy, J1117+6140, a counterrotating nuclear disk is observed that contains the peak of Pa$\\alpha$ emission 0.2" from the center of the galaxy. The most plausible explanation for the origin of this spatially and kinematically offset peak is that it is a region of en...

  11. The different origins of high- and low-ionization broad emission lines revealed by gravitational microlensing in the Einstein cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braibant, L.; Hutsemékers, D.; Sluse, D.; Anguita, T.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the kinematics and ionization structure of the broad emission line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO2237+0305 (the Einstein cross) using differential microlensing in the high- and low-ionization broad emission lines. We combine visible and near-infrared spectra of the four images of the lensed quasar and detect a large-amplitude microlensing effect distorting the high-ionization CIV and low-ionization Hα line profiles in image A. While microlensing only magnifies the red wing of the Balmer line, it symmetrically magnifies the wings of the CIV emission line. Given that the same microlensing pattern magnifies both the high- and low-ionization broad emission line regions, these dissimilar distortions of the line profiles suggest that the high- and low-ionization regions are governed by different kinematics. Since this quasar is likely viewed at intermediate inclination, we argue that the differential magnification of the blue and red wings of Hα favors a flattened, virialized, low-ionization region whereas the symmetric microlensing effect measured in CIV can be reproduced by an emission line formed in a polar wind, without the need of fine-tuned caustic configurations. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT, Paranal, Chile; Proposals 076.B-0197 and 076.B-0607 (PI: Courbin).

  12. Doppler ghosts in a hall of mirrors polarisation profiles of scattered emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Henney, W J

    1994-01-01

    The Doppler shifts of optical emission lines which have been scattered by surrounding dust and electrons can provide useful information about the kinematics, geometry and physical conditions of astrophysical flows. In principle, the scatterers can provide views of the line-emitting gas from different directions, allowing the 3-d velocity field of the emitting gas to be determined and revealing sources which are hidden from direct view. Unfortunately, as in a Hall of Mirrors, the resultant multiple images can be confusing and hard to interpret. In general, the scattering geometry will be unknown, which makes it difficult to disentangle the effect of the motion of the scatterers from that of the motion of the emitting source. In this situation, spectropolarimetric observations can be a great help, since the scattered light will be partially polarised to a degree dependent on the angle of scattering and on the details of the scattering process. Analysis of the polarisation profiles of the scattered emission line...

  13. Planetary nebulae with emission-line central stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gesicki, K; Acker, A; Gorny, S K; Gozdziewski, K; Walsh, J R

    2005-01-01

    The kinematic structure of a sample of planetary nebulae, consisting of 23 [WR] central stars, 21 weak emission line stars (wels) and 57 non-emission line central stars, is studied. The [WR] stars are shown to be surrounded by turbulent nebulae, a characteristic shared by some wels but almost completely absent from the non-emission line stars. The fraction of objects showing turbulence for non-emission-line stars, wels and [WR] stars is 7%, 24% and 91%, respectively. The [WR] stars show a distinct IRAS 12-micron excess, indicative of small dust grains, which is not found for wels. The [WR]-star nebulae are on average more centrally condensed than those of other stars. On the age-temperature diagram, the wels are located on tracks of both high and low stellar mass, while [WR] stars trace a narrow range of intermediate masses. Emission-line stars are not found on the cooling track. One group of wels may form a sequence wels--[WO] stars with increasing temperature. For the other groups both the wels and the [WR]...

  14. Black hole mass estimates and emission-line properties of a sample of redshift z>6.5 quasars

    CERN Document Server

    De Rosa, G; Decarli, R; Gennaro, M; Simcoe, R A; Dietrich, M; Peterson, B M; Walter, F; Frank, S; McMahon, R G; Hewett, P C; Mortlock, D J; Simpson, C; Warren, S J

    2013-01-01

    We present the analysis of optical and near-infrared spectra of the only four z>6.5 quasars known to date, discovered in the UKIDSS-LAS and VISTA-VIKING surveys. Our data-set consists of VLT/X-Shooter and Magellan/FIRE observations of the z>6.5 quasars, and includes new deep VLT/X-Shooter observations of the highest redshift quasar known to date (z=7.1). These are the best optical/NIR spectroscopic data that are likely to be obtained for the z>6.5 sample using current 6-10 m facilities. We estimate the black hole mass, the Eddington ratio, and the SiIV/CIV, CIII]/CIV, and FeII/MgII emission-line flux ratios. We perform spectral modeling using a procedure that allows us to derive a probability distribution for the continuum components and to obtain the quasar properties weighted upon the underlying distribution of continuum models. The z>6.5 quasars show the same emission properties as their counterparts at lower redshifts. The z>6.5 quasars host black holes with masses of ~10^9 M_sun that are accreting close ...

  15. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Velocity Shifts of Quasar Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yue; Denney, Kelly D; Greene, Jenny E; Grier, C J; Ho, Luis C; Peterson, Bradley M; Petitjean, Patrick; Richards, Gordon T; Schneider, Donald P; Tao, Charling; Trump, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    Quasar emission lines are often shifted from the systemic velocity due to various dynamical and radiative processes in the line-emitting region. The level of these velocity shifts depends both on the line species and on quasar properties. We study velocity shifts for the line peaks of various narrow and broad quasar emission lines relative to systemic using a sample of 849 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. The coadded (from 32 epochs) spectra of individual quasars have sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to measure stellar absorption lines to provide reliable systemic velocity estimates, as well as weak narrow emission lines. The sample also covers a large dynamic range in quasar luminosity (~2 dex), allowing us to explore potential luminosity dependence of the velocity shifts. We derive average line peak velocity shifts as a function of quasar luminosity for different lines, and quantify their intrinsic scatter. We further quantify how well the peak velocit...

  16. A Suzaku Search for Dark Matter Emission Lines in the X-ray Brightest Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, O; Allen, S W; Simionescu, A; Kaastra, J S; Strigari, L E

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a search for unidentified emission lines in deep Suzaku X-ray spectra for the central regions of the four X-ray brightest galaxy clusters: Perseus, Coma, Virgo and Ophiuchus. We employ an optimized energy range for our analysis (3.2-5.3 keV) that is relatively free of instrumental features, and a baseline plasma emission model that incorporates the abundances of elements with the strongest expected emission lines at these energies (S, Ar, Ca) as free parameters. For the Perseus Cluster core, employing this baseline model, we find evidence for an additional emission feature at an energy $3.51^{+0.02}_{-0.01}$ keV with a flux of ~$2.87\\times10^{-7}$ ph/s/cm^2/arcmin^2. At slightly larger radii, we detect an emission line at 3.59+/-0.02 keV with a flux of ~$4.8\\times10^{-8}$ ph/s/cm^2/arcmin^2. The energies and fluxes of these features are broadly consistent with previous claims, although the radial variation of the line strength appears in tension with standard dark matter (DM) model p...

  17. Microlensing of the Broad Emission Line Region in the Quadruple Lens SDSS J1004+4112

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, G T; Pindor, B; Hennawi, J F; Hall, P B; Turner, E L; Inada, N; Oguri, M; Ichikawa, S I; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; White, R L; Wyithe, J S B; Schneider, D P; Johnston, D E; Frieman, J A; Brinkmann, J; Richards, Gordon T.; Keeton, Charles R.; Pindor, Bartosz; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Hall, Patrick B.; Turner, Edwin L.; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Ichikawa, Shin-Ichi; Becker, Robert H.; Gregg, Michael D.; White, Richard L.; Schneider, Donald P.; Johnston, David E.; Frieman, Joshua A.

    2004-01-01

    We present seven epochs of spectroscopy on the quadruply imaged quasar SDSS J1004+4112, spanning observed-frame time delays from 1 to 322 days. The spectra reveal differences in the emission lines between the lensed images. Specifically, component A showed a strong enhancement in the blue wings of several high-ionization lines relative to component B, which lasted at least 28 days (observed frame) then faded. Since the predicted time delay between A and B is <30 days, our time coverage suggests that the event was not intrinsic to the quasar. We attribute these variations to microlensing of part of the broad emission line region of the quasar, apparently resolving structure in the source plane on a scale of ~10^{16} cm at z=1.734. In addition, we observed smaller differences in the emission line profiles between components A and B that persisted throughout the time span, which may also be due to microlensing or millilensing. Further spectroscopic monitoring of this system holds considerable promise for reso...

  18. The MUSE-Wide survey: A first catalogue of 831 emission line galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herenz, Edmund Christian; Urrutia, Tanya; Wisotzki, Lutz; Kerutt, Josephine; Saust, Rikke; Werhahn, Maria; Schmidt, Kasper Borello; Caruana, Joseph; Diener, Catrina; Bacon, Roland; Brinchmann, Jarle; Schaye, Joop; Maseda, Michael; Weilbacher, Peter M.

    2017-09-01

    We present a first instalment of the MUSE-Wide survey, covering an area of 22.2 arcmin2 (corresponding to 20% of the final survey) in the CANDELS/Deep area of the Chandra Deep Field South. We use the MUSE integral field spectrograph at the ESO VLT to conduct a full-area spectroscopic mapping at a depth of 1 h exposure time per 1 arcmin2 pointing. We searched for compact emission line objects using our newly developed LSDCat software based on a 3D matched filtering approach, followed by interactive classification and redshift measurement of the sources. Our catalogue contains 831 distinct emission line galaxies with redshifts ranging from 0.04 to 6. Roughly one third (237) of the emission line sources are Lyman α emitting galaxies with 3 3. Together with the catalogue we also release 1D PSF-weighted extracted spectra and small 3D datacubes centred on each of the 831 sources. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 094.A-0205.Data products are available via http://muse-vlt.eu/science/ and at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A12 .

  19. Locally Optimally Emitting Clouds and the Variable Broad Emission Line Spectrum of NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korista, Kirk T.; Goad, Michael R.

    2000-06-01

    In recent work Baldwin et al. proposed that in the geometrically extended broad-line regions (BLRs) of quasars and active galactic nuclei, a range in line-emitting gas properties (e.g., density, column density) might exist at each radius and showed that under these conditions the broad emission line spectra of these objects may be dominated by selection effects introduced by the atomic physics and general radiative transfer within the large pool of line-emitting entities. In this picture, the light we see originates in a vast amalgam of emitters but is dominated by those emitters best able to reprocess the incident continuum into a particular emission line. We test this ``locally optimally emitting clouds'' (LOC) model against the extensive spectroscopic database of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. The time-averaged, integrated-light UV broad emission line spectrum from the 1993 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) monitoring campaign is reproduced via the optimization of three global geometric parameters: the outer radius, the index controlling the radial cloud covering fraction of the continuum source, and the integrated cloud covering fraction. We make an ad hoc selection from the range of successful models, and for a simple spherical BLR geometry we simulate the emission-line light curves for the 1989 IUE and 1993 HST campaigns, using the respective observed UV continuum light curves as drivers. We find good agreement between the predicted and observed light curves and lags-a demonstration of the LOC picture's viability as a means to understanding the BLR environment. Finally, we discuss the next step in developing the LOC picture, which involves the marriage of echo-mapping techniques with spectral simulation grids such as those presented here, using the constraints provided by a high-quality, temporally well-sampled spectroscopic data set.

  20. Mg I emission lines at 12 and 18 μm in K giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, J. O.; Ryde, N.; Harper, G. M.; Kruger, A.; Richter, M. J.

    2008-08-01

    Context: The solar mid-infrared metallic emission lines have already been observed and analyzed well, and the formation scenario of the Mg I 12 μm lines has been known for more than a decade. Detections of stellar emission at 12 μm have, however, been limited to Mg I in very few objects. Previous modeling attempts have been made only for Procyon and two cool evolved stars, with unsatisfactory results for the latter. This prevents the lines' long predicted usage as probes of stellar magnetic fields. Aims: We want to explain our observed Mg I emission lines at 12 μm in the K giants Pollux, Arcturus, and Aldebaran and at 18 μm in Pollux and Arcturus. We discuss our modeling of these lines and particularly how various aspects of the model atom affect the emergent line profiles. Methods: High-resolution observational spectra were obtained using TEXES at Gemini North and the IRTF. To produce synthetic line spectra, we employed standard one-dimensional, plane-parallel, non-LTE modeling for trace elements in cool stellar atmospheres. We computed model atmospheres with the MARCS code, applied a comprehensive magnesium model atom, and used the radiative transfer code MULTI to solve for the magnesium occupation numbers in statistical equilibrium. Results: The Mg I emission lines at 12 μm in the K giants are stronger than in the dwarfs observed so far. We present the first observed stellar emission lines from Mg I at 18 μm and from Al I, Si I, and presumably Ca I at 12 μm. We successfully reproduce the observed Mg I emission lines simultaneously in the giants and in the Sun, but show how the computed line profiles depend critically on atomic data input and how the inclusion of energy levels with n ≥ 10 and collisions with neutral hydrogen are necessary to obtain reasonable fits. Partly based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the

  1. The Physics of Thin Film Optical Spectra An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stenzel, Olaf

    2005-01-01

    The book is intended to bridge the gap between fundamental physics courses (such as optics, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and solid state physics) and highly specialized literature on the spectroscopy, design, and application of optical thin film coatings. Basic knowledge from the above-mentioned courses is therefore presumed. Starting from fundamental physics, the book enables the reader derive the theory of optical coatings and to apply it to practically important spectroscopic problems. Both classical and semiclassical approaches are included. Examples describe the full range of classical optical coatings in various spectral regions as well as highly specialized new topics such as rugate filters and resonant grating waveguide structures.

  2. A CANDELS WFC3 Grism Study of Emission-Line Galaxies at z~2: A Mix of Nuclear Activity and Low-Metallicity Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Scarlata, Claudia; Kocevski, Dale D; Bell, Eric F; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Koo, David C; Faber, S M; Laird, Elise S; Mozena, Mark; Rangel, Cyprian; Yan, Renbin; Yesuf, Hassen; Atek, Hakim; Dickinson, Mark; Donley, Jennifer L; Dunlop, James S; Ferguson, Henry C; Finkelstein, Steven L; Grogin, Norman A; Hathi, Nimish P; Juneau, Stephanie; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Koekemoer, Anton M; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A; Rodney, Steven A; Straughn, Amber N; Teplitz, Harry I

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z~2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with >5-sigma detections of emission lines to f > 2.5x10^{-18} erg/s/cm^2, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically ~7 times less massive (median M_* = 10^{9.5} M_sun) than previously studied z~2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have OIII/Hb ratios which are very similar to previously studied z~2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the OIII emission line is more spatially concentrated than the Hb emission line with 98.1 confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are...

  3. Detailed Characterization of H_beta emission line profile in low z SDSS quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Zamfir, S.; Sulentic, J. W.; Marziani, P; D. Dultzin

    2009-01-01

    We explore the properties of the H_beta emission line profile in a large, homogeneous and bright sample of N~470 low redshift quasars extracted from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (DR5). We approach the investigation from two complementary directions: composite/median spectra and a set of line diagnostic measures (asymmetry index, centroid shift and kurtosis) in individual quasars. The project is developed and presented in the framework of the so-called 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) Parameter Space, with...

  4. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2011: Spectroscopic Campaign and Emission-Line Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, A J; Canalizo, G; Filippenko, A V; Gates, E L; Greene, J E; Li, W; Malkan, M A; Pancoast, A; Sand, D J; Stern, D; Treu, T; Woo, J -H; Assef, R J; Bae, H -J; Brewer, B J; Cenko, S B; Clubb, K I; Cooper, M C; Diamond-Stanic, A M; Hiner, K D; Hoenig, S F; Hsiao, E; Kandrashoff, M T; Lazarova, M S; Nierenberg, A M; Rex, J; Silverman, J M; Tollerud, E J; Walsh, J L

    2015-01-01

    In the Spring of 2011 we carried out a 2.5 month reverberation mapping campaign using the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory, monitoring 15 low-redshift Seyfert 1 galaxies. This paper describes the observations, reductions and measurements, and data products from the spectroscopic campaign. The reduced spectra were fitted with a multicomponent model in order to isolate the contributions of various continuum and emission-line components. We present light curves of broad emission lines and the AGN continuum, and measurements of the broad H-beta line widths in mean and root-mean square (rms) spectra. For the most highly variable AGNs we also measured broad H-beta line widths and velocity centroids from the nightly spectra. In four AGNs exhibiting the highest variability amplitudes, we detect anticorrelations between broad H-beta width and luminosity, demonstrating that the broad-line region "breathes" on short timescales of days to weeks in response to continuum variations. We also find that broad H-beta ve...

  5. Photometry of the 4686 A emission line of gamma(2) Velorum from the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maryjane

    1990-01-01

    An automated optical telescope located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station on Antarctica, has been used to obtain more than 78 h of photometry of the He II emission line (4686 A) of the spectroscopic binary gamma(2) Velorum. These data were obtained on seven different days during the 1987 austral winter; the longest continuous run spans 19 h. Two independent period search techniques have been used to search for periodic behavior in the strength of the He II emission line of this Wolf-Rayet star. They are: (1) power spectrum analysis and (2) a first-order sine function fit to the data using least squares. Various multiplicities of a period on the order of 1.3 h with amplitudes of a few percent are found in most of these data. According to recent theoretical models of Wolf-Rayet stars, fluctuations in the He II emission line may indicate vibrational instability in gamma(2) Vel. These pulsations may, in turn, give rise to shocks which propagate outward and which may provide the necessary conditions for periodic changes in the state of a given region of the atmosphere to occur.

  6. Photometry of the 4686 A emission line of gamma(2) Velorum from the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA) Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA))

    1990-10-01

    An automated optical telescope located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station on Antarctica, has been used to obtain more than 78 h of photometry of the He II emission line (4686 A) of the spectroscopic binary gamma(2) Velorum. These data were obtained on seven different days during the 1987 austral winter; the longest continuous run spans 19 h. Two independent period search techniques have been used to search for periodic behavior in the strength of the He II emission line of this Wolf-Rayet star. They are: (1) power spectrum analysis and (2) a first-order sine function fit to the data using least squares. Various multiplicities of a period on the order of 1.3 h with amplitudes of a few percent are found in most of these data. According to recent theoretical models of Wolf-Rayet stars, fluctuations in the He II emission line may indicate vibrational instability in gamma(2) Vel. These pulsations may, in turn, give rise to shocks which propagate outward and which may provide the necessary conditions for periodic changes in the state of a given region of the atmosphere to occur. 15 refs.

  7. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Ensemble Spectroscopic Variability of Quasar Broad Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Mouyuan; Shen, Yue; Brandt, W N; Dawson, Kyle; Denney, Kelly D; Hall, Patrick B; Ho, Luis C; Horne, Keith; Jiang, Linhua; Richards, Gordon T; Schneider, Donald P; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Kinemuchi, Karen; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    We explore the variability of quasars in the MgII and Hbeta broad emission lines and UV/optical continuum emission using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping project (SDSS-RM). This is the largest spectroscopic study of quasar variability to date: our study includes 29 spectroscopic epochs from SDSS-RM over $6$ months, containing 357 quasars with MgII and 41 quasars with Hbeta . On longer timescales, the study is also supplemented with two-epoch data from SDSS-I/II. The SDSS-I/II data include an additional $2854$ quasars with MgII and 572 quasars with Hbeta. The MgII emission line is significantly variable ($\\Delta f/f$ 10% on 100-day timescales), indicating that it is feasible to use the broad MgII line for reverberation mapping studies. The data also confirm that continuum variability increases with timescale and decreases with luminosity, and the continuum light curves are consistent with a damped random-walk model on rest-frame timescales of $\\gtrsim 5$ days. We compare the emission-line and...

  8. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Publicly Available Spatially Resolved Emission Line Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medling, Anne; Green, Andrew W.; Ho, I.-Ting; Groves, Brent; Croom, Scott; SAMI Galaxy Survey Team

    2017-01-01

    The SAMI Galaxy Survey is collecting optical integral field spectroscopy of up to 3400 nearby (zpublic data release contains nearly 800 galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) Survey. In addition to releasing the reduced data cubes, we also provide emission line fits (flux and kinematic maps of strong emission lines including Halpha and Hbeta, [OII]3726,29, [OIII]4959,5007, [OI]6300, [NII]6548,83, and [SII]6716,31), extinction maps, star formation classification masks, and star formation rate maps. We give an overview of the data available for your favorite emission line science and present a few early science results. For example, a sample of edge-on disk galaxies show enhanced extraplanar emission related to SF-driven outflows, which are correlated with a bursty star formation history and higher star formation rate surface densities. Interestingly, the star formation rate surface densities of these wind hosts are 5-100 times lower than the canonical threshold for driving winds (0.1 MSun/yr/kpc2), indicating that galactic winds may be more important in normal star-forming galaxies than previously thought.

  9. Optical calculations and in-situ measurement of transmittance spectra of contaminant thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kazunori; Miyazaki, Eiji; Kimoto, Yugo

    2016-09-01

    Molecular contaminants outgassed from organic materials used for the spacecraft degrade the performance of optical surfaces of spacecraft. The influence of contaminants outgassed from epoxy resin on the spectral transmittance of the quartz substrate was investigated with an in-situ measurement system. The system can deposit the contaminants on temperature-controlled quartz substrates and the transmittance spectra were measured immediately after deposition in vacuum ambient. We tried to obtain the optical constants of the contaminant using transmittance spectrum and simple optical models for optical calculations. The optical constants were described with a harmonic oscillator model and the effective medium approximation model. This paper reports the in-situ measurement results of transmittance spectra of the epoxy-resin-induced contaminants. In addition, the result of optical calculations using the obtained optical constants were compared to the measurement results.

  10. Optical Spectra of the High Voltage Erosive Water Discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Pirozerski, A L

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper kinetics of emission spectra of the high voltage erosive water discharge at near ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges has been investigated. Obtained results show a similarity of physical properties of this discharge (and of corresponding plasmoids) to that of some other types of erosional discharges which also result in the formation of dust-gas fireballs.

  11. Emission line galaxies and active galactic nuclei in WINGS clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziani, P.; D'Onofrio, M.; Bettoni, D.; Poggianti, B. M.; Moretti, A.; Fasano, G.; Fritz, J.; Cava, A.; Varela, J.; Omizzolo, A.

    2017-03-01

    We present the analysis of the emission line galaxies members of 46 low-redshift (0.04 environment is indicated by both a lower frequency, and a systematically lower Balmer emission line equivalent width and luminosity with respect to control samples; this implies a lower amount of ionized gas per unit mass and a lower star formation rate if the source is classified as Hii region. A sizable population of transition objects and of low-luminosity LINERs (≈ 10-20% of all emission line galaxies) are detected among WINGS cluster galaxies. These sources are a factor of ≈1.5 more frequent, or at least as frequent, as in control samples with respect to Hii sources. Transition objects and LINERs in clusters are most affected in terms ofline equivalent width by the environment and appear predominantly consistent with so-called retired galaxies. Shock heating can be a possible gas excitation mechanism that is able to account for observed line ratios. Specific to the cluster environment, we suggest interaction between atomic and molecular gas and the intracluster medium as a possible physical cause of line-emitting shocks. The data whose description is provided in Table B.1, and emission line catalog of the WINGS database are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A83

  12. Emission-Line Fluxes of Northern Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Aksaker, N; Kızıloğlu, Ü; Atalay, B

    2015-01-01

    We present long slit spectrophotometric emission line fluxes of bright and extended (<5 arcsec in diameter) Planetary Nebulae (PNe) selected from Acker et al. 1992 catalog with suitable equitorial coordinates for Northern hemisphere. In total, 17 PNe have been choosen and observed in 2008--2010. To measure absolute fluxes, broad slit sizes, ranging from 3.5\\arcsec to 7.5\\arcsec were used and thus equivalent widths of all observable emission line fluxes were also calculated. Among 17 PNe's observed, line flux measurements of 12 of them were made for the first time. This work also aims to extend the sky coverage of emission line flux standards in Northern hemisphere (Dopita & Hua 1997 - 52 PNe in Southern hemisphere; Wright et al. 2005 - 6 PNe in Northern hemisphere). Electron temperatures and densities, and chemical abundances of these PNe were also calculated in this work. These data is expected to lead the photometric or spectrometric further work for absolute emission line flux measurements needed fo...

  13. Investigating the Fabrication Imperfections of Plasmonic Nanohole Arrays and Its Effect on the Optical Transmission Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M. Mahros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the extraordinary optical transmission spectra of thin gold films perforated with imperfect nanohole arrays using the finite difference time domain (FDTD method. Exponential shapes for the nanohole sidewalls are used. To the best of our knowledge, such investigation of transmission spectra of imperfect nanohole arrays has not previously been demonstrated. It was found that the asymmetry between the two openings of the circular nanoholes or bending to their sidewalls strongly modifies both the intensity and resonance positions of the transmission spectra. Furthermore, the results of this study assist in explaining the technicality of extraordinary optical transmission phenomenon and why some experimental results on transmission differ from those expected.

  14. The physics of thin film optical spectra an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stenzel, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    The book bridges the gap between fundamental physics courses (such as optics, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and solid state physics) and highly specialized literature on the spectroscopy, design, and application of optical thin film coatings. Basic knowledge from the above-mentioned courses is therefore presumed. Starting from fundamental physics, the book enables the reader derive the theory of optical coatings and to apply it to practically important spectroscopic problems. Both classical and semiclassical approaches are included. Examples describe the full range of classical optical coatings in various spectral regions as well as highly specialized new topics such as rugate filters and resonant grating waveguide structures.The second edition has been updated and extended with respect to probing matter in different spectral regions, homogenous and inhomogeneous line broadening mechanisms and the Fresnel formula for the effect of planar interfaces.

  15. METALLICITIES OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM HST ACS PEARS AND HST WFC3 ERS GRISM SPECTROSCOPY AT 0.6 < z < 2.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Lifang; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Pirzkal, Nor [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Straughn, Amber [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); O' Connell, Robert, E-mail: lifang.xia@asu.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Galaxies selected on the basis of their emission-line strength show low metallicities, regardless of their redshifts. We conclude this from a sample of faint galaxies at redshifts between 0.6 < z < 2.4, selected by their prominent emission lines in low-resolution grism spectra in the optical with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope and in the near-infrared using Wide-Field Camera 3. Using a sample of 11 emission-line galaxies at 0.6 < z < 2.4 with luminosities of -22 {approx}< M{sub B} {approx}< -19 which have [O II], H{beta}, and [O III] line flux measurements from the combination of two grism spectral surveys, we use the R23 method to derive the gas-phase oxygen abundances: 7.5 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.5. The galaxy stellar masses are derived using Bayesian-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo ({pi}MC{sup 2}) fitting of their spectral energy distribution, and span the mass range 8.1 < log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun} ) < 10.1. These galaxies show mass-metallicity (M-Z) and luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relations, which are offset by -0.6 dex in metallicity at given absolute magnitude and stellar mass relative to the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, as well as continuum-selected DEEP2 samples at similar redshifts. The emission-line-selected galaxies most resemble the local 'green peas' galaxies and Ly{alpha} galaxies at z {approx_equal} 0.3 and z {approx_equal} 2.3 in the M-Z and L-Z relations and their morphologies. The G - M{sub 20} morphology analysis shows that 10 out of 11 show disturbed morphology, even as the star-forming regions are compact. These galaxies may be intrinsically metal poor, being at early stages of formation, or the low metallicities may be due to gas infall and accretion due to mergers.

  16. The optical spectra of the brightest mid-IR-selected galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.

    2007-01-01

    We present here sore of the first results we have obtained oil the study of the optical spectra, of Spitzer/MIPS 24 mu m selected galaxies in the COSMOS field. This is part of a, series of studies we are conducting to analyse the optical spectral properties of mid-infrared (mid-IR) galaxies with dif

  17. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MEDIUM REDSHIFT CLUSTERS .2. OPTICAL-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY AND SPECTRA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PICKLES, AJ; VANDERKRUIT, PC

    1991-01-01

    We present optical and infrared photometry (BV RI, J H K) and spectra of galaxies in 6 medium redshift clusters covering the redshift range 0.19 less-than-or-equal-to z less-than-or-equal-to 0.4. The array photometry is used to note the radial distribution of the cluster galaxies with optical and in

  18. A study of aliphatic amino acids using simulated vibrational circular dichroism and Raman optical activity spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesan, Aravindhan; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Vibrational optical activity (VOA) spectra, such as vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra, of aliphatic amino acids are simulated using density functional theory (DFT) methods in both gas phase (neutral form) and solution (zwitterionic form), together with their respective infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of the amino acids. The DFT models, which are validated by excellent agreements with the available experimental Raman and ROA spectra of alanine in solution, are employed to study other aliphatic amino acids. The inferred (IR) intensive region (below 2000 cm-1) reveals the signature of alkyl side chains, whereas the Raman intensive region (above 3000 cm-1) contains the information of the functional groups in the amino acids. Furthermore, the chiral carbons of the amino acids (except for glycine) dominate the VCD and ROA spectra in the gas phase, but the methyl group vibrations produce stronger VCD and ROA signals in solution. The C-H related asymmetric vibrations domina...

  19. Comparison of optical and electron spectra in an infra-red free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, A.M.; Gillespie, W.A.; Martin, P.F. [Univ. of Abertay, Dundee (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Time-resolved electron and optical spectra recently acquired at the FELIX facility are presented, showing the evolution of the respective macropulses. A comparison is made between the optical power output during the macropulse and the measured power extracted from the electron beam using a simple model of the cavity losses. Data are available for a wide range of operating conditions: the wavelength range is from 9 {mu}m to 28 {mu}m and detuning are between 1/4{lambda} and 2{lambda}. The effect of rapid electron beam energy changes on the optical and electron spectra will also be discussed.

  20. Supercontinuum Spectra generation in the single-mode optical fibre with Concave dispersion profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wen-Cheng; Gao Jie-Li; Liang Zhan-Qiang; Chen Qiao-Hong; Liu Song-Hao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,a new method is proposed to generate broad supercontinuum (SC) spectra in the single-mode optical fibre with concave dispersion profile.We numerically simulate pulse evolutions and discuss physics mechanism in detail for SC spectrum generation in the optical fibre with concave dispersion profile.Furthermore,general criteria are presented for specifying the shape of SC spectrum by introducing normalized parameters,which are related to the fibres and the initial pump pulses.The results show that the flat and broad SC spectra are indeed generated in our proposed optical fibre.

  1. Determination of Optical Constants of Polystyrene Films from IR Reflection-Absorption Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion Jitian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of The transmittance values measured in IR reflectionabsorption (RA spectra were used to determine the optical constants of dielectric films laid on solid substrates. In order to obtain the optical constants of polystyrene films laid on steel we used dispersion analysis. In this case, the optical constants are obtained from IR spectrum recorded at a single incidence angle. The use of dispersion analysis offers the advantage of processing a large volume of data.

  2. Terahertz-Induced Changes of Optical Spectra in GaAs Quantum Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Xian-Wu; CAO Jun-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    @@ We have theoretically investigated optical absorption spectra in GaAs quantum well (QW) driven by both a strong terahertz (THz) field and a near-infrared field within the theory of density matrix. In presence of a strong THz field, the optical transitions in the QW subbands are altered by the THz field. The alteration has a direct impact on the optical absorption and results in the Autler-Townes splitting and the sidebands generation, which is in agreement with the experiments.

  3. A slitless spectroscopic survey for Halpha emission-line objects in SMC clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Martayan, Christophe; Fabregat, Juan

    2009-01-01

    This paper checks on the roles of metallicity and evolutionary age in the appearance of the so-called Be phenomenon. Slitless CCD spectra were obtained covering the bulk of the Small Magellanic Cloud. For Halpha line emission twice as strong as the ambient continuum, the survey is complete to spectral type B2/B3 on the main sequence. About 8120 spectra of 4437 stars were searched for emission lines in 84 open clusters. 370 emission-line stars were found, among them at least 231 near the main sequence. For 176 of them, photometry could be found in the OGLE database. For comparison with a higher-metallicity environment, the Galactic sample of the photometric Halpha survey by McSwain & Gies (2005) was used. Among early spectral sub-types, Be stars are more frequent by a factor 3-5 in the SMC than in the Galaxy. The distribution with spectral type is similar in both galaxies, i.e. not strongly dependent on metallicity. The fraction of Be stars does not seem to vary with local star density. The Be phenomenon m...

  4. The CIDA-UCM-Yale Shallow Survey for Emission Line Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiovanni, A; Magris, G; Gallego, J; García-Dabo, C E; Coppi, P; Sabbey, C

    2005-01-01

    We present the CIDA-UCM-Yale (Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Yale University) survey for Halpha+[NII]6549,6584 emission-line galaxies using objective-prism spectra. The most important properties of a catalogue with 427 entries and significant subsets are analysed. The complete sample contains 183 statistically confirmed ELGs in a sky area of 151 sq.deg. and redshift up to 0.14. We determine the parameters of the Halpha luminosity function using the Halpha+[NII] flux directly measured on the ELGs spectra in this sample and the star formation rate density derived is in agreement with the values reported in the literature. Finally, we study the clustering properties of local star-forming galaxies relative to quiescent ones from different perspectives. We find that emission-line galaxies avoid dense regions of quiescent galaxies and we propose a power-law expression to parametrise the relation between star formation rate density and environment volume density of emi...

  5. Reconfigurable Optical Spectra from Perturbations on Elliptical Whispering Gallery Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Elastic strain, electrical bias, and localized geometric deformations were applied to elliptical whispering-gallery-mode resonators fabricated with lithium niobate. The resultant perturbation of the mode spectrum is highly dependant on the modal indices, resulting in a discretely reconfigurable optical spectrum. Breaking of the spatial degeneracy of the whispering-gallery modes due to perturbation is also observed.

  6. Easy interpretation of optical two-dimensional correlation spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, K.; Pshenichnikov, M.S.; Wiersma, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate that the value of the underlying frequency-frequency correlation function can be retrieved from a two-dimensional optical correlation spectrum through a simple relationship. The proposed method yields both intuitive clues and a quantitative measure of the dynamics of the system. The t

  7. Optical transmission spectra in symmetrical Fibonacci photonic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauriz, P.W.; Vasconcelos, M.S. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Maranhao, 65025-001 Sao Luis-MA (Brazil); Albuquerque, E.L. [Computational Physics for Engineering Materials, IfB, ETH-Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: eudenilson@dfte.ufrn.br

    2009-01-19

    We study the transmission properties of light through the symmetric Fibonacci photonic multilayers, i.e, a binary one-dimensional quasiperiodic structure, made up of both positive (SiO{sub 2}) and negative refractive index materials with a mirror symmetry. These spectra are calculated by using a theoretical model based on the transfer matrix approach for normal incidence geometry, in which many perfect transmission peaks (the transmission coefficients are equal to the unity) are numerically obtained. Besides, the transmission coefficient exhibits a six-cycle self-similar behavior with respect to the generation number of the Fibonacci sequence.

  8. Optical and terahertz spectra analysis by the maximum entropy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Erik M; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2013-06-01

    Phase retrieval is one of the classical problems in various fields of physics including x-ray crystallography, astronomy and spectroscopy. It arises when only an amplitude measurement on electric field can be made while both amplitude and phase of the field are needed for obtaining the desired material properties. In optical and terahertz spectroscopies, in particular, phase retrieval is a one-dimensional problem, which is considered as unsolvable in general. Nevertheless, an approach utilizing the maximum entropy principle has proven to be a feasible tool in various applications of optical, both linear and nonlinear, as well as in terahertz spectroscopies, where the one-dimensional phase retrieval problem arises. In this review, we focus on phase retrieval using the maximum entropy method in various spectroscopic applications. We review the theory behind the method and illustrate through examples why and how the method works, as well as discuss its limitations.

  9. The different origins of high- and low-ionization broad emission lines revealed by gravitational microlensing in the Einstein cross

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, Lorraine; Sluse, Dominique; Anguita, Timo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the kinematics and ionization structure of the broad emission line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO2237+0305 (the Einstein cross) using differential microlensing in the high- and low-ionization broad emission lines. We combine visible and near-infrared spectra of the four images of the lensed quasar and detect a large-amplitude microlensing effect distorting the high-ionization CIV and low-ionization H$\\alpha$ line profiles in image A. While microlensing only magnifies the red wing of the Balmer line, it symmetrically magnifies the wings of the CIV emission line. Given that the same microlensing pattern magnifies both the high- and low-ionization broad emission line regions, these dissimilar distortions of the line profiles suggest that the high- and low-ionization regions are governed by different kinematics. Since this quasar is likely viewed at intermediate inclination, we argue that the differential magnification of the blue and red wings of H$\\alpha$ favors a flattened, viri...

  10. On the narrow emission line components of the LMC novae 2004 (YY Dor) and 2009a

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Elena

    2014-01-01

    We present early decline spectra of the two Large Magellanic Cloud novae: LMC 2004 (YY Dor) and LMC 2009a and discuss their spectral an line profile evolution with special emphasis on the existence and appearance of a sharp component. We show that the narrow component that characterizes the emission lines in the maximum spectra of nova LMC 2004 originates in the ejecta. The HeII 4686 A, narrow emission which appears at the onset of the nebular phase in both novae is somewhat controversial. Our observations suggest that the corresponding line forming region is physically separated from the rest of the ejecta (the broad line region) and environmentally different. However, the lack of late time observations covering the super-soft source (SSS) phase, the post-SSS phase and the quiescence state does not allow to securely establish any non-ejecta origin/contribution as, instead, in the case of U Sco and KT Eri.

  11. The evolution of emission lines in HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Stasinska, G; Leitherer, C; Stasinska, Grazyna; Schaerer, Daniel; Leitherer, Claus

    2001-01-01

    We constructed diagnostic diagrams using emission line ratios and equivalent widths observed in several samples of HII galaxies. The diagrams are compared to predictions from new photoionization models for evolving starbursts. We find that HII galaxies from objective-prism surveys are not reproduced by models of instantaneous starbursts surrounded by constant density, ionization bounded HII regions. The observed relations between emission line ratios and Hb equivalent width (W(Hb)) can be understood if older stellar populations are not negligible in HII galaxies. Also, different dust obscuration for stars and gas and leakage of Lyman continuum photons from the observed HII regions can be important. As a result, HII galaxies selected from objective-prism surveys are unlikely to contain many objects in which the most recent starburst is older than about 5~Myr. The observed increase of [OI]/Hb with decreasing W(Hb) can result from the dynamical effects of winds and supernovae. This interpretation provides also a...

  12. Distortion of He emission lines after fast-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcuni, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    After excitation by fast ions (velocity = 2 to 5 au) the emission line profiles of doubly-excited helium atoms are observed to differ significantly from the normal shape of Beutler-Fano resonances. This difference is attributed to the Coulomb interaction between the emitted electron and the ion used to excite the atom. We explain the effect quantitatively with a simple classical model combined with a post-collision-interaction theory. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Hidden blazars and emission line variability of high redshift quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out a survey to search for hidden blazars in a sample of z 2 radio{loud quasars. The idea is based on our prediction that we should be able to see large C IV line variability not associated with observed continuum variations or most other emission lines in every radio{loud quasar. Here we report the initial results including the discovery of large C IV line variations in two quasars.

  14. A Possible Forest of Emission Lines from Proto-galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, B B; Nath, Biman; Eichler, David

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of detecting proto-galaxies in the UV band is pointed out, assuming that galaxy formation occured at z $\\sim 5-6$. It is shown that the diffuse gas in collapsing galaxy sized objects with temperatures $\\sim 10^{6\\pm0.5}$ K, and with a modest amount of metallicity, should copiously produce emission lines from highly ionized Iron atoms. The expected luminosity from models of galaxy formation is compared with the sensitivity of HST.

  15. Optical spectra of phthalocyanines and related compounds a guide for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Isago, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    This book displays how optical (absorption, emission, and magnetic circular dichroism) spectra of phthalocyanines and related macrocyclic dyes can be varied from their prototypical ones depending on conditions. As these compounds can be involved in colorful chemistry (which might be driven by impurities in solvents), their spectra behave like the sea-god Proteus in their mutability. Therefore, those who have been engaged with phthalocyanines for the first time, including even educated professional researchers and engineers, may have been embarrassed by the deceptive behavior of their compounds and could have, in the worst cases, given up their projects. This book is aimed not merely at reviewing the optical spectra, but also at helping such people, particularly beginners, to figure them out by showing some examples of their prototypical spectra and their variations in several situations. For the purpose of better understanding, the book also provides an introduction to their theoretical backgrounds as graphic...

  16. Using an artificial neural network to classify multicomponent emission lines with integral field spectroscopy from SAMI and S7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, E. J.; Medling, A. M.; Groves, B.; Kewley, L.; Dopita, M.; Davies, R.; Ho, I.-T.; Kaasinen, M.; Leslie, S.; Sharp, R.; Sweet, S. M.; Thomas, A. D.; Allen, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Bryant, J. J.; Croom, S.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A.; Konstantantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Lorente, N. P. F.; McElroy, R.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.; Shastri, P.

    2017-09-01

    Integral field spectroscopy (IFS) surveys are changing how we study galaxies and are creating vastly more spectroscopic data available than before. The large number of resulting spectra makes visual inspection of emission line fits an infeasible option. Here, we present a demonstration of an artificial neural network (ANN) that determines the number of Gaussian components needed to describe the complex emission line velocity structures observed in galaxies after being fit with lzifu. We apply our ANN to IFS data for the S7 survey, conducted using the Wide Field Spectrograph on the ANU 2.3 m Telescope, and the SAMI Galaxy Survey, conducted using the SAMI instrument on the 4 m Anglo-Australian Telescope. We use the spectral fitting code lzifu (Ho et al. 2016a) to fit the emission line spectra of individual spaxels from S7 and SAMI data cubes with 1-, 2- and 3-Gaussian components. We demonstrate that using an ANN is comparable to astronomers performing the same visual inspection task of determining the best number of Gaussian components to describe the physical processes in galaxies. The advantage of our ANN is that it is capable of processing the spectra for thousands of galaxies in minutes, as compared to the years this task would take individual astronomers to complete by visual inspection.

  17. Evolution of infrared spectra and optical emission spectra in hydrogenated silicon thin films prepared by VHF-PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guo-Fu; Geng, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Ying

    2011-07-01

    A series of hydrogenated silicon thin films with varying silane concentrations have been deposited by using very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD) method. The deposition process and the silicon thin films are studied by using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that when the silane concentration changes from 10% to 1%, the peak frequency of the Si-H stretching mode shifts from 2000 cm-1 to 2100 cm-1, while the peak frequency of the Si—H wagging—rocking mode shifts from 650 cm-1 to 620 cm-1. At the same time the SiH/Hα intensity ratio in the plasma decreases gradually. The evolution of the infrared spectra and the optical emission spectra demonstrates a morphological phase transition from amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) to microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H). The structural evolution and the μc-Si:H formation have been analyzed based on the variation of Hα and SiH intensities in the plasma. The role of oxygen impurity during the plasma process and in the silicon films is also discussed in this study.

  18. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2011: Spectroscopic Campaign and Emission-line Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Gates, Elinor L.; Greene, Jenny E..; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A.; Pancoast, Anna; Sand, David J.; Stern, Daniel; Cenko, S. Bradley

    2016-01-01

    In the Spring of 2011 we carried out a 2.5 month reverberation mapping campaign using the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory, monitoring 15 low-redshift Seyfert 1 galaxies. This paper describes the observations, reductions and measurements, and data products from the spectroscopic campaign. The reduced spectra were fitted with a multicomponent model in order to isolate the contributions of various continuum and emission-line components. We present light curves of broad emission lines and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum, and measurements of the broad Hß line widths in mean and rms spectra. For the most highly variable AGNs we also measured broad H beta line widths and velocity centroids from the nightly spectra. In four AGNs exhibiting the highest variability amplitudes, we detect anticorrelations between broad H beta width and luminosity, demonstrating that the broad-line region "breathes" on short timescales of days to weeks in response to continuum variations. We also find that broad H beta velocity centroids can undergo substantial changes in response to continuum variations; in NGC 4593, the broad H beta velocity shifted by approximately 250 km s(exp -1) over a 1 month period. This reverberation-induced velocity shift effect is likely to contribute a significant source of confusion noise to binary black hole searches that use multi-epoch quasar spectroscopy to detect binary orbital motion. We also present results from simulations that examine biases that can occur in measurement of broad-line widths from rms spectra due to the contributions of continuum variations and photon-counting noise.

  19. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT 2011: SPECTROSCOPIC CAMPAIGN AND EMISSION-LINE LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-4575 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Gates, Elinor L. [Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Pancoast, Anna [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sand, David J. [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Bae, Hyun-Jin [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Brewer, Brendon J. [Department of Statistics, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    In the Spring of 2011 we carried out a 2.5 month reverberation mapping campaign using the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory, monitoring 15 low-redshift Seyfert 1 galaxies. This paper describes the observations, reductions and measurements, and data products from the spectroscopic campaign. The reduced spectra were fitted with a multicomponent model in order to isolate the contributions of various continuum and emission-line components. We present light curves of broad emission lines and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum, and measurements of the broad Hβ line widths in mean and rms spectra. For the most highly variable AGNs we also measured broad Hβ line widths and velocity centroids from the nightly spectra. In four AGNs exhibiting the highest variability amplitudes, we detect anticorrelations between broad Hβ width and luminosity, demonstrating that the broad-line region “breathes” on short timescales of days to weeks in response to continuum variations. We also find that broad Hβ velocity centroids can undergo substantial changes in response to continuum variations; in NGC 4593, the broad Hβ velocity shifted by ∼250 km s{sup −1} over a 1 month period. This reverberation-induced velocity shift effect is likely to contribute a significant source of confusion noise to binary black hole searches that use multi-epoch quasar spectroscopy to detect binary orbital motion. We also present results from simulations that examine biases that can occur in measurement of broad-line widths from rms spectra due to the contributions of continuum variations and photon-counting noise.

  20. Exciton States and Linear Optical Spectra of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes under Uniaxial Strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Gui-Li; JIA Yong-Lei

    2009-01-01

    Considering the exciton effect,the linear optical spectra of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) under uniaxial strain are theoretically studied by using the standard formulae of Orr and Ward [Mol.Phys.20(1971)513].It is found that due to the wrapping effect existing in the semiconducting zigzag tubes,the excitation energies of the linear optical spectra show two different kinds of variations with increasing uniaxial strain,among which one decreases such as tube (11,0),and the other increases firstly and then decreases such as tube (10,0).These variations of the linear optical spectra are consistent with the changes of the exciton binding energies or the (quasi)continuum edge of these SWNTs calculated in our previous work,which can be used as a supplemented tool to detect the deformation degree of an SWNT under uniaxiai strain.

  1. Absolute Determination of Optical Constants by a Direct Physical Modeling of Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, H; Toth, J; Tokesi, K; Ding, Z J

    2016-01-01

    We present an absolute extraction method of optical constants of metal from the measured reflection electron energy loss (REELS) spectra by using the recently developed reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) technique. The method is based on a direct physical modeling of electron elastic and electron inelastic scattering near the surface region where the surface excitation becomes important to fully describe the spectrum loss feature intensity in relative to the elastic peak intensity. An optimization procedure of oscillator parameters appeared in the energy loss function (ELF) for describing electron inelastic scattering due to the bulk- and surface-excitations was performed with the simulated annealing method by a successive comparison between the measured and Monte Carlo simulated REELS spectra. The ELF and corresponding optical constants of Fe were obtained from the REELS spectra measured at incident energies of 1000, 2000 and 3000 eV. The validity of the present optical data has been verified with the f- and ps-sum r...

  2. Suppression of Fiber Modal Noise Induced Radial Velocity Errors for Bright Emission-Line Calibration Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence; Venditti, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Modal noise in optical fibers imposes limits on the signal to noise and velocity precision achievable with the next generation of astronomical spectrographs. This is an increasingly pressing problem for precision radial velocity (RV) spectrographs in the near-infrared (NIR) and optical that require both high stability of the observed line profiles and high signal to noise. Many of these spectrographs plan to use highly coherent emission line calibration sources like laser frequency combs and Fabry-Perot etalons to achieve precision sufficient to detect terrestrial mass planets. These high precision calibration sources often use single mode fibers or highly coherent sources. Coupling light from single mode fibers to multi-mode fibers leads to only a very low number of modes being excited, thereby exacerbating the modal noise measured by the spectrograph. We present a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solution that significantly mitigates modal noise at all optical and NIR wavelengths, and which can be applied to...

  3. [Efficient method of analysis of optical spectra from kinetic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, A N

    2009-01-01

    The application of principal components for the analysis of kinetic data obtained by optical spectroscopy is described. The use of singular value decomposition (SVD) for stable and reproducible generation of principal components, details of realization, advantages and drawbacks of the method are discussed. The described method with minor modifications may be used in a wide variety of UV-spectroscopy applications in molecular biology and biophysics. The developed method was applied to study the reaction of platinum anticancer drug, cisplatin, with DNA and methionine. Use of sensitive UV-spectroscopy allowed to study low platinum concentrations, typical for biological systems. It has been shown, that reactions of cisplatin with DNA and L-methionine generally follow the same pathway both at high and low concentrations.

  4. Hardware authentication using transmission spectra modified optical fiber.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubbs, Robert K.; Romero, Juan A.

    2010-09-01

    The ability to authenticate the source and integrity of data is critical to the monitoring and inspection of special nuclear materials, including hardware related to weapons production. Current methods rely on electronic encryption/authentication codes housed in monitoring devices. This always invites the question of implementation and protection of authentication information in an electronic component necessitating EMI shielding, possibly an on board power source to maintain the information in memory. By using atomic layer deposition techniques (ALD) on photonic band gap (PBG) optical fibers we will explore the potential to randomly manipulate the output spectrum and intensity of an input light source. This randomization could produce unique signatures authenticating devices with the potential to authenticate data. An external light source projected through the fiber with a spectrometer at the exit would 'read' the unique signature. No internal power or computational resources would be required.

  5. High Resolution Optical Spectra of HBC 722 after Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sung, Hyun-Il; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Sung, Hwankyung; Green, Joel D; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of our high resolution optical spectroscopic monitoring campaign ($\\lambda$ = 3800 -- 8800 A, R = 30000 -- 45000) of the new FU Orionis-type object HBC 722. We observed HBC 722 with the BOES 1.8-m telescope between 2010 November 26 and 2010 December 29 and FU Orionis itself on 2011 January 26. We detect a number of previously unreported high-resolution K I and Ca II lines beyond 7500 A. We resolve the H$\\alpha$ and Ca II line profiles into three velocity components, which we attribute to both disk and outflow. The increased accretion during outburst can heat the disk to produce the relatively narrow absorption feature and launch outflows appearing as high velocity blue and redshifted broad features.

  6. Optical and UV spectra of RS CVn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1990-01-01

    The observed phenomenology in RS CVn and related binary systems is considered in terms of its modeling according to solar activity by examining UV and optical spectroscopy. Current data are examined to validate the existence of cool starspots, plage, prominences, and flares, as well as to determine the consistency of spatial correlations given by these data. RS CVn stars show spots at or near the poles, contrasting the low latitudes of solar spots; plage appears to be associated with cool spots on BY Draconis-like systems; plage and prominences, although identified as distinct phenomena, are theorized to be the same event in some cases. More spectroscopic and photometric observations are proposed to identify the detailed structure and locations of spots. UV and visible data are also required to distinguish plage regions from flare variations as well as determine the relation of extended structures to starspot and plage phenomena in RS CVn systems.

  7. Optical spectra of the heavy fermion uniaxial ferromagnet UGe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guritanu, V.; Armitage, N. P.; Tediosi, R.; Saxena, S. S.; Huxley, A.; van der Marel, D.

    2008-11-01

    We report a detailed study of UGe2 single crystals using infrared reflectivity and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The optical conductivity suggests the presence of a low-frequency interband transition and a narrow free-carrier response with strong frequency dependence of the scattering rate and effective mass. We observe sharp increase in the low-frequency mass and reduction in scattering rate below the upper ferromagnetic transition TC=53K indicating the emergence of a heavy fermion state triggered by the ferromagnetic order. The characteristic changes are exhibited most strongly at an energy scale below 12 meV. They recover their unrenormalized value above TC and for ω>40meV . In contrast no sign of an anomaly is seen at the lower transition temperature of unknown nature, Tx˜30K , observed in transport and thermodynamic experiments.

  8. Comparison between reflectance spectra obtained with an integrating sphere and a fiber optic collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvang Nilsen, Lill T.; Fiskerstrand, Elisanne J.; Koenig, Karsten; Bakken, B.; Grini, D.; Standahl, O.; Milner, Thomas E.; Berns, Michael W.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Svaasand, Lars O.

    1996-01-01

    Visible reflectance spectra of human skin might serve as a valuable tool for determining blood volume and pigmentation. They can therefore be used to evaluate the response to various skin treatments such as, e.g., port-wine stain therapy. A fiber-optic system is preferable for clinical evaluation of the therapeutic response due to its higher flexibility. Diffuse reflectance spectra obtained using a fiber system are compared with the corresponding spectra from an integrating sphere system. The results show that the most accurate reflectance spectra are obtained using the integrating sphere set-up. The aperture should then be much larger than the optical penetration depth of the skin. The system will then collect all the reflected light from superficial and deeper layers, and this enables a qualitative comparison between the wavelengths. However, the size and localization of many dermal lesions limit its use. In these cases the fiber-optic system is preferable. Light with an optical penetration depth shorter than the distance between the excitation and collecting fibers is, however, favorized. Normal dermis has typically a penetration depth of 600 micrometers and 2000 micrometers for, respectively, green/yellow and red light. Consequently, the collection efficiency of a typical fiber-optic system with a distance of 100 - 200 micrometers between the emitting and collecting fibers, will be higher in the green/yellow than in the red part of the spectrum. It is, however, important to remember that the relevant parameter is the change in reflectance at each particular wavelength, rather than comparison between the wavelengths. When such a comparison is required, the spectra collected by the fiber-optic system can be calibrated. The more accurate integrating sphere system is maybe preferable in a research laboratory environment, whereas the more flexible fiber-optic system is the most applicable for use in the clinic.

  9. The Subaru FMOS Galaxy Redshift Survey (FastSound). II. The Emission Line Catalog and Properties of Emission Line Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Tonegawa, Motonari; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dalton, Gavin; Glazebrook, Karl; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Ohta, Kouji; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Yabe, Kiyoto; Bunker, Andrew J; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hikage, Chiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Okumura, Teppei; Shimizu, Ikkoh

    2015-01-01

    We present basic properties of $\\sim$3,300 emission line galaxies detected by the FastSound survey, which are mostly H$\\alpha$ emitters at $z \\sim$ 1.2-1.5 in the total area of about 20 deg$^2$, with the H$\\alpha$ flux sensitivity limit of $\\sim 1.6 \\times 10^{-16} \\rm erg \\ cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ at 4.5 sigma. This paper presents the catalogs of the FastSound emission lines and galaxies, which will be open to the public in the near future. We also present basic properties of typical FastSound H$\\alpha$ emitters, which have H$\\alpha$ luminosities of $10^{41.8}$-$10^{43.3}$ erg/s, SFRs of 20--500 $M_\\odot$/yr, and stellar masses of $10^{10.0}$--$10^{11.3}$ $M_\\odot$. The 3D distribution maps for the four fields of CFHTLS W1--4 are presented, clearly showing large scale clustering of galaxies at the scale of $\\sim$ 100--600 comoving Mpc. Based on 1,105 galaxies with detections of multiple emission lines, we estimate that contamination of non-H$\\alpha$ lines is about 4% in the single-line emission galaxies, which are m...

  10. Metal Emission Lines as Diagnostic Tools for Shock Waves in Outer Atmospheres of M-type Mira Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, He.; Sedlmayr, E.; Wood, P. R.

    One way to reveal the thermo- and hydrodynamical conditions in M-type Mira atmospheres is to study the various emission lines which are emitted behind a shock front and can be observed over a substantial portion of the pulsation period. Analysing a time-resolved series of these emission lines offers the possibility to determine these conditions in different atmospheric layers influenced by the passing shock wave. In particular, the metal emission lines are a diagnostic tool to probe the hydrodynamical conditions of the outer, dust-forming layers of the atmosphere, because they appear late in the pulsation cycle when the shock wave has reached these layers. We present quantitive data on radial velocities, shapes, widths and fluxes of metal emission lines obtained by spectral observations in the optical wavelength region for a sample of six M-type Miras (periods 281-389 days), namely R Aql, RR Sco, R Car, R Leo, S Scl and R Hya (cf. Richter & Wood 2001, A&A 369, 1027-1047). Because of the multiple phase coverage of our observations, the data shows the history of the shock as it emerges through the deep photosphere and then moves out through the atmosphere. The observations are analysed and discussed with regard to the atmospheric conditions.

  11. The Nature of Active Galactic Nuclei with Velocity Offset Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Sánchez, F.; Comerford, J.; Stern, D.; Harrison, F. A.

    2016-10-01

    We obtained Keck/OSIRIS near-IR adaptive optics-assisted integral-field spectroscopy to probe the morphology and kinematics of the ionized gas in four velocity-offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These objects possess optical emission lines that are offset in velocity from systemic as measured from stellar absorption features. At a resolution of ˜0.″18, OSIRIS allows us to distinguish which velocity offset emission lines are produced by the motion of an AGN in a dual supermassive black hole system, and which are produced by outflows or other kinematic structures. In three galaxies, J1018+2941, J1055+1520, and J1346+5228, the spectral offset of the emission lines is caused by AGN-driven outflows. In the remaining galaxy, J1117+6140, a counterrotating nuclear disk is observed that contains the peak of Paα emission 0.″2 from the center of the galaxy. The most plausible explanation for the origin of this spatially and kinematically offset peak is that it is a region of enhanced Paα emission located at the intersection zone between the nuclear disk and the bar of the galaxy. In all four objects, the peak of ionized gas emission is not spatially coincident with the center of the galaxy as traced by the peak of the near-IR continuum emission. The peaks of ionized gas emission are spatially offset from the galaxy centers by 0.″1-0.″4 (0.1-0.7 kpc). We find that the velocity offset originates at the location of this peak of emission, and the value of the offset can be directly measured in the velocity maps. The emission-line ratios of these four velocity-offset AGNs can be reproduced only with a mixture of shocks and AGN photoionization. Shocks provide a natural explanation for the origin of the spatially and spectrally offset peaks of ionized gas emission in these galaxies. Based on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the

  12. Emission Line Astronomy - Coronagraphic Tunable Narrow Band Imaging and Integral Field Spectroscopy. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to continue our program of emission line astronomy featuring three areas of emphasis: 1) The distribution and nature of high redshift emission line...

  13. Calculation of Raman optical activity spectra for vibrational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Shaun T; Zielinski, François; Popelier, Paul L A; Blanch, Ewan W

    2015-05-01

    By looking back on the history of Raman Optical Activity (ROA), the present article shows that the success of this analytical technique was for a long time hindered, paradoxically, by the deep level of detail and wealth of structural information it can provide. Basic principles of the underlying theory are discussed, to illustrate the technique's sensitivity due to its physical origins in the delicate response of molecular vibrations to electromagnetic properties. Following a short review of significant advances in the application of ROA by UK researchers, we dedicate two extensive sections to the technical and theoretical difficulties that were overcome to eventually provide predictive power to computational simulations in terms of ROA spectral calculation. In the last sections, we focus on a new modelling strategy that has been successful in coping with the dramatic impact of solvent effects on ROA analyses. This work emphasises the role of complementarity between experiment and theory for analysing the conformations and dynamics of biomolecules, so providing new perspectives for methodological improvements and molecular modelling development. For the latter, an example of a next-generation force-field for more accurate simulations and analysis of molecular behaviour is presented. By improving the accuracy of computational modelling, the analytical capabilities of ROA spectroscopy will be further developed so generating new insights into the complex behaviour of molecules.

  14. Broad Hbeta Emission-Line Variability in a Sample of 102 Local Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Runco, Jordan N; Bennert, Vardha N; Scott, Bryan; Komossa, S; Malkan, Matthew A; Lazarova, Mariana S; Auger, Matthew W; Treu, Tommaso; Park, Daeseong

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 10^7 M_sun was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10-m telescope to study the scaling relations between MBH and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broad Hbeta emission line within the ~3-9 year time-frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broad Hbeta emission line is of particular interest, not only since it is used to estimate MBH, but also since its strength and width is used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (~66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ~38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broad Hbeta line virtually disappears in 3/102 (~3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing-look AGNs. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case ...

  15. BROAD Hβ EMISSION-LINE VARIABILITY IN A SAMPLE OF 102 LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runco, Jordan N.; Cosens, Maren; Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo CA 93407 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lazarova, Mariana S. [Department of Physics and Physical Science, University of Nebraska Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Park, Daeseong, E-mail: jrunco@calpoly.edu, E-mail: mcosens@calpoly.edu, E-mail: vbennert@calpoly.edu, E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: tt@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: lazarovam2@unk.edu, E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: daeseongpark@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-10

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.1) Seyfert galaxies with black hole masses M{sub BH} > 10{sup 7}M{sub ⊙} was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10 m telescope to study the scaling relations between M{sub BH} and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broad Hβ emission line within the three to nine year time frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broad Hβ emission line is of particular interest, not only because it is used to estimate M{sub BH}, but also because its strength and width are used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (∼66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ∼38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broad Hβ line virtually disappears in 3/102 (∼3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing look active galactic nuclei. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case basis or in larger samples focusing on quasars at higher redshifts, our study provides statistical information on the frequency of Hβ line variability in a sample of low-redshift Seyfert galaxies.

  16. Survey of emission-line galaxies: Universidad Complutense de Madrid list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, J.; Rego, Gallego, J.; Gallego, J. G.; Vitores, A. G.RA, R.; Gonzalez-Riestra, R..; Rodriguez-Caderot, G.

    1994-01-01

    A low-dispersion objective-prism survey for low-redshift emission-line galaxies (ELGs) is being carried out by the University Complutense de Madrid with the Schmidt telescope at the German-Spanish Observatory of Calar Alto (Almeria, Spain). A 4 deg full aperture prism, which provides a dispersion of 1950 A/mm, and IIIaF emulsion combination has been used to search for ELGs selected by the presence of H-alpha emission in their spectra. Our survey has proved to be able to recover objects already found by similar surveys with different techniques and, what is more important, to discover new objects not previously cataloged. A compilation of descriptions and positions, along with finding charts when necessary, is presented for 160 extragalactic emission-line objects. This is the first list, which contains objects located in a region of the sky covering 270 sq deg in 10 fields near alpha = 0(sup h) and delta = 20 deg.

  17. Emission-Line Properties and Selection Effects for z > 4 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, A.; Shields, J. C.; Hamann, F.

    2000-12-01

    A growing number of QSOs are now known to exist at redshifts beyond 4, and these sources provide important opportunities for better understanding of the astrophysics of galaxy formation and evolution. To date there are ~ 130 known QSOs with z > 4, but only limited efforts have been made to survey systematically the emission-line properties of these objects and/or the selection effects related with the techniques by which they were discovered. In this poster we will present results of a program of high signal-to-noise spectroscopy for 44 QSOs using the MMT and Keck observatories. The majority of these sources were originally identified via color selection techiques. The quasar spectra cover wavelengths between 1100 Å and 1700 Å in the rest frame, for sources spanning a luminosity range of ~ 2 orders of magnitude. An examination of the luminosity dependence of the emission features reveals evidence for a weak Baldwin effect. Spectrum composites for the whole data set and for subsets are obtained and analysed in order to investigate the spectral dependence on selection effects. The results show a tendency for stronger C IV emission lines for color-selected quasars, than for grism-selected objects.

  18. Survey of emission-line galaxies: Universidad Complutense de Madrid list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, J.; Rego, Gallego, J.; Gallego, J. G.; Vitores, A. G.RA, R.; Gonzalez-Riestra, R..; Rodriguez-Caderot, G.

    1994-01-01

    A low-dispersion objective-prism survey for low-redshift emission-line galaxies (ELGs) is being carried out by the University Complutense de Madrid with the Schmidt telescope at the German-Spanish Observatory of Calar Alto (Almeria, Spain). A 4 deg full aperture prism, which provides a dispersion of 1950 A/mm, and IIIaF emulsion combination has been used to search for ELGs selected by the presence of H-alpha emission in their spectra. Our survey has proved to be able to recover objects already found by similar surveys with different techniques and, what is more important, to discover new objects not previously cataloged. A compilation of descriptions and positions, along with finding charts when necessary, is presented for 160 extragalactic emission-line objects. This is the first list, which contains objects located in a region of the sky covering 270 sq deg in 10 fields near alpha = 0(sup h) and delta = 20 deg.

  19. SDSS-IV eBOSS emission-line galaxy pilot survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparat, J.; Delubac, T.; Jouvel, S.; Raichoor, A.; Kneib, J.-P.; Yèche, C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Le Cras, C.; Maraston, C.; Wilkinson, D. M.; Zhu, G.; Jullo, E.; Prada, F.; Schlegel, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, H.; Bautista, J.; Bizyaev, D.; Bolton, A.; Brownstein, J. R.; Dawson, K. S.; Escoffier, S.; Gaulme, P.; Kinemuchi, K.; Malanushenko, E.; Malanushenko, V.; Mariappan, V.; Newman, J. A.; Oravetz, D.; Pan, K.; Percival, W. J.; Prakash, A.; Schneider, D. P.; Simmons, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Roe, N.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-IV/eBOSS) will observe 195 000 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) to measure the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) standard ruler at redshift 0.9. To test different ELG selection algorithms, 9000 spectra were observed with the SDSS spectrograph as a pilot survey based on data from several imaging surveys. First, using visual inspection and redshift quality flags, we show that the automated spectroscopic redshifts assigned by the pipeline meet the quality requirements for a reliable BAO measurement. We also show the correlations between sky emission, signal-to-noise ratio in the emission lines, and redshift error. Then we provide a detailed description of each target selection algorithm we tested and compare them with the requirements of the eBOSS experiment. As a result, we provide reliable redshift distributions for the different target selection schemes we tested. Finally, we determine an target selection algorithms that is best suited to be applied on DECam photometry because they fulfill the eBOSS survey efficiency requirements. The catalog is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A121

  20. Exploring Photometric Methods for Identifying Emission-Line B-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Amy; Whelan, David

    2017-06-01

    Emission-line B-type stars, or Be stars, are a mysterious class of stars defined by their unique behavior: These stars eject material from their surfaces, forming a disc of gas that surrounds them. Furthermore, the gaseous disc is not necessarily a permanent feature of its host star. Some Be stars’ discs vary in structure over time, and may even disappear only to be regenerated later. Other Be stars may never show appreciable changes in the natures of their discs once they have been formed. The disc’s existence causes the appearance of characteristic emission lines in Be stars’ spectra, making spectroscopy the traditional method for identifying Be stars. However, spectroscopy is an inefficient and time-consuming method of finding Be stars, because it allows for only a single star to be observed in each exposure, and each star may require multiple exposures for durations of many minutes. Photometry, on the other hand, can be used to observe many stars simultaneously, but at the cost of the greater detail afforded by spectroscopy. While photometry has been used to identify Be stars, its success has been limited. In this work, we present a novel photometric technique that enables efficient identification of Be stars.

  1. Spectroscopy of southern Galactic disk planetary nebulae. Notes on chemical composition and emission-line stars

    CERN Document Server

    Górny, S K

    2014-01-01

    We present low resolution spectroscopic observations for a sample of 53 planetary nebulae (PNe) located in the southern sky between Vela and Norma constellations and pertaining to the Galactic disk with expected Galactocentric distance range of 5 to 10 kpc. We derive nebular chemical composition and plasma parameters with the classical empirical method. For most of the observed objects it is done for the first time. The distributions of the chemical abundances of the observed disk sample are generally indistinguishable from Galactic bulge and inner-disk PNe populations. The exceptions are possible differences in He/H distribution comparing to bulge PNe and Ne/Ar comparing to inner-disk PNe sample. The derived O/H ratios for the observed disk PNe fit to the concept of flattening of the chemical gradient in the inner parts of the Milky Way. We use the spectra to search for emission-line central stars in the observed sample. We found 6 new emission-line central stars comprising examples of all known types: WEL, ...

  2. Estimating Black Hole Masses of AGNs using Ultraviolet Emission Line Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Zhi Kong; Xue-Bing Wu; Ran Wang; Jin-Lin Han

    2006-01-01

    Based on measured broad line region sizes in the reverberation-mapping AGN sample, two new empirical relations are introduced to estimate the central black hole masses of radio-loud high-redshift (z > 0.5) AGNs. First, using the archival IUE/HST spectroscopy data at UV band for the reverberation-mapping objects, we obtained two new empirical relations between the BLR size and Mg Ⅱ/C Ⅳ emission line luminosity. Secondly, using the newly determined black hole masses of the reverberation-mapping sample as calibration, we found two new relationships for determining the black hole mass with the full width at half maximum and the luminosity of Mg Ⅱ/C Ⅳ line. We then apply the relations to estimate the black hole masses of the AGNs in the Large Bright Quasar Survey and a sample of radio-loud quasars. For the objects with small radio-loudness, the black hole mass estimated using the RBLR-LMg Ⅱ/C Ⅳ relation is consistent with that from the RBLR-L3000(A)/1350(A) relation. For radio-loud AGNs, however, the mass estimated from the RBLR-LMg Ⅱ/C Ⅳ relation is systematically lower than that from the continuum luminosity L3000 (A)/1350 (A).Because jets could have significant contributions to the UV/optical continuum luminosity of radio-loud AGNs,we emphasize once again that for radio-loud AGNs, the emission line luminosity may be a better tracer of the ionizing luminosity than the continuum luminosity, so that the relations between the BLR size and UV emission line luminosities should be used to estimate the black hole masses of high redshift radio-loud AGNs.

  3. A LINK BETWEEN X-RAY EMISSION LINES AND RADIO JETS IN 4U 1630-47?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Joseph [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Coriat, Mickaël [Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Fender, Rob; Broderick, Jess W. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Lee, Julia C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ponti, Gabriele [Max Planck Institute fur Extraterrestriche Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tzioumis, Anastasios K.; Edwards, Philip G., E-mail: neilsenj@bu.edu [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2014-03-20

    Recently, Díaz Trigo et al. reported an XMM-Newton detection of relativistically Doppler-shifted emission lines associated with steep-spectrum radio emission in the stellar-mass black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its 2012 outburst. They interpreted these lines as indicative of a baryonic jet launched by the accretion disk. Here we present a search for the same lines earlier in the same outburst using high-resolution X-ray spectra from the Chandra HETGS. While our observations (eight months prior to the XMM-Newton campaign) also coincide with detections of steep spectrum radio emission by the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we find no evidence for any relativistic X-ray emission lines. Indeed, despite ∼5 × brighter radio emission, our Chandra spectra allow us to place an upper limit on the flux in the blueshifted Fe XXVI line that is ≳ 20 × weaker than the line observed by Díaz Trigo et al. We explore several scenarios that could explain our differing results, including variations in the geometry of the jet or a mass-loading process or jet baryon content that evolves with the accretion state of the black hole. We also consider the possibility that the radio emission arises in an interaction between a jet and the nearby interstellar medium, in which case the X-ray emission lines might be unrelated to the radio emission.

  4. Search for an emission line of a gravitational wave background

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizawa, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the history of researches on electromagnetic wave spectrum, a sharp emission line of gravitational-wave background (GWB) would be an interesting observational target. Here we study an efficient method to detect a line GWB by correlating data of multiple ground-based detectors. We find that the width of frequency bin for coarse graining is a critical parameter, and the commonly-used value 0.25 Hz is far from optimal, decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio by up to a factor of seven. By reanalyzing the existing data with a smaller bin width, we might detect a precious line signal from the early universe.

  5. Emission Line Imaging and Spectroscopy of Distant Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabl, Johannes Florian

    determinations even at lowest masses and highest redshifts. Finally, emission lines can be used in the first place to select large samples of galaxies at well defined redshifts through narrowband (NB) surveys, as the presence of a line in the NB filter raises the flux compared to that expected from the continuum...... for the gas surrounding a galaxy. Around some objects the extended Ly αemission is so strong that it can be detected for individual objects. In this thesis extremely deep VLT/XSHOOTER rest-frame far-UV spectroscopy is presented for Himiko, a gigantic Ly α emitter at redshift z = 6.6 or a time when...

  6. A first-principles investigation of the optical spectra of oxidized graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2013-01-14

    The electronic and optical properties of mono, di, tri, and tetravacancies in graphene are studied in comparison to each other, using density functional theory. In addition, oxidized monovacancies are considered for different oxygen concentrations. Pristine graphene is found to be more absorptive than any defect configuration at low energy. We demonstrate characteristic differences in the optical spectra of the various defects for energies up to 3 eV. This makes it possible to quantify by optical spectroscopy the ratios of the defect species present in a sample.

  7. Mid-IR Properties of an Unbiased AGN Sample of the Local Universe. I. Emission-Line Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Marcio; Weaver, K.; Kraemer, S.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C. B.; Malumuth, E. M.; Engle, K.; Armus, L.; Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Winter, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    We compare mid-IR emission-lines properties, from high-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra,of a statistically-complete hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z IR emission-lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of star-forming galaxies and LINERs. We found that [Ne III] an [O IV] lines do not unambiguously identify AGNs as stand-along diagnostics, however the BAT AGNs fall into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the [O IV]/[Ne III] quantities. While it is likely that detection of [Ne V] indicates the presence of an AGN, the [Ne V] line is weak compared to [O IV] and may not be detected in weak AGN. We suggest that a composite method using [Ne II], [Ne III], and [O IV] provides a more robust diagnostic.

  8. The Gamma-ray Blazar Quest: new optical spectra, state of art and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, F; D'Abrusco, R; Landoni, M; Masetti, N; Ricci, F; Milisavljevic, D; Paggi, A; Chavushyan, V; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Strader, J; Chomiuk, L; La Franca, F; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed a procedure to recognize gamma-ray blazar candidates within the positional uncertainty regions of the unidentified/unassociated gamma-ray sources (UGSs). Such procedure was based on the discovery that Fermi blazars show peculiar infrared colors. However, to confirm the real nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic data are necessary. Thus, we performed an extensive archival search for spectra available in the literature in parallel with an optical spectroscopic campaign aimed to reveal and confirm the nature of the selected gamma-ray blazar candidates. Here, we first search for optical spectra of a selected sample of gamma-ray blazar candidates that can be potential counterparts of UGSs using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR12). This search enables us to update the archival search carried out to date. We also describe the state-of-art and the future perspectives of our campaign to discover previously unknown gamma-ray blazars.

  9. A Link Between X-ray Emission Lines and Radio Jets in 4U 1630-47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Joseph; Coriat, Mickaël; Fender, Rob; Lee, Julia C.; Ponti, Gabriele; Tzioumis, A.; Edwards, Phillip; Broderick, Jess

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Díaz Trigo et al. reported an XMM-Newton detection of relativistically Doppler-shifted emission lines associated with steep-spectrum radio emission in the stellar-mass black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its 2012 outburst. They interpreted these lines as indicative of a baryonic jet launched by the accretion disk. We present a search for the same lines earlier in the same outburst using high-resolution X-ray spectra from the Chandra HETGS. While our observations (eight months prior to the XMM-Newton campaign) also coincide with detections of steep spectrum radio emission by the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we find a strong disk wind but no evidence for any relativistic X-ray emission lines. Indeed, despite ˜5× brighter radio emission, our Chandra spectra allow us to place an upper limit on the flux in the blueshifted Fe XXVI line that is ˜20× weaker than the line observed by Díaz Trigo et al. Thus we can conclusively say that radio emission is not universally associated with relativistically Doppler-shifted emission lines in 4U 1630-47. We explore several scenarios that could explain our differing results, including variations in the geometry of the jet or a mass-loading process or jet baryon content that evolves with the accretion state of the black hole. We also consider the possibility that the radio emission arises in an interaction between a jet and the nearby ISM, in which case the X-ray emission lines might be unrelated to the radio emission.

  10. Optical Spectroscopy and Nebular Oxygen Abundances of the Spitzer/SINGS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moustakas, John; Jr.,; Tremonti, Christy A; Dale, Daniel A; Smith, John-David T; Calzetti, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    We present intermediate-resolution optical spectrophotometry of 65 galaxies obtained in support of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). For each galaxy we obtain a nuclear, circumnuclear, and semi-integrated optical spectrum designed to coincide spatially with mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We make the reduced, spectrophotometrically calibrated one-dimensional spectra, as well as measurements of the fluxes and equivalent widths of the strong nebular emission lines, publically available. We use optical emission-line ratios measured on all three spatial scales to classify the sample into star-forming, active galactic nuclei (AGN), and galaxies with a mixture of star formation and nuclear activity. We find that the relative fraction of the sample classified as star-forming versus AGN is a strong function of the integrated light enclosed by the spectroscopic aperture. We supplement our observations with a large database of nebular emission-line measurements of...

  11. X-ray Insights into the Nature of PHL 1811 Analogs and Weak Emission-line Quasars: Unification with a Geometrically Thick Accretion Disk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Hall, P. B.; Wu, Jianfeng; Anderson, S. F.; Garmire, G. P.; Gibson, R. R.; Plotkin, R. M.; Richards, G. T.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.; Shen, Yue

    2015-06-01

    We present an X-ray and multiwavelength study of 33 weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) and 18 quasars that are analogs of the extreme WLQ, PHL 1811, at z≈ 0.5-2.9. New Chandra 1.5-9.5 ks exploratory observations were obtained for 32 objects while the others have archival X-ray observations. Significant fractions of these luminous type 1 quasars are distinctly X-ray weak compared to typical quasars, including 16 (48%) of the WLQs and 17 (94%) of the PHL 1811 analogs with average X-ray weakness factors of 17 and 39, respectively. We measure a relatively hard ({Γ }=1.16-0.32+0.37) effective power-law photon index for a stack of the X-ray weak subsample, suggesting X-ray absorption, and spectral analysis of one PHL 1811 analog, J1521+5202, also indicates significant intrinsic X-ray absorption. We compare composite Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra for the X-ray weak and X-ray normal populations and find several optical-UV tracers of X-ray weakness, e.g., Fe ii rest-frame equivalent width (REW) and relative color. We describe how orientation effects under our previously proposed “shielding-gas” scenario can likely unify the X-ray weak and X-ray normal populations. We suggest that the shielding gas may naturally be understood as a geometrically thick inner accretion disk that shields the broad line region from the ionizing continuum. If WLQs and PHL 1811 analogs have very high Eddington ratios, the inner disk could be significantly puffed up (e.g., a slim disk). Shielding of the broad emission-line region by a geometrically thick disk may have a significant role in setting the broad distributions of C iv REW and blueshift for quasars more generally.

  12. FeII/MgII Emission Line Ratio in High Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Appenzeller, I.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of near infrared spectroscopic observations of 6 high-redshift quasars (z > 4), emphasizing the measurement of the ultraviolet FeII/MgII emission line strength in order to estimate the beginning of intense star formation in the early universe. To investigate...... the evolution of the FeII/MgII ratio over a wider range in cosmic time, we measured this ratio for composite quasar spectra which cover a redshift range of 0 4 quasars must have started already at an epoch corresponding to z_f = 6 to 9, when the age of the universe was ~0.5 Gyr (H_o = 72 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0...

  13. Newly Discovered Wolf-Rayet and Weak Emission-Line Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    DePew, Kyle; Miszalski, Brent; De Marco, Orsola; Frew, David J; Acker, Agnes; Kovacevic, Anna V; Sharp, Rob G

    2011-01-01

    We present spectra of 32 previously unpublished confirmed and candidate Wolf-Rayet ([WR]) and weak emission-line (WELS) central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe). Eighteen stars have been discovered in the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg H-Alpha (MASH) PN survey sample, and we have also uncovered 14 confirmed and candidate [WR]s and WELS among the CSPNe of previously known PNe. Spectral classifications have been undertaken using both the Acker & Neiner and Crowther, De Marco & Barlow schemes. Twenty-two members in this sample are identified as probable [WR]s; the remaining 10 appear to be WELS. Observations undertaken as part of the MASH spectroscopic survey have now increased the number of known [WR]s by ~30 per cent. This will permit a better analysis of [WR] subclass distribution, metallicity effects, and evolutionary sequences in these uncommon objects.

  14. Interpreting broad emission-line variations II: Tensions between luminosity, characteristic size and responsivity

    CERN Document Server

    Goad, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the variability behaviour of the broad Hb emission-line to driving continuum variations in the best-studied AGN NGC 5548. For a particular choice of BLR geometry, Hb surface emissivity based on photoionization models, and using a scaled version of the 13 yr optical continuum light curve as a proxy for the driving ionizing continuum, we explore several key factors that determine the broad emission line luminosity L, characteristic size R(RW), and variability amplitude (i.e., responsivity) eta, as well as the interplay between them. For fixed boundary models which extend as far as the hot-dust the predicted delays for Hb are on average too long. However, the predicted variability amplitude of Hb provides a remarkably good match to observations except during low continuum states. We suggest that the continuum flux variations which drive the redistribution in Hb surface emissivity F(r) do not on their own lead to large enough changes in R(RW) or eta(eff). We thus investigate dust-bounded BLRs for w...

  15. Measuring galaxy [OII] emission line doublet with future ground-based wide-field spectroscopic surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Comparat, Johan; Bacon, Roland; Mostek, Nick J; Newman, Jeffrey A; Schlegel, David J; Yèche, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The next generation of wide-field spectroscopic redshift surveys will map the large-scale galaxy distribution in the redshift range 0.7< z<2 to measure baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). The primary optical signature used in this redshift range comes from the [OII] emission line doublet, which provides a unique redshift identification that can minimize confusion with other single emission lines. To derive the required spectrograph resolution for these redshift surveys, we simulate observations of the [OII] (3727,3729) doublet for various instrument resolutions, and line velocities. We foresee two strategies about the choice of the resolution for future spectrographs for BAO surveys. For bright [OII] emitter surveys ([OII] flux ~30.10^{-17} erg /cm2/s like SDSS-IV/eBOSS), a resolution of R~3300 allows the separation of 90 percent of the doublets. The impact of the sky lines on the completeness in redshift is less than 6 percent. For faint [OII] emitter surveys ([OII] flux ~10.10^{-17} erg /cm2/s like ...

  16. Continuum and Emission Line Strength Relations for a large Active Galactic Nuclei Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Shields, J C; Constantin, A; Junkkarinen, V T; Chaffee, F; Foltz, C B

    2002-01-01

    We report on the analysis of a large sample of 744 type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei, including quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies across the redshift range from 0 < z < 5 and spanning nearly 6 orders of magnitude in continuum luminosity. We discuss correlations of continuum and emission line properties in the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical spectral ranges. The well established Baldwin Effect is detected for almost all emission lines from OVI1034 to [OIII]5007. Their equivalent widths are significantly anti-correlated with the continuum strength, while they are nearly independent of redshift. This is the well known Baldwin Effect. Its slope beta, measured as log W_lambda ~ beta * log lambda * L_lambda (1450A), shows a tendency to become steeper towards higher luminosity. The slope of the Baldwin Effect also increases with the ionization energy needed to create the individual lines. In contrast to this general trend, the NV1240 equivalent width is nearly independent of continuum luminosity and remains nearly...

  17. Infrared [Fe II] Emission Lines from Radiative Atomic Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    [Fe II] emission lines are prominent in the infrared (IR), and they are important diagnostic tools for radiative atomic shocks. We investigate the emission characteristics of [Fe II] lines using a shock code developed by Raymond (1979) with updated atomic parameters. We first review general characteristics of IR [Fe II] emission lines from shocked gas, and derive [Fe II] line fluxes as a function of shock speed and ambient density. We have compiled the available IR [Fe II] line observations of interstellar shocks and compare them to the ratios predicted from our model. The sample includes both young and old supernova remnants in the Galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud and several Herbig-Haro objects. We find that the observed ratios of IR [Fe II] lines generally fall on our grid of shock models, but the ratios of some mid-infrared lines, e.g., [Fe II] 35.35 um/[Fe II] 25.99 um, [Fe II] 5.340 um/[Fe II] 25.99 um, and [Fe II] 5.340 um/[Fe II] 17.94 um, are significantly offset from our model grid. We discuss ...

  18. The Local [CII] 158 um Emission Line Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Armus, Lee; Capak, Peter; Faisst, Andreas; Masters, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present, for the first time, the local [CII] 158 um emission line luminosity function measured using a sample of more than 500 galaxies from the Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS). [CII] luminosities are measured from the Herschel PACS observations of the Luminous Infrared Galaxies in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) and estimated for the rest of the sample based on the far-IR luminosity and color. The sample covers 91.3% of the sky and is complete at S_60 um > 5.24 Jy. We calculated the completeness as a function of [CII] line luminosity and distance, based on the far-IR color and flux densities. The [CII] luminosity function is constrained in the range ~10^(7-9) (Lo) from both the 1/V_max and a maximum likelihood methods. The shape of our derived [CII] emission line luminosity function agrees well with the IR luminosity function. For the CO(1-0) and [CII] luminosity functions to agree, we propose a varying ratio of [CII]/CO(1-0) as a function of CO luminosity, with larger ratios for f...

  19. Gaseous versus Stellar Velocity Dispersion in Emission-Line Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yan Chen; Cai-Na Hao; Jing Wang

    2008-01-01

    We compare the ionized gas velocity dispersion σgas with the stellar velocity dis-persion σ* in star-forming galaxies, composite galaxies, Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Regions (LINERs) and Seyfert 2s, compiled from a cross-identification of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Fourth Data Release (SDSS DR4) and Point Source Catalogue Redshift Survey (PSCz). We measure σgas from the FWHMs of emission lines (Hα, [NII]λλ6548, 6583 and [SII] λλ6716, 6731). A significant correlation between the gas and stellar velocity dispersion exists, despite substantial scatter. The mean value of the gas to stellar velocity dispersion ratio is close to unity. This suggests that gas velocity dispersion can substitute for the stellar veloc-ity dispersion as a tracer of the gravitational potential well for all the four types of galaxies,but the involved uncertainties are different from type to type. We also studied σgas/σ* as a function of the redshift and the axial ratio to test the effects of aperture and galaxy inclina-tion, and found that both effects are weak. Finally we checked the trend of σgas/σ* with the infrared luminosity and found no significant correlation.

  20. Velocity anisotropy effect in pump-probe spectra of cesium in a micrometric thickness optical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P. N.; Mitra, S.; Ray, B.; Krasteva, A.; Slavov, D.; Todorov, P.; Cartaleva, S.

    2015-01-01

    The pump-probe spectra in a cell of micrometric thickness containing cesium vapor are reported. The line shape and nonlinear features observed in the case of fluorescence in the direction parallel to the cell windows and the transmission spectra observed along the propagation direction of the probe beam show considerable differences in the spectral profiles. We observed Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) and enhanced Velocity Selective Optical Pumping (VSOP) signals. Atoms moving nearly parallel to the windows and perpendicular to the collinear pump and probe beams will see much lower Doppler shift of incident frequencies and hence will lead to considerable narrowing of the Doppler background in the fluorescence spectra. The coherence decay rate is also low for such atoms as they do not meet with the cell walls. A theoretical model based on five level optical Bloch equations is used to simulate the spectra. The Doppler convolution includes all possible orientation of atomic velocities with respect to the laser beam direction. The simulated curves reproduce the observed sharp EIT peaks and enhanced broad VSOP signals for the closed probe transition in the fluorescence and absorption spectra. The observed effect of the light intensity and temperature change on the non-linear features is reproduced by the simulation.

  1. A CANDELS WFC3 GRISM STUDY OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2: A MIX OF NUCLEAR ACTIVITY AND LOW-METALLICITY STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Kocevski, Dale D.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Mozena, Mark; Yesuf, Hassen [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Scarlata, Claudia [Astronomy Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Laird, Elise S.; Rangel, Cyprian [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Yan Renbin [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomical Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Donley, Jennifer L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dunlop, James S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); and others

    2011-12-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z {approx} 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with >1{sigma} detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically {approx}7 times less massive (median M{sub *} = 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }) than previously studied z {approx} 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O III]/H{beta} ratios which are very similar to previously studied z {approx} 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H{beta} emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L{sub [OIII]}/L{sub 0.5-10keV} ratio is intermediate between typical z {approx} 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  2. A CANDELS WFC3 Grism Study of Emission-Line Galaxies at Z approximates 2: A mix of Nuclear Activity and Low-Metallicity Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Kocevski, Dale D.; Bell, Eric F.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Laird, Elise S.; Mozena, Mark; Rangel, Cyprian; Yan, Renbin; Yesuf, Hassen; Atek, Hakim; Dickinson, Mark; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Juneau, Stephanie; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Nandra, Kirpal

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z approximates 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with > 5-sigma detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 X 10(exp -18( erg/s/ square cm, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically approximately 7 times less massive (median M(star). = 10(exp 9.5)M(solar)) than previously studied z approximates 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O-III]/H-Beta ratios which are very similar to previously studied z approximates 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O-III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H-Beta emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L(sub [O-III])/L(sub 0.5.10keV) ratio is intermediate between typical z approximates 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O-III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  3. Effects of chirp of pump pulses on broadband terahertz pulse spectra generated by optical rectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Junichi; Furusawa, Kentaro; Sekine, Norihiko; Kasamatsu, Akifumi; Hosako, Iwao

    2016-11-01

    The effects of the chirp of the pump pulse in broadband terahertz (THz) pulse generation by optical rectification (OR) in GaP were systematically investigated. It was found that the pre-compensation for the dispersion of GaP is important for obtaining smooth and single-peaked THz spectra as well as high power-conversion efficiency. It was also found that an excessive amount of chirp leads to distortions in THz spectra, which can be quantitatively analyzed by using a simple model. Our results highlight the importance of accurate control over the chirp of the pump pulse for generating broadband THz pulses by OR.

  4. SALT long-slit spectroscopy of quasar HE 0435-4312: fast displacement of the Mg II emission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Średzińska, J.; Czerny, B.; Hryniewicz, K.; Krupa, M.; Kurcz, A.; Marziani, P.; Adhikari, T. P.; Basak, R.; You, B.; Wang, J.-M.; Hu, C.; Pych, W.; Bilicki, M.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The Mg II emission line is visible in the optical band for intermediate redshift quasars (0.4 SALT) with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) we performed ten spectroscopic observations of quasar HE 0435-4312 (z = 1.2231) over a period of three years (Dec. 23/24, 2012 to Dec. 7/8, 2015). Results: Both the Mg II line and the Fe II pseudo-continuum increase with time. We clearly detect the systematic shift of the Mg II line with respect to the Fe II over the years, corresponding to the acceleration of 104 ± 14 km s-1 yr-1 in the quasar rest frame. The Mg II line shape is clearly non-Gaussian but single-component, and the increase in line equivalent width and line shift is not accompanied with significant evolution of the line shape. We analyse the conditions in the Mg II and Fe II formation region and we note that the very large difference in the covering factor and the turbulent velocity also support the conclusion that the two regions are spatially separated. Conclusions: The measured acceleration of the line systematic shift is too large to connect it with the orbital motion at a distance of the BLR in this source. It may imply a precessing inner disk illuminating the BLR. Further monitoring is still needed to better constrain the variability mechanism. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) under program 2012-2-POL-003 and 2013-1-POL-RSA-002 (PI: B. Czerny).Spectra shown in Figs. 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A32

  5. The SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: selecting emission line galaxies using the Fisher discriminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichoor, A.; Comparat, J.; Delubac, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Yèche, Ch.; Zou, H.; Abdalla, F. B.; Dawson, K.; de la Macorra, A.; Fan, X.; Fan, Z.; Jiang, Z.; Jing, Y.; Jouvel, S.; Lang, D.; Lesser, M.; Li, C.; Ma, J.; Newman, J. A.; Nie, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Percival, W. J.; Prada, F.; Shen, S.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, T.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, Z.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new selection technique of producing spectroscopic target catalogues for massive spectroscopic surveys for cosmology. This work was conducted in the context of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS), which will use ~200 000 emission line galaxies (ELGs) at 0.6 ≤ zspec ≤ 1.0 to obtain a precise baryon acoustic oscillation measurement. Our proposed selection technique is based on optical and near-infrared broad-band filter photometry. We used a training sample to define a quantity, the Fisher discriminant (linear combination of colours), which correlates best with the desired properties of the target: redshift and [Oii] flux. The proposed selections are simply done by applying a cut on magnitudes and this Fisher discriminant. We used public data and dedicated SDSS spectroscopy to quantify the redshift distribution and [Oii] flux of our ELG target selections. We demonstrate that two of our selections fulfil the initial eBOSS/ELG redshift requirements: for a target density of 180 deg-2, ~70% of the selected objects have 0.6 ≤ zspec ≤ 1.0 and only ~1% of those galaxies in the range 0.6 ≤ zspec ≤ 1.0 are expected to have a catastrophic zspec estimate. Additionally, the stacked spectra and stacked deep images for those two selections show characteristic features of star-forming galaxies. The proposed approach using the Fisher discriminant could, however, be used to efficiently select other galaxy populations, based on multi-band photometry, providing that spectroscopic information isavailable. This technique could thus be useful for other future massive spectroscopic surveys such as PFS, DESI, and 4MOST.

  6. [C i], [C II] and CO emission lines as a probe for α variations at low and high redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshakov, S. A.; Ng, K.-W.; Henkel, C.; Mookerjea, B.

    2017-10-01

    The offsets between the radial velocities of the rotational transitions of carbon monoxide and the fine structure transitions of neutral and singly ionized carbon are used to test the hypothetical variation of the fine structure constant, α. From the analysis of the [C i] and [C II] fine structure lines and low J rotational lines of 12CO and 13CO, emitted by the dark cloud L1599B in the Milky Way disc, we find no evidence for fractional changes in α at the level of |Δα/α| C II] and CO emission lines: |Δα/α| C II] 158 μm emission, yield a limit on |Δα/α| C i], [C II] and CO emission lines turns out to be a powerful tool for probing the stability of the fundamental physical constants over a wide range of redshifts not accessible to optical spectral measurements.

  7. Near infrared spectral and polarization imaging observation of coronal emission lines during the 2008 total solar eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    During the 2008 total solar eclipse, the coronal emission lines were observed by using optical fibre spectrometric and polarization imaging system in near infrared waveband. The profiles of the coronal emission lines including Fe XIII 10747 , 10798  and He I 10830  were obtained with dispersion of 0.5 /pix. The intensity of Fe XIII 10747  remained unchanged in the two different coronal regions while the intensity of He I 10830  varied considerably in the two coronal locations no matter whether the prominence appeared or not. The coronal polarization images were observed at Fe XI 7892  with a bandpass of 30  in a series of exposure times.

  8. Near infrared spectral and polarization imaging observation of coronal emission lines during the 2008 total solar eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO XingMing; WANG XiaoFan; ZHANG ZhiYong; DENG Jian; HU KeLiang; XUAN WeiJia; LIU YangBing; ZHANG HongQi; DENG YuanYong; WANG DongGuang

    2009-01-01

    During the 2008 total solar eclipse, the coronal emission lines were observed by using optical fibre spectrometric and polarization imaging system in near infrared waveband. The profiles of the coronal emission lines Including Fe ⅩⅢ 10747 A, 10798 A and He 1 10830 A were obtained with dispersion of 0.5 A/pix. The intensity of Fe ⅩⅢ 10747 A remained unchanged In the two different coronal regions while the intensity of He I 10830 A varied considerably in the two coronal locations no matter whether the prominence appeared or not. The coronal polarization images were observed at Fe XI 7892 A with a bandpass of 30 A in a series of exposure times.

  9. Comment on "Orientation dependence of the optical spectra in graphene at high frequencies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy-Viet; Nguyen, V. Hung

    2016-09-01

    Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. B 77, 241402(R) (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.241402] reported a theoretical study of the optical spectra of monolayer graphene employing the Kubo formula within a tight-binding model. Their calculations predicted that at high frequencies the optical conductivity of graphene becomes strongly anisotropic. In particular, at frequencies comparable to the energy separation of the upper and lower bands at the Γ point, the optical conductivity is strongly suppressed if the field polarization is along the zigzag direction whereas it is significantly high for the armchair one. We find that, unfortunately, this result is just a consequence of the incorrect determination of the current operator in k space. Here, we present a standard scheme to obtain this operator correctly. As a result, we show that the optical conductivity of monolayer graphene is indeed isotropic, which is consistent with the results of other (both theoretical and experimental) studies in the literature.

  10. Optical detection of NMR J-spectra at zero magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, M P; Crawford, C W; Pines, A; Wemmer, D E; Knappe, S; Kitching, J; Budker, D

    2009-07-01

    Scalar couplings of the form JI(1) x I(2) between nuclei impart valuable information about molecular structure to nuclear magnetic-resonance spectra. Here we demonstrate direct detection of J-spectra due to both heteronuclear and homonuclear J-coupling in a zero-field environment where the Zeeman interaction is completely absent. We show that characteristic functional groups exhibit distinct spectra with straightforward interpretation for chemical identification. Detection is performed with a microfabricated optical atomic magnetometer, providing high sensitivity to samples of microliter volumes. We obtain 0.1 Hz linewidths and measure scalar-coupling parameters with 4-mHz statistical uncertainty. We anticipate that the technique described here will provide a new modality for high-precision "J spectroscopy" using small samples on microchip devices for multiplexed screening, assaying, and sample identification in chemistry and biomedicine.

  11. Optical detection of NMR J-spectra at zero magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Ledbetter, M P; Pines, A; Wemmer, D E; Knappe, S; Kitching, J; Budker, D

    2009-01-01

    Scalar couplings of the form J I_1 \\cdot I_2 between nuclei impart valuable information about molecular structure to nuclear magnetic-resonance spectra. Here we demonstrate direct detection of J-spectra due to both heteronuclear and homonuclear J-coupling in a zero-field environment where the Zeeman interaction is completely absent. We show that characteristic functional groups exhibit distinct spectra with straightforward interpretation for chemical identification. Detection is performed with a microfabricated optical atomic magnetometer, providing high sensitivity to samples of microliter volumes. We obtain 0.1 Hz linewidths and measure scalar-coupling parameters with 4-mHz statistical uncertainty. We anticipate that the technique described here will provide a new modality for high-precision "J spectroscopy" using small samples on microchip devices for multiplexed screening, assaying, and sample identification in chemistry and biomedicine.

  12. Electronic absorption spectra and nonlinear optical properties of CO2 molecular aggregates: A quantum chemical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarun K Mandal; Sudipta Dutta; Swapan K Pati

    2009-09-01

    We have investigated the structural aspects of several carbon dioxide molecular aggregates and their spectroscopic and nonlinear optical properties within the quantum chemical theory framework. We find that, although the single carbon dioxide molecule prefers to be in a linear geometry, the puckering of angles occur in oligomers because of the intermolecular interactions. The resulting dipole moments reflect in the electronic excitation spectra of the molecular assemblies. The observation of significant nonlinear optical properties suggests the potential application of the dense carbon dioxide phases in opto-electronic devices.

  13. Detection of Fast Radio Variability of Radio Objects with Continuous Optical Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, S. A.

    The results of the search for rapid variability (T > 1 day) in centimeter range using RATAN-600 in 14 radio objects with contiuous optical spectra are given. In 9 of them, namely 0109+224, 0139-097, 0300+471, 0306+102, 0754+100, 0818-128, 0823-223, 1034-293 and 1538+149 the rapid variability is detected at the wavelengths either 3.9 or 8.2 cm with the confidence probability > 0.98. The conclusion is reached on the close correlation of the presence of the rapid radiovariability and the relative power of non-thermal optical continuum.

  14. POISSON project - I - Emission lines as accretion tracers in Young Stellar Objects: results from observations of Chamaleon I and II sources

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniucci, S; Nisini, B; Giannini, T; Lorenzetti, D; Eisloeffel, J; Bacciotti, F; Cabrit, S; Garatti, A Caratti o; Dougados, C; Ray, T

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of LR optical-NIR spectra (0.6-2.4 um) of a sample 47 YSOs in the ChaI and II star-forming clouds. These data are part of the POISSON project (Protostellar Optical-Infrared Spectral Survey on NTT). The aim is to determine the accretion luminosity (Lacc) and mass accretion rate (Macc) of the sources through the analysis of the detected emission features. We also aim at verifying the reliability and consistency of the existing empirical relationships connecting emission line luminosity and Lacc. We employ five tracers (OI-6300A, Ha, CaII-8542A, Pab, and Brg) to derive the accretion luminosity. The tracers provide Lacc values showing different scatters when plotted as a function of L*. The Brg seems the most reliable, since it gives the minimum Lacc dispersion over the entire range of L*, whereas the other tracers provide much more scattered Lacc values, not expected for the homogeneous sample we are observing. The comparison between Lacc(Brg) and Lacc obtained from the oth...

  15. Mid-Infrared [NeII] and [NeIII] Emission Line Profiles in Starbursts and AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonyan, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Line profiles and velocities of the [CII] 157μm line observed with the Herschel PACS instrument are compared to high resolution [NeII] 12.81μm and [NeIII] 15.55μm emission lines observed with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). We are analysing spectra of at least 400 galaxies having both IRS high resolution and Herschel PACS [CII] line profiles that are available from the public archives. The goal of the work is the comparison of emission line velocity profiles and fluxes to locate and understand differences in the origins of [CII] compared to the mid-infrared Neon lines. Line velocities and widths are carefully measured, and errors are analyzed to determine if there is any kinematic evidence for [CII] arising from clouds not visible in the mid-infrared emission lines. This will give an answer to two questions: 1. Is there evidence that [CII] is more diffuse, distributed throughout galaxies, than the mid infrared starburst indicators [NeII] and [NeIII]?; 2. Is there evidence for specific, very dusty clouds of [CII] with so much extinction that the [CII] can be seen but the [NeII] and [NeIII] is not seen?

  16. Emission Line Imaging and Spectroscopy of Distant Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabl, Johannes Florian

    determinations even at lowest masses and highest redshifts. Finally, emission lines can be used in the first place to select large samples of galaxies at well defined redshifts through narrowband (NB) surveys, as the presence of a line in the NB filter raises the flux compared to that expected from the continuum...... applied a novel NB measurement method to a sample of UltraVISTA NB118 H α emitters, and demonstrate that this technique allows to recover more accurate fluxes. Additionally, the method allows to determine more accurate redshifts. Contemporary NB surveys have a strong focus on searches for Ly α emitters...... for the gas surrounding a galaxy. Around some objects the extended Ly αemission is so strong that it can be detected for individual objects. In this thesis extremely deep VLT/XSHOOTER rest-frame far-UV spectroscopy is presented for Himiko, a gigantic Ly α emitter at redshift z = 6.6 or a time when...

  17. Solar emission lines revisited - Extended study of magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward S.

    1987-06-01

    Edlen's polarization formula is found to fit the high-l solar infrared emission lines attributed to Mg I to the accuracy of the high-precision observations. For several previously unidentified weak lines, assignments are made, a few to Mg I. With some revision of laboratory energy levels, a more precise ionization limit for Mg I is determined to be 61,671.056 (10)/cm. The fine structure of the two strongest lines at 811 and 818/cm is found to consist of 4 components spaced about 0.001/cm apart with nearly equal intensities. Their behavior in the penumbra magnetic field is well described by the Paschen-Back effect. Their line profile, polarization, and directional properties are discussed.

  18. Optical vibronic spectra of aggregates in Eu sup 2 sup + -doped KCl and KBr crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, S R; Aceves, R; Rodríguez, R; Barboza, M

    2003-01-01

    The vibronic structure on the optical absorption, emission, and excitation spectra of aggregates in Eu sup 2 sup + -doped KCl and KBr crystals has been obtained. The crystals were annealed at 435 K. During the aggregation process, four groups of narrow bands were found in KCl: Eu sup 2 sup + and two in KBr: Eu sup 2 sup + ,which were considered as the signature of different Eu sup 2 sup + -ion aggregated phases. The vibration frequency for each group is very similar. (Author)

  19. Broad emission lines variability: a window into the heart of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Dragana; Popovic, Luka C.; Shapovalova, Alla I.; Afanasiev, V. L.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Burenkov, A.; Kollatschny, W.; Kovacevic, A.

    2016-08-01

    The broad emission lines of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are known to vary both in flux and shape, and are often showing very complex line profiles. They can give us invaluable information about the kinematics and geometry of the broad line region (BLR) where these lines are originating from. The BLR is close to the supermassive black hole in AGN and may hold basic information about the formation and fueling of AGN.Here we summarize the results of the line and continuum variability of a sample of broad line AGN, obtained with the long-term optical monitoring campaign performed with telescopes of SAO (Russia), OAGH and OAN-SPM (Mexico), and Calar Alto (Spain). We monitored different type of broad line AGN (double-peaked, radio loud and radio quiet, NLSy1 and a supermassive binary black hole candidate) which show different variability characteristics that can be explained by different physical properties in BLR.

  20. Infrared Spectra, Index of Refraction, and Optical Constants of Nitrile Ices Relevant to Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marla; Ferrante, Robert; Moore, William; Hudson, Reggie

    2010-01-01

    Spectra and optical constants of nitrite ices known or suspected to be in Titan's atmosphere are presented from 2.5 to 200 microns (4000 to 50 per cm ). These results are relevant to the ongoing modeling of Cassini CIRS observations of Titan's winter pole. Ices studied include: HCN, hydrogen cyanide; C2N2, cyanogen; CH3CN, acetonitrile; C 2H5CN, propionitrile; and HC3N, cyanoacetylene. For each of these molecules we report new measurements of the index of refraction, n, determined in both the amorphous- and crystallinephase at 670 nm. Spectra were measured and optical constants were calculated for each nitrite at a variety of temperatures including 20, 35, 50, 75, 95, and 110 K, in the amorphous- and crystalline-phase. This laboratory effort uses a dedicated FTIR spectrometer to record transmission spectra of thin-film ice samples. Laser interference is used to measure film thickness during condensation onto a transparent cold window attached to the tail section of a closed-cycle helium cryostat. Optical constants, real (n) and imaginary (k) refractive indices, are determined using Kramers-Kronig (K-K) analysis. Our calculation reproduces the complete spectrum, including all interference effects. Index of refraction measurements are made in a separate dedicated FTIR spectrometer where interference deposit fringes are measured using two 670 nm lasers at different angles to the ice substrate. A survey of these new measurements will be presented along with a discussion of their validation, errors, and application to Titan data.

  1. Herschel observations of FIR emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, A C; Mittal, R; Allen, S W; Baum, S A; Boehringer, H; Bregman, J N; Bremer, M N; Combes, F; Crawford, C S; Donahue, M; Egami, E; Fabian, A C; Hamer, S L; Hatch, N A; Jaffe, W; Johnstone, R M; McNamara, B R; O'Dea, C P; Popesso, P; Quillen, A C; Salome, P; Sarazin, C L; Voit, G M; Wilman, R J; Wise, M W

    2010-01-01

    The question of how much gas cools in the cores of clusters of galaxies has been the focus of many, multiwavelength studies in the past 30 years. In this letter we present the first detections of the strongest atomic cooling lines, [C II], [O I] and [N I] in two strong cooling flow clusters, A1068 and A2597, using Herschel PACS. These spectra indicate that the substantial mass of cold molecular gas (>10^9 Mo) known to be present in these systems is being irradiated by intense UV radiation, most probably from young stars. The line widths of these FIR lines indicate that they share dynamics similar but not identical to other ionised and molecular gas traced by optical, near-infrared and CO lines. The relative brightness of the FIR lines compared to CO and FIR luminosity is consistent with other star-forming galaxies indicating that the properties of the molecular gas clouds in cluster cores and the stars they form are not unusual. These results provide additional evidence for a reservoir of cold gas that is fed...

  2. Raman Optical Activity Spectra for Large Molecules through Molecules-in-Molecules Fragment-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovan Jose, K V; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2016-02-09

    We present an efficient method for the calculation of the Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra for large molecules through the molecules-in-molecules (MIM) fragment-based method. The relevant higher energy derivatives from smaller fragments are used to build the property tensors of the parent molecule to enable the extension of the MIM method for evaluating ROA spectra (MIM-ROA). Two factors were found to be particularly important in yielding accurate results. First, the link-atom tensor components are projected back onto the corresponding host and supporting atoms through the Jacobian projection method, yielding a mathematically rigorous method. Second, the long-range interactions between fragments are taken into account by using a less computationally expensive lower level of theory. The performance of the MIM-ROA model is calibrated on the enantiomeric pairs of 10 carbohydrate benchmark molecules, with strong intramolecular interactions. The vibrational frequencies and ROA intensities are accurately reproduced relative to the full, unfragmented, results for these systems. In addition, the MIM-ROA method is employed to predict the ROA spectra of d-maltose, α-D-cyclodextrin, and cryptophane-A, yielding spectra in excellent agreement with experiment. The accuracy and performance of the benchmark systems validate the MIM-ROA model for exploring ROA spectra of large molecules.

  3. Optical and UV Spectra of the Remnant of SN 1885 (S And) in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Fesen, Robert A; Hoeflich, Peter A; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    We present optical and ultraviolet spectra of SN 1885 (S And), visible in absorption against the bulge of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), using the Hubble Space Telescope's STIS spectrograph to probe the three dimensional arrangement of the supernova debris. Spectra covering 2900-5700 A taken using six 0.2"slit positions in two orientations show broad Ca II absorption with blue and red radial velocities out to at least 11,500 km/s, consistent with HST Ca II images of S And. Enhanced Ca II absorption is seen between 2000-5000 km/s suggestive of a Ca II-rich shell. The spectra also show strong, asymmetric Ca I 4227 A absorption extending out to +12,400 km/s, along with weak Fe I 3720 A absorption in a shell with velocities between 2000 and 9000 km/s. Ultraviolet spectra obtained revealed weak broad absorption shortward of 3000 A consistent with model predictions. The STIS spectra, together with previous HST images, show a layered structure with a well defined Ca-rich outer edge indicative of a delayed detonation ph...

  4. "Direct" Gas-phase Metallicities, Stellar Properties, and Local Environments of Emission-line Galaxies at Redshift below 0.90

    CERN Document Server

    Ly, Chun; Nagao, Tohru; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Using deep narrow-band imaging and optical spectroscopy from Keck and MMT, we identify a sample of 20 emission-line galaxies at z=0.065-0.90 where the weak auroral emission line, [O III]4363, is detected at >3\\sigma. These detections allow us to determine the gas-phase metal abundances using the "direct" method. After correcting for dust attenuation using Balmer decrements, we find that 10 of these low-mass galaxies are extremely metal-poor with 12+log(O/H) 1 galaxies.

  5. Exciton scattering approach for optical spectra calculations in branched conjugated macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wu, Chao; Malinin, Sergey V.; Tretiak, Sergei; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.

    2016-12-01

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach based on the concept of a particle in a box and developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, electronic excitations in molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph whose edges and nodes stand for the molecular linear segments and vertices, respectively. Exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas exciton scattering at the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized "particle in a box" problems on the graph that represents the molecule. Similarly, unique energy-dependent ES dipolar parameters permit calculations of the corresponding oscillator strengths, thus, completing optical spectra modeling. Both the energetic and dipolar parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations in small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within a considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. We demonstrate the ES method application to molecular families of branched conjugated phenylacetylenes and ladder poly-para-phenylenes, as well as structures with electron donor and acceptor chemical substituents. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used as a reference model for electronic structure. The ES calculations accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  6. Accretion Rates for T Tauri Stars Using Nearly Simultaneous Ultraviolet and Optical Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ingleby, Laura; Herczeg, Gregory; Blaty, Alex; Walter, Frederick; Ardila, David; Alexander, Richard; Edwards, Suzan; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Brown, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the accretion properties of 21 low mass T Tauri stars using a dataset of contemporaneous near ultraviolet (NUV) through optical observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the ground based Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS), a unique dataset because of the nearly simultaneous broad wavelength coverage. Our dataset includes accreting T Tauri stars (CTTS) in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, $\\eta$ Chamaeleon and the TW Hydra Association. For each source we calculate the accretion rate by fitting the NUV and optical excesses above the photosphere, produced in the accretion shock, introducing multiple accretion components characterized by a range in energy flux (or density) for the first time. This treatment is motivated by models of the magnetospheric geometry and accretion footprints, which predict that high density, low filling factor accretion spots co-exist with low density, high filling factor spots. By fitting the UV and optical spectra wi...

  7. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-10

    THE FAR-INFRARED EMISSION LINE AND CONTINUUM SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 10681 Luigi Spinoglio Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario...circumnuclear ring of 1500–1600 in radius within the last 4–40 Myr. CO interferometer observa- tions revealed molecular gas very close to the nucleus...from 43 to 197 m showing both atomic and molecular emission lines (x 2). We model the composite UV to far-IR atomic emission-line and continuum

  8. Dust Attenuation of the Nebular Regions of z ~ 2 Star-forming Galaxies: Insight from UV, IR, and Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros, S.; Reddy, N.; Shivaei, I.

    2016-04-01

    We use a sample of 149 spectroscopically confirmed UV-selected galaxies at z ˜ 2 to investigate the relative dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and the nebular emission lines. For each galaxy in the sample, at least one rest-frame optical emission line (Hα/[N ii] λ6583 or [O iii] λ5007) measurement has been taken from the litterature, and 41 galaxies have additional Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm observations that are used to infer infrared luminosities. We use a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code that predicts nebular line strengths when fitting the stellar populations of galaxies in our sample, and we perform comparisons between the predictions of our models and the observed/derived physical quantities. We find that on average our code is able to reproduce all the physical quantities (e.g., UV β slopes, infrared luminosities, emission line fluxes), but we need to apply a higher dust correction to the nebular emission compared to the stellar emission for the largest star formation rate (SFR) (log SFR/M⊙ yr-1 > 1.82, Salpeter initial mass function). We find a correlation between SFR and the difference in nebular and stellar color excesses, which could resolve the discrepant results regarding nebular dust correction at z ˜ 2 from previous studies.

  9. On the origin of the correlations between the accretion luminosity and emission line luminosities in pre-main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendigutía, I.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Rigliaco, E.; Fairlamb, J. R.; Calvet, N.; Muzerolle, J.; Cunningham, N.; Lumsden, S. L.

    2015-09-01

    Correlations between the accretion luminosity and emission line luminosities (Lacc and Lline) of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars have been published for many different spectral lines, which are used to estimate accretion rates. Despite the origin of those correlations is unknown, this could be attributed to direct or indirect physical relations between the emission line formation and the accretion mechanism. This work shows that all (near-UV/optical/near-IR) Lacc-Lline correlations are the result of the fact that the accretion luminosity and the stellar luminosity (L*) are correlated, and are not necessarily related with the physical origin of the line. Synthetic and observational data are used to illustrate how the Lacc-Lline correlations depend on the Lacc-L* relationship. We conclude that because PMS stars show the Lacc-L* correlation immediately implies that Lacc also correlates with the luminosity of all emission lines, for which the Lacc-Lline correlations alone do not prove any physical connection with accretion but can only be used with practical purposes to roughly estimate accretion rates. When looking for correlations with possible physical meaning, we suggest that Lacc/L* and Lline/L* should be used instead of Lacc and Lline. Finally, the finding that Lacc has a steeper dependence on L* for T Tauri stars than for intermediate-mass Herbig Ae/Be stars is also discussed. That is explained from the magnetospheric accretion scenario and the different photospheric properties in the near-UV.

  10. On the origin of the correlations between the accretion luminosity and emission line luminosities in pre-main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mendigutía, I; Rigliaco, E; Fairlamb, J R; Calvet, N; Muzerolle, J; Cunningham, N; Lumsden, S L

    2015-01-01

    Correlations between the accretion luminosity and emission line luminosities (L_acc and L_line) of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars have been published for many different spectral lines, which are used to estimate accretion rates. Despite the origin of those correlations is unknown, this could be attributed to direct or indirect physical relations between the emission line formation and the accretion mechanism. This work shows that all (near-UV/optical/near-IR) L_acc-L_line correlations are the result of the fact that the accretion luminosity and the stellar luminosity (L_star) are correlated, and are not necessarily related with the physical origin of the line. Synthetic and observational data are used to illustrate how the L_acc-L_line correlations depend on the L_acc-L_star relationship. We conclude that because PMS stars show the L_acc-L_star correlation immediately implies that L_acc also correlates with the luminosity of all emission lines, for which the L_acc-L_line correlations alone do not prove any phy...

  11. 2D-model of oxygen emissions lines for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessateur, Gaël; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Lilensten, Jean; Rubin, Martin; Maggiolo, Romain; De Keyser, Johan

    2017-04-01

    The Jovian moon Europa is an interesting case study as an archetype for icy satellites, and will be one of the primary targets of the ESA JUICE mission which should be launched in 2022. Hosting a thin neutral gas atmosphere mainly composed of O2 and H2O, Europa can be studied by its airglow and dayglow emissions. A 1D photochemistry model has first been developed to assess the impact of the solar UV flux on the visible emission, such as the red and green oxygen lines (Cessateur et al. 2016). For limb polar viewing, red line emissions can reach a few hundreds of Rayleigh close to the surface. The impact of the precipitating electrons has also been studied. The density and temperature of the electrons are first derived from the multifluid MHD model from Rubin et al. (2015). A 2D emission model has thus been developed to estimate the airglow emissions. When electrons are the major source of the visible emissions, the solar UV flux can be responsible for up to 15% of those emissions for some specific line of sight. Oxygen emission lines in the UV have also been considered, such as 130.5 and 135.6 nm. For the latter, we did estimate some significant line emissions reaching 700 Rayleigh for a polar limb viewing angle close to the surface. Oxygen emission lines are significant (higher than 10 R) for altitudes lower than 100 km for all lines, except for the red line emissions where emissions are still above 10 R up to 200 km from the surface. A sensitivity study has also been performed in order to assess the impact of the uncertainties relative to the dissociative-excitation cross sections. Cessateur G, Barthelemy M & Peinke I. Photochemistry-emission coupled model for Europa and Ganymede. J. Space Weather Space Clim., 6, A17, 2016 Rubin, M., et al. Self-consistent multifluid MHD simulations of Europa's exospheric interaction with Jupiter's magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 3503-3524, 2015

  12. Emission Signatures from Sub-parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes. I. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years, we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission-line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and to help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work, we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission-line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as a function of the semimajor axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the degree of alignment of the triple disk system. This suggests that the broad emission-line profiles from SBHB systems can in principle be used to infer the distribution of these parameters and as such merit further investigation. Calculated profiles are more morphologically heterogeneous than the broad emission lines in observed SBHB candidates and we discuss improved treatment of radiative transfer effects, which will allow a direct statistical comparison of the two groups.

  13. Optical and UV Spectra of the Remnant of SN 1885 (S And) in M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesen, Robert; Hoeflich, Peter; Hamilton, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The remnant of Supernova 1885 (S And), a probable Type Ia supernova, can be seen in absorption against the bulge of the Andromeda galaxy, M31. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope optical and ultraviolet STIS spectra of S And taken in order to investigate the remnant's three dimensional structure. Optical spectra covering 2900 - 5700 ˚A, taken using six 0.2” wide slit positions in two orientations, show broad Ca II H&K absorption extending out to at least 11,500 km s-1 consistent with previous HST narrow passband Ca II images of S And. We find enhancement of Ca II absorption between expansion velocities of 2,000 and 5,000 km s-1 suggestive of a lumpy Ca-rich shell. These spectra, together with previous HST images, indicate a remnant with less than a 10 percent departure from purely spherical expansion, a layered abundance structure indicative of a detonation phase, and a clumpy and plume-like Fe distribution suggestive of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities although significantly less than expected from hydrodynamic simulations.

  14. Central stars of planetary nebulae. II. New OB-type and emission-line stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.

    2011-07-01

    Context. There are more than 3000 confirmed and probably known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), but central star spectroscopic information is available for only 13% of them. Aims: We have undertaken a spectroscopic survey of the central stars in PNe to identify their spectral types. Methods: We performed spectroscopic observations at low resolution with the 2-m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. Results: We present the spectra of 46 central stars of PNe, most of them are OB-type and emission-line stars. Based on data collected at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina.The reduced spectra (FITS files) are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/531/A172

  15. A WFC3 Grism Emission Line Redshift Catalog in the GOODS-South Field

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Aaron M; Trump, Jonathan R; Weiner, Benjamin J; Hathi, Nimish P; Barro, Guillermo; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman A; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Hsu, Li-Ting; Koekemoer, Anton M; Koo, David C; Mobasher, Bahram; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    We combine HST/WFC3 imaging and G141 grism observations from the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys to produce a catalog of grism spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field. The WFC3/G141 grism spectra cover a wavelength range of 1.1 0.6. The resulting spectra are visually inspected to identify emission lines and redshifts are determined using cross-correlation with empirical spectral templates. To establish the accuracy of our redshifts, we compare our results against high-quality spectroscopic redshifts from the literature. Using a sample of 411 control galaxies, this analysis yields a precision of sigma_NMAD=0.0028 for the grism-derived redshifts, which is consistent with the accuracy reported by the 3D-HST team. Our final catalog covers an area of 153 square arcmin and contains 1019 redshifts for galaxies in GOODS-S. Roughly 60% (608/1019) of these redshifts are for galaxies with no previously published spectroscopic redshift. These new redshifts span a range of 0.677 1.5. In addition, ...

  16. Emission Lines of Fe XI - XIII in the Extreme Ultraviolet Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepson, Jaan; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Liedahl, Duane; Desai, Priya; Brickhouse, Nancy; Dupree, Andrea; Kahn, Steven

    2009-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant heavy elements in extreme ultraviolet spectra of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, and its various ions radiate profusely in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength band. Iron emission in the EUV provides important d iagnostic tools for such properties as plasma temperature and density, and perhaps even magnetic field strength. Despite its importance to astrophysics and magnetic fusion, knowledge of the EUV spectrum of iron is incomplete. Identification of iron emis sion lines is hampered by the paucity of accurate laboratory measurements and the uncertainty of even the best atomic models. As part of a project to measure and compile emission line data in the EUV, we present here spectra and lines of Fe XI - XIII recorded on the Livermore EBIT-II electron beam ion trap in the 50 - 120 åregion. We measured line positions to 0.02 åand relative intensities with an accuracy of one part in twenty. Many new lines are identified and added to the available databa ses. Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U S Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and was supported by NASA's Astronomy and Physics Research and Analysis Program under Con t ract NNH07AF811.

  17. Optical properties of organic semiconductor thin films. Static spectra and real-time growth studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, Ute

    2009-07-20

    The aim of this work was to establish the anisotropic dielectric function of organic thin films on silicon covered with native oxide and to study their optical properties during film growth. While the work focuses mainly on the optical properties of Diindenoperylene (DIP) films, also the optical response of Pentacene (PEN) films during growth is studied for comparison. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and differential reflectance spectroscopy are used to determine the dielectric function of the films ex-situ and in-situ, i.e. in air and in ultrahigh vacuum. Additionally, Raman- and fluorescence spectroscopy is utilized to characterize the DIP films serving also as a basis for spatially resolved optical measurements beyond the diffraction limit. Furthermore, X-ray reflectometry and atomic force microscopy are used to determine important structural and morphological film properties. The absorption spectrum of DIP in solution serves as a monomer reference. The observed vibronic progression of the HOMO-LUMO transition allows the determination of the Huang-Rhys parameter experimentally, which is a measure of the electronic vibrational coupling. The corresponding breathing modes are measured by Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties of DIP films on native oxide show significant differences compared to the monomer spectrum due to intermolecular interactions. First of all, the thin film spectra are highly anisotropic due to the structural order of the films. Furthermore the Frenkel exciton transfer is studied and the energy difference between Frenkel and charge transfer excitons is determined. Real-time measurements reveal optical differences between interfacial or surface molecules and bulk molecules that play an important role for device applications. They are not only performed for DIP films but also for PEN films. While for DIP films on glass the appearance of a new mode is visible, the spectra of PEN show a pronounced energy red-shift during growth. It is shown how the

  18. The atypical emission-line star Hen3-209

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazé, Y.; Rauw, G.; Hutsemékers, D.; Gosset, E.; Manfroid, J.; Royer, P.

    2006-10-01

    We analyse observations, spanning 15 yr, dedicated to the extreme emission-line object Hen3-209. Our photometric data indicate that the luminosity of the star undergoes marked variations with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.65 mag. These variations are recurrent, with a period of 16.093 +/-0.005 d. The spectrum of Hen3-209 is peculiar with many different lines (HI, HeI, FeII, ...) showing P Cygni profiles. The line profiles are apparently changing in harmony with the photometry. The spectrum also contains [OIII] lines that display a saddle profile topped by three peaks, with a maximum separation of about 600 kms-1. Hen3-209 is most likely an evolved luminous object suffering from mass ejection events and maybe belonging to a binary system. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) and the Cerro-Tololo Observatory (Chile). Postdoctoral Researcher FNRS (Belgium). ‡ E-mail: naze@astro.ulg.ac.be § Research Associate FNRS (Belgium). ¶ Research Director FNRS (Belgium).

  19. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE EMISSION-LINE REGIONS OF QUASARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary J.Ferland

    2001-01-01

    The luninous quasars are the most distant objects we can directly observe. Once understood, their emission lines will measure the quasar's luminosity and the composition of the interstellar medium of the host galaxy. Unfortunately the emitting plasma is far from equilibrium, and its conditions are set by a host of microphysical processes. The equations of statistical and thermal equilibrium must be solved to determine the ionization distribution, level populations, and kinetic temperature as a function of depth. Simultaneously the line and continuum radiative transfer problems are solved to predict the observed spectrum.A complete simulation involves many hundreds of stages of ionization, many thousands of levels, with populations determined by a vast sea of atomic and molecular processes, many with accurate cross sections and rate coefficients only now becoming available. This is a problem at the very forefront of atomic and computational physics. Once complete, we will be able to map out the first generations of stellar processing in the cores of massive galaxies, and directly chart the expansion of the universe when it had an age under a billion years.

  20. General Method for Calculating the Response and Noise Spectra of Active Fabry-Perot Semiconductor Waveguides With External Optical Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    of the input field can be calculated. Both responses and noise spectra are given through semianalytical expressions taking into account the longitudinal extent and finite end-facet reflectivities of the active device. Different examples of responses and spectra are presented for semiconductor optical...

  1. Optimization of eigenstates and spectra for quasi-linear nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lytel, Rick; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional quantum structures with spectra scaling faster than the square of the eigenmode number (superscaling) can generate intrinsic, off-resonant optical nonlinearities near the fundamental physical limits, independent of the details of the potential energy along the structure. The scaling of spectra is determined by the topology of the structure, while the magnitudes of the transition moments are set by the geometry of the structure. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the geometrical optimization of superscaling quasi-one-dimensional structures and provides heuristics for designing molecules to maximize intrinsic response. A main result is that designers of conjugated structures should attach short side groups at least a third of the way along the bridge, not near its end as is conventionally done. A second result is that once a side group is properly placed, additional side groups do not further enhance the response.

  2. All-real spectra in optical systems with arbitrary gain and loss distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Sean

    2015-01-01

    A method for constructing optical potentials with an arbitrary distribution of gain and loss and completely real spectrum is presented. For each arbitrary distribution of gain and loss, several classes of refractive-index profiles with freely tunable parameters are obtained such that the resulting complex potentials, although being non-parity-time-symmetric in general, still feature all-real spectra for a wide range of tuning parameters. When these refractive indices are tuned below certain thresholds, phase transition can occur, where complex-conjugate pairs of eigenvalues appear in the spectrum. These non-parity-time-symmetric complex potentials generalize the concept of parity-time-symmetric potentials to allow for more flexible gain and loss distributions while still maintaining all-real spectra and the phenomenon of phase transition.

  3. Optical Stark effect in the four-wave mixing and stimulated Raman spectra of N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmuller, H.; She, C. Y.; Huo, Winifred M.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of the optical Stark effect on spectral line shapes in four-wave-mixing Raman spectroscopy (FWMRS) and stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Using an experimental setup capable of rapid alternation between the simultaneous measurement of coherent Stokes Raman spectroscopy and inverse Raman spectroscopy at low and high intensities, together with a sophisticated frequency reference scheme, it was possible to perform a rather direct comparison between Stark-broadened and non-Stark-broadened spectra of both classes of Raman spectroscopies. The results demonstrate that SRS spectra show more Stark shift and broadening than their FWMRS counterparts. A discrepancy with theoretical results is pointed out, and an attempt is made to explain it.

  4. Suppression of Fiber Modal Noise Induced Radial Velocity Errors for Bright Emission-line Calibration Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Halverson, Samuel; Ramsey, Lawrence; Venditti, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Modal noise in optical fibers imposes limits on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and velocity precision achievable with the next generation of astronomical spectrographs. This is an increasingly pressing problem for precision radial velocity spectrographs in the near-infrared (NIR) and optical that require both high stability of the observed line profiles and high S/N. Many of these spectrographs plan to use highly coherent emission-line calibration sources like laser frequency combs and Fabry-Perot etalons to achieve precision sufficient to detect terrestrial-mass planets. These high-precision calibration sources often use single-mode fibers or highly coherent sources. Coupling light from single-mode fibers to multi-mode fibers leads to only a very low number of modes being excited, thereby exacerbating the modal noise measured by the spectrograph. We present a commercial off-the-shelf solution that significantly mitigates modal noise at all optical and NIR wavelengths, and which can be applied to spectrograph calibration systems. Our solution uses an integrating sphere in conjunction with a diffuser that is moved rapidly using electrostrictive polymers, and is generally superior to most tested forms of mechanical fiber agitation. We demonstrate a high level of modal noise reduction with a narrow bandwidth 1550 nm laser. Our relatively inexpensive solution immediately enables spectrographs to take advantage of the innate precision of bright state-of-the art calibration sources by removing a major source of systematic noise.

  5. Black hole mass estimates and emission-line properties of a sample of redshift z > 6.5 quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, Gisella; Peterson, Bradley M.; Frank, Stephan [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Venemans, Bram P.; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gennaro, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Simcoe, Robert A. [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dietrich, Matthias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger Lab 251B, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); McMahon, Richard G.; Hewett, Paul C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Mortlock, Daniel J. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Simpson, Chris [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    We present the analysis of optical and near-infrared spectra of the only four z > 6.5 quasars known to date, discovered in the UKIDSS-LAS and VISTA-VIKING surveys. Our data set consists of new Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter and Magellan/FIRE observations. These are the best optical/NIR spectroscopic data that are likely to be obtained for the z > 6.5 sample using current 6-10 m facilities. We estimate the black hole (BH) mass, the Eddington ratio, and the Si IV/C IV, C III]/C IV, and Fe II/Mg II emission-line flux ratios. We perform spectral modeling using a procedure that allows us to derive a probability distribution for the continuum components and to obtain the quasar properties weighted upon the underlying distribution of continuum models. The z > 6.5 quasars show the same emission properties as their counterparts at lower redshifts. The z > 6.5 quasars host BHs with masses of ∼10{sup 9} M{sub ☉} that are accreting close to the Eddington luminosity ((log(L{sub Bol}/L{sub Edd})) = –0.4 ± 0.2), in agreement with what has been observed for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.5 quasars. By comparing the Si IV/C IV and C III]/C IV flux ratios with the results obtained from luminosity-matched samples at z ∼ 6 and 2 ≤ z ≤ 4.5, we find no evidence of evolution of the line ratios with cosmic time. We compare the measured Fe II/Mg II flux ratios with those obtained for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.4 sources. The two samples are analyzed using a consistent procedure. There is no evidence that the Fe II/Mg II flux ratio evolves between z = 7 and z = 4. Under the assumption that the Fe II/Mg II traces the Fe/Mg abundance ratio, this implies the presence of major episodes of chemical enrichment in the quasar hosts in the first ∼0.8 Gyr after the Big Bang.

  6. Optical spectra and spin-Hamiltonian parameters of trivalent ytterbium in lead tungstate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W-L Feng; X-M Li

    2011-01-01

    By using crystal-field theory, the optical spectra and spin-Hamiltonian parameters (abbr. SH parameters, i.e. the anisotropic factors $g_{\\|} g_{⊥}$, and hyperfine structure constants $A_{\\|}, A_{⊥}$) of 171Yb3+ and 173Yb3+ isotopes in the tetragonal PbWO4 are calculated. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental values. The crystal-field parameters and the signs of the hyperfine structure constants for both 171Yb3+ and 173Yb3+ isotopes are determined. The validities of the theoretical results are discussed.

  7. X-ray Insights into the Nature of PHL 1811 Analogs and Weak Emission-Line Quasars: Unification with a Geometrically Thick Accretion Disk?

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, B; Hall, P B; Wu, Jianfeng; Anderson, S F; Garmire, G P; Gibson, R R; Plotkin, R M; Richards, G T; Schneider, D P; Shemmer, O; Shen, Yue

    2015-01-01

    We present an X-ray and multiwavelength study of 33 weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) and 18 quasars that are analogs of the extreme WLQ, PHL 1811, at z ~ 0.5-2.9. New Chandra 1.5-9.5 ks exploratory observations were obtained for 32 objects while the others have archival X-ray observations. Significant fractions of these luminous type 1 quasars are distinctly X-ray weak compared to typical quasars, including 16 (48%) of the WLQs and 17 (94%) of the PHL 1811 analogs with average X-ray weakness factors of 17 and 39, respectively. We measure a relatively hard ($\\Gamma=1.16_{-0.32}^{+0.37}$) effective power-law photon index for a stack of the X-ray weak subsample, suggesting X-ray absorption, and spectral analysis of one PHL 1811 analog, J1521+5202, also indicates significant intrinsic X-ray absorption. We compare composite SDSS spectra for the X-ray weak and X-ray normal populations and find several optical-UV tracers of X-ray weakness; e.g., Fe II rest-frame equivalent width and relative color. We describe how ...

  8. A Bloch equation approach to intensity dependent optical spectra of light harvesting complex II: excitation dependence of light harvesting complex II pump-probe spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Marten; Renger, Thomas; Knorr, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the recent progress in the resolution of the structure of the antenna light harvesting complex II (LHC II) of the photosystem II, we propose a microscopically motivated theory to predict excitation intensity-dependent spectra. We show that optical Bloch equations provide the means to include all 2( N ) excited states of an oligomer complex of N coupled two-level systems and analyze the effects of Pauli Blocking and exciton-exciton annihilation on pump-probe spectra. We use LHC Bloch equations for 14 Coulomb coupled two-level systems, which describe the S (0) and S (1) level of every chlorophyll molecule. All parameter introduced into the Hamiltonian are based on microscopic structure and a quantum chemical model. The derived Bloch equations describe not only linear absorption but also the intensity dependence of optical spectra in a regime where the interplay of Pauli Blocking effects as well as exciton-exciton annihilation effects are important. As an example, pump-probe spectra are discussed. The observed saturation of the spectra for high intensities can be viewed as a relaxation channel blockade on short time scales due to Pauli blocking. The theoretical investigation is useful for the interpretation of the experimental data, if the experimental conditions exceed the low intensity pump limit and effects like strong Pauli Blocking and exciton-exciton annihilation need to be considered. These effects become important when multiple excitations are generated by the pump pulse in the complex.

  9. Optical function spectra and bandgap energy of Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. G., E-mail: sukgeun.choi@nrel.gov; Kang, J.; Beall, C.; Wei, S.-H.; Christensen, S. T.; Repins, I. L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Li, J.; Haneef, H.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    2015-01-26

    We present the optical function spectra of Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} determined from 0.30 to 6.45 eV by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) at room temperature. We analyze the SE data using the Tauc-Lorentz model and obtain the direct-bandgap energy of 0.49 ± 0.02 eV, which is much smaller than the previously known value of 0.84 eV for the monoclinic-phase Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}. We also perform density-functional theory calculations to obtain the complex dielectric function data, and the results show good agreement with the experimental spectrum. Finally, we discuss the electronic origin of the main optical structures.

  10. Geometrical structure, multifractal spectra and localized optical modes of aperiodic Vogel spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Jacob; Liew, Seng Fatt; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui; Dal Negro, Luca

    2012-01-30

    We present a numerical study of the structural properties, photonic density of states and bandedge modes of Vogel spiral arrays of dielectric cylinders in air. Specifically, we systematically investigate different types of Vogel spirals obtained by the modulation of the divergence angle parameter above and below the golden angle value (≈137.507°). We found that these arrays exhibit large fluctuations in the distribution of neighboring particles characterized by multifractal singularity spectra and pair correlation functions that can be tuned between amorphous and random structures. We also show that the rich structural complexity of Vogel spirals results in a multifractal photonic mode density and isotropic bandedge modes with distinctive spatial localization character. Vogel spiral structures offer the opportunity to create novel photonic devices that leverage radially localized and isotropic bandedge modes to enhance light-matter coupling, such as optical sensors, light sources, concentrators, and broadband optical couplers.

  11. Optical Absorption Spectra and Intraband Dynamics in Terahertz-Driven Semiconductor Superlattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Xian-Wu

    2004-01-01

    @@ We have theoretically investigated the optical absorption spectrum and intraband dynamics by subjecting a superlattice to both a terahertz (THz)-frequency driving field and an optical pulse by using an excitonic basis.In the presence of a THz dc field, the satellite structures in the absorption spectra are presented. The satellite structure is a result from the THz nonlinear dynamics of Wannier-Stark ladder excitons. On the other hand, the coherent intraband polarization is investigated. We find that the excitonic Bloch oscillation is driven by the THz field and yields an intraband polarization that continues to oscillate at times much longer than the intraband dephasing time. The temporal evolution of the slowly varying components of the intraband polarization is dependent on the THz frequency.

  12. Localization and fractal spectra of optical phonon modes in quasiperiodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, D. H. A. L.; Dantas, A. L.; Medeiros, S. K.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.

    2005-04-01

    The dispersion relation and localization profile of confined optical phonon modes in quasiperiodic structures, made up of nitride semiconductor materials, are analyzed through a transfer-matrix approach. The quasiperiodic structures are characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (Fibonacci sequences) or singular continuous (Thue-Morse and Double-period sequences). These substitutional sequences are described in terms of a series of generations that obey peculiar recursion relations and/or inflation rules. We present a quantitative analysis of the localization and magnitude of the allowed band widths in the optical phonons spectra of these quasiperiodic structures, as well as how they scale as a function of the number of generations of the sequences.

  13. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Astronomical Ices: II. Ethane and Ethylene

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, R L; Moore, M H

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic observations have established the presence of hydrocarbon ices on Pluto and other TNOs, but the abundances of such molecules cannot be deduced without accurate optical constants (n, k) and reference spectra. In this paper we present our recent measurements of near- and mid-infrared optical constants for ethane (C$_2$H$_6$) and ethylene (C$_2$H$_4$) in multiple ice phases and at multiple temperatures. As in our recent work on acetylene (C$_2$H$_2$), we also report new measurements of the index of refraction of each ice at 670 nm. Comparisons are made to earlier work where possible, and electronic versions of our new results are made available.

  14. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Astronomical Ices: II. Ethane and Ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Moore, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic observations have established the presence of hydrocarbon ices on Pluto and other TNOs, but the abundances of such molecules cannot be deduced without accurate optical constants (n, k) and reference spectra. In this paper we present our recent measurements of near- and mid-infrared optical constants for ethane (C2H6) and ethylene (C2H4) in multiple ice phases and at multiple temperatures. As in our recent work on acetylene (C2H2), we also report new measurements of the index of refraction of each ice at 670 nm. Comparisons are made to earlier work where possible, and electronic versions of our new results are made available.

  15. A Sample of Quasars with Strong Nitrogen Emission Lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7......We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7...

  16. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: An Investigation of Biases in C iv Emission Line Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, K. D.; Horne, Keith; Shen, Yue; Brandt, W. N.; Ho, Luis C.; Peterson, B. M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Trump, J. R.; Ge, J.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the dependence on data quality of quasar properties measured from the C iv emission line region at high redshifts. Our measurements come from 32 epochs of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project spectroscopic observations of 482 z\\gt 1.46 quasars. We compare the differences between measurements made from the single-epoch (SE) and coadded spectra, focusing on the C iv λ1549 emission line because of its importance for studies of high-redshift quasar demographics and physical properties, including black hole masses. In addition to statistical errors increasing (by factors of ˜2-4), we find increasing systematic offsets with decreasing signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). The systematic difference (measurement uncertainty) in our lowest-S/N ( 10, although offsets in lower-S/N spectra exceed the statistical uncertainties by only a factor of ˜1.5 and may depend on the type of functional fit to the line. Characterizing the C iv line profile by the kurtosis is the least robust property investigated, as the median systematic coadded-SE measurement differences are larger than the statistical uncertainties for all S/N subsamples.

  17. A Link Between X-ray Emission Lines and Radio Jets in 4U 1630-47?

    CERN Document Server

    Neilsen, Joseph; Fender, Rob; Lee, Julia C; Ponti, Gabriele; Tzioumis, Tasso; Edwards, Phil; Broderick, Jess W

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Diaz Trigo et al. reported an XMM-Newton detection of relativistically Doppler-shifted emission lines associated with steep-spectrum radio emission in the stellar-mass black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its 2012 outburst. They interpreted these lines as indicative of a baryonic jet launched by the accretion disk. Here we present a search for the same lines earlier in the same outburst using high-resolution X-ray spectra from the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. While our observations (eight months prior to the XMM-Newton campaign) also coincide with detections of steep spectrum radio emission by the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we find no evidence for any relativistic X-ray emission lines. Indeed, despite $\\sim5\\times$ brighter radio emission, our Chandra spectra allow us to place an upper limit on the flux in the blueshifted Fe XXVI line that is $\\gtrsim20\\times$ weaker than the line observed by Diaz Trigo et al. We explore several scenarios that could explain our di...

  18. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: An Investigation of Biases in CIV Emission-Line Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Denney, K D; Brandt, W N; Ho, Luis C; Peterson, B M; Richards, Gordon T; Shen, Yue; Trump, J R; Ge, J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dependence on data quality of quasar properties measured from the CIV emission line region at high redshifts. Our measurements come from 32 epochs of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Reverberation Mapping Project spectroscopic observations of 482 z>1.46 quasars. We compare the differences between measurements made from the single-epoch and coadded spectra, focusing on the CIV emission line because of its importance for studies of high-redshift quasar demographics and physical properties, including black hole masses. In addition to statistical errors increasing (by factors of ~2-4), we find increasing systematic offsets with decreasing S/N. The systematic difference (measurement uncertainty) in our lowest S/N (10, although offsets in lower S/N spectra exceed the statistical uncertainties by only a factor of ~1.5. Characterizing the CIV line profile by the kurtosis is the least robust property investigated, as the median systematic coadded--single-epoch measurement differences are larger than ...

  19. Large-scale segmentation errors in optical gratings and their unique effect onto optical scattering spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinger, Martin; Flügel-Paul, Thomas; Zeitner, Uwe-Detlef

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we analyze the influence of large-scale segmentation errors in the morphology of high-performance optical gratings. It is thus assumed that the optical grating under consideration (typical lateral extends S are 10-1000 mm) can be spatially decomposed into a great many but unique sub-segments (≪ S; typical extends are 10-100 μm). Any violation of the perfect periodicity will result in the generation of stray light, especially Rowland ghosts, which radiate into a small angular region around the grating's diffraction orders. In this paper, we focus on three different kinds of segmentation errors. On the one hand, there are statistic as well as deterministic alignment errors between otherwise perfect sub-segments. On the other hand, we analyze the effect of chirping of geometrical parameters, i.e., the groove width, within every sub-segment. Most importantly, we find that the particular type of imperfection results in a unique characteristic of the according stray light spectrum which thus acts as a fingerprint. We come to this conclusion on three different ways. First, we rely on a simple theoretical model that is based on scalar diffraction theory. Second, we have performed rigorous numerical simulations for a high aspect ratio purely dielectric spectrometer grating (period = {667} nm). Third, the very same grating was then fabricated by e-beam lithography and its stray light spectrum was measured with a purposely designed optical setup. Eventually, all different routes to analyze the problem turn out to be in very good agreement, and we are confident that stray light measurements can be used as an important tool in the detection of fabrication imperfections.

  20. Elemental Abundances in the Broad Emission Line Region of Quasars at Redshifts larger than 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Appenzeller, I.; Hamann, F.

    2003-01-01

    We present observations of 11 high redshift quasars ($3.9 \\la z \\la 5.0$) observed with low spectral resolution in the restframe ultraviolet using FORS 1 at the VLT UT 1. The emission-line fluxes of strong permitted and intercombination ultraviolet emission lines are measured to estimate the chem......We present observations of 11 high redshift quasars ($3.9 \\la z \\la 5.0$) observed with low spectral resolution in the restframe ultraviolet using FORS 1 at the VLT UT 1. The emission-line fluxes of strong permitted and intercombination ultraviolet emission lines are measured to estimate...... the chemical composition of the line emitting gas. Comparisons to photoionization calculations indicate gas metallicities in the broad emission line region in the range of solar to several times solar. The average of the mean metallicity of each high-z quasar in this sample is $Z/Z_\\odot = 4.3 \\pm 0...

  1. Reference-free, high-resolution measurement method of timing jitter spectra of optical frequency combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dohyeon; Jeon, Chan-Gi; Shin, Junho; Heo, Myoung-Sun; Park, Sang Eon; Song, Youjian; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-01-01

    Timing jitter is one of the most important properties of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and optical frequency combs. Accurate measurement of timing jitter power spectral density (PSD) is a critical prerequisite for optimizing overall noise performance and further advancing comb applications both in the time and frequency domains. Commonly used jitter measurement methods require a reference mode-locked laser with timing jitter similar to or lower than that of the laser-under-test, which is a demanding requirement for many laser laboratories, and/or have limited measurement resolution. Here we show a high-resolution and reference-source-free measurement method of timing jitter spectra of optical frequency combs using an optical fibre delay line and optical carrier interference. The demonstrated method works well for both mode-locked oscillators and supercontinua, with 2 × 10−9 fs2/Hz (equivalent to −174 dBc/Hz at 10-GHz carrier frequency) measurement noise floor. The demonstrated method can serve as a simple and powerful characterization tool for timing jitter PSDs of various comb sources including mode-locked oscillators, supercontinua and recently emerging Kerr-frequency combs; the jitter measurement results enabled by our method will provide new insights for understanding and optimizing timing noise in such comb sources. PMID:28102352

  2. Real-time Fourier transformation of lightwave spectra and application in optical reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Antonio; Park, Yongwoo; Li, Ming; LaRochelle, Sophie; Azaña, José

    2015-12-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a fiber-optics scheme for real-time analog Fourier transform (FT) of a lightwave energy spectrum, such that the output signal maps the FT of the spectrum of interest along the time axis. This scheme avoids the need for analog-to-digital conversion and subsequent digital signal post-processing of the photo-detected spectrum, thus being capable of providing the desired FT processing directly in the optical domain at megahertz update rates. The proposed concept is particularly attractive for applications requiring FT analysis of optical spectra, such as in many optical Fourier-domain reflectrometry (OFDR), interferometry, spectroscopy and sensing systems. Examples are reported to illustrate the use of the method for real-time OFDR, where the target axial-line profile is directly observed in a single-shot oscilloscope trace, similarly to a time-of-flight measurement, but with a resolution and depth of range dictated by the underlying interferometry scheme.

  3. Effective method to compute Franck-Condon integrals for optical spectra of large molecules in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Fabrizio; Improta, Roberto; Lami, Alessandro; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2007-02-28

    The authors present a new method for the computation of vibrationally resolved optical spectra of large molecules, including the Duschinsky [Acta Physicochim. URSS 7, 551 (1937)] rotation of the normal modes. The method automatically selects the relevant vibronic contributions to the spectrum, independent of their frequency, and it is able to provide fully converged spectra with a quite modest computational time, both in vacuo and in condensed phase. Starting from the rigorous time-dependent expression they discuss indeed in which limits the spectrum of a molecule embedded in a solvent, described as a polarizable continuum, can be computed in a time-independent formalism, defining both nonequilibrium and equilibrium limits. In these cases the polarizable continuum model provides a suitable description of the solvent field. By computing the absorption spectra of anthracene in gas phase and of coumarin C153 in gas phase and cyclohexane, and the phosphorescence spectrum of the unsubstituted coumarin in ethanol they show that the method is fast and efficient.

  4. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Nitrile Ices Relevant to Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Ferrante, Robert F.; Moore, W. James; Hudson, Reggie; Moore, Marla H.

    2011-01-01

    Spectra and optical constants of nitrile ices known or suspected to be in Titan?s atmosphere have been determined from 2.0 to 333.3 microns (approx.5000 to 30/cm). These results are relevant to the ongoing modeling of Cassini CIRS observations of Titan?s winter pole. Ices studied were: HCN, hydrogen cyanide; C2N2, cyanogen; CH3CN, acetonitrile; C2H5CN, propionitrile; and HC3N, cyanoacetylene. Optical constants were calculated, using Kramers-Kronig analysis, for each nitrile ice?s spectrum measured at a variety of temperatures, in both the amorphous- and crystalline phases. Spectra were also measured for many of the nitriles after quenching at the annealing temperature and compared with those of annealed ices. For each of these molecules we also measured the real component, n, of the refractive index for amorphous and crystalline phases at 670 nm. Several examples of the information contained in these new data sets and their usefulness in modeling Titan?s observed features will be presented (e.g., the broad emission feature at 160/cm; Anderson and Samuelson, 2011).

  5. Importance of backbone angles versus amino acid configurations in peptide vibrational Raman optical activity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Carmen; Ruud, Kenneth; Reiher, Markus

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we investigate whether the differential scattering of right- and left-circularly polarized light in peptide Raman optical activity spectra are uniquely dominated by the backbone conformation, or whether the configurations of the individual amino acid also play a significant role. This is achieved by calculating Raman optical activity spectra using density functional theory for four structurally related peptides with a common backbone conformation, but with different sequences of amino acid configurations. Furthermore, the ROA signals of the amide normal modes are decomposed into contributions from groups of individual atoms. It is found that the amino acid configuration has a considerable influence on the ROA peaks in the amide I, II, and III regions, although the local decomposition reveals that the side-chain atoms only contribute to those peaks directly in the case of the amide II vibrations. Furthermore, small changes in the amide normal modes may lead to large and irregular modifications in the ROA intensity differences, making it difficult to establish transferable ROA intensity differences even for structurally similar vibrations.

  6. Vibrational spectra and non linear optical proprieties of L-histidine oxalate: DFT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. Ben; Elleuch, N.; Feki, H.; Abid, Y.; Minot, C.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations on the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a nonlinear optical material L-histidine oxalate. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on geometric structure in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystal of L-histidine oxalate has been growing by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro symmetric space group P2 12 12 1 of orthorhombic system. The FT-IR and Raman spectra of L-histidine oxalate were recorded and analyzed. The vibrational wave numbers were examined theoretical with the aid of Gaussian98 package of programs using the DFT//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The data obtained from vibrational wave number calculations are used to assign vibrational bands obtained in IR and Raman spectroscopy of the studied compound. The geometrical parameters of the title compound are in agreement with the values of similar structures. To investigate microscopic second order non-linear optical NLO behaviour of the examined complex, the electric dipole μtot, the polarizability αtot and the hyperpolarizability βtot were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. According to our calculation, the title compound exhibits non-zero βtot value revealing microscopic second order NLO behaviour.

  7. Interaction between guest AgI and host zeolite FAU studied by optical spectra and EXAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, T.; Kubota, T.; Okamoto, Y.; Koshizaki, N.

    2005-07-01

    AgI molecules were dilutely adsorbed into nano-cages of Na{}^+, K{}+ and Cs{}+ type FAU zeolites in order to understand the interaction between host zeolite and guest AgI. This interaction was investigated using optical absorption spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The optical spectra strongly depend on the type of the alkali cations. Compared with the lowest absorption band of AgI molecules in gas phase, the spectra of AgI molecules adsorbed in the zeolite cages shifts to higher energy in the order of Cs{}^+, K{}^+, and Na{}^+. On the contrary, Ag-I bond lengths of adsorbed AgI molecules obtained from EXAFS were independent of the type of the alkali-cations. The bond length was very close to gas phase AgI molecules. Therefore, the interaction between AgI molecules and the zeolite, whose magnitude is Na{}+ > K{}+ > Cs{}^+, is important in the photo-excited electronic state.

  8. GRB hosts through cosmic time. VLT/X-Shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96 γ-ray-burst-selected galaxies at 0.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Krühler; D. Malesani; J.P.U. Fynbo; O.E. Hartoog; J. Hjorth; P. Jakobsson; D.A. Perley; A.. Rossi; P. Schady; S. Schulze; N.R. Tanvir; S.D. Vergani; K. Wiersema; P.M.J. Afonso; J. Bolmer; Z. Cano; S. Covino; V. D’Elia; A. de Ugarte Postigo; R. Filgas; M. Friis; J.F. Graham; J. Greiner; P. Goldoni; A. Gomboc; F. Hammer; J. Japelj; D.A. Kann; L. Kaper; S. Klose; A.J. Levan; G. Leloudas; B. Milvang-Jensen; A. Nicuesa Guelbenzu; E. Palazzi; E. Pian; S. Piranomonte; R. Sánchez-Ramírez; S. Savaglio; J. Selsing; G. Tagliaferri; P.M. Vreeswijk; D.J. Watson; D. Xu

    2015-01-01

    We present data and initial results from VLT/X-Shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96 galaxies selected by long γ-ray bursts (GRBs) at 0.1 spectra available to date. Most of our GRBs were detected by Swift and 76% are at 0.5

  9. Emission-line stars discovered in the UKST H-alpha survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud; Part 1: Hot stars

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Warren A

    2012-01-01

    We present new, accurate positions, spectral classifications, radial and rotational velocities, H-alpha fluxes, equivalent widths and B,V,I,R magnitudes for 579 hot emission-line stars (classes B0 - F9) in the Large Magellanic Cloud which include 469 new discoveries. Candidate emission line stars were discovered using a deep, high resolution H-alpha map of the central 25 deg2 of the LMC obtained by median stacking a dozen 2 hour H-alpha exposures taken with the UK Schmidt Telescope. Spectroscopic follow-up observations on the AAT, UKST, VLT, the SAAO 1.9m and the MSSSO 2.3m telescope have established the identity of these faint sources down to magnitude R~23 for H-alpha (4.5 x 10^-17 ergs cm^2 s^-1 Ang). Confirmed emission-line stars have been assigned an underlying spectral classification through cross-correlation against 131 absorption line template spectra covering the range O1 to F8. We confirm 111 previously identified emission line stars and 64 previously known variable stars with spectral types hotter ...

  10. Calibration-free absolute quantification of optical absorption coefficients using acoustic spectra in 3D photoacoustic microscopy of biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zijian; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V

    2010-06-15

    Optical absorption is closely associated with many physiological important parameters, such as the concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and it can be used to quantify the concentrations of nonfluorescent molecules. We propose a method to use acoustic spectra of photoacoustic signals to quantify the absolute optical absorption. This method is self-calibrating and thus insensitive to variations in the optical fluence. Factors such as system bandwidth and acoustic attenuation can affect the quantification but can be canceled by dividing the acoustic spectra measured at two optical wavelengths. Using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy, we quantified the absolute optical absorption of black ink samples with various concentrations. We also quantified both the concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in a live mouse in absolute units.

  11. STUDIES OF NGC 6720 WITH CALIBRATED HST/WFC3 EMISSION-LINE FILTER IMAGES. I. STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Dell, C. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Box 1807-B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Ferland, G. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Henney, W. J. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michaoacan (Mexico); Peimbert, M., E-mail: cr.odell@vanderbilt.edu [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo, Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    We have performed a detailed analysis of the Ring Nebula (NGC 6720) using Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 images and derived a new three-dimensional model. Existing high spectral resolution spectra played an important supplementary role in our modeling. It is shown that the Main Ring of the nebula is an ionization-bounded irregular non-symmetric disk with a central cavity and perpendicular extended lobes pointed almost toward the observer. The faint outer halos are determined to be fossil radiation, i.e., radiation from gas ionized in an earlier stage of the nebula when it was not ionization bounded. The narrowband WFC3 filters that isolate some of the emission lines are affected by broadening on their short wavelength side and all the filters were calibrated using ground-based spectra. The filter calibration results are presented in an appendix.

  12. Predicting ambient aerosol Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2014-11-01

    Organic carbon (OC) can constitute 50% or more of the mass of atmospheric particulate matter. Typically, the organic carbon concentration is measured using thermal methods such as Thermal-Optical Reflectance (TOR) from quartz fiber filters. Here, methods are presented whereby Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters are used to accurately predict TOR OC. Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive to the PTFE filters. To develop and test the method, FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites sampled during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to artifact-corrected TOR OC. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets by sampling site and date which leads to precise and accurate OC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of determination (R2; 0.96), low bias (0.02 μg m-3, all μg m-3 values based on the nominal IMPROVE sample volume of 32.8 m-3), low error (0.08 μg m-3) and low normalized error (11%). These performance metrics can be achieved with various degrees of spectral pretreatment (e.g., including or excluding substrate contributions to the absorbances) and are comparable in precision and accuracy to collocated TOR measurements. FT-IR spectra are also divided into calibration and test sets by OC mass and by OM / OC which reflects the organic composition of the particulate matter and is obtained from organic functional group composition; this division also leads to precise and accurate OC predictions. Low OC concentrations have higher bias and normalized error due to TOR analytical errors and artifact correction errors, not due to the range of OC mass of the samples in the calibration set. However, samples with low OC mass can be used to predict samples with high OC mass indicating that the

  13. P-MaNGA Galaxies: Emission Lines Properties - Gas Ionisation and Chemical Abundances from Prototype Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Belfiore, F; Bundy, K; Thomas, D; Maraston, C; Wilkinson, D; Sánchez, S F; Bershady, M; Blanc, G A; Bothwell, M; Cales, S L; Coccato, L; Drory, N; Emsellem, E; Fu, H; Gelfand, J; Law, D; Masters, K; Parejko, J; Tremonti, C; Wake, D; Weijmans, A; Yan, R; Xiao, T; Zhang, K; Zheng, T; Bizyaev, D; Kinemuchi, K; Oravetz, D; Simmons, A

    2014-01-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is a SDSS-IV survey that will obtain spatially resolved spectroscopy from 3600 \\AA\\ to 10300 \\AA\\ for a representative sample of over 10000 nearby galaxies. In this paper we present the analysis of nebular emission line properties using observations of 14 galaxies obtained with P-MaNGA, a prototype of the MaNGA instrument. By using spatially resolved diagnostic diagrams we find extended star formation in galaxies that are centrally dominated by Seyfert/LINER-like emission, illustrating that galaxy characterisations based on single fibre spectra are necessarily incomplete. We observe extended (up to $\\rm 1 R_{e}$) LINER-like emission in the central regions of three galaxies. We make use of the $\\rm EW(H \\alpha)$ to argue that the observed emission is consistent with ionisation from hot evolved stars. Using stellar population indices we conclude that galactic regions which are ionised by a Seyfert/LINER-like radiation field are also devoid of recent st...

  14. Searching for Binary Supermassive Black Holes via Variable Broad Emission Line Shifts: Low Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lile; Ju, Wenhua; Rafikov, Roman R; Ruan, John J; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHs) are expected to result from galaxy mergers, and thus are natural byproducts (and probes) of hierarchical structure formation in the Universe. They are also the primary expected source of low-frequency gravitational wave emission. We search for binary BHs using time-variable velocity shifts in broad Mg II emission lines of quasars with multi-epoch observations. First, we inspect velocity shifts of the binary SMBH candidates identified in Ju et al. (2013), using SDSS spectra with an additional epoch of data that lengthens the typical baseline to ~10 yr. We find variations in the line-of-sight velocity shifts over 10 years that are comparable to the shifts observed over 1-2 years, ruling out the binary model for the bulk of our candidates. We then analyze 1438 objects with 8 yr median time baselines, from which we would expect to see velocity shifts >1000 km/s from sub-pc binaries. We find only one object with an outlying velocity of 448 km/s, indicating, based on our mod...

  15. Ca II H and K Chromospheric Emission Lines in Late K and M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rauscher, E; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Rauscher, Emily

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the profiles of the Ca II H and K chromospheric emission lines in 147 main sequence stars of spectral type M5-K7 (0.30-0.55 solar masses) using multiple high resolution spectra obtained during six years with the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck 1 telescope. Remarkably, the average FWHM, equivalent widths, and line luminosities of Ca II H and K increase by a factor of 3 with increasing stellar mass over this small range of stellar masses. We fit the H and K lines with a double Gaussian model to represent both the chromospheric emission and the non-LTE central absorption. Most of the sample stars display a central absorption that is typically redshifted by ~0.1 km/s relative to the emission, but the nature of this velocity gradient remains unknown. The FWHM of the H and K lines increase with stellar luminosity, reminiscent of the Wilson-Bappu effect in FGK-type stars. Both the equivalent widths and FWHM exhibit modest temporal variability in individual stars. At a given value of M_v, stars exhibi...

  16. Mg II Chromospheric Emission Line Bisectors Of HD39801 And Its Relation With The Activity Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Leonardo Enrique; Pérez Martínez, M. Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Betelgeuse is a cool star of spectral type M and luminosity class I. In the present work, the activity cycle of Betelgeuse was obtained from the integrated emission flux of the Mg II H and K lines, using more than 250 spectra taken from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) online database. Of which it was found, based on a Lomb Scargle periodogram, a cycle of 16 years, along with 2 sub-cycles with a period of the order of 0.60 and 0.65 years, which may be due to turbulence or possible stellar flares. In addition, an analysis of line asymmetry was made by means of the chromospheric emission line bisectors, due to the strong self-absorption observed in this lines, the blue and red wings were analyzed independently. In order to measure such asymmetry, a "line shift" was calculated, from which several cycles of variability were obtained from a Lomb Scargle periodogram, spanning from few months to 4 years. In the sense, the most significant cycle is about 0.44 and 0.33 years in the blue and red wing respectively. It is worth noting, that the rotation period of the star doesn't play an important role in the variability of the Mg II lines. This technique provides us with a new way to study activity cycles of evolved stars.

  17. Searching for Binary Supermassive Black Holes via Variable Broad Emission Line Shifts: Low Binary Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lile; Greene, Jenny E.; Ju, Wenhua; Rafikov, Roman R.; Ruan, John J.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHs) are expected to result from galaxy mergers, and thus are natural byproducts (and probes) of hierarchical structure formation in the universe. They are also the primary expected source of low-frequency gravitational wave emission. We search for binary BHs using time-variable velocity shifts in broad Mg ii emission lines of quasars with multi-epoch observations. First, we inspect velocity shifts of the binary SMBH candidates identified in Ju et al., using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra with an additional epoch of data that lengthens the typical baseline to ∼10 yr. We find variations in the line of sight velocity shifts over 10 yr that are comparable to the shifts observed over 1–2 yr, ruling out the binary model for the bulk of our candidates. We then analyze 1438 objects with eight-year median time baselines, from which we would expect to see velocity shifts >1000 {km} {{{s}}}-1 from sub-parsec binaries. We find only one object with an outlying velocity of 448 {km} {{{s}}}-1, indicating—based on our modeling—that ≲1% (the value varies with different assumptions) of SMBHs that are active as quasars reside in binaries with ∼0.1 pc separations. Binaries either sweep rapidly through these small separations or stall at larger radii.

  18. KILOPARSEC-SCALE PROPERTIES OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Miller, Sarah H.; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang [University of California, Riverside, CA 92512 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C. [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Papovich, Casey, E-mail: shoubaneh.hemmati@ucr.edu [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We perform a detailed study of the resolved properties of emission-line galaxies at kiloparsec scales to investigate how small-scale and global properties of galaxies are related. We use a sample of 119 galaxies in the GOODS fields. The galaxies are selected to cover a wide range in morphologies over the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.3. High resolution spectroscopic data from Keck/DEIMOS observations are used to fix the redshift of all the galaxies in our sample. Using the HST/ACS and HST/WFC3 imaging data taken as a part of the CANDELS project, for each galaxy, we perform spectral energy distribution fitting per resolution element, producing resolved rest-frame U – V color, stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), age, and extinction maps. We develop a technique to identify ''regions'' of statistical significance within individual galaxies, using their rest-frame color maps to select red and blue regions, a broader definition for what are called ''clumps'' in other works. As expected, for any given galaxy, the red regions are found to have higher stellar mass surface densities and older ages compared to the blue regions. Furthermore, we quantify the spatial distribution of red and blue regions with respect to both redshift and stellar mass, finding that the stronger concentration of red regions toward the centers of galaxies is not a significant function of either redshift or stellar mass. We find that the ''main sequence'' of star-forming galaxies exists among both red and blue regions inside galaxies, with the median of blue regions forming a tighter relation with a slope of 1.1 ± 0.1 and a scatter of ∼0.2 dex compared to red regions with a slope of 1.3 ± 0.1 and a scatter of ∼0.6 dex. The blue regions show higher specific SFRs (sSFRs) than their red counterparts with the sSFR decreasing since z ∼ 1, driven primarily by the stellar mass surface densities rather than the SFRs at a given

  19. Modelling telluric line spectra in the optical and infrared with an application to VLT/X-Shooter spectr

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolf, N; Schneider, P C; Schmitt, J H M M

    2016-01-01

    Earth's atmosphere imprints a large number of telluric absorption and emission lines on astronomical spectra, especially in the near infrared, that need to be removed before analysing the affected wavelength regions. These lines are typically removed by comparison to A- or B-type stars used as telluric standards that themselves have strong hydrogen lines, which complicates the removal of telluric lines. We have developed a method to circumvent that problem. For our IDL software package tellrem we used a recent approach to model telluric absorption features with the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM). The broad wavelength coverage of the X-Shooter at VLT allows us to expand their technique by determining the abundances of the most important telluric molecules H2O, O2, CO2, and CH4 from sufficiently isolated line groups. For individual observations we construct a telluric absorption model for most of the spectral range that is used to remove the telluric absorption from the object spectrum. We remov...

  20. Long-term variability of the optical spectra of NGC 4151: I. Light curves and flux correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Shapovalova, A I; Collin, S; Burenkov, A N; Chavushyan, V H; Bochkarev, N G; Benitz, E; Dultzin-Hacyan, D; Kovacevic, A; Borisov, N; Carrasco, L; Leon-Tavares, J; Mercado, A; Valdés, J R; Vlasuyk, V V; Zhdanova, V E

    2008-01-01

    Results of a long-term spectral monitoring of the active galactic nucleus of NGC 4151 are presented (11 years, from 1996 to 2006). High quality spectra (S/N>50 in the continuum near Halpha and Hbeta) were obtained in the spectral range ~4000 to 7500 \\AA, with a resolution between 5 and 15 A, using the 6-m and the 1-m SAO's telescopes (Russia), the GHAO's 2.1-m telescope (Cananea, Mexico), and the OAN-SPM's 2.1-m telescope (San-Pedro, Mexico). The observed fluxes of the Halpha, Hbeta, Hgamma and HeII emission lines and of the continuum at the observed wavelength 5117 A, were corrected for the position angle, the seeing and the aperture effects. We found that the continuum and line fluxes varied strongly (up to a factor 6) during the monitoring period. The emission was maximum in 1996-1998, and there were two minima, in 2001 and in 2005. The Halpha, Hgamma and He II fluxes were well correlated with the Hbeta flux. We considered three characteristic periods during which the Hbeta and Halpha profiles were similar...

  1. Dielectric function spectra and inter-band optical transitions in TlGaS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Toshiyuki [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Shim, YongGu, E-mail: shim@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Wakita, Kazuki [Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino 275-0016 (Japan); Mamedov, Nazim [Department of Ellipsometry, Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, H. Javid Ave. 33, Baku AZ-1143 (Azerbaijan)

    2014-11-28

    TlGaS{sub 2} with a quasi-two-dimensional structure has been accessed by spectroscopic ellipsometry over the 1.5–6.0 eV spectral range. A uniaxial approach applicable to monoclinic TlGaS{sub 2} at room temperature has been employed for ellipsometric data treatment. Principal components of the dielectric function tensor have then been retrieved. Inter-band optical transitions associated with the obtained dielectric function have been determined by using standard critical point analysis. The transitions have been assigned within the electronic band structure obtained for TlGaS{sub 2} from calculations based on density functional theory. - Highlights: • We investigate the dielectric function spectra of TlGaS{sub 2}. • Inter-band optical transition energies are extracted by critical point analysis. • The electronic band structure and the dielectric functions of TlGaS{sub 2} are calculated. • The electronic band states related to the optical transitions are assigned.

  2. Optical and Near-infrared Spectra of σ Orionis Isolated Planetary-mass Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Peña Ramírez, K.

    2017-06-01

    We have obtained low-resolution optical (0.7-0.98 μm) and near-infrared (1.11-1.34 μm and 0.8-2.5 μm) spectra of 12 isolated planetary-mass candidates (J = 18.2-19.9 mag) of the 3 Myr σ Orionis star cluster with the aim of determining the spectroscopic properties of very young, substellar dwarfs and assembling a complete cluster mass function. We have classified our targets by visual comparison with high- and low-gravity standards and by measuring newly defined spectroscopic indices. We derived L0-L4.5 and M9-L2.5 using high- and low-gravity standards, respectively. Our targets reveal clear signposts of youth, thus corroborating their cluster membership and planetary masses (6-13 M Jup). These observations complete the σ Orionis mass function by spectroscopically confirming the planetary-mass domain to a confidence level of ˜75%. The comparison of our spectra with BT-Settl solar metallicity model atmospheres yields a temperature scale of 2350-1800 K and a low surface gravity of log g ≈ 4.0 [cm s-2], as would be expected for young planetary-mass objects. We discuss the properties of the cluster’s least-massive population as a function of spectral type. We have also obtained the first optical spectrum of S Ori 70, a T dwarf in the direction of σ Orionis. Our data provide reference optical and near-infrared spectra of very young L dwarfs and a mass function that may be used as templates for future studies of low-mass substellar objects and exoplanets. The extrapolation of the σ Orionis mass function to the solar neighborhood may indicate that isolated planetary-mass objects with temperatures of ˜200-300 K and masses in the interval 6-13 M Jup may be as numerous as very low-mass stars.

  3. Slow Evolution of the Specific Star Formation Rate at z > 2: The Impact of Dust, Emission Lines, and a Rising Star Formation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Valentino; Bouwens, Rychard; Illingworth, Garth; Labbé, Ivo; Oesch, Pascal; Franx, Marijn; Magee, Dan

    2014-01-01

    We measure the evolution of the specific star formation rate (sSFR = SFR/M stellar) between redshift 4 and 6 to assess the reported "constant" sSFR at z > 2. We derive stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) for a large sample of 750 z ~ 4-6 galaxies in the GOODS-S field by fitting stellar population models to their spectral energy distributions. Dust extinction is derived from the observed UV colors. We evaluate different star formation histories (SFHs, constant and rising with time) and the impact of optical emission lines. The SFR and M stellar values are insensitive to whether the SFH is constant or rising. The derived sSFR is very similar (within 0.1 dex) in two M stellar bins centered at 1 and 5 × 109 M ⊙. The effect of emission lines was, however, quite pronounced. Assuming no contribution from emission lines, the sSFR for galaxies at 5 × 109 M ⊙ evolves weakly at z > 2 (sSFR(z)vprop(1 + z)0.6 ± 0.1), consistent with previous results. When emission lines are included in the rest-frame optical bands, consistent with the observed Infrared Array Camera [3.6] and [4.5] fluxes, the sSFR shows higher values at high redshift following sSFR(z)vprop(1 + z)1.0 ± 0.1, i.e., the best-fit evolution shows a sSFR ~2.3 × higher at z ~ 6 than at z ~ 2. This is, however, a substantially weaker trend than that found at z 2 (sSFR(z)vprop(1 + z)2.5). Even accounting for emission lines, the observed sSFR(z) trends at z > 2 are still in tension with theoretical expectations.

  4. Detection of an unidentified emission line in the stacked X-ray spectrum of galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbul, Esra; Foster, Adam; Smith, Randall K.; Randall, Scott W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Markevitch, Maxim [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Loewenstein, Michael, E-mail: ebulbul@cfa.harvard.edu [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We detect a weak unidentified emission line at E = (3.55-3.57) ± 0.03 keV in a stacked XMM-Newton spectrum of 73 galaxy clusters spanning a redshift range 0.01-0.35. When the full sample is divided into three subsamples (Perseus, Centaurus+Ophiuchus+Coma, and all others), the line is seen at >3σ statistical significance in all three independent MOS spectra and the PN 'all others' spectrum. It is also detected in the Chandra spectra of the Perseus Cluster. However, it is very weak and located within 50-110 eV of several known lines. The detection is at the limit of the current instrument capabilities. We argue that there should be no atomic transitions in thermal plasma at this energy. An intriguing possibility is the decay of sterile neutrino, a long-sought dark matter particle candidate. Assuming that all dark matter is in sterile neutrinos with m{sub s} = 2E = 7.1 keV, our detection corresponds to a neutrino decay rate consistent with previous upper limits. However, based on the cluster masses and distances, the line in Perseus is much brighter than expected in this model, significantly deviating from other subsamples. This appears to be because of an anomalously bright line at E = 3.62 keV in Perseus, which could be an Ar XVII dielectronic recombination line, although its emissivity would have to be 30 times the expected value and physically difficult to understand. Another alternative is the above anomaly in the Ar line combined with the nearby 3.51 keV K line also exceeding expectation by a factor of 10-20. Confirmation with Astro-H will be critical to determine the nature of this new line.

  5. Spectral scalability and optical spectra of fractal multilayer structures: FDTD analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Sevket; Palaz, Selami; Mamedov, Amirullah M.; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2017-01-01

    An investigation of the optical properties and band structures for the conventional and Fibonacci photonic crystals (PCs) based on SrTiO3 and Sb2Te3 is made in the present research. Here, we use one-dimensional SrTiO3- and Sb2Te3-based layers. We have theoretically calculated the photonic band structure and transmission spectra of SrTiO3- and Sb2Te3-based PC superlattices. The position of minima in the transmission spectrum correlates with the gaps obtained in the calculation. The intensity of the transmission depths is more intense in the case of higher refractive index contrast between the layers.

  6. Quick analysis of optical spectra to quantify epidermal melanin and papillary dermal blood content of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a practical approach for assessing the melanin and blood content of the skin from total diffuse reflectance spectra, R(λ), where λ is wavelength. A quick spectral analysis using just three wavelengths (585 nm, 700 nm and 800 nm) is presented, based on the 1985 work of Kollias and Baquer who documented epidermal melanin of skin using the slope of optical density (OD) between 620 nm and 720 nm. The paper describes the non-rectilinear character of such a quick analysis, and shows that almost any choice of two wavelengths in the 600-900 range can achieve the characterization of melanin. The extrapolation of the melanin slope to 585 nm serves as a baseline for subtraction from the OD (585 nm) to yield a blood perfusion score. Monte Carlo simulations created spectral data for a skin model with epidermis, papillary dermis and reticular dermis to illustrate the analysis.

  7. Squeezing spectra from s-ordered quasiprobability distributions. Application to dispersive optical bistability

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Ferrer, F V; De Valcarcel, G J; Roldan, E; Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V.; Perez-Arjona, Isabel; Valcarcel, German J. de; Roldan, Eugenio

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the squeezing spectrum of the field exiting a nonlinear cavity can be directly obtained from the fluctuation spectrum of normally ordered products of creation and annihilation operators of the cavity mode. In this article we show that the output field squeezing spectrum can be derived also by combining the fluctuation spectra of any pair of s-ordered products of creation and annihilation operators. The interesting result is that the spectrum obtained in this way from the linearized Langevin equations is exact, and this occurs in spite of the fact that no s-ordered quasiprobability distribution verifies a true Fokker-Planck equation, i.e., the Langevin equations used for deriving the squeezing spectrum are not exact. The (linearized) intracavity squeezing obtained from any s-ordered distribution is also exact. These results are exemplified in the problem of dispersive optical bistability.

  8. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Astronomical Ices: I. Amorphous and Crystalline Acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. L.; Ferrante, R. F.; Moore, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report recent measurements on acetylene (C2H2) ices at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System and the interstellar medium. New near- and mid-infrared data, including optical constants (n, k), absorption coefficients (alpha), and absolute band strengths (A), are presented for both amorphous and crystalline phases of C2H2 that exist below 70 K. Comparisons are made to earlier work. Electronic versions of the data are made available, as is a computer routine to use our reported n and k values to simulate the observed IR spectra. Suggestions are given for the use of the data and a comparison to a spectrum of Makemake is made.

  9. 2 μm mid-infrared optical spectra of Tm~(3+)-doped germanium gallate glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Haiping; LIN Qiongfei; ZHANG Jianli; ZHANG Qinyuan

    2009-01-01

    Glasses with the composition of 65GeO_2-12Ga_2O_3-10BaO-8Li_2O-5La_2O_3(molar ratio) doped with 1.526 wt.%, 3.006 wt.%, 5.836 wt.%, 11.028 wt.%, and 15.678 wt.% Tm2O3, respectively, were fabricated by conventional melting method. According to the absorption spectra and the Judd-Ofelt theory, the J-O strength parameters (Ω_2,Ω_4,Ω_6) were calculated, with which the radiative transition probabilities,branching ratios and radiative lifetimes were obtained. The infrared emission spectra (with 808 nm LD excitation) at~1.47 and~1.8 μm of various concentrations of Tm3+-doped glasses were studied. The emission intensity at~1.8 μm reached to the maximum when the Tm2O3-doping concentration was near to be~3.006 wt.% (1.0 mol.%), and then decreased as doping concentration increased further. The mechanism of the fluorescence intensity change was explained with the cross-relaxation effect and the concentration quenching effect of Tm~(3+). Meanwhile, according to McCumber theory, the absorption and emission cross-sections corresponding to the ~3F_4→~3H_6 transitions of Tm~(3+) at 1.8 μm was obtained. For Tm3+-doped germanate glasses, the maximum emission cross-section reached a value higher than that re-ported for fluorozircoaluminate glasses. It is expected to be a favorable candidate host for~2.0 μm mid-inflated laser because the glass shows favorable optical spectra.

  10. 2 μm mid-infrared optical spectra of Tm3+-doped germanium gallate glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Haiping

    2009-01-01

    Glasses with the composition of 65GeO212Ga2O3-10BaO-8Li2O-5La2O3(molar ratio) doped with 1.526 wt.%, 3.006 wt.%, 5.836 wt.%, 11.028 wt.%, and 15.678 wt.% Tm2O3, respectively, were fabricated by conventional melting method. According to the absorption spectra and the Judd-Ofelt theory, the J-O strength parameters (Ω2,Ω4, Ω6) were calculated, with which the radiative transition probabilities,branching ratios and radiative lifetimes were obtained. The infrared emission spectra (with 808 nm LD excitation) at~1.47 and~1.8 μm of various concentrations of Tm3+-doped glasses were studied. The emission intensity at~1.8 μm reached to the maximum when the Tm2O3-doping concentration was near to be~3.006 wt.% (1.0 mol.%), and then decreased as doping concentration increased further. The mechanism of the fluorescence intensity change was explained with the cross-relaxation effect and the concentration quenching effect of Tm3+. Meanwhile, according to McCumber theory, the absorption and emission cross-sections corresponding to the 3F4→3H6 transitions of Tm3+ at 1.8 μm was obtained. For Tm3+-doped germanate glasses, the maximum emission cross-section reached a value higher than that re-ported for fluorozircoaluminate glasses. It is expected to be a favorable candidate host for~2.0 μm mid-inflated laser because the glass shows favorable optical spectra.

  11. Vibrational spectra and non linear optical proprieties of L-histidine oxalate: DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, A; Elleuch, N; Feki, H; Abid, Y; Minot, C

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations on the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a nonlinear optical material L-histidine oxalate. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on geometric structure in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystal of L-histidine oxalate has been growing by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro symmetric space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) of orthorhombic system. The FT-IR and Raman spectra of L-histidine oxalate were recorded and analyzed. The vibrational wave numbers were examined theoretical with the aid of Gaussian98 package of programs using the DFT//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The data obtained from vibrational wave number calculations are used to assign vibrational bands obtained in IR and Raman spectroscopy of the studied compound. The geometrical parameters of the title compound are in agreement with the values of similar structures. To investigate microscopic second order non-linear optical NLO behaviour of the examined complex, the electric dipole μ(tot), the polarizability α(tot) and the hyperpolarizability β(tot) were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. According to our calculation, the title compound exhibits non-zero β(tot) value revealing microscopic second order NLO behaviour. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Crystal studies, vibrational spectra and non-linear optical properties of L-histidine chloride monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, A; Feki, H; Abid, Y; Boughzala, H; Minot, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations on the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a non-linear optical material L-histidine chloride monohydrate. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on geometric parameters available in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystal of L-histidine chloride monohydrate has been growing by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro-symmetric space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) of orthorhombic system. IR spectrum has been recorded in the range [400-4000 cm(-1)]. All the experimental vibrational bands have been discussed and assigned to normal mode or to combinations on the basis of our calculations. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G (d) method show a good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated vibrational spectra are in well agreement with the experimental one. To investigate microscopic second-order non-linear optical NLO behavior of the examined complex, the electric dipole mu, the polarizability alpha and the hyperpolarizability beta were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G (d) method. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was employed to descript the molecular electron structure of the title compound using the B3LYP/6-31G (d) method. According to our calculations, L-histidine chloride monohydrate exhibits non-zero beta value revealing microscopic second-order NLO behavior. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Crystal studies, vibrational spectra and non-linear optical properties of L-histidine chloride monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. Ben; Feki, H.; Abid, Y.; Boughzala, H.; Minot, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations on the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a non-linear optical material L-histidine chloride monohydrate. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on geometric parameters available in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystal of L-histidine chloride monohydrate has been growing by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro-symmetric space group P2 12 12 1 of orthorhombic system. IR spectrum has been recorded in the range [400-4000 cm -1]. All the experimental vibrational bands have been discussed and assigned to normal mode or to combinations on the basis of our calculations. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G (d) method show a good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated vibrational spectra are in well agreement with the experimental one. To investigate microscopic second-order non-linear optical NLO behavior of the examined complex, the electric dipole μ, the polarizability α and the hyperpolarizability β were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G (d) method. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was employed to descript the molecular electron structure of the title compound using the B3LYP/6-31G (d) method. According to our calculations, L-histidine chloride monohydrate exhibits non-zero β value revealing microscopic second-order NLO behavior.

  14. Radiation from optically thin accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylenda, R. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Torun. Pracownia Astrofizyki)

    1981-01-01

    Accretion discs in cataclysmic variables with low rates of mass transfer, M < or approx. 10/sup 16/g s/sup -1/, have outer regions optically thin in continuum. A simple approach that allows one to calculate the radiation spectra from such discs is presented. A great number of disc models has been obtained in order to study the influence of various parameters (accretion rate, outer radius of the disc, inclination angle, mass of the accreting degenerate dwarf, viscosity parameter) of discs on the outgoing continuous spectra, emission lines and the UBV colours.

  15. Very Strong Emission-Line Galaxies in the WISP Survey and Implications for High-Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Atek, H; Scarlata, C; Malkan, M; McCarthy, P; Teplitz, H; Henry, A; Colbert, J; Bridge, C; Bunker, A J; Dressler, A; Fosbury, R; Hathi, N P; Martin, C; Ross, N R; Shim, H

    2011-01-01

    The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey (WISP) uses the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared grism capabilities to obtain slitless spectra of thousands of galaxies over a wide redshift range including the peak of star formation history of the Universe. We select a population of very strong emission-line galaxies with rest-frame equivalent widths higher than 200 A. A total of 176 objects are found over the redshift range 0.35 < z < 2.3 in the 180 arcmin^2 area we analyzed so far. After estimating the AGN fraction in the sample, we show that this population consists of young and low-mass starbursts with higher specific star formation rates than normal star-forming galaxies at any redshift. After spectroscopic follow-up of one of these galaxies with Keck/LRIS, we report the detection at z = 0.7 of an extremely metal-poor galaxy with 12+Log(O/H)= 7.47 +- 0.11. The nebular emission-lines can substantially affect the broadband flux density with a median brightening of 0.3 mag, with examples producing...

  16. Physical Properties of Emission-Line Galaxies at z ~ 2 from Near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Magellan FIRE

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Daniel; Siana, Brian; Malkan, Matthew; Mobasher, Bahram; Atek, Hakim; Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L; Rafelski, Marc; Hathi, Nimish P; Scarlata, Claudia; Ross, Nathaniel R; Bunker, Andrew J; Blanc, Guillermo A; Bedregal, Alejandro G; Dominguez, Alberto; Colbert, James; Teplitz, Harry; Dressler, Alan

    2014-01-01

    We present results from near-infrared spectroscopy of 26 emission-line galaxies at z ~ 2 obtained with the FIRE spectrometer on the Magellan Baade telescope. The sample was selected from the WISP survey, which uses the near-infrared grism of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to detect emission-line galaxies over 0.3 1 star-forming galaxies, but composite spectra derived from the sample do not show an appreciable offset from the local star-forming sequence on the [O III]/H-beta versus [S II]/H-alpha diagram. We infer a high nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio from the composite spectrum, which may contribute to the offset of the high-redshift galaxies from the local star-forming sequence in the [O III]/H-beta versus [N II]/H-alpha diagram. We speculate that the elevated nitrogen abundance could result from substantial numbers of Wolf-Rayet stars in starbursting galaxies at z~2. (Abridged)

  17. The BOSS Emission-Line Lens Survey. III. : Strong Lensing of Ly$\\alpha$ Emitters by Individual Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Yiping; Kochanek, Christopher S; Oguri, Masamune; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Zheng, Zheng; Mao, Shude; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D; Brownstein, Joel R; Marques-Chaves, Rui; Menard, Brice

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the BOSS Emission-Line Lens Survey (BELLS) GALaxy-Ly$\\alpha$ EmitteR sYstems (BELLS GALLERY) Survey, which is a Hubble Space Telescope program to image a sample of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lens candidate systems with high-redshift Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) as the background sources. The goal of the BELLS GALLERY Survey is to illuminate dark substructures in galaxy-scale halos by exploiting the small-scale clumpiness of rest-frame far-UV emission in lensed LAEs, and to thereby constrain the slope and normalization of the substructure mass function. In this paper, we describe in detail the spectroscopic strong-lens selection technique, which is based on methods adopted in the previous Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey, BOSS Emission-Line Lens Survey, and SLACS for the Masses Survey. We present the BELLS GALLERY sample of the 21 highest-quality galaxy-LAE candidates selected from $\\approx 1.4 \\times 10^6$ galaxy spectra in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital...

  18. Can the bump in the composite spectrum of GRB 910503 be an emission line feature of gamma-ray bursts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ping Qin; Fu-Wen Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Appearing in the composite spectral data of BATSE, EGRET and COMPTEL for GRB 910503, there is a bump at around 1600keV. We perform a statistical analysis on the spectral data, trying to find out if the bump could be accounted for by a blue-shifted and significantly broadened rest frame line due to the Doppler effect of an expanding fireball surface. We made an F-test and adopted previously proposed criteria. The study reveals that the criteria are well satisfied and the feature can be interpreted as the blue shifted 6.4 keV line. From the fit with this line taken into account, we find the Lorentz factor of this source to be Γ = 116+9-9 (at the 68% confident level,△X2 = 1) and the rest frame spectral peak energy to be EO,p= 2.96+0.24-0.18 keV. Although the existence of the emission line feature requires other independent tests to confirm, the analysis suggests that it is feasible to detect emission line features in the high energy range of GRB spectra when taking into account the Doppler effect of fireball expansion.

  19. Ground-based observation of emission lines from the corona of a red-dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J H; Wichmann, R

    2001-08-02

    All 'solar-like' stars are surrounded by coronae, which contain magnetically confined plasma at temperatures above 106 K. (Until now, only the Sun's corona could be observed in the optical-as a shimmering envelope during a total solar eclipse.) As the underlying stellar 'surfaces'-the photospheres-are much cooler, some non-radiative process must be responsible for heating the coronae. The heating mechanism is generally thought to be magnetic in origin, but is not yet understood even for the case of the Sun. Ultraviolet emission lines first led to the discovery of the enormous temperature of the Sun's corona, but thermal emission from the coronae of other stars has hitherto been detectable only from space, at X-ray wavelengths. Here we report the detection of emission from highly ionized iron (Fe XIII at 3,388.1 A) in the corona of the red-dwarf star CN Leonis, using a ground-based telescope. The X-ray flux inferred from our data is consistent with previously measured X-ray fluxes, and the non-thermal line width of 18.4 km s-1 indicates great similarities between solar and stellar coronal heating mechanisms. The accessibility and spectral resolution (45,000) of the ground-based instrument are much better than those of X-ray satellites, so a new window to the study of stellar coronae has been opened.

  20. The Properties of H{\\alpha} Emission-Line Galaxies at $z$ = 2.24

    CERN Document Server

    An, F X; Wang, W -H; Huang, J -S; Kong, X; Wang, J -X; Fang, G W; Zhu, F; Gu, Q -S; Wu, H; Hao, L; Xia, X -Y

    2014-01-01

    Using deep narrow-band $H_2S1$ and $K_{s}$-band imaging data obtained with CFHT/WIRCam, we identify a sample of 56 H$\\alpha$ emission-line galaxies (ELGs) at $z=2.24$ with the 5$\\sigma$ depths of $H_2S1=22.8$ and $K_{s}=24.8$ (AB) over 383 arcmin$^{2}$ area in the ECDFS. A detailed analysis is carried out with existing multi-wavelength data in this field. Three of the 56 H$\\alpha$ ELGs are detected in Chandra 4 Ms X-ray observation and two of them are classified as AGNs. The rest-frame UV and optical morphologies revealed by HST/ACS and WFC3 deep images show that nearly half of the H$\\alpha$ ELGs are either merging systems or with a close companion, indicating that the merging/interacting processes play a key role in regulating star formation at cosmic epoch z=2-3; About 14% are too faint to be resolved in the rest-frame UV morphology due to high dust extinction. We estimate dust extinction form SEDs. We find that dust extinction is generally correlated with H$\\alpha$ luminosity and stellar mass (SM). Our res...

  1. The Spectral Energy Distribution and Emission-Line properties of the NLS1 Galaxy Arakelian 564

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, P; Turner, T J; Krämer, S B; Crenshaw, D M; Peterson, B M; Pogge, R W; Brandt, W N; George, I M; Horne, K; Kriss, G A; Netzer, H; Shemmer, O; Wamsteker, W

    2004-01-01

    We present the intrinsic spectral energy distribution (SED) of the NLS1 Arakelian 564, constructed with contemporaneous data obtained during a multi-wavelength, multi-satellite observing campaign in 2000 and 2001. We compare it with that of the NLS1 Ton S180 and with those obtained for BLS1s to infer how the relative accretion rates vary among the Sy1 population. Although the peak of the SED is not well constrained, most of the energy is emitted in the 10-100 eV regime, constituting roughly half of the emitted energy in the optical/X-ray ranges. This is consistent with a primary spectral component peaking in the extreme UV/soft X-ray band, and disk-corona models, hence high accretion rates. Indeed, we estimate that \\dot{m}~1. We examine the emission lines in its spectrum, and we constrain the physical properties of the line-emitting gas through photoionization modeling. The line-emitting gas is characterized by log n~11 and log U~0, and is stratified around log U~0. Our estimate of the radius of the H\\beta-em...

  2. The Dust Attenuation Curve versus Stellar Mass for Emission Line Galaxies at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Zeimann, Gregory R; Gronwall, Caryl; Bridge, Joanna; Brooks, Hunter; Fox, Derek; Gawiser, Eric; Gebhardt, Henry; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P; Trump, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    We derive the mean wavelength dependence of stellar attenuation in a sample of 239 high redshift (1.90 < z < 2.35) galaxies selected via Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3 IR grism observations of their rest-frame optical emission lines. Our analysis indicates that the average reddening law follows a form similar to that derived by Calzetti et al. for local starburst galaxies. However, over the mass range 7.2 < log M/Msolar < 10.2, the slope of the attenuation law in the UV is shallower than that seen locally, and the UV slope steepens as the mass increases. These trends are in qualitative agreement with Kriek & Conroy, who found that the wavelength dependence of attenuation varies with galaxy spectral type. However, we find no evidence of an extinction "bump" at 2175 A in any of the three stellar mass bins, or in the sample as a whole. We quantify the relation between the attenuation curve and stellar mass and discuss its implications.

  3. The manifestation of optical centers in UV-Vis absorption and luminescence spectra of white blood human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terent'yeva, Yu G.; Yashchuk, V. M.; Zaika, L. A.; Snitserova, O. M.; Losytsky, M. Yu

    2016-12-01

    A white blood human cells spectral investigation is presented. The aim of this series of experiments was to obtain and analyze the absorption and luminescence (fluorescence and phosphorescence) spectra at room temperature and at 78 K of newly isolated white blood human cells and their organelles. As a result the optical centers and possible biochemical components that form the studied spectra where identified. Also the differences between the spectra of abnormal cells (B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia BCLL) and normal ones were studied for the whole cells and individual organelles.

  4. Detection of emission lines from z ~ 3 DLAs towards the QSO J2358+0149

    CERN Document Server

    Srianand, Raghunathan; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick; Krühler, Thomas; Japelj, Jure; Pâris, Isabelle; Kashikawa, Nobunari

    2016-01-01

    Using VLT/X-shooter we searched for emission line galaxies associated to four damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) and one sub-DLA at 2.73=10 per cent. No other emission line is detected from this system. Because the DLA has a small velocity separation from the quasar (~500 km s^{-1}) and the DLA emission is located within a small projected distance ($\\rho<5$ kpc), we also explore the possibility that the Ly$\\alpha$ emission is being induced by the QSO itself. QSO induced Ly$\\alpha$ fluorescence is possible if the DLA is within a physical separation of 340 kpc to the QSO. Detection of stellar continuum light and/or the oxygen emission lines would disfavor this possibility. We do not detect any emission line from the remaining three systems.

  5. Constraining UV continuum slopes of active galactic nuclei with cloudy models of broad-line region extreme-ultraviolet emission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloney, Joshua [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Michael Shull, J., E-mail: joshua.moloney@colorado.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu [Also at Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK. (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the composition and structure of the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is important for answering many outstanding questions in supermassive black hole evolution, galaxy evolution, and ionization of the intergalactic medium. We used single-epoch UV spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure EUV emission-line fluxes from four individual AGNs with 0.49 ≤ z ≤ 0.64, two AGNs with 0.32 ≤ z ≤ 0.40, and a composite of 159 AGNs. With the CLOUDY photoionization code, we calculated emission-line fluxes from BLR clouds with a range of density, hydrogen ionizing flux, and incident continuum spectral indices. The photoionization grids were fit to the observations using single-component and locally optimally emitting cloud (LOC) models. The LOC models provide good fits to the measured fluxes, while the single-component models do not. The UV spectral indices preferred by our LOC models are consistent with those measured from COS spectra. EUV emission lines such as N IV λ765, O II λ833, and O III λ834 originate primarily from gas with electron temperatures between 37,000 K and 55,000 K. This gas is found in BLR clouds with high hydrogen densities (n {sub H} ≥ 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}) and hydrogen ionizing photon fluxes (Φ{sub H} ≥ 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}).

  6. IR Spectra of Nano- and Macro-Crystals: the Overriding Importance of Optical Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, A. M.; Rosen, L. J.; Speck, A. K.

    2000-03-01

    To clarify the effect of optical path, infrared (IR) absorption spectra were collected from nanocrystals of SiC and structurally related AlN and TiB2, and from commercial bulk samples using thin film, powder dispersion and single crystal methods. Crystals of 5-10 nm that were individually encapsulated in salt and subsequently pressed into thin films give identical features to those from thin films of the bulk sample (grain size >1 μm), which removes all possibility of a matrix effect, and negates the importance of grain size below a micron. Shifts in peak position for SiC samples are shown to relate to optical path, and are such that the β- and α- polymorphs can be distinguished. The shifts arise because peaks have finite widths and hence small frequency increments can have widely different absorption coefficient for the intense Si-C stretch. The high absorption coefficient serves as a filter for particulate dimensions perpendicular to the propagation of light.

  7. Optical phonon spectra of CdS crosslinked sulfonate polystyrene nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govani, Jayesh; Manciu, Felicia; Ortiz-Ón, S., , Col; Espe, Matthew; Ziolo, Ronald

    2007-03-01

    We have used IR transmission and FT-Raman spectroscopy to study optically active phonon modes of CdS nanoparticles synthesized in sulfonated polystyrene resin and obtained information about the morphology, crystallinity, and surface interactions. The dominant feature in the far-infrared region of CdS/polystyrene nanocomposites spectra is a sharp peak centered at 255 cm-1, which could be assigned to the transversal optical mode at the L edge of the Brillouin zone of CdS nanoparticles. Also, this vibrational line, based on theoretical core-shell model calculation, could be attributed to the presence of a very thin CdS shell layer. HRTEM images of the CdS nanocomposites show CdS nanoparticles of about 2.5 nm aligned in rows or strings on the polymer surface. Amorphous CdS is also present and may be seen surrounding the nanocrystalline regions. Complementary solid state ^113Cd NMR analysis will be presented as well.

  8. Detection of rapid radivariability of Radio Objects with Continuous Optical Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, S. A.

    The results of the search for rapid variability (characteristic time of > 1 day) in centimeter range using RATAN-600 in 14 radio objects with continuous optical spectra are given. In 9 of them, namely 0109+224, 0139-097, 0300+471, 0306+102, 0754+100, 0818-128, 0823-223, 1034-293 and 1538+149, the rapid variability is detected at wavelengths either 3.9 or 8.2 cm with the confidence probability alpha > 0.98. The conclusion is reached on the close correlation of the presence of rapid radiovariability and the relative power of the non-thermal optical continuum. It is noted the the search for interstellar scintillations in centimeter range in the studied objects during the periods of their rapid variability could test the hypothesis about belonging these objects to the extragalactic class of BL Lac type objects. The proposals are expressed on the necessety of more carefull and complex investigation of the phenomenon of rapid variability.

  9. Search with Copernicus for ultraviolet emission lines in the planetary nebula NGC 3242

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R. D.; Snow, T. P., Jr.; Upson, W. L., II

    1978-01-01

    The high-excitation planetary nebula NGC 3242 has been observed with the ultraviolet telescope-spectrometer aboard Copernicus. Wavelength intervals corresponding to the emission lines of O VI at 1032 A, He II at 1085 A, Si III at 1206 A, and N V at 1239 A have been scanned. Upper limits to the observed fluxes are reported and compared with predicted emission-line fluxes from this object.

  10. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-03-01

    Organic carbon (OC) can constitute 50% or more of the mass of atmospheric particulate matter. Typically, organic carbon is measured from a quartz fiber filter that has been exposed to a volume of ambient air and analyzed using thermal methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR). Here, methods are presented that show the feasibility of using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters to accurately predict TOR OC. This work marks an initial step in proposing a method that can reduce the operating costs of large air quality monitoring networks with an inexpensive, non-destructive analysis technique using routinely collected PTFE filter samples which, in addition to OC concentrations, can concurrently provide information regarding the composition of organic aerosol. This feasibility study suggests that the minimum detection limit and errors (or uncertainty) of FT-IR predictions are on par with TOR OC such that evaluation of long-term trends and epidemiological studies would not be significantly impacted. To develop and test the method, FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least-squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to TOR OC. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets by sampling site and date. The calibration produces precise and accurate TOR OC predictions of the test set samples by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of variation (R2; 0.96), low bias (0.02 μg m-3, the nominal IMPROVE sample volume is 32.8 m3), low error (0.08 μg m-3) and low normalized error (11%). These performance metrics can be achieved with various degrees of spectral pretreatment (e.g., including or excluding substrate contributions to the absorbances) and are comparable in precision to collocated TOR measurements. FT-IR spectra are also

  11. Predicting ambient aerosol Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: elemental carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-06-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) is an important constituent of atmospheric particulate matter because it absorbs solar radiation influencing climate and visibility and it adversely affects human health. The EC measured by thermal methods such as Thermal-Optical Reflectance (TOR) is operationally defined as the carbon that volatilizes from quartz filter samples at elevated temperatures in the presence of oxygen. Here, methods are presented to accurately predict TOR EC using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from atmospheric particulate matter collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters. This method is similar to the procedure tested and developed for OC in prior work (Dillner and Takahama, 2015). Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive to the PTFE filter samples which are routinely collected for mass and elemental analysis in monitoring networks. FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 filter samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to collocated TOR EC measurements. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets. Two calibrations are developed, one which is developed from uniform distribution of samples across the EC mass range (Uniform EC) and one developed from a~uniform distribution of low EC mass samples (EC TOR EC samples in the same mass range and an estimate of the minimum detection limit (MDL) that is on par with TOR EC MDL. For all samples, this hybrid approach leads to precise and accurate TOR EC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of variation (R2; 0.96), no bias (0.00 μg m-3, concentration value based on the nominal IMPROVE sample volume of 32.8 m-3), low error (0.03 μg m-3) and reasonable normalized error (21 %). These performance metrics can be achieved with various degrees of spectral pretreatment

  12. Quasar emission lines as probes of orientation: implications for disc wind geometries and unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. H.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar samples is often interpreted in the context of a geometric unification model consisting of an accretion disc and an associated outflow. We use the the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar sample to test this model by examining the equivalent widths (EWs) of C IV 1550 Å, Mg II 2800 Å, [O III] 5007 Å and C III] 1909 Å. We find that the emission line EW distributions in BAL and non-BAL quasars are remarkably similar - a property that is inconsistent with scenarios in which a BAL outflow rises equatorially from a geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disc. We construct simple models to predict the distributions from various geometries; these models confirm the above finding and disfavour equatorial geometries. We show that obscuration, line anisotropy and general relativistic effects on the disc continuum are unlikely to hide an EW inclination dependence. We carefully examine the radio and polarisation properties of BAL quasars. Both suggest that they are most likely viewed (on average) from intermediate inclinations, between type 1 and type 2 AGN. We also find that the low-ionization BAL quasars in our sample are not confined to one region of `Eigenvector I' parameter space. Overall, our work leads to one of the following conclusions, or some combination thereof: (i) the continuum does not emit like a geometrically thin, optically thick disc; (ii) BAL quasars are viewed from similar angles to non-BAL quasars, i.e. low inclinations; (iii) geometric unification does not explain the fraction of BALs in quasar samples.

  13. Active galactic nuclei at z~1.5: II. Black Hole Mass estimation by means of broad emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Mejía-Restrepo, Julián E; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Capellupo, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers aiming to test how the mass ($M_{\\rm BH}$), accretion rate ($\\dot{M}$) and spin ($a_{*}$) of super massive black holes (SMBHs) determine the observed properties of type-I active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our project utilizes a sample of 39 unobscured AGN at $z\\simeq1.55$ observed by VLT/X-shooter, selected to map a large range in $M_{\\rm BH}$ and $L/L_{\\rm edd}$ and covers the most prominent UV-optical (broad) emission lines, including H$\\alpha$, H$\\beta$, MgII, and CIV. This paper focuses on single-epoch, "virial" $M_{\\rm BH}$ determinations from broad emission lines and examines the implications of different continuum modeling approaches in line width measurements. We find that using a "local" power-law continuum instead of a physically-motivated thin disk continuum leads to only slight underestimation of the FWHM of the lines and the associated $M_{\\rm BH}\\left({\\rm FWHM}\\right)$. However, the line dispersion $\\sigma_{\\rm line}$ and associated $M_{\\rm BH}\\left(\\sigma_{...

  14. Emission Signatures from Sub-parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes I: Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Khai

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as...

  15. Calculation of optical and K pre-edge absorption spectra for ferrous iron of distorted sites in oxide crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercamer, Vincent; Hunault, Myrtille O. J. Y.; Lelong, Gérald; Haverkort, Maurits W.; Calas, Georges; Arai, Yusuke; Hijiya, Hiroyuki; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Brouder, Christian; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Juhin, Amélie

    2016-12-01

    Advanced semiempirical calculations have been performed to compute simultaneously optical absorption and K pre-edge x-ray absorption spectra of Fe2 + in four distinct site symmetries found in minerals. The four symmetries, i.e., a distorted octahedron, a distorted tetrahedron, a square planar site, and a trigonal bipyramidal site, are representative of the Fe2 + sites found in crystals and glasses. A particular attention has been paid to the definition of the p -d hybridization Hamiltonian which occurs for noncentrosymmetric symmetries in order to account for electric dipole transitions. For the different sites under study, an excellent agreement between calculations and experiments was found for both optical and x-ray absorption spectra, in particular in terms of relative intensities and energy positions of electronic transitions. To our knowledge, these are the first calculations of optical absorption spectra on Fe2 + placed in such diverse site symmetries, including centrosymmetric sites. The proposed theoretical model should help to interpret the features of both the optical absorption and the K pre-edge absorption spectra of 3 d transition metal ions and to go beyond the usual fingerprint interpretation.

  16. Development of a Temperature Diagnostic Based on the Emission Lines of Fluorine-Like Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepson, Jaan K.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Kaita, Robert; Majeski, Richard; Boyle, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    We used the Flexible Atomic Code to calculate theoretical intensities of extreme ultraviolet emission lines of fluorine-like Al IV, Si VI, and S VIII at electron temperatures Te from 1 eV to well above 100 eV, and found that the intensity ratio of the 3-->2 and 2-->2 transitions is temperature sensitive. We tested these calculations by measuring the relevant Al IV emission in the 115-320 Å spectral region on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Spectra were taken with the Long Wavelength Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer, LoWEUS, which has a resolution of ~0.3 Å. We identified emission from neon-like Al V as well as fluorine-like Al IV. Our data include emission from Li II and Li III, and O IV-VI, which we used for wavelength calibration. We used the oxygen line intensities from CHIANTI to calculate the intensity response function for the region we studied. The measurements confirm that the ratio of the intensity of the 3-->2 feature at 133 Å to a pair of 2-->2 lines at 278 Å and 281 Å can be used to derive temperature estimates for the emitting region of the plasma. Our measurements indicate a temperature Te of ~16 ± 2 eV from the 133/278 Å line pair and ~17.5 ±2 eV from the 133/281 Å line pair, which is close to the temperature of maximum abundance of fluorine-like Al.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Plasma Science Program.

  17. Vibronic effects and destruction of exciton coherence in optical spectra of J-aggregates: A variational polaron transformation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemsma, E. A.; Silvis, M. H.; Stradomska, A.; Knoester, J.

    2016-12-01

    Using a symmetry adapted polaron transformation of the Holstein Hamiltonian, we study the interplay of electronic excitation-vibration couplings, resonance excitation transfer interactions, and temperature in the linear absorption spectra of molecular J-aggregates. Semi-analytical expressions for the spectra are derived and compared with results obtained from direct numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in the two-particle basis set representation. At zero temperature, we show that our polaron transformation reproduces both the collective (exciton) and single-molecule (vibrational) optical response associated with the appropriate standard perturbation limits. Specifically, for the molecular dimer excellent agreement with the spectra from the two-particle approach for the entire range of model parameters is obtained. This is in marked contrast to commonly used polaron transformations. Upon increasing the temperature, the spectra show a transition from the collective to the individual molecular features, which results from the thermal destruction of the exciton coherence.

  18. Optical spectrophotometry of Wolf-Rayet galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, William D.; Conti, Peter S.

    1992-01-01

    We have obtained long-slit optical spectra of 10 Wolf-Rayet galaxies and four other starburst galaxies. Using the nebular emission lines we have determined the electron temperatures, electron densities, extinctions, oxygen abundances, mass of ionized hydrogen, and numbers of ionizing photons due to hot stars in these galaxies. The various forbidden line ratios clearly indicate a stellar origin for the emission-line spectrum. From the flux of the broad He II 4686 A emission feature we have estimated the number of Wolf-Rayet stars present. We have accounted for the contribution of these stars to the total ionizing flux and have calculated the ratio of the number of these stars to the number of O stars. Wolf-Rayet galaxies are among the youngest examples of the starburst phenomenon, which we observed at a propitious moment.

  19. Application of normalized biomass size spectra to laser optical plankton counter net intercomparisons of zooplankton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, A. W.; Harvey, M.

    2006-05-01

    The optical plankton counter (OPC) and recently the laser OPC (LOPC) have been used primarily in two measurement applications: (1) identification of specific zooplankton species and (2) changes in zooplankton community structure using size-based spectral measurements. The normalized biomass size spectra (NBSS) are one representation of the size-based approach. The present study is based on utilizing the NBSS to describe the conditions or characteristics of the zooplankton community that allow a reasonable intercomparison of net samples and LOPC measurements made simultaneously for data collected during two oceanographic cruises carried out in the Lower Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence in spring 2001 and 2002, respectively. NBSS linear slopes plankton material such as diatom aggregates and gelatinous material (present during or immediately following blooms) that are less present in nets and are not intercomparable with LOPC measurements. Conversely, slopes >-0.7, or more "blue water" conditions, indicate the potential for reasonable intercomparison of the two methods. This observation applies to smaller-sized zooplankton such as copepodites of Calanus spp. with equivalent spherical diameter gelatinous material and reasonable intercomparisons between LOPC and net were obtained for both sampling years. The LOPC signals produced by Calanus spp. (IV-VI) were larger and more easily separated.

  20. Circumstellar C2, CN, and CH+ in the optical spectra of post-AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J; Waters, L B F M; Schoenmaker, T; Bakker, Eric J.; Dishoeck, Ewine F. van; Schoenmaker, Ton

    1996-01-01

    We present optical high-resolution spectra of a sample of sixteen post-AGB stars and IRC +10216. Of the post-AGB stars, ten show C2 Phillips and Swan and CN Red System absorption, one CH+ emission, one CH+ absorption, and four without any molecules. We find typically Trot=43-399, 155-202, and 18-50 K, log N = 14.90-15.57, 14.35, and 15.03-16.47 cm-2 for C2, CH+, and CN respectively, and 0.620. The presence of C2 and CN absorption is correlated with cold dust (Tdust300K). All objects with the unidentified 21mum emission feature exhibit C2 and CN absorption, but not all objects with C2 and CN detections exhibit a 21mum feature. The derived expansion velocity, ranging from 5 to 44 km/s, is the same as that derived from CO millimeter line emission. This unambiguously proves that these lines are of circumstellar origin and are formed in the AGB ejecta (circumstellar shell expelled during the preceding AGB phase). Furthermore there seems to be a relation between the C2 molecular column density and the expansion vel...

  1. Comparative Analysis of SN 2012dn Optical Spectra: Days -14 to +114

    CERN Document Server

    Parrent, J T; Fesen, R A; Parker, S; Bianco, F B; Dilday, B; Sand, D; Valenti, S; Vinkó, J; Berlind, P; Challis, P; Milisavljevic, D; Sanders, N; Marion, G H; Wheeler, J C; Brown, P; Calkins, M L; Friesen, B; Kirshner, R; Pritchard, T; Quimby, R; Roming, P

    2016-01-01

    SN 2012dn is a super-Chandrasekhar mass candidate in a purportedly normal spiral (SAcd) galaxy, and poses a challenge for theories of type Ia supernova diversity. Here we utilize the fast and highly parameterized spectrum synthesis tool, SYNAPPS, to estimate relative expansion velocities of species inferred from optical spectra obtained with six facilities. As with previous studies of normal SN Ia, we find that both unburned carbon and intermediate mass elements are spatially coincident within the ejecta near and below 14,000 km/s. Although the upper limit on SN 2012dn's peak luminosity is comparable to some of the most luminous normal SN Ia, we find a progenitor mass exceeding ~1.6 Msun is not strongly favored by leading merger models since these models do not accurately predict spectroscopic observations of SN 2012dn and more normal events. In addition, a comparison of light curves and host-galaxy masses for a sample of literature and Palomar Transient Factory SN Ia reveals a diverse distribution of SN Ia s...

  2. OMEGA - OSIRIS Mapping of Emission-line Galaxies in A901/2: II. - Environmental influence on integrated star formation properties and AGN activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez del Pino, Bruno; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Chies-Santos, Ana L.; Weinzirl, Tim; Bamford, Steven P.; Gray, Meghan E.; Böhm, Asmus; Wolf, Christian; Maltby, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of the star formation and AGN activity for galaxies in the Abell 901/2 multi-cluster system at z ˜ 0.167 as part of the OMEGA survey. Using Tuneable Filter data obtained with the OSIRIS instrument at the GTC we produce spectra covering the Hα and [N II] spectral lines for more than 400 galaxies. Using optical emission-line diagnostics, we identify a significant number of galaxies hosting AGN, which tend to have high masses and a broad range of morphologies. Moreover, within the environmental densities probed by our study, we find no environmental dependence on the fraction of galaxies hosting AGN. The analysis of the integrated Hα emission shows that the specific star formation rates (SSFRs) of a majority of the cluster galaxies are below the field values for a given stellar mass. We interpret this result as evidence for a slow decrease in the star formation activity of star-forming galaxies as they fall into higher-density regions, contrary to some previous studies which suggested a rapid truncation of star formation. We find that most of the intermediate- and high-mass spiral galaxies go through a phase in which their star formation is suppressed but still retain significant star-formation activity. During this phase, these galaxies tend to retain their spiral morphology while their colours become redder. The presence of this type of galaxies in high density regions indicates that the physical mechanism responsible for suppressing star-formation affects mainly the gas component of the galaxies, suggesting that ram-pressure stripping or starvation are potentially responsible.

  3. An optical study of amorphous (Se80Te20)100-xGex thin films using their transmission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainika; Sharma, Pankaj; Katyal, S. C.; Thakur, Nagesh

    2008-12-01

    Optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) have been studied for a-(Se80Te20)100-xGex (x = 0, 2, 4, 6) thin films using transmission spectra in the wavelength range 500 2500 nm. It is observed from optical transmission measurements that the optical energy gap (Eg) increases while the refractive index (n) and the extinction coefficient (k) decrease with the incorporation of Ge in the Se Te system. The increase in the optical energy gap is interpreted by correlating the optical energy gap with the decrease in electronegativity and increase in the heat of atomization (Hs). The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple DiDomenico model.

  4. Polarization Diagnostics for Cool Core Cluster Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, William B; Carswell, Robert F; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; Cracraft, Misty; Meyer, Eileen T; Hough, James H; Manset, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the interaction between low-excitation gas filaments at ~10^4 K, seen in optical line emission, and diffuse X-ray emitting coronal gas at ~10^7 K in the centers of galaxy clusters remains a puzzle. The presence of a strong, empirical correlation between the two gas phases is indicative of a fundamental relationship between them, though as yet of undetermined cause. The cooler filaments, originally thought to have condensed from the hot gas, could also arise from a merger or the disturbance of cool circumnuclear gas by nuclear activity. Here, we have searched for intrinsic line emission polarization in cool core galaxy clusters as a diagnostic of fundamental transport processes. Drawing on developments in solar astrophysics, direct energetic particle impact induced polarization holds the promise to definitively determine the role of collisional processes such as thermal conduction in the ISM physics of galaxy clusters, while providing insight into other highly anisotropic excitation mechanisms su...

  5. Ultraviolet spectra of Herbig-Haro objects and of the environment of the Cohen-Schwartz star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, K. H.; Boehm-Vitense, E.; Cardelli, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Observations in both spectral regions were used in order to determine the continuous energy distribution and the emission line fluxes for H-H 2. The continuous spectrum is similar to that in H-H 1 and F lambda increases rapidly towards shorter wavelengths. This statement is found to be qualitatively correct for all obvious choices of the ultraviolet extinction curve if we use the E(B-V) value determined by the use of the S II method. The origin of the continuum remains enigmatic. The emission line spectrum of H-H 2 shows an even somewhat higher degree of ionization than the spectrum of H-H 1, indicating an even larger discrepancy between ionization information from optical data and that contained in the UV spectra. The immediate environment of the Cohen-Schwartz star emits a continuous spectrum similar to that of a H-H-object but increasing even more steeply towards shorter wavelengths.

  6. Variability of the SiII 6347 Å and 6371 Å Lines in the Spectra of HD 200775

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisyarina, A.; Sobolev, A.; Gorda, S.

    2017-06-01

    We report the variability of SiII 6347 Å and SiII 6371 Å emission lines in the spectra of Herbig Be star HD 200775. The star displays changes in the line velocities which correspond to the binary system with the orbital period about 3.7 years. Analysis of the SiII lines was performed on the basis of the newly-obtained and archive optical spectral data over about 20-year time interval. The 1.2-m telescope of Kourovka Astronomical Observatory of the Ural Federal University was used to obtain the new data. The most significant changes in the line profiles occur in three velocity ranges (-50-0 km/s, 0- 40 km/s and 40-150 km/s). The variability in the SiII emission lines correlates with the orbital period.

  7. Constraints on the outer radius of the broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Landt, Hermine; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Here we present observational evidence that the broad emission line region (BELR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) generally has an outer boundary. This was already clear for sources with an obvious transition between the broad and narrow components of their emission lines. We show that the narrow component of the higher-order Paschen lines is absent in all sources, revealing a broad emission line profile with a broad, flat top. This indicates that the BELR is kinematically separate from the narrow emission line region. We use the virial theorem to estimate the BELR outer radius from the flat top width of the unblended profiles of the strongest Paschen lines, Pa alpha and Pa beta, and find that it scales with the ionising continuum luminosity roughly as expected from photoionisation theory. The value of the incident continuum photon flux resulting from this relationship corresponds to that required for dust sublimation. A flat-topped broad emission line profile is produced by both a spherical gas distribution ...

  8. Optical and X-ray Outbursts of Be/X-ray binary system SAX J2103.5+4545

    CERN Document Server

    Kiziloglu, U; Kiziloglu, N; Baykal, A

    2009-01-01

    We present the relations between Halpha equivalent width, optical brightness and X-ray flux of Be/X-ray binary system SAX J2103.5+4545, by analyzing the optical photometric and spectroscopic observations together with the X-ray observations. In the photometric observations PSF photometry were applied using MIDAS and its DAOPHOT package. The reduction and analysis of spectra were done by using MIDAS and its suitable packages. The X-ray outburst of the system occurred just after the optical outburst. The nearly symmetric Halpha emission line profiles observed during the beginning of optical outburst turn into asymmetric profiles with increased EW values during the dissipation of Be disc. Halpha lines changed from emission to absorption during the observation period. The observed double peaked HeI emission lines might come from the accretion disc of neutron star which is temporarily formed at the time of X-ray outburst.

  9. Abundance patterns in the low-metallicity emission-line galaxies from the Early Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Izotov, Yu I; Guseva, N G; Thuan, T X

    2004-01-01

    We have derived element abundances in 310 emission-line galaxies from the Early Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for which the [O {\\sc iii}] 4363 emission line was detected, allowing abundance determination by direct methods. We found no extremely metal-deficient galaxy (Zspectra containing some very low-metallicity objects to study the abundance patterns of low-metallicity emission-line galaxies. We find that the $\\alpha$ element-to-oxygen abundance ratios do not show any significant trends with the oxygen abundance, in agreement with previous studies. The Fe/O abundance ratio is smaller than the solar value, which we interpret as an indication that type Ia supernovae have not yet appeared in these galaxie...

  10. Flash Spectroscopy: Emission Lines from the Ionized Circumstellar Material around $<10$-Day-Old Type II Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Khazov, D; Gal-Yam, A; Manulis, I; Rubin, A; Kulkarni, S R; Arcavi, I; Kasliwal, M M; Ofek, E O; Cao, Y; Perley, D; Sollerman, J; Horesh, A; Sullivan, M; Filippenko, A V; Nugent, P E; Howell, D A; Cenko, S B; Silverman, J M; Ebeling, H; Taddia, F; Johansson, J; Laher, R R; Surace, J; Rebbapragada, U D; Wozniak, P R; Matheson, T

    2015-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra ($\\leq 10$ days after the explosion), owing to recombination of the CSM ionized by the shock-breakout flash. From such spectra ("flash spectroscopy"), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 Type II SNe showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14\\% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18\\% of SNe~II observed at ages $<5$ days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as "blue/featureless" (BF) those events having a first spectrum which is similar to that of a black body, without any emission or absorption signa...

  11. Ultraviolet Emission Lines of Si ii in Quasars: Investigating the "Si ii Disaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laha, Sibasish; Keenan, Francis P.; Ferland, Gary J.; Ramsbottom, Catherine A.; Aggarwal, Kanti M.

    2016-07-01

    The observed line intensity ratios of the Si ii λ1263 and λ1307 multiplets to that of Si ii λ1814 in the broad-line region (BLR) of quasars are both an order of magnitude larger than the theoretical values. This was first pointed out by Baldwin et al., who termed it the “Si ii disaster,” and it has remained unresolved. We investigate the problem in the light of newly published atomic data for Si ii. Specifically, we perform BLR calculations using several different atomic data sets within the CLOUDY modeling code under optically thick quasar cloud conditions. In addition, we test for selective pumping by the source photons or intrinsic galactic reddening as possible causes for the discrepancy, and we also consider blending with other species. However, we find that none of the options investigated resolve the Si ii disaster, with the potential exception of microturbulent velocity broadening and line blending. We find that a larger microturbulent velocity (˜ 500 {km} {{{s}}}-1) may solve the Si ii disaster through continuum pumping and other effects. The CLOUDY models indicate strong blending of the Si ii λ1307 multiplet with emission lines of O i, although the predicted degree of blending is incompatible with the observed λ1263/λ1307 intensity ratios. Clearly, more work is required on the quasar modeling of not just the Si ii lines but also nearby transitions (in particular those of O i) to fully investigate whether blending may be responsible for the Si ii disaster.

  12. A NEW Hα EMISSION-LINE SURVEY IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szegedi-Elek, E.; Kun, M.; Pál, A.; Balázs, L. G. [Konkoly Observatory, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege út 15-17 (Hungary); Reipurth, B.; Willman, M., E-mail: eelza@konkoly.hu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present results from an Hα emission line survey in a 1 deg{sup 2} area centered on the Orion Nebula Cluster, obtained with the Wide Field Grism Spectrograph 2 on the 2.2 m telescope of the University of Hawaii. We identified 587 stars with Hα emission, 99 of which, located mainly in the outer regions of the observed area, have not appeared in previous Hα surveys. We determined the equivalent width (EW) of the line and, based on this, classified 372 stars as classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and 187 as weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs). Simultaneous r', i' photometry indicates a limiting magnitude of r' ∼ 20 mag, but the sample is incomplete at r' > 17 mag. The surface distribution of the Hα emission stars reveals a clustered population and a dispersed population, the former consisting of younger and more massive young stars than the latter. Comparison of the derived EWs with those found in the literature indicates variability of the Hα line. We found that the typical amplitudes of the variability are not greater than a factor of two to three in most cases. We identified a subgroup of low-EW stars with infrared signatures indicative of optically thick accretion disks. We studied the correlations between the EW and other properties of the stars. Based on literature data, we examined several properties of our CTTS and WTTS subsamples and found significant differences in mid-infrared color indices, average rotational periods, and spectral energy distribution characteristics of the subsamples.

  13. Detection of the Intermediate-width Emission Line Region in Quasar OI 287 with the Broad Emission Line Region Obscured by the Dusty Torus

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhenzhen; Hao, Lei; Wang, Huiyuan; Ji, Tuo; Shi, Xiheng; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Wen-Juan; Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The existence of intermediate-width emission line regions (IELRs) in active galactic nuclei has been discussed for over two decades. A consensus, however, is yet to be arrived at due to the lack of convincing evidence for their detection. We present a detailed analysis of the broadband spectrophotometry of the partially obscured quasar OI 287. The ultraviolet intermediate-width emission lines (IELs) are very prominent, in high contrast to the corresponding broad emission lines (BELs) which are heavily suppressed by dust reddening. Assuming that the IELR is virialized, we estimated its distance to the central black hole of $\\sim 2.9$ pc, similar to the dust sublimation radius of $\\sim 1.3$ pc. Photo-ionization calculations suggest that the IELR has a hydrogen density of $\\sim 10^{8.8}-10^{9.4} ~ \\rm cm^{-3}$, within the range of values quoted for the dusty torus near the sublimation radius. Both its inferred location and physical conditions suggest that the IELR originates from the inner surface of the dusty t...

  14. Modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation and spectra of optical excitations in complex media using 4x4 matrix formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, P D; Sirenko, A A

    2011-01-01

    Using 4x4 matrix formalism we analyzed electromagnetic wave propagation and Jones matrix components for reflectivity and transmittivity in bi-anisotropic materials. Analytic formulas for complex reflection and transmission coefficients for bi-anisotropic materials in both semi-infinite and thin-film configurations have been derived. The obtained results are applicable for analysis of the optical spectra of multiferroic crystals and metamaterials. The Adjusted Oscillator Strength Matching Condition (AOSM) for hybrid magnetic- and electric-dipole excitations in anisotropic multiferroics is derived for oblique angles of incidence. Mueller Matrices are used to simulate spectra of magneto-electric and chiral excitations and methods to distinguish them are discussed.

  15. The Wasilewski sample of emission-line galaxies - Follow-up CCD imaging and spectroscopic and IRAS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothun, Gregory D.; Schmitz, Mark; Halpern, Jules P.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Impey, Chris

    1989-06-01

    The results of an extensive imaging and spectroscopic follow-up of the objective prism-selected emission line galaxy (ELG) sample of Wasilewski (1982) are presented. Fluxes at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns were also obtained from the coadded IRAS survey data. ELGs found by objective prism surveys are found to be generally small and underluminous galaxies which usually have higher than average optical surface brightness. The Seyfert detection rate in objective prism surveys is roughly 10 percent and the ratio of the space densities of Seyfert 2 to Seyfert 1 galaxies is significantly larger than unity. Most of the galaxies selected by objective prism surveys are star-forming, late-type spirals which often show disturbed morphology. About 25 percent of the galaxies detected by the surveys are faint, high-excitation metal-poor compact H II regions.

  16. Observations of the 12.3 micron Mg I emission line during a major solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Donald E.; Osherovich, Vladimir; Wiedemann, Gunter; Hewagama, Tilak

    1990-01-01

    The extremely Zeeman-sensitive 12.32 micron Mg I solar emission line was observed during a 3B/X5.7 solar flare on October 24, 1989. When compared to postflare values, Mg I emission-line intensity in the penumbral flare ribbon was 20 percent greater at the peak of the flare in soft X-rays, and the 12 micron continuum intensity was 7 percent greater. The flare also excited the emission line in the umbra where it is normally absent. The umbral flare emission exhibits a Zeeman splitting 200 G less than the adjacent penumbra, suggesting that it is excited at higher altitude. The absolute penumbral magnetic field strength did not change by more than 100 G between the flare peak and postflare period. However, a change in the inclination of the field lines, probably related to the formation and development of the flare loop system, was seen.

  17. Elliptical Galaxies with Emission Lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-He Zhao; Qiu-Sheng Gu; Zhi-Xin Peng; Lei Shi; Xin-Lian Luo; Qiu-He Peng

    2006-01-01

    As part of a study of star formation history along the Hubble sequence,we present here the results for 11 elliptical galaxies with strong nebular emission lines. After removing the dilution from the underlying old stellar populations by use of stellar population synthesis model, we derive the accurate fluxes of all the emission lines in these objects, which are then classified, using emission line ratios,into one Seyfert 2, six LINERs and four HⅡ galaxies. We also identify one HⅡ galaxy (A1216+04) as a hitherto unknown Wolf-Rayet galaxy from the presence of the WolfRayet broad bump at 4650 A. We propose that the star-forming activities in elliptical galaxies are triggered by either galaxy-galaxy interaction or the merging of a small satellite/a massive star cluster, as has been suggested by recent numerical simulations.

  18. Escape factors for Paschen 2p-1s emission lines in low-temperature Ar, Kr, and Xe plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi-Ming; Cheng, Zhi-Wen; Pu, Yi-Kang; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-06-01

    Radiation trapping phenomenon is often observed when investigating low-temperature plasmas. Photons emitted from the upper excited states may be reabsorbed by the lower states before they leave the plasmas. In order to account for this effect in the modelling and optical diagnostics of plasmas, either an ‘escape factor’ of a function of the optical depth or a strict solution of the radiation transfer equation can be employed. However, the former is more convenient in comparison and thus is widely adopted. Previous literatures have provided several simple expressions of the escape factor for the uniform plasmas. The emission line profiles are assumed to be dominated by the Doppler broadening, and the line splitting due to the hyperfine structure is not considered. This kind of expression is only valid for small atoms, e.g. Ar in low-pressure uniform discharges. Actually, the excited state density in many of the low-temperature plasmas is non-uniform and the emission line profile can be significantly influenced by the collisional broadening at medium and high pressures. In these cases, a new escape factor equation should be calculated. In this work, we study the escape factor equations for the often used 2p-1s transitions (Paschen’s notation) of the Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms. Possible non-uniform density profiles are considered. In addition, we include the line splitting due to the hyperfine structure for Kr and Xe. For the low-pressure plasmas, an escape factor expression mainly based on the Gaussian line profile is given and particularly verified by an experiment in a low-pressure capacitive discharge. For the high-pressure plasmas, an equation based on the Voigt line profile is also calculated. In this way, the new escape factor expression is ready for use in the modelling of the Ar, Kr, and Xe plasmas from low to atmospheric pressure.

  19. NLTE carbon abundance determination in selected A- and B-type stars and the interpretation of C I emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeva, S. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Mashonkina, L. I.

    2016-10-01

    We constructed a comprehensive model atom for C I-C II using the most up-to-date atomic data available and evaluated the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for C I and C II in classical 1D models representing the atmospheres of A- and late B-type stars. Our NLTE calculations predict the emission that appears at effective temperature of 9250 to 10 500 K depending on log g in the C I 8335, 9405 Å singlet lines and at Teff> 15 000 K (log g = 4) in the C I 9061-9111 Å, 9603-9658 Å triplet lines. A pre-requisite of the emission phenomenon is the overionization-recombination mechanism resulting in a depopulation of the lower levels of C I to a greater extent than the upper levels. Extra depopulation of the lower levels of the transitions corresponding to the near-infrared lines, is caused by photon loss in the UV lines C I 2479, 1930, and 1657 Å. We analysed the lines of C I and C II in Vega, HD 73666, Sirius, 21 Peg, π Cet, HD 22136, and ι Her taking advantage of their observed high-resolution spectra. The C I emission lines were detected in the four hottest stars, and they were well reproduced in our NLTE calculations. For each star, the mean NLTE abundances from lines of the two ionization stages, C I and C II, including the C I emission lines, were found to be consistent. We show that the predicted C I emission phenomenon depends strongly on whether accurate or approximate electron-impact excitation rates are applied.

  20. A novel measuring method for arbitrary optical vortex by three spiral spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Bo [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guo, Lana [School of Electronics and Information, Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University, Guangzhou 510665 (China); Yue, Chengfeng [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Zhilie, E-mail: tangzhl@scnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2017-02-26

    In this letter, the topological charge of non-integer vortices determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra is theoretically demonstrated for the first time. Based on the conclusion, a novel method to measure non-integer vortices is presented. This method is applicable not only to arbitrary non-integer vortex but also to arbitrary integer vortex. - Highlights: • Different non-integer vortices cannot have three spiral spectra is demonstrated. • Relationship between the non-integer topological charge and the spiral spectra is presented. • Topological charge of non-integer vortices can be determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra.

  1. Optical spectra and stokes shift in double-stranded helical supramolecular assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Leon; Bobbert, Peter A; Spano, Frank C

    2009-07-23

    We study the photoluminescence from helical MOPV4 aggregates using a model that includes excitonic coupling, exciton-phonon coupling, and spatially correlated disorder in the chromophore transition energies. The helical aggregates consist of stacked dimers of MOPV4 chromophores. We have modeled these helical stacks as double-stranded aggregates, allowing us to investigate the effect of correlated disorder within the dimers on emission. We have studied the dependence of the Stokes shift, the emission line widths, and the ratio of the 0-0 to 0-1 emission peaks on the aggregate size and disorder. Our findings show that this peak ratio is quite insensitive to the aggregate size if the latter exceeds the coherence length of the emitting exciton. This makes this ratio a reliable probe for both disorder and the coherence length of the emitting exciton. We have found only a weak dependence of this peak ratio on the degree of correlation between the transition energies within each dimer, whereas such correlation has a large effect on the aggregate-size-dependent Stokes shift. By comparison with experiment, we have estimated the coherence length of the emitting exciton to be only one lattice spacing along the stacking direction. From our analysis of the Stokes shift we conclude that the exciton diffusion length is in the range 6-13 nm.

  2. The peculiar optical-UV X-ray spectra of the X-ray weak quasar PG 0043+039

    CERN Document Server

    Kollatschny, W; Zetzl, M; Santos-Lleó, M; Rodríguez-Pascual, P M; Ballo, L; Talavera, A

    2016-01-01

    The object PG 0043+039 has been identified as a broad absorption line (BAL) quasar based on its UV spectra. However, this optical luminous quasar has not been detected before in deep X-ray observations, making it the most extreme X-ray weak quasar known today. This study aims to detect PG 0043+039 in a deep X-ray exposure. The question is what causes the extreme X-ray weakness of PG 0043+039? Does PG 0043+039 show other spectral or continuum peculiarities? We took simultaneous deep X-ray spectra with XMM-Newton, far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and optical spectra of PG 0043+039 with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) in July, 2013. We have detected PG 0043+039 in our X-ray exposure taken in 2013. We presented our first results in a separate paper (Kollatschny et al. 2015). PG 0043+039 shows an extreme {\\alpha}_ox gradient ({\\alpha}_ox =-2.37). Furthermore, we were able to verify an X-ray flux of this source in a reanalysis of the X-...

  3. Nonlinear optical spectra having characteristics of Fano interferences in coherently coupled lowest exciton biexciton states in semiconductor quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Gotoh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical nonlinear effects are examined using a two-color micro-photoluminescence (micro-PL method in a coherently coupled exciton-biexciton system in a single quantum dot (QD. PL and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE are employed to measure the absorption spectra of the exciton and biexciton states. PLE for Stokes and anti-Stokes PL enables us to clarify the nonlinear optical absorption properties in the lowest exciton and biexciton states. The nonlinear absorption spectra for excitons exhibit asymmetric shapes with peak and dip structures, and provide a distinct contrast to the symmetric dip structures of conventional nonlinear spectra. Theoretical analyses with a density matrix method indicate that the nonlinear spectra are caused not by a simple coherent interaction between the exciton and biexciton states but by coupling effects among exciton, biexciton and continuum states. These results indicate that Fano quantum interference effects appear in exciton-biexciton systems at QDs and offer important insights into their physics.

  4. DUST ATTENUATION OF THE NEBULAR REGIONS OF z ∼ 2 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: INSIGHT FROM UV, IR, AND EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Barros, S.; Reddy, N.; Shivaei, I., E-mail: stephane.debarros@oabo.inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We use a sample of 149 spectroscopically confirmed UV-selected galaxies at z ∼ 2 to investigate the relative dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and the nebular emission lines. For each galaxy in the sample, at least one rest-frame optical emission line (Hα/[N ii] λ6583 or [O iii] λ5007) measurement has been taken from the litterature, and 41 galaxies have additional Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm observations that are used to infer infrared luminosities. We use a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code that predicts nebular line strengths when fitting the stellar populations of galaxies in our sample, and we perform comparisons between the predictions of our models and the observed/derived physical quantities. We find that on average our code is able to reproduce all the physical quantities (e.g., UV β slopes, infrared luminosities, emission line fluxes), but we need to apply a higher dust correction to the nebular emission compared to the stellar emission for the largest star formation rate (SFR) (log SFR/M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} > 1.82, Salpeter initial mass function). We find a correlation between SFR and the difference in nebular and stellar color excesses, which could resolve the discrepant results regarding nebular dust correction at z ∼ 2 from previous studies.

  5. Active galactic nuclei emission line diagnostics and the mass-metallicity relation up to redshift z ∼ 2: The impact of selection effects and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Gobat, Raphael; Jean-Baptiste, Ingrid; Le Floc' h, Émeric; Pannella, Maurilio; Schreiber, Corentin [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Charlot, Stéphane; Lehnert, M. D.; Pacifici, Camilla [UPMC-CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Trump, Jonathan R. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Dickinson, Mark, E-mail: stephanie.juneau@cea.fr [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Emission line diagnostic diagrams probing the ionization sources in galaxies, such as the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagram, have been used extensively to distinguish active galactic nuclei (AGN) from purely star-forming galaxies. However, they remain poorly understood at higher redshifts. We shed light on this issue with an empirical approach based on a z ∼ 0 reference sample built from ∼300,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, from which we mimic selection effects due to typical emission line detection limits at higher redshift. We combine this low-redshift reference sample with a simple prescription for luminosity evolution of the global galaxy population to predict the loci of high-redshift galaxies on the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagrams. The predicted bivariate distributions agree remarkably well with direct observations of galaxies out to z ∼ 1.5, including the observed stellar mass-metallicity (MZ) relation evolution. As a result, we infer that high-redshift star-forming galaxies are consistent with having normal interstellar medium (ISM) properties out to z ∼ 1.5, after accounting for selection effects and line luminosity evolution. Namely, their optical line ratios and gas-phase metallicities are comparable to that of low-redshift galaxies with equivalent emission-line luminosities. In contrast, AGN narrow-line regions may show a shift toward lower metallicities at higher redshift. While a physical evolution of the ISM conditions is not ruled out for purely star-forming galaxies and may be more important starting at z ≳ 2, we find that reliably quantifying this evolution is hindered by selections effects. The recipes provided here may serve as a basis for future studies toward this goal. Code to predict the loci of galaxies on the BPT and MEx diagnostic diagrams and the MZ relation as a function of emission line luminosity limits is made publicly available.

  6. NEBULAR AND STELLAR DUST EXTINCTION ACROSS THE DISK OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES ON KILOPARSEC SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Mobasher, Bahram; Darvish, Behnam [University of California, Riverside, CA 92512 (United States); Nayyeri, Hooshang; Miller, Sarah [University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Sobral, David, E-mail: shemm001@ucr.edu [Universidade de Lisboa, PT1349-018 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-11-20

    We investigate the resolved kiloparsec-scale stellar and nebular dust distribution in eight star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.4 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields. This is to get a better understanding of the effect of dust attenuation on measurements of physical properties and its variation with redshift. Constructing the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) per pixel, based on seven bands of photometric data from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and WFC3, we performed pixel-by-pixel SED fits to population synthesis models and estimated the small-scale distribution of stellar dust extinction. We use Hα/Hβ nebular emission line ratios from Keck/DEIMOS high-resolution spectra at each spatial resolution element to measure the amount of attenuation faced by ionized gas at different radii from the centers of galaxies. We find a good agreement between the integrated and median of resolved color excess measurements in our galaxies. The ratio of integrated nebular to stellar dust extinction is always greater than unity, but does not show any trend with stellar mass or star formation rate (SFR). We find that inclination plays an important role in the variation of the nebular to stellar excess ratio. The stellar color excess profiles are found to have higher values at the center compared to outer parts of the disk. However, for lower mass galaxies, a similar trend is not found for the nebular color excess. We find that the nebular color excess increases with stellar mass surface density. This explains the absence of radial trend in the nebular color excess in lower mass galaxies which lack a large radial variation of stellar mass surface density. Using standard conversions of SFR surface density to gas mass surface density, and the relation between dust mass surface density and color excess, we find no significant variation in the dust-to-gas ratio in regions with high gas mass surface densities over the scales probed in this

  7. Optical Absorption Spectra and Excitons of Dye-Substrate Interfaces: Catechol on TiO2(110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Duncan John; Migani, Annapaola

    2016-06-14

    Optimizing the photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on staggered gap heterojunctions requires a detailed understanding of sub-band gap transitions in the visible from the dye directly to the substrate's conduction band (CB) (type-II DSSCs). Here, we calculate the optical absorption spectra and spatial distribution of bright excitons in the visible region for a prototypical DSSC, catechol on rutile TiO2(110), as a function of coverage and deprotonation of the OH anchoring groups. This is accomplished by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) based on hybrid range-separated exchange and correlation functional (HSE06) density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Such a treatment is necessary to accurately describe the interfacial level alignment and the weakly bound charge transfer transitions that are the dominant absorption mechanism in type-II DSSCs. Our HSE06 BSE spectra agree semiquantitatively with spectra measured for catechol on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. Our results suggest deprotonation of catechol's OH anchoring groups, while being nearly isoenergetic at high coverages, shifts the onset of the absorption spectra to lower energies, with a concomitant increase in photovoltaic efficiency. Further, the most relevant bright excitons in the visible region are rather intense charge transfer transitions with the electron and hole spatially separated in both the [110] and [001] directions. Such detailed information on the absorption spectra and excitons is only accessible via periodic models of the combined dye-substrate interface.

  8. Cross section calculations of astrophysical interest. [for theories of absorption and emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjuoy, E.

    1974-01-01

    Cross sections are discussed for rotational excitation associated with theories of absorption and emission lines from molecules in space with emphasis on H2CO, CO, and OH by collisions with neutral particles such H, H2, and He. The sensitivity of the Thaddeus equation for the H2CO calculation is examined.

  9. Measurement of Plasma Ion Temperature and Flow Velocity from Chord-Averaged Emission Line Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xu Wei

    2011-03-01

    The distinction between Doppler broadening and Doppler shift has been analysed, the differences between Gaussian fitting and the distribution of chord-integral line shape have also been discussed. Local ion temperature and flow velocity have been derived from the chord-averaged emission line profile by a chosen-point Gaussian fitting technique.

  10. New Constraints on Quasar Broad Absorption and Emission Line Regions from Gravitational Microlensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Hutsemékers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool allowing one to probe the structure of quasars on sub-parsec scale. We report recent results, focusing on the broad absorption and emission line regions. In particular microlensing reveals the intrinsic absorption hidden in the P Cygni-type line profiles observed in the broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, as well as the existence of an extended continuum source. In addition, polarization microlensing provides constraints on the scattering region. In the quasar Q2237+030, microlensing differently distorts the Hα and CIV broad emission line profiles, indicating that the low- and high-ionization broad emission lines must originate from regions with distinct kinematical properties. We also present simulations of the effect of microlensing on line profiles considering simple but representative models of the broad emission line region. Comparison of observations to simulations allows us to conclude that the Hα emitting region in Q2237+030 is best represented by a Keplerian disk.

  11. Bayesian Redshift Classification of Emission-line Galaxies with Photometric Equivalent Widths

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Andrew S; Gawiser, Eric; Ciardullo, Robin; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Zeimann, Gregory R; Bridge, Joanna S; Feldmeier, John J; Finkelstein, Steven L; Gebhardt, Karl; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Hill, Gary J; Schneider, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to the redshift classification of emission-line galaxies when only a single emission line is detected spectroscopically. We consider the case of surveys for high-redshift ${\\rm Ly{\\alpha}}$-emitting galaxies (LAEs), which have traditionally been classified via an inferred rest-frame equivalent width $(W_{\\rm Ly\\alpha})$ greater than $20 {\\rm \\,\\AA}$. Our Bayesian method relies on known prior probabilities in measured emission-line luminosity functions and equivalent width distributions for the galaxy populations in question, and it returns the probability that an object is an LAE given the characteristics observed. This approach will be directly relevant for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), which seeks to classify $\\sim$$10^6$ emission-line galaxies into LAEs and low-redshift [O II] emitters. For a simulated HETDEX catalog with realistic measurement noise, our Bayesian method recovers $86\\%$ of LAEs missed by the traditional $W_{\\rm Ly\\alpha} > 20 {\\rm...

  12. Emission-Line Taxonomy and the Nature of AGN-Looking Galaxies in the SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid Fernandes, Roberto; Stasińska, Grażyna; Vale Asari, Natalia; Mateus, Abílio; Schlickmann, Marielli S.; Schoenell, William; Schoenell

    2010-05-01

    Massive spectroscopic surveys like the SDSS have revolutionized the way we study AGN and their relations to the galaxies they live in. A first step in any such study is to define samples of different types of AGN on the basis of emission-line ratios. This deceivingly simple step involves decisions on which classification scheme to use and data quality censorship. Galaxies with weak emission lines are often left aside or dealt with separetely because one cannot fully classify them onto the standard star-forming, Seyfert, or LINER categories. This contribution summarizes alternative classification schemes which include this very numerous population. We then study how star-formation histories and physical properties of the hosts vary from class to class, and present compelling evidence that the emission lines in the majority of LINER-like systems in the SDSS are not powered by black-hole accretion. The data are fully consistent with them being galaxies whose old stars provide all the ionizing power needed to explain their line ratios and luminosities. Such retired galaxies deserve a place in the emission-line taxonomy.

  13. The extended narrow line region of NGC 4151. I. Emission line ratios and their implications

    OpenAIRE

    Penston, M. V.; Robinson, A.; Alloin, D.; Appenzeller, I.; Aretxaga, I.; Axon, D.J.; Baribaud, T.; Barthel, P.; Baum, S. A.; Boisson, C.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Clavel, J.; Colina, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Angeles I. Díaz

    1990-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Penston, M.V. et al. The extended narrow line region of NGC 4151. I. Emission line ratios and their implications. Astronomy and Astrophysics 236 (1990): 53-62

  14. Ultraviolet Emission Lines in Young Low Mass Galaxies at z~2: Physical Properties and Implications for Studies at z>7

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Daniel P; Siana, Brian; Charlot, Stephane; Freeman, William R; Gutkin, Julia; Wofford, Aida; Robertson, Brant; Amanullah, Rahman; Watson, Darach; Milvang-Jensen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    We present deep spectroscopy of 17 very low mass (M* ~ 2.0x10^6 Msun to 1.4x10^9 Msun) and low luminosity (M_UV ~ -13.7 to -19.9) gravitationally lensed galaxies in the redshift range z~1.5-3.0. Deep rest-frame ultraviolet spectra reveal large equivalent width emission from numerous lines (NIV], OIII], CIV, Si III], CIII]) which are rarely seen in individual spectra of more massive star forming galaxies. CIII] is detected in 16 of 17 low mass star forming systems with rest-frame equivalent widths as large as 13.5 Angstroms. Nebular CIV emission is present in the most extreme CIII] emitters, requiring an ionizing source capable of producing a substantial component of photons with energies in excess of 47.9 eV. Photoionization models support a picture whereby the large equivalent widths are driven by the increased electron temperature and enhanced ionizing output arising from metal poor gas and stars, young stellar populations, and large ionization parameters. The young ages implied by the emission lines and co...

  15. DETECTION OF THE INTERMEDIATE-WIDTH EMISSION LINE REGION IN QUASAR OI 287 WITH THE BROAD EMISSION LINE REGION OBSCURED BY THE DUSTY TORUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Huiyuan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Wen-Juan; Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Peng [Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hao, Lei [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ji, Tuo; Shi, Xiheng; Zhang, Shaohua, E-mail: lizz08@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouhongyan@pric.org.cn, E-mail: haol@shao.ac.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, Jinqiao Rd. 451, Shanghai, 200136 (China)

    2015-10-20

    The existence of intermediate-width emission line regions (IELRs) in active galactic nuclei has been discussed for over two decades. A consensus, however, is yet to be arrived at due to the lack of convincing evidence for their detection. We present a detailed analysis of the broadband spectrophotometry of the partially obscured quasar OI 287. The ultraviolet intermediate-width emission lines (IELs) are very prominent, in high contrast to the corresponding broad emission lines (BELs) which are heavily suppressed by dust reddening. Assuming that the IELR is virialized, we estimated its distance to the central black hole to be ∼2.9 pc, similar to the dust sublimation radius of ∼1.3 pc. Photo-ionization calculations suggest that the IELR has a hydrogen density of ∼10{sup 8.8}–10{sup 9.4} cm{sup −3}, within the range of values quoted for the dusty torus near the sublimation radius. Both its inferred location and physical conditions suggest that the IELR originates from the inner surface of the dusty torus. In the spectrum of this quasar, we identified only one narrow absorption-line system associated with the dusty material. With the aid of photo-ionization model calculations, we found that the obscuring material might originate from an outer region of the dusty torus. We speculate that the dusty torus, which is exposed to the central ionizing source, may produce IELs through photo-ionization processes, as well as obscure BELs as a natural “coronagraph.” Such a “coronagraph” could be found in a large number of partially obscured quasars and may be a useful tool to study IELRs.

  16. A New Approach to the Internal Calibration of Reverberation Mapping Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Fausnaugh, M M

    2016-01-01

    We present a new procedure for the internal (night-to-night) calibration of time series spectra, with specific applications to optical AGN reverberation mapping data. The traditional calibration technique assumes that the narrow [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 emission line profile is constant in time; given a reference [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 line profile, nightly spectra are aligned by fitting for a wavelength shift, a flux rescaling factor, and a change in the spectroscopic resolution. We propose the following modifications to this procedure: 1) we stipulate a constant spectral resolution for the final calibrated spectra, 2) we employ a more flexible model for changes in the spectral resolution, and 3) we use a Bayesian modeling framework to assess uncertainties in the calibration. In a test case using data for MCG+08-11-011, these modifications result in a calibration precision of $\\sim\\! 1$ millimagnitude, which is approximately a factor of five improvement over the traditional technique. At this level, other systematic...

  17. Spectral classification indicators of emission-line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fei; Liu, Yu-Yan; Li, Pei-Yu; Yu, Ming; Lei, Yu-Ming; Wang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    To find efficient spectral classification diagrams to classify emission-line galaxies, especially in large surveys and huge data bases, an artificial neural network (ANN) supervised learning algorithms is applied to a sample of emission-line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 9 provided by the Max Planck Institute and the Johns Hopkins University (MPA/JHU) (http://www.sdss3.org/dr9/spectro/spectroaccess.php). A two-step approach is adopted. (i) The ANN network must be trained with a subset of objects that are known to be active galactic nuclei (AGNs) hosts, composites or star-forming galaxies, treating the strong emission-line flux measurements as input feature vectors in n-dimensional space, where n is the number of strong emission-line flux ratios. (ii) After the network is trained on a sample of galaxies, the remaining galaxies are classified in the automatic test analysis as AGN hosts, composites or star-forming galaxies. We show that the classification diagrams based on the [N II]/Hα versus other emission-line ratio, such as [O III]/Hβ, [Ne III]/[O II], ([O III]λ4959 + [O III]λ5007)/[O III]λ4363, [O II]/Hβ, [Ar III]/[O III], [S II]/Hα, and [O I]/Hα, plus colour, allows us to separate unambiguously AGN hosts, composites or star-forming galaxies. Among them, the diagram of [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ achieved an accuracy of 98 per cent for classification of AGN hosts, composites or star-forming galaxies. The other diagrams above except the diagram of [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ give an accuracy of ˜90 per cent. The code in the paper is available on the web (http://fshi5388.blog.163.com).

  18. Optical Spectra of Candidate International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, O.; Pursimo, T.; Johnston, Helen M.; Stanford, Laura M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Jauncey, David L.; Zenere, Katrina A.

    2017-04-01

    In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ˜160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.

  19. Physical properties of emission-line galaxies at z ∼ 2 from near-infrared spectroscopy with Magellan fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, Daniel; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Domínguez, Alberto [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); McCarthy, Patrick; Blanc, Guillermo; Dressler, Alan [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Malkan, Mathew; Ross, Nathaniel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Henry, Alaina [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, Universitey of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Rafelski, Marc; Colbert, James [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Scarlata, Claudia [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bunker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Bedregal, Alejandro G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Teplitz, Harry [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    We present results from near-infrared spectroscopy of 26 emission-line galaxies at z ∼ 2.2 and z ∼ 1.5 obtained with the Folded-port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) spectrometer on the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope. The sample was selected from the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels survey, which uses the near-infrared grism of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) to detect emission-line galaxies over 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 2.3. Our FIRE follow-up spectroscopy (R ∼ 5000) over 1.0-2.5 μm permits detailed measurements of the physical properties of the z ∼ 2 emission-line galaxies. Dust-corrected star formation rates for the sample range from ∼5-100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} with a mean of 29 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We derive a median metallicity for the sample of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.34 or ∼0.45 Z {sub ☉}. The estimated stellar masses range from ∼10{sup 8.5}-10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉}, and a clear positive correlation between metallicity and stellar mass is observed. The average ionization parameter measured for the sample, log U ≈ –2.5, is significantly higher than what is found for most star-forming galaxies in the local universe, but similar to the values found for other star-forming galaxies at high redshift. We derive composite spectra from the FIRE sample, from which we measure typical nebular electron densities of ∼100-400 cm{sup –3}. Based on the location of the galaxies and composite spectra on diagnostic diagrams, we do not find evidence for significant active galactic nucleus activity in the sample. Most of the galaxies, as well as the composites, are offset diagram toward higher [O III]/Hβ at a given [N II]/Hα, in agreement with other observations of z ≳ 1 star-forming galaxies, but composite spectra derived from the sample do not show an appreciable offset from the local star-forming sequence on the [O III]/Hβ versus [S II]/Hα diagram. We infer a high nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio from the composite spectrum, which

  20. Laser-induced fluorescence and optical reflection spectra of Japanese natural dyes on silk

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, Tadaki; Matsuda, Yasunori

    1987-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra under nitrogen-laser excitation were measured for silk cloth dyed with Japanese natural dyes. An identification of the dyes on silk was carried out using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique since dyed cloth has a characteristic fluorescence spectra. Moreover, it is possible to identify dyes on faded cloth and on cloth prepared by a combination dyeing using two kinds of dyes. The LIF technique can identify dyes on cloth which is difficult to identify using the ref...

  1. Pulsed Cathodoluminescence Spectra of Solid Oxides with Low Concentrations of Optically-Active Impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V A; Pestovskii, N V; Petrov, A A; Savinov, S Yu; Zavartsev, Yu D; Zavertyaev, M V; Zagumenniy, A I

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed cathodoluminescence (PCL) spectra of ultra-pure SiO2, GeO2, SnO2, TiO2, La2O3, Y2O3, Sc2O3, CaCO3 powders and {\\alpha}-quartz, Ca:YVO4, LiNbO3 and Sc:LiNbO3 crystals were studied under the same experimental conditions. It was found that PCL spectra of SiO2, SnO2, GeO2, TiO2, La2O3 and CaCO3 powders contain a common band with maximum intensity at 500 nm, PCL spectra of samples Y2O3, Sc2O3, PbWO4 and Ca:YVO4 contain a common band at 490 nm and PCL spectra of LiNbO3 and Sc:LiNbO3 crystals contain a common band at 507 nm. It was found that the average intensity of the PCL spectra and position of the maximum intensity of these common bands depend on the type of a band gap transition of the material. We suppose that these common bands have the same origin in PCL spectra of all the materials studied and are related to recombination of O2--O-oxygen complexes. These complexes appear in the vicinities of anionic and cationic vacancies, where the geometry and orientation of coordination polyhedrons are violated d...

  2. Nebular Emission Line Ratios in z~2-3 Star-Forming Galaxies with KBSS-MOSFIRE: Exploring the Impact of Ionization, Excitation, and Nitrogen-to-Oxygen Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Strom, Allison L; Rudie, Gwen C; Trainor, Ryan F; Pettini, Max; Reddy, Naveen A

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the rest-optical (3600-7000 Angstrom) nebular spectra of ~380 star-forming galaxies at z~2-3 obtained with Keck/MOSFIRE as part of the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (KBSS). The KBSS-MOSFIRE sample is representative of star-forming galaxies at these redshifts, with stellar masses M*=10^9-10^11.5 M_sun and star formation rates SFR=3-1000 M_sun/yr. We focus on robust measurements of many strong diagnostic emission lines for individual galaxies: [O II]3727,3729, [Ne III]3869, H-beta, [O III]4960,5008, [N II]6549,6585, H-alpha, and [S II]6718,6732. Comparisons with observations of typical local galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and between subsamples of KBSS-MOSFIRE show that high-redshift galaxies exhibit a number of significant differences in addition to the well-known offset in log([O III]/H-beta) and log([N II]/H-alpha). We argue that the primary difference between H II regions in z~2.3 galaxies and those at z~0 is an enhancement in the degree of nebular excitati...

  3. Optical archival spectra of blazar candidates of uncertain type in the 3$^{rd}$ Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Crespo, N Álvarez; D'Abrusco, R; Landoni, M; Masetti, N; Chavushyan, V; Jiménez-Bailón, E; La Franca, F; Milisavljevic, D; Paggi, A; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Ricci, F; Smith, Howard A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that blazars constitute the rarest class among active galactic nuclei (AGNs) they are the largest known population of associated $\\gamma$-ray sources. Many of the $\\gamma$-ray objects listed in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs), either because they show multifrequency behaviour similar to blazars but lacking optical spectra in the literature, or because the quality of such spectra is too low to confirm their nature. Here we select, out of 585 BCUs in the 3FGL, 42 BCUs which we identify as probable blazars by their WISE infrared colors and which also have optical spectra that are available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Six-Degree Field Galaxy Survey Database (6dFGS). We confirm the blazar nature of all of the sources. We furthermore conclude that 28 of them are BL Lacs, 8 are radio-loud quasars with flat radio spectrum and 6 are BL Lac whose emission is dominated by their host galaxy.

  4. Optical archival spectra of blazar candidates of uncertain type in the 3rd Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Crespo, N.; Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Landoni, M.; Masetti, N.; Chavushyan, V.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; La Franca, F.; Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Ricci, F.; Smith, Howard A.

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that blazars constitute the rarest class among active galactic nuclei (AGNs) they are the largest known population of associated γ-ray sources. Many of the γ-ray objects listed in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs), either because they show multifrequency behavior similar to blazars but lacking optical spectra in the literature, or because the quality of such spectra is too low to confirm their nature. Here we select, out of 585 BCUs in the 3FGL, 42 BCUs which we identify as probable blazars by their WISE infrared colors and which also have optical spectra that are available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Six-Degree Field Galaxy Survey Database (6dFGS). We confirm the blazar nature of all of the sources. We furthermore conclude that 28 of them are BL Lacs, 8 are radio-loud quasars with flat radio spectrum and 6 are BL Lac whose emission is dominated by their host galaxy.

  5. P-MaNGA Galaxies: emission-lines properties - gas ionization and chemical abundances from prototype observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, F.; Maiolino, R.; Bundy, K.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; Wilkinson, D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Bershady, M.; Blanc, G. A.; Bothwell, M.; Cales, S. L.; Coccato, L.; Drory, N.; Emsellem, E.; Fu, H.; Gelfand, J.; Law, D.; Masters, K.; Parejko, J.; Tremonti, C.; Wake, D.; Weijmans, A.; Yan, R.; Xiao, T.; Zhang, K.; Zheng, T.; Bizyaev, D.; Kinemuchi, K.; Oravetz, D.; Simmons, A.

    2015-05-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is a 6-yr Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) survey that will obtain spatially resolved spectroscopy from 3600 to 10 300 Å for a representative sample of over 10 000 nearby galaxies. In this paper, we present the analysis of nebular emission-line properties using observations of 14 galaxies obtained with P-MaNGA, a prototype of the MaNGA instrument. By using spatially resolved diagnostic diagrams, we find extended star formation in galaxies that are centrally dominated by Seyfert/LINER-like emission, which illustrates that galaxy characterizations based on single fibre spectra are necessarily incomplete. We observe extended low ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINER)-like emission (up to 1Re) in the central regions of three galaxies. We make use of the Hα equivalent width [EW(Hα)] to argue that the observed emission is consistent with ionization from hot evolved stars. We derive stellar population indices and demonstrate a clear correlation between Dn(4000) and EW(HδA) and the position in the ionization diagnostic diagram: resolved galactic regions which are ionized by a Seyfert/LINER-like radiation field are also devoid of recent star formation and host older and/or more metal-rich stellar populations. We also detect extraplanar LINER-like emission in two highly inclined galaxies, and identify it with diffuse ionized gas. We investigate spatially resolved metallicities and find a positive correlation between metallicity and star formation rate surface density. We further study the relation between N/O versus O/H on resolved scales. We find that, at given N/O, regions within individual galaxies are spread towards lower metallicities, deviating from the sequence defined by galactic central regions as traced by Sloan 3-arcsec fibre spectra. We suggest that the observed dispersion can be a tracer for gas flows in galaxies: infalls of pristine gas and/or the effect of a galactic fountain.

  6. Chandra X-ray Grating Spectrometry of Eta Carinae near X-ray Minimum: I. Variability of the Sulfur and Silicon Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, D B; Pittard, J M; Stevens, I R; Hamaguchi, K; Gull, T R

    2008-01-01

    We report on variations in important X-ray emission lines in a series of Chandra grating spectra of the supermassive colliding wind binary star Eta Carinae, including key phases around the X-ray minimum/periastron passage in 2003.5. The X-rays arise from the collision of the slow, dense wind of Eta Car with the fast, low-density wind of an otherwise hidden companion star. The X-ray emission lines provide the only direct measure of the flow dynamics of the companion's wind along the wind-wind collision zone. We concentrate here on the silicon and sulfur lines, which are the strongest and best resolved lines in the X-ray spectra. Most of the line profiles can be adequately fit with symmetric Gaussians with little significant skewness. Both the silicon and sulfur lines show significant velocity shifts and correlated increases in line widths through the observations. The R = forbidden-to-intercombination ratio from the Si XIII and S XV triplets is near or above the low-density limit in all observations, suggestin...

  7. A strong emission line near 24.8 angstrom in the X-ray binary system MAXI J0556--332: gravitational redshift or unusual donor?

    CERN Document Server

    Maitra, Dipankar; Raymond, John C; Reynolds, Mark T

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of a strong emission line near 24.8 angstrom (0.5 keV) in the newly discovered X-ray binary system MAXI J0556-332 with the reflection grating spectrometer onboard the XMM-Newton observatory. The X-ray light curve morphology during these observations is complex and shows occasional dipping behavior. Here we present time- and rate-selected spectra from the RGS and show that this strong emission line is unambiguously present in all the XMM observations. The measured line center is consistent with the Ly-alpha transition of N VII in the rest frame. While the spectra contain imprints of absorption lines and edges, there appear to be no other significantly prominent narrow line due to the source itself, thus making the identification of the 24.8 angstrom line uncertain. We discuss possible physical scenarios, including a gravitationally redshifted O VIII Ly-alpha line originating at the surface of a neutron star or an unusual donor with an extremely high N/O abundance (>57) relative to solar...

  8. A generalized method for discriminating thermodynamic phase and retrieving cloud optical thickness and effective radius using transmitted shortwave radiance spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. LeBlanc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new retrieval scheme for cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and thermodynamic phase was developed for ground-based measurements of cloud shortwave spectral transmittance. 15 parameters were derived to quantify spectral variations in shortwave transmittance due to absorption and scattering of liquid water and ice clouds, manifested by shifts in spectral slopes, curvatures, maxima, and minima. To retrieve cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius a weighted least square fit that matched the modeled parameters was applied. The measurements for this analysis were made with a ground-based Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR in Boulder, Colorado, between May 2012 and January 2013. We compared the cloud optical thickness and effective radius from the new retrieval to two other retrieval methods. By using multiple spectral features, we find a closer fit (with a root mean square difference over the entire spectra of 3.1% for a liquid water cloud and 5.9% for an ice cloud between measured and modeled spectra compared to two other retrieval methods, which diverge by a root-mean-square of up to 6.4% for a liquid water cloud and 22.5% for an ice cloud. The new retrieval introduced here has an average uncertainty in effective radius (±1.2 μm smaller by factor of at least 2.5 than two other methods when applied to an ice cloud.

  9. Optical vibronic emission spectra for irradiation induced F aggregate centers in single crystal α-Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Saliqur, Rahman Abu Zayed; Awata, T.; Yamashita, N.; Xu, Qiu; Atobe, K.

    The optical vibronic emission spectra of the single crystal α-Al2O3 caused by neutron bombardment have been studied. New sharp line features near the 470 nm emission band were found. The phonon side band of the previously found zero-phonon line near the 380 nm emission band is also observed in the present study. Vibronic structures associated with the 470 nm emission band are predominantly featured. The Huang-Rhys factor and the Debye temperature are estimated by a curve fitting method to be 3.2 and 710 K, respectively. It can be seen that the origin of the 470 nm vibronic emission spectra is derived from the Fimg style="vertical-align: text-bottom;" class="inlinematheqn" src="/ampp/image?path=/713648881/915810374/grad_a_398864_o_ilm0001.gif" alt="./GRAD_A_398864_O_XML_IMAGES/GRAD_A_398864_O_ILM0001.gif" border="0" /> type center.

  10. Orientation and Optical Polarized Spectra (380–900 nm of Methylene Blue Crystals on a Glass Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja D. Milošević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystallographic directions of the crystal toward the vector of polarized light can accurately be positioned, so the information that we gain from polarized spectra can be consistently interpreted according to known crystal structure. The orientation and optical properties of the methylene blue (MB crystals were analyzed by XRD, XRPD, and polarized VIS-NIR spectroscopy. Cationic dye, MB, was polymerized into crystals on a glass slate. The blue color crystals showed pronounced dichroism, twin lamellar structure and bladed to fibrous habit. According to XRD data, [010] direction lies perpendicular to the crystal surface, so we recognized it as (0k0 face, while [100] and [001] directions coincide with crystal elongation and crystal thickness respectively. In this paper, the polarized spectra of MB crystal are presented, measured with the aim of acquisition of referent values, which could be helpful for the identification of MB molecular aggregation.

  11. Theoretical investigations of the optical and EPR spectra for trivalent cerium and ytterbium ions in orthorhombic YF3 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Chen

    2016-09-01

    The optical spectra and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters (g factors and hyperfine structure constants A) for trivalent cerium and ytterbium ions in YF3 crystal with orthorhombic structure are investigated together by the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method (CDM). The obtained results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. More importantly, two magnetically nonequivalent centers in YF3 crystal observed in EPR experiments are confirmed and ascribed to their specific positions in a unit cell by our calculations based on superposition model (SPM) analysis. Such identification of local sites with different magnetic properties would help us to understand not only the EPR spectra and magnetic susceptibility of other lanthanide ions doped in crystals with the same structure as YF3 but also the energy transfer scheme between two lanthanide ions occupying such two sites. All results are discussed carefully.

  12. FLASH SPECTROSCOPY: EMISSION LINES FROM THE IONIZED CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL AROUND <10-DAY-OLD TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazov, D.; Yaron, O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Manulis, I.; Rubin, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Horesh, A. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, The Weizmann Institute for Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kulkarni, S. R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.; Perley, D. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Sollerman, J. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Sullivan, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Filippenko, A. V.; Nugent, P. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Silverman, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ebeling, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2016-02-10

    Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra (≤10 days after the explosion), owing to recombination of the CSM ionized by the shock-breakout flash. From such spectra (“flash spectroscopy”), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 SNe II showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18% of SNe II observed at ages <5 days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as “blue/featureless” (BF) those events having a first spectrum that is similar to that of a blackbody, without any emission or absorption signatures. It is possible that some BF events had FI signatures at an earlier phase than observed, or that they lack dense CSM around the progenitor. Within 2 days after explosion, 8 out of 11 SNe in our sample are either BF events or show FI signatures. Interestingly, we found that 19 out of 21 SNe brighter than an absolute magnitude M{sub R} = −18.2 belong to the FI or BF groups, and that all FI events peaked above M{sub R} = −17.6 mag, significantly brighter than average SNe II.

  13. Optical Spectra of Ultracool Dwarfs with the Southern African Large Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Koen, C; Väisänen, P; Koen, T

    2016-01-01

    New spectra of 81 ultracool dwarfs (spectral types M7 and later) are discussed. Spectral classifications of 49 objects are available in the literature, while 32 objects are newly classified. The known spectral types were used to test an automated classification scheme, which relies primarily on template fitting, supplemented by matching of spectral indices calibrated against the template spectra. An attempt was made to quantify the uncertainty in the spectral types, which is generally better than two subclasses. Objects for which spectral types differ by more than one subclass from the literature classifications are discussed individually. Discrepancies between automated classifications based on respectively template fitting and spectral index matching, may be useful for flagging objects with unusual spectra. Aside from the 32 first-time classifications, alternative classifications are presented for 32 previously classified dwarfs. Very large (equivalent width greater than 130 \\AA) H$\\alpha$ flares are report...

  14. A new method for detecting velocity shifts and distortions between optical spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Tyler M

    2013-01-01

    Recent quasar spectroscopy from the VLT and Keck telescopes suggests that fundamental constants may not actually be constant. To better confirm or refute this result, systematic errors between telescopes must be minimized. We present a new method to directly compare spectra of the same object and measure any velocity shifts between them. This method allows for the discovery of wavelength-dependent velocity shifts between spectra, i.e. velocity distortions, that could produce spurious detections of cosmological variations in fundamental constants. This "direct comparison" method has several advantages over alternative techniques: it is model-independent (cf. line-fitting approaches), blind, in that spectral features do not need to be identified beforehand, and it produces meaningful uncertainty estimates for the velocity shift measurements. In particular, we demonstrate that, when comparing echelle-resolution spectra with unresolved absorption features, the uncertainty estimates are reliable for signal-to-nois...

  15. Structure Prediction of Self-Assembled Dye Aggregates from Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy, Molecular Mechanics, and Theory of Optical Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Christian; Renger, Thomas; Berlepsch, Hans V; Ludwig, Kai; Schmidt Am Busch, Marcel; Megow, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) studies suggest that TTBC molecules self-assemble in aqueous solution to form single-walled tubes with a diameter of about 35 Å. In order to reveal the arrangement and mutual orientations of the individual molecules in the tube, we combine information from crystal structure data of this dye with a calculation of linear absorbance and linear dichroism spectra and molecular dynamics simulations. We start with wrapping crystal planes in different directions to obtain tubes of suitable diameter. This set of tube models is evaluated by comparing the resulting optical spectra with experimental data. The tubes that can explain the spectra are investigated further by molecular dynamics simulations, including explicit solvent molecules. From the trajectories of the most stable tube models, the short-range ordering of the dye molecules is extracted and the optimization of the structure is iteratively completed. The final structural model is a tube of rings with 6-fold rotational symmetry, where neighboring rings are rotated by 30° and the transition dipole moments of the chromophores form an angle of 74° with respect to the symmetry axis of the tube. This model is in agreement with cryo-TEM images and can explain the optical spectra, consisting of a sharp red-shifted J-band that is polarized parallel to to the symmetry axis of the tube and a broad blue-shifted H-band polarized perpendicular to this axis. The general structure of the homogeneous spectrum of this hybrid HJ-aggregate is described by an analytical model that explains the difference in redistribution of oscillator strength inside the vibrational manifolds of the J- and H-bands and the relative intensities and excitation energies of those bands. In addition to the particular system investigated here, the present methodology can be expected to aid the structure prediction for a wide range of self-assembled dye aggregates.

  16. Vibrational relaxation beyond the linear damping limit in two-dimensional optical spectra of molecular aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlík, Václav; Šanda, František

    2017-08-01

    We present a computational model for the spectra of molecular aggregates with signatures of vibronic progression. Vibronic dynamics is implemented by coupling the dynamics of Frenkel excitons with underdamped vibrations. Vibrational dynamics includes linear damping resulting in the exponential decay and quadratic damping inducing subexponential or power law relaxation and increasing vibrational decoherence as demonstrated on lineshapes of the absorption spectrum. Simulations of the third-order coherent response account for bath reorganization during excitonic transport, which allows us to study the line-shape evolution of cross peaks of 2D spectra.

  17. Optical absorption spectra as a useful tool to find parameters of deep impurity centers in semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhniy, Viktor P; Horley, Paul P; Kinzerskaya, Oksana V; Stets, Elena V

    2014-04-01

    We analyze physical models accounting for deep-level conduction band transitions to describe impurity absorption spectra in tetrahedral-structured semiconductors. The investigations were carried out for ZnSe crystals doped with transition metals (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) from a vapor phase. It was shown that the impurities provide acceptor centers with ground state energy offset by 0.3-0.6 eV from the edge of the conduction band, forming long-wave bands in the absorption spectra of the materials studied.

  18. Detection of an oxygen emission line from a high redshift galaxy in the reionization epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Akio K; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Ken; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ota, Kazuaki; Yoshida, Naoki; Zackrisson, Erik; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kohno, Kotaro; Umehata, Hideki; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Iye, Masanori; Matsuda, Yuichi; Okamoto, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The physical properties and elemental abundances of the interstellar medium in galaxies during cosmic reionization are important for understanding the role of galaxies in this process. We report the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detection of an oxygen emission line at a wavelength of 88 micrometers from a galaxy at an epoch about 700 million years after the Big Bang. The oxygen abundance of this galaxy is estimated at about one-tenth that of the Sun. The non-detection of far-infrared continuum emission indicates a deficiency of interstellar dust in the galaxy. A carbon emission line at a wavelength of 158 micrometers is also not detected, implying an unusually small amount of neutral gas. These properties might allow ionizing photons to escape into the intergalactic medium.

  19. Using an Artificial Neural Network to Classify Multi-component Emission Line Fits

    CERN Document Server

    Hampton, Elise J; Medling, Anne; Davies, Rebecca; Dopita, Mike; Ho, I-Ting; Kaasinen, Melanie; Kewley, Lisa; Leslie, Sarah; Sharp, Rob; Sweet, Sarah M; Thomas, Adam D

    2016-01-01

    We present The Machine, an artificial neural network (ANN) capable of differentiating between the numbers of Gaussian components needed to describe the emission lines of Integral Field Spectroscopic (IFS) observations. Here we show the preliminary results of the S7 first data release (Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectro- scopic Snapshot Survey, Dopita et al. 2015) and SAMI Galaxy Survey (Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral Field Unit, Croom et al. 2012) to classify whether the emission lines in each spatial pixel are composed of 1, 2, or 3 different Gaussian components. Previously this classification has been done by individual people, taking an hour per galaxy. This time investment is no longer feasible with the large spectroscopic surveys coming online.

  20. Weak Emission Line Quasars in the Context of a Modified Baldwin Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shemmer, Ohad

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of the C IV \\lambda1549 broad-emission line, monochromatic luminosity at rest-frame 5100 A, and the Hbeta-based Eddington ratio in a sample of 99 ordinary quasars across the widest possible ranges of redshift (0 ~3 \\sigma\\ level, by exhibiting C IV lines much weaker than predicted from their Hbeta-based Eddington ratios. Assuming the supermassive black-hole masses in all quasars can be determined reliably using the single-epoch Hbeta-method, our results indicate that EW(C IV) cannot depend solely on the Eddington ratio. We briefly discuss a strategy for further investigation into the roles that basic physical properties play in controlling the relative strengths of broad-emission lines in quasars.

  1. Spectro-astrometric Study of HI emission lines from Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade Adams, Steven; Brittain, Sean D.; Dougados, Catherine; Benisty, Myriam; Podio, Linda; Whelan, Emma

    2015-01-01

    We present a spectro-astrometric study of the Pa β and Br γ lines from six Herbig Ae/Be stars using NIFS on Gemini North. The goal of this study is to determine the origin of the HI emission lines. By combining the high angular resolution ( 0.1") and intermediate spectral resolution (R~5000) of GEMINI/NIFS we measured the spectro-astrometric signal of the Pa β and Br γ emission lines at the 0.1 mas level. The HAe stars showed no significant spectro-astrometric signal, while the HBe stars did show significant detections. We compare our results to models and discuss the implications for understanding the origin of the HI lines in Herbig Ae/Be stars and their utility for measuring the accretion rate. We also discuss various artifacts in the data and prospects for more sensitive measurements in the future.

  2. LZIFU: an emission-line fitting toolkit for integral field spectroscopy data

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, I-Ting; Groves, Brent; Rich, Jeffrey A; Rupke, David S N; Hampton, Elise; Kewley, Lisa J; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Croom, Scott M; Richards, Samuel; Schaefer, Adam L; Sharp, Rob; Sweet, Sarah M

    2016-01-01

    We present LZIFU (LaZy-IFU), an IDL toolkit for fitting multiple emission lines simultaneously in integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data. LZIFU is useful for the investigation of the dynamical, physical and chemical properties of gas in galaxies. LZIFU has already been applied to many world-class IFS instruments and large IFS surveys, including the Wide Field Spectrograph, the new Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey, the Sydney-Australian-astronomical-observatory Multi-object Integral-field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. Here we describe in detail the structure of the toolkit, and how the line fluxes and flux uncertainties are determined, including the possibility of having multiple distinct kinematic components. We quantify the performance of LZIFU, demonstrating its accuracy and robustness. We also show examples of applying LZIFU to CALIFA and SAMI data to construct emission line and kinematic maps, and investigate complex, skewed line prof...

  3. Formation of the infrared emission lines of Mg I in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E. S.; Avrett, E. H.; Noyes, R. W.; Loeser, R.; Mauas, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    A non-LTE radiative transfer investigation of the emission lines is conducted at 7 and 12 microns using a realistic atomic model for neutral magnesium. An average quiet sun atmospheric model is used to calculate emission-line profiles that resemble the observed ones, i.e., broad absorption troughs with narrow central emission, and significant limb brightening. The charge exchange rates are found to be significant, but the effects of high-n coupling between Mg and Mg(+) together with radiative low-n transitions are of greater importance. It is confirmed that the emission cores are formed no higher than the temperature minimum region, and that the emission is caused by non-LTE effects rather than by the chromospheric temperature rise. It is inferred from the model calculations that the line core is sensitive to magnetic fields located almost 400 km above those measured in ordinary magnetograms; the gas pressure decreases 20-fold between these two heights.

  4. Theoretical quasar emission-line ratios. VII - Energy-balance models for finite hydrogen slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, E. N.; Puetter, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The present energy balance calculations for finite, isobaric, hydrogen-slab quasar emission line clouds incorporate probabilistic radiative transfer (RT) in all lines and bound-free continua of a five-level continuum model hydrogen atom. Attention is given to the line ratios, line formation regions, level populations and model applicability results obtained. H lines and a variety of other considerations suggest the possibility of emission line cloud densities in excess of 10 to the 10th/cu cm. Lyman-beta/Lyman-alpha line ratios that are in agreement with observed values are obtained by the models. The observed Lyman/Balmer ratios can be achieved with clouds whose column depths are about 10 to the 22nd/sq cm.

  5. Detection of an oxygen emission line from a high-redshift galaxy in the reionization epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akio K; Tamura, Yoichi; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Ken; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ota, Kazuaki; Yoshida, Naoki; Zackrisson, Erik; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kohno, Kotaro; Umehata, Hideki; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Iye, Masanori; Matsuda, Yuichi; Okamoto, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yuki

    2016-06-24

    The physical properties and elemental abundances of the interstellar medium in galaxies during cosmic reionization are important for understanding the role of galaxies in this process. We report the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detection of an oxygen emission line at a wavelength of 88 micrometers from a galaxy at an epoch about 700 million years after the Big Bang. The oxygen abundance of this galaxy is estimated at about one-tenth that of the Sun. The nondetection of far-infrared continuum emission indicates a deficiency of interstellar dust in the galaxy. A carbon emission line at a wavelength of 158 micrometers is also not detected, implying an unusually small amount of neutral gas. These properties might allow ionizing photons to escape into the intergalactic medium.

  6. A High Fraction of Ly-alpha-Emitters Among Galaxies with Extreme Emission Line Ratios at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Erb, Dawn K; Steidel, Charles C; Strom, Allison L; Rudie, Gwen C; Trainor, Ryan F; Shapley, Alice E; Reddy, Naveen A

    2016-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies form a sequence in the [OIII]/H-beta vs. [NII]/H-alpha diagnostic diagram, with low metallicity, highly ionized galaxies falling in the upper left corner. Drawing from a large sample of UV-selected star-forming galaxies at z~2 with rest-frame optical nebular emission line measurements from Keck-MOSFIRE, we select the extreme ~5% of the galaxies lying in this upper left corner, requiring log([NII]/H-alpha) = 0.75. These cuts identify galaxies with 12 + log(O/H) 20 A. We compare the equivalent width distribution of a sample of 522 UV-selected galaxies at 2.0optical line ratios; this sample has mean (median) Ly-alpha equivalent width -1 (-4) A, and only 9% of these galaxies qualify as LAEs. The extreme galaxies typically have lower attenuation at Ly-alpha than those in the comparison sample, and have ~50% lower median oxygen abundances. Both factors are likely to facilitate the escape of Ly-alpha: in less dusty galaxies Ly-alpha photons are l...

  7. Structural characterization of astaxanthin aggregates as revealed by analysis and simulation of optical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liping; Hu, Taoping; Xu, Zhigang

    2017-10-01

    Carotenoids can self-assemble in hydrated polar solvents to form J- or H-type aggregates, inducing dramatic changes in photophysical properties. Here, we measured absorption and emission spectra of astaxanthin in ethanol-water solution using ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectrometers. Two types of aggregates were distinguished in mixed solution at different water contents by absorption spectra. After addition of water, all probed samples immediately formed H-aggregates with maximum blue shift of 31 nm. In addition, J-aggregate was formed in 1:3 ethanol-water solution measured after an hour. Based on Frenkel exciton model, we calculated linear absorption and emission spectra of these aggregates to describe aggregate structures in solution. For astaxanthin, experimental results agreed well with the fitted spectra of H-aggregate models, which consisted of tightly packed stacks of individual molecules, including hexamers, trimers, and dimers. Transition moment of single astaxanthin in ethanol was obtained by Gaussian 09 program package to estimate the distance between molecules in aggregates. Intermolecular distance of astaxanthin aggregates ranges from 0.45 nm to 0.9 nm. Fluorescence analysis showed that between subbands, strong exciton coupling induced rapid relaxation of H-aggregates. This coupling generated larger Stokes shift than monomers and J-aggregates.

  8. A novel measuring method for arbitrary optical vortex by three spiral spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bo; Guo, Lana; Yue, Chengfeng; Tang, Zhilie

    2017-02-01

    In this letter, the topological charge of non-integer vortices determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra is theoretically demonstrated for the first time. Based on the conclusion, a novel method to measure non-integer vortices is presented. This method is applicable not only to arbitrary non-integer vortex but also to arbitrary integer vortex.

  9. Optical absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra of thiouracils: a quantum mechanical study in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Fernández, L.; Fahleson, Tobias; Norman, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The excited electronic states of 2-thiouracil, 4-thiouracil and 2,4-dithiouracil, the analogues of uracil where the carbonyl oxygens are substituted by sulphur atoms, have been investigated by computing the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and one-photon absorption (OPA) spectra at the time...

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nebular emission lines towards NGC3372 center (Damiani+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, F.; Bonito, R.; Magrini, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Mapelli, M.; Micela, G.; Kalari, V.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Worley, C.; Zaggia, S.; Zwitter, T.; Dorda, R.

    2016-04-01

    Nebular emission lines of H-alpha, [NII] 6584Å, HeI 6678Å, [SII] 6717Å, [SII] 6731Å, towards the center of Carina nebula, are modeled with two gaussians each ('blue' and 'red' components). Best-fit parameters are given in the table. Line widths include the instrumental width of the Giraffe spectrograph (7km/s). Radial velocities are heliocentric. (1 data file).

  11. A Near-Infrared Imaging Study of Seyfert Galaxies with Extended Emission line Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Simpson, Chris; Ward, Martin J.; Wilson, Andrew S.

    1997-01-01

    We present a near-infrared J,H,K and L' band (1.25 - 3.80 mue) imaging study of a sample of Seyfert galaxies, including some of the best studied examples of these with extended emission line regions (EELR). The observed near-IR nuclear colors are consistent with mixture of emmisions from an old stellar population and unredening hot dust.

  12. A z ∼ 5.7 Lyα emission line with an ultrabroad red wing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, JunXian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo, E-mail: yanghuan@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zzheng13@asu.edu, E-mail: smalhotr@asu.edu, E-mail: james.rhoads@asu.edu, E-mail: linfante@astro.puc.cl [Institute of Astrophysics, Ponticia Universidad Catolica, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-03-20

    Using the Lyα emission line as a tracer of high-redshift, star-forming galaxies, hundreds of Lyα emission line galaxies (LAEs) at z > 5 have been detected. These LAEs are considered to be low-mass young galaxies, critical to the re-ionization of the universe and the metal enrichment of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM). It is assumed that outflows in LAEs can help both ionizing photons and Lyα photons escape from galaxies. However, we still know little about the outflows in high-redshift LAEs due to observational difficulties, especially at redshift >5. Models of Lyα radiative transfer predict asymmetric Lyα line profiles with broad red wings in LAEs with outflows. Here, we report a z ∼ 5.7 Lyα emission line with a broad red wing extending to >1000 km s{sup –1} relative to the peak of Lyα line, which has been detected in only a couple of z > 5 LAEs until now. If the broad red wing is ascribed to gas outflow instead of active galactic nucleus activity, the outflow velocity could be larger than the escape velocity (∼500 km s{sup –1}) of a typical halo mass of z ∼ 5.7 LAEs, which is consistent with the idea that outflows in LAEs disperse metals to CGM and IGM.

  13. A z ~ 5.7 Ly{\\alpha} Emission Line with an Ultra Broad Red Wing

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E; Infante, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    Using Ly{\\alpha} emission line as a tracer of high redshift star forming galaxies, hundreds of Ly{\\alpha} emission line galaxies (LAEs) at z > 5 have been detected. These LAEs are considered to be low mass young galaxies, critical to the reionization of the universe and the metal enrichment of circumgalactic medium (CGM) and intergalactic medium (IGM). It is assumed that outflows in LAEs can help ionizing photons and Ly{\\alpha} photons escape out of galaxies. However we still know little about the outflows in high redshifts LAEs due to observational difficulties, especially at redshift > 5. Models of Ly{\\alpha} radiative transfer predict asymmetric Ly{\\alpha} line profiles with broad red wing in LAEs with outflows. Here we report a z ~ 5.7 Ly{\\alpha} emission line with a broad red wing extending to > 1000 km/s relative to the peak of Ly{\\alpha} line, which has been detected in only a couple of z > 5 LAEs till now. If the broad red wing is ascribed to gas outflow instead of AGN activity, the outflow velocity c...

  14. EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN CANDELS: BROADBAND-SELECTED, STARBURSTING DWARF GALAXIES AT z > 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wel, A.; Rix, H.-W.; Jahnke, K. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Straughn, A. N. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L.; Salmon, B. W. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Koekemoer, A. M.; Ferguson, H. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Weiner, B. J. [Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry St., University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wuyts, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; Koo, D. C. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Scarlata, C. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. S.E. Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hathi, N. P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Newman, J. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); De Mello, D. F., E-mail: vdwel@mpia.de [Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); and others

    2011-12-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z {approx} 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). Sixty-nine EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broadband magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [O III] emission lines-with rest-frame equivalent widths {approx}1000 A-in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M{sub *}/ M-dot{sub *} of only {approx}15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the comoving number density (3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3}) can produce in {approx}4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  15. Data-driven dissection of emission-line regions in Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Villarroel, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Indirectly resolving the line-emitting gas regions in distant Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) requires both high-resolution photometry and spectroscopy (i.e. through reverberation mapping). Emission in AGN originates on widely different scales; the broad-line region (BLR) has a typical radius less than a few parsec, the narrow-line region (NLR) extends out to hundreds of parsecs. But emission also appears on large scales from heated nebulae in the host galaxies (tenths of kpc). We propose a novel, data-driven method based on correlations between emission-line fluxes to identify which of the emission lines are produced in the same kind of emission-line regions. We test the method on Seyfert galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) and Galaxy Zoo project. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method on Seyfert-1s and Seyfert-2 objects, showing similar narrow-line regions (NLRs). Preliminary results from comparing Seyfert-2s in spiral and elliptical galaxy hosts suggest that the presenc...

  16. Oxygen emission line properties from analysis of MAVEN-IUVS Echellograms of the Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyasi, Majd A.; Clarke, John T.; Stewart, Ian; McClintock, William; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Jakosky, Bruce; IUVS Team

    2016-10-01

    The high resolution echelle mode of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument has been used to spectrally image the sunlit limb of Mars during the spacecraft periapse orbital segments. When multiple images are co-added over a few hours, there are detectable spectral emission features that have been identified to originate from atomic and molecular neutral species such as H, D, N, O, CO as well as from C+ ions. The echelle detector has a localized spectral resolution of ~0.008 Angstrom and is therefore capable of spectrally resolving the oxygen resonant triplet (130.217, 130.486 and 130.603 nm) and forbidden doublet (135.560 and 135.851 nm) emission lines. The brightness of each of these emission lines has been determined and will be compared with detected brightnesses of other species. The emission line integrated brightness ratios are being analyzed for insights into the abundance, excitation, and variability of oxygen in the martian atmosphere.

  17. A New Diagnostic Diagram of Ionization Source for High Redshift Emission Line Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new diagram, the Kinematic-Excitation diagram (KEx diagram), which uses the [OIII]/H\\beta\\ line ratio and the [OIII]5007 emission line width (\\sigma_{[OIII]}) to diagnose the ionization source and physical properties of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) and the star-forming galaxies (SFGs). The KEx diagram is a suitable tool to classify emission-line galaxies (ELGs) at intermediate redshift because it uses only the [OIII]5007 and H\\beta\\ emission lines. We use the SDSS DR7 main galaxy sample and the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagnostic to calibrate the diagram at low redshift. We find that the diagram can be divided into 3 regions: one occupied mainly by the pure AGNs (KEx-AGN region), one dominated by composite galaxies (KEx-composite region), and one contains mostly SFGs (KEx-SFG region). AGNs are separated from SFGs in this diagram mainly because they preferentially reside in luminous and massive galaxies and have high [OIII]/H\\beta. The separation of AGN from star-forming galaxies is e...

  18. Elemental Abundances in the Broad Emission Line Region of Quasars at Redshifts larger than 4

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Hamann, F; Heidt, J; Jäger, K; Vestergaard, M; Wagner, S J

    2003-01-01

    We present observations of 11 high redshift quasars ($3.9 \\la z \\la 5.0$) observed with low spectral resolution in the restframe ultraviolet using FORS 1 at the VLT UT 1. The emission-line fluxes of strong permitted and intercombination ultraviolet emission lines are measured to estimate the chemical composition of the line emitting gas. Comparisons to photoionization calculations indicate gas metallicities in the broad emission line region in the range of solar to several times solar. The average of the mean metallicity of each high-z quasar in this sample is $Z/Z_\\odot = 4.3 \\pm 0.3$. Assuming a chemical evolution time scale of $\\tau_{evol} \\simeq 0.5 - 0.8$ Gyrs, we derive a redshift of $z_f \\simeq 6 {\\rm to} 8$ for the onset of the first major star formation episode (H$_o = 65$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, $\\Omega_M = 0.3$, $\\Omega_\\Lambda = 0.7$), corresponding to an age of the universe of several $10^8$ yrs at this epoch. We note that this epoch is also supposed to be the era of re-ionization of the universe...

  19. Emission line taxonomy and the nature of AGN-looking galaxies in the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, Roberto Cid; Asari, Natalia Vale; Mateus, Abilio; Schlickmann, Marielli; Schoenell, William

    2009-01-01

    Massive spectroscopic surveys like the SDSS have revolutionized the way we study AGN and their relations to the galaxies they live in. A first step in any such study is to define samples of different types of AGN on the basis of emission line ratios. This deceivingly simple step involves decisions on which classification scheme to use and data quality censorship. Galaxies with weak emission lines are often left aside or dealt with separately because one cannot fully classify them onto the standard Star-Forming, Seyfert of LINER categories. This contribution summarizes alternative classification schemes which include this very numerous population. We then study how star-formation histories and physical properties of the hosts vary from class to class, and present compelling evidence that the emission lines in the majority of LINER-like systems in the SDSS are not powered by black-hole accretion. The data are fully consistent with them being galaxies whose old stars provide all the ionizing power needed to expl...

  20. IFU spectroscopy of 10 early type galactic nuclei: II - Nuclear emission line properties

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, T V; Menezes, R B

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well known that massive galaxies have central black holes, most of them accreting at low Eddington ratios, many important questions still remain open. Among them, are the nature of the ionizing source, the characteristics and frequencies of the broad line region and of the dusty torus. We report observations of 10 early-type galactic nuclei, observed with the IFU/GMOS spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope, analysed with standard techniques for spectral treatment and compared with results obtained with principal component analysis Tomography (Paper I). We performed spectral synthesis of each spaxel of the data cubes and subtracted the stellar component from the original cube, leaving a data cube with emission lines only. The emission lines were decomposed in multi-Gaussian components. We show here that, for eight galaxies previously known to have emission lines, the narrow line region can be decomposed in two components with distinct line widths. In addition to this, broad H$\\alpha$ emissio...