WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical brain imaging

  1. Diffuse Optical Tomography for Brain Imaging: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen; Jiang, Huabei

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive, nonionizing, and inexpensive imaging technique that uses near-infrared light to probe tissue optical properties. Regional variations in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations as well as blood flow and oxygen consumption can be imaged by monitoring spatiotemporal variations in the absorption spectra. For brain imaging, this provides DOT unique abilities to directly measure the hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuronal responses to cells (neurons), and tissue and organ activations with high temporal resolution and good tissue penetration. DOT can be used as a stand-alone modality or can be integrated with other imaging modalities such as fMRI/MRI, PET/CT, and EEG/MEG in studying neurophysiology and pathology. This book chapter serves as an introduction to the basic theory and principles of DOT for neuroimaging. It covers the major aspects of advances in neural optical imaging including mathematics, physics, chemistry, reconstruction algorithm, instrumentation, image-guided spectroscopy, neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling, and clinical applications.

  2. Optical Methods and Instrumentation in Brain Imaging and Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of optical approaches used in brain imaging and therapy. It covers a variety of imaging techniques including diffuse optical imaging, laser speckle imaging, photoacoustic imaging and optical coherence tomography. A number of laser-based therapeutic approaches are reviewed, including photodynamic therapy, fluorescence guided resection and photothermal therapy. Fundamental principles and instrumentation are discussed for each imaging and therapeutic technique. Represents the first publication dedicated solely to optical diagnostics and therapeutics in the brain Provides a comprehensive review of the principles of each imaging/therapeutic modality Reviews the latest advances in instrumentation for optical diagnostics in the brain Discusses new optical-based therapeutic approaches for brain diseases

  3. Adaptive optical microscope for brain imaging in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai

    2017-04-01

    The optical heterogeneity of biological tissue imposes a major limitation to acquire detailed structural and functional information deep in the biological specimens using conventional microscopes. To restore optimal imaging performance, we developed an adaptive optical microscope based on direct wavefront sensing technique. This microscope can reliably measure and correct biological samples induced aberration. We demonstrated its performance and application in structural and functional brain imaging in various animal models, including fruit fly, zebrafish and mouse.

  4. Development of integrated semiconductor optical sensors for functional brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T.

    Optical imaging of neural activity is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain function in the field of neuroscience research, and has been used to study the cerebral cortex in vivo for over two decades. Maps of brain activity are obtained by monitoring intensity changes in back-scattered light, called Intrinsic Optical Signals (IOS), that correspond to fluctuations in blood oxygenation and volume associated with neural activity. Current imaging systems typically employ bench-top equipment including lamps and CCD cameras to study animals using visible light. Such systems require the use of anesthetized or immobilized subjects with craniotomies, which imposes limitations on the behavioral range and duration of studies. The ultimate goal of this work is to overcome these limitations by developing a single-chip semiconductor sensor using arrays of sources and detectors operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. A single-chip implementation, combined with wireless telemetry, will eliminate the need for immobilization or anesthesia of subjects and allow in vivo studies of free behavior. NIR light offers additional advantages because it experiences less absorption in animal tissue than visible light, which allows for imaging through superficial tissues. This, in turn, reduces or eliminates the need for traumatic surgery and enables long-term brain-mapping studies in freely-behaving animals. This dissertation concentrates on key engineering challenges of implementing the sensor. This work shows the feasibility of using a GaAs-based array of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and PIN photodiodes for IOS imaging. I begin with in-vivo studies of IOS imaging through the skull in mice, and use these results along with computer simulations to establish minimum performance requirements for light sources and detectors. I also evaluate the performance of a current commercial VCSEL for IOS imaging, and conclude with a proposed prototype sensor.

  5. Functional connectivity of the rodent brain using optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Codina, Edgar

    The aim of this thesis is to apply functional connectivity in a variety of animal models, using several optical imaging modalities. Even at rest, the brain shows high metabolic activity: the correlation in slow spontaneous fluctuations identifies remotely connected areas of the brain; hence the term "functional connectivity". Ongoing changes in spontaneous activity may provide insight into the neural processing that takes most of the brain metabolic activity, and so may provide a vast source of disease related changes. Brain hemodynamics may be modified during disease and affect resting-state activity. The thesis aims to better understand these changes in functional connectivity due to disease, using functional optical imaging. The optical imaging techniques explored in the first two contributions of this thesis are Optical Imaging of Intrinsic Signals and Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging, together they can estimate the metabolic rate of oxygen consumption, that closely parallels neural activity. They both have adequate spatial and temporal resolution and are well adapted to image the convexity of the mouse cortex. In the last article, a depth-sensitive modality called photoacoustic tomography was used in the newborn rat. Optical coherence tomography and laminar optical tomography were also part of the array of imaging techniques developed and applied in other collaborations. The first article of this work shows the changes in functional connectivity in an acute murine model of epileptiform activity. Homologous correlations are both increased and decreased with a small dependence on seizure duration. These changes suggest a potential decoupling between the hemodynamic parameters in resting-state networks, underlining the importance to investigate epileptic networks with several independent hemodynamic measures. The second study examines a novel murine model of arterial stiffness: the unilateral calcification of the right carotid. Seed-based connectivity analysis

  6. Towards optical brain imaging: getting light through a bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. V.; Hokr, B. H.; Nodurft, D. T.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2018-06-01

    Optical imaging and detection in biological samples is severely limited by scattering effects. In particular, optical techniques for measuring conditions beneath the skull and within the bone marrow hold significant promise when it comes to speed, sensitivity and specificity. However, the strong optical scattering due to bone hinders the realization of these methods. In this article, we propose a technique to enhance the transmittance of light through bone. This is achieved by injecting light below the top surface of the bone and utilizing multiple scattering to increase transmittance. This technique suggests that enhancements of 2-6 times may be realized by injection of light 1 mm below the surface of the bone. By enhancing the transmittance of light through bone, we will greatly improve our ability to utilize optical methods to better understand and diagnose conditions within biological media.

  7. Brain connectivity study of joint attention using frequency-domain optical imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-02-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic populations. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is being used to study brain connectivity for the first time in response to joint attention experience in normal adults. The prefrontal region of the brain was non-invasively imaged using a frequency-domain based optical imager. The imaging studies were performed on 11 normal right-handed adults and optical measurements were acquired in response to joint-attention based video clips. While the intensity-based optical data provides information about the hemodynamic response of the underlying neural process, the time-dependent phase-based optical data has the potential to explicate the directional information on the activation of the brain. Thus brain connectivity studies are performed by computing covariance/correlations between spatial units using this frequency-domain based optical measurements. The preliminary results indicate that the extent of synchrony and directional variation in the pattern of activation varies in the left and right frontal cortex. The results have significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using diffuse optical imaging tools in the future.

  8. A tunable continuous wave (CW) and short-pulse optical source for THz brain imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakopoulos, P; Karanasiou, I; Zakynthinos, P; Uzunoglu, N; Avramopoulos, H; Pleros, N

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate recent advances toward the development of a novel 2D THz imaging system for brain imaging applications both at the macroscopic and at the bimolecular level. A frequency-synthesized THz source based on difference frequency generation between optical wavelengths is presented, utilizing supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear optical fiber with subsequent spectral carving by means of a fiber Fabry–Perot filter. Experimental results confirm the successful generation of THz radiation in the range of 0.2–2 THz, verifying the enhanced frequency tunability properties of the proposed system. Finally, the roadmap toward capturing functional brain information by exploiting THz imaging technologies is discussed, outlining the unique advantages offered by THz frequencies and their complementarity with existing brain imaging techniques

  9. Optical coherence tomography imaging of cranial meninges post brain injury in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo June Choi; Ruikang K.Wang

    2017-01-01

    We report a new application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate the cranial meninges in an animal model of brain injury in vivo.The injury is induced in a mouse due to skull thinning,in which the repeated and excessive drilling exerts mechanical stress on the mouse brain through the skull,resulting in acute and mild brain injury.Transcranial OCT imaging reveals an interesting virtual space between the cranial meningeal layers post skull thinning,which is gradually closed within hours.The finding suggests a promise of OCT as an effective tool to monitor the mechanical trauma in the small animal model of brain injury.

  10. Towards real-time diffuse optical tomography for imaging brain functions cooperated with Kalman estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Dongyuan; Ding, Xuemei; Dan, Mai; Pan, Tiantian; Wang, Yihan; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2018-02-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive neuroimaging method to monitor the cerebral hemodynamic through the optical changes measured at the scalp surface. It has played a more and more important role in psychology and medical imaging communities. Real-time imaging of brain function using NIRS makes it possible to explore some sophisticated human brain functions unexplored before. Kalman estimator has been frequently used in combination with modified Beer-Lamber Law (MBLL) based optical topology (OT), for real-time brain function imaging. However, the spatial resolution of the OT is low, hampering the application of OT in exploring some complicated brain functions. In this paper, we develop a real-time imaging method combining diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and Kalman estimator, much improving the spatial resolution. Instead of only presenting one spatially distributed image indicating the changes of the absorption coefficients at each time point during the recording process, one real-time updated image using the Kalman estimator is provided. Its each voxel represents the amplitude of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) associated with this voxel. We evaluate this method using some simulation experiments, demonstrating that this method can obtain more reliable spatial resolution images. Furthermore, a statistical analysis is also conducted to help to decide whether a voxel in the field of view is activated or not.

  11. Multichannel optical brain imaging to separate cerebral vascular, tissue metabolic, and neuronal effects of cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hugang; Luo, Zhongchi; Yuan, Zhijia; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2012-02-01

    Characterization of cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation metabolic changes, as well neuronal function is of great importance to study of brain functions and the relevant brain disorders such as drug addiction. Compared with other neuroimaging modalities, optical imaging techniques have the potential for high spatiotemporal resolution and dissection of the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobing oxygenation and intracellular Ca ([Ca2+]i), which serves as markers of vascular function, tissue metabolism and neuronal activity, respectively. Recently, we developed a multiwavelength imaging system and integrated it into a surgical microscope. Three LEDs of λ1=530nm, λ2=570nm and λ3=630nm were used for exciting [Ca2+]i fluorescence labeled by Rhod2 (AM) and sensitizing total hemoglobin (i.e., CBV), and deoxygenated-hemoglobin, whereas one LD of λ1=830nm was used for laser speckle imaging to form a CBF mapping of the brain. These light sources were time-sharing for illumination on the brain and synchronized with the exposure of CCD camera for multichannel images of the brain. Our animal studies indicated that this optical approach enabled simultaneous mapping of cocaine-induced changes in CBF, CBV and oxygenated- and deoxygenated hemoglobin as well as [Ca2+]i in the cortical brain. Its high spatiotemporal resolution (30μm, 10Hz) and large field of view (4x5 mm2) are advanced as a neuroimaging tool for brain functional study.

  12. Integrated semiconductor optical sensors for chronic, minimally-invasive imaging of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T; Levi, Ofer; Cang, Jianhua; Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P; Smith, Stephen J; Shenoy, Krishna V; Harris, James S

    2006-01-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain activity. We propose an integrated device consisting of interleaved arrays of gallium arsenide (GaAs) based semiconductor light sources and detectors operating at telecommunications wavelengths in the near-infrared. Such a device will allow for long-term, minimally invasive monitoring of neural activity in freely behaving subjects, and will enable the use of structured illumination patterns to improve system performance. In this work we describe the proposed system and show that near-infrared IOS imaging at wavelengths compatible with semiconductor devices can produce physiologically significant images in mice, even through skull.

  13. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques of brain imaging and results in perfusion studies and delayed images are outlined. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the brain scan in a variety of common problems is discussed, especially as compared with other available procedures. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions are considered. (Auth/C.F.)

  14. Brain activation and connectivity of social cognition using diffuse optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2009-02-01

    In the current research, diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is used for the first time towards studies related to sociocommunication impairments, which is a characteristic feature of autism. DOI studies were performed on normal adult volunteers to determine the differences in the brain activation (cognitive regions) in terms of the changes in the cerebral blood oxygenation levels in response to joint and non-joint attention based stimulus (i.e. socio-communicative paradigms shown as video clips). Functional connectivity models are employed to assess the extent of synchronization between the left and right pre-frontal regions of the brain in response to the above stimuli.

  15. Intraoperative brain hemodynamic response assessment with real-time hyperspectral optical imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Audrey; Pichette, Julien; Angulo-Rodríguez, Leticia M.; Saint Pierre, Catherine; Lesage, Frédéric; Bouthillier, Alain; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Leblond, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Following normal neuronal activity, there is an increase in cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume to provide oxygenated hemoglobin to active neurons. For abnormal activity such as epileptiform discharges, this hemodynamic response may be inadequate to meet the high metabolic demands. To verify this hypothesis, we developed a novel hyperspectral imaging system able to monitor real-time cortical hemodynamic changes during brain surgery. The imaging system is directly integrated into a surgical microscope, using the white-light source for illumination. A snapshot hyperspectral camera is used for detection (4x4 mosaic filter array detecting 16 wavelengths simultaneously). We present calibration experiments where phantoms made of intralipid and food dyes were imaged. Relative concentrations of three dyes were recovered at a video rate of 30 frames per second. We also present hyperspectral recordings during brain surgery of epileptic patients with concurrent electrocorticography recordings. Relative concentration maps of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin were extracted from the data, allowing real-time studies of hemodynamic changes with a good spatial resolution. Finally, we present preliminary results on phantoms obtained with an integrated spatial frequency domain imaging system to recover tissue optical properties. This additional module, used together with the hyperspectral imaging system, will allow quantification of hemoglobin concentrations maps. Our hyperspectral imaging system offers a new tool to analyze hemodynamic changes, especially in the case of epileptiform discharges. It also offers an opportunity to study brain connectivity by analyzing correlations between hemodynamic responses of different tissue regions.

  16. [Getting an insight into the brain - new optical clearing techniques and imaging using light-sheet microscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Monika; Legutko, Diana; Stefaniuk, Marzena

    2017-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in neuroscience is to understand how brain operates. For this, it would be the best to image the whole brain with at least cellular resolution, preserving the three-dimensional structure in order to capture the connections between different areas. Most currently available high-resolution imaging techniques are based on preparing thin brain sections that are next photographed one by one and subsequently bigger structures are reconstructed. These techniques are laborious and create artifacts. Recent optical clearing methods allow to obtain literally transparent brains that can be imaged using light-sheet microscope. The present review summarizes the most popular optical clearing techniques, describing their different mechanisms and comparing advantages and disadvantages of different approaches, and presents the principle of light-sheet microscopy and its use in imaging. Finally, it gives examples of application of optical tissue clearing and light-sheet imaging in neuroscience and beyond it.

  17. Diffuse Optical Tomography for Brain Imaging: Continuous Wave Instrumentation and Linear Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a functional brain imaging technique that measures cerebral blood oxygenation and blood volume changes. This technique is particularly useful in human neuroimaging measurements because of the coupling between neural and hemodynamic activity in the brain. DOT is a multichannel imaging extension of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). NIRS uses laser sources and light detectors on the scalp to obtain noninvasive hemodynamic measurements from spectroscopic analysis of the remitted light. This review explains how NIRS data analysis is performed using a combination of the modified Beer-Lambert law (MBLL) and the diffusion approximation to the radiative transport equation (RTE). Laser diodes, photodiode detectors, and optical terminals that contact the scalp are the main components in most NIRS systems. Placing multiple sources and detectors over the surface of the scalp allows for tomographic reconstructions that extend the individual measurements of NIRS into DOT. Mathematically arranging the DOT measurements into a linear system of equations that can be inverted provides a way to obtain tomographic reconstructions of hemodynamics in the brain.

  18. Nonlinear adaptive optics: aberration correction in three photon fluorescence microscopy for mouse brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinefeld, David; Paudel, Hari P.; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Mengran; Ouzounov, Dimitre G.; Bifano, Thomas G.; Xu, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy is a well-established technique for deep-tissue imaging with subcellular resolution. Three-photon microscopy (3PM) when combined with long wavelength excitation was shown to allow deeper imaging than two-photon microscopy (2PM) in biological tissues, such as mouse brain, because out-of-focus background light can be further reduced due to the higher order nonlinear excitation. As was demonstrated in 2PM systems, imaging depth and resolution can be improved by aberration correction using adaptive optics (AO) techniques which are based on shaping the scanning beam using a spatial light modulator (SLM). In this way, it is possible to compensate for tissue low order aberration and to some extent, to compensate for tissue scattering. Here, we present a 3PM AO microscopy system for brain imaging. Soliton self-frequency shift is used to create a femtosecond source at 1675 nm and a microelectromechanical (MEMS) SLM serves as the wavefront shaping device. We perturb the 1020 segment SLM using a modified nonlinear version of three-point phase shifting interferometry. The nonlinearity of the fluorescence signal used for feedback ensures that the signal is increasing when the spot size decreases, allowing compensation of phase errors in an iterative optimization process without direct phase measurement. We compare the performance for different orders of nonlinear feedback, showing an exponential growth in signal improvement as the nonlinear order increases. We demonstrate the impact of the method by applying the 3PM AO system for in-vivo mouse brain imaging, showing improvement in signal at 1-mm depth inside the brain.

  19. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, L.D.; Bennett, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Imaging with radionuclides should be used in a complementary fashion with other neuroradiologic techniques. It is useful in the early detection and evaluation of intracranial neoplasm, cerebrovascular accident and abscess, and in postsurgical follow-up. Cisternography yields useful information about the functional status of cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Computerized axial tomography is a new technique of great promise that produced a cross-sectional image of the brain

  20. Comparing three-dimensional serial optical coherence tomography histology to MRI imaging in the entire mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Alexandre; Lefebvre, Joël; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    An automated serial histology setup combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging with vibratome sectioning was used to image eight wild type mouse brains. The datasets resulted in thousands of volumetric tiles resolved at a voxel size of (4.9×4.9×6.5) μm3 stitched back together to give a three-dimensional map of the brain from which a template OCT brain was obtained. To assess deformation caused by tissue sectioning, reconstruction algorithms, and fixation, OCT datasets were compared to both in vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging. The OCT brain template yielded a highly detailed map of the brain structure, with a high contrast in white matter fiber bundles and was highly resemblant to the in vivo MRI template. Brain labeling using the Allen brain framework showed little variation in regional brain volume among imaging modalities with no statistical differences. The high correspondence between the OCT template brain and its in vivo counterpart demonstrates the potential of whole brain histology to validate in vivo imaging.

  1. Optical scatter imaging of cellular and mitochondrial swelling in brain tissue models of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee James

    2001-08-01

    The severity of brain edema resulting from a stroke can determine a patient's survival and the extent of their recovery. Cellular swelling is the microscopic source of a significant part of brain edema. Mitochondrial swelling also appears to be a determining event in the death or survival of the cells that are injured during a stroke. Therapies for reducing brain edema are not effective in many cases and current treatments of stroke do not address mitochondrial swelling at all. This dissertation is motivated by the lack of a complete understanding of cellular swelling resulting from stroke and the lack of a good method to begin to study mitochondrial swelling resulting from stroke in living brain tissue. In this dissertation, a novel method of detecting mitochondrial and cellular swelling in living hippocampal slices is developed and validated. The system is used to obtain spatial and temporal information about cellular and mitochondrial swelling resulting from various models of stroke. The effect of changes in water content on light scatter and absorption are examined in two models of brain edema. The results of this study demonstrate that optical techniques can be used to detect changes in water content. Mie scatter theory, the theoretical basis of the dual- angle scatter ratio imaging system, is presented. Computer simulations based on Mie scatter theory are used to determine the optimal angles for imaging. A detailed account of the early systems is presented to explain the motivations for the system design, especially polarization, wavelength and light path. Mitochondrial sized latex particles are used to determine the system response to changes in scattering particle size and concentration. The dual-angle scatter ratio imaging system is used to distinguish between osmotic and excitotoxic models of stroke injury. Such distinction cannot be achieved using the current techniques to study cellular swelling in hippocampal slices. The change in the scatter ratio is

  2. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions

  3. MONSTIR II: A 32-channel, multispectral, time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Robert J., E-mail: robert.cooper@ucl.ac.uk; Magee, Elliott; Everdell, Nick; Magazov, Salavat; Varela, Marta; Airantzis, Dimitrios; Gibson, Adam P.; Hebden, Jeremy C. [Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    We detail the design, construction and performance of the second generation UCL time-resolved optical tomography system, known as MONSTIR II. Intended primarily for the study of the newborn brain, the system employs 32 source fibres that sequentially transmit picosecond pulses of light at any four wavelengths between 650 and 900 nm. The 32 detector channels each contain an independent photo-multiplier tube and temporally correlated photon-counting electronics that allow the photon transit time between each source and each detector position to be measured with high temporal resolution. The system's response time, temporal stability, cross-talk, and spectral characteristics are reported. The efficacy of MONSTIR II is demonstrated by performing multi-spectral imaging of a simple phantom.

  4. Diffuse optical systems and methods to image physiological changes of the brain in response to focal TBI (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookasis, David; Volkov, Boris; Kofman, Itamar

    2017-02-01

    During the last four decades, various optical techniques have been proposed and intensively used for biomedical diagnosis and therapy both in animal model and in human. These techniques have several advantages over the traditional existing methods: simplicity in structure, low-cost, easy to handle, portable, can be used repeatedly over time near the patient bedside for continues monitoring, and offer high spatiotemporal resolution. In this work, we demonstrate the use of two optical imaging modalities namely, spatially modulated illumination and dual-wavelength laser speckle to image the changes in brain tissue chromophores, morphology, and metabolic before, during, and after the onset of focal traumatic brain injury in intact mouse head (n=15). Injury was applied in anesthetized mice by weight-drop apparatus using 50gram metal rod striking the mouse's head. Following data analysis, we show a series of hemodynamic and structural changes over time including higher deoxyhemoglobin, reduction in oxygen saturation and blood flow, cell swelling, etc., in comparison with baseline measurements. In addition, to validate the monitoring of cerebral blood flow by the imaging system, measurements with laser Doppler flowmetry were also performed (n=5), which confirmed reduction in blood flow following injury. Overall, our result demonstrates the capability of diffuse optical modalities to monitor and map brain tissue optical and physiological properties following brain trauma.

  5. Comparative assessments of the effects of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development using optical coherence tomography and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    The developing fetal brain is vulnerable to a variety of environmental agents including maternal ethanol consumption. Preclinical studies on the development and amelioration of fetal teratology would be significantly facilitated by the application of high resolution imaging technologies like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (US). This study investigates the ability of these imaging technologies to measure the effects of maternal ethanol exposure on brain development, ex vivo, in fetal mice. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were administered ethanol (3 g/Kg b.wt.) or water by intragastric gavage, twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and imaged. Three-dimensional images of the mice fetus brains were obtained by OCT and high-resolution US, and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. Ethanol-exposed fetuses exhibited a statistically significant, 2-fold increase in average left and right ventricular volumes compared with the ventricular volume of control fetuses, with OCT-derived measures of 0.38 and 0.18 mm3, respectively, whereas the boundaries of the fetal mouse lateral ventricles were not clearly definable with US imaging. Our results indicate that OCT is a useful technology for assessing ventriculomegaly accompanying alcohol-induced developmental delay. This study clearly demonstrated advantages of using OCT for quantitative assessment of embryonic development compared with US imaging.

  6. Optical methods and integrated systems for brain imaging in awake, untethered animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Kartikeya

    Imaging is a powerful tool for biomedical research offering non-contact and minimally or non-invasive means of investigating at multiple scales---from single molecules to large populations of cells. Imaging in awake, behaving animals is an emerging field that offers the additional advantage of being able to study physiological processes and structures in a more natural state than what is possible in tissue slices or even in anesthetized animals. To date, most imaging in awake animals has used optical fiber bundles or electrical cables to transfer signals to traditional imaging-system components. However, the fibers or cables tether the animal and greatly limit the kind and duration of animal behavior that can be studied using imaging methods. This work involves three distinct yet related approaches to fulfill the goal of imaging in unanesthetized, unrestrained animals---optical techniques for functional and structural imaging, development of novel photodetectors and the design of miniaturized imaging systems. I hypothesized that the flow within vessels might act as a contrast-enhancing agent and improve the visualization of vascular architecture using laser speckle imaging. When imaging rodent cerebral vasculature I saw a two to four fold increase in the contrast-to-noise ratios and was able to visualize 10--30% more vascular features over reflectance techniques. I designed a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) photodetector array that was comparable in sensitivity and noise performance to cooled CCD sensors, able to image fluorescence from a single cell, while running at faster frame rates. Next, I designed an imaging system weighing under 6 grams and occupying less than 4 cm3. The system incorporated multispectral illumination, adjustable focusing optics and the high-sensitivity CMOS imager. I was able to implement a variety of optical modalities with the system and performed reflectance, fluorescence, spectroscopic and laser speckle imaging with my

  7. Brain imaging and brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage

  8. Whole-head functional brain imaging of neonates at cot-side using time-resolved diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Laura A.; Cooper, Robert J.; Powell, Samuel; Edwards, Andrea; Lee, Chuen-Wai; Brigadoi, Sabrina; Everdell, Nick; Arridge, Simon; Gibson, Adam P.; Austin, Topun; Hebden, Jeremy C.

    2015-07-01

    We present a method for acquiring whole-head images of changes in blood volume and oxygenation from the infant brain at cot-side using time-resolved diffuse optical tomography (TR-DOT). At UCL, we have built a portable TR-DOT device, known as MONSTIR II, which is capable of obtaining a whole-head (1024 channels) image sequence in 75 seconds. Datatypes extracted from the temporal point spread functions acquired by the system allow us to determine changes in absorption and reduced scattering coefficients within the interrogated tissue. This information can then be used to define clinically relevant measures, such as oxygen saturation, as well as to reconstruct images of relative changes in tissue chromophore concentration, notably those of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin. Additionally, the effective temporal resolution of our system is improved with spatio-temporal regularisation implemented through a Kalman filtering approach, allowing us to image transient haemodynamic changes. By using this filtering technique with intensity and mean time-of-flight datatypes, we have reconstructed images of changes in absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in a dynamic 2D phantom. These results demonstrate that MONSTIR II is capable of resolving slow changes in tissue optical properties within volumes that are comparable to the preterm head. Following this verification study, we are progressing to imaging a 3D dynamic phantom as well as the neonatal brain at cot-side. Our current study involves scanning healthy babies to demonstrate the quality of recordings we are able to achieve in this challenging patient population, with the eventual goal of imaging functional activation and seizures.

  9. Coronal in vivo forward-imaging of rat brain morphology with an ultra-small optical coherence tomography fiber probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yijing; Bonin, Tim; Löffler, Susanne; Hüttmann, Gereon; Tronnier, Volker; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2013-02-01

    A well-established navigation method is one of the key conditions for successful brain surgery: it should be accurate, safe and online operable. Recent research shows that optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a potential solution for this application by providing a high resolution and small probe dimension. In this study a fiber-based spectral-domain OCT system utilizing a super-luminescent-diode with the center wavelength of 840 nm providing 14.5 μm axial resolution was used. A composite 125 μm diameter detecting probe with a gradient index (GRIN) fiber fused to a single mode fiber was employed. Signals were reconstructed into grayscale images by horizontally aligning A-scans from the same trajectory with different depths. The reconstructed images can display brain morphology along the entire trajectory. For scans of typical white matter, the signals showed a higher reflection of light intensity with lower penetration depth as well as a steeper attenuation rate compared to the scans typical for gray matter. Micro-structures such as axon bundles (70 μm) in the caudate nucleus are visible in the reconstructed images. This study explores the potential of OCT to be a navigation modality in brain surgery.

  10. Robot-assisted motor activation monitored by time-domain optical brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkellner, O.; Wabnitz, H.; Schmid, S.; Steingräber, R.; Schmidt, H.; Krüger, J.; Macdonald, R.

    2011-07-01

    Robot-assisted motor rehabilitation proved to be an effective supplement to conventional hand-to-hand therapy in stroke patients. In order to analyze and understand motor learning and performance during rehabilitation it is desirable to develop a monitor to provide objective measures of the corresponding brain activity at the rehabilitation progress. We used a portable time-domain near-infrared reflectometer to monitor the hemodynamic brain response to distal upper extremity activities. Four healthy volunteers performed two different robot-assisted wrist/forearm movements, flexion-extension and pronation-supination in comparison with an unassisted squeeze ball exercise. A special headgear with four optical measurement positions to include parts of the pre- and postcentral gyrus provided a good overlap with the expected activation areas. Data analysis based on variance of time-of-flight distributions of photons through tissue was chosen to provide a suitable representation of intracerebral signals. In all subjects several of the four detection channels showed a response. In some cases indications were found of differences in localization of the activated areas for the various tasks.

  11. Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy: evaluation of the brain and optic pathway by conventional MRI and magnetisation transfer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Zikou, Anastasia K.; Tzovara, Ioanna; Margariti, Persefoni [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Nikas, Alexios; Asproudis, Ioannis [University of Ioannina, Ophthalmologic Clinic, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Blekas, Kostandinos; Galatsanos, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Informatics, Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of the study was to examine the brain and the visual pathway of patients with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) by using conventional MRI (cMRI) and volumetric magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI). Thirty NAION patients, aged 67.5 {+-} 8.14 years, and 28 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. MTI was used to measure the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of the chiasm and for MTR histograms of the brain. The presence of areas of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) was evaluated on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Area of the optic nerves (ONs) and volume of the chiasm were assessed, as were coronal short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) and MTI images, respectively. More areas of WMH were observed in patients (total 419; mean 14.4; SD 19) than in controls (total 127; mean 4.7; SD 5.7), P < 0.001. Area (in square millimetres) of the affected ONs, volume(in cubic millimetres) and MTR (in percent) of the chiasm (10.7 {+-} 4.6), (75.8 {+-} 20.2), (56.4 {+-} 6.5), respectively, were lower in patients than in controls (13.6 {+-} 4.3), (158.2 {+-} 75.3) (62.1 {+-} 6.2), respectively, P < 0.05. Mean MTR of brain histograms was lower in patients (53.0 {+-} 8.0) than in controls (58.0 {+-} 5.6), P < 0.05. NAION is characterised by decreased ON and chiasmatic size. The low MTR of the chiasm and brain associated with increased areas of WMH may be suggestive of demyelination and axonal damage due to generalised cerebral vascular disease. (orig.)

  12. Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy: evaluation of the brain and optic pathway by conventional MRI and magnetisation transfer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Zikou, Anastasia K.; Tzovara, Ioanna; Margariti, Persefoni; Nikas, Alexios; Asproudis, Ioannis; Blekas, Kostandinos; Galatsanos, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the brain and the visual pathway of patients with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) by using conventional MRI (cMRI) and volumetric magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI). Thirty NAION patients, aged 67.5 ± 8.14 years, and 28 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. MTI was used to measure the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of the chiasm and for MTR histograms of the brain. The presence of areas of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) was evaluated on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Area of the optic nerves (ONs) and volume of the chiasm were assessed, as were coronal short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) and MTI images, respectively. More areas of WMH were observed in patients (total 419; mean 14.4; SD 19) than in controls (total 127; mean 4.7; SD 5.7), P < 0.001. Area (in square millimetres) of the affected ONs, volume(in cubic millimetres) and MTR (in percent) of the chiasm (10.7 ± 4.6), (75.8 ± 20.2), (56.4 ± 6.5), respectively, were lower in patients than in controls (13.6 ± 4.3), (158.2 ± 75.3) (62.1 ± 6.2), respectively, P < 0.05. Mean MTR of brain histograms was lower in patients (53.0 ± 8.0) than in controls (58.0 ± 5.6), P < 0.05. NAION is characterised by decreased ON and chiasmatic size. The low MTR of the chiasm and brain associated with increased areas of WMH may be suggestive of demyelination and axonal damage due to generalised cerebral vascular disease. (orig.)

  13. Functional imaging of the human brain using a modular, fibre-less, high-density diffuse optical tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Danial; Cooper, Robert J; Dempsey, Laura; Powell, Samuel; Quaggia, Simone; Highton, David; Elwell, Clare; Hebden, Jeremy C; Everdell, Nicholas L

    2016-10-01

    We present the first three-dimensional, functional images of the human brain to be obtained using a fibre-less, high-density diffuse optical tomography system. Our technology consists of independent, miniaturized, silicone-encapsulated DOT modules that can be placed directly on the scalp. Four of these modules were arranged to provide up to 128, dual-wavelength measurement channels over a scalp area of approximately 60 × 65 mm 2 . Using a series of motor-cortex stimulation experiments, we demonstrate that this system can obtain high-quality, continuous-wave measurements at source-detector separations ranging from 14 to 55 mm in adults, in the presence of hair. We identify robust haemodynamic response functions in 5 out of 5 subjects, and present diffuse optical tomography images that depict functional haemodynamic responses that are well-localized in all three dimensions at both the individual and group levels. This prototype modular system paves the way for a new generation of wearable, wireless, high-density optical neuroimaging technologies.

  14. Final Report on LDRD project 130784 : functional brain imaging by tunable multi-spectral Event-Related Optical Signal (EROS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Spahn, Olga Blum; Hsu, Alan Yuan-Chun

    2009-09-01

    Functional brain imaging is of great interest for understanding correlations between specific cognitive processes and underlying neural activity. This understanding can provide the foundation for developing enhanced human-machine interfaces, decision aides, and enhanced cognition at the physiological level. The functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based event-related optical signal (EROS) technique can provide direct, high-fidelity measures of temporal and spatial characteristics of neural networks underlying cognitive behavior. However, current EROS systems are hampered by poor signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and depth of measure, limiting areas of the brain and associated cognitive processes that can be investigated. We propose to investigate a flexible, tunable, multi-spectral fNIRS EROS system which will provide up to 10x greater SNR as well as improved spatial and temporal resolution through significant improvements in electronics, optoelectronics and optics, as well as contribute to the physiological foundation of higher-order cognitive processes and provide the technical foundation for miniaturized portable neuroimaging systems.

  15. Brain imaging and schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, J.L.; Dao-Castellana, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain structures and brain function have been investigated by the new brain imaging techniques for more than ten years. In Psychiatry, these techniques could afford a new understanding of mental diseases. In schizophrenic patients, CAT scanner and RMI pointed out statistically significant ventricular enlargments which are presently considered as evidence for abnormalities in brain maturation. Functional imaging techniques reported metabolic dysfunctions in the cortical associative areas which are probably linked to the cognitive features of schizophrenics [fr

  16. Advances in optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, C.; Ntziachristos, V.; Mahmood, U.; Tung, C.H.; Weissleder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Different optical imaging technologies have significantly progressed over the last years. Besides advances in imaging techniques and image reconstruction, new 'smart' optical contrast agents have been developed which can be used to detect molecular targets (such as endogenous enzymes) in vivo. The combination of novel imaging technologies coupled with smart agents bears great diagnostic potential both clinically and experimentally. This overview outlines the basic principles of optical imaging and summarizes the current state of the art. (orig.) [de

  17. Optical imaging and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, David J

    2009-01-01

    An essential reference for optical sensor system design This is the first text to present an integrated view of the optical and mathematical analysis tools necessary to understand computational optical system design. It presents the foundations of computational optical sensor design with a focus entirely on digital imaging and spectroscopy. It systematically covers: Coded aperture and tomographic imaging Sampling and transformations in optical systems, including wavelets and generalized sampling techniques essential to digital system analysis Geometric, wave, and statis

  18. In vivo optical microprobe imaging for intracellular Ca2+ dynamics in response to dopaminergic signaling in deep brain evoked by cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongchi; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2012-02-01

    Ca2+ plays a vital role as second messenger in signal transduction and the intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) change is an important indicator of neuronal activity in the brain, including both cortical and subcortical brain regions. Due to the highly scattering and absorption of brain tissue, it is challenging to optically access the deep brain regions (e.g., striatum at >3mm under the brain surface) and image [Ca2+]i changes with cellular resolutions. Here, we present two micro-probe approaches (i.e., microlens, and micro-prism) integrated with a fluorescence microscope modified to permit imaging of neuronal [Ca2+]i signaling in the striatum using a calcium indicator Rhod2(AM). While a micro-prism probe provides a larger field of view to image neuronal network from cortex to striatum, a microlens probe enables us to track [Ca2+]i dynamic change in individual neurons within the brain. Both techniques are validated by imaging neuronal [Ca2+]i changes in transgenic mice with dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R) expressing EGFP. Our results show that micro-prism images can map the distribution of D1R- and D2R-expressing neurons in various brain regions and characterize their different mean [Ca2+]i changes induced by an intervention (e.g., cocaine administration, 8mg/kg., i.p). In addition, microlens images can characterize the different [Ca2+]i dynamics of D1 and D2 neurons in response to cocaine, including new mechanisms of these two types of neurons in striatum. These findings highlight the power of the optical micro-probe imaging for dissecting the complex cellular and molecular insights of cocaine in vivo.

  19. Brain spect imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.G.L.; Hill, T.C.; Holman, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how the rapid development of single-photon radiopharmaceuticals has given new life to tomographic brain imaging in nuclear medicine. Further developments in radiopharmaceuticals and refinements in neuro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) instrumentation should help to reinstate brain scintigraphy as an important part of neurologic diagnosis. SPECT of the brain evolved from experimentation using prototype instrumentation during the early 1960s. Although tomographic studies provided superior diagnostic accuracy when compared to planar techniques, the arrival of X-ray CT of the head resulted in the rapid demise of technetium brain imaging

  20. Optical clearing and fluorescence deep-tissue imaging for 3D quantitative analysis of the brain tumor microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerweij, Tonny; Dusoswa, Sophie A.; Negrean, Adrian; Hendrikx, Esther M.L.; de Vries, Helga E.; Kole, Jeroen; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Vandertop, W. Peter; Noske, David P.; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Musters, René J P; van Kooyk, Yvette; Wesseling, Pieter; Zhao, Xi Wen; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Three-dimensional visualization of the brain vasculature and its interactions with surrounding cells may shed light on diseases where aberrant microvascular organization is involved, including glioblastoma (GBM). Intravital confocal imaging allows 3D visualization of microvascular

  1. Optical clearing and fluorescence deep-tissue imaging for 3D quantitative analysis of the brain tumor microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerweij, Tonny; Dusoswa, Sophie A.; Negrean, Adrian; Hendrikx, Esther M. L.; de Vries, Helga E.; Kole, Jeroen; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Noske, David P.; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Musters, René J. P.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Wesseling, Pieter; Zhao, Xi Wen; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional visualization of the brain vasculature and its interactions with surrounding cells may shed light on diseases where aberrant microvascular organization is involved, including glioblastoma (GBM). Intravital confocal imaging allows 3D visualization of microvascular structures and

  2. Human brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhar, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Just as there have been dramatic advances in the molecular biology of the human brain in recent years, there also have been remarkable advances in brain imaging. This paper reports on the development and broad application of microscopic imaging techniques which include the autoradiographic localization of receptors and the measurement of glucose utilization by autoradiography. These approaches provide great sensitivity and excellent anatomical resolution in exploring brain organization and function. The first noninvasive external imaging of receptor distributions in the living human brain was achieved by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. Developments, techniques and applications continue to progress. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is also becoming important. Its initial clinical applications were in examining the structure and anatomy of the brain. However, more recent uses, such as MRI spectroscopy, indicate the feasibility of exploring biochemical pathways in the brain, the metabolism of drugs in the brain, and also of examining some of these procedures at an anatomical resolution which is substantially greater than that obtainable by PET scanning. The issues will be discussed in greater detail

  3. Dynamic Optically Multiplexed Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Dynamic Optically Multiplexed Imaging Yaron Rachlin, Vinay Shah, R. Hamilton Shepard, and Tina Shih Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of...V. Shah, and T. Shih “Design Architectures for Optically Multiplexed Imaging,” in submission 9 R. Gupta , P. Indyk, E. Price, and Y. Rachlin

  4. Implementation and performance of an optical motion tracking system for high resolution brain PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresti, B. J.; Russo, A.; Jones, W. F.; Fisher, T.; Crouch, D. G.; Altenburger, D. E.; Townsend, D. W.

    1999-12-01

    Head motion during PET scanning is widely regarded as a source of image degradation and resolution loss. Recent improvements in the spatial resolution of state-of-the-art tomographs may be compromised by patient motion during scanning, as these high resolution data will be increasingly susceptible to smaller movements of the head. The authors have developed an opto-electronic motion tracking system based on commercially-available technology that is capable of very accurate real-time measurements of the position and orientation of the patient's head. These positions are transformed to the reference frame of the PET scanner, and could potentially be used to provide motion correction of list-mode emission data on an event-by-event basis.

  5. TH-EF-207A-06: High-Resolution Optical-CT/ECT Imaging of Unstained Mice Femur, Brain, Spleen, and Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, S; Dewhirst, M; Oldham, M; Boss, M; Birer, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Optical transmission and emission computed tomography (optical-CT/ECT) provides high-resolution 3D attenuation and emission maps in unsectioned large (∼1cm 3 ) ex vivo tissue samples at a resolution of 12.9µm 3 per voxel. Here we apply optical-CT/ECT to investigate high-resolution structure and auto-fluorescence in a range of optically cleared mice organs, including, for the first time, mouse bone (femur), opening the potential for study of bone metastasis and bone-mediated immune response. Methods: Three BALBc mice containing 4T1 flank tumors were sacrificed to obtain spleen, brain, tumor, and femur. Tissues were washed in 4% PFA, fixed in EtOH solution (for 5, 10, 10, and 2 days respectively), and then optically cleared for 3 days in BABBs. The femur was also placed in 0.25M aqueous EDTA for 15–30 days to remove calcium. Optical-CT/ECT attenuation and emission maps at 633nm (the latter using 530nm excitation light) were obtained for all samples. Bi-telecentric optical-CT was compared side-by-side with conventional optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging to evaluate imaging capability of these two rival techniques. Results: Auto-fluorescence mapping of femurs reveals vasculatures and fluorescence heterogeneity. High signals (A.U.=10) are reported in the medullary cavity but not in the cortical bone (A.U.=1). The brain strongly and uniform auto-fluoresces (A.U.=5). Thick, optically dense organs such as the spleen and the tumor (0.12, 0.46OD/mm) are reconstructed at depth without significant loss of resolution, which we attribute to the bi-telecentric optics of optical-CT. The attenuation map of tumor reveals vasculature, attenuation heterogeneity, and possibly necrotic tissue. Conclusion: We demonstrate the feasibility of optical-CT/ECT imaging of un-sectioned mice bones (femurs) and spleen with high resolution. This result, and the characterization of unstained organs, are important steps enabling future studies involving optical-CT/ECT applied

  6. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  7. Imaging brain tumour microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Markus; Englund, Elisabet; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Sundgren, Pia C

    2018-05-08

    Imaging is an indispensable tool for brain tumour diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow-up. Definite diagnosis, however, often demands histopathological analysis of microscopic features of tissue samples, which have to be obtained by invasive means. A non-invasive alternative may be to probe corresponding microscopic tissue characteristics by MRI, or so called 'microstructure imaging'. The promise of microstructure imaging is one of 'virtual biopsy' with the goal to offset the need for invasive procedures in favour of imaging that can guide pre-surgical planning and can be repeated longitudinally to monitor and predict treatment response. The exploration of such methods is motivated by the striking link between parameters from MRI and tumour histology, for example the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient and cellularity. Recent microstructure imaging techniques probe even more subtle and specific features, providing parameters associated to cell shape, size, permeability, and volume distributions. However, the range of scenarios in which these techniques provide reliable imaging biomarkers that can be used to test medical hypotheses or support clinical decisions is yet unknown. Accurate microstructure imaging may moreover require acquisitions that go beyond conventional data acquisition strategies. This review covers a wide range of candidate microstructure imaging methods based on diffusion MRI and relaxometry, and explores advantages, challenges, and potential pitfalls in brain tumour microstructure imaging. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Optic Nerve Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Optic Nerve Imaging email Send this article to a friend ... measurements of nerve fiber damage (or loss). The Nerve Fiber Analyzer (GDx) uses laser light to measure ...

  9. Electromagnetic brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekihara, Kensuke

    2008-01-01

    Present imaging methods of cerebral neuro-activity like brain functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) secondarily measure only average activities within a time of the second-order (low time-resolution). In contrast, the electromagnetic brain imaging (EMBI) directly measures the faint magnetic field (10 -12 -10 -13 T) yielded by the cerebral activity with use of multiple arrayed sensors equipped on the head surface within a time of sub-millisecond order (high time-resolution). The sensor array technology to find the signal source from the measured data is common in wide areas like signal procession for radar, sonar, and epicenter detection by seismic wave. For estimating and reconstructing the active region in the brain in EMBI, the efficient method must be developed and this paper describes the direct and inverse problems concerned in signal and image processions of EMBI. The direct problem involves the cerebral magnetic field/lead field matrix and inverse problem for reconstruction of signal source, the MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, GLRT (generalized likelihood ratio test) scan, and adaptive beamformer. As an example, given are results of magnetic intensity changes (unit, fT) in the somatosensory cortex vs time (msec) measured by 160 sensors and of images reconstructed from EMBI and MRI during electric muscle afferent input from the hand. The real-time imaging is thus possible with EMBI and extremely, the EMBI image, the real-time cerebral signals, can inversely operate a machine, of which application directs toward the brain/machine interface development. (R.T.)

  10. Brain hypoxia imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The measurement of pathologically low levels of tissue pO{sub 2} is an important diagnostic goal for determining the prognosis of many clinically important diseases including cardiovascular insufficiency, stroke and cancer. The target tissues nowadays have mostly been tumors or the myocardium, with less attention centered on the brain. Radiolabelled nitroimidazole or derivatives may be useful in identifying the hypoxic cells in cerebrovascular disease or traumatic brain injury, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In acute stroke, the target of therapy is the severely hypoxic but salvageable tissue. {sup 18}F-MISO PET and {sup 99m}Tc-EC-metronidazole SPECT in patients with acute ischemic stroke identified hypoxic tissues and ischemic penumbra, and predicted its outcome. A study using {sup 123}I-IAZA in patient with closed head injury detected the hypoxic tissues after head injury. Up till now these radiopharmaceuticals have drawbacks due to its relatively low concentration with hypoxic tissues associated with/without low blood-brain barrier permeability and the necessity to wait a long time to achieve acceptable target to background ratios for imaging in acute ischemic stroke. It is needed to develop new hypoxic marker exhibiting more rapid localization in the hypoxic region in the brain. And then, the hypoxic brain imaging with imidazoles or non-imidazoles may be very useful in detecting the hypoxic tissues, determining therapeutic strategies and developing therapeutic drugs in several neurological disease, especially, in acute ischemic stroke.

  11. Current Trends in Intraoperative Optical Imaging for Functional Brain Mapping and Delineation of Lesions of Language Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Neal; Uhleman, Falk; Sheth, Sameer A.; Bookheimer, Susan; Martin, Neil; Toga, Arthur W.

    2009-01-01

    Resection of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), epileptic focus, or glioma, ideally has a prerequisite of microscopic delineation of the lesion borders in relation to the normal gray and white matter that mediate critical functions. Currently, Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used for preoperative mapping of critical function, whereas electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) is used for intraoperative mapping. For lesion delineation, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) are used preoperatively, whereas microscopy and histological sectioning are used intraoperatively. However, for lesions near eloquent cortex, these imaging techniques may lack sufficient resolution to define the relationship between the lesion and language function, and thus not accurately determine which patients will benefit from neurosurgical resection of the lesion without iatrogenic aphasia. Optical techniques such as intraoperative optical imaging of intrinsic signals (iOIS) show great promise for the precise functional mapping of cortices, as well as delineation of the borders of AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas. Here we first review the physiology of neuroimaging, and then progress towards the validation and justification of using intraoperative optical techniques, especially in relation to neurosurgical planning of resection AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas near or in eloquent cortex. We conclude with a short description of potential novel intraoperative optical techniques. PMID:18786643

  12. Brain imaging and autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilbovicius, M.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  13. Brain imaging and autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilbovicius, M [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM CEA 0205, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  14. Applications of optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberger, E.

    2005-01-01

    Optical imaging in the form of near infrared fluorescence and bioluminescence has proven useful for a wide range of applications in the field of molecular imaging. Both techniques provide a high sensitivity (in the nanomolar range), which is of particular importance for molecular imaging. Imaging with near infrared fluorescence is especially cost-effective and can be performed, in contrast to radioactivity-based methods, with fluorescence dyes that remain stable for months. The most important advantage of bioluminescence, in turn, is the lack of background signal. Although molecular imaging with these techniques is still in the experimental phase, an application of near infrared fluorescence is already foreseeable for the imaging of superficial structures. (orig.)

  15. Holography Experiments on Optical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonczak, B.; Dabrowski, J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes experiments intended to produce a better understanding of the holographic method of producing images and optical imaging by other optical systems. Application of holography to teaching physics courses is considered. (Author/SA)

  16. Swept-source optical coherence tomography powered by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser enables 2.3-mm-deep brain imaging in mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-10-01

    We report noninvasive, in vivo optical imaging deep within a mouse brain by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), enabled by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). VCSEL SS-OCT offers a constant signal sensitivity of 105 dB throughout an entire depth of 4.25 mm in air, ensuring an extended usable imaging depth range of more than 2 mm in turbid biological tissue. Using this approach, we show deep brain imaging in mice with an open-skull cranial window preparation, revealing intact mouse brain anatomy from the superficial cerebral cortex to the deep hippocampus. VCSEL SS-OCT would be applicable to small animal studies for the investigation of deep tissue compartments in living brains where diseases such as dementia and tumor can take their toll.

  17. Brain imaging during seizure: ictal brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottamasu, Sambasiva Rao

    1997-01-01

    The role of single photon computed tomography (SPECT) in presurgical localization of medically intractable complex partial epilepsy (CPE) in children is reviewed. 99m Technetium neurolite, a newer lipophylic agent with a high first pass brain extraction and little or no redistribution is injected during a seizure, while the child is monitored with a video recording and continuous EEG and SPECT imaging is performed in the next 1-3 hours with the images representing regional cerebral profusion at the time of injection. On SPECT studies performed with radiopharmaceutical injected during a seizure, ictal focus is generally hypervascular. Other findings on ictal brain SPECT include hypoperfusion of adjacent cerebral cortex and white matter, hyperperfusion of contralateral motor cortex, hyperperfusion of ipsilateral basal ganglia and thalamus, brain stem and contralateral cerebellum. Ictal brain SPECT is non-invasive, cost effective and highly sensitive for localization of epileptic focus in patients with intractable CPE. (author)

  18. Temporal comparison of functional brain imaging with diffuse optical tomography and fMRI during rat forepaw stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, Andrew M; Culver, Joseph P; Mandeville, Joseph B; Boas, David A

    2003-01-01

    The time courses of oxyhaemoglobin ([HbO 2 ]), deoxyhaemoglobin ([HbR]) and total haemoglobin ([HbT]) concentration changes following cortical activation in rats by electrical forepaw stimulation were measured using diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and compared to similar measurements performed previously with fMRI at 2.0 T and 4.7 T. We also explored the qualitative effects of varying stimulus parameters on the temporal evolution of the hemodynamic response. DOT images were reconstructed at a depth of 1.5 mm over a 1 cm square area from 2 mm anterior to bregma to 8 mm posterior to bregma. The measurement set included 9 sources and 16 detectors with an imaging frame rate of 10 Hz. Both DOT [HbR] and [HbO 2 ] time courses were compared to the fMRI BOLD time course during stimulation, and the DOT [HbT] time course was compared to the fMRI cerebral plasma volume (CPV) time course. We believe that DOT and fMRI can provide similar temporal information for both blood volume and deoxyhaemoglobin changes, which helps to cross-validate these two techniques and to demonstrate that DOT can be useful as a complementary modality to fMRI for investigating the hemodynamic response to neuronal activity

  19. Temporal comparison of functional brain imaging with diffuse optical tomography and fMRI during rat forepaw stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Andrew M [Tufts University Bioengineering Center, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Culver, Joseph P [Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129 (United States); Mandeville, Joseph B [Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129 (United States); Boas, David A [Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129 (United States)

    2003-05-21

    The time courses of oxyhaemoglobin ([HbO{sub 2}]), deoxyhaemoglobin ([HbR]) and total haemoglobin ([HbT]) concentration changes following cortical activation in rats by electrical forepaw stimulation were measured using diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and compared to similar measurements performed previously with fMRI at 2.0 T and 4.7 T. We also explored the qualitative effects of varying stimulus parameters on the temporal evolution of the hemodynamic response. DOT images were reconstructed at a depth of 1.5 mm over a 1 cm square area from 2 mm anterior to bregma to 8 mm posterior to bregma. The measurement set included 9 sources and 16 detectors with an imaging frame rate of 10 Hz. Both DOT [HbR] and [HbO{sub 2}] time courses were compared to the fMRI BOLD time course during stimulation, and the DOT [HbT] time course was compared to the fMRI cerebral plasma volume (CPV) time course. We believe that DOT and fMRI can provide similar temporal information for both blood volume and deoxyhaemoglobin changes, which helps to cross-validate these two techniques and to demonstrate that DOT can be useful as a complementary modality to fMRI for investigating the hemodynamic response to neuronal activity.

  20. Optical Imaging of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    As the increased prevalence of breast cancer and the advances in breast evaluation awareness have resulted in an increased number of breast examinations and benign breast biopsies, several investigations have been performed to improve the diagnostic accuracy for breast lesions. Optical imaging of the breast that uses nearinfrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue is a novel non-invasive imaging technique to characterize breast lesions in clinical practice. This review provides a summary of the current state of optical breast imaging and it describes the basic concepts of optical imaging, the potential clinical applications for breast cancer imaging and its potential incorporation with other imaging modalities

  1. Reflectance diffuse optical tomography. Its application to human brain mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Yamanaka, Takeshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Oda, Motoki; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    We report the successful application of reflectance diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using near-infrared light with the new reconstruction algorithm that we developed to the observation of regional hemodynamic changes in the brain under specific mental tasks. Our results reveal the heterogeneous distribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the brain, showing complementary images of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin changes in certain regions. We conclude that our reflectance DOT has practical potential for human brain mapping, as well as in the diagnostic imaging of brain diseases. (author)

  2. MR imaging of the brain in neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, J.P.; Cohen, M.L.; Duffner, P.K.; Seidel, F.; Harwood-Nash, D.

    1986-01-01

    Fifteen children and young adults with neurofibromatosis underwent CT and MR imaging (0.5-T superconducting magnet). Seven had optic gliomas and five had other intracranial neoplasms. Before thin-section MR imaging became available, CT was superior for demonstrating the optic nerves, although MR imaging better delineated tumor spread to the optic chiasm and tract. MR imaging was superior for demonstrating other gliomatous lesions associated with neurofibromatosis. Most lesions had long T1 and T2 values and were best seen on T2-weighted images. MR imaging revealed small areas of increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images in nearly half the patients. These lesions were not apparent on CT and were usually located in the globus pallidus, but were seen in many areas of the brain, commonly in the white matter, and in the brain steam and the cerebellar peduncles. Their exact etiology is unknown. Their imaging characteristics are somewhat different from those of gray matter. They may represent hamartomas or areas of glial scarring. Differentiation from a small glioma is presently not possible on a single examination

  3. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Kou; Armin Iraji

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy;however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrat-ed both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the ifeld is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treat-ment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plas-ticity investigation.

  4. TECHNOLOGIES OF BRAIN IMAGES PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Klyuchko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research was to analyze modern methods of processing biological images implemented before storage in databases for biotechnological purposes. The databases further were incorporated into web-based digital systems. Examples of such information systems were described in the work for two levels of biological material organization; databases for storing data of histological analysis and of whole brain were described. Methods of neuroimaging processing for electronic brain atlas were considered. It was shown that certain pathological features can be revealed in histological image processing. Several medical diagnostic techniques (for certain brain pathologies, etc. as well as a few biotechnological methods are based on such effects. Algorithms of image processing were suggested. Electronic brain atlas was conveniently for professionals in different fields described in details. Approaches of brain atlas elaboration, “composite” scheme for large deformations as well as several methods of mathematic images processing were described as well.

  5. Advances in Retinal Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxiu Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Retinal imaging has undergone a revolution in the past 50 years to allow for better understanding of the eye in health and disease. Significant improvements have occurred both in hardware such as lasers and optics in addition to software image analysis. Optical imaging modalities include optical coherence tomography (OCT, OCT angiography (OCTA, photoacoustic microscopy (PAM, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO, adaptive optics (AO, fundus autofluorescence (FAF, and molecular imaging (MI. These imaging modalities have enabled improved visualization of retinal pathophysiology and have had a substantial impact on basic and translational medical research. These improvements in technology have translated into early disease detection, more accurate diagnosis, and improved management of numerous chorioretinal diseases. This article summarizes recent advances and applications of retinal optical imaging techniques, discusses current clinical challenges, and predicts future directions in retinal optical imaging.

  6. Brain Tumor Image Segmentation in MRI Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peni Agustin Tjahyaningtijas, Hapsari

    2018-04-01

    Brain tumor segmentation plays an important role in medical image processing. Treatment of patients with brain tumors is highly dependent on early detection of these tumors. Early detection of brain tumors will improve the patient’s life chances. Diagnosis of brain tumors by experts usually use a manual segmentation that is difficult and time consuming because of the necessary automatic segmentation. Nowadays automatic segmentation is very populer and can be a solution to the problem of tumor brain segmentation with better performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods. There are number of existing review papers, focusing on traditional methods for MRI-based brain tumor image segmentation. this paper, we focus on the recent trend of automatic segmentation in this field. First, an introduction to brain tumors and methods for brain tumor segmentation is given. Then, the state-of-the-art algorithms with a focus on recent trend of full automatic segmentaion are discussed. Finally, an assessment of the current state is presented and future developments to standardize MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods into daily clinical routine are addressed.

  7. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry

  8. Brain function measurement using optical topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Hideaki; Maki, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    Optical topography is a completely non-invasive method to image the high brain function with the near infrared spectroscopy, does not need the restriction of human behavior for imaging and thereby is applicable even for infants. The principle is based on irradiation of the near infrared laser beam with the optical-fiber onto the head surface and detection with the fiber of the reflection, of which spectroscopy for blood-borne hemoglobin gives the local cerebral homodynamics related with the nerve activity. The infrared laser beam of 1-10 mW is found safe on direct irradiation to the human body. The topography is applicable in the fields of clinical medicine like internal neurology (an actual image of the activated Broca's and Welnicke's areas at writing is presented), neurosurgery, psychiatry and pedriatric neurology, of developmental cognitive neuroscience, of educational science and of communication. ''MIT Technology Reviews'' mentions that this technique is one of 4 recent promising innovative techniques in the world. (N.I.)

  9. PET imaging for brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Described are the principle of PET and its characteristics, imaging of human brain function, mapping of detailed human cerebral functions and PET imaging of nerve transmission. Following compounds labeled by positron emitters are used for PET imaging of brain functions: for blood flow and oxygen metabolism, 15 O-O 2 gas, water and carbon dioxide; for energy metabolism, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose; and for nerve transmission functions in receptor binding, transporter, transmitter synthesis and enzyme, 11 C- or 18 F-dopamine, serotonin and their analogues, and acetylcholine analogues. For brain mapping, examples of cognition tasks, results and their statistics are presented with images for blood flow. Nerve transmissions in schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease are imaged with labeled analogues of dopamine and acetylcholine, respectively. PET is becoming more and more important in the field of psychiatric science particularly in the coming society of increasing aged people. (N.I.)

  10. Comparison of seven optical clearing methods for mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Zhu, Jingtan; Yu, Tingting; Zhu, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a variety of tissue optical clearing techniques have been developed to reduce light scattering for imaging deeper and three-dimensional reconstruction of tissue structures. Combined with optical imaging techniques and diverse labeling methods, these clearing methods have significantly promoted the development of neuroscience. However, most of the protocols were proposed aiming for specific tissue type. Though there are some comparison results, the clearing methods covered are limited and the evaluation indices are lack of uniformity, which made it difficult to select a best-fit protocol for clearing in practical applications. Hence, it is necessary to systematically assess and compare these clearing methods. In this work, we evaluated the performance of seven typical clearing methods, including 3DISCO, uDISCO, SeeDB, ScaleS, ClearT2, CUBIC and PACT, on mouse brain samples. First, we compared the clearing capability on both brain slices and whole-brains by observing brain transparency. Further, we evaluated the fluorescence preservation and the increase of imaging depth. The results showed that 3DISCO, uDISCO and PACT posed excellent clearing capability on mouse brains, ScaleS and SeeDB rendered moderate transparency, while ClearT2 was the worst. Among those methods, ScaleS was the best on fluorescence preservation, and PACT achieved the highest increase of imaging depth. This study is expected to provide important reference for users in choosing most suitable brain optical clearing method.

  11. FLAIR images of brain diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Fuminori; Kinoshita, Masao; Kishibayashi, Jun; Kamada, Kazuhiko; Sunohara, Nobuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the usefulness of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in diagnosing brain diseases. The subjects were 20 patients with multiple cerebral infarction, multiple sclerosis, temporal epilepsy, or brain trauma, and 20 other healthy adults. FLAIR images, with a long repetitive time of 6000 msec and a long inversion time of 1400-1600 msec, showed low signal intensity in the cerebrospinal fluid in the lateral ventricles and the cerebral sulci, and high signal intensity in brain tissues. Signal intensity on FLAIR images correlated well with T2 relaxation times under 100 msec. For multiple sclerosis and cerebral infarction, cystic lesions, which were shown on T2-weighted images with long relaxation times over 100 msec, appeared as low-signal areas; and the lesions surrounding the cystic lesions appeared as high-signal areas. For temporal lobe epilepsy, the hippocampus was visualized as a high-signal area. Hippocampal lesions were demonstrated better with FLAIR images than with conventional T2-weighted and proton-density images. In a patient with cerebral trauma, FLAIR images revealed the lobulated structure with the residual cortex shown as a high signal area. The lesions surrounding the cystic change were imaged as high signal areas. These structural changes were demonstrated better with FLAIR images than with conventional T2-weighted sequences. FLAIR images were useful in detecting white matter lesions surrounding the lateral ventricles and cortical and subcortical lesions near the brain surface, which were unclear on conventional T2-weighted and proton-density images. (N.K.)

  12. Minireview of Stereoselective Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Donald F.; Jakobsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Stereoselectivity is a fundamental principle in living systems. Stereoselectivity reflects the dependence of molecular processes on the spatial orientation of constituent atoms. Stereoselective processes govern many aspects of brain function and direct the course of many psychotropic drugs. Today......, modern imaging techniques such as SPECT and PET provide a means for studying stereoselective processes in the living brain. Chemists have prepared numerous radiolabelled stereoisomers for use in SPECT and PET in order to explore various molecular processes in the living brain of anesthetized laboratory...... animals and awake humans. The studies have demonstrated how many aspects of neurotransmission consist of crucial stereoselective events that can affect brain function in health and disease. Here, we present a brief account of those findings in hope of stimulating further interest in the vital topic....

  13. Optical Probes for Neurobiological Sensing and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric H; Chin, Gregory; Rong, Guoxin; Poskanzer, Kira E; Clark, Heather A

    2018-04-13

    Fluorescent nanosensors and molecular probes are next-generation tools for imaging chemical signaling inside and between cells. Electrophysiology has long been considered the gold standard in elucidating neural dynamics with high temporal resolution and precision, particularly on the single-cell level. However, electrode-based techniques face challenges in illuminating the specific chemicals involved in neural cell activation with adequate spatial information. Measuring chemical dynamics is of fundamental importance to better understand synergistic interactions between neurons as well as interactions between neurons and non-neuronal cells. Over the past decade, significant technological advances in optical probes and imaging methods have enabled entirely new possibilities for studying neural cells and circuits at the chemical level. These optical imaging modalities have shown promise for combining chemical, temporal, and spatial information. This potential makes them ideal candidates to unravel the complex neural interactions at multiple scales in the brain, which could be complemented by traditional electrophysiological methods to obtain a full spatiotemporal picture of neurochemical dynamics. Despite the potential, only a handful of probe candidates have been utilized to provide detailed chemical information in the brain. To date, most live imaging and chemical mapping studies rely on fluorescent molecular indicators to report intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) dynamics, which correlates with neuronal activity. Methodological advances for monitoring a full array of chemicals in the brain with improved spatial, temporal, and chemical resolution will thus enable mapping of neurochemical circuits with finer precision. On the basis of numerous studies in this exciting field, we review the current efforts to develop and apply a palette of optical probes and nanosensors for chemical sensing in the brain. There is a strong impetus to further develop technologies capable of

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain KidsHealth / For Parents / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain What's in this article? What ...

  15. Image hiding using optical interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Weining

    2010-09-01

    Optical image encryption technology has attracted a lot of attentions due to its large capacitance and fast speed. In conventional image encryption methods, the random phase masks are used as encryption keys to encode the images into white noise distribution. Therefore, this kind of methods requires interference technology to record complex amplitude and is vulnerable to attack techniques. The image hiding methods which employ the phase retrieve algorithm to encode the images into two or more phase masks are proposed, the hiding process is carried out within a computer using iterative algorithm. But the iterative algorithms are time consumed. All method mentioned above are based on the optical diffraction of the phase masks. In this presentation, a new optical image hiding method based on optical interference is proposed. The coherence lights which pass through two phase masks are combined by a beam splitter. Two beams interfere with each other and the desired image appears at the pre-designed plane. Two phase distribution masks are design analytically; therefore, the hiding speed can be obviously improved. Simulation results are carried out to demonstrate the novelty of the new proposed methods. This method can be expanded for double images hiding.

  16. Imaging of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Minerva [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)], E-mail: minerva.becker@hcuge.ch; Masterson, Karen [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Vargas, Maria-Isabel [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Becker, Christoph D. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  17. Imaging of the optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Minerva; Masterson, Karen; Delavelle, Jacqueline; Viallon, Magalie; Vargas, Maria-Isabel; Becker, Christoph D.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  18. Brain Imaging in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith A.; Fox, Nick C.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Klunk, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging has played a variety of roles in the study of Alzheimer disease (AD) over the past four decades. Initially, computed tomography (CT) and then magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used diagnostically to rule out other causes of dementia. More recently, a variety of imaging modalities including structural and functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral metabolism with fluoro-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) and amyloid tracers such as Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) have shown characteristic changes in the brains of patients with AD, and in prodromal and even presymptomatic states that can help rule-in the AD pathophysiological process. No one imaging modality can serve all purposes as each have unique strengths and weaknesses. These modalities and their particular utilities are discussed in this article. The challenge for the future will be to combine imaging biomarkers to most efficiently facilitate diagnosis, disease staging, and, most importantly, development of effective disease-modifying therapies. PMID:22474610

  19. Detection of brain tumor margins using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Chambi, Ronald M.; Kut, Carmen; Rico-Jimenez, Jesus; Campos-Delgado, Daniel U.; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Li, Xingde; Jo, Javier

    2018-02-01

    In brain cancer surgery, it is critical to achieve extensive resection without compromising adjacent healthy, non-cancerous regions. Various technological advances have made major contributions in imaging, including intraoperative magnetic imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). However, these technologies have pros and cons in providing quantitative, real-time and three-dimensional (3D) continuous guidance in brain cancer detection. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, label-free, cost-effective technique capable of imaging tissue in three dimensions and real time. The purpose of this study is to reliably and efficiently discriminate between non-cancer and cancer-infiltrated brain regions using OCT images. To this end, a mathematical model for quantitative evaluation known as the Blind End- Member and Abundances Extraction method (BEAE). This BEAE method is a constrained optimization technique which extracts spatial information from volumetric OCT images. Using this novel method, we are able to discriminate between cancerous and non-cancerous tissues and using logistic regression as a classifier for automatic brain tumor margin detection. Using this technique, we are able to achieve excellent performance using an extensive cross-validation of the training dataset (sensitivity 92.91% and specificity 98.15%) and again using an independent, blinded validation dataset (sensitivity 92.91% and specificity 86.36%). In summary, BEAE is well-suited to differentiate brain tissue which could support the guiding surgery process for tissue resection.

  20. Brain Imaging with the Spintharicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsaith, Ann L.; Horwitz, N. H.; Lofstrom, J. E.; Izenstark, J. L.; Cook, K. J. [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    1969-01-15

    The spark imaging camera has been successfully applied to the imaging of the distributions of radioactive {sup 125}I in the thyroid gland. A 7-in.-diameter chamber has been developed for use with larger organs. In experiments with skull phantoms, high-resolution images have been obtained with focal areas of 2.2 cm in diameter containing as little as 30 {mu}Ci of {sup 99'}mTc-labelled sodium pertechnetate at a distance as great as 10 cm from the face of the collimator. In its present form, the Spintharicon is not adaptable to electronic discrimination of photon energies. An electronic quenching circuit aids in increasing the count-rate with the high fluxes that can be obtained in {sup 99m}Tc brain imaging. The contrast obtained in the image is controlled by the film contrast and camera f-stop. By using high-contrast copy film instead of the conventional ASA 3000 type, areas of increased activity are more easily visualized in a background pool of radioactivity. In these large distributions spark contents ranging from 30 000 to 60 000 are usually required for adequate resolution. In-vivo demonstrations of known brain lesions have been obtained with the Spintharicon. In its present stage of development, the inability to enhance contrast may limit its clinical usefulness in situations where the target to non-target ratio is low. (author)

  1. Fueling and Imaging Brain Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A Dienel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models.

  2. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  3. Differentiating functional brain regions using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Daniel A.; Bow, Hansen C.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    The human brain is made up of functional regions governing movement, sensation, language, and cognition. Unintentional injury during neurosurgery can result in significant neurological deficits and morbidity. The current standard for localizing function to brain tissue during surgery, intraoperative electrical stimulation or recording, significantly increases the risk, time, and cost of the procedure. There is a need for a fast, cost-effective, and high-resolution intraoperative technique that can avoid damage to functional brain regions. We propose that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can fill this niche by imaging differences in the cellular composition and organization of functional brain areas. We hypothesized this would manifest as differences in the attenuation coefficient measured using OCT. Five functional regions (prefrontal, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and cerebellum) were imaged in ex vivo porcine brains (n=3), a model chosen due to a similar white/gray matter ratio as human brains. The attenuation coefficient was calculated using a depth-resolved model and quantitatively validated with Intralipid phantoms across a physiological range of attenuation coefficients (absolute difference Nissl-stained histology will be used to validate our results and correlate OCT-measured attenuation coefficients to neuronal density. Additional development and validation of OCT algorithms to discriminate brain regions are planned to improve the safety and efficacy of neurosurgical procedures such as biopsy, electrode placement, and tissue resection.

  4. ELSI priorities for brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Judy; De Vries, Raymond; Cho, Mildred K; Schraedley-Desmond, Pam

    2006-01-01

    As one of the most compelling technologies for imaging the brain, functional MRI (fMRI) produces measurements and persuasive pictures of research subjects making cognitive judgments and even reasoning through difficult moral decisions. Even after centuries of studying the link between brain and behavior, this capability presents a number of novel significant questions. For example, what are the implications of biologizing human experience? How might neuroimaging disrupt the mysteries of human nature, spirituality, and personal identity? Rather than waiting for an ethical agenda to emerge from some unpredictable combination of the concerns of ethicists and researchers, the attention of journalists, or after controversy is sparked by research that cannot be retracted, we queried key figures in bioethics and the humanities, neuroscience, media, industry, and patient advocacy in focus groups and interviews. We identified specific ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) that highlight researcher obligations and the nonclinical impact of the technology at this new frontier.

  5. Functional brain imaging; Funktionelle Hirnbildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, E.R. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-02-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive method that has become one of the major tools for understanding human brain function and in recent years has also been developed for clinical applications. Changes in hemodynamic signals correspond to changes in neuronal activity with good spatial and temporal resolution in fMRI. Using high-field MR systems and increasingly dedicated statistics and postprocessing, activated brain areas can be detected and superimposed on anatomical images. Currently, fMRI data are often combined in multimodal imaging, e. g. with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences. This method is helping to further understand the physiology of cognitive brain processes and is also being used in a number of clinical applications. In addition to the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, this article deals with the construction of fMRI investigations, selection of paradigms and evaluation in the clinical routine. Clinically, this method is mainly used in the planning of brain surgery, analyzing the location of brain tumors in relation to eloquent brain areas and the lateralization of language processing. As the BOLD signal is dependent on the strength of the magnetic field as well as other limitations, an overview of recent developments is given. Increases of magnetic field strength (7 T), available head coils and advances in MRI analytical methods have led to constant improvement in fMRI signals and experimental design. Especially the depiction of eloquent brain regions can be done easily and quickly and has become an essential part of presurgical planning. (orig.) [German] Mittlerweile ist die funktionelle MRT (fMRT) eine Methode, die nicht mehr nur in der neurowissenschaftlichen Routine verwendet wird. Die fMRT ermoeglicht die nichtinvasive Darstellung der Hirnaktivitaet in guter raeumlicher und zeitlicher Aufloesung unter Ausnutzung der Durchblutungsaenderung aufgrund der erhoehten Nervenzellaktivitaet. Unter

  6. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to design of biomedical optical imaging technologies and their applications. The main topics include: fluorescence imaging, confocal imaging, micro-endoscope, polarization imaging, hyperspectral imaging, OCT imaging, multimodal imaging and spectroscopic systems. Each chapter is written by the world leaders of the respective fields, and will cover: principles and limitations of optical imaging technology, system design and practical implementation for one or two specific applications, including design guidelines, system configuration, optical design, component requirements and selection, system optimization and design examples, recent advances and applications in biomedical researches and clinical imaging. This book serves as a reference for students and researchers in optics and biomedical engineering.

  7. Quantitative imaging of brain chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    We can now measure how chemicals affect different regions of the human brain. One area involves the study of drugs - in-vivo neuro-pharmacology; another involves the study of toxic chemical effects - in vivo neurotoxicology. The authors approach is to label drugs with positron-emitting radioactive tracers - chiefly carbon-11 with a half-life of 20 minutes and fluorine-18 with a half-life of 110 minutes. The labeled drugs are injected intravenously and a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner is used to map out the distribution of the radioactivity within the brain from the moment of injection until about 90 minutes later. Mathematical models are used to calculate receptor concentrations and the affinity of the receptors for the injected radioactive tracer. By means of PET scanning, they look at cross sections or visual slices throughout the human brain, obtaining computer-generated images in any plane. The authors are investigating the functions of specific drugs or specific receptors, as well as looking at the metabolic activity in different parts of the brain as revealed in glucose metabolism. For example, the authors are studying opiate receptors in patients with a variety of conditions: those who suffer from chronic pain, those who are congenitally insensitive to pain and drug addicts. They are studying patients with schizophrenia, tardive dyskinesia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, depressed patients and sex-offenders. They are relating the state of the neurotransmitter/neuroreceptor systems to behavior. In essence, they believe that they can now examine in living human beings what relates the structure of the brain to the function of the mind that is chemistry

  8. Optics for mobile phone imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier-Blanc, Emmanuelle E.

    2004-02-01

    Micro cameras for mobile phones require specific opto electronic designs using high-resolution micro technologies for compromising optical, electronical and mechanical requirements. The purpose of this conference is to present the optical critical parameters for imaging optics embedded into mobile phones. We will overview the optics critical parameters involved into micro optical cameras, as seen from user point of view, and their interdependence and relative influence onto optical performances of the product, as: -Focal length, field of view and array size. -Lens speed and depth of field: what is hidden behind lens speed, how to compromise small aperture, production tolerances, sensitivity, good resolution in corners and great depth of field -Relative illumination, this smooth fall off of intensity toward edge of array -Resolution; how to measure it, the interaction of pixel size, small dimensions -Sensitivity, insuring same sensitivity as human being under both twilight and midday sunny conditions. -Mischievous effects, as flare, glare, ghost effects and how to avoid them -How to match sensor spectrum and photopic eye curve: IR filter, and color balancing. We will compromise above parameters and see how to match with market needs and productivity insurance.

  9. Viscous optical clearing agent for in vivo optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zijian; Jing, Lijia; Wu, Ning; lv, Pengyu; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Ren, Qiushi; Li, Changhui

    2014-07-01

    By allowing more photons to reach deeper tissue, the optical clearing agent (OCA) has gained increasing attention in various optical imaging modalities. However, commonly used OCAs have high fluidity, limiting their applications in in vivo studies with oblique, uneven, or moving surfaces. In this work, we reported an OCA with high viscosity. We measured the properties of this viscous OCA, and tested its successful performances in the imaging of a living animal's skin with two optical imaging modalities: photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Our results demonstrated that the viscous OCA has a great potential in the study of different turbid tissues using various optical imaging modalities.

  10. Fluorescence imaging spectrometer optical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiti, A.; Coppo, P.; Battistelli, E.

    2015-09-01

    The optical design of the FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) studied for the Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is discussed. FLEX is a candidate for the ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. FLORIS is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager foreseen to be embarked on board of a medium size satellite, flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe the vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm. Multi-frames acquisitions on matrix detectors during the satellite movement will allow the production of 2D Earth scene images in two different spectral channels, called HR and LR with spectral resolution of 0.3 and 2 nm respectively. A common fore optics is foreseen to enhance by design the spatial co-registration between the two spectral channels, which have the same ground spatial sampling (300 m) and swath (150 km). An overlapped spectral range between the two channels is also introduced to simplify the spectral coregistration. A compact opto-mechanical solution with all spherical and plane optical elements is proposed, and the most significant design rationales are described. The instrument optical architecture foresees a dual Babinet scrambler, a dioptric telescope and two grating spectrometers (HR and LR), each consisting of a modified Offner configuration. The developed design is robust, stable vs temperature, easy to align, showing very high optical quality along the whole field of view. The system gives also excellent correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortions (keystone and smile).

  11. Laboratory testing & measurement on optical imaging systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available on Optical Imaging Systems Bertus Theron 27 April 2013 presented at SIECPC 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Overview of Workshop Part 1. Introduction & Context  Some history of Arabic Optics  Context: Global vs Local optical testing... of Arabic Optics 1 See [4]  Arabic records of study of geometrical optics  Traced to Hellenistic (Greek) optics  Translated to Arabic  9th century  Arabic contribution to geometric optics  Not just translation to Arabic  Innovative research...

  12. Whole brain imaging with Serial Two-Photon Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Amato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging entire mouse brains at submicron resolution has historically been a challenging undertaking and largely confined to the province of dedicated atlasing initiatives. The has limited systematic investigations into important areas of neuroscience, such as neural circuits, brain mapping and neurodegeneration. In this paper, we describe in detail Serial Two-Photon (STP tomography, a robust, reliable method for imaging entire brains with histological detail. We provide examples of how the basic methodology can be extended to other imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography, in order to provide unique contrast mechanisms. Furthermore we provide a survey of the research that STP tomography has enabled in the field of neuroscience, provide examples of how this technology enables quantitative whole brain studies, and discuss the current limitations of STP tomography-based approaches

  13. Optical coherence tomography and optical coherence domain reflectometry for deep brain stimulation probe guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sung W.; Shure, Mark A.; Baker, Kenneth B.; Chahlavi, Ali; Hatoum, Nagi; Turbay, Massud; Rollins, Andrew M.; Rezai, Ali R.; Huang, David

    2005-04-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is FDA-approved for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. Currently, placement of DBS leads is guided through a combination of anatomical targeting and intraoperative microelectrode recordings. The physiological mapping process requires several hours, and each pass of the microelectrode into the brain increases the risk of hemorrhage. Optical Coherence Domain Reflectometry (OCDR) in combination with current methodologies could reduce surgical time and increase accuracy and safety by providing data on structures some distance ahead of the probe. For this preliminary study, we scanned a rat brain in vitro using polarization-insensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). For accurate measurement of intensity and attenuation, polarization effects arising from tissue birefringence are removed by polarization diversity detection. A fresh rat brain was sectioned along the coronal plane and immersed in a 5 mm cuvette with saline solution. OCT images from a 1294 nm light source showed depth profiles up to 2 mm. Light intensity and attenuation rate distinguished various tissue structures such as hippocampus, cortex, external capsule, internal capsule, and optic tract. Attenuation coefficient is determined by linear fitting of the single scattering regime in averaged A-scans where Beer"s law is applicable. Histology showed very good correlation with OCT images. From the preliminary study using OCT, we conclude that OCDR is a promising approach for guiding DBS probe placement.

  14. Optimal delivery route of bone marrow stromal cells for rat infarct brain – A study using non-invasive optical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC have the potential to improve neurological function when transplanted into animal model of central nervous system (CNS disorders. However, there still exist several questions to solved prior to clinical application. In this study, therefore, we aimed to clarify the optimal delivery route of BMSC transplantation over a reasonable time window.MATERIALS AND METHODS - The rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. The BMSC were labeled with quantum dot (QD 800. The labeled BMSC were transplanted into the infarct brain directly or intravenously at 7 days after the insult. Motor function was serially assessed. The BMSC were also tracked using near infrared (NIR fluorescence imaging technique every week. The fate of the transplanted BMSC was examined at 5 weeks after transplantation, using Immunohistochemistry. RESULTS - Direct, but not intravenous, transplantation of BMSC significantly enhanced functional recovery. NIR fluorescence imaging could visualize their migration towards cerebral infarct in directly, but not intravenously, injected animals. The findings were supported on histological analysis. Thus, the BMSC were widely engrafted in the infarct brain in the directly injected animals, but few BMSC were observed in the intravenously injected ones. CONCLUSION - This study strongly suggests that direct transplantation of BMSC may be more beneficial in treating patients with ischemic stroke than their intravenous transplantation. Therapeutic time window must be called into account when considering the route of BMSC transplantation.

  15. Imaging Human Brain Perfusion with Inhaled Hyperpolarized 129Xe MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhwesha R; Stewart, Neil J; Griffiths, Paul D; Norquay, Graham; Wild, Jim M

    2018-02-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of directly imaging perfusion of human brain tissue by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with inhaled hyperpolarized xenon 129 ( 129 Xe). Materials and Methods In vivo imaging with 129 Xe was performed in three healthy participants. The combination of a high-yield spin-exchange optical pumping 129 Xe polarizer, custom-built radiofrequency coils, and an optimized gradient-echo MR imaging protocol was used to achieve signal sensitivity sufficient to directly image hyperpolarized 129 Xe dissolved in the human brain. Conventional T1-weighted proton (hydrogen 1 [ 1 H]) images and perfusion images by using arterial spin labeling were obtained for comparison. Results Images of 129 Xe uptake were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 31 ± 9 and demonstrated structural similarities to the gray matter distribution on conventional T1-weighted 1 H images and to perfusion images from arterial spin labeling. Conclusion Hyperpolarized 129 Xe MR imaging is an injection-free means of imaging the perfusion of cerebral tissue. The proposed method images the uptake of inhaled xenon gas to the extravascular brain tissue compartment across the intact blood-brain barrier. This level of sensitivity is not readily available with contemporary MR imaging methods. © RSNA, 2017.

  16. Brain perfusion imaging with iodinated amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Traditional nuclear medicine brain study using 99m Tc pertechnetate, glucoheptonate or diethlenetriaminepentacetic acid (DTPA) and planar imaging has experienced a significant decline in the past 10 years. This is mainly due to the introduction of X-ray CT and more recently the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, by which detailed morphology of the brain, including the detection of breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, can be obtained. The nuclear medicine brain imaging is only prescribed as a complementary test when X-ray CT is negative or equivocal and clinical suspicion remains. The attention of nuclear medicine brain imaging has been shifted from the detection of the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier to the study of brain function-perfusion, metabolism, and receptor binding, etc. The functional brain imaging provides diagnostic information usually unattainable by other radiological techniques. In this article, the iodinated amines as brain perfusion imaging agents are reviewed. Potential clinical application of these agents is discussed

  17. Functional brain imaging across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya

    2013-12-01

    The developmental cognitive neuroscience literature has grown exponentially over the last decade. This paper reviews the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature on brain function development of typically late developing functions of cognitive and motivation control, timing and attention as well as of resting state neural networks. Evidence shows that between childhood and adulthood, concomitant with cognitive maturation, there is progressively increased functional activation in task-relevant lateral and medial frontal, striatal and parieto-temporal brain regions that mediate these higher level control functions. This is accompanied by progressively stronger functional inter-regional connectivity within task-relevant fronto-striatal and fronto-parieto-temporal networks. Negative age associations are observed in earlier developing posterior and limbic regions, suggesting a shift with age from the recruitment of "bottom-up" processing regions towards "top-down" fronto-cortical and fronto-subcortical connections, leading to a more mature, supervised cognition. The resting state fMRI literature further complements this evidence by showing progressively stronger deactivation with age in anti-correlated task-negative resting state networks, which is associated with better task performance. Furthermore, connectivity analyses during the resting state show that with development increasingly stronger long-range connections are being formed, for example, between fronto-parietal and fronto-cerebellar connections, in both task-positive networks and in task-negative default mode networks, together with progressively lesser short-range connections, suggesting progressive functional integration and segregation with age. Overall, evidence suggests that throughout development between childhood and adulthood, there is progressive refinement and integration of both task-positive fronto-cortical and fronto-subcortical activation and task-negative deactivation, leading to

  18. Brain MR imaging in dietarily treated phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breysem, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Smet, M.H. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Johannik, K. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Hecke, P. van [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Francois, B. [L. Willems Inst., Diepenbeek (Belgium); Wilms, G. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, H. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Marchal, G. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Jaeken, J. [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Demaerel, P. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1994-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is the most efficient imaging modality to evaluate brain gray and white matter of patients with metabolic diseases. The main purpose of our study was to investigate the relation between brain MRI abnormalities and the phenylalanine (phe) and tyrosine (tyr) blood levels in 38 phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. Increased periventricular white matter intensity on T2-weighted brain images was the only pathologic finding in 24 patients. Brain MRI abnormalities were scored (4) and correlated with the individual mean phe and phe/tyr levels during 1 year preceding MR examination and with phe tolerance. The residual activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase was defined for each patient by an oral phe tolerance. The appearance of MRI abnormalities on brain T2-weighted images correlates with a threshold mean phe level (averaged over the year preceding the examination). (orig.)

  19. Brain MR imaging in dietarily treated phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breysem, L.; Smet, M.H.; Johannik, K.; Hecke, P. van; Francois, B.; Wilms, G.; Bosmans, H.; Marchal, G.; Jaeken, J.; Demaerel, P.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is the most efficient imaging modality to evaluate brain gray and white matter of patients with metabolic diseases. The main purpose of our study was to investigate the relation between brain MRI abnormalities and the phenylalanine (phe) and tyrosine (tyr) blood levels in 38 phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. Increased periventricular white matter intensity on T2-weighted brain images was the only pathologic finding in 24 patients. Brain MRI abnormalities were scored (4) and correlated with the individual mean phe and phe/tyr levels during 1 year preceding MR examination and with phe tolerance. The residual activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase was defined for each patient by an oral phe tolerance. The appearance of MRI abnormalities on brain T2-weighted images correlates with a threshold mean phe level (averaged over the year preceding the examination). (orig.)

  20. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier predicts conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig P; Modvig, Signe; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2015-01-01

    in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in normal-appearing white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis and here, for the first time, we present a study on the capability of blood-brain barrier permeability in predicting conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis and a direct comparison...... with cerebrospinal fluid markers of inflammation, cellular trafficking and blood-brain barrier breakdown. To this end, we applied dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T to measure blood-brain barrier permeability in 39 patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis, all referred for imaging...... fluid as well as levels of CXCL10 and MMP9 in the cerebrospinal fluid. These findings suggest that blood-brain barrier permeability, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging, may provide novel pathological information as a marker of neuroinflammation related to multiple sclerosis, to some extent...

  1. Cerenkov and radioluminescence imaging of brain tumor specimens during neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Schiariti, Marco P.; Grana, Chiara M.; Ferrari, Mahila; Cremonesi, Marta; Boschi, Federico

    2016-05-01

    We presented the first example of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and radioluminescence imaging (RLI) of human tumor specimens. A patient with a brain meningioma localized in the left parietal region was injected with 166 MBq of Y90-DOTATOC the day before neurosurgery. The specimens of the tumor removed during surgery were imaged using both CLI and RLI using an optical imager prototype developed in our laboratory. The system is based on a cooled electron multiplied charge coupled device coupled with an f/0.95 17-mm C-mount lens. We showed for the first time the possibility of obtaining CLI and RLI images of fresh human brain tumor specimens removed during neurosurgery.

  2. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry. PMID:23248293

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies

  4. Imaging brain microstructure with diffusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Daniel C; Dyrby, Tim B; Nilsson, Markus

    2018-01-01

    This article gives an overview of microstructure imaging of the brain with diffusion MRI and reviews the state of the art. The microstructure-imaging paradigm aims to estimate and map microscopic properties of tissue using a model that links these properties to the voxel scale MR signal. Imaging ...

  5. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  6. Brain's tumor image processing using shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Luis; Espinosa, Nikolai; Cadena, Franklin; Korneeva, Anna; Kruglyakov, Alexey; Legalov, Alexander; Romanenko, Alexey; Zotin, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Brain tumor detection is well known research area for medical and computer scientists. In last decades there has been much research done on tumor detection, segmentation, and classification. Medical imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of brain tumors and nowadays uses methods non-invasive, high-resolution techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. Edge detection is a fundamental tool in image processing, particularly in the areas of feature detection and feature extraction, which aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image has discontinuities. Shearlets is the most successful frameworks for the efficient representation of multidimensional data, capturing edges and other anisotropic features which frequently dominate multidimensional phenomena. The paper proposes an improved brain tumor detection method by automatically detecting tumor location in MR images, its features are extracted by new shearlet transform.

  7. Advantages in functional imaging of the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mier, Walter; Mier, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    As neuronal pathologies cause only minor morphological alterations, molecular imaging techniques are a prerequisite for the study of diseases of the brain. The development of molecular probes that specifically bind biochemical markers and the advances of instrumentation have revolutionized the possibilities to gain insight into the human brain organization and beyond this?visualize structure-function and brain-behavior relationships. The review describes the development and current applicatio...

  8. Imaging Brain Development: Benefiting from Individual Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Sharda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human brain development is a complex process that evolves from early childhood to young adulthood. Major advances in brain imaging are increasingly being used to characterize the developing brain. These advances have further helped to elucidate the dynamic maturational processes that lead to the emergence of complex cognitive abilities in both typical and atypical development. However, conventional approaches involve categorical group comparison models and tend to disregard the role of widespread interindividual variability in brain development. This review highlights how this variability can inform our understanding of developmental processes. The latest studies in the field of brain development are reviewed, with a particular focus on the role of individual variability and the consequent heterogeneity in brain structural and functional development. This review also highlights how such heterogeneity might be utilized to inform our understanding of complex neuropsychiatric disorders and recommends the use of more dimensional approaches to study brain development.

  9. Brain MR imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Ellerbroek, C.J.; Alexander, R.; Kao, S.C.S.; Yuh, W.T.C.; Smith, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims

  10. Brain MR imaging of systemic lupus erythematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Ueda, Fumiaki; Arai, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kadoya, Masumi; Matsui, Osamu; Takashima, Tsutomu

    1996-01-01

    Brain MR imaging of 13 patients with systemic lupus erythematodus (SLE) were reviewed. Two major findings was obtained. One was deep white matter hyperintensity (DWMH) and periventricular hyperintensity (PVH), the other was cerebral infarction. In comparison with the same age group, relatively severe brain atrophy was also observed. It was thought that these findings were induced from the vasculitis caused by SLE. However, the influence of the steroid therapy could not be excluded. No definite correlation between MR findings and clinical symptoms were seen. In conclusion, when we interpret brain MR imaging of the patients with SLE, special attention should be paid to their age. (author)

  11. Manganese accumulation in the brain: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Nomiyama, K.; Takase, Y.; Nakazono, T.; Nojiri, J.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan); Noguchi, T. [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Manganese (Mn) accumulation in the brain is detected as symmetrical high signal intensity in the globus pallidi on T1-weighted MR images without an abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. In this review, we present several cases of Mn accumulation in the brain due to acquired or congenital diseases of the abdomen including hepatic cirrhosis with a portosystemic shunt, congenital biliary atresia, primary biliary cirrhosis, congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt without liver dysfunction, Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome with a diffuse intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and patent ductus venosus. Other causes of Mn accumulation in the brain are Mn overload from total parenteral nutrition and welding-related Mn intoxication. (orig.)

  12. Optically sectioned imaging by oblique plane microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Lin, Ziduo; Lyon, Alex R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. The first OPM results obtained using a high NA water immersion lens on a commercially available inverted microscope frame are presented, together with a measurement of the achievable optical resolution.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of radiation optic neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, C.F.; Schatz, N.J.; Glaser, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Three patients with delayed radiation optic neuropathy after radiation therapy for parasellar neoplasms underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The affected optic nerves and chiasms showed enlargement and focal gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement. The magnetic resonance imaging technique effectively detected and defined anterior visual pathway changes of radionecrosis and excluded the clinical possibility of visual loss because of tumor recurrence

  14. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  15. SPECT brain perfusion imaging in mild traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Juan; Liu Baojun; Zhao Feng; He Lirong; Xia Yucheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of SPECT brain perfusion imaging after mild traumatic brain injury and to evaluate the mechanism of brain blood flow changes in the brain traumatic symptoms. Methods: SPECT 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain perfusion imaging was performed on 39 patients with normal consciousness and normal computed tomography. The study was performed on 23 patients within 3 months after the accidental injury and on 16 patients at more than 3 months post-injury. The cerebellum was used as the reference site (100% maximum value). Any decrease in cerebral perfusion in cortex or basal ganglia to below 70%, or even to below 50% in the medial temporal lobe, compared to the cerebellar reference was considered abnormal. Results: The results of 23 patients (59%) were abnormal. Among them, 20 patients showed 74 focal lesions with an average of 3.7 per patient (15 studies performed within 3 months and 8 studies performed more than 3 months after injury). The remaining 3 showed diffuse hypoperfusion (two at the early stage and one at more than 3 months after the injury). The 13 abnormal studies performed at the early stage showed 58 lesions (average, 4.5 per patient), whereas there was a reduction to an average of 2.3 per patient in the 7 patients (total 16 lesions) at more than 3 months post-injury. In the 20 patients with focal lesions, mainly the following regions were involved: frontal lobes 43.2% (32/74), basal ganglia 24.3% (18/74) and temporal lobes 17.6% (13/74). Conclusions: 1) SPECT brain perfusion imaging is more sensitive than computed tomography in detecting brain lesions of mild traumatic brain injury. 2) SPECT brain perfusion imaging is more sensitive at early stage than at late stage after injury. 3) The most common complaints were headache, dizziness, memory deficit. The patients without loss of consciousness may present brain hypoperfusion, too. 4) The changes may explain a neurological component of the patient symptoms in

  16. MR imaging of the brain: tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, K.

    1999-01-01

    The radiologic modality that most likely provides the imaging information needed in a patient suspected of having a brain tumor is MR imaging. A brain tumor can be reliably ruled out if the MR examination is performed properly and experts interpret the results as negative. If there is a tumor, however, its exact location and topography must be determined. Important for therapy and prognosis are also tumor properties such as histologic type and grade, as well as effects on adjacent brain structures. Although potentially a noninvasive method of in vivo neuropathology, MR is still far from being sufficiently specific, as dissimilar lesions may look the same despite the use of refined imaging protocols. The evolution of MR imaging continues, however, making further methodologic improvement likely. Presently, advanced methods, such as diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MR imaging, functional MR imaging, neuronavigation based on MR imaging data, and the use of MR imaging during surgery (intraoperative MR imaging), influence the way patients are treated. Likewise, follow-up imaging (monitoring) of tumor patients by MR has become more effective, and experience has shown how to distinguish reactive changes from recurrent tumor. In the future, MR imaging may gain importance in the development of novel therapeutic concepts. (orig.)

  17. Hemorrhage detection in MRI brain images using images features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Luminita; Moldovanu, Simona; Bibicu, Dorin; Stratulat (Visan), Mirela

    2013-11-01

    The abnormalities appear frequently on Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of brain in elderly patients presenting either stroke or cognitive impairment. Detection of brain hemorrhage lesions in MRI is an important but very time-consuming task. This research aims to develop a method to extract brain tissue features from T2-weighted MR images of the brain using a selection of the most valuable texture features in order to discriminate between normal and affected areas of the brain. Due to textural similarity between normal and affected areas in brain MR images these operation are very challenging. A trauma may cause microstructural changes, which are not necessarily perceptible by visual inspection, but they could be detected by using a texture analysis. The proposed analysis is developed in five steps: i) in the pre-processing step: the de-noising operation is performed using the Daubechies wavelets; ii) the original images were transformed in image features using the first order descriptors; iii) the regions of interest (ROIs) were cropped from images feature following up the axial symmetry properties with respect to the mid - sagittal plan; iv) the variation in the measurement of features was quantified using the two descriptors of the co-occurrence matrix, namely energy and homogeneity; v) finally, the meaningful of the image features is analyzed by using the t-test method. P-value has been applied to the pair of features in order to measure they efficacy.

  18. Brain water mapping with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, F.J.; Fatouros, P.P.; Kraft, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a recently developed MR imaging technique to determine the spatial distribution of brain water to healthy volunteers. A noninvasive MR imaging technique to obtain absolute measurements of brain water has been developed and validated with phantom and animal studies. Patient confirmation was obtained from independent gravimetric measurements of brain tissue samples harvested by biopsy. This approach entails the production of accurate T1 maps from multiple inversion recovery images of a selected anatomic section and their subsequent conversion into an absolute water image by means of a previously determined calibration curve. Twenty healthy volunteers were studied and their water distribution was determined in a standard section. The following brain water values means and SD grams of water per gram of tissue) were obtained for selected brain regions; white matter, 68.9% ± 1.0; corpus callosum, 67.4% ± 1.1; thalamus, 75.3% ± 1.4; and caudate nucleus, 80.3% ± 1.4. MR imaging water mapping is a valid means of determining water content in a variety of brain tissues

  19. NIH Conference. Brain imaging: aging and dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, N.R.; Duara, R.; Creasey, H.; Grady, C.L.; Haxby, J.V.; Schapiro, M.B.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    The brain imaging techniques of positron emission tomography using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and computed tomography, together with neuropsychological tests, were used to examine overall brain function and anatomy in three study populations: healthy men at different ages, patients with presumptive Alzheimer's disease, and adults with Down's syndrome. Brain glucose use did not differ with age, whereas an age-related decrement in gray matter volume was found on computed tomographic assessment in healthy subjects. Memory deficits were found to precede significant reductions in brain glucose utilization in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia. Furthermore, differences between language and visuoconstructive impairments in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease were related to hemispheric asymmetry of brain metabolism. Brain glucose utilization was found to be significantly elevated in young adults with Down's syndrome, compared with controls. The importance of establishing strict criteria for selecting control subjects and patients is explained in relation to the findings

  20. Advantages in functional imaging of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Walter; Mier, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    As neuronal pathologies cause only minor morphological alterations, molecular imaging techniques are a prerequisite for the study of diseases of the brain. The development of molecular probes that specifically bind biochemical markers and the advances of instrumentation have revolutionized the possibilities to gain insight into the human brain organization and beyond this-visualize structure-function and brain-behavior relationships. The review describes the development and current applications of functional brain imaging techniques with a focus on applications in psychiatry. A historical overview of the development of functional imaging is followed by the portrayal of the principles and applications of positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), two key molecular imaging techniques that have revolutionized the ability to image molecular processes in the brain. We conclude that the juxtaposition of PET and fMRI in hybrid PET/MRI scanners enhances the significance of both modalities for research in neurology and psychiatry and might pave the way for a new area of personalized medicine.

  1. Imaging and applied optics: introduction to the feature issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Arnison, Matthew R; Javidi, Bahram; Testorf, Markus

    2018-03-01

    This special issue of Applied Optics contains selected papers from OSA's Imaging Congress with particular emphasis on work from mathematics in imaging, computational optical sensing and imaging, imaging systems and applications, and 3D image acquisition and display.

  2. Potential brain imaging using near field radiomety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, A; Karanasiou, I S; Uzunoglu, N K

    2009-01-01

    During the past decades there has been a tremendous increase throughout the scientific community for developing methods of understanding human brain functionality, as diagnosis and treatment of diseases and malfunctions could be effectively developed through understanding of how the brain works. In parallel, research effort is driven on minimizing drawbacks of existing imaging techniques including potential risks from radiation and invasive attributes of the imaging methodologies. Towards that direction, we are proposing a near filed radiometry imaging system for intracranial applications. The methodology is based on the fact that human tissues emit chaotic thermal type radiation at temperatures above the absolute zero. Using a phase shifted antenna array system, resolution, detection depth and sensitivity are increased. Several different setups are theoretically investigated and compared, so as to make the proposed system useful for clinical applications. Combining previous research as well as new findings, the possibility of using the proposed system as a complementary method for brain imaging is discussed in the present paper.

  3. Brain plasticity and functionality explored by nonlinear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacconi, L.; Allegra, L.; Buffelli, M.; Cesare, P.; D'Angelo, E.; Gandolfi, D.; Grasselli, G.; Lotti, J.; Mapelli, J.; Strata, P.; Pavone, F. S.

    2010-02-01

    In combination with fluorescent protein (XFP) expression techniques, two-photon microscopy has become an indispensable tool to image cortical plasticity in living mice. In parallel to its application in imaging, multi-photon absorption has also been used as a tool for the dissection of single neurites with submicrometric precision without causing any visible collateral damage to the surrounding neuronal structures. In this work, multi-photon nanosurgery is applied to dissect single climbing fibers expressing GFP in the cerebellar cortex. The morphological consequences are then characterized with time lapse 3-dimensional two-photon imaging over a period of minutes to days after the procedure. Preliminary investigations show that the laser induced fiber dissection recalls a regenerative process in the fiber itself over a period of days. These results show the possibility of this innovative technique to investigate regenerative processes in adult brain. In parallel with imaging and manipulation technique, non-linear microscopy offers the opportunity to optically record electrical activity in intact neuronal networks. In this work, we combined the advantages of second-harmonic generation (SHG) with a random access (RA) excitation scheme to realize a new microscope (RASH) capable of optically recording fast membrane potential events occurring in a wide-field of view. The RASH microscope, in combination with bulk loading of tissue with FM4-64 dye, was used to simultaneously record electrical activity from clusters of Purkinje cells in acute cerebellar slices. Complex spikes, both synchronous and asynchronous, were optically recorded simultaneously across a given population of neurons. Spontaneous electrical activity was also monitored simultaneously in pairs of neurons, where action potentials were recorded without averaging across trials. These results show the strength of this technique in describing the temporal dynamics of neuronal assemblies, opening promising

  4. Radionuclide techniques for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.J.; Moody, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past decade, many of the prime indications for radionuclide brain scanning have become instead indications for CCT, and nuclear medicine studies of the brain have assumed more of a complementary, supportive role. However, there is great promise for improvement in central nervous system radionuclide applications with advances anticipated in both radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation. Nuclear medicine is continuing to function as a powerful research tool and, in the relatively near future, may regain its role as a major clinical test of the central nervous system

  5. Low cost light-sheet microscopy for whole brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Nasenbeny, Jordan; Kozorovitskiy, Yevgenia

    2018-02-01

    Light-sheet microscopy has evolved as an indispensable tool in imaging biological samples. It can image 3D samples at fast speed, with high-resolution optical sectioning, and with reduced photobleaching effects. These properties make light-sheet microscopy ideal for imaging fluorophores in a variety of biological samples and organisms, e.g. zebrafish, drosophila, cleared mouse brains, etc. While most commercial turnkey light-sheet systems are expensive, the existing lower cost implementations, e.g. OpenSPIM, are focused on achieving high-resolution imaging of small samples or organisms like zebrafish. In this work, we substantially reduce the cost of light-sheet microscope system while targeting to image much larger samples, i.e. cleared mouse brains, at single-cell resolution. The expensive components of a lightsheet system - excitation laser, water-immersion objectives, and translation stage - are replaced with an incoherent laser diode, dry objectives, and a custom-built Arduino-controlled translation stage. A low-cost CUBIC protocol is used to clear fixed mouse brain samples. The open-source platforms of μManager and Fiji support image acquisition, processing, and visualization. Our system can easily be extended to multi-color light-sheet microscopy.

  6. Optical image hiding based on interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bo

    2009-11-01

    Optical image processing has been paid a lot of attentions recently due to its large capacitance and fast speed. Many image encryption and hiding technologies have been proposed based on the optical technology. In conventional image encryption methods, the random phase masks are usually used as encryption keys to encode the images into random white noise distribution. However, this kind of methods requires interference technology such as holography to record complex amplitude. Furthermore, it is vulnerable to attack techniques. The image hiding methods employ the phase retrieve algorithm to encode the images into two or more phase masks. The hiding process is carried out within a computer and the images are reconstructed optically. But the iterative algorithms need a lot of time to hide the image into the masks. All methods mentioned above are based on the optical diffraction of the phase masks. In this presentation, we will propose a new optical image hiding method based on interference. The coherence lights pass through two phase masks and are combined by a beam splitter. Two beams interfere with each other and the desired image appears at the pre-designed plane. Two phase distribution masks are designed analytically; therefore, the hiding speed can be obviously improved. Simulation results are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the new proposed methods.

  7. Proton MRS imaging in pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarifi, Maria [Aghia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Tzika, A.A. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Shriners Burn Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques offer a noninvasive, non-irradiating yet sensitive approach to diagnosing and monitoring pediatric brain tumors. Proton MR spectroscopy (MRS), as an adjunct to MRI, is being more widely applied to monitor the metabolic aspects of brain cancer. In vivo MRS biomarkers represent a promising advance and may influence treatment choice at both initial diagnosis and follow-up, given the inherent difficulties of sequential biopsies to monitor therapeutic response. When combined with anatomical or other types of imaging, MRS provides unique information regarding biochemistry in inoperable brain tumors and can complement neuropathological data, guide biopsies and enhance insight into therapeutic options. The combination of noninvasively acquired prognostic information and the high-resolution anatomical imaging provided by conventional MRI is expected to surpass molecular analysis and DNA microarray gene profiling, both of which, although promising, depend on invasive biopsy. This review focuses on recent data in the field of MRS in children with brain tumors. (orig.)

  8. Image correction in magneto-optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Larsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    An image-processing procedure that assures correct determination of the magnetic field distribution of magneto-optical images is presented. The method remedies image faults resulting from sources that are proportional to the incident light intensity, such as different types of defects...

  9. Optics for Advanced Neutron Imaging and Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncton, David E.; Khaykovich, Boris

    2016-01-01

    During the report period, we continued the work as outlined in the original proposal. We have analyzed potential optical designs of Wolter mirrors for the neutron-imaging instrument VENUS, which is under construction at SNS. In parallel, we have conducted the initial polarized imaging experiment at Helmholtz Zentrum, Berlin, one of very few of currently available polarized-imaging facilities worldwide.

  10. Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    pediatric magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) techniques are revolutionizing our understanding of brain injury, its potential for recovery, and...training program, advanced MRI , brain injury. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...is located at www.MilitaryMedED.com. The site can be accessed from any device web browser (personal computer, tablet or phone) and operating system

  11. Connectome imaging for mapping human brain pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Toga, A W

    2017-09-01

    With the fast advance of connectome imaging techniques, we have the opportunity of mapping the human brain pathways in vivo at unprecedented resolution. In this article we review the current developments of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the reconstruction of anatomical pathways in connectome studies. We first introduce the background of diffusion MRI with an emphasis on the technical advances and challenges in state-of-the-art multi-shell acquisition schemes used in the Human Connectome Project. Characterization of the microstructural environment in the human brain is discussed from the tensor model to the general fiber orientation distribution (FOD) models that can resolve crossing fibers in each voxel of the image. Using FOD-based tractography, we describe novel methods for fiber bundle reconstruction and graph-based connectivity analysis. Building upon these novel developments, there have already been successful applications of connectome imaging techniques in reconstructing challenging brain pathways. Examples including retinofugal and brainstem pathways will be reviewed. Finally, we discuss future directions in connectome imaging and its interaction with other aspects of brain imaging research.

  12. Brain Imaging Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Simrun; Prete, Braedan R J; Wade, Alanna; Hane, Francis T; Albert, Mitchell S

    2018-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a novel iteration of traditional MRI that relies on detecting the spins of 1 H. Since 129 Xe is a gaseous signal source, it can be used for lung imaging. Additionally, 129 Xe dissolves in the blood stream and can therefore be detectable in the brain parenchyma and vasculature. In this work, we provide detailed information on the protocols that we have developed to image 129 Xe within the brains of both rodents and human subjects. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microfabricated optically pumped magnetometer arrays for biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, A. R.; Sheng, D.; Krzyzewski, S. P.; Geller, S.; Knappe, S.

    2017-02-01

    Optically-pumped magnetometers have demonstrated magnetic field measurements as precise as the best superconducting quantum interference device magnetometers. Our group develops miniature alkali atom-based magnetic sensors using microfabrication technology. Our sensors do not require cryogenic cooling, and can be positioned very close to the sample, making these sensors an attractive option for development in the medical community. We will present our latest chip-scale optically-pumped gradiometer developed for array applications to image magnetic fields from the brain noninvasively. These developments should lead to improved spatial resolution, and potentially sensitive measurements in unshielded environments.

  14. Functional brain imaging - baric and clinical questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, T.; Moeller, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The advancing biological knowledge of disease processes plays a central part in the progress of modern psychiatry. An essential contribution comes from the functional and structural brain imaging techniques (CT, MRI, SPECT, PET). Their application is important for biological oriented research in psychiatry and there is also a growing relevance in clinical aspects. This development is taken into account by recent diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry. The capabilities and limitations of functional brain imaging in the context of research and clinic will be presented and discussed by examples and own investigations. (orig.) [de

  15. Large-field-of-view imaging by multi-pupil adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Kong, Lingjie; Zhou, Yifeng; Cui, Meng

    2017-06-01

    Adaptive optics can correct for optical aberrations. We developed multi-pupil adaptive optics (MPAO), which enables simultaneous wavefront correction over a field of view of 450 × 450 μm 2 and expands the correction area to nine times that of conventional methods. MPAO's ability to perform spatially independent wavefront control further enables 3D nonplanar imaging. We applied MPAO to in vivo structural and functional imaging in the mouse brain.

  16. Adaptive optics imaging of the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Battu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics is a relatively new tool that is available to ophthalmologists for study of cellular level details. In addition to the axial resolution provided by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics provides an excellent lateral resolution, enabling visualization of the photoreceptors, blood vessels and details of the optic nerve head. We attempt a mini review of the current role of adaptive optics in retinal imaging. PubMed search was performed with key words Adaptive optics OR Retina OR Retinal imaging. Conference abstracts were searched from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO and American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO meetings. In total, 261 relevant publications and 389 conference abstracts were identified.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental brain edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Chuzo; Naruse, Shoji; Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Ebisu, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Kimiyoshi; Ohno, Yoshioki; Maki, Sou

    1987-04-01

    Experimental brain edema was produced by either cold injury or TET (triethyl-tin) intoxication in twenty-five Wistar rats, weighing about 250 g each, and then analyzed using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). The MRI was carried out with a 0.1 Tesla clinical apparatus (Asahi Mark J), using a special coil (7 cm in diameter) devised for small animals in order to obtain SR, SE, IR, and calculated T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ images. A dose of 0.5 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA was injected intravenously for the cold-injury edema, and MRIs of the rat brains were started immediately and obtained successively for 3 hours. MRI showed spatial resolution sufficient to differentiate the cortex from the caudate nucleus, even in such a small rat brain. Rat brains with TET intoxication (cytotoxic edema) showed a marked prolongation of T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ in the white matter. Consequently, the TET-intoxication images reflected these characteristic findings. Cold-induced edema showed an increased signal intensity in the injured cortex, the white matter, and the opposite white matter when compared with a normal brain. These changes correlate well with the previously reported in vitro data. When Gd-DTPA was administered to the rats with cold-induced edema, the signal intensity of the cold-injury lesion was significantly reduced. These changes were clearly demonstrated by the calculated T/sub 1/ images. To two rats we administered a dose of 0.5 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA; The T/sub 1/ values for the cold-injury lesions, before and after the injection, were about 445 msec and about 200 msec respectively. These studies were useful not only in evaluating brain edema, but also in analysing the effect of Gd-DTPA on the brain edema.

  18. Optical cell sorting with multiple imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Andrew; Carrissemoux, Caro; Palima, Darwin

    2017-01-01

    healthy cells. With the richness of visual information, a lot of microscopy techniques have been developed and have been crucial in biological studies. To utilize their complementary advantages we adopt both fluorescence and brightfield imaging in our optical cell sorter. Brightfield imaging has...... the advantage of being non-invasive, thus maintaining cell viability. Fluorescence imaging, on the other hand, takes advantages of the chemical specificity of fluorescence markers and can validate machine vision results from brightfield images. Visually identified cells are sorted using optical manipulation...

  19. Advanced MR brain imaging. Why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Tekes, Aylin

    Repeated examinations, also known as so-called 'follow-up examinations' are nowadays frequently used to decide whether or not a chosen treatment should be continued, adapted or discontinued. The side effects of X-rays on biological systems, especially on developing systems did, however, limit the use of X-rays in children. The development of high-resolution, non-ionizing imaging modalities like US and MRI revolutionized diagnostic medicine for the second time after the discovery of X-rays. US is nowadays an essential imaging modality in paediatrics; it can be performed at the bedside, has no side effects on the child, is widely available, well accepted by parents and can be repeated without limitations. MRI with its high spatial resolution, different imaging contrasts and multiplanar capabilities has grown into a second line imaging modality if plain films and US cannot make the diagnosis accurately or reliably. A third revolution in diagnostic imaging occurred as MRI allowed studying biological processes and functions non-invasively. (orig.)

  20. Functional imaging of small tissue volumes with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Alexander D.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2006-03-01

    Imaging of dynamic changes in blood parameters, functional brain imaging, and tumor imaging are the most advanced application areas of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). When dealing with the image reconstruction problem one is faced with the fact that near-infrared photons, unlike X-rays, are highly scattered when they traverse biological tissue. Image reconstruction schemes are required that model the light propagation inside biological tissue and predict measurements on the tissue surface. By iteratively changing the tissue-parameters until the predictions agree with the real measurements, a spatial distribution of optical properties inside the tissue is found. The optical properties can be related to the tissue oxygenation, inflammation, or to the fluorophore concentration of a biochemical marker. If the model of light propagation is inaccurate, the reconstruction process will lead to an inaccurate result as well. Here, we focus on difficulties that are encountered when DOT is employed for functional imaging of small tissue volumes, for example, in cancer studies involving small animals, or human finger joints for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Most of the currently employed image reconstruction methods rely on the diffusion theory that is an approximation to the equation of radiative transfer. But, in the cases of small tissue volumes and tissues that contain low scattering regions diffusion theory has been shown to be of limited applicability Therefore, we employ a light propagation model that is based on the equation of radiative transfer, which promises to overcome the limitations.

  1. ADVANCED OPTICAL TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE BRAIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestri, L.; Mascaro, A. L. Allegra; Lotti, J.; Sacconi, L.; Pavone, F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding brain structure and function, and the complex relationships between them, is one of the grand challenges of contemporary sciences. Thanks to their flexibility, optical techniques could be the key to explore this complex network. In this manuscript, we briefly review recent advancements in optical methods applied to three main issues: anatomy, plasticity and functionality. We describe novel implementations of light-sheet microscopy to resolve neuronal anatomy in whole fixed brain...

  2. PET/MRI for Oncologic Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rausch, Ivo; Rischka, Lucas; Ladefoged, Claes N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare attenuation-correction (AC) approaches for PET/MRI in clinical neurooncology.Methods:Forty-nine PET/MRI brain scans were included: brain tumor studies using18F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine (18F-FET) (n= 31) and68Ga-DOTANOC (n= 7) and studies of healthy subjects using18...... by Siemens Healthcare). As a reference, AC maps were derived from patient-specific CT images (CTref). PET data were reconstructed using standard settings after AC with all 4 AC methods. We report changes in diagnosis for all brain tumor patients and the following relative differences values (RDs...... of the whole brain and 10 anatomic regions segmented on MR images.Results:For brain tumor imaging (A and B), the standard PET-based diagnosis was not affected by any of the 3 MR-AC methods. For A, the average RDs of SUVmeanwere -10%, -4%, and -3% and of the VOIs 1%, 2%, and 7% for DIXON, UTE, and BD...

  3. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrymgeour, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boye, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Adelsberger, Kathleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  4. 2-d spectroscopic imaging of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, N.J.; Brotchie, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This poster illustrates the use of two-dimensional spectroscopic imaging (2-D SI) in the characterisation of brain tumours, and the monitoring of subsequent treatment. After conventional contrast-enhanced MR imaging of patients with known or suspected brain tumours, 2-D SI is performed at a single axial level. The level is chosen to include the maximum volume of abnormal enhancement, or, in non-enhancing lesions. The most extensive T2 signal abnormality. Two different MR systems have been used (Marconi Edge and GE Signa LX); at each site, a PRESS localisation sequence is employed with TE 128-144 ms. Automated software is used to generate spectral arrays, metabolite maps, and metabolite ratio maps from the spectroscopic data. Colour overlays of the maps onto anatomical images are produced using manufacturer software or the Medex imaging data analysis package. High grade gliomas showed choline levels higher than those in apparently normal brain, with decreases in NAA and creatine. Some lesions showed spectral abnormality extending into otherwise normal appearing brain. This was also seen in a case of CNS lymphoma. Lowgrade lesions showed choline levels similar to normal brain, but with decreased NAA. Only a small number of metastases have been studied, but to date no metastasis has shown spectral abnormality beyond the margins suggested by conventional imaging. Follow-up studies generally show spectral heterogeneity. Regions with choline levels higher than those in normal-appearing brain are considered to represent recurrent high-grade tumour. Some regions show choline to be the dominant metabolite, but its level is not greater than that seen in normal brain. These regions are considered suspicious for residual / recurrent tumour when the choline / creatine ratio exceeds 2 (lower ratios may represent treatment effect). 2-D SI improves the initial assessment of brain tumours, and has potential for influencing the radiotherapy treatment strategy. 2-D SI also

  5. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  6. Optical image encryption using multilevel Arnold transform and noninterferometric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2011-11-01

    Information security has attracted much current attention due to the rapid development of modern technologies, such as computer and internet. We propose a novel method for optical image encryption using multilevel Arnold transform and rotatable-phase-mask noninterferometric imaging. An optical image encryption scheme is developed in the gyrator transform domain, and one phase-only mask (i.e., phase grating) is rotated and updated during image encryption. For the decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is proposed to extract high-quality plaintexts. Conventional encoding methods (such as digital holography) have been proven vulnerably to the attacks, and the proposed optical encoding scheme can effectively eliminate security deficiency and significantly enhance cryptosystem security. The proposed strategy based on the rotatable phase-only mask can provide a new alternative for data/image encryption in the noninterferometric imaging.

  7. Fiber optic neutron imaging system: calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, R.M.; Gow, C.E.; Thayer, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two neutron imaging experiments using fiber optics have been performed at the Nevada Test Site. In each experiment, an array of scintillator fluor tubes is exposed to neutrons. Light is coupled out through radiation resistant PCS fibers (8-m long) into high-bandwidth, graded index fibers. For image reconstruction to be accurate, common timing differences and transmission variations between fiber optic channels are needed. The calibration system featured a scanning pulsed dye laser, a specially designed fiber optic star coupler, a tektronix 7912AD transient digitizer, and a DEC PDP 11/34 computing system

  8. MR imaging of acute hemorrhagic brain infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Akira; Ohnari, Norihiro; Ohno, Masato

    1989-01-01

    Six patients with acute hemorrhagic brain infarct were imaged using spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences on a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner. Including two patients with repeated MR imaging, a total of eight examinations, all performed within 15 days after stroke, were analyzed retrospectively. Four patients revealed massive hemorrhages in the basal ganglia or cerebellum and three cases demonstrated multiple linear hemorrhages in the cerebral cortex. On T1-weighted images, hemorrhages were either mildly or definitely hyperintense relative to gray matter, while varied from mildly hypointense to hyperintense on T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were superior to T2-weighted images in detection of hemorrhgage. CT failed to detect hemorrhage in two of five cases: indicative of MR superiority to CT in the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic infarcts. (author)

  9. Quantifying structural alterations in Alzheimer's disease brains using quantitative phase imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Lee, Eeksung; Jung, JaeHwang; Yu, Hyeonseung; Kim, Kyoohyun; Yoon, Jonghee; Lee, Shinhwa; Jeong, Yong; Park, YongKeun

    2017-02-01

    Imaging brain tissues is an essential part of neuroscience because understanding brain structure provides relevant information about brain functions and alterations associated with diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography exemplify conventional brain imaging tools, but these techniques suffer from low spatial resolution around 100 μm. As a complementary method, histopathology has been utilized with the development of optical microscopy. The traditional method provides the structural information about biological tissues to cellular scales, but relies on labor-intensive staining procedures. With the advances of illumination sources, label-free imaging techniques based on nonlinear interactions, such as multiphoton excitations and Raman scattering, have been applied to molecule-specific histopathology. Nevertheless, these techniques provide limited qualitative information and require a pulsed laser, which is difficult to use for pathologists with no laser training. Here, we present a label-free optical imaging of mouse brain tissues for addressing structural alteration in Alzheimer's disease. To achieve the mesoscopic, unlabeled tissue images with high contrast and sub-micrometer lateral resolution, we employed holographic microscopy and an automated scanning platform. From the acquired hologram of the brain tissues, we could retrieve scattering coefficients and anisotropies according to the modified scattering-phase theorem. This label-free imaging technique enabled direct access to structural information throughout the tissues with a sub-micrometer lateral resolution and presented a unique means to investigate the structural changes in the optical properties of biological tissues.

  10. Imaging spectroscopy using embedded diffractive optical arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford

    2017-09-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera based on diffractive optic arrays. This approach to hyperspectral imaging has been demonstrated in all three infrared bands SWIR, MWIR and LWIR. The hyperspectral optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of this infrared hyperspectral sensor. This new and innovative approach to an infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics that are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a small satellite, mini-UAV, commercial quadcopter or man portable. Also, an application of how this spectral imaging technology can easily be used to quantify the mass and volume flow rates of hydrocarbon gases. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. The detector array is divided into sub-images covered by each lenslet. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the number of simultaneous different spectral images collected each frame of the camera. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image

  11. Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Santos Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In recent years, connectivity studies using neuroimaging data have increased the understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, data analysis is time consuming as rigorous procedures must be assured, from structuring data and pre-processing to modality specific data procedures. Until now, no single toolbox was able to perform such investigations on truly multimodal image data from beginning to end, including the combination of different connectivity analyses. Thus, we have developed the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA toolbox with the goal of diminishing time waste in data processing and to allow an innovative and comprehensive approach to brain connectivity.Materials and Methods. The MIBCA toolbox is a fully automated all-in-one connectivity toolbox that offers pre-processing, connectivity and graph theoretical analyses of multimodal image data such as diffusion-weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET. It was developed in MATLAB environment and pipelines well-known neuroimaging softwares such as Freesurfer, SPM, FSL, and Diffusion Toolkit. It further implements routines for the construction of structural, functional and effective or combined connectivity matrices, as well as, routines for the extraction and calculation of imaging and graph-theory metrics, the latter using also functions from the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. Finally, the toolbox performs group statistical analysis and enables data visualization in the form of matrices, 3D brain graphs and connectograms. In this paper the MIBCA toolbox is presented by illustrating its capabilities using multimodal image data from a group of 35 healthy subjects (19–73 years old with volumetric T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state fMRI data, and 10 subjets with 18F-Altanserin PET data also.Results. It was observed both a high inter

  12. Optical encryption with selective computational ghost imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafari, Mohammad; Kheradmand, Reza; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab

    2014-01-01

    Selective computational ghost imaging (SCGI) is a technique which enables the reconstruction of an N-pixel image from N measurements or less. In this paper we propose an optical encryption method based on SCGI and experimentally demonstrate that this method has much higher security under eavesdropping and unauthorized accesses compared with previous reported methods. (paper)

  13. Markerless motion estimation for motion-compensated clinical brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyme, Andre Z.; Se, Stephen; Meikle, Steven R.; Fulton, Roger R.

    2018-05-01

    Motion-compensated brain imaging can dramatically reduce the artifacts and quantitative degradation associated with voluntary and involuntary subject head motion during positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT). However, motion-compensated imaging protocols are not in widespread clinical use for these modalities. A key reason for this seems to be the lack of a practical motion tracking technology that allows for smooth and reliable integration of motion-compensated imaging protocols in the clinical setting. We seek to address this problem by investigating the feasibility of a highly versatile optical motion tracking method for PET, SPECT and CT geometries. The method requires no attached markers, relying exclusively on the detection and matching of distinctive facial features. We studied the accuracy of this method in 16 volunteers in a mock imaging scenario by comparing the estimated motion with an accurate marker-based method used in applications such as image guided surgery. A range of techniques to optimize performance of the method were also studied. Our results show that the markerless motion tracking method is highly accurate (brain imaging and holds good promise for a practical implementation in clinical PET, SPECT and CT systems.

  14. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao

    1999-01-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  16. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  17. Advanced Secure Optical Image Processing for Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Falou, Ayman

    2018-04-01

    New image processing tools and data-processing network systems have considerably increased the volume of transmitted information such as 2D and 3D images with high resolution. Thus, more complex networks and long processing times become necessary, and high image quality and transmission speeds are requested for an increasing number of applications. To satisfy these two requests, several either numerical or optical solutions were offered separately. This book explores both alternatives and describes research works that are converging towards optical/numerical hybrid solutions for high volume signal and image processing and transmission. Without being limited to hybrid approaches, the latter are particularly investigated in this book in the purpose of combining the advantages of both techniques. Additionally, pure numerical or optical solutions are also considered since they emphasize the advantages of one of the two approaches separately.

  18. Imaging visual function of the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marg, E.

    1988-01-01

    Imaging of human brain structure and activity with particular reference to visual function is reviewed along with methods of obtaining the data including computed tomographic (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and positron emission tomography (PET). The literature is reviewed and the potential for a new understanding of brain visual function is discussed. PET is reviewed from basic physical principles to the most recent visual brain findings with oxygen-15. It is shown that there is a potential for submillimeter localization of visual functions with sequentially different visual stimuli designed for the temporal separation of the responses. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a less expensive substitute for PET, is also discussed. MRS is covered from basic physical principles to the current state of the art of in vivo biochemical analysis. Future possible clinical applications are discussed. Improved understanding of the functional neural organization of vision and brain will open a window to maps and circuits of human brain function.119 references

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, L Mf; Kan, E Yl; Cheung, J Cy; Leung, W C

    2016-06-01

    This review covers the recent literature on fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging, with emphasis on techniques, advances, common indications, and safety. We conducted a search of MEDLINE for articles published after 2010. The search terms used were "(fetal OR foetal OR fetus OR foetus) AND (MR OR MRI OR [magnetic resonance]) AND (brain OR cerebral)". Consensus statements from major authorities were also included. As a result, 44 relevant articles were included and formed the basis of this review. One major challenge is fetal motion that is largely overcome by ultra-fast sequences. Currently, single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging remains the mainstay for motion resistance and anatomical delineation. Recently, a snap-shot inversion recovery sequence has enabled robust T1-weighted images to be obtained, which is previously a challenge for standard gradient-echo acquisitions. Fetal diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are also being developed. With multiplanar capabilities, superior contrast resolution and field of view, magnetic resonance imaging does not have the limitations of sonography, and can provide additional important information. Common indications include ventriculomegaly, callosum and posterior fossa abnormalities, and twin complications. There are safety concerns about magnetic resonance-induced heating and acoustic damage but current literature showed no conclusive evidence of deleterious fetal effects. The American College of Radiology guideline states that pregnant patients can be accepted to undergo magnetic resonance imaging at any stage of pregnancy if risk-benefit ratio to patients warrants that the study be performed. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain is a safe and powerful adjunct to sonography in prenatal diagnosis. It can provide additional information that aids clinical management, prognostication, and counselling.

  20. Visceral Afferent Pathways and Functional Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart W.G. Derbyshire

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of functional imaging to study painful sensations has generated considerable interest regarding insight into brain dysfunction that may be responsible for functional pain such as that suffered in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. This review provides a brief introduction to the development of brain science as it relates to pain processing and a snapshot of recent functional imaging results with somatic and visceral pain. Particular emphasis is placed on current hypotheses regarding dysfunction of the brain-gut axis in IBS patients. There are clear and interpretable differences in brain activation following somatic as compared with visceral noxious sensation. Noxious visceral distension, particularly of the lower gastrointestinal tract, activates regions associated with unpleasant affect and autonomic responses. Noxious somatic sensation, in contrast, activates regions associated with cognition and skeletomotor responses. Differences between IBS patients and control subjects, however, were far less clear and interpretable. While this is in part due to the newness of this field, it also reflects weaknesses inherent within the current understanding of IBS. Future use of functional imaging to examine IBS and other functional disorders will be more likely to succeed by describing clear theoretical and clinical endpoints.

  1. Image quality at synthetic brain magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Mi; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Won Hwa; Kim, Hye Jung [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, In-One [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyun-Hae [Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); You, Sun-Kyoung [Chungnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sook-Hyun [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Moon Jung [GE Healthcare, MR Applications and Workflow, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    The clinical application of the multi-echo, multi-delay technique of synthetic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) generates multiple sequences in a single acquisition but has mainly been used in adults. To evaluate the image quality of synthetic brain MR in children compared with that of conventional images. Twenty-nine children (median age: 6 years, range: 0-16 years) underwent synthetic and conventional imaging. Synthetic (T2-weighted, T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR]) images with settings matching those of the conventional images were generated. The overall image quality, gray/white matter differentiation, lesion conspicuity and image degradations were rated on a 5-point scale. The relative contrasts were assessed quantitatively and acquisition times for the two imaging techniques were compared. Synthetic images were inferior due to more pronounced image degradations; however, there were no significant differences for T1- and T2-weighted images in children <2 years old. The quality of T1- and T2-weighted images were within the diagnostically acceptable range. FLAIR images showed greatly reduced quality. Gray/white matter differentiation was comparable or better in synthetic T1- and T2-weighted images, but poorer in FLAIR images. There was no effect on lesion conspicuity. Synthetic images had equal or greater relative contrast. Acquisition time was approximately two-thirds of that for conventional sequences. Synthetic T1- and T2-weighted images were diagnostically acceptable, but synthetic FLAIR images were not. Lesion conspicuity and gray/white matter differentiation were comparable to conventional MRI. (orig.)

  2. Positron emission tomography and optical tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falen, Steven W [Carmichael, CA; Hoefer, Richard A [Newport News, VA; Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; McKisson, John [Hampton, VA; Kross, Brian [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA; Stolin, Alexander [Newport News, VA; Weisenberger, Andrew G [Yorktown, VA

    2012-05-22

    A mobile compact imaging system that combines both PET imaging and optical imaging into a single system which can be located in the operating room (OR) and provides faster feedback to determine if a tumor has been fully resected and if there are adequate surgical margins. While final confirmation is obtained from the pathology lab, such a device can reduce the total time necessary for the procedure and the number of iterations required to achieve satisfactory resection of a tumor with good margins.

  3. Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dezhong; Xiong Jun; Wang Kaige

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the geometrical optics of correlated imaging for two kinds of spatial correlations corresponding, respectively, to a classical thermal light source and a quantum two-photon entangled source. Due to the different features in the second-order spatial correlation, the two sources obey different imaging equations. The quantum entangled source behaves as a mirror, whereas the classical thermal source looks like a phase-conjugate mirror in the correlated imaging

  4. MR imaging of the fetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, Orit A.

    2010-01-01

    Fetal MRI is clinically performed to evaluate the brain in cases where an abnormality is detected by prenatal sonography. These most commonly include ventriculomegaly, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Fetal MRI is also increasingly performed to evaluate fetuses who have normal brain findings on prenatal sonogram but who are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. This paper will briefly discuss the common clinical conditions imaged by fetal MRI as well as recent advances in fetal MRI research. (orig.)

  5. MR imaging of the fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Orit A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Fetal MRI is clinically performed to evaluate the brain in cases where an abnormality is detected by prenatal sonography. These most commonly include ventriculomegaly, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Fetal MRI is also increasingly performed to evaluate fetuses who have normal brain findings on prenatal sonogram but who are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. This paper will briefly discuss the common clinical conditions imaged by fetal MRI as well as recent advances in fetal MRI research. (orig.)

  6. MR imaging of brain surface structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, Kazuhiro; Anno, Hirofumi; Takesita, Gen; Koga, Sukehiko; Kanno, Tetuo; Sakakibara, Tatuo; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Saito, Sigeki.

    1989-01-01

    An imaging technique that permits direct and non-invasive visualization of brain surface structures was proposed. This technique (Surface anatomy scanning, SAS) consists of long TE-long TR spin echo sequence, thick slice and surface coil. Initial clinical trials in 31 patients with various cerebral pathology showed excellent visualization of sulci, gyri and major cortical veins on the lateral surface of the brain together with cortical and subcortical lesions. Our preliminary results indicate that the SAS is an effective method for the diagnosis and localization of cortical and subcortical pathology, and the possible application of SAS to the surgical and the radiation therapy planning is sugessted. (author)

  7. High sensitivity optical molecular imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yu; Yuan, Gao; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Shixin; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Optical Molecular Imaging (OMI) has the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use. By labeling the regions of interest with fluorescent or bioluminescence probes, OMI can noninvasively obtain the distribution of the probes in vivo, which play the key role in cancer research, pharmacokinetics and other biological studies. In preclinical and clinical application, the image depth, resolution and sensitivity are the key factors for researchers to use OMI. In this paper, we report a high sensitivity optical molecular imaging system developed by our group, which can improve the imaging depth in phantom to nearly 5cm, high resolution at 2cm depth, and high image sensitivity. To validate the performance of the system, special designed phantom experiments and weak light detection experiment were implemented. The results shows that cooperated with high performance electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, precision design of light path system and high efficient image techniques, our OMI system can simultaneously collect the light-emitted signals generated by fluorescence molecular imaging, bioluminescence imaging, Cherenkov luminance and other optical imaging modality, and observe the internal distribution of light-emitting agents fast and accurately.

  8. Introduction to machine learning for brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemm, Steven; Blankertz, Benjamin; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2011-05-15

    Machine learning and pattern recognition algorithms have in the past years developed to become a working horse in brain imaging and the computational neurosciences, as they are instrumental for mining vast amounts of neural data of ever increasing measurement precision and detecting minuscule signals from an overwhelming noise floor. They provide the means to decode and characterize task relevant brain states and to distinguish them from non-informative brain signals. While undoubtedly this machinery has helped to gain novel biological insights, it also holds the danger of potential unintentional abuse. Ideally machine learning techniques should be usable for any non-expert, however, unfortunately they are typically not. Overfitting and other pitfalls may occur and lead to spurious and nonsensical interpretation. The goal of this review is therefore to provide an accessible and clear introduction to the strengths and also the inherent dangers of machine learning usage in the neurosciences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optically neuronavigated ultrasonography in an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katisko, Jani P A; Koivukangas, John P

    2007-04-01

    To develop a clinically useful method that shows the corresponding planes of intraoperative two-dimensional ultrasonography and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans determined with an optical neuronavigator from an intraoperative three-dimensional MRI scan data set, and to determine the qualitative and the quantitative spatial correspondence between the ultrasonography and MRI scans. An ultrasound probe was interlinked with an ergonomic and MRI scan-compatible ultrasonography probe tracker to the optical neuronavigator used in a low-field intraoperative MRI scan environment for brain surgery. Spatial correspondence measurements were performed using a custom-made ultrasonography/MRI scan phantom. In this work, instruments to combine intraoperatively collected ultrasonography and MRI scan data with an optical localization method in a magnetic environment were developed. The ultrasonography transducer tracker played an important role. Furthermore, a phantom for ultrasonography and MRI scanning was produced. This is the first report, to our knowledge, regarding the possibility of combining the two most important intraoperative imaging modalities used in neurosurgery, ultrasonography and MRI scanning, to guide brain tumor surgery. The method was feasible and, as shown in an illustrative surgical case, has direct clinical impact on image-guided brain surgery. The spatial deviation between the ultrasonography and the MRI scans was, on average, 1.90 +/- 1.30 mm at depths of 0 to 120 mm from the ultrasonography probe. The overall result of this work is a unique method to guide the neurosurgical operation with neuronavigated ultrasonography imaging in an intraoperative MRI scanning environment. The relevance of the method is emphasized in minimally invasive neurosurgery.

  10. Simultaneous MRI and PET imaging of a rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, Raymond R; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan K; Velan, S Sendhil; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F; Weisenberger, Andrew G; Zorn, Carl; Marano, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a long fibre optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The use of light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of a 3T MRI scanner where the magnetic field is relatively small. To test the device, simultaneous MRI and PET images of the brain of a male Sprague Dawley rat injected with FDG were successfully obtained. The images revealed no noticeable artefacts in either image set. Future work includes the construction of a full ring PET scanner, improved light guides and construction of a specialized MRI coil to permit higher quality MRI imaging

  11. Simultaneous MRI and PET imaging of a rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raylman, Raymond R [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Majewski, Stan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Lemieux, Susan K [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Velan, S Sendhil [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kross, Brian [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Popov, Vladimir [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Smith, Mark F [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Zorn, Carl [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Marano, Gary D [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2006-12-21

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a long fibre optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The use of light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of a 3T MRI scanner where the magnetic field is relatively small. To test the device, simultaneous MRI and PET images of the brain of a male Sprague Dawley rat injected with FDG were successfully obtained. The images revealed no noticeable artefacts in either image set. Future work includes the construction of a full ring PET scanner, improved light guides and construction of a specialized MRI coil to permit higher quality MRI imaging.

  12. Optical tomographic imaging for breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wenxiang; Intes, Xavier; Wang, Ge

    2017-09-01

    Diffuse optical breast imaging utilizes near-infrared (NIR) light propagation through tissues to assess the optical properties of tissues for the identification of abnormal tissue. This optical imaging approach is sensitive, cost-effective, and does not involve any ionizing radiation. However, the image reconstruction of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a nonlinear inverse problem and suffers from severe illposedness due to data noise, NIR light scattering, and measurement incompleteness. An image reconstruction method is proposed for the detection of breast cancer. This method splits the image reconstruction problem into the localization of abnormal tissues and quantification of absorption variations. The localization of abnormal tissues is performed based on a well-posed optimization model, which can be solved via a differential evolution optimization method to achieve a stable reconstruction. The quantification of abnormal absorption is then determined in localized regions of relatively small extents, in which a potential tumor might be. Consequently, the number of unknown absorption variables can be greatly reduced to overcome the underdetermined nature of DOT. Numerical simulation experiments are performed to verify merits of the proposed method, and the results show that the image reconstruction method is stable and accurate for the identification of abnormal tissues, and robust against the measurement noise of data.

  13. Optical coherence tomography of the preterm eye: from retinopathy of prematurity to brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Adam L; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Chen, Xi; Toth, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity are at increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Because the neurosensory retina is an extension of the central nervous system, anatomic abnormalities in the anterior visual pathway often relate to system and central nervous system health. We describe optical coherence tomography as a powerful imaging modality that has recently been adapted to the infant population and provides noninvasive, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of the infant eye at the bedside. Optical coherence tomography has increased understanding of normal eye development and has identified several potential biomarkers of brain abnormalities and poorer neurodevelopment. PMID:28539807

  14. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  15. MR imaging of the developing brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, T.L.; Oh, C.H.; Medina, L.R.; Bello, J.A.; Khandji, A.G.; Hilal, S.K.; Paviakis, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging is an excellent modality for the study of normal developments as well as pathologic derangements of cerebrospinal fluid flow and myelin formation. The authors studied children less than 3 years old using a single-echo technique at 1.5 T. T1 and T2 values for the gray and white matter were measured. The signal intensity and the measured T2 values of the white matter were higher than those of the gray matter at term until 8 or 9 months of age. In patients with hydrocephalus, the gray/white matter contrast on the T2-weighted images was not altered, but he measured T2 values were prolonged, probably reflecting diffuse brain edema. The T2 values are presented graphically showing the normal range of variations. In children whose values fall outside the range, alterations of brain water content or a dysmyelination process should be suspected

  16. Brain CT image and handedness of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsutoshi; Maehara, Katsuya; Iizuka, Reiji; Mikami, Akihiro.

    1989-01-01

    Brain CT images were reviewed of 98 schizophrenic patients and 90 healthy persons in relation to handedness and aging. CT images were further reconstructed to examine morphologically subtle changes in each region. Schizophrenic patients had progressive brain atrophy and dilated lateral ventricles, especially on the left side and in the posterior part of the lateral ventricle. These findings were more marked in left-handed than in right-handed schizophrenic patients. According to age groups, there were significant differences between schizophrenic and normal persons over the age of 40. The incidence of left handedness was significantly higher in schizophrenic patients in their fourties than the age-matched normal persons (31.4% vs 15.1%). Morphological abnormality and laterality might be due to the same pathologic consequences. (N.K.)

  17. Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei; Duong, Timothy Q; van Zijl, Peter C M; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from the dependence of gradient echo signal phase on the orientation of biological tissues with respect to the main magnetic field. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the mean magnetic susceptibility and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy can be determined for brain tissues that would still show orientation dependence after conventional scalar-based quantitative susceptibility mapping to remove such dependence. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging, STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor. In contrast to diffusion anisotropy, the main determinant factor of the susceptibility anisotropy in brain white matter is myelin. Another unique feature of the susceptibility anisotropy of white matter is its sensitivity to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Mechanistically, MRI-observed susceptibility anisotropy is mainly attributed to the highly ordered lipid molecules in the myelin sheath. STI provides a consistent interpretation of the dependence of phase and susceptibility on orientation at multiple scales. This article reviews the key experimental findings and physical theories that led to the development of STI, its practical implementations, and its applications for brain research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Susceptibility Tensor Imaging (STI) of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei; Duong, Timothy Q.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from the dependence of gradient echo signal phase on the orientation of biological tissues with respect to the main magnetic field. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the mean magnetic susceptibility (MMS) and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (MSA) can be determined for brain tissues that would still show orientation dependence after conventional scalar-based quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to remove such dependence. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor. In contrast to diffusion anisotropy, the main determinant factor of susceptibility anisotropy in brain white matter is myelin. Another unique feature of susceptibility anisotropy of white matter is its sensitivity to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Mechanistically, MRI-observed susceptibility anisotropy is mainly attributed to the highly ordered lipid molecules in myelin sheath. STI provides a consistent interpretation of the dependence of phase and susceptibility on orientation at multiple scales. This article reviews the key experimental findings and physical theories that led to the development of STI, its practical implementations, and its applications for brain research. PMID:27120169

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in diffuse brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Mashiko, Kunihiro; Henmi, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Toshibumi; Kobayashi, Shiro; Nakazawa, Shozo

    1992-01-01

    Forty cases diagnosed as diffuse brain injury (DBI) were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed within 3 days after injury. These cases were divided into two groups, which were the concussion group and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) group established by Gennarelli. There were no findings on computerized tomography (CT) in the concussion group except for two cases which had a brain edema or subarachnoid hemorrhage. But on MRI, high intensity areas on T2 weighted imaging were demonstrated in the cerebral white matter in this group. Many lesions in this group were thought to be edemas of the cerebral white matter, because of the fact that on serial MRI, they were isointense. In mild types of DAI, the lesions on MRI were located only in the cerebral white matter, whereas, in the severe types of DAI, lesions were located in the basal ganglia, the corpus callosum, the dorsal part of the brain stem as well as in the cerebral white matter. As for CT findings, parenchymal lesions were not visualized especially in mild DAI. Our results suggested that the lesions in cerebral concussion were edemas in cerebral white matter. In mild DAI they were non-hemorrhagic contusion; and in severe DAI they were hemorrhagic contusions in the cerebral white matter, the basal ganglia, the corpus callosum or the dorsal part of the brain stem. (author)

  20. Neurophotonics: optical methods to study and control the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L V; Fedotov, I V; Fedotov, A B; Zheltikov, A M; Anokhin, K V

    2015-01-01

    Methods of optical physics offer unique opportunities for the investigation of brain and higher nervous activity. The integration of cutting-edge laser technologies and advanced neurobiology opens a new cross-disciplinary area of natural sciences – neurophotonics – focusing on the development of a vast arsenal of tools for functional brain diagnostics, stimulation of individual neurons and neural networks, and the molecular engineering of brain cells aimed at the diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative and psychic diseases. Optical fibers help to confront the most challenging problems in brain research, including the analysis of molecular-cellular mechanisms of the formation of memory and behavior. New generation optical fibers provide new solutions for the development of fundamentally new, unique tools for neurophotonics and laser neuroengineering – fiber-optic neuroendoscopes and neurointerfaces. These instruments broaden research horizons when investigating the most complex brain functions, enabling a long-term multiplex detection of fluorescent protein markers, as well as photostimulation of neuronal activity in deep brain areas in living, freely moving animals with an unprecedented spatial resolution and minimal invasiveness. This emerging technology opens new horizons for understanding learning and long-term memory through experiments with living, freely moving mammals. Here, we present a brief review of this rapidly growing field of research. (reviews of topical problems)

  1. Neurophotonics: optical methods to study and control the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Fedotov, I. V.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    Methods of optical physics offer unique opportunities for the investigation of brain and higher nervous activity. The integration of cutting-edge laser technologies and advanced neurobiology opens a new cross-disciplinary area of natural sciences - neurophotonics - focusing on the development of a vast arsenal of tools for functional brain diagnostics, stimulation of individual neurons and neural networks, and the molecular engineering of brain cells aimed at the diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative and psychic diseases. Optical fibers help to confront the most challenging problems in brain research, including the analysis of molecular-cellular mechanisms of the formation of memory and behavior. New generation optical fibers provide new solutions for the development of fundamentally new, unique tools for neurophotonics and laser neuroengineering - fiber-optic neuroendoscopes and neurointerfaces. These instruments broaden research horizons when investigating the most complex brain functions, enabling a long-term multiplex detection of fluorescent protein markers, as well as photostimulation of neuronal activity in deep brain areas in living, freely moving animals with an unprecedented spatial resolution and minimal invasiveness. This emerging technology opens new horizons for understanding learning and long-term memory through experiments with living, freely moving mammals. Here, we present a brief review of this rapidly growing field of research.

  2. Planetary optical and infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrile, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to obtain and analyze high spatial resolution charge coupled device (CCD) coronagraphic images of extra-solar planetary material and solar system objects. These data will provide information on the distribution of planetary and proto-planetary material around nearby stars leading to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system. Imaging within our solar system will provide information on the current cloud configurations on the outer planets, search for new objects around the outer planets, and provide direct support for Voyager, Galileo, and CRAF by imaging material around asteroids and clouds on Neptune. Over the last year this program acquired multispectral and polarization images of the disk of material around the nearby star Beta Pictoris. This material is believed to be associated with the formation of planets and provides a first look at a planetary system much younger than our own. Preliminary color and polarization data suggest that the material is very low albedo and similar to dark outer solar system carbon rich material. A coronagraphic search for other systems is underway and has already examined over 100 nearby stars. Coronagraphic imaging provided the first clear look at the rings of Uranus and albedo limits for the ring arcs around Neptune

  3. Fetal trauma: brain imaging in four neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breysem, Luc; Mussen, E.; Demaerel, P.; Smet, M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven (Belgium); Cossey, V. [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Voorde, W. van de [Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe brain pathology in neonates after major traffic trauma in utero during the third trimester. Our patient cohort consisted of four neonates born by emergency cesarean section after car accident in the third trimester of pregnancy. The median gestational age (n=4) was 36 weeks (range: 30-38). Immediate post-natal and follow-up brain imaging consisted of cranial ultrasound (n=4), computed tomography (CT) (n=1) and post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n=1). Pathology findings were correlated with the imaging findings (n=3). Cranial ultrasound demonstrated a huge subarachnoidal hemorrhage (n=1), subdural hematoma (n=1), brain edema with inversion of the diastolic flow (n=1) and severe ischemic changes (n=1). In one case, CT demonstrated the presence and extension of the subarachnoidal hemorrhage, a parietal fracture and a limited intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebellar hemorrhage and a small cerebral frontal contusion were seen on post-mortem MRI in a child with a major subarachnoidal hemorrhage on ultrasound. None of these four children survived (three children died within 2 days and one child died after 1 month). Blunt abdominal trauma during pregnancy can cause fetal cranial injury. In our cases, skull fracture, intracranial hemorrhage and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were encountered. (orig.)

  4. Computerized analysis of brain perfusion parameter images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turowski, B.; Haenggi, D.; Wittsack, H.J.; Beck, A.; Aurich, V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The development of a computerized method which allows a direct quantitative comparison of perfusion parameters. The display should allow a clear direct comparison of brain perfusion parameters in different vascular territories and over the course of time. The analysis is intended to be the basis for further evaluation of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The method should permit early diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm. Materials and Methods: The Angiotux 2D-ECCET software was developed with a close cooperation between computer scientists and clinicians. Starting from parameter images of brain perfusion, the cortex was marked, segmented and assigned to definite vascular territories. The underlying values were averages for each segment and were displayed in a graph. If a follow-up was available, the mean values of the perfusion parameters were displayed in relation to time. The method was developed under consideration of CT perfusion values but is applicable for other methods of perfusion imaging. Results: Computerized analysis of brain perfusion parameter images allows an immediate comparison of these parameters and follow-up of mean values in a clear and concise manner. Values are related to definite vascular territories. The tabular output facilitates further statistic evaluations. The computerized analysis is precisely reproducible, i. e., repetitions result in exactly the same output. (orig.)

  5. Fetal trauma: brain imaging in four neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breysem, Luc; Mussen, E.; Demaerel, P.; Smet, M.; Cossey, V.; Voorde, W. van de

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe brain pathology in neonates after major traffic trauma in utero during the third trimester. Our patient cohort consisted of four neonates born by emergency cesarean section after car accident in the third trimester of pregnancy. The median gestational age (n=4) was 36 weeks (range: 30-38). Immediate post-natal and follow-up brain imaging consisted of cranial ultrasound (n=4), computed tomography (CT) (n=1) and post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n=1). Pathology findings were correlated with the imaging findings (n=3). Cranial ultrasound demonstrated a huge subarachnoidal hemorrhage (n=1), subdural hematoma (n=1), brain edema with inversion of the diastolic flow (n=1) and severe ischemic changes (n=1). In one case, CT demonstrated the presence and extension of the subarachnoidal hemorrhage, a parietal fracture and a limited intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebellar hemorrhage and a small cerebral frontal contusion were seen on post-mortem MRI in a child with a major subarachnoidal hemorrhage on ultrasound. None of these four children survived (three children died within 2 days and one child died after 1 month). Blunt abdominal trauma during pregnancy can cause fetal cranial injury. In our cases, skull fracture, intracranial hemorrhage and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were encountered. (orig.)

  6. Optical histology: a method to visualize microvasculature in thick tissue sections of mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin J Moy

    Full Text Available The microvasculature is the network of blood vessels involved in delivering nutrients and gases necessary for tissue survival. Study of the microvasculature often involves immunohistological methods. While useful for visualizing microvasculature at the µm scale in specific regions of interest, immunohistology is not well suited to visualize the global microvascular architecture in an organ. Hence, use of immunohistology precludes visualization of the entire microvasculature of an organ, and thus impedes study of global changes in the microvasculature that occur in concert with changes in tissue due to various disease states. Therefore, there is a critical need for a simple, relatively rapid technique that will facilitate visualization of the microvascular network of an entire tissue.The systemic vasculature of a mouse is stained with the fluorescent lipophilic dye DiI using a method called "vessel painting". The brain, or other organ of interest, is harvested and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. The organ is then sliced into 1 mm sections and optically cleared, or made transparent, using FocusClear, a proprietary optical clearing agent. After optical clearing, the DiI-labeled tissue microvasculature is imaged using confocal fluorescence microscopy and adjacent image stacks tiled together to produce a depth-encoded map of the microvasculature in the tissue slice. We demonstrated that the use of optical clearing enhances both the tissue imaging depth and the estimate of the vascular density. Using our "optical histology" technique, we visualized microvasculature in the mouse brain to a depth of 850 µm.Presented here are maps of the microvasculature in 1 mm thick slices of mouse brain. Using combined optical clearing and optical imaging techniques, we devised a methodology to enhance the visualization of the microvasculature in thick tissues. We believe this technique could potentially be used to generate a three-dimensional map of the

  7. Non-FDG PET imaging of brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zemin; GUAN Yihui; ZUO Chuantao; ZHANG Zhengwei; XUE Fangping; LIN Xiangtong

    2007-01-01

    Due to relatively high uptake of glucose in the brain cortex, the use of FDG PET imaging is greatly limited in brain tumor imaging, especially for low-grade gliomas and some metastatic tumours. More and more tracers with higher specificity were developed lately for brain tumor imaging. There are 3 main types of non-FDG PET tracers:amino acid tracers, choline tracers and nucleic acid tracers. These tracers are now widely applied in many aspects of brain tumor imaging. This article summarized the general use of non-FDG PET in different aspects of brain tumor imaging.

  8. Love songs, bird brains and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groof, Geert; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2010-08-01

    The song control system of songbirds displays a remarkable seasonal neuroplasticity in species in which song output also changes seasonally. Thus far, this song control system has been extensively analyzed by histological and electrophysiological methods. However, these approaches do not provide a global view of the brain and/or do not allow repeated measurements, which are necessary to establish causal correlations between alterations in neural substrate and behavior. Research has primarily been focused on the song nuclei themselves, largely neglecting their interconnections and other brain regions involved in seasonally changing behavior. In this review, we introduce and explore the song control system of songbirds as a natural model for brain plasticity. At the same time, we point out the added value of the songbird brain model for in vivo diffusion tensor techniques and its derivatives. A compilation of the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data obtained thus far in this system demonstrates the usefulness of this in vivo method for studying brain plasticity. In particular, it is shown to be a perfect tool for long-term studies of morphological and cellular changes of specific brain circuits in different endocrine/photoperiod conditions. The method has been successfully applied to obtain quantitative measurements of seasonal changes of fiber tracts and nuclei from the song control system. In addition, outside the song control system, changes have been discerned in the optic chiasm and in an interhemispheric connection. DTI allows the detection of seasonal changes in a region analogous to the mammalian secondary auditory cortex and in regions of the 'social behavior network', an interconnected group of structures that controls multiple social behaviors, including aggression and courtship. DTI allows the demonstration, for the first time, that the songbird brain in its entirety exhibits an extreme seasonal plasticity which is not merely limited to the song control

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and brain functional exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bihan, D.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging for functional analysis of the brain is presented: the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood flowing in the brain do not have the same effect on NMR images; the oxygenated blood, related to brain activity, may be detected and the corresponding activity zone in the brain, identified; functional NMR imaging could be used to gain a better understanding of functional troubles linked to neurological or psychiatric diseases

  10. Heuristically improved Bayesian segmentation of brain MR images ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heuristically improved Bayesian segmentation of brain MR images. ... or even the most prevalent task in medical image processing is image segmentation. Among them, brain MR images suffer ... show that our algorithm performs well in comparison with the one implemented in SPM. It can be concluded that incorporating ...

  11. Optical microangiography enabling visualization of change in meninges after traumatic brain injury in mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Qin, Wan; Qi, Xiaoli; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a form of brain injury caused by sudden impact on brain by an external mechanical force. Following the damage caused at the moment of injury, TBI influences pathophysiology in the brain that takes place within the minutes or hours involving alterations in the brain tissue morphology, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and pressure within skull, which become important contributors to morbidity after TBI. While many studies for the TBI pathophysiology have been investigated with brain cortex, the effect of trauma on intracranial tissues has been poorly studied. Here, we report use of high-resolution optical microangiography (OMAG) to monitor the changes in cranial meninges beneath the skull of mouse after TBI. TBI is induced on a brain of anesthetized mouse by thinning the skull using a soft drill where a series of drilling exert mechanical stress on the brain through the skull, resulting in mild brain injury. Intracranial OMAG imaging of the injured mouse brain during post-TBI phase shows interesting pathophysiological findings in the meningeal layers such as widening of subdural space as well as vasodilation of subarachnoid vessels. These processes are acute and reversible within hours. The results indicate potential of OMAG to explore mechanism involved following TBI on small animals in vivo.

  12. Sodium-23 magnetic resonance brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, S.S.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison

    1990-01-01

    This is a review of recent work in 23 Na MR imaging. The main emphasis of recent papers has been pulse sequences that, with appropriate postprocessing, give images of the fast, slow, and intermediate components of T 2 decay. The assignment of compartmental designation to the T 2 component remains a problem except for homogeneous structures easily identifiable anatomically (ventricles, superior sagittal sinus, globe of the eye). Compartmental distribution of sodium is described. The predominance of the interstitial and plasma compartment, the invisibility of part of the intracellular sodium, and the difficulty in imaging the very fast T 2 component of visible intracellular sodium make the usual Na spin-echo image essentially an image of the interstitial and plasma space. Use of paramagnetic iron oxide coupled to dextran as a contrast medium may help to identify the plasma compartment. Because the usual Na MR images are essentially interstitial and plasma images, our own interest is in observing functional changes in these compartments. Another proposed application is the detection of the very fast T 2 component in brain tumors to aid in defining tumor grade and extent. (orig.)

  13. Image-guided procedures in brain biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, K; Yanaka, K; Meguro, K; Narushima, K; Iguchi, M; Nakai, Y; Nose, T

    1999-07-01

    Image-guided procedures, such as computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic and ultrasound-guided methods, can assist neurosurgeons in localizing the relevant pathology. The characteristics of image-guided procedures are important for their appropriate use, especially in brain biopsy. This study reviewed the results of various image-guided brain biopsies to ascertain the advantages and disadvantages. Brain biopsies assisted by CT-guided stereotactic, ultrasound-guided, Neuronavigator-guided, and the combination of ultrasound and Neuronavigator-guided procedures were carried out in seven, eight, one, and three patients, respectively. Four patients underwent open biopsy without a guiding system. Twenty of 23 patients had a satisfactory diagnosis after the initial biopsy. Three patients failed to have a definitive diagnosis after the initial procedure, one due to insufficient volume sampling after CT-guided procedure, and two due to localization failure by ultrasound because the lesions were nonechogenic. All patients who underwent biopsy using the combination of ultrasound and Neuronavigator-guided methods had a satisfactory result. The CT-guided procedure provided an efficient method of approaching any intracranial target and was appropriate for the diagnosis of hypodense lesions, but tissue sampling was sometimes not sufficient to achieve a satisfactory diagnosis. The ultrasound-guided procedure was suitable for the investigation of hyperdense lesions, but was difficult to localize nonechogenic lesions. The combination of ultrasound and Neuronavigator methods improved the diagnostic accuracy even in nonechogenic lesions such as malignant lymphoma. Therefore, it is essential to choose the most appropriate guiding method for brain biopsy according to the radiological nature of the lesions.

  14. Structural imaging measures of brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Samuel N; DeCarli, Charles

    2014-09-01

    During the course of normal aging, biological changes occur in the brain that are associated with changes in cognitive ability. This review presents data from neuroimaging studies of primarily "normal" or healthy brain aging. As such, we focus on research in unimpaired or nondemented older adults, but also include findings from lifespan studies that include younger and middle aged individuals as well as from populations with prodromal or clinically symptomatic disease such as cerebrovascular or Alzheimer's disease. This review predominantly addresses structural MRI biomarkers, such as volumetric or thickness measures from anatomical images, and measures of white matter injury and integrity respectively from FLAIR or DTI, and includes complementary data from PET and cognitive or clinical testing as appropriate. The findings reveal highly consistent age-related differences in brain structure, particularly frontal lobe and medial temporal regions that are also accompanied by age-related differences in frontal and medial temporal lobe mediated cognitive abilities. Newer findings also suggest that degeneration of specific white matter tracts such as those passing through the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum may also be related to age-related differences in cognitive performance. Interpretation of these findings, however, must be tempered by the fact that comorbid diseases such as cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's disease also increase in prevalence with advancing age. As such, this review discusses challenges related to interpretation of current theories of cognitive aging in light of the common occurrence of these later-life diseases. Understanding the differences between "Normal" and "Healthy" brain aging and identifying potential modifiable risk factors for brain aging is critical to inform potential treatments to stall or reverse the effects of brain aging and possibly extend cognitive health for our aging society.

  15. A correlative optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach to locating nanoparticles in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Paul J; Kircher, Moritz F; de la Zerda, Adam; Zavaleta, Cristina L; Jokerst, Jesse V; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, demands the capability to exactly locate them within complex biological systems. In this work a correlative optical and scanning electron microscopy technique was developed to locate and observe multi-modal gold core nanoparticle accumulation in brain tumor models. Entire brain sections from mice containing orthotopic brain tumors injected intravenously with nanoparticles were imaged using both optical microscopy to identify the brain tumor, and scanning electron microscopy to identify the individual nanoparticles. Gold-based nanoparticles were readily identified in the scanning electron microscope using backscattered electron imaging as bright spots against a darker background. This information was then correlated to determine the exact location of the nanoparticles within the brain tissue. The nanoparticles were located only in areas that contained tumor cells, and not in the surrounding healthy brain tissue. This correlative technique provides a powerful method to relate the macro- and micro-scale features visible in light microscopy with the nanoscale features resolvable in scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parametric uncertainty in optical image modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potzick, James; Marx, Egon; Davidson, Mark

    2006-10-01

    Optical photomask feature metrology and wafer exposure process simulation both rely on optical image modeling for accurate results. While it is fair to question the accuracies of the available models, model results also depend on several input parameters describing the object and imaging system. Errors in these parameter values can lead to significant errors in the modeled image. These parameters include wavelength, illumination and objective NA's, magnification, focus, etc. for the optical system, and topography, complex index of refraction n and k, etc. for the object. In this paper each input parameter is varied over a range about its nominal value and the corresponding images simulated. Second order parameter interactions are not explored. Using the scenario of the optical measurement of photomask features, these parametric sensitivities are quantified by calculating the apparent change of the measured linewidth for a small change in the relevant parameter. Then, using reasonable values for the estimated uncertainties of these parameters, the parametric linewidth uncertainties can be calculated and combined to give a lower limit to the linewidth measurement uncertainty for those parameter uncertainties.

  17. A New Optical Design for Imaging Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. L.

    2002-05-01

    We present an optical design concept for imaging spectroscopy, with some advantages over current systems. The system projects monochromatic images onto the 2-D array detector(s). Faint object and crowded field spectroscopy can be reduced first using image processing techniques, then building the spectrum, unlike integral field units where one must first extract the spectra, build data cubes from these, then reconstruct the target's integrated spectral flux. Like integral field units, all photons are detected simultaneously, unlike tunable filters which must be scanned through the wavelength range of interest and therefore pay a sensitivity pentalty. Several sample designs are presented, including an instrument optimized for measuring intermediate redshift galaxy cluster velocity dispersions, one designed for near-infrared ground-based adaptive optics, and one intended for space-based rapid follow-up of transient point sources such as supernovae and gamma ray bursts.

  18. Brain dopaminergic systems : imaging with positron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J C [University of Caen/INSERM U, Caen (France). CYCERON; Comar, D [E.E.C. Concerted Action on P.E.T. Investigations of Cellular Regeneration and Degeneration, Orsay (France) CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot; Farde, L [Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden); Martinot, J L; Mazoyer, B [CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Paris-

    1991-01-01

    Imaging of the dopaminergic system in the human brain with the in vivo use of Positron Emission Tomography emerged in the late 1980s as a tool of major importance in clinical neurosciences and pharmacology. The last few years have witnessed rapid development of new radiotracers specific to receptors, reuptake sites and enzymes of the dopamine system; the application of these radiotracers has led to major break-troughs in the pathophysiology and therapy of movement disorders and schizophrenic-like psychoses. This book is the first to collect, in a single volume, state-of-the-art contributions to the various aspects of this research. Its contents address methodological issues related to the design, labelling, quantitative imaging and compartmental modeli-sation of radioligands of the post-synaptic, pre-synaptic and enzyme sites of the dopamine system and to their use in clinical research in the fields of Parkinson's disease as well as other movement disorders, psychoses and neuroleptic receptor occupancy. The chapters were written by leading European scientists in the field of PET, gathered together in Caen (France, November 1990) under the aegis of the EEC Concerted Action on PET Investigations of Cellular Regeneration and Degeneration. This book provides a current and comprehensive overview on PET studies of the brain dopamine system which should aid and interest neurologists , psychiatrists, pharmacologists and medical imaging scientists. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs.

  19. Brain imaging studies of sleep disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masaki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging studies of narcolepsy (NA)/cataplexy (CA), a typical sleep disorder, are summarized together with techniques of functional and structural imaging means. single photon emission CT (SPECT) is based on the distribution of tracers labeled by single photon emitters like 99m Tc and 123 I for seeing the blood flow and receptors. PET using positron emitters like 15 O and 18 F for blood flow and for glucose metabolism, respectively, is of higher resolution and more quantitative than SPECT. Functional MRI (fMRI) depicts the cerebral activity through signal difference by blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) effect, and MR spectroscopy (MRS) depicts and quantifies biomaterials through the difference of their nuclear chemical shifts in the magnetic field. Morphologic imaging studies involve the measurement of the volume of the region of interest by comparison with the reference region such as the whole brain volume. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has changed to its more advanced surface-based analysis (SBA) of T1-enhanced image. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is based on the tissue water diffusion. Functional SPECT/PET studies have suggested the decrease of blood flow and metabolic activity in the hypothalamus (HT) and other related regions at the conscious resting state, and locally increased blood flow in cingulate gyrus (CG) and amygdaloid complex (AC) at affective CA/PA seizure. fMRI has suggested the hypoactivity of HT and hyperactivity of AC at the seizure. VBM-based studies have not given the consistent results, but DTI studies have suggested an important participation of AC at the seizure. (T.T.)

  20. The fiber-optic imaging and manipulation of neural activity during animal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Murayama, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    Recent progress with optogenetic probes for imaging and manipulating neural activity has further increased the relevance of fiber-optic systems for neural circuitry research. Optical fibers, which bi-directionally transmit light between separate sites (even at a distance of several meters), can be used for either optical imaging or manipulating neural activity relevant to behavioral circuitry mechanisms. The method's flexibility and the specifications of the light structure are well suited for following the behavior of freely moving animals. Furthermore, thin optical fibers allow researchers to monitor neural activity from not only the cortical surface but also deep brain regions, including the hippocampus and amygdala. Such regions are difficult to target with two-photon microscopes. Optogenetic manipulation of neural activity with an optical fiber has the advantage of being selective for both cell-types and projections as compared to conventional electrophysiological brain tissue stimulation. It is difficult to extract any data regarding changes in neural activity solely from a fiber-optic manipulation device; however, the readout of data is made possible by combining manipulation with electrophysiological recording, or the simultaneous application of optical imaging and manipulation using a bundle-fiber. The present review introduces recent progress in fiber-optic imaging and manipulation methods, while also discussing fiber-optic system designs that are suitable for a given experimental protocol. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Susceptibility weighted imaging of the neonatal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meoded, A.; Poretti, A.; Northington, F.J.; Tekes, A.; Intrapiromkul, J.; Huisman, T.A.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a well-established magnetic resonance technique, which is highly sensitive for blood, iron, and calcium depositions in the brain and has been implemented in the routine clinical use in both children and neonates. SWI in neonates might provide valuable additional diagnostic and prognostic information for a wide spectrum of neonatal neurological disorders. To date, there are few articles available on the application of SWI in neonatal neurological disorders. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and describe the characteristic SWI findings in various typical neonatal neurological disorders.

  2. Susceptibility weighted imaging of the neonatal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meoded, A.; Poretti, A. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Northington, F.J. [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tekes, A.; Intrapiromkul, J. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huisman, T.A.G.M., E-mail: thuisma1@jhmi.edu [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a well-established magnetic resonance technique, which is highly sensitive for blood, iron, and calcium depositions in the brain and has been implemented in the routine clinical use in both children and neonates. SWI in neonates might provide valuable additional diagnostic and prognostic information for a wide spectrum of neonatal neurological disorders. To date, there are few articles available on the application of SWI in neonatal neurological disorders. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and describe the characteristic SWI findings in various typical neonatal neurological disorders.

  3. Diffusion MR Imaging of Postoperative Bilateral Acute Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Young; Lee, In Ho; Song, Chang June; Hwang, Hee Youn

    2012-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman experienced bilateral acute ischemic optic neuropathy after spine surgery. Routine MR imaging sequence, T2-weighted image, showed subtle high signal intensity on bilateral optic nerves. A contrast-enhanced T1 weighted image showed enhancement along the bilateral optic nerve sheath. Moreover, diffusion-weighted image (DWI) and an apparent diffusion coefficient map showed markedly restricted diffusion on bilateral optic nerves. Although MR findings of T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted images may be nonspecific, the DWI finding of cytotoxic edema of bilateral optic nerves will be helpful for the diagnosis of acute ischemic optic neuropathy after spine surgery.

  4. Diffusion MR Imaging of Postoperative Bilateral Acute Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Young; Lee, In Ho; Song, Chang June [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hee Youn [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    A 57-year-old woman experienced bilateral acute ischemic optic neuropathy after spine surgery. Routine MR imaging sequence, T2-weighted image, showed subtle high signal intensity on bilateral optic nerves. A contrast-enhanced T1 weighted image showed enhancement along the bilateral optic nerve sheath. Moreover, diffusion-weighted image (DWI) and an apparent diffusion coefficient map showed markedly restricted diffusion on bilateral optic nerves. Although MR findings of T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted images may be nonspecific, the DWI finding of cytotoxic edema of bilateral optic nerves will be helpful for the diagnosis of acute ischemic optic neuropathy after spine surgery.

  5. Optically enhanced blood-brain-barrier crossing of plasmonic-active nanoparticles in preclinical brain tumor animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Wilson, Christy M.; Li, Shuqin; Fales, Andrew M.; Liu, Yang; Grant, Gerald; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-02-01

    Nanotechnology provides tremendous biomedical opportunities for cancer diagnosis, imaging, and therapy. In contrast to conventional chemotherapeutic agents where their actual target delivery cannot be easily imaged, integrating imaging and therapeutic properties into one platform facilitates the understanding of pharmacokinetic profiles, and enables monitoring of the therapeutic process in each individual. Such a concept dubbed "theranostics" potentiates translational research and improves precision medicine. One particular challenging application of theranostics involves imaging and controlled delivery of nanoplatforms across blood-brain-barrier (BBB) into brain tissues. Typically, the BBB hinders paracellular flux of drug molecules into brain parenchyma. BBB disrupting agents (e.g. mannitol, focused ultrasound), however, suffer from poor spatial confinement. It has been a challenge to design a nanoplatform not only acts as a contrast agent but also improves the BBB permeation. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of plasmonic gold nanoparticles as both high-resolution optical contrast agent and focalized tumor BBB permeation-inducing agent. We specifically examined the microscopic distribution of nanoparticles in tumor brain animal models. We observed that most nanoparticles accumulated at the tumor periphery or perivascular spaces. Nanoparticles were present in both endothelial cells and interstitial matrices. This study also demonstrated a novel photothermal-induced BBB permeation. Fine-tuning the irradiating energy induced gentle disruption of the vascular integrity, causing short-term extravasation of nanomaterials but without hemorrhage. We conclude that our gold nanoparticles are a powerful biocompatible contrast agent capable of inducing focal BBB permeation, and therefore envision a strong potential of plasmonic gold nanoparticle in future brain tumor imaging and therapy.

  6. The imaging diagnosis of diffuse brain swelling due to severe brain trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianqiang; Hu Jiawang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical and pathological characteristics and the imaging types of the diffuse brain swelling due to severe brain trauma. Methods: The clinical data and CT and MR images on 48 cases with diffuse brain swelling due to severe brain trauma were analyzed. Results: Among these 48 cases of the diffuse brain swelling due to severe brain trauma, 33 cases were complicated with brain contusions (including 12 cases brain diffuse axonal injury, 1 case infarct of the right basal ganglion), 31 cases were complicated with hematoma (epidural, subdural or intracerebral), 27 cases were complicated with skull base fracture, and 10 cases were complicated with subarachnoid hematoma. The CT and MR imaging of the diffuse brain swelling included as followed: (1) Symmetrically diffuse brain swelling in both cerebral hemispheres with cerebral ventricles decreased or disappeared, without median line shift. (2)Diffuse brain swelling in one side cerebral hemisphere with cerebral ventricles decreased or disappeared at same side, and median line shift to other side. (3) Subarachnoid hematoma or little subcortex intracerebral hematoma were complicated. (4) The CT value of the cerebral could be equal, lower or higher comparing with normal. Conclusion: The pathological reason of diffuse brain swelling was the brain vessel expanding resulting from hypothalamus and brainstem injured in severe brain trauma. There were four CT and MR imaging findings in diffuse brain swelling. The diffuse brain swelling without hematoma may be caused by ischemical reperfusion injury. (authors)

  7. Integration of intraoperative stereovision imaging for brain shift visualization during image-guided cranial procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaewe, Timothy J.; Fan, Xiaoyao; Ji, Songbai; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Simon, David A.

    2014-03-01

    Dartmouth and Medtronic Navigation have established an academic-industrial partnership to develop, validate, and evaluate a multi-modality neurosurgical image-guidance platform for brain tumor resection surgery that is capable of updating the spatial relationships between preoperative images and the current surgical field. A stereovision system has been developed and optimized for intraoperative use through integration with a surgical microscope and an image-guided surgery system. The microscope optics and stereovision CCD sensors are localized relative to the surgical field using optical tracking and can efficiently acquire stereo image pairs from which a localized 3D profile of the exposed surface is reconstructed. This paper reports the first demonstration of intraoperative acquisition, reconstruction and visualization of 3D stereovision surface data in the context of an industry-standard image-guided surgery system. The integrated system is capable of computing and presenting a stereovision-based update of the exposed cortical surface in less than one minute. Alternative methods for visualization of high-resolution, texture-mapped stereovision surface data are also investigated with the objective of determining the technical feasibility of direct incorporation of intraoperative stereo imaging into future iterations of Medtronic's navigation platform.

  8. Image processing techniques for quantification and assessment of brain MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijf, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used technique to acquire digital images of the human brain. A variety of acquisition protocols is available to generate images in vivo and noninvasively, giving great opportunities to study the anatomy and physiology of the human brain. In my thesis,

  9. Development of optical neuroimaging to detect drug-induced brain functional changes in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Congwu; Pan, Yingtian

    2014-03-01

    Deficits in prefrontal function play a crucial role in compulsive cocaine use, which is a hallmark of addiction. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex might result from effects of cocaine on neurons as well as from disruption of cerebral blood vessels. However, the mechanisms underlying cocaine's neurotoxic effects are not fully understood, partially due to technical limitations of current imaging techniques (e.g., PET, fMRI) to differentiate vascular from neuronal effects at sufficiently high temporal and spatial resolutions. We have recently developed a multimodal imaging platform which can simultaneously characterize the changes in cerebrovascular hemodynamics, hemoglobin oxygenation and intracellular calcium fluorescence for monitoring the effects of cocaine on the brain. Such a multimodality imaging technique (OFI) provides several uniquely important merits, including: 1) a large field-of-view, 2) high spatiotemporal resolutions, 3) quantitative 3D imaging of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) networks, 4) label-free imaging of hemodynamic changes, 5) separation of vascular compartments (e.g., arterial and venous vessels) and monitoring of cortical brain metabolic changes, 6) discrimination of cellular (neuronal) from vascular responses. These imaging features have been further advanced in combination with microprobes to form micro-OFI that allows quantification of drug effects on subcortical brain. In addition, our ultrahigh-resolution ODT (μODT) enables 3D microangiography and quantitative imaging of capillary CBF networks. These optical strategies have been used to investigate the effects of cocaine on brain physiology to facilitate the studies of brain functional changes induced by addictive substance to provide new insights into neurobiological effects of the drug on the brain.

  10. Children's Brain Responses to Optic Flow Vary by Pattern Type and Motion Speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick O Gilmore

    Full Text Available Structured patterns of global visual motion called optic flow provide crucial information about an observer's speed and direction of self-motion and about the geometry of the environment. Brain and behavioral responses to optic flow undergo considerable postnatal maturation, but relatively little brain imaging evidence describes the time course of development in motion processing systems in early to middle childhood, a time when psychophysical data suggest that there are changes in sensitivity. To fill this gap, electroencephalographic (EEG responses were recorded in 4- to 8-year-old children who viewed three time-varying optic flow patterns (translation, rotation, and radial expansion/contraction at three different speeds (2, 4, and 8 deg/s. Modulations of global motion coherence evoked coherent EEG responses at the first harmonic that differed by flow pattern and responses at the third harmonic and dot update rate that varied by speed. Pattern-related responses clustered over right lateral channels while speed-related responses clustered over midline channels. Both children and adults show widespread responses to modulations of motion coherence at the second harmonic that are not selective for pattern or speed. The results suggest that the developing brain segregates the processing of optic flow pattern from speed and that an adult-like pattern of neural responses to optic flow has begun to emerge by early to middle childhood.

  11. 7th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In continuation of the FRINGE Workshop Series this Proceeding contains all contributions presented at the 7. International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology. The FRINGE Workshop Series is dedicated to the presentation, discussion and dissemination of recent results in Optical Imaging and Metrology. Topics of particular interest for the 7. Workshop are: - New methods and tools for the generation, acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data in Optical Imaging and Metrology (digital wavefront engineering, computational imaging, model-based reconstruction, compressed sensing, inverse problems solution) - Application-driven technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (high-resolution, adaptive, active, robust, reliable, flexible, in-line, real-time) - High-dynamic range solutions in Optical Imaging and Metrology (from macro to nano) - Hybrid technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (hybrid optics, sensor and data fusion, model-based solutions, multimodality) - New optical sensors, imagi...

  12. Animal imaging studies of potential brain damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatley, S. J.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rice, O.

    To date, animal studies have not been able to predict the likelihood of problems in human neurological health due to HZE particle exposure during space missions outside the Earth's magnetosphere. In ongoing studies in mice, we have demonstrated that cocaine stimulated locomotor activity is reduced by a moderate dose (120 cGy) of 1 GeV 56Fe particles. We postulate that imaging experiments in animals may provide more sensitive and earlier indicators of damage due to HZE particles than behavioral tests. Since the small size of the mouse brain is not well suited to the spatial resolution offered by microPET, we are now repeating some of our studies in a rat model. We anticipate that this will enable us to identify imaging correlates of behavioral endpoints. A specific hypothesis of our studies is that changes in the metabolic rate for glucose in striatum of animals will be correlated with alterations in locomotor activity. We will also evaluate whether the neuroprotective drug L-deprenyl reduces the effect of radiation on locomotor activity. In addition, we will conduct microPET studies of brain monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B in rats before and at various times after irradiation with HZE particles. The hypothesis is that monoamine oxidase A, which is located in nerve terminals, will be unchanged or decreased after irradiation, while monoamine oxidase B, which is located in glial cells, will be increased after irradiation. Neurochemical effects that could be measured using PET could in principle be applied in astronauts, in terms of detecting and monitoring subtle neurological damage that might have occurred during long space missions. More speculative uses of PET are in screening candidates for prolonged space missions (for example, for adequate reserve in critical brain circuits) and in optimizing medications to treat impairments after missions.

  13. Brain MR imaging in systemic lupus erythematous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Ae; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Kyung Hwon; Kim, Sung Kwon; Lee, Jung Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sang Hoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    To present MR imaging findings of intracranial lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE), a retrospective study was performed on MR images of 33 SLE patients with neurologic symptoms and signs. MR imaging was performed on either a 0.5 T (21 patients) or 2.0 T unit (12 patients), using T1-weighted, proton-density-weighted, and T2-weighted spin echo sequences in all patients. In seven patients, post-contrast T1-weighted images were also obtained after administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine. The main MR findings consisted of focal lesions suggesting ischemia/infarct (15 patients), diffuse brain atrophy (8), and findings associated with infection (4). The MR findings were normal in 11 patients (33%). The focal lesions suggesting ischemia/infarcts presumably secondary to vasculitis were distributed in the cortex or subcortical white matter (7 patients), deep periventricular white matter (3), or in both areas (5). Most of the focal lesions were multiple and small in size. The findings associated with infection were variable and included communicating hydrocephalus, meningeal enhancement, granuloma, etc. MR findings of SLE were non-specific and therefore clinical correlation is needed when evaluating SLE in MR.

  14. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional imaging of the optic nerve using magnetic resonance angiography. Application to anterior communicating artery aneurysm and craniopharingioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Tohru; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Fukuyama, Koichi; Ikeno, Kunihiro; Araki, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kinya; Sohma, Noriko

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze three-dimensional images of the optic nerve obtained by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in cases of anterior communicating artery aneurysm and craniopharingioma. Four ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms, five non-ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms and two craniopharingiomas were examined. The images were taken using MR/i Hispeed Plus 1.5 T Infinity version, and analyzed by Advantage Work station AW4.1. The routine MR imaging parameters are shown in Table. The imaging time was about 10 minutes. Analysis was made by reformation of images parallel to the optic nerve obtained from the original MRA images. The optic nerve and brain tumor were traced with paintbrush from one sheet to another of the reformed images after subtraction of the blood vessels around the anterior communicating artery in these reformed images, and then three-dimensional images were constructed. Three-dimensional images of the blood vessels were reconstructed from MIP (maximum intensity projection) images using the threshold method. The optic nerve and anterior communicating arterial aneurysm or brain tumor were both observed in the overlapped 3D-SSD (shaded surface display) images. The analysis time was about 15 minutes. Three-dimensional images of the optic nerve and anterior communicating artery aneurysm or brain tumor were able to be made in all cases. As a preoperative investigation for anterior communicating artery aneurysm or suprasellar brain tumor, we considered that three-dimensional imaging of the optic nerve is useful in the operative approach because the optic nerve acts as a merkmal for the anterior communicating aneurysm or brain tumor. (author)

  16. Scintillating Optical Fiber Imagers for biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrippolito, R.

    1990-01-01

    S.O.F.I (Scintillating Optical Fiber Imager) is a detector developed to replace the autoradiographic films used in molecular biology for the location of radiolabelled ( 32 P) DNA molecules in blotting experiments. It analyses samples on a 25 x 25 cm 2 square area still 25 times faster than autoradiographic films, with a 1.75 and 3 mm resolution for two orthogonal directions. This device performs numerised images with a dynamic upper than 100 which allows the direct quantitation of the analysed samples. First, this thesis describes the S.O.F.I. development (Scintillating Optical Fibers, coding of these fibers and specific electronic for the treatment of the Multi-Anode Photo-Multiplier signals) and experiments made in collaboration with molecular biology laboratories. In a second place, we prove the feasibility of an automatic DNA sequencer issued from S.O.F.I [fr

  17. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  18. MR image-guided portal verification for brain treatment field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, F.-F.; Gao, Q.H.; Xie, H.; Nelson, D.F.; Yu, Y.; Kwok, W.E.; Totterman, S.; Schell, M.C.; Rubin, P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Although MR images have been extensively used for the treatment planning of radiation therapy of cancers, especially for brain cancers, they are not effectively used for the portal verification due to lack of bone/air information in MR images and geometric distortions. Typically, MR images are utilized through correlation with CT images, and this procedure is usually very labor and time consuming. For many brain cancer patients to be treated using conventional external beam radiation, MR images with proper distortion correction provide sufficient information for treatment planning and dose calculation, and a projection images may be generated for each specific treatment port and to be used as a reference image for treatment verification. The question is how to transfer anatomical features in MR images to the projection image as landmarks which could be correlated automatically to those in the portal image. The goal of this study is to generate digitally reconstructed projection images from MR brain images with some important anatomical features (brain contour, skull and gross tumor) as well as their relative locations to be used as references for the development of computerized portal verification scheme. Materials/Methods: Compared to conventional digital reconstructed radiograph from CT images, generation of digitally reconstructed projection images from MR images is heavily involved with pixel manipulation of MR images to correlate information from two types of images (MR, portal x-ray images) which are produced based on totally different imaging principles. Initially a wavelet based multi-resolution adaptive thresholding method is used to segment the skull slice-by-slice in MR brain axial images, and identified skull pixels are re-assigned to relatively higher intensities so that projection images will have comparable grey-level information as that in typical brain portal images. Both T1- and T2-weighted images are utilized to eliminate fat

  19. Brain lesion analysis using three-dimensional SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Iekado; Onagi, Atsuo; Kuroki, Takao

    1995-01-01

    A three-headed gamma camera (PRISM 3000) is capable to scan the protocol of early dynamic SPECT and to analyze two radioisotopes at the same time. We have framed three-dimensional brain SPECT images for several brain diseases by using the Application Visualization System (AVS). We carried out volume measurements in brain tumors and/or AVMs by applying this methodology. Thallium-201 and/or 123I-IMP were used for brain SPECT imaging. The dynamic scan protocol was changed in accordance with the given disease. The protocol for brain tumors was derived from a preliminary comparative study with thallium-201 and 123I-IMP that had suggested a disparity in the detection of brain tumors and the differentiation between tumor tissue and normal brain. The three-dimension SPECT image represented the brain tumor or AVM in a striking fashion, and the changes with respect to tumor or AVM after radiosurgery or embolization were understood readily. (author)

  20. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  1. FCM Clustering Algorithms for Segmentation of Brain MR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita K. Dubey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of brain disorders requires accurate tissue segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR brain images which is very important for detecting tumors, edema, and necrotic tissues. Segmentation of brain images, especially into three main tissue types: Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF, Gray Matter (GM, and White Matter (WM, has important role in computer aided neurosurgery and diagnosis. Brain images mostly contain noise, intensity inhomogeneity, and weak boundaries. Therefore, accurate segmentation of brain images is still a challenging area of research. This paper presents a review of fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering algorithms for the segmentation of brain MR images. The review covers the detailed analysis of FCM based algorithms with intensity inhomogeneity correction and noise robustness. Different methods for the modification of standard fuzzy objective function with updating of membership and cluster centroid are also discussed.

  2. Groupwise registration of MR brain images with tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenyu; Wu, Yihong; Fan, Yong

    2017-09-01

    A novel groupwise image registration framework is developed for registering MR brain images with tumors. Our method iteratively estimates a normal-appearance counterpart for each tumor image to be registered and constructs a directed graph (digraph) of normal-appearance images to guide the groupwise image registration. Particularly, our method maps each tumor image to its normal appearance counterpart by identifying and inpainting brain tumor regions with intensity information estimated using a low-rank plus sparse matrix decomposition based image representation technique. The estimated normal-appearance images are groupwisely registered to a group center image guided by a digraph of images so that the total length of ‘image registration paths’ to be the minimum, and then the original tumor images are warped to the group center image using the resulting deformation fields. We have evaluated our method based on both simulated and real MR brain tumor images. The registration results were evaluated with overlap measures of corresponding brain regions and average entropy of image intensity information, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were adopted to compare different methods with respect to their regional overlap measures. Compared with a groupwise image registration method that is applied to normal-appearance images estimated using the traditional low-rank plus sparse matrix decomposition based image inpainting, our method achieved higher image registration accuracy with statistical significance (p  =  7.02  ×  10-9).

  3. Functional brain imaging to investigate the higher brain dysfunction induced by diffuse brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Tadashi; Inaji, Motoki; Ohno, Kikuo; Hiura, Mikio; Ishii, Kenji; Hosoda, Chihiro

    2011-01-01

    Higher brain dysfunction is the major problem of patients who recover from neurotrauma the prevents them from returning to their previous social life. Many such patients do not have focal brain damage detected with morphological imaging. We focused on studying the focal brain dysfunction that can be detected only with functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) in relation to the score of various cognition batteries. Patients who complain of higher brain dysfunction without apparent morphological cortical damage were recruited for this study. Thirteen patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) or cerebral concussion was included. They underwent a PET study to image glucose metabolism by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and central benodiazepine receptor (cBZD-R) (marker of neuronal body) by 11 C-flumazenil, together with cognition measurement by WAIS-R, WMS-R, and WCST etc. PET data were compared with age matched normal controls using statistical parametric mapping (SPM)2. DAI patients had a significant decrease in glucose matabolism and cBZD-R distribution in the cingulated cortex than normal controls. Patients diagnosed with concussion because of shorter consciousness disturbance also had abnormal FDG uptake and cBZD-R distribution. Cognition test scores were variable among patients. Degree of decreased glucose metabolism and cBZD-R distribution in the dominant hemishphere corresponded well to the severity of cognitive disturbance. PET molecular imaging was useful to depict focal cortical dysfunction of neurotrauma patients even when morphological change was not apparent. This method may be promising to clarify the pathophysiology of higher brain dysfunction of patients with diffuse axonal injury or chronic traumatic encephalopathy. (author)

  4. RADIANCE AND PHOTON NOISE: Imaging in geometrical optics, physical optics, quantum optics and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Harrison H; Myers, Kyle J; Caucci, Luca

    2014-08-17

    A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon.

  5. Exploring brain function with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Salle, F.; Formisano, E.; Linden, D.E.J.; Goebel, R.; Bonavita, S.; Pepino, A.; Smaltino, F.; Tedeschi, G.

    1999-01-01

    Since its invention in the early 1990s, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has rapidly assumed a leading role among the techniques used to localize brain activity. The spatial and temporal resolution provided by state-of-the-art MR technology and its non-invasive character, which allows multiple studies of the same subject, are some of the main advantages of fMRI over the other functional neuroimaging modalities that are based on changes in blood flow and cortical metabolism. This paper describes the basic principles and methodology of fMRI and some aspects of its application to functional activation studies. Attention is focused on the physiology of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism and on the acquisition of functional time-series with echo planar imaging (EPI). We also provide an introduction to the current strategies for the correction of signal artefacts and other image processing techniques. In order to convey an idea of the numerous applications of fMRI, we will review some of the recent results in the fields of cognitive and sensorimotor psychology and physiology

  6. Exploring brain function with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Salle, F.; Formisano, E.; Linden, D.E.J.; Goebel, R.; Bonavita, S.; Pepino, A.; Smaltino, F.; Tedeschi, G

    1999-05-01

    Since its invention in the early 1990s, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has rapidly assumed a leading role among the techniques used to localize brain activity. The spatial and temporal resolution provided by state-of-the-art MR technology and its non-invasive character, which allows multiple studies of the same subject, are some of the main advantages of fMRI over the other functional neuroimaging modalities that are based on changes in blood flow and cortical metabolism. This paper describes the basic principles and methodology of fMRI and some aspects of its application to functional activation studies. Attention is focused on the physiology of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism and on the acquisition of functional time-series with echo planar imaging (EPI). We also provide an introduction to the current strategies for the correction of signal artefacts and other image processing techniques. In order to convey an idea of the numerous applications of fMRI, we will review some of the recent results in the fields of cognitive and sensorimotor psychology and physiology.

  7. Characterizing the optical properties of human brain tissue with high numerical aperture optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Magnain, Caroline; Sakadžić, Sava; Fischl, Bruce; Boas, David A

    2017-12-01

    Quantification of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be useful in evaluating structural characteristics and pathological changes. Previous studies primarily used an exponential model to analyze low numerical aperture (NA) OCT measurements and obtain the total attenuation coefficient for biological tissue. In this study, we develop a systematic method that includes the confocal parameter for modeling the depth profiles of high NA OCT, when the confocal parameter cannot be ignored. This approach enables us to quantify tissue optical properties with higher lateral resolution. The model parameter predictions for the scattering coefficients were tested with calibrated microsphere phantoms. The application of the model to human brain tissue demonstrates that the scattering and back-scattering coefficients each provide unique information, allowing us to differentially identify laminar structures in primary visual cortex and distinguish various nuclei in the midbrain. The combination of the two optical properties greatly enhances the power of OCT to distinguish intricate structures in the human brain beyond what is achievable with measured OCT intensity information alone, and therefore has the potential to enable objective evaluation of normal brain structure as well as pathological conditions in brain diseases. These results represent a promising step for enabling the quantification of tissue optical properties from high NA OCT.

  8. Electrophysiological Source Imaging: A Noninvasive Window to Brain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Sohrabpour, Abbas; Brown, Emery; Liu, Zhongming

    2018-06-04

    Brain activity and connectivity are distributed in the three-dimensional space and evolve in time. It is important to image brain dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are noninvasive measurements associated with complex neural activations and interactions that encode brain functions. Electrophysiological source imaging estimates the underlying brain electrical sources from EEG and MEG measurements. It offers increasingly improved spatial resolution and intrinsically high temporal resolution for imaging large-scale brain activity and connectivity on a wide range of timescales. Integration of electrophysiological source imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging could further enhance spatiotemporal resolution and specificity to an extent that is not attainable with either technique alone. We review methodological developments in electrophysiological source imaging over the past three decades and envision its future advancement into a powerful functional neuroimaging technology for basic and clinical neuroscience applications.

  9. In vivo multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Kalasauskas, Darius; König, Karsten; Kim, Ella; Weinigel, Martin; Uchugonova, Aisada; Giese, Alf

    2016-05-01

    High resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging differentiates glioma from adjacent brain in native tissue samples ex vivo. Presently, multiphoton tomography is applied in clinical dermatology and experimentally. We here present the first application of multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging for in vivo imaging on humans during a neurosurgical procedure. We used a MPTflex™ Multiphoton Laser Tomograph (JenLab, Germany). We examined cultured glioma cells in an orthotopic mouse tumor model and native human tissue samples. Finally the multiphoton tomograph was applied to provide optical biopsies during resection of a clinical case of glioblastoma. All tissues imaged by multiphoton tomography were sampled and processed for conventional histopathology. The multiphoton tomograph allowed fluorescence intensity- and fluorescence lifetime imaging with submicron spatial resolution and 200 picosecond temporal resolution. Morphological fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging of tumor-bearing mouse brains and native human tissue samples clearly differentiated tumor and adjacent brain tissue. Intraoperative imaging was found to be technically feasible. Intraoperative image quality was comparable to ex vivo examinations. To our knowledge we here present the first intraoperative application of high resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumors in situ. It allowed in vivo identification and determination of cell density of tumor tissue on a cellular and subcellular level within seconds. The technology shows the potential of rapid intraoperative identification of native glioma tissue without need for tissue processing or staining.

  10. Mesoscale brain explorer, a flexible python-based image analysis and visualization tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Dirk; Vanni, Matthieu P; Bolanos, Federico; Mitelut, Catalin; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Murphy, Tim H

    2017-07-01

    Imaging of mesoscale brain activity is used to map interactions between brain regions. This work has benefited from the pioneering studies of Grinvald et al., who employed optical methods to image brain function by exploiting the properties of intrinsic optical signals and small molecule voltage-sensitive dyes. Mesoscale interareal brain imaging techniques have been advanced by cell targeted and selective recombinant indicators of neuronal activity. Spontaneous resting state activity is often collected during mesoscale imaging to provide the basis for mapping of connectivity relationships using correlation. However, the information content of mesoscale datasets is vast and is only superficially presented in manuscripts given the need to constrain measurements to a fixed set of frequencies, regions of interest, and other parameters. We describe a new open source tool written in python, termed mesoscale brain explorer (MBE), which provides an interface to process and explore these large datasets. The platform supports automated image processing pipelines with the ability to assess multiple trials and combine data from different animals. The tool provides functions for temporal filtering, averaging, and visualization of functional connectivity relations using time-dependent correlation. Here, we describe the tool and show applications, where previously published datasets were reanalyzed using MBE.

  11. Modelling Brain Tissue using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion MRI, or diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), is a technique that measures the restricted diffusion of water molecules within brain tissue. Different reconstruction methods quantify water-diffusion anisotropy in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces of the neural environment. Fibre tracking...... models then use the directions of greatest diffusion as estimates of white matter fibre orientation. Several fibre tracking algorithms have emerged in the last few years that provide reproducible visualizations of three-dimensional fibre bundles. One class of these algorithms is probabilistic...... the possibility of using high-field experimental MR scanners and long scanning times, thereby significantly improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and anatomical resolution. Moreover, many of the degrading effects observed in vivo, such as physiological noise, are no longer present. However, the post mortem...

  12. Brain volume measurement using three-dimensional magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Yoshihiro

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to validate accurate measurement method of human brain volume using three dimensional (3D) MRI data on a workstation, and to establish optimal correcting method of human brain volume on diagnosis of brain atrophy. 3D MRI data were acquired by fast SPGR sequence using 1.5 T MR imager. 3D MRI data were segmented by region growing method and 3D image was displayed by surface rendering method on the workstation. Brain volume was measured by the volume measurement function of the workstation. In order to validate the accurate measurement method, phantoms and a specimen of human brain were examined. Phantom volume was measured by changing the lower level of threshold value. At the appropriate threshold value, percentage of error of phantoms and the specimen were within 0.6% and 0.08%, respectively. To establish the optimal correcting method, 130 normal volunteers were examined. Brain volumes corrected with height weight, body surface area, and alternative skull volume were evaluated. Brain volume index, which is defined as dividing brain volume by alternative skull volume, had the best correlation with age (r=0.624, p<0.05). No gender differences was observed in brain volume index in contrast to in brain volume. The clinical usefulness of this correcting method for brain atrophy diagnosis was evaluated in 85 patients. Diagnosis by 2D spin echo MR images was compared with brain volume index. Diagnosis of brain atrophy by 2D MR image was concordant with the evaluation by brain volume index. These results indicated that this measurement method had high accuracy, and it was important to set the appropriate threshold value. Brain volume index was the appropriate indication for evaluation of human brain volume, and was considered to be useful for the diagnosis of brain atrophy. (author)

  13. Intraoperative intrinsic optical imaging of human somatosensory cortex during neurosurgical operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsushige; Nariai, Tadashi; Momose-Sato, Yoko; Kamino, Kohtaro

    2017-07-01

    Intrinsic optical imaging as developed by Grinvald et al. is a powerful technique for monitoring neural function in the in vivo central nervous system. The advent of this dye-free imaging has also enabled us to monitor human brain function during neurosurgical operations. We briefly describe our own experience in functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex, carried out using intraoperative optical imaging. The maps obtained demonstrate new additional evidence of a hierarchy for sensory response patterns in the human primary somatosensory cortex.

  14. Cloned images and the optical unconscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romic, Bojana

    unconscious. The camera conveys the virtuality of vision, through which the eye learns about the spatio-temporal arrangements of the photographic object 'with its devices of slow motion and enlargement' (Benjamin, 1931, pp. 510). In reference to this, Rosalind Krauss wrote in her book Optical unconscious...... contribute its special status. When Walter Benjamin coined the term optical unconscious, he was primarily referring to the psychoanalytical perspective: photography opened a new realm of experience that was not accessible to the naked eye – the same way that psychoanalysis provided an access to the physic......, because this young woman had no political/activist record – it was her image that communicated with the world. References: Benjamin, W. (1999) Little History of Photography. in: Jennings, M.W., Eiland, H., Smith, G. (eds) Selected Writings: Volume 2 1927-1934. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press...

  15. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging of the brain : MRI of the brain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the development of magnetic resonance imaging by Paul. Lauterbur and ... Functional brain imaging refers to the family of techniques that aim to measure the .... left thumb, the fingers of their right hand against their right thumb, or rest.

  16. Imaging human brain cyto- and myelo-architecture with quantitative OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, David A.; Wang, Hui; Konukoglu, Ender; Fischl, Bruce; Sakadzic, Sava; Magnain, Caroline V.

    2017-02-01

    No current imaging technology allows us to directly and without significant distortion visualize the microscopic and defining anatomical features of the human brain. Ex vivo histological techniques can yield exquisite planar images, but the cutting, mounting and staining that are required components of this type of imaging induce distortions that are different for each slice, introducing cross-slice differences that prohibit true 3D analysis. We are overcoming this issue by utilizing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) with the goal to image whole human brain cytoarchitectural and laminar properties with potentially 3.5 µm resolution in block-face without the need for exogenous staining. From the intrinsic scattering contrast of the brain tissue, OCT gives us images that are comparable to Nissl stains, but without the distortions introduced in standard histology as the OCT images are acquired from the block face prior to slicing and thus without the need for subsequent staining and mounting. We have shown that laminar and cytoarchitectural properties of the brain can be characterized with OCT just as well as with Nissl staining. We will present our recent advances to improve the axial resolution while maintaining contrast; improvements afforded by speckle reduction procedures; and efforts to obtain quantitative maps of the optical scattering coefficient, an intrinsic property of the tissue.

  17. Fractal characterization of brain lesions in CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauhari, Rajnish K.; Trivedi, Rashmi; Munshi, Prabhat; Sahni, Kamal

    2005-01-01

    Fractal Dimension (FD) is a parameter used widely for classification, analysis, and pattern recognition of images. In this work we explore the quantification of CT (computed tomography) lesions of the brain by using fractal theory. Five brain lesions, which are portions of CT images of diseased brains, are used for the study. These lesions exhibit self-similarity over a chosen range of scales, and are broadly characterized by their fractal dimensions

  18. Imaging separation of neuronal from vascular effects of cocaine on rat cortical brain in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Z.; Du, C.; Luo, Z.; Volkow, N.D.; Pan, Y.

    2011-01-01

    MRI techniques to study brain function assume coupling between neuronal activity, metabolism and flow. However, recent evidence of physiological uncoupling between neuronal and cerebrovascular events highlights the need for methods to simultaneously measure these three properties. We report a multimodality optical approach that integrates dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (measures changes in blood flow, blood volume and hemoglobin oxygenation), digital-frequency-ramping optical coherence tomography (images quantitative 3D vascular network) and Rhod2 fluorescence (images intracellular calcium for measure of neuronal activity) at high spatiotemporal resolutions (30 (micro)m, 10 Hz) and over a large field of view (3 x 5 mm 2 ). We apply it to assess cocaine's effects in rat cortical brain and show an immediate decrease 3.5 ± 0.9 min, phase (1) in the oxygen content of hemoglobin and the cerebral blood flow followed by an overshoot 7.1 ± 0.2 min, phase (2) lasting over 20 min whereas Ca 2+ increased immediately (peaked at t = 4.1 ± 0.4 min) and remained elevated. This enabled us to identify a delay (2.9 ± 0.5 min) between peak neuronal and vascular responses in phase 2. The ability of this multimodality optical approach for simultaneous imaging at high spatiotemporal resolutions permits us to distinguish the vascular versus cellular changes of the brain, thus complimenting other neuroimaging modalities for brain functional studies (e. g., PET, fMRI).

  19. Imaging separation of neuronal from vascular effects of cocaine on rat cortical brain in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Z.; Du, C.; Yuan, Z.; Luo, Z.; Volkow, N.D.; Pan, Y.; Du, C.

    2010-09-08

    MRI techniques to study brain function assume coupling between neuronal activity, metabolism and flow. However, recent evidence of physiological uncoupling between neuronal and cerebrovascular events highlights the need for methods to simultaneously measure these three properties. We report a multimodality optical approach that integrates dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (measures changes in blood flow, blood volume and hemoglobin oxygenation), digital-frequency-ramping optical coherence tomography (images quantitative 3D vascular network) and Rhod2 fluorescence (images intracellular calcium for measure of neuronal activity) at high spatiotemporal resolutions (30 {micro}m, 10 Hz) and over a large field of view (3 x 5 mm{sup 2}). We apply it to assess cocaine's effects in rat cortical brain and show an immediate decrease 3.5 {+-} 0.9 min, phase (1) in the oxygen content of hemoglobin and the cerebral blood flow followed by an overshoot 7.1 {+-} 0.2 min, phase (2) lasting over 20 min whereas Ca{sup 2+} increased immediately (peaked at t = 4.1 {+-} 0.4 min) and remained elevated. This enabled us to identify a delay (2.9 {+-} 0.5 min) between peak neuronal and vascular responses in phase 2. The ability of this multimodality optical approach for simultaneous imaging at high spatiotemporal resolutions permits us to distinguish the vascular versus cellular changes of the brain, thus complimenting other neuroimaging modalities for brain functional studies (e. g., PET, fMRI).

  20. Whole-brain dynamic CT angiography and perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrison, W.W. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Department of Medical Education, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV (United States); Snyder, K.V.; Hopkins, L.N. [Department of Neurosurgery, Millard Fillmore Gates Circle Hospital, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roach, C.J. [School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, E.N. [Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nazir, R. [Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hanson, E.H., E-mail: eric.hanson@amigenics.co [College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The availability of whole brain computed tomography (CT) perfusion has expanded the opportunities for analysing the haemodynamic parameters associated with varied neurological conditions. Examples demonstrating the clinical utility of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging in selected acute and chronic ischaemic arterial neurovascular conditions are presented. Whole-brain CT perfusion enables the detection and focused haemodynamic analyses of acute and chronic arterial conditions in the central nervous system without the limitation of partial anatomical coverage of the brain.

  1. Functional brain imaging of gastrointestinal sensation in health and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lukas Van Oudenhove; Steven J Coen; Qasim Aziz

    2007-01-01

    It has since long been known, from everyday experience as well as from animal and human studies, that psychological processes-both affective and cognitiveexert an influence on gastrointestinal sensorimotor function. More specifically, a link between psychological factors and visceral hypersensitivity has been suggested,mainly based on research in functional gastrointestinal disorder patients. However, until recently, the exact nature of this putative relationship remained unclear,mainly due to a lack of non-invasive methods to study the (neurobiological) mechanisms underlying this relationship in non-sleeping humans. As functional brain imaging, introduced in visceral sensory neuroscience some 10 years ago, does provide a method for in vivo study of brain-gut interactions, insight into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying visceral sensation in general and the influence of psychological factors more particularly,has rapidly grown. In this article, an overview of brain imaging evidence on gastrointestinal sensation will be given, with special emphasis on the brain mechanisms underlying the interaction between affective & cognitive processes and visceral sensation. First, the reciprocal neural pathways between the brain and the gut (braingut axis) will be briefly outlined, including brain imaging evidence in healthy volunteers. Second, functional brain imaging studies assessing the influence of psychological factors on brain processing of visceral sensation in healthy humans will be discussed in more detail.Finally, brain imaging work investigating differences in brain responses to visceral distension between healthy volunteers and functional gastrointestinal disorder patients will be highlighted.

  2. Utility of Digital Stereo Images for Optic Disc Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Gui-shuang; Pearson, Denise J.; Bansal, Mayank; Puri, Manika; Miller, Eydie; Alexander, Judith; Piltz-Seymour, Jody; Nyberg, William; Maguire, Maureen G.; Eledath, Jayan; Sawhney, Harpreet

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the suitability of digital stereo images for optic disc evaluations in glaucoma. Methods. Stereo color optic disc images in both digital and 35-mm slide film formats were acquired contemporaneously from 29 subjects with various cup-to-disc ratios (range, 0.26–0.76; median, 0.475). Using a grading scale designed to assess image quality, the ease of visualizing optic disc features important for glaucoma diagnosis, and the comparative diameters of the optic disc cup, experienced observers separately compared the primary digital stereo images to each subject's 35-mm slides, to scanned images of the same 35-mm slides, and to grayscale conversions of the digital images. Statistical analysis accounted for multiple gradings and comparisons and also assessed image formats under monoscopic viewing. Results. Overall, the quality of primary digital color images was judged superior to that of 35-mm slides (P digital color images were mostly equivalent to the scanned digitized images of the same slides. Color seemingly added little to grayscale optic disc images, except that peripapillary atrophy was best seen in color (P digital over film images was maintained under monoscopic viewing conditions. Conclusions. Digital stereo optic disc images are useful for evaluating the optic disc in glaucoma and allow the application of advanced image processing applications. Grayscale images, by providing luminance distinct from color, may be informative for assessing certain features. PMID:20505199

  3. Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.

    2010-01-01

    OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge

  4. The clinical use of brain SPECT imaging in neuropsychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amen, Daniel G; Wu, Joseph C; Carmichael, Blake

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on brain SPECT imaging in brain trauma, dementia, and temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain SPECT allows clinicians the ability to view cerebral areas of healthy, low, and excessive perfusion. This information can be correlated with what is known about the function or dysfunction of each area. SPECT has a number of advantages over other imaging techniques, including wider availability, lower cost, and high quality resolution with multi-headed cameras. There are a number of issues that compromise the effective use of SPECT, including low quality of some imaging cameras, and variability of image rendering and readings (Au)

  5. Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Abhijit J; Darvas, Felix; Bading, James R; Moats, Rex A; Conti, Peter S; Smith, Desmond J; Cherry, Simon R; Leahy, Richard M

    2005-01-01

    For bioluminescence imaging studies in small animals, it is important to be able to accurately localize the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the underlying bioluminescent source. The spectrum of light produced by the source that escapes the subject varies with the depth of the emission source because of the wavelength-dependence of the optical properties of tissue. Consequently, multispectral or hyperspectral data acquisition should help in the 3D localization of deep sources. In this paper, we describe a framework for fully 3D bioluminescence tomographic image acquisition and reconstruction that exploits spectral information. We describe regularized tomographic reconstruction techniques that use semi-infinite slab or FEM-based diffusion approximations of photon transport through turbid media. Singular value decomposition analysis was used for data dimensionality reduction and to illustrate the advantage of using hyperspectral rather than achromatic data. Simulation studies in an atlas-mouse geometry indicated that sub-millimeter resolution may be attainable given accurate knowledge of the optical properties of the animal. A fixed arrangement of mirrors and a single CCD camera were used for simultaneous acquisition of multispectral imaging data over most of the surface of the animal. Phantom studies conducted using this system demonstrated our ability to accurately localize deep point-like sources and show that a resolution of 1.5 to 2.2 mm for depths up to 6 mm can be achieved. We also include an in vivo study of a mouse with a brain tumour expressing firefly luciferase. Co-registration of the reconstructed 3D bioluminescent image with magnetic resonance images indicated good anatomical localization of the tumour

  6. Optical motion detection using image partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, K.R.; Stalker, K.T.; McCarthy, A.E.

    1976-08-01

    An optical system for surveillance or intrusion detection, based upon image partitioning, is proposed. The scene of interest is imaged onto a checkerboard pattern of transmissive and reflective areas and the transmitted and reflected light components are measured by detectors. Changes in the scene disturb the light balance and can cause an alarm indication. Several system configurations are proposed. Measurements and computer simulations are used to determine the operating characteristics of the several configurations. Depth of focus problems at the patterned reflector is the primary concern. Noise considerations determine the theoretical limitation of system performance and are analyzed in some detail. Indications are that, under good scene radiance conditions, a change in the scene of approximately one part in 10 3 is detectable with a signal-to-noise ratio sufficient for a false alarm rate of one every few months

  7. Brain MR image segmentation using NAMS in pseudo-color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Chen, Chuanbo; Fang, Shaohong; Zhao, Shengrong

    2017-12-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in various biomedical applications. In general, the segmentation of brain Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is mainly used to represent the image with several homogeneous regions instead of pixels for surgical analyzing and planning. This paper proposes a new approach for segmenting MR brain images by using pseudo-color based segmentation with Non-symmetry and Anti-packing Model with Squares (NAMS). First of all, the NAMS model is presented. The model can represent the image with sub-patterns to keep the image content and largely reduce the data redundancy. Second, the key idea is proposed that convert the original gray-scale brain MR image into a pseudo-colored image and then segment the pseudo-colored image with NAMS model. The pseudo-colored image can enhance the color contrast in different tissues in brain MR images, which can improve the precision of segmentation as well as directly visual perceptional distinction. Experimental results indicate that compared with other brain MR image segmentation methods, the proposed NAMS based pseudo-color segmentation method performs more excellent in not only segmenting precisely but also saving storage.

  8. Metasurface optics for full-color computational imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Shane; Zhan, Alan; Majumdar, Arka

    2018-02-01

    Conventional imaging systems comprise large and expensive optical components that successively mitigate aberrations. Metasurface optics offers a route to miniaturize imaging systems by replacing bulky components with flat and compact implementations. The diffractive nature of these devices, however, induces severe chromatic aberrations, and current multiwavelength and narrowband achromatic metasurfaces cannot support full visible spectrum imaging (400 to 700 nm). We combine principles of both computational imaging and metasurface optics to build a system with a single metalens of numerical aperture ~0.45, which generates in-focus images under white light illumination. Our metalens exhibits a spectrally invariant point spread function that enables computational reconstruction of captured images with a single digital filter. This work connects computational imaging and metasurface optics and demonstrates the capabilities of combining these disciplines by simultaneously reducing aberrations and downsizing imaging systems using simpler optics.

  9. Hyperspectral imaging solutions for brain tissue metabolic and hemodynamic monitoring: past, current and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Luca; Lange, Frédéric; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technologies have been used extensively in medical research, targeting various biological phenomena and multiple tissue types. Their high spectral resolution over a wide range of wavelengths enables acquisition of spatial information corresponding to different light-interacting biological compounds. This review focuses on the application of HSI to monitor brain tissue metabolism and hemodynamics in life sciences. Different approaches involving HSI have been investigated to assess and quantify cerebral activity, mainly focusing on: (1) mapping tissue oxygen delivery through measurement of changes in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin; and (2) the assessment of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) to estimate oxygen consumption by brain tissue. Finally, we introduce future perspectives of HSI of brain metabolism, including its potential use for imaging optical signals from molecules directly involved in cellular energy production. HSI solutions can provide remarkable insight in understanding cerebral tissue metabolism and oxygenation, aiding investigation on brain tissue physiological processes.

  10. Non-linear optical imaging – Introduction and pharmaceutical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fussell, A.L.; Isomaki, Antti; Strachan, Clare J.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging is an emerging technology with much potential in pharmaceutical analysis. The technique encompasses a range of optical phenomena, including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG), and twophoton excited fluorescence (TPEF). The

  11. Imaging brain activity during seizures in freely behaving rats using a miniature multi-modal imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Iliya; Koletar, Margaret M; Ringuette, Dene; Gad, Raanan; Jeffrey, Melanie; Carlen, Peter L; Stefanovic, Bojana; Levi, Ofer

    2016-09-01

    We report on a miniature label-free imaging system for monitoring brain blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in awake, freely behaving rats. The device, weighing 15 grams, enables imaging in a ∼ 2 × 2 mm field of view with 4.4 μm lateral resolution and 1 - 8 Hz temporal sampling rate. The imaging is performed through a chronically-implanted cranial window that remains optically clear between 2 to > 6 weeks after the craniotomy. This imaging method is well suited for longitudinal studies of chronic models of brain diseases and disorders. In this work, it is applied to monitoring neurovascular coupling during drug-induced absence-like seizures 6 weeks following the craniotomy.

  12. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    R. V. Anitropov; P. Benitez; I. L. Livshits S. K. Stafeev; S. K. Stafeev; V. N. Vasilev; M. V. Letunovskaya; A. S. Zaitceva

    2016-01-01

    Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures ...

  13. Recent Developments in Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Manoukian, Martin A.C.; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has come to be known as a unique radiological imaging modality because of its ability to perform tomographic imaging of body without the use of any harmful ionizing radiation. The radiologists use MRI to gain insight into the anatomy of organs, including the brain, while biomedical researchers explore the modality to gain better understanding of the brain structure and function. However, due to limited resolution and contrast, the conventional MRI fails to sho...

  14. Imaging method of brain surface anatomy structures using conventional T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Masahiko; Machida, Yoshio; Yoshida, Tadatoki; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    As a non-invasive technique for visualizing the brain surface structure by MRI, surface anatomy scanning (SAS) and the multislice SAS methods have been developed. Both techniques require additional MRI scanning to obtain images for the brain surface. In this paper, we report an alternative method to obtain the brain surface image using conventional T2-weighted multislice images without any additional scanning. The power calculation of the image pixel values, which is incorporated in the routine processing, has been applied in order to enhance the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contrast. We think that this method is one of practical approaches for imaging the surface anatomy of the brain. (author)

  15. Habitable Exoplanet Imager Optical Telescope Concept Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is one of four missions under study for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Its goal is to directly image and spectroscopically characterize planetary systems in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Additionally, HabEx will perform a broad range of general astrophysics science enabled by 100 to 2500 nm spectral range and 3 x 3 arc-minute FOV. Critical to achieving the HabEx science goals is a large, ultra-stable UV/Optical/Near-IR (UVOIR) telescope. The baseline HabEx telescope is a 4-meter off-axis unobscured three-mirror-anastigmatic, diffraction limited at 400 nm with wavefront stability on the order of a few 10s of picometers. This paper summarizes the opto-mechanical design of the HabEx baseline optical telescope assembly, including a discussion of how science requirements drive the telescope's specifications, and presents analysis that the baseline telescope structure meets its specified tolerances.

  16. Habitable exoplanet imager optical telescope concept design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2017-09-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is one of four missions under study for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Its goal is to directly image and spectroscopically characterize planetary systems in the habitable zone of Sunlike stars. Additionally, HabEx will perform a broad range of general astrophysics science enabled by 100 to 2500 nm spectral range and 3 x 3 arc-minute FOV. Critical to achieving the HabEx science goals is a large, ultra-stable UV/Optical/Near-IR (UVOIR) telescope. The baseline HabEx telescope is a 4-meter off-axis unobscured three-mirroranastigmatic, diffraction limited at 400 nm with wavefront stability on the order of a few 10s of picometers. This paper summarizes the opto-mechanical design of the HabEx baseline optical telescope assembly, including a discussion of how science requirements drive the telescope's specifications, and presents analysis that the baseline telescope structure meets its specified tolerances.

  17. Wide-field optical mapping of neural activity and brain haemodynamics: considerations and novel approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Kozberg, Mariel G.; Thibodeaux, David N.; Zhao, Hanzhi T.; Yu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Although modern techniques such as two-photon microscopy can now provide cellular-level three-dimensional imaging of the intact living brain, the speed and fields of view of these techniques remain limited. Conversely, two-dimensional wide-field optical mapping (WFOM), a simpler technique that uses a camera to observe large areas of the exposed cortex under visible light, can detect changes in both neural activity and haemodynamics at very high speeds. Although WFOM may not provide single-neuron or capillary-level resolution, it is an attractive and accessible approach to imaging large areas of the brain in awake, behaving mammals at speeds fast enough to observe widespread neural firing events, as well as their dynamic coupling to haemodynamics. Although such wide-field optical imaging techniques have a long history, the advent of genetically encoded fluorophores that can report neural activity with high sensitivity, as well as modern technologies such as light emitting diodes and sensitive and high-speed digital cameras have driven renewed interest in WFOM. To facilitate the wider adoption and standardization of WFOM approaches for neuroscience and neurovascular coupling research, we provide here an overview of the basic principles of WFOM, considerations for implementation of wide-field fluorescence imaging of neural activity, spectroscopic analysis and interpretation of results. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574312

  18. Wide-field optical mapping of neural activity and brain haemodynamics: considerations and novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A; Kim, Sharon H; Kozberg, Mariel G; Thibodeaux, David N; Zhao, Hanzhi T; Yu, Hang; Hillman, Elizabeth M C

    2016-10-05

    Although modern techniques such as two-photon microscopy can now provide cellular-level three-dimensional imaging of the intact living brain, the speed and fields of view of these techniques remain limited. Conversely, two-dimensional wide-field optical mapping (WFOM), a simpler technique that uses a camera to observe large areas of the exposed cortex under visible light, can detect changes in both neural activity and haemodynamics at very high speeds. Although WFOM may not provide single-neuron or capillary-level resolution, it is an attractive and accessible approach to imaging large areas of the brain in awake, behaving mammals at speeds fast enough to observe widespread neural firing events, as well as their dynamic coupling to haemodynamics. Although such wide-field optical imaging techniques have a long history, the advent of genetically encoded fluorophores that can report neural activity with high sensitivity, as well as modern technologies such as light emitting diodes and sensitive and high-speed digital cameras have driven renewed interest in WFOM. To facilitate the wider adoption and standardization of WFOM approaches for neuroscience and neurovascular coupling research, we provide here an overview of the basic principles of WFOM, considerations for implementation of wide-field fluorescence imaging of neural activity, spectroscopic analysis and interpretation of results.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. The role of image registration in brain mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toga, A.W.; Thompson, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Image registration is a key step in a great variety of biomedical imaging applications. It provides the ability to geometrically align one dataset with another, and is a prerequisite for all imaging applications that compare datasets across subjects, imaging modalities, or across time. Registration algorithms also enable the pooling and comparison of experimental findings across laboratories, the construction of population-based brain atlases, and the creation of systems to detect group patterns in structural and functional imaging data. We review the major types of registration approaches used in brain imaging today. We focus on their conceptual basis, the underlying mathematics, and their strengths and weaknesses in different contexts. We describe the major goals of registration, including data fusion, quantification of change, automated image segmentation and labeling, shape measurement, and pathology detection. We indicate that registration algorithms have great potential when used in conjunction with a digital brain atlas, which acts as a reference system in which brain images can be compared for statistical analysis. The resulting armory of registration approaches is fundamental to medical image analysis, and in a brain mapping context provides a means to elucidate clinical, demographic, or functional trends in the anatomy or physiology of the brain. PMID:19890483

  20. Brain morphology imaging by 3D microscopy and fluorescent Nissl staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutkin, A A; Komissarova, N V; Toptunov, D M; Anokhin, K V

    2013-07-01

    Modern optical methods (multiphoton and light-sheet fluorescent microscopy) allow 3D imaging of large specimens of the brain with cell resolution. It is therefore essential to refer the resultant 3D pictures of expression of transgene, protein, and other markers in the brain to the corresponding structures in the atlas. This implies counterstaining of specimens with morphological dyes. However, there are no methods for contrasting large samples of the brain without their preliminary slicing. We have developed a method for fluorescent Nissl staining of whole brain samples. 3D reconstructions of specimens of the hippocampus, olfactory bulbs, and cortex were created. The method can be used for morphological control and evaluation of the effects of various factors on the brain using 3D microscopy technique.

  1. Diffusion imaging and tractography of congenital brain malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, Michael; Barkovich, A.J.; Mukherjee, Pratik

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion imaging is an MRI modality that measures the microscopic molecular motion of water in order to investigate white matter microstructure. The modality has been used extensively in recent years to investigate the neuroanatomical basis of congenital brain malformations. We review the basic principles of diffusion imaging and of specific techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). We show how DTI and HARDI, and their application to fiber tractography, has elucidated the aberrant connectivity underlying a number of congenital brain malformations. Finally, we discuss potential uses for diffusion imaging of developmental disorders in the clinical and research realms. (orig.)

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of higher brain activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui He; Wang Yunjiu; Chen Runsheng; Tang Xiaowei.

    1996-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs) exhibit small differences in the magnetic resonance signal intensity in positions corresponding to focal areas of brain activation. These signal are caused by variation in the oxygenation state of the venous vasculature. Using this non-invasive and dynamic method, it is possible to localize functional brain activation, in vivo, in normal individuals, with an accuracy of millimeters and a temporal resolution of seconds. Though a series of technical difficulties remain, fMRI is increasingly becoming a key method for visualizing the working brain, and uncovering the topographical organization of the human brain, and understanding the relationship between brain and the mind

  3. Application of Thinned-Skull Cranial Window to Mouse Cerebral Blood Flow Imaging Using Optical Microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo imaging of mouse brain vasculature typically requires applying skull window opening techniques: open-skull cranial window or thinned-skull cranial window. We report non-invasive 3D in vivo cerebral blood flow imaging of C57/BL mouse by the use of ultra-high sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) and Doppler optical microangiography (DOMAG) techniques to evaluate two cranial window types based on their procedures and ability to visualize surface pial vessel dynamics. Application of the thinned-skull technique is found to be effective in achieving high quality images for pial vessels for short-term imaging, and has advantages over the open-skull technique in available imaging area, surgical efficiency, and cerebral environment preservation. In summary, thinned-skull cranial window serves as a promising tool in studying hemodynamics in pial microvasculature using OMAG or other OCT blood flow imaging modalities. PMID:25426632

  4. Fuzzy object models for newborn brain MR image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Syoji; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2013-03-01

    Newborn brain MR image segmentation is a challenging problem because of variety of size, shape and MR signal although it is the fundamental study for quantitative radiology in brain MR images. Because of the large difference between the adult brain and the newborn brain, it is difficult to directly apply the conventional methods for the newborn brain. Inspired by the original fuzzy object model introduced by Udupa et al. at SPIE Medical Imaging 2011, called fuzzy shape object model (FSOM) here, this paper introduces fuzzy intensity object model (FIOM), and proposes a new image segmentation method which combines the FSOM and FIOM into fuzzy connected (FC) image segmentation. The fuzzy object models are built from training datasets in which the cerebral parenchyma is delineated by experts. After registering FSOM with the evaluating image, the proposed method roughly recognizes the cerebral parenchyma region based on a prior knowledge of location, shape, and the MR signal given by the registered FSOM and FIOM. Then, FC image segmentation delineates the cerebral parenchyma using the fuzzy object models. The proposed method has been evaluated using 9 newborn brain MR images using the leave-one-out strategy. The revised age was between -1 and 2 months. Quantitative evaluation using false positive volume fraction (FPVF) and false negative volume fraction (FNVF) has been conducted. Using the evaluation data, a FPVF of 0.75% and FNVF of 3.75% were achieved. More data collection and testing are underway.

  5. Clinical evaluation of FMPSPGR sequence of the brain MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mitsuyuki; Hasegawa, Makoto; Mori, Naohiko; Yamanoguchi, Minoru; Matsubara, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    In order to apply the FMPSPGR (fast multi planar spoiled GRASS) method to diagnose brain diseases, authors obtained the optimal condition for imaging by the phantom experiments and examined the clinical usefulness. Six kinds of the phantom, which were 4 of diluted Gd solution with different concentrations, olive oil and physiological saline solution were used. From the phantom experiments, TR/TE/FR=300/3.3/90 degrees was the optimal condition. The evaluation of the clinical images was performed on the same section by the ST method and the FMPSPGR method. Fifteen patients (9 men and 6 women, aged from 17 to 80 years) suspected of brain diseases were examined, including 8 of cerebral infarction, 1 of pontine infarction, 1 of brain contusion, 1 of intracerebral bleeding and 4 of brain tumors. Four cases of brain tumor were evaluated on the contrast imaging and the others were on the plain imaging. In the plain imaging, the FMPSPGR method was better than the SE method on the low signal region in the T1 weighted imaging. Furthermore, in the contrast imaging, it could give more clear images of the lesion in anterior cranial pit by suppressing artifacts of blood flow. The present results indicate that the FMPSPGR method is useful to diagnose brain diseases. (K.H.)

  6. The brain's dress code: How The Dress allows to decode the neuronal pathway of an optical illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaffke, Lara; Golisch, Anne; Haag, Lauren M; Lenz, Melanie; Heba, Stefanie; Lissek, Silke; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Eysel, Ulf T; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Optical illusions have broadened our understanding of the brain's role in visual perception. A modern day optical illusion emerged from a posted photo of a striped dress, which some perceived as white and gold and others as blue and black. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that those who perceive The Dress as white/gold have higher activation in response to the image of The Dress in brain regions critically involved in higher cognition (frontal and parietal brain areas). These results are consistent with theories of top-down modulation and present a neural signature associated with the differences in perceiving The Dress as white/gold or blue/black. Furthermore the results support recent psychophysiological data on this phenomenon and provide a fundamental building block to study interindividual differences in visual processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  8. Smart optical probes for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of Alzheimer's disease pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Scott B.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Skoch, Jesse; Hills, Ivory D.; Swager, Timothy M.; Nesterov, Evgueni E.

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent probes for amyloid-beta (Aβ) are an exciting option for molecular imaging in Alzheimer's disease research and may translate to clinical diagnostics. However, Aβ-targeted optical probes often suffer from poor specificity and slow clearance from the brain. We are designing smart optical probes that emit characteristic fluorescence signal only when bound to Aβ. We synthesized a family of dyes and tested Aβ-binding sensitivity with fluorescence spectroscopy and tissue-staining. Select compounds exhibited Aβ-dependent changes in fluorescence quantum yield, lifetime, and emission spectra that may be imaged microscopically or in vivo using new lifetime and spectral fluorescence imaging techniques. Smart optical probes that turn on when bound to Aβ will improve amyloid detection and may enable quantitative molecular imaging in vivo. (orig.)

  9. Brain-inspired algorithms for retinal image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar Romeny, B.M.; Bekkers, E.J.; Zhang, J.; Abbasi-Sureshjani, S.; Huang, F.; Duits, R.; Dasht Bozorg, Behdad; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Smit-Ockeloen, I.; Eppenhof, K.A.J.; Feng, J.; Hannink, J.; Schouten, J.; Tong, M.; Wu, H.; van Triest, J.W.; Zhu, S.; Chen, D.; He, W.; Xu, L.; Han, P.; Kang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Retinal image analysis is a challenging problem due to the precise quantification required and the huge numbers of images produced in screening programs. This paper describes a series of innovative brain-inspired algorithms for automated retinal image analysis, recently developed for the RetinaCheck

  10. Optical coherence tomography in anterior segment imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev-Landoy, Maya; Day, Alexander C.; Cordeiro, M. Francesca; Migdal, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT), designed primarily to image the posterior segment, to visualize the anterior chamber angle (ACA) in patients with different angle configurations. Methods In a prospective observational study, the anterior segments of 26 eyes of 26 patients were imaged using the Zeiss Stratus OCT, model 3000. Imaging of the anterior segment was achieved by adjusting the focusing control on the Stratus OCT. A total of 16 patients had abnormal angle configurations including narrow or closed angles and plateau irides, and 10 had normal angle configurations as determined by prior full ophthalmic examination, including slit-lamp biomicroscopy and gonioscopy. Results In all cases, OCT provided high-resolution information regarding iris configuration. The ACA itself was clearly visualized in patients with narrow or closed angles, but not in patients with open angles. Conclusions Stratus OCT offers a non-contact, convenient and rapid method of assessing the configuration of the anterior chamber. Despite its limitations, it may be of help during the routine clinical assessment and treatment of patients with glaucoma, particularly when gonioscopy is not possible or difficult to interpret. PMID:17355288

  11. Possible existence of optical communication channels in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sourabh; Boone, Kristine; Tuszyński, Jack; Barclay, Paul; Simon, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Given that many fundamental questions in neuroscience are still open, it seems pertinent to explore whether the brain might use other physical modalities than the ones that have been discovered so far. In particular it is well established that neurons can emit photons, which prompts the question whether these biophotons could serve as signals between neurons, in addition to the well-known electro-chemical signals. For such communication to be targeted, the photons would need to travel in waveguides. Here we show, based on detailed theoretical modeling, that myelinated axons could serve as photonic waveguides, taking into account realistic optical imperfections. We propose experiments, both in vivo and in vitro, to test our hypothesis. We discuss the implications of our results, including the question whether photons could mediate long-range quantum entanglement in the brain.

  12. Mechanism of Chronic Pain in Rodent Brain Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Ching

    Chronic pain is a significant health problem that greatly impacts the quality of life of individuals and imparts high costs to society. Despite intense research effort in understanding of the mechanism of pain, chronic pain remains a clinical problem that has few effective therapies. The advent of human brain imaging research in recent years has changed the way that chronic pain is viewed. To further extend the use of human brain imaging techniques for better therapies, the adoption of imaging technique onto the animal pain models is essential, in which underlying brain mechanisms can be systematically studied using various combination of imaging and invasive techniques. The general goal of this thesis is to addresses how brain develops and maintains chronic pain in an animal model using fMRI. We demonstrate that nucleus accumbens, the central component of mesolimbic circuitry, is essential in development of chronic pain. To advance our imaging technique, we develop an innovative methodology to carry out fMRI in awake, conscious rat. Using this cutting-edge technique, we show that allodynia is assoicated with shift brain response toward neural circuits associated nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex that regulate affective and cognitive component of pain. Taken together, this thesis provides a deeper understanding of how brain mediates pain. It builds on the existing body of knowledge through maximizing the depth of insight into brain imaging of chronic pain.

  13. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  14. Can preoperative MR imaging predict optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Eo, Hong; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, So-Young; Jeon, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of pre-operative MRI for the detection of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were waived for this retrospective study. A total of 41 patients were included. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven retinoblastoma, availability of diagnostic-quality preoperative MR images acquired during the 4 weeks before surgery, unilateral retinoblastoma, and normal-sized optic nerve. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images independently. Five imaging findings (diffuse mild optic nerve enhancement, focal strong optic nerve enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, tumor location, and tumor size) were evaluated against optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma. The predictive performance of all MR imaging findings for optic nerve invasion was also evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Optic nerve invasion was histopathologically confirmed in 24% of study population (10/41). The differences in diffuse mild enhancement, focal strong enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, and tumor location between patients with optic nerve invasion and patients without optic nerve invasion were not significant. Tumor sizes were 16.1 mm (SD: 2.2 mm) and 14.9 mm (SD: 3.6 mm) in patients with and without optic nerve involvement, respectively (P = 0.444). P-Values from binary logistic regression indicated that all five imaging findings were not significant predictors of tumor invasion of optic nerve. The AUC values of all MR imaging findings for the prediction of optic nerve invasion were 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.499–0.879) and 0.653 (95% confidence interval: 0.445–0.861) for observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of MRI in patients with normal-sized optic nerves have limited usefulness in preoperatively predicting the presence of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma.

  15. Can preoperative MR imaging predict optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyoung Doo, E-mail: kdsong0308@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Hong, E-mail: rtombow@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye, E-mail: jhkate.kim@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, So-Young, E-mail: sy1131.yoo@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Tae Yeon, E-mail: hathor97.jeon@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of pre-operative MRI for the detection of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were waived for this retrospective study. A total of 41 patients were included. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven retinoblastoma, availability of diagnostic-quality preoperative MR images acquired during the 4 weeks before surgery, unilateral retinoblastoma, and normal-sized optic nerve. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images independently. Five imaging findings (diffuse mild optic nerve enhancement, focal strong optic nerve enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, tumor location, and tumor size) were evaluated against optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma. The predictive performance of all MR imaging findings for optic nerve invasion was also evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Optic nerve invasion was histopathologically confirmed in 24% of study population (10/41). The differences in diffuse mild enhancement, focal strong enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, and tumor location between patients with optic nerve invasion and patients without optic nerve invasion were not significant. Tumor sizes were 16.1 mm (SD: 2.2 mm) and 14.9 mm (SD: 3.6 mm) in patients with and without optic nerve involvement, respectively (P = 0.444). P-Values from binary logistic regression indicated that all five imaging findings were not significant predictors of tumor invasion of optic nerve. The AUC values of all MR imaging findings for the prediction of optic nerve invasion were 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.499–0.879) and 0.653 (95% confidence interval: 0.445–0.861) for observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of MRI in patients with normal-sized optic nerves have limited usefulness in preoperatively predicting the presence of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma.

  16. [Brain imaging in autism spectrum disorders. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziobek, I; Köhne, S

    2011-05-01

    In the past two decades, an increasing number of functional and structural brain imaging studies has provided insights into the neurobiological basis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This article summarizes pertinent functional brain imaging studies addressing the neuronal underpinnings of ASD symptomatology (impairments in social interaction and communication, repetitive and restrictive behavior) and associated neuropsychological deficits (theory of mind, executive functions, central coherence), complemented by relevant structural imaging findings. The results of these studies show that although cognitive functions in ASD are generally mediated by the same brain regions as in typically developed individuals, the degree and especially the patterns of brain activation often differ. Therefore, a hypothesis of aberrant network connectivity has increasingly been favored over one of focal brain dysfunction.

  17. Contrast enhancement in EIT imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissinen, A; Kaipio, J P; Vauhkonen, M; Kolehmainen, V

    2016-01-01

    We consider electrical impedance tomography (EIT) imaging of the brain. The brain is surrounded by the poorly conducting skull which has low conductivity compared to the brain. The skull layer causes a partial shielding effect which leads to weak sensitivity for the imaging of the brain tissue. In this paper we propose an approach based on the Bayesian approximation error approach, to enhance the contrast in brain imaging. With this approach, both the (uninteresting) geometry and the conductivity of the skull are embedded in the approximation error statistics, which leads to a computationally efficient algorithm that is able to detect features such as internal haemorrhage with significantly increased sensitivity and specificity. We evaluate the approach with simulations and phantom data. (paper)

  18. Contrast enhancement in EIT imaging of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissinen, A; Kaipio, J P; Vauhkonen, M; Kolehmainen, V

    2016-01-01

    We consider electrical impedance tomography (EIT) imaging of the brain. The brain is surrounded by the poorly conducting skull which has low conductivity compared to the brain. The skull layer causes a partial shielding effect which leads to weak sensitivity for the imaging of the brain tissue. In this paper we propose an approach based on the Bayesian approximation error approach, to enhance the contrast in brain imaging. With this approach, both the (uninteresting) geometry and the conductivity of the skull are embedded in the approximation error statistics, which leads to a computationally efficient algorithm that is able to detect features such as internal haemorrhage with significantly increased sensitivity and specificity. We evaluate the approach with simulations and phantom data.

  19. Adaptive optics imaging of inherited retinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Michalis; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Patterson, Emily J; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-11-15

    Adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopy allows for non-invasive retinal phenotyping on a microscopic scale, thereby helping to improve our understanding of retinal diseases. An increasing number of natural history studies and ongoing/planned interventional clinical trials exploit AO ophthalmoscopy both for participant selection, stratification and monitoring treatment safety and efficacy. In this review, we briefly discuss the evolution of AO ophthalmoscopy, recent developments and its application to a broad range of inherited retinal diseases, including Stargardt disease, retinitis pigmentosa and achromatopsia. Finally, we describe the impact of this in vivo microscopic imaging on our understanding of disease pathogenesis, clinical trial design and outcome metrics, while recognising the limitation of the small cohorts reported to date. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Reconstruction of Optical Thickness from Hoffman Modulation Contrast Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Holm; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2003-01-01

    Hoffman microscopy imaging systems are part of numerous fertility clinics world-wide. We discuss the physics of the Hoffman imaging system from optical thickness to image intensity, implement a simple, yet fast, reconstruction algorithm using Fast Fourier Transformation and discuss the usability...... of the method on a number of cells from a human embryo. Novelty is identifying the non-linearity of a typical Hoffman imaging system, and the application of Fourier Transformation to reconstruct the optical thickness....

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging of brain in relapsing neuromyelitis optica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chunshui; Li Kuncheng; Qin Wen; Lin Fuchun; Jiang Tianzi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presence of occult brain tissue damage in patients with relapsing neuromyelitis optica (RNMO) and its possible mechanism by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: DTI scans were performed in 16 patients with RNMO and 16 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Histogram analysis of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was performed in brain tissue (BT), white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) to detect the presence of occult brain tissue damage in RNMO patients. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of MD and FA was also performed in 6 dedicated regions with or without direct connection with spinal cord or optic nerve to determine the relationship between occult brain tissue damage and the damage of spinal cord and optic nerve. Results Patients with RNMO had a significantly higher average MD of the BT [RNMO (0.95 ± 0.02) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.91 ± 0.03) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=3.940, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls(0.80 ± 0.02) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=3.117, P=0.004] an.d GM [RNMO (1.06 ± 0.04) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.88 ± 0.05) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=4.031, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.81 ± 0.02) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=4.373, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls (1.11 ± 0.10) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=4.260, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.87 ± 0.05) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t4.391, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.72 ± O.01) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=4.683, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.82+0.03) x 10-3 mm2/s, t = 4. 619, P -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.73±0.03) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t =2.804, P=0.009 and splenium of corpus callosum: RNMO(0.77 ± 0.05) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, controls (0.73 ± 0.04) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, t=2.234, P=0.033] and FA [genu of corpus callosum: RNMO 0.82± 0.03 ,controls 0.82 ± 0.03, t=0.196, P=0.846 and splenium of corpus caltosum: RNMO 0.83±0.03, controls 0.83 ± 0.02, t=0.333, P=0.741] between RNMO patients and controls. Conclusion: RNMO patients have occult brain tissue damage, which might be related to the antegrade and retrograde degeneration secondary to lesions in

  2. Differential diagnostic value of diffusion weighted imaging on brain abscess and necrotic or cystic brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoya; Yin Jie; Wang Kunpeng; Zhang Jiandang; Liang Biling

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)on brain abscess and necrotic or cystic brain tumors. Methods: 27 cases with brain abscesses and 33 cases with necrotic or cystic brain tumors (gliomas or metastases) were performed conventional MRI and DWI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of region of interest (ROI) was measured and statistically tested. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and compared with conventional MR and DWI. Results: Hyperintensity signal was seen on most brain abscesses. All necrotic or cystic brain tumors showed hypointensity signal on DWI. There was statistical significance on ADC of them. The sensitivity and specificity of conventional MRI was lower than that of DWI. Conclusion: DWI and ADC were useful in distinguishing brain abscessed from necrotic or cystic brain tumors, which was important in addition to conventional MRI. (authors)

  3. Imaging of brain tumors with histological correlations. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevelegas, Antonios (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    This volume provides a deeper understanding of the diagnosis of brain tumors by correlating radiographic imaging features with the underlying pathological abnormalities. All modern imaging modalities are used to complete a diagnostic overview of brain tumors with emphasis on recent advances in diagnostic neuroradiology. High-quality illustrations depicting common and uncommon imaging characteristics of a wide range of brain tumors are presented and analysed, drawing attention to the ways in which these characteristics reflect different aspects of pathology. Important theoretical considerations are also discussed. Since the first edition, chapters have been revised and updated and new material has been added, including detailed information on the clinical application of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Radiologists and other clinicians interested in the current diagnostic approach to brain tumors will find this book to be an invaluable and enlightening clinical tool. (orig.)

  4. Imaging of brain function based on the analysis of functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This Study observed the relevant brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong acupoint (LR3) and analyzed the functional connectivity among brain areas using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the acupoint specificity of the Taichong acupoint. Methods: A total of 45 ...

  5. Structural brain imaging in diabetes : A methodological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, Cynthia; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2008-01-01

    Brain imaging provides information on brain anatomy and function and progression of cerebral abnormalities can be monitored. This may provide insight into the aetiology of diabetes related cerebral disorders. This paper focuses on the methods for the assessment of white matter hyperintensities and

  6. Wavelet-domain de-noising of OCT images of human brain malignant glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolganova, I. N.; Aleksandrova, P. V.; Beshplav, S.-I. T.; Chernomyrdin, N. V.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Goryaynov, S. A.; Kurlov, V. N.; Reshetov, I. V.; Potapov, A. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Zaytsev, K. I.

    2018-04-01

    We have proposed a wavelet-domain de-noising technique for imaging of human brain malignant glioma by optical coherence tomography (OCT). It implies OCT image decomposition using the direct fast wavelet transform, thresholding of the obtained wavelet spectrum and further inverse fast wavelet transform for image reconstruction. By selecting both wavelet basis and thresholding procedure, we have found an optimal wavelet filter, which application improves differentiation of the considered brain tissue classes - i.e. malignant glioma and normal/intact tissue. Namely, it allows reducing the scattering noise in the OCT images and retaining signal decrement for each tissue class. Therefore, the observed results reveals the wavelet-domain de-noising as a prospective tool for improved characterization of biological tissue using the OCT.

  7. Optical coherence tomography imaging of the basal ganglia: feasibility and brief review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, W. O. Contreras; Ângelos, J. S. [Divisão de Neurocirurgia Funcional, Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martinez, R. C. R. [Laboratório de Neuromodulação e Dor Experimental, Hospital Sírio-Libanes, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takimura, C. K. [Instituto do Coração, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teixeira, M. J. [Divisão de Neurocirurgia Funcional, Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lemos, P. A. Neto [Instituto do Coração, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonoff, E. T., E-mail: fonoffet@usp.br [Divisão de Neurocirurgia Funcional, Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-29

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising medical imaging technique that uses light to capture real-time cross-sectional images from biological tissues in micrometer resolution. Commercially available optical coherence tomography systems are employed in diverse applications, including art conservation and diagnostic medicine, notably in cardiology and ophthalmology. Application of this technology in the brain may enable distinction between white matter and gray matter, and obtainment of detailed images from within the encephalon. We present, herein, the in vivo implementation of OCT imaging in the rat brain striatum. For this, two male 60-day-old rats (Rattus norvegicus, Albinus variation, Wistar) were stereotactically implanted with guide cannulas into the striatum to guide a 2.7-French diameter high-definition OCT imaging catheter (Dragonfly™, St. Jude Medical, USA). Obtained images were compared with corresponding histologically stained sections to collect imaging samples. A brief analysis of OCT technology and its current applications is also reported, as well as intra-cerebral OCT feasibility on brain mapping during neurosurgical procedures.

  8. Novel radioiodinated sibutramine and fluoxetine as models for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motaleb, M.A.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Rashed, H.M.; Abd El-Bary, A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain imaging is a process which allows scientists and physicians to view and monitor the areas of the brain which allow diagnosis and following up different abnormalities in the brain. The aim of this study was to develop potential radiopharmaceuticals for the non-invasive brain imaging. Sibutramine and fluoxetine (two drugs that have the ability to cross blood-brain barrier) were successfully labeled with 125 I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction at ambient temperature. The reaction parameters studied were substrate concentration, oxidizing agent concentration, pH of the reaction mixture, reaction temperature, reaction time and in vitro stability of the iodocompounds. The iodocompounds gave maximum labeling yield of 92 ± 2.77 and 93 ± 2.1%, respectively, and maintained stability throughout working period (24 h). Biodistribution studies showed that maximum in vivo uptake of the iodocompounds in the brain was 5.7 ± 0.19 and 6.14 ± 0.26% injected activity/g tissue organ, respectively, at 15 and 5 min post-injection, whereas the clearance from the mice appeared to proceed via the hepatobiliary pathway. Brain uptake of 125 I-sibutramine and 125 I-fluoxetine is higher than that of 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-HMPAO (currently used radiopharmaceuticals for brain imaging) and so radioiodinated sibutramine and fluoxetine could be used instead of 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-HMPAO for brain SPECT. (author)

  9. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Mechalakos, James [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Wei, Jie [Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Sullivan, James [Pulmonary Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔV{sub torso} = ΔV{sub thorax} + ΔV{sub abdomen}) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BP{sub v} = ΔV{sub thorax}/ΔV{sub torso}) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume

  10. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guang; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Mechalakos, James; Wei, Jie; Sullivan, James; Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔV torso = ΔV thorax + ΔV abdomen ) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BP v = ΔV thorax /ΔV torso ) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume differences measured using OSI

  11. The optical-mechanical design of DMD modulation imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianting; Xu, Xiping; Qiao, Yang; Li, Lei; Pan, Yue

    2014-09-01

    In order to avoid the phenomenon of some image information were lost, which is due to the jamming signals, such as incident laser, make the pixels dot on CCD saturated. In this article a device of optical-mechanical structure was designed, which utilized the DMD (Digital Micro mirror Device) to modulate the image. The DMD reflection imaging optical system adopts the telecentric light path. However, because the design is not only required to guarantee a 66° angle between the optical axis of the relay optics and the DMD, but also to ensure that the optical axis of the projection system keeps parallel with the perpendicular bisector of the micro-mirror which is in the "flat" state, so the TIR prism is introduced,and making the relay optics and the DMD satisfy the optical institution's requirements. In this paper, a mechanical structure of the imaging optical system was designed and at the meanwhile the lens assembly has been well connected and fixed and fine-tuned by detailed structural design, which included the tilt decentered lens, wedge flanges, prisms. By optimizing the design, the issues of mutual restraint between the inverting optical system and the projecting system were well resolved, and prevented the blocking of the two systems. In addition, the structure size of the whole DMD reflection imaging optical system was minimized; it reduced the energy loss and ensured the image quality.

  12. Diffusion Weighted Imaging of the Neonatal Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dudink (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAlthough in the last decades advances in fetal and neonatal medicine have reduced mortality in neonatal intensive care units in the Western world, the morbidity due to brain injury remains high. Patterns of neonatal brain injury can be roughly divided in (1) term and (2) preterm

  13. Imaging Freeform Optical Systems Designed with NURBS Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    reflective, anastigmat 1 Introduction The imaging freeform optical systems described here are designed using non-uniform rational basis-spline (NURBS...code, but to succeed in designing NURBS freeform optical systems an optimization code is required. The motivation for developing the optical design

  14. Self-imaging in first-order optical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.; Nijhawan, O.P.; Guota, A.K.; Musla, A.K.; Singh, Kehar

    1998-01-01

    The structure and main properties of coherent and partially coherent optical fields that are self-reproducible under propagation through a first-order optical system are investigated. A phase space description of self-imaging in first-order optical systems is presented. The Wigner distribution

  15. Size of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age at magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Jun; Mori, Kouichi [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Imamura, Masatoshi [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Mizushima, Yukiko [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Tateishi, Ukihide [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    The expected MRI-based dimensions of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates are unknown. To evaluate the sizes of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age using MRI. We retrospectively analyzed brain MRI examinations in 62 infants (28 boys) without intracranial abnormalities. The images were obtained in infants at term-equivalent age with a 1.5-tesla MRI scanner. We measured the widths and heights of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract and calculated the cross-sectional areas using the formula for an ellipse. The means ± standard deviation of the width, height and cross-sectional area of the intracranial optic nerve were 2.7 ± 0.2 mm, 1.7 ± 0.2 mm and 3.5 ± 0.5 mm{sup 2}, respectively. The width, height and cross-sectional area of the optic tract were 1.5 ± 0.1 mm, 1.6 ± 0.1 mm and 2.0 ± 0.2 mm{sup 2}, respectively. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we found that postmenstrual age showed independent intermediate positive correlations with the width (r = 0.48, P < 0.01) and cross-sectional area (r = 0.40, P < 0.01) of the intracranial optic nerve. The lower bounds of the 95% prediction intervals for the width and cross-sectional area of the intracranial optic nerve were 0.07 x (postmenstrual age in weeks) - 0.46 mm, and 0.17 x (postmenstrual age in weeks) - 4.0 mm{sup 2}, respectively. We identified the sizes of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age. The postmenstrual age at MRI independently positively correlated with the sizes. (orig.)

  16. MR image-guided portal verification for brain treatment field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Fangfang; Gao Qinghuai; Xie Huchen; Nelson, Diana F.; Yu Yan; Kwok, W. Edmund; Totterman, Saara; Schell, Michael C.; Rubin, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a method for the generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs directly from MR images (DRR-MRI) to guide a computerized portal verification procedure. Methods and Materials: Several major steps were developed to perform an MR image-guided portal verification procedure. Initially, a wavelet-based multiresolution adaptive thresholding method was used to segment the skin slice-by-slice in MR brain axial images. Some selected anatomical structures, such as target volume and critical organs, were then manually identified and were reassigned to relatively higher intensities. Interslice information was interpolated with a directional method to achieve comparable display resolution in three dimensions. Next, a ray-tracing method was used to generate a DRR-MRI image at the planned treatment position, and the ray tracing was simply performed on summation of voxels along the ray. The skin and its relative positions were also projected to the DRR-MRI and were used to guide the search of similar features in the portal image. A Canny edge detector was used to enhance the brain contour in both portal and simulation images. The skin in the brain portal image was then extracted using a knowledge-based searching technique. Finally, a Chamfer matching technique was used to correlate features between DRR-MRI and portal image. Results: The MR image-guided portal verification method was evaluated using a brain phantom case and a clinical patient case. Both DRR-CT and DRR-MRI were generated using CT and MR phantom images with the same beam orientation and then compared. The matching result indicated that the maximum deviation of internal structures was less than 1 mm. The segmented results for brain MR slice images indicated that a wavelet-based image segmentation technique provided a reasonable estimation for the brain skin. For the clinical patient case with a given portal field, the MR image-guided verification method provided an excellent match between

  17. Do brain image databanks support understanding of normal ageing brain structure? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, David Alexander; Job, Dominic E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Poole, Ian; Ahearn, Trevor S.; Staff, Roger T.; Murray, Alison D.

    2012-01-01

    To document accessible magnetic resonance (MR) brain images, metadata and statistical results from normal older subjects that may be used to improve diagnoses of dementia. We systematically reviewed published brain image databanks (print literature and Internet) concerned with normal ageing brain structure. From nine eligible databanks, there appeared to be 944 normal subjects aged ≥60 years. However, many subjects were in more than one databank and not all were fully representative of normal ageing clinical characteristics. Therefore, there were approximately 343 subjects aged ≥60 years with metadata representative of normal ageing, but only 98 subjects were openly accessible. No databank had the range of MR image sequences, e.g. T2*, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), required to effectively characterise the features of brain ageing. No databank supported random subject retrieval; therefore, manual selection bias and errors may occur in studies that use these subjects as controls. Finally, no databank stored results from statistical analyses of its brain image and metadata that may be validated with analyses of further data. Brain image databanks require open access, more subjects, metadata, MR image sequences, searchability and statistical results to improve understanding of normal ageing brain structure and diagnoses of dementia. (orig.)

  18. The Potential of Using Brain Images for Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanglin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition (also known as biometrics refers to the automated recognition of individuals based on their biological or behavioral traits. Examples of biometric traits include fingerprint, palmprint, iris, and face. The brain is the most important and complex organ in the human body. Can it be used as a biometric trait? In this study, we analyze the uniqueness of the brain and try to use the brain for identity authentication. The proposed brain-based verification system operates in two stages: gray matter extraction and gray matter matching. A modified brain segmentation algorithm is implemented for extracting gray matter from an input brain image. Then, an alignment-based matching algorithm is developed for brain matching. Experimental results on two data sets show that the proposed brain recognition system meets the high accuracy requirement of identity authentication. Though currently the acquisition of the brain is still time consuming and expensive, brain images are highly unique and have the potential possibility for authentication in view of pattern recognition.

  19. Novel optical scanning cryptography using Fresnel telescope imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aimin; Sun, Jianfeng; Hu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Liren

    2015-07-13

    We propose a new method called modified optical scanning cryptography using Fresnel telescope imaging technique for encryption and decryption of remote objects. An image or object can be optically encrypted on the fly by Fresnel telescope scanning system together with an encryption key. For image decryption, the encrypted signals are received and processed with an optical coherent heterodyne detection system. The proposed method has strong performance through use of secure Fresnel telescope scanning with orthogonal polarized beams and efficient all-optical information processing. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experimental results.

  20. Analysis of contour images using optics of spiral beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volostnikov, V. G.; Kishkin, S. A.; Kotova, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    An approach is outlined to the recognition of contour images using computer technology based on coherent optics principles. A mathematical description of the recognition process algorithm and the results of numerical modelling are presented. The developed approach to the recognition of contour images using optics of spiral beams is described and justified.

  1. Changing image of correlation optics: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsky, Oleg V; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Gbur, Gregory J; Hanson, Steen G; Lee, Tim; Miyamoto, Yoko; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Wyant, James C

    2016-04-20

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting recent progress of correlation optics and illustrating current trends in vector singular optics, internal energy flows at light fields, optical science of materials, and new biomedical applications of lasers.

  2. Changing image of correlation optics: introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Gbur, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting recent progress of correlation optics and illustrating current trends in vector singular optics, internal energy flows at light fields, optical science of materials, and new biomedical applications of lasers. (C...

  3. Ballistic and snake photon imaging for locating optical endomicroscopy fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M. G.; Choudhary, T. R.; Craven, T. H.; Mills, B.; Bradley, M.; Henderson, R. K.; Dhaliwal, K.; Thomson, R. R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate determination of the location of the distal-end of a fibre-optic device deep in tissue through the imaging of ballistic and snake photons using a time resolved single-photon detector array. The fibre was imaged with centimetre resolution, within clinically relevant settings and models. This technique can overcome the limitations imposed by tissue scattering in optically determining the in vivo location of fibre-optic medical instruments. PMID:28966848

  4. Robust generative asymmetric GMM for brain MR image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zexuan; Xia, Yong; Zheng, Yuhui

    2017-11-01

    Accurate segmentation of brain tissues from magnetic resonance (MR) images based on the unsupervised statistical models such as Gaussian mixture model (GMM) has been widely studied during last decades. However, most GMM based segmentation methods suffer from limited accuracy due to the influences of noise and intensity inhomogeneity in brain MR images. To further improve the accuracy for brain MR image segmentation, this paper presents a Robust Generative Asymmetric GMM (RGAGMM) for simultaneous brain MR image segmentation and intensity inhomogeneity correction. First, we develop an asymmetric distribution to fit the data shapes, and thus construct a spatial constrained asymmetric model. Then, we incorporate two pseudo-likelihood quantities and bias field estimation into the model's log-likelihood, aiming to exploit the neighboring priors of within-cluster and between-cluster and to alleviate the impact of intensity inhomogeneity, respectively. Finally, an expectation maximization algorithm is derived to iteratively maximize the approximation of the data log-likelihood function to overcome the intensity inhomogeneity in the image and segment the brain MR images simultaneously. To demonstrate the performances of the proposed algorithm, we first applied the proposed algorithm to a synthetic brain MR image to show the intermediate illustrations and the estimated distribution of the proposed algorithm. The next group of experiments is carried out in clinical 3T-weighted brain MR images which contain quite serious intensity inhomogeneity and noise. Then we quantitatively compare our algorithm to state-of-the-art segmentation approaches by using Dice coefficient (DC) on benchmark images obtained from IBSR and BrainWeb with different level of noise and intensity inhomogeneity. The comparison results on various brain MR images demonstrate the superior performances of the proposed algorithm in dealing with the noise and intensity inhomogeneity. In this paper, the RGAGMM

  5. In vivo calcium imaging of the aging and diseased brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhoff, Gerhard; Busche, Marc A.; Garaschuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, in vivo calcium imaging became a powerful tool for studying brain function. With the use of two-photon microscopy and modern labelling techniques, it allows functional studies of individual living cells, their processes and their interactions within neuronal networks. In vivo calcium imaging is even more important for studying the aged brain, which is hard to investigate in situ due to the fragility of neuronal tissue. In this article, we give a brief overview of the techniques applicable to image aged rodent brain at cellular resolution. We use multicolor imaging to visualize specific cell types (neurons, astrocytes, microglia) as well as the autofluorescence of the ''aging pigment'' lipofuscin. Further, we illustrate an approach for simultaneous imaging of cortical cells and senile plaques in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. (orig.)

  6. An optical brain computer interface for environmental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Bunce, Scott; Onaral, Banu

    2011-01-01

    A brain computer interface (BCI) is a system that translates neurophysiological signals detected from the brain to supply input to a computer or to control a device. Volitional control of neural activity and its real-time detection through neuroimaging modalities are key constituents of BCI systems. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new BCI design that utilizes intention-related cognitive activity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using functional near infrared (fNIR) spectroscopy. fNIR is a noninvasive, safe, portable and affordable optical technique with which to monitor hemodynamic changes, in the brain's cerebral cortex. Because of its portability and ease of use, fNIR is amenable to deployment in ecologically valid natural working environments. We integrated a control paradigm in a computerized 3D virtual environment to augment interactivity. Ten healthy participants volunteered for a two day study in which they navigated a virtual environment with keyboard inputs, but were required to use the fNIR-BCI for interaction with virtual objects. Results showed that participants consistently utilized the fNIR-BCI with an overall success rate of 84% and volitionally increased their cerebral oxygenation level to trigger actions within the virtual environment.

  7. Image-guided recording system for spatial and temporal mapping of neuronal activities in brain slice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Geonho; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Kim, Hyeongeun; Jang, Jaemyung; Im, Changkyun; Jeon, Nooli; Jung, Woonggyu

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we introduce the novel image-guided recording system (IGRS) for efficient interpretation of neuronal activities in the brain slice. IGRS is designed to combine microelectrode array (MEA) and optical coherence tomography at the customized upright microscope. It allows to record multi-site neuronal signals and image of the volumetric brain anatomy in a single body configuration. For convenient interconnection between a brain image and neuronal signals, we developed the automatic mapping protocol that enables us to project acquired neuronal signals on a brain image. To evaluate the performance of IGRS, hippocampal signals of the brain slice were monitored, and corresponding with two-dimensional neuronal maps were successfully reconstructed. Our results indicated that IGRS and mapping protocol can provide the intuitive information regarding long-term and multi-sites neuronal signals. In particular, the temporal and spatial mapping capability of neuronal signals would be a very promising tool to observe and analyze the massive neuronal activity and connectivity in MEA-based electrophysiological studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. MR imaging of brain surface structures: Surface anatomy scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, K.; Koga, S.; Asahina, M.; Kanno, T.; Asahina, K.

    1987-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of brain surface anatomy, including cortical sulci and veins, relative to cerebral and cerebellar lesions is an important subject for surgeons. Until now, no imaging modality existed that allowed direct visualization of brain surface anatomy. A new MR imaging technique (surface anatomy scanning) was developed to visualize brain surface structures. The technique uses a spin-echo pulse sequence with long repetition and echo times, thick sections and a surface coil. Cortical sulci, fissures, veins, and intracranial lesions were clearly identified with this technique. Initial clinical results indicate that surface anatomy scanning is useful for lesion localization and for detailed evaluation of cortical and subcortical lesions

  9. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  10. Deep two-photon microscopic imaging through brain tissue using the second singlet state from fluorescent agent chlorophyll α in spinach leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingyan; Rodríguez-Contreras, Adrián; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Nguyen, Thien An; Alfano, Robert R

    2014-06-01

    Two-photon (2P) excitation of the second singlet (S₂) state was studied to achieve deep optical microscopic imaging in brain tissue when both the excitation (800 nm) and emission (685 nm) wavelengths lie in the "tissue optical window" (650 to 950 nm). S₂ state technique was used to investigate chlorophyll α (Chl α) fluorescence inside a spinach leaf under a thick layer of freshly sliced rat brain tissue in combination with 2P microscopic imaging. Strong emission at the peak wavelength of 685 nm under the 2P S₂ state of Chl α enabled the imaging depth up to 450 μm through rat brain tissue.

  11. Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Correlated Spin Orbit Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Unlimited UU UU UU UU 14-06-2016 15-Mar-2013 14-Mar-2016 Final Report: Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Correlated Spin-Orbit Phases The views...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Ultrafast optical spectroscopy , nonlinear optical spectroscopy , iridates, cuprates REPORT...California Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91125 -0001 ABSTRACT Number of Papers published in peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Optical Spectroscopy and

  12. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Enabling Routine Functional Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Meryem A; Selb, Juliette J; Huppert, Theodore J; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Boas, David A

    2017-12-01

    Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) maps human brain function by measuring and imaging local changes in hemoglobin concentrations in the brain that arise from the modulation of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism by neural activity. Since its advent over 20 years ago, researchers have exploited and continuously advanced the ability of near infrared light to penetrate through the scalp and skull in order to non-invasively monitor changes in cerebral hemoglobin concentrations that reflect brain activity. We review recent advances in signal processing and hardware that significantly improve the capabilities of fNIRS by reducing the impact of confounding signals to improve statistical robustness of the brain signals and by enhancing the density, spatial coverage, and wearability of measuring devices respectively. We then summarize the application areas that are experiencing rapid growth as fNIRS begins to enable routine functional brain imaging.

  13. Translational research of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, C; Ma, X; Tian, J

    2013-12-01

    In the medical imaging field, molecular imaging is a rapidly developing discipline and forms many imaging modalities, providing us effective tools to visualize, characterize, and measure molecular and cellular mechanisms in complex biological processes of living organisms, which can deepen our understanding of biology and accelerate preclinical research including cancer study and medicine discovery. Among many molecular imaging modalities, although the penetration depth of optical imaging and the approved optical probes used for clinics are limited, it has evolved considerably and has seen spectacular advances in basic biomedical research and new drug development. With the completion of human genome sequencing and the emergence of personalized medicine, the specific drug should be matched to not only the right disease but also to the right person, and optical molecular imaging should serve as a strong adjunct to develop personalized medicine by finding the optimal drug based on an individual's proteome and genome. In this process, the computational methodology and imaging system as well as the biomedical application regarding optical molecular imaging will play a crucial role. This review will focus on recent typical translational studies of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future development of optical molecular imaging are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the review is then concluded.

  14. Transverse section brain imager scanning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    An array of focussed collimators enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity of a body organ, such as the brain, of a patient who has been administered material tagged with radionuclides

  15. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Yaffe, S.; Atlan, H.; Cohen, D.; Konstantini, S.; Meiner, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using 99m Tc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Optical Imaging of Ionizing Radiation from Clinical Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Travis M; Drain, Charles Michael; Grimm, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear medicine uses ionizing radiation for both in vivo diagnosis and therapy. Ionizing radiation comes from a variety of sources, including x-rays, beam therapy, brachytherapy, and various injected radionuclides. Although PET and SPECT remain clinical mainstays, optical readouts of ionizing radiation offer numerous benefits and complement these standard techniques. Furthermore, for ionizing radiation sources that cannot be imaged using these standard techniques, optical imaging offers a unique imaging alternative. This article reviews optical imaging of both radionuclide- and beam-based ionizing radiation from high-energy photons and charged particles through mechanisms including radioluminescence, Cerenkov luminescence, and scintillation. Therapeutically, these visible photons have been combined with photodynamic therapeutic agents preclinically for increasing therapeutic response at depths difficult to reach with external light sources. Last, new microscopy methods that allow single-cell optical imaging of radionuclides are reviewed. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  17. Usefulness of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Yang Gu; Suh, Soo Jhi; Zeon, Seok Kil; Woo, Sung Ku; Kim, Hong; Kim, Jung Sik; Lee, Sung Moon; Lee, Hee Jung; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of dynamic MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors. Dynamic MR imaging was performed in 43 patients with histopathologically proved brain tumors. Serial images were sequentially obtained every 30 seconds for 3-5 minutes with use of spin-echo technique(TR 200msec/TE 15msec) after rapid injection of Gd-DTPA in a dose of 0.1mmol/kg body weight. Dynamics of contrast enhancement of the brain tumors were analyzed visually and by the sequential contrast enhancement ratio(CER). On the dynamic MR imaging, contrast enhancement pattern of the gliomas showed gradual increase in signal intensity(SI) till 180 seconds and usually had a longer time to peak of the CER. The SI of metastatic brain tumors increased steeply till 30 seconds and then rapidly or gradually decreased and the tumors had a shorter time to peak of the CER. Meningiomas showed a rapid ascent in SI till 30 to 60 seconds and then made a plateau or slight descent of the CER. Lymphomas and germinomas showed relatively rapid increase of SI till 30 seconds and usually had a longer time peak of the CER. Dynamic MR imaging with Gd-DTPA may lead to further information about the brain tumors as the sequential contrast enhancement pattern and CER parameters seem to be helpful in discriminating among the brain tumors

  18. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures of its optimization were proposed. Method. We investigated the applicability of the theory of composition and synthesis of non-imaging optical systems. The main provisions of the theory of composition are based on the division of all available optical elements in four types depending on their functionality, which corresponds to a modular design. Similar items were identified in non-imaging optical systems and adaptation of composition theory to their design became possible. Main Results. General design patterns of imaging and non-imaging optical systems were studied. Classification of systems, components, as well as technical and generic characteristics of imaging and non-imaging optical systems was determined. Search mechanism of the initial optical system by means of structural and parametric synthesis of non-imaging optical system was formalized. The basic elements were determined included in non-imaging systems and their classification by functionality was done. They were subdivided into basic, corrective, wide angle and high aperture ones. The rules for formation of these elements and their composition were determined: surface reflecting, refracting, spherical and nonspherical elements with total internal reflection. The foundations of composition theory for non-imaging optical systems were laid. The approbation of this method was carried out on the example of the illumination system calculation for surgical room. A 3D model of an illumination optical

  19. Super-resolution imaging of subcortical white matter using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, A. H.; Lee, S.; Patel, A.; Poon, W. W.; Knight, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    Aims The spatial resolution of light microscopy is limited by the wavelength of visible light (the ‘diffraction limit’, approximately 250 nm). Resolution of sub-cellular structures, smaller than this limit, is possible with super resolution methods such as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). We aimed to resolve subcellular structures (axons, myelin sheaths and astrocytic processes) within intact white matter, using STORM and SOFI. Methods Standard cryostat-cut sections of subcortical white matter from donated human brain tissue and from adult rat and mouse brain were labelled, using standard immunohistochemical markers (neurofilament-H, myelin-associated glycoprotein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP). Image sequences were processed for STORM (effective pixel size 8–32 nm) and for SOFI (effective pixel size 80 nm). Results In human, rat and mouse, subcortical white matter high-quality images for axonal neurofilaments, myelin sheaths and filamentous astrocytic processes were obtained. In quantitative measurements, STORM consistently underestimated width of axons and astrocyte processes (compared with electron microscopy measurements). SOFI provided more accurate width measurements, though with somewhat lower spatial resolution than STORM. Conclusions Super resolution imaging of intact cryo-cut human brain tissue is feasible. For quantitation, STORM can under-estimate diameters of thin fluorescent objects. SOFI is more robust. The greatest limitation for super-resolution imaging in brain sections is imposed by sample preparation. We anticipate that improved strategies to reduce autofluorescence and to enhance fluorophore performance will enable rapid expansion of this approach. PMID:28696566

  20. Super-resolution imaging of subcortical white matter using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, A H; Lee, S; Foot, P; Patel, A; Poon, W W; Knight, A E

    2017-07-11

    The spatial resolution of light microscopy is limited by the wavelength of visible light (the 'diffraction limit', approximately 250 nm). Resolution of sub-cellular structures, smaller than this limit, is possible with super resolution methods such as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). We aimed to resolve subcellular structures (axons, myelin sheaths and astrocytic processes) within intact white matter, using STORM and SOFI. Standard cryostat-cut sections of subcortical white matter from donated human brain tissue and from adult rat and mouse brain were labelled, using standard immunohistochemical markers (neurofilament-H, myelin-associated glycoprotein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP). Image sequences were processed for STORM (effective pixel size 8-32 nm) and for SOFI (effective pixel size 80 nm). In human, rat and mouse, subcortical white matter high-quality images for axonal neurofilaments, myelin sheaths and filamentous astrocytic processes were obtained. In quantitative measurements, STORM consistently underestimated width of axons and astrocyte processes (compared with electron microscopy measurements). SOFI provided more accurate width measurements, though with somewhat lower spatial resolution than STORM. Super resolution imaging of intact cryo-cut human brain tissue is feasible. For quantitation, STORM can under-estimate diameters of thin fluorescent objects. SOFI is more robust. The greatest limitation for super-resolution imaging in brain sections is imposed by sample preparation. We anticipate that improved strategies to reduce autofluorescence and to enhance fluorophore performance will enable rapid expansion of this approach. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  1. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters feature introduction: digital holography and three-dimensional imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2011-01-01

    This feature issue serves as a pilot issue promoting the joint issue of Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters. It focuses upon topics of current relevance to the community working in the area of digital holography and 3-D imaging. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America

  2. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters feature introduction: digital holography and three-dimensional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2011-12-01

    This feature issue serves as a pilot issue promoting the joint issue of Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters. It focuses upon topics of current relevance to the community working in the area of digital holography and 3-D imaging. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. Preliminary application of SPECT three dimensional brain imaging in normal controls and patients with cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaosheng, Luan; Pengyong,; Xiqin, Sun; Wei, Wang; Huisheng, Liu; Wen, Zhou [88 Hospital PLA, Taian, SD (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1992-11-01

    10 normal controls and 32 cerebral infarction patients were examined with SPECT three-dimensional (3D) and sectional imaging. The result shows that 3D brain imaging has significant value in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. 3D brain imaging is superior to sectional imaging in determining the location and size of superficial lesions. For the diagnosis of deep lesions, it is better to combine 3D brain imaging with sectional imaging. The methodology of 3D brain imaging is also discussed.

  4. Preliminary application of SPECT three dimensional brain imaging in normal controls and patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhaosheng; Pengyong; Sun Xiqin; Wang Wei; Liu Huisheng; Zhou Wen

    1992-01-01

    10 normal controls and 32 cerebral infarction patients were examined with SPECT three-dimensional (3D) and sectional imaging. The result shows that 3D brain imaging has significant value in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. 3D brain imaging is superior to sectional imaging in determining the location and size of superficial lesions. For the diagnosis of deep lesions, it is better to combine 3D brain imaging with sectional imaging. The methodology of 3D brain imaging is also discussed

  5. RNA aptamer probes as optical imaging agents for the detection of amyloid plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian T Farrar

    Full Text Available Optical imaging using multiphoton microscopy and whole body near infrared imaging has become a routine part of biomedical research. However, optical imaging methods rely on the availability of either small molecule reporters or genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, which are challenging and time consuming to develop. While directly labeled antibodies can also be used as imaging agents, antibodies are species specific, can typically not be tagged with multiple fluorescent reporters without interfering with target binding, and are bioactive, almost always eliciting a biological response and thereby influencing the process that is being studied. We examined the possibility of developing highly specific and sensitive optical imaging agents using aptamer technology. We developed a fluorescently tagged anti-Aβ RNA aptamer, β55, which binds amyloid plaques in both ex vivo human Alzheimer's disease brain tissue and in vivo APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Diffuse β55 positive halos, attributed to oligomeric Aβ, were observed surrounding the methoxy-XO4 positive plaque cores. Dot blots of synthetic Aβ aggregates provide further evidence that β55 binds both fibrillar and non-fibrillar Aβ. The high binding affinity, the ease of probe development, and the ability to incorporate multiple and multimodal imaging reporters suggest that RNA aptamers may have complementary and perhaps advantageous properties compared to conventional optical imaging probes and reporters.

  6. Encoded diffractive optics for full-spectrum computational imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2016-09-16

    Diffractive optical elements can be realized as ultra-thin plates that offer significantly reduced footprint and weight compared to refractive elements. However, such elements introduce severe chromatic aberrations and are not variable, unless used in combination with other elements in a larger, reconfigurable optical system. We introduce numerically optimized encoded phase masks in which different optical parameters such as focus or zoom can be accessed through changes in the mechanical alignment of a ultra-thin stack of two or more masks. Our encoded diffractive designs are combined with a new computational approach for self-calibrating imaging (blind deconvolution) that can restore high-quality images several orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art without pre-calibration of the optical system. This co-design of optics and computation enables tunable, full-spectrum imaging using thin diffractive optics.

  7. Encoded diffractive optics for full-spectrum computational imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Yifan; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements can be realized as ultra-thin plates that offer significantly reduced footprint and weight compared to refractive elements. However, such elements introduce severe chromatic aberrations and are not variable, unless used in combination with other elements in a larger, reconfigurable optical system. We introduce numerically optimized encoded phase masks in which different optical parameters such as focus or zoom can be accessed through changes in the mechanical alignment of a ultra-thin stack of two or more masks. Our encoded diffractive designs are combined with a new computational approach for self-calibrating imaging (blind deconvolution) that can restore high-quality images several orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art without pre-calibration of the optical system. This co-design of optics and computation enables tunable, full-spectrum imaging using thin diffractive optics.

  8. Equipment for Aero-Optical Flow Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catrakis, Haris

    2004-01-01

    The AFOSR/DURIP Grant has provided the funds to develop a new Aero-Optics Laboratory at UC Irvine, in order to do basic research on aero-optical laser beam propagation through high-speed turbulent flows...

  9. Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Julie; Paques, Michel; Krivosic, Valérie; Dupas, Bénédicte; Couturier, Aude; Kulcsar, Caroline; Tadayoni, Ramin; Massin, Pascale; Gaudric, Alain

    2015-01-01

    To explore the anatomic correlation of the retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. Retrospective nonconsecutive observational case series. A retrospective review of the multimodal imaging charts of 6 patients with focal alteration of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics was performed. Retinal diseases included acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (n = 1), hydroxychloroquine retinopathy (n = 1), and macular telangiectasia type 2 (n = 4). High-resolution retinal images were obtained using a flood-illumination adaptive optics camera. Images were recorded using standard imaging modalities: color and red-free fundus camera photography; infrared reflectance scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. On OCT, in the marginal zone of the lesions, a disappearance of the interdigitation zone was observed, while the ellipsoid zone was preserved. Image recording demonstrated that such attenuation of the interdigitation zone co-localized with the disappearance of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. In 1 case, the restoration of the interdigitation zone paralleled that of the cone mosaic after a 2-month follow-up. Our results suggest that the interdigitation zone could contribute substantially to the reflectance of the cone photoreceptor mosaic. The absence of cones on adaptive optics images does not necessarily mean photoreceptor cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of optic neuritis and neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakisu, Yonetsugu; Adachi-Usami, Emiko; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in thirty patients who had been suffering from optic neuritis (ON). Twenty-one cases were caused by multiple sclerosis (MS) and in 9 cases the causes been defined. In MRI, abnormalities were found in 17 out of 21 MS cases in several places such as near the ventricles, mid-brain, spinal cord etc. Increased signals from the optic chiasm to optic radiation were found in 5 cases. However, abnormal MRI findings did not always correspond to Goldmann visual field defects. In 3 out of 9 cases of ON with unknown causes, high signals in the white matter of the brain were found, and it was suggested that those may develop to MS. MRI was, thus, proved to be very useful for the diagnois of MS. (author)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of optic neuritis and neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakisu, Yonetsugu; Adachi-Usami, Emiko; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo

    1989-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in thirty patients who had been suffering from optic neuritis (ON). Twenty-one cases were caused by multiple sclerosis (MS) and in 9 cases the causes been defined. In MRI, abnormalities were found in 17 out of 21 MS cases in several places such as near the ventricles, mid-brain, spinal cord etc. Increased signals from the optic chiasm to optic radiation were found in 5 cases. However, abnormal MRI findings did not always correspond to Goldmann visual field defects. In 3 out of 9 cases of ON with unknown causes, high signals in the white matter of the brain were found, and it was suggested that those may develop to MS. MRI was, thus, proved to be very useful for the diagnois of MS.

  12. A simple multipurpose double-beam optical image analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowicz, A., E-mail: adam.popowicz@polsl.pl [Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka Str. 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Blachowicz, T. [Institute of Physics - Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, S. Konarskiego 22B Str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    In the paper we present a low cost optical device which splits the light in the focal plane into two separate optical paths and collimates it back into a single image plane, and where a selective information processing can be carried out. The optical system is straightforward and easily implementable as it consists of only three lenses and two mirrors. The system is dedicated for imaging in low-light-level conditions in which widely used optical devices, based on beam splitters or dichroic mirrors, suffer from light loss. We expose examples of applications of our device, using a prototype model. The proposed optical system may be employed for: monitoring the objects located at different distances from observer (1), creating regions of different magnification within a single image plane (2), high dynamic range photometry (3), or imaging in two wavelength bands simultaneously (4).

  13. Computational imaging using lightweight diffractive-refractive optics

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan

    2015-11-23

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) show great promise for imaging optics that are thinner and more lightweight than conventional refractive lenses while preserving their light efficiency. Unfortunately, severe spectral dispersion currently limits the use of DOEs in consumer-level lens design. In this article, we jointly design lightweight diffractive-refractive optics and post-processing algorithms to enable imaging under white light illumination. Using the Fresnel lens as a general platform, we show three phase-plate designs, including a super-thin stacked plate design, a diffractive-refractive-hybrid lens, and a phase coded-aperture lens. Combined with cross-channel deconvolution algorithm, both spherical and chromatic aberrations are corrected. Experimental results indicate that using our computational imaging approach, diffractive-refractive optics is an alternative candidate to build light efficient and thin optics for white light imaging.

  14. Computational imaging using lightweight diffractive-refractive optics

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan; Fu, Qiang; Amata, Hadi; Su, Shuochen; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) show great promise for imaging optics that are thinner and more lightweight than conventional refractive lenses while preserving their light efficiency. Unfortunately, severe spectral dispersion currently limits the use of DOEs in consumer-level lens design. In this article, we jointly design lightweight diffractive-refractive optics and post-processing algorithms to enable imaging under white light illumination. Using the Fresnel lens as a general platform, we show three phase-plate designs, including a super-thin stacked plate design, a diffractive-refractive-hybrid lens, and a phase coded-aperture lens. Combined with cross-channel deconvolution algorithm, both spherical and chromatic aberrations are corrected. Experimental results indicate that using our computational imaging approach, diffractive-refractive optics is an alternative candidate to build light efficient and thin optics for white light imaging.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in brain-stem tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Mikio; Saito, Hisazumi; Akino, Minoru; Abe, Hiroshi.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with brain-stem tumors underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after radiotherapy. The brain-stem tumors were seen as a low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and as a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. A tumor and its anatomic involvement were more clearly visualized on MRI than on cuncurrently performed CT. Changes in tumor before and after radiotherapy could be determined by measuring the diameter of tumor on sagittal and coronal images. This allowed quantitative evaluation of the reduction of tumor in association with improvement of symptoms. The mean T1 value in the central part of tumors was shortened in all patients after radiotherapy. The results indicate that MRI may assist in determining the effect of radiotherapy for brain-stem tumors. (Namekawa, K)

  16. HLA typing in acute optic neuritis. Relation to multiple sclerosis and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, J.L.; Madsen, H.O.; Ryder, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and HLA findings to clarify the relationship between monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) and ON as part of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). DESIGN: Population-based cohort of patients with ON refe......OBJECTIVE: To study the association of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and HLA findings to clarify the relationship between monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) and ON as part of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). DESIGN: Population-based cohort of patients......: The frequency of HLA-DR15 was significantly increased in patients with ON + CDMS (52%) and ON (47%) compared with control subjects (31%). The frequency of HLA-DR17 was almost equal in the ON + CDMS (18%), ON (23%), and control (23%) groups. The frequencies of HLA-DQA-1B (55% in ON + CDMS, 58% in ON) and HLA...

  17. Look again: effects of brain images and mind-brain dualism on lay evaluations of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Cayce J; Farah, Martha J

    2013-09-01

    Brain scans have frequently been credited with uniquely seductive and persuasive qualities, leading to claims that fMRI research receives a disproportionate share of public attention and funding. It has been suggested that functional brain images are fascinating because they contradict dualist beliefs regarding the relationship between the body and the mind. Although previous research has indicated that brain images can increase judgments of an article's scientific reasoning, the hypotheses that brain scans make research appear more interesting, surprising, or worthy of funding have not been tested. Neither has the relation between the allure of brain imaging and dualism. In the following three studies, laypersons rated both fictional research descriptions and real science news articles accompanied by brain scans, bar charts, or photographs. Across 988 participants, we found little evidence of neuroimaging's seductive allure or of its relation to self-professed dualistic beliefs. These results, taken together with other recent null findings, suggest that brain images are less powerful than has been argued.

  18. Images of the brain: past as prologue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The invention of the Anger scintillation camera and the development of /sup 99m/Tc tracers brought about a tenfold increase in nuclear brain scanning between 1963 and 1973, an increase that plateaued with the introduction of x-ray computed tomography. A second growth curve began in 1976 at which time there were four PET centers in the United States, a number that grew to 60 worldwide over the next decade. PET, SPECT, MRI, and MRS are leading us into a new era of in vivo brain chemistry, based on regional bioenergetics and neurotransmission. The immediate impact is in epilepsy, stroke, brain tumors and the dementias, with psychiatric diseases becoming a major focus of research. Receptivity has become a biochemical as well as a psychological approach to mental functions. The finding of elevated D2 dopamine receptors in schizophrenia in living patients may be the forerunner of a new biochemical approach to psychiatry

  19. Label-free imaging of brain and brain tumor specimens with combined two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liwei; Wang, Xingfu; Wu, Zanyi; Du, Huiping; Wang, Shu; Li, Lianhuang; Fang, Na; Lin, Peihua; Chen, Jianxin; Kang, Dezhi; Zhuo, Shuangmu

    2017-10-01

    Label-free imaging techniques are gaining acceptance within the medical imaging field, including brain imaging, because they have the potential to be applied to intraoperative in situ identifications of pathological conditions. In this paper, we describe the use of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in combination for the label-free detection of brain and brain tumor specimens; gliomas. Two independently detecting channels were chosen to subsequently collect TPEF/SHG signals from the specimen to increase TPEF/SHG image contrasts. Our results indicate that the combined TPEF/SHG microscopic techniques can provide similar rat brain structural information and produce a similar resolution like conventional H&E staining in neuropathology; including meninges, cerebral cortex, white-matter structure corpus callosum, choroid plexus, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellar cortex. It can simultaneously detect infiltrating human brain tumor cells, the extracellular matrix collagen fiber of connective stroma within brain vessels and collagen depostion in tumor microenvironments. The nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio and collagen content can be extracted as quantitative indicators for differentiating brain gliomas from healthy brain tissues. With the development of two-photon fiberscopes and microendoscope probes and their clinical applications, the combined TPEF and SHG microcopy may become an important multimodal, nonlinear optical imaging approach for real-time intraoperative histological diagnostics of residual brain tumors. These occur in various brain regions during ongoing surgeries through the method of simultaneously identifying tumor cells, and the change of tumor microenvironments, without the need for the removal biopsies and without the need for tissue labelling or fluorescent markers.

  20. Tissue imaging using full field optical coherence microscopy with short multimode fiber probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Manabu; Eto, Kai; Goto, Tetsuhiro; Kurotani, Reiko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Nishidate, Izumi

    2018-03-01

    In achieving minimally invasive accessibility to deeply located regions the size of the imaging probes is important. We demonstrated full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCM) using an ultrathin forward-imaging short multimode fiber (SMMF) probe of 50 μm core diameter, 125 μm diameter, and 7.4 mm length for optical communications. The axial resolution was measured to be 2.14 μm and the lateral resolution was also evaluated to be below 4.38 μm using a test pattern (TP). The spatial mode and polarization characteristics of SMMF were evaluated. Inserting SMMF to in vivo rat brain, 3D images were measured and 2D information of nerve fibers was obtained. The feasibility of an SMMF as an ultrathin forward-imaging probe in FF-OCM has been demonstrated.

  1. HTLV-I carrier with unusual brain MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yata, Shinsaku; Ogawa, Toshihide; Sugihara, Shuji; Matsusue, Eiji; Fujii, Shinya; Kinoshita, Toshibumi [Tottori University, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Yonago (Japan); Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    We describe unusual brain MR imaging findings in a patient who is an HTLV-I carrier without myelopathy. T2-weighted MR images showed hyperintense signal abnormalities in the pyramidal tract, superior and middle cerebellar peduncles, and decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles, in addition to subcortical white matter involvement. Diffusion-weighted images also showed hyperintense signal abnormalities in the same regions by T2 shine-through effect. (orig.)

  2. The brain, a choice subject for radioisotopic functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.

    1996-01-01

    Progresses realized in the use of radioisotopes and in tomographic imaging techniques have permitted to access to the visualization of the human body functions. The application of this radioisotopic functional imaging (or emission tomography functional imaging) has been particularly fruitful in the study of brain functioning. This method is the only exploratory method for the biochemical aspects of the cerebral functioning and is used both by the physiologist and the therapist. (J.S.)

  3. UWGSP7: a real-time optical imaging workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John E.; Kim, Yongmin; Pennington, Stan D.; Alleman, Andrew P.

    1995-04-01

    With the development of UWGSP7, the University of Washington Image Computing Systems Laboratory has a real-time workstation for continuous-wave (cw) optical reflectance imaging. Recent discoveries in optical science and imaging research have suggested potential practical use of the technology as a medical imaging modality and identified the need for a machine to support these applications in real time. The UWGSP7 system was developed to provide researchers with a high-performance, versatile tool for use in optical imaging experiments with the eventual goal of bringing the technology into clinical use. One of several major applications of cw optical reflectance imaging is tumor imaging which uses a light-absorbing dye that preferentially sequesters in tumor tissue. This property could be used to locate tumors and to identify tumor margins intraoperatively. Cw optical reflectance imaging consists of illumination of a target with a band-limited light source and monitoring the light transmitted by or reflected from the target. While continuously illuminating the target, a control image is acquired and stored. A dye is injected into a subject and a sequence of data images are acquired and processed. The data images are aligned with the control image and then subtracted to obtain a signal representing the change in optical reflectance over time. This signal can be enhanced by digital image processing and displayed in pseudo-color. This type of emerging imaging technique requires a computer system that is versatile and adaptable. The UWGSP7 utilizes a VESA local bus PC as a host computer running the Windows NT operating system and includes ICSL developed add-on boards for image acquisition and processing. The image acquisition board is used to digitize and format the analog signal from the input device into digital frames and to the average frames into images. To accommodate different input devices, the camera interface circuitry is designed in a small mezzanine board

  4. MR imaging of the neonatal brain: Pathologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, C.B.; Richardson, C.J.; Nicholas, D.A.; Hayden, C.K.; Amparo, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-three neonates, aged 29-43 weeks since conception, were studied. US and/or CT correlations were obtained in most infants with pathology. In the first 4-5 days after hemorrhage, US and CT were superior to MR imaging, but after that time MR imaging was the single best modality for imaging blood. In early premature infants with very watery white matter, US detected infarction and brain edema that were poorly seen on both MR imaging and CT. However, in late premature and full-term infants, MR imaging was better than CT in distinguishing between normal white matter and infarction. Only MR imaging disclosed delayed myelination in 13 term infants with hydrocephalus and severe asphyxia. MR imaging with play an important role in imaging neonates once MR imaging-compatible monitors and neonatal head coils become widely available

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging of occult injury of optic radiation following optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiafeng; Zhu, Lijun; Li, He; Lu, Ziwen; Chen, Xin; Fang, Shaokuan

    2016-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is easily detected by routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is not possible to detect early or occult lesions in MS by routine MRI, and this may explain the inconsistency between the severity of the lesions found by MRI and the degree of clinical disability of patients with MS. The present study included 10 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 10 healthy volunteers. Each patient underwent routine 3.0 T MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Optic nerve and optic radiation were analyzed by DTI and DTT. The fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), λ // , and λ ┴ values were measured. In the 10 patients with MS, 7 optic nerves were affected, and 13 optic nerves were not affected. Cranial MRI showed that optic nerve thickening and hyperintensity occurred in 2 patients with MS. In the directionally encoded color maps, a hypointensive green signal in the optic nerve was observed in 3 patients with MS. The FA values were significantly lower and the MD, λ // , and λ ┴ values were significantly higher in the affected and unaffected optic nerves and optic radiations in patients with MS in comparison with controls (P0.05). Diffusion tensor imaging is sensitive in the detection of occult injury of the optic nerve and optic radiation following optic neuritis. Diffusion tensor imaging may be a useful tool for the early diagnosis, treatment and management of MS.

  6. Continuous blood pressure recordings simultaneously with functional brain imaging: studies of the glymphatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zienkiewicz, Aleksandra; Huotari, Niko; Raitamaa, Lauri; Raatikainen, Ville; Ferdinando, Hany; Vihriälä, Erkki; Korhonen, Vesa; Myllylä, Teemu; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2017-03-01

    The lymph system is responsible for cleaning the tissues of metabolic waste products, soluble proteins and other harmful fluids etc. Lymph flow in the body is driven by body movements and muscle contractions. Moreover, it is indirectly dependent on the cardiovascular system, where the heart beat and blood pressure maintain force of pressure in lymphatic channels. Over the last few years, studies revealed that the brain contains the so-called glymphatic system, which is the counterpart of the systemic lymphatic system in the brain. Similarly, the flow in the glymphatic system is assumed to be mostly driven by physiological pulsations such as cardiovascular pulses. Thus, continuous measurement of blood pressure and heart function simultaneously with functional brain imaging is of great interest, particularly in studies of the glymphatic system. We present our MRI compatible optics based sensing system for continuous blood pressure measurement and show our current results on the effects of blood pressure variations on cerebral brain dynamics, with a focus on the glymphatic system. Blood pressure was measured simultaneously with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with an ultrafast functional brain imaging (fMRI) sequence magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG, 3D brain 10 Hz sampling rate).

  7. MR imaging assisted radiation therapy planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, M.; Roesler, H.P.; Higer, H.P.; Kutzner, J.; Thelen, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the improvement of the accuracy of treatment portals in radiation therapy of brain tumors with use of MR imaging. After proper processing, the parasagittal MR image showing the largest tumor size and the midline sagittal image were superimposed. With common anatomic landmarks of midline tomogram and lateral simulation radiograph, commensurate reference grids were laid over both images in identical positions. Tumor coordinates were then transferred from the synthesized MR image to the lateral radiograph. Rectangular fields or individual shielding blocks encompassing the tumor could be drawn directly. This new method was used in 17 patients, and results were compared with CT-assisted results

  8. Design of a multimodal fibers optic system for small animal optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Pagliazzi, Marco; Boschi, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Small animals optical imaging systems are widely used in pre-clinical research to image in vivo the bio-distribution of light emitting probes using fluorescence or bioluminescence modalities. In this work we presented a set of simulated results of a novel small animal optical imaging module based on a fibers optics matrix, coupled with a position sensitive detector, devoted to acquire bioluminescence and Cerenkov images. Simulations were performed using GEANT 4 code with the GAMOS architecture using the tissue optics plugin. Results showed that it is possible to image a 30 × 30 mm region of interest using a fiber optics array containing 100 optical fibers without compromising the quality of the reconstruction. The number of fibers necessary to cover an adequate portion of a small animal is thus quite modest. This design allows integrating the module with magnetic resonance (MR) in order to acquire optical and MR images at the same time. A detailed model of the mouse anatomy, obtained by segmentation of 3D MRI images, will improve the quality of optical 3D reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Incidental ferumoxytol artifacts in clinical brain MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowser, Bruce A.; Campeau, Norbert G.; Carr, Carrie M.; Diehn, Felix E.; McDonald, Jennifer S.; Miller, Gary M.; Kaufmann, Timothy J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Ferumoxytol (Feraheme) is a parenteral therapy approved for treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The product insert for ferumoxytol states that it may affect the diagnostic ability of MRI for up to 3 months. However, the expected effects may not be commonly recognized among clinical neuroradiologists. Our purpose is to describe the artifacts we have seen at our institution during routine clinical practice. We reviewed the patients at our institution that had brain MRI performed within 90 days of receiving intravenous ferumoxytol. The imaging was reviewed for specific findings, including diffusion-weighted imaging vascular susceptibility artifact, gradient-echo echo-planar T2*-weighted vascular susceptibility artifact, SWI/SWAN vascular susceptibility artifact, hypointense vascular signal on T2-weighted images, pre-gadolinium contrast vascular enhancement on magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) imaging, and effects on post-gadolinium contrast T1 imaging. Multiple artifacts were observed in patients having a brain MRI within 3 days of receiving intravenous ferumoxytol. These included susceptibility artifact on DWI, GRE, and SWAN/SWI imaging, pre-gadolinium contrast increased vascular signal on MPRAGE imaging, and decreased expected enhancement on post-gadolinium contrast T1-weighted imaging. Ferumoxytol can create imaging artifacts which complicate clinical interpretation when brain MRI is performed within 3 days of administration. Recognition of the constellation of artifacts produced by ferumoxytol is important in order to obviate additional unnecessary examinations and mitigate errors in interpretation. (orig.)

  10. White matter segmentation by estimating tissue optical attenuation from volumetric OCT massive histology of whole rodent brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Joël.; Castonguay, Alexandre; Lesage, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    A whole rodent brain was imaged using an automated massive histology setup and an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) microscope. Thousands of OCT volumetric tiles were acquired, each covering a size of about 2.5x2.5x0.8 mm3 with a sampling resolution of 4.9x4.9x6.5 microns. This paper shows the techniques for reconstruction, attenuation compensation and segmentation of the sliced brains. The tile positions within the mosaic were evaluated using a displacement model of the motorized stage and pairwise coregistration. Volume blending was then performed by solving the 3D Laplace equation, and consecutive slices were assembled using the cross-correlation of their 2D image gradient. This reconstruction algorithm resulted in a 3D map of optical reflectivity for the whole brain at micrometric resolution. OCT tissue slices were then used to estimate the local attenuation coefficient based on a single scattering photon model. The attenuation map obtained exhibits a high contrast for all white matter fibres, regardless of their orientation. The tissue optical attenuation from the intrinsic OCT reflectivity contributes to better white matter tissue segmentation. The combined 3D maps of reflectivity and attenuation is a step toward the study of white matter at a microscopic scale for the whole brain in small animals.

  11. An Evaluation of Grazing-Incidence Optics for Neutron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    The refractive index for most materials is slightly less than unity, which opens an opportunity to develop the grazing incidence neutron imaging optics. The ideal material for the optics would be natural nickel and its isotopes. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has active development program on the nickel replicated optics for use in x-ray astronomy. Brief status report on the program is presented. The results of the neutron focusing optic test carried by the MSFC team at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are also presented. Possible applications of the optics are briefly discussed.

  12. Super resolution imaging of genetically labelled synapses in Drosophila brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ayumi Spühler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding synaptic connectivity and plasticity within brain circuits and their relationship to learning and behavior is a fundamental quest in neuroscience. Visualizing the fine details of synapses using optical microscopy remains however a major technical challenge. Super resolution microscopy opens the possibility to reveal molecular features of synapses beyond the diffraction limit. With direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, dSTORM, we image synaptic proteins in the brain tissue of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Super resolution imaging of brain tissue harbors difficulties due to light scattering and the density of signals. In order to reduce out of focus signal, we take advantage of the genetic tools available in the Drosophila and have fluorescently tagged synaptic proteins expressed in only a small number of neurons. These neurons form synapses within the calyx of the mushroom body, a distinct brain region involved in associative memory formation. Our results show that super resolution microscopy, in combination with genetically labelled synaptic proteins, is a powerful tool to investigate synapses in a quantitative fashion providing an entry point for studies on synaptic plasticity during learning and memory formation

  13. Super Resolution Imaging of Genetically Labeled Synapses in Drosophila Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spühler, Isabelle A; Conley, Gaurasundar M; Scheffold, Frank; Sprecher, Simon G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding synaptic connectivity and plasticity within brain circuits and their relationship to learning and behavior is a fundamental quest in neuroscience. Visualizing the fine details of synapses using optical microscopy remains however a major technical challenge. Super resolution microscopy opens the possibility to reveal molecular features of synapses beyond the diffraction limit. With direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, dSTORM, we image synaptic proteins in the brain tissue of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Super resolution imaging of brain tissue harbors difficulties due to light scattering and the density of signals. In order to reduce out of focus signal, we take advantage of the genetic tools available in the Drosophila and have fluorescently tagged synaptic proteins expressed in only a small number of neurons. These neurons form synapses within the calyx of the mushroom body, a distinct brain region involved in associative memory formation. Our results show that super resolution microscopy, in combination with genetically labeled synaptic proteins, is a powerful tool to investigate synapses in a quantitative fashion providing an entry point for studies on synaptic plasticity during learning and memory formation.

  14. Application of optical coherence tomography for in vivo monitoring of the meningeal lymphatic vessels during opening of blood-brain barrier: mechanisms of brain clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Abdurashitov, Arkady; Dubrovsky, Alexander; Bragin, Denis; Bragina, Olga; Shushunova, Nataliya; Maslyakova, Galina; Navolokin, Nikita; Bucharskaya, Alla; Tuchin, Valery; Kurths, Juergen; Shirokov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    The meningeal lymphatic vessels were discovered 2 years ago as the drainage system involved in the mechanisms underlying the clearance of waste products from the brain. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a gatekeeper that strongly controls the movement of different molecules from the blood into the brain. We know the scenarios during the opening of the BBB, but there is extremely limited information on how the brain clears the substances that cross the BBB. Here, using the model of sound-induced opening of the BBB, we clearly show how the brain clears dextran after it crosses the BBB via the meningeal lymphatic vessels. We first demonstrate successful application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging of the lymphatic vessels in the meninges after opening of the BBB, which might be a new useful strategy for noninvasive analysis of lymphatic drainage in daily clinical practice. Also, we give information about the depth and size of the meningeal lymphatic vessels in mice. These new fundamental data with the applied focus on the OCT shed light on the mechanisms of brain clearance and the role of lymphatic drainage in these processes that could serve as an informative platform for a development of therapy and diagnostics of diseases associated with injuries of the BBB such as stroke, brain trauma, glioma, depression, or Alzheimer disease.

  15. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants exposed prenatally to buprenorphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahila, H.; Kivitie-Kallio, S.; Halmesmaki, E.; Valanne, L.; Autti, T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. Material and Methods: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug abusers. Four mothers were hepatitis C positive, and all were HIV negative. All mothers smoked tobacco and used benzodiazepines. All pregnancies were full term, and no perinatal asphyxia occurred. All but one neonate had abstinence syndrome and needed morphine replacement therapy. Results: Neither structural abnormalities nor abnormalities in signal intensity were recorded. Conclusion: Buprenorphine replacement therapy does not seem to cause any major structural abnormalities of the brain, and it may prevent known hypoxic-ischemic brain changes resulting from uncontrolled drug abuse. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess possible abnormalities in the brain maturation process

  16. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants exposed prenatally to buprenorphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahila, H.; Kivitie-Kallio, S.; Halmesmaki, E.; Valanne, L.; Autti, T. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dept. of Pediatrics, and Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. Material and Methods: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug abusers. Four mothers were hepatitis C positive, and all were HIV negative. All mothers smoked tobacco and used benzodiazepines. All pregnancies were full term, and no perinatal asphyxia occurred. All but one neonate had abstinence syndrome and needed morphine replacement therapy. Results: Neither structural abnormalities nor abnormalities in signal intensity were recorded. Conclusion: Buprenorphine replacement therapy does not seem to cause any major structural abnormalities of the brain, and it may prevent known hypoxic-ischemic brain changes resulting from uncontrolled drug abuse. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess possible abnormalities in the brain maturation process.

  17. Frontiers in optical imaging of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devor, Anna; Sakadžić, Sava; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Nizar, Krystal; Saisan, Payam A; Tian, Peifang; Dale, Anders M; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Boas, David A

    2012-07-01

    In vivo optical imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism did not exist 50 years ago. While point optical fluorescence and absorption measurements of cellular metabolism and hemoglobin concentrations had already been introduced by then, point blood flow measurements appeared only 40 years ago. The advent of digital cameras has significantly advanced two-dimensional optical imaging of neuronal, metabolic, vascular, and hemodynamic signals. More recently, advanced laser sources have enabled a variety of novel three-dimensional high-spatial-resolution imaging approaches. Combined, as we discuss here, these methods are permitting a multifaceted investigation of the local regulation of CBF and metabolism with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Through multimodal combination of these optical techniques with genetic methods of encoding optical reporter and actuator proteins, the future is bright for solving the mysteries of neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling and translating them to clinical utility.

  18. Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studholme, Colin

    2011-08-15

    The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns.

  19. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Physiological basis and image processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Neuronal and motor activity in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is recently developing as imaging modality used for mapping hemodynamics of neuronal and motor event related tissue blood oxygen level dependence (BOLD in terms of brain activation. Image processing is performed by segmentation and registration methods. Segmentation algorithms provide brain surface-based analysis, automated anatomical labeling of cortical fields in magnetic resonance data sets based on oxygen metabolic state. Registration algorithms provide geometric features using two or more imaging modalities to assure clinically useful neuronal and motor information of brain activation. This review article summarizes the physiological basis of fMRI signal, its origin, contrast enhancement, physical factors, anatomical labeling by segmentation, registration approaches with examples of visual and motor activity in brain. Latest developments are reviewed for clinical applications of fMRI along with other different neurophysiological and imaging modalities.

  1. MR imaging of leukoencephalopathy in the pediatric brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    te Strake, L.; Brismar, J.; Coates, R.; Gascon, G.; Ozand, P.; Greer, W.; Haider, A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have studied 58 children with white matter disease (WMD) on 1.5-T MR imaging. CT was available for comparison in 36 patients. Presence of WMD was assessed 12 anatomic areas. In the adult-type brain, CT was negative in 76% (infratentorial WMD) and 49% (supratentorial WMD) of positive MR scores; the difference between positive MR and CT scores was significant (P < .001). In the immature brain, corresponding percentages were 58% and 34%, respectively. In the immature brain, CEFAST and/or T1-weighted spin-echo sequences were found to give valuable additional information to T2-weighted spin-echo data

  2. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R.; Rossi, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2–3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5–0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05–0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3–5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7–1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07–0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing. PMID:26114033

  3. Optic Nerve Assessment Using 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun D; Platt, Sean M; Lystad, Lisa; Lowe, Mark; Oh, Sehong; Jones, Stephen E; Alzahrani, Yahya; Plesec, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histologic findings in a case of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma with clinical evidence of optic nerve invasion. With institutional review board approval, an enucleated globe with choroidal melanoma and optic nerve invasion was imaged using a 7-tesla MRI followed by histopathologic evaluation. Optical coherence tomography, B-scan ultrasonography, and 1.5-tesla MRI of the orbit (1-mm sections) could not detect optic disc invasion. Ex vivo, 7-tesla MRI detected optic nerve invasion, which correlated with histopathologic features. Our case demonstrates the potential to document the existence of optic nerve invasion in the presence of an intraocular tumor, a feature that has a major bearing on decision making, particularly for consideration of enucleation.

  4. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  5. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets

  6. NMR imaging of the brain: initial impressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, D.H.; Bydder, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    An NMR imaging system designed and built by Thorn-EMI Ltd was installed at Hammersmith Hospital in March 1981. In the first year of operation 180 patients and 40 volunteers have had cranial examinations and initial impressions bases on this experience are presented. Patients with a wide variety of neurological diseases have been studied to provide a basis for diagnostic interpretation, to define distinctive features, and to evaluate different types of scanning sequences. NMR imaging appears to be of considerable value in neurological diagnosis and has a number of advantages over CT. The detailed evaluation of NMR imaging will require much more work but the initial results are very promising

  7. Effect of glucose level on brain FDG-PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Yong Ki; Ahn, Sung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In addition to tumors, normal tissues, such as the brain and myocardium can intake {sup 18}F-FDG, and the amount of {sup 18}F-FDG intake by normal tissues can be altered by the surrounding environment. Therefore, a process is necessary during which the contrasts of the tumor and normal tissues can be enhanced. Thus, this study examines the effects of glucose levels on FDG PET images of brain tissues, which features high glucose activity at all times, in small animals. Micro PET scan was performed on fourteen mice after injecting {sup 18}F-FDG. The images were compared in relation to fasting. The findings showed that the mean SUV value w as 0 .84 higher in fasted mice than in non-fasted mice. During observation, the images from non-fasted mice showed high accumulation in organs other than the brain with increased surrounding noise. In addition, compared to the non-fasted mice, the fasted mice showed higher early intake and curve increase. The findings of this study suggest that fasting is important in assessing brain functions in brain PET using {sup 18}F-FDG. Additional studies to investigate whether caffeine levels and other preprocessing items have an impact on the acquired images would contribute to reducing radiation exposure in patients.

  8. Effect of glucose level on brain FDG-PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Yong Ki; Ahn, Sung Min

    2017-01-01

    In addition to tumors, normal tissues, such as the brain and myocardium can intake 18 F-FDG, and the amount of 18 F-FDG intake by normal tissues can be altered by the surrounding environment. Therefore, a process is necessary during which the contrasts of the tumor and normal tissues can be enhanced. Thus, this study examines the effects of glucose levels on FDG PET images of brain tissues, which features high glucose activity at all times, in small animals. Micro PET scan was performed on fourteen mice after injecting 18 F-FDG. The images were compared in relation to fasting. The findings showed that the mean SUV value w as 0 .84 higher in fasted mice than in non-fasted mice. During observation, the images from non-fasted mice showed high accumulation in organs other than the brain with increased surrounding noise. In addition, compared to the non-fasted mice, the fasted mice showed higher early intake and curve increase. The findings of this study suggest that fasting is important in assessing brain functions in brain PET using 18 F-FDG. Additional studies to investigate whether caffeine levels and other preprocessing items have an impact on the acquired images would contribute to reducing radiation exposure in patients

  9. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging. PMID:23271600

  10. Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging and Delivery for Surgical Guidance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fujimoto, James G

    2004-01-01

    .... OCT can thus function as a type of "optical biopsy," enabling imaging of tissue with resolution approaching conventional biopsy and histopathology, but without the need to remove and process specimens...

  11. Optical Imaging of Mammaglobin Expression of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Achilefu, Samuel I

    2003-01-01

    .... TO accomplish this goal, we labeled polyclonal and monoclonal anti-MMG antibodies with a near infrared fluorescent probe for optical imaging and 64Cu-DOTA for positron emission tomography (mPET...

  12. Optical image encryption with redefined fractional Hartley transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Daomu; Li, Xinxin; Chen, Linfei

    2008-11-01

    A new method for optical image encryption is introduced on the basis of two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of 1-D fractional Hartley transform that has been redefined recently in search of its inverse transform. We encrypt the image by two fractional orders and random phase codes. It has an advantage over Hartley transform, for its fractional orders can also be used as additional keys, and that, of course, strengthens image security. Only when all of these keys are correct, can the image be well decrypted. The optical realization is then proposed and computer simulations are also performed to confirm the possibility of the proposed method.

  13. Brain Imaging, Forward Inference, and Theories of Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the issue of how neuroimaging studies address theoretical accounts of reasoning, through the lens of the method of forward inference (Henson, 2005, 2006). After theories of deductive and inductive reasoning are briefly presented, the method of forward inference for distinguishing between psychological theories based on brain imaging evidence is critically reviewed. Brain imaging studies of reasoning, comparing deductive and inductive arguments, comparing meaningful versus non-meaningful material, investigating hemispheric localization, and comparing conditional and relational arguments, are assessed in light of the method of forward inference. Finally, conclusions are drawn with regard to future research opportunities. PMID:25620926

  14. Brain imaging, forward inference, and theories of reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the issue of how neuroimaging studies address theoretical accounts of reasoning, through the lens of the method of forward inference (Henson, 2005, 2006). After theories of deductive and inductive reasoning are briefly presented, the method of forward inference for distinguishing between psychological theories based on brain imaging evidence is critically reviewed. Brain imaging studies of reasoning, comparing deductive and inductive arguments, comparing meaningful versus non-meaningful material, investigating hemispheric localization, and comparing conditional and relational arguments, are assessed in light of the method of forward inference. Finally, conclusions are drawn with regard to future research opportunities.

  15. A large, switchable optical clearing skull window for cerebrovascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Feng, Wei; Zhao, Yanjie; Yu, Tingting; Li, Pengcheng; Xu, Tonghui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Intravital optical imaging is a significant method for investigating cerebrovascular structure and function. However, its imaging contrast and depth are limited by the turbid skull. Tissue optical clearing has a great potential for solving this problem. Our goal was to develop a transparent skull window, without performing a craniotomy, for use in assessing cerebrovascular structure and function. Methods: Skull optical clearing agents were topically applied to the skulls of mice to create a transparent window within 15 min. The clearing efficacy, repeatability, and safety of the skull window were then investigated. Results: Imaging through the optical clearing skull window enhanced both the contrast and the depth of intravital imaging. The skull window could be used on 2-8-month-old mice and could be expanded from regional to bi-hemispheric. In addition, the window could be repeatedly established without inducing observable inflammation and metabolic toxicity. Conclusion: We successfully developed an easy-to-handle, large, switchable, and safe optical clearing skull window. Combined with various optical imaging techniques, cerebrovascular structure and function can be observed through this optical clearing skull window. Thus, it has the potential for use in basic research on the physiopathologic processes of cortical vessels. PMID:29774069

  16. Optical computed tomography for imaging the breast: first look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grable, Richard J.; Ponder, Steven L.; Gkanatsios, Nikolaos A.; Dieckmann, William; Olivier, Patrick F.; Wake, Robert H.; Zeng, Yueping

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare computed tomography optical imaging with traditional breast imaging techniques. Images produced by computed tomography laser mammography (CTLMTM) scanner are compared with images obtained from mammography, and in some cases ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). During the CTLM procedure, a near infrared laser irradiates the breast and an array of photodiodes detectors records light scattered through the breast tissue. The laser and detectors rotate synchronously around the breast to acquire a series of slice data along the coronal place. The procedure is performed without any breast compression or optical matching fluid. Cross-sectional slices of the breast are produced using a reconstruction algorithm. Reconstruction based on the diffusion theory is used to produce cross-sectional slices of the breast. Multiple slice images are combined to produce a three dimensional volumetric array of the imaged breast. This array is used to derive axial and sagittal images of the breast corresponding to cranio-caudal and medio-lateral images used in mammography. Over 200 women and 3 men have been scanned in clinical trials. The most obvious features seen in images produced by the optical tomography scanner are vascularization and significant lesions. Breast features caused by fibrocystic changes and cysts are less obvious. Breast density does not appear to be a significant factor in the quality of the image. We see correlation of the optical image structure with that seen with traditional breast imaging techniques. Further testing is being conducted to explore the sensitivity and specificity of optical tomography of the breast.

  17. Automated Computational Processing of 3-D MR Images of Mouse Brain for Phenotyping of Living Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Christopher S; Manifold-Wheeler, Brett; Gonzales, Aaron; Bearer, Elaine L

    2017-07-05

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides a method to obtain anatomical information from the brain in vivo that is not typically available by optical imaging because of this organ's opacity. MR is nondestructive and obtains deep tissue contrast with 100-µm 3 voxel resolution or better. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) may be used to observe axonal transport and localized neural activity in the living rodent and avian brain. Such enhancement enables researchers to investigate differences in functional circuitry or neuronal activity in images of brains of different animals. Moreover, once MR images of a number of animals are aligned into a single matrix, statistical analysis can be done comparing MR intensities between different multi-animal cohorts comprising individuals from different mouse strains or different transgenic animals, or at different time points after an experimental manipulation. Although preprocessing steps for such comparisons (including skull stripping and alignment) are automated for human imaging, no such automated processing has previously been readily available for mouse or other widely used experimental animals, and most investigators use in-house custom processing. This protocol describes a stepwise method to perform such preprocessing for mouse. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Rapid and prodium iodide-compatible optical clearing method for brain tissue based on sugar/sugar-alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Wang, Jianru; Feng, Wei; Xu, Jianyi; Zhu, Jingtan; Yao, Yingtao; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The developed optical clearing methods show great potential for imaging of large-volume tissues, but these methods present some nonnegligible limitations such as complexity of implementation and long incubation times. In this study, we tried to screen out rapid optical clearing agents by means of molecular dynamical simulation and experimental demonstration. According to the optical clearing potential of sugar and sugar-alcohol, we further evaluated the improvement in the optical clearing efficacy of mouse brain samples, imaging depth, fluorescence preservation, and linear deformation. The results showed that drops of sorbitol, sucrose, and fructose could quickly make the mouse brain sample transparent within 1 to 2 min, and induce about threefold enhancement in imaging depth. The former two could evidently enhance the fluorescence intensity of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and prodium iodide (PI) nuclear dye. Fructose could significantly increase the fluorescence intensity of PI, but slightly decrease the fluorescence intensity of GFP. Even though the three agents caused some shrinkage in samples, the contraction in horizontal and longitudinal directions are almost the same.

  19. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: advances in brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    In the past twenty years functional brain imaging has advanced to the point of tackling the differential diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response in Neurology and Psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders were rendered 'functional' a century ago; however nowadays they can be seen by means of brain imaging. Functional images in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (NEUROSPET) show in non-invasive fashion the state of brain functioning. PET does this assessing glucose metabolism and NEUROSPET by putting cerebral blood flow in images. Prevalence of OCD is clearly low (2 to 3%), but comorbidity with depression, psychoses, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia is high. Furthermore, it is not infrequent with autism, attention disorder, tichotillomany, borderline personality disorders, in pathological compulsive spending, sexual compulsion and in pathological gambling, in tics, and in Gilles de la Tourette disorder, NEUROSPET and PET show hypoperfusion in both frontal lobes, in their prefrontal dorsolateral aspects, in their inferior zone and premotor cortex, with hyperperfusion in the posterior cingulum and hypoperfusion in basal ganglia (caudate nucleus). Cummings states that hyperactivity of the limbic system might be involved in OCD. Thus, brain imaging in OCD is a diagnostic aid, allows us to see clinical imagenological evolution and therapeutic response and, possibly, it is useful predict therapeutic response (Au)

  20. Functional photoacoustic tomography for neonatal brain imaging: developments and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ali; Tavakoli, Emytis; Adabi, Saba; Gelovani, Juri; Avanaki, Mohammad R. N.

    2017-03-01

    Transfontanelle ultrasound imaging (TFUSI) is a routine diagnostic brain imaging method in infants who are born prematurely, whose skull bones have not completely fused together and have openings between them, so-called fontanelles. Open fontanelles in neonates provide acoustic windows, allowing the ultrasound beam to freely pass through. TFUSI is used to rule out neurological complications of premature birth including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intraventricular (IVH), subependimal (SEPH), subdural (SDH) or intracerebral (ICH) hemorrhages, as well as hypoxic brain injuries. TFUSI is widely used in the clinic owing to its low cost, safety, accessibility, and noninvasive nature. Nevertheless, the accuracy of TFUSI is limited. To address several limitations of current clinical imaging modalities, we develop a novel transfontanelle photoacoustic imaging (TFPAI) probe, which, for the first time, should allow for non-invasive structural and functional imaging of the infant brain. In this study, we test the feasibility of TFPAI for detection of experimentally-induced intra ventricular and Intraparenchymal hemorrhage phantoms in a sheep model with a surgically-induced cranial window which will serve as a model of neonatal fontanelle. This study is towards using the probe we develop for bedside monitoring of neonates with various disease conditions and complications affecting brain perfusion and oxygenation, including apnea, asphyxia, as well as for detection of various types of intracranial hemorrhages (SAH, IVH, SEPH, SDH, ICH).

  1. In Vivo H MR spectroscopic imaging of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Bo Young; Suh, Tae Suk; Choi, Kyo Ho; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the spatial distribution of various proton metabolites in the human brain with use of water-suppressed in vivo H MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) technique. All of water-suppressed in vivo H MRSI were performed on 1.5 T whole-body MRI/MRS system using Stimulated Echo Acquisition Method (STEAM) Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) pulse sequence. T1-weighted MR images were used for CSI field of view (FOV; 24 cm). Voxel size of 1.5 cm 3 was designated from the periphery of the brain which was divided by 1024 X 16 X 16 data points. Metabolite images of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine/ phosphocreatine (Cr) + choline/phosphocholine (Cho), and complex of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) + glutamate (Glu) were obtained on the human brain. Our preliminary study suggests that in vivo H MRSI could provide the metabolite imaging to compensate for hypermetabolism on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans on the basis of the metabolic informations on brain tissues. The unique ability of in vivo H MRSI to offer noninvasive information about tissue biochemistry in disease states will stimulate on clinical research and disease diagnosis

  2. Brain Volume Estimation Enhancement by Morphological Image Processing Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinali R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume estimation of brain is important for many neurological applications. It is necessary in measuring brain growth and changes in brain in normal/ abnormal patients. Thus, accurate brain volume measurement is very important. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the method of choice for volume quantification due to excellent levels of image resolution and between-tissue contrast. Stereology method is a good method for estimating volume but it requires to segment enough MRI slices and have a good resolution. In this study, it is desired to enhance stereology method for volume estimation of brain using less MRI slices with less resolution. Methods: In this study, a program for calculating volume using stereology method has been introduced. After morphologic method, dilation was applied and the stereology method enhanced. For the evaluation of this method, we used T1-wighted MR images from digital phantom in BrainWeb which had ground truth. Results: The volume of 20 normal brain extracted from BrainWeb, was calculated. The volumes of white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid with given dimension were estimated correctly. Volume calculation from Stereology method in different cases was made. In three cases, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was measured. Case I with T=5, d=5, Case II with T=10, D=10 and Case III with T=20, d=20 (T=slice thickness, d=resolution as stereology parameters. By comparing these results of two methods, it is obvious that RMSE values for our proposed method are smaller than Stereology method. Conclusion: Using morphological operation, dilation allows to enhance the estimation volume method, Stereology. In the case with less MRI slices and less test points, this method works much better compared to Stereology method.

  3. The psychopath magnetized: insights from brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nathaniel E.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Psychopaths commit a disproportionate amount of violent crime, and this places a substantial economic and emotional burden on society. Elucidation of the neural correlates of psychopathy may lead to improved management and treatment of the condition. Although some methodological issues remain, the neuroimaging literature is generally converging on a set of brain regions and circuits that are consistently implicated in the condition: the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and the anterior and posterior cingulate and adjacent (para)limbic structures. We discuss these findings in the context of extant theories of psychopathy and highlight the potential legal and policy implications of this body of work. PMID:22177031

  4. Synchrotron radiation imaging is a powerful tool to image brain microvasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Mengqi; Sun, Danni; Xie, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jian; Long, Hongyu; Hu, Kai; Xiao, Bo; Peng, Guanyun

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) imaging is a powerful experimental tool for micrometer-scale imaging of microcirculation in vivo. This review discusses recent methodological advances and findings from morphological investigations of cerebral vascular networks during several neurovascular pathologies. In particular, it describes recent developments in SR microangiography for real-time assessment of the brain microvasculature under various pathological conditions in small animal models. It also covers studies that employed SR-based phase-contrast imaging to acquire 3D brain images and provide detailed maps of brain vasculature. In addition, a brief introduction of SR technology and current limitations of SR sources are described in this review. In the near future, SR imaging could transform into a common and informative imaging modality to resolve subtle details of cerebrovascular function

  5. Synchrotron radiation imaging is a powerful tool to image brain microvasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Mengqi; Sun, Danni; Xie, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jian; Long, Hongyu; Hu, Kai; Xiao, Bo, E-mail: csuxiaobo123456@163.com [Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Peng, Guanyun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) imaging is a powerful experimental tool for micrometer-scale imaging of microcirculation in vivo. This review discusses recent methodological advances and findings from morphological investigations of cerebral vascular networks during several neurovascular pathologies. In particular, it describes recent developments in SR microangiography for real-time assessment of the brain microvasculature under various pathological conditions in small animal models. It also covers studies that employed SR-based phase-contrast imaging to acquire 3D brain images and provide detailed maps of brain vasculature. In addition, a brief introduction of SR technology and current limitations of SR sources are described in this review. In the near future, SR imaging could transform into a common and informative imaging modality to resolve subtle details of cerebrovascular function.

  6. Geometry Processing of Conventionally Produced Mouse Brain Slice Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Xu, Xiangmin; Gopi, M

    2018-04-21

    Brain mapping research in most neuroanatomical laboratories relies on conventional processing techniques, which often introduce histological artifacts such as tissue tears and tissue loss. In this paper we present techniques and algorithms for automatic registration and 3D reconstruction of conventionally produced mouse brain slices in a standardized atlas space. This is achieved first by constructing a virtual 3D mouse brain model from annotated slices of Allen Reference Atlas (ARA). Virtual re-slicing of the reconstructed model generates ARA-based slice images corresponding to the microscopic images of histological brain sections. These image pairs are aligned using a geometric approach through contour images. Histological artifacts in the microscopic images are detected and removed using Constrained Delaunay Triangulation before performing global alignment. Finally, non-linear registration is performed by solving Laplace's equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our methods provide significant improvements over previously reported registration techniques for the tested slices in 3D space, especially on slices with significant histological artifacts. Further, as one of the application we count the number of neurons in various anatomical regions using a dataset of 51 microscopic slices from a single mouse brain. To the best of our knowledge the presented work is the first that automatically registers both clean as well as highly damaged high-resolutions histological slices of mouse brain to a 3D annotated reference atlas space. This work represents a significant contribution to this subfield of neuroscience as it provides tools to neuroanatomist for analyzing and processing histological data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast dependent on blood oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, S.; Lee, T.M.; Kay, A.R.; Tank, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin in venous blood is a naturally occurring contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By accentuating the effects of this agent through the use of gradient-echo techniques in high yields, the authors demonstrate in vivo images of brain microvasculature with image contrast reflecting the blood oxygen level. This blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast follows blood oxygen changes induced by anesthetics, by insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and by inhaled gas mixtures that alter metabolic demand or blood flow. The results suggest that BOLD contrast can be used to provide in vivo real-time maps of blood oxygenation in the brain under normal physiological conditions. BOLD contrast adds an additional feature to magnetic resonance imaging and complement other techniques that are attempting to provide position emission tomography-like measurements related to regional neural activity

  8. MR imaging methods for assessing fetal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Mary; Jiang, Shuzhou; Allsop, Joanna; Perkins, Lucinda; Srinivasan, Latha; Hayat, Tayyib; Kumar, Sailesh; Hajnal, Jo

    2008-05-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging provides an ideal tool for investigating growth and development of the brain in vivo. Current imaging methods have been hampered by fetal motion but recent advances in image acquisition can produce high signal to noise, high resolution 3-dimensional datasets suitable for objective quantification by state of the art post acquisition computer programs. Continuing development of imaging techniques will allow a unique insight into the developing brain, more specifically process of cell migration, axonal pathway formation, and cortical maturation. Accurate quantification of these developmental processes in the normal fetus will allow us to identify subtle deviations from normal during the second and third trimester of pregnancy either in the compromised fetus or in infants born prematurely.

  9. Simulation of Optical and Synthetic Imaging using Microwave Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J. Kramer; R. Nazikian; E. Valeo

    2004-01-16

    Two-dimensional full-wave time-dependent simulations in full plasma geometry are presented which show that conventional reflectometry (without a lens) can be used to synthetically image density fluctuations in fusion plasmas under conditions where the parallel correlation length greatly exceeds the poloidal correlation length of the turbulence. The advantage of synthetic imaging is that the image can be produced without the need for a large lens of high optical quality, and each frequency that is launched can be independently imaged. A particularly simple arrangement, consisting of a single receiver located at the midpoint of a microwave beam propagating along the plasma midplane is shown to suffice for imaging purposes. However, as the ratio of the parallel to poloidal correlation length decreases, a poloidal array of receivers needs to be used to synthesize the image with high accuracy. Simulations using DIII-D relevant parameters show the similarity of synthetic and optical imaging in present-day experiments.

  10. Simulation of Optical and Synthetic Imaging using Microwave Reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Valeo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional full-wave time-dependent simulations in full plasma geometry are presented which show that conventional reflectometry (without a lens) can be used to synthetically image density fluctuations in fusion plasmas under conditions where the parallel correlation length greatly exceeds the poloidal correlation length of the turbulence. The advantage of synthetic imaging is that the image can be produced without the need for a large lens of high optical quality, and each frequency that is launched can be independently imaged. A particularly simple arrangement, consisting of a single receiver located at the midpoint of a microwave beam propagating along the plasma midplane is shown to suffice for imaging purposes. However, as the ratio of the parallel to poloidal correlation length decreases, a poloidal array of receivers needs to be used to synthesize the image with high accuracy. Simulations using DIII-D relevant parameters show the similarity of synthetic and optical imaging in present-day experiments

  11. 99Tcm-Neurolite brain SPECT imaging as an outcome predictor after brain trauma: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, D.M.; Lan, L.; Booth, G.; Christie, J.; Bookalil, A.; Pollack, M.; Pacey, D.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to use semi-quantitative 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteine dimer (Neurolite) cerebral blood flow (CBF) SPET brain imaging to assess its role in predicting outcome after brain trauma. Twelve adult patients (9 males, 3 females) who sustained moderate to severe brain trauma were studied by CBF/SPET within 4 weeks of the injury (scan A) and again after 1 year (scan B). Clinical assessment was also performed at these times and included extensive neuropsychometric testing. Patients received 800-850 MBq 99 Tc m -Neurolite intravenously, and were imaged using a triple-headed gamma camera with LEUHR fan beam collimators. Processing, filtering, reconstruction and data set selection were identical for scans A and B. Semi-quantitative analysis was performed using 25 regions of interest in the cerebral cortex and deep structures in 2 coronal, 2 sagittal and 3 oblique planes. Normalized mean counts per pixel for the whole brain, and regional brain ratios were calculated. Scans A and B were compared and correlated to the clinical outcome data. Two patients with minimal CBF abnormalities made full recoveries. The remaining 10 had moderate to severe focal CBF defects, which showed no significant improvement at 12 months. Of these patients, 2 had moderate disability, 3 had severe to moderate disability and 2 had severe disability at 12 months. Patients with persisting focal abnormal CBF showed persisting neurological deficits. Neurolite brain CBF imaging is a useful method of predicting outcome after moderate to severe head injury

  12. Brain imaging with synthetic MR in children: clinical quality assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, Aaron M.; Serai, Suraj [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Leach, James L.; Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Synthetic magnetic resonance imaging is a quantitative imaging technique that measures inherent T1-relaxation, T2-relaxation, and proton density. These inherent tissue properties allow synthesis of various imaging sequences from a single acquisition. Clinical use of synthetic MR imaging has been described in adult populations. However, use of synthetic MR imaging has not been previously reported in children. The purpose of this study is to report our assessment of diagnostic image quality using synthetic MR imaging in children. Synthetic MR acquisition was obtained in a sample of children undergoing brain MR imaging. Image quality assessments were performed on conventional and synthetic T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR images. Standardized linear measurements were performed on conventional and synthetic T2 images. Estimates of patient age based upon myelination patterns were also performed. Conventional and synthetic MR images were evaluated on 30 children. Using a 4-point assessment scale, conventional imaging performed better than synthetic imaging for T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR images. When the assessment was simplified to a dichotomized scale, the conventional and synthetic T1-weighted and T2-weighted images performed similarly. However, the superiority of conventional FLAIR images persisted in the dichotomized assessment. There were no statistically significant differences between linear measurements made on T2-weighted images. Estimates of patient age based upon pattern of myelination were also similar between conventional and synthetic techniques. Synthetic MR imaging may be acceptable for clinical use in children. However, users should be aware of current limitations that could impact clinical utility in the software version used in this study. (orig.)

  13. Computational imaging through a fiber-optic bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad A.; Dumas, John Paul; Pierce, Mark C.; Bajwa, Waheed U.

    2017-05-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) has proven to be a viable method for reconstructing high-resolution signals using low-resolution measurements. Integrating CS principles into an optical system allows for higher-resolution imaging using lower-resolution sensor arrays. In contrast to prior works on CS-based imaging, our focus in this paper is on imaging through fiber-optic bundles, in which manufacturing constraints limit individual fiber spacing to around 2 μm. This limitation essentially renders fiber-optic bundles as low-resolution sensors with relatively few resolvable points per unit area. These fiber bundles are often used in minimally invasive medical instruments for viewing tissue at macro and microscopic levels. While the compact nature and flexibility of fiber bundles allow for excellent tissue access in-vivo, imaging through fiber bundles does not provide the fine details of tissue features that is demanded in some medical situations. Our hypothesis is that adapting existing CS principles to fiber bundle-based optical systems will overcome the resolution limitation inherent in fiber-bundle imaging. In a previous paper we examined the practical challenges involved in implementing a highly parallel version of the single-pixel camera while focusing on synthetic objects. This paper extends the same architecture for fiber-bundle imaging under incoherent illumination and addresses some practical issues associated with imaging physical objects. Additionally, we model the optical non-idealities in the system to get lower modelling errors.

  14. Dental imaging using laminar optical tomography and micro CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feixiao; Ozturk, Mehmet S.; Intes, Xavier; Kotha, Shiva

    2014-02-01

    Dental lesions located in the pulp are quite difficult to identify based on anatomical contrast, and, hence, to diagnose using traditional imaging methods such as dental CT. However, such lesions could lead to functional and/or molecular optical contrast. Herein, we report on the preliminary investigation of using Laminar Optical Tomography (LOT) to image the pulp and root canals in teeth. LOT is a non-contact, high resolution, molecular and functional mesoscopic optical imaging modality. To investigate the potential of LOT for dental imaging, we injected an optical dye into ex vivo teeth samples and imaged them using LOT and micro-CT simultaneously. A rigid image registration between the LOT and micro-CT reconstruction was obtained, validating the potential of LOT to image molecular optical contrast deep in the teeth with accuracy, non-invasively. We demonstrate that LOT can retrieve the 3D bio-distribution of molecular probes at depths up to 2mm with a resolution of several hundred microns in teeth.

  15. Optical double-image cryptography based on diffractive imaging with a laterally-translated phase grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R

    2011-10-10

    In this paper, we propose a method using structured-illumination-based diffractive imaging with a laterally-translated phase grating for optical double-image cryptography. An optical cryptosystem is designed, and multiple random phase-only masks are placed in the optical path. When a phase grating is laterally translated just before the plaintexts, several diffraction intensity patterns (i.e., ciphertexts) can be correspondingly obtained. During image decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is developed to extract plaintexts from the ciphertexts. In addition, security and advantages of the proposed method are analyzed. Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical simulation results. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  17. Structural Image Analysis of the Brain in Neuropsychology Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain provides exceptional image quality for visualization and neuroanatomical classification of brain structure. A variety of image analysis techniques provide both qualitative as well as quantitative methods to relate brain structure with neuropsychological outcome and are reviewed herein. Of particular importance are more automated methods that permit analysis of a broad spectrum of anatomical measures including volume, thickness and shape. The challenge for neuropsychology is which metric to use, for which disorder and the timing of when image analysis methods are applied to assess brain structure and pathology. A basic overview is provided as to the anatomical and pathoanatomical relations of different MRI sequences in assessing normal and abnormal findings. Some interpretive guidelines are offered including factors related to similarity and symmetry of typical brain development along with size-normalcy features of brain anatomy related to function. The review concludes with a detailed example of various quantitative techniques applied to analyzing brain structure for neuropsychological outcome studies in traumatic brain injury.

  18. Clinical application of synthesized brain surface imaging for preoperative simulation of brain biopsy under local anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Yuko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Imai, Fumihiro; Fujisawa, Kazuhisa; Takeshita, Gen; Kanno, Tetsuo; Koga, Sukehiko

    1994-01-01

    Surface anatomy scanning (SAS) is the technique which permits the direct visualization of brain surface structures, including cortical sulci, guri, subcortical lesions as well as skin markings for craniotomy. A synthesized brain surface image is a technique that combines MR angiography (MRA) with SAS, and it proposed by us for detecting cerebral superficial veins with these surface structures on the same image. The purpose of this report is to present the result of applying the synthesized brain surface image to the preoperative simulation of biopsy under local anesthesia in 2 cases of multiple metastatic brain tumors. The parameters for SAS were TR/TE=50/40 msec, flip angle=60deg by the fast T 2 technique using refocused FID in steady-state (STERF technique). SAS images were processed by gray scale reversal. The MRA data were acquired with two-dimensional time of flight (TOF) sequence after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. Before imaging, the water-filled plastic tubes were placed on the patients scalp as markings for craniotomy. Their positions were planned by the neurosurgeons. On SAS, the markings for burr-hole appeared located above the tumors. However on the synthesized brain surface images, the positions of burr-hole were considered to be inadequate, since superficial cerebral vein and sinus were also visualized in the area of the markings. From these results, the positions of burr-hole were reset to avoid the venous structures, and so as to include the lesions in operations. The biopsies were performed successfully and safely because the venous structure could be excluded from the operative field. By this technique it was easy to confirm the relationships among lesions, skin markings and venous structures. The technique described appears to be a useful method for preoperative simulation of biopsies for multiple metastatic brain tumors under local anesthesia. (author)

  19. Identification of clouds and aurorae in optical data images

    CERN Document Server

    Seviour, R; Honary, F

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present an automatic image recognition technique used to identify clouds and aurorae in digital images, taken with a CCD all-sky imager. The image recognition algorithm uses image segmentation to generate a binary block object image. Object analysis is then performed on the binary block image, the results of which are used to assess whether clouds, aurorae and stars are present in the original image. The need for such an algorithm arises because the optical study of particle precipitation into the Earth's atmosphere by the Ionosphere and Radio Propagation Group at Lancaster generates vast data-sets, over 25 000 images/year, making manual classification of all the images impractical.

  20. Nuclear transverse sectional brain function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scanfield imaging apparatus is described comprising a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; and means for imparting travel to the collimators such that the focal point of each collimator uniformly samples at least one half of the scan field

  1. Imaging cellular and subcellular structure of human brain tissue using micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, Anna; Bikis, Christos; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Joita-Pacureanu, Alexandra-Teodora; Thalmann, Peter; Deyhle, Hans; Osmani, Bekim; Chicherova, Natalia; Hieber, Simone E.; Cloetens, Peter; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2017-09-01

    Brain tissues have been an attractive subject for investigations in neuropathology, neuroscience, and neurobiol- ogy. Nevertheless, existing imaging methodologies have intrinsic limitations in three-dimensional (3D) label-free visualisation of extended tissue samples down to (sub)cellular level. For a long time, these morphological features were visualised by electron or light microscopies. In addition to being time-consuming, microscopic investigation includes specimen fixation, embedding, sectioning, staining, and imaging with the associated artefacts. More- over, optical microscopy remains hampered by a fundamental limit in the spatial resolution that is imposed by the diffraction of visible light wavefront. In contrast, various tomography approaches do not require a complex specimen preparation and can now reach a true (sub)cellular resolution. Even laboratory-based micro computed tomography in the absorption-contrast mode of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human cerebellum yields an image contrast comparable to conventional histological sections. Data of a superior image quality was obtained by means of synchrotron radiation-based single-distance X-ray phase-contrast tomography enabling the visualisation of non-stained Purkinje cells down to the subcellular level and automated cell counting. The question arises, whether the data quality of the hard X-ray tomography can be superior to optical microscopy. Herein, we discuss the label-free investigation of the human brain ultramorphology be means of synchrotron radiation-based hard X-ray magnified phase-contrast in-line tomography at the nano-imaging beamline ID16A (ESRF, Grenoble, France). As an example, we present images of FFPE human cerebellum block. Hard X-ray tomography can provide detailed information on human tissues in health and disease with a spatial resolution below the optical limit, improving understanding of the neuro-degenerative diseases.

  2. AFM Imaging of Natural Optical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research in this field is focused to the investigation of biological structures with superior optical features. The study presents atomic force microscopy of biological optical structures on butterfly wings. The bright blue and dark black color scales exhibit the different topography. These scales were compared to the visually the same color scales of other two species of butterflies. The histograms of heights distribution are presented and show similar results for the scales of one color for different species.

  3. OSA Imaging and Applied Optics Congress Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-16

    Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 20 16), paper JT3A .41. V. Katkovnik, "Sparse phase retrieval from noisy data: variational formulation and...A. Wojdyla, G. Gunjala, J. Dong, M. Benk, A. Neureuther, K. Goldberg , and L. Waller, "Off-axis Aberration Estimation in an EUV Microscope Using...2016, (Optical Society of America, 20 16), paper JT3A.41. V. Katkovnik, "Sparse phase retrieval from noisy data: variational formulation and algorithms

  4. Imaging of demyelinating and degenerative diseases of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drayer, B.P.

    1987-01-01

    The emergence of cross-sectional brain imaging in the past decade has greatly expanded the role of imaging as a primary diagnostic modality for demyelinating and degenerative brain disorders. To remain an effective neurologic consultant, the radiologist must better understand the neuropathology and functional significance of these disorders. MR imaging has become the dominant imaging modality for multiple sclerosis and all demyelinating and dysmyelinating disorders. Detection is most sensitive with intermediate and T2-weighted spin-echo pulse sequences. Although increased signal intensity in the white matter is a sensitive but nonspecific finding, a knowledge of the patient's history and disease pathoanatomy greatly improves diagnostic specificity. Since an increasing proportion of the population is over 65 years of age, the distinction of normal versus pathologic aging becomes critical. The role of imaging in dementing illness is to distinguish primary degenerative dementia from normal aging changes, vascular medullary artery distribution disease, microangiopathic leukoencephalopathy, communicating hydrocephalus, and mass lesions. The role of MR imaging, including brain iron mapping, is analyzed in bradykinetic, choreiform, and dystonic disorders. The complications of chronic ethanol abuse, including vermian atrophy, central pontine myelinolysis, and Wernicke encephalopathy, are also reviewed

  5. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  6. Afocal viewport optics for underwater imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Dan

    2014-09-01

    A conventional camera can be adapted for underwater use by enclosing it in a sealed waterproof pressure housing with a viewport. The viewport, as an optical interface between water and air needs to consider both the camera and water optical characteristics while also providing a high pressure water seal. Limited hydrospace visibility drives a need for wide angle viewports. Practical optical interfaces between seawater and air vary from simple flat plate windows to complex water contact lenses. This paper first provides a brief overview of the physical and optical properties of the ocean environment along with suitable optical materials. This is followed by a discussion of the characteristics of various afocal underwater viewport types including flat windows, domes and the Ivanoff corrector lens, a derivative of a Galilean wide angle camera adapter. Several new and interesting optical designs derived from the Ivanoff corrector lens are presented including a pair of very compact afocal viewport lenses that are compatible with both in water and in air environments and an afocal underwater hyper-hemispherical fisheye lens.

  7. Diffusion tensor imaging using multiple coils for mouse brain connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouls, John C; Badea, Alexandra; Anderson, Robert B J; Cofer, Gary P; Allan Johnson, G

    2018-04-19

    The correlation between brain connectivity and psychiatric or neurological diseases has intensified efforts to develop brain connectivity mapping techniques on mouse models of human disease. The neural architecture of mouse brain specimens can be shown non-destructively and three-dimensionally by diffusion tensor imaging, which enables tractography, the establishment of a connectivity matrix and connectomics. However, experiments on cohorts of animals can be prohibitively long. To improve throughput in a 7-T preclinical scanner, we present a novel two-coil system in which each coil is shielded, placed off-isocenter along the axis of the magnet and connected to a receiver circuit of the scanner. Preservation of the quality factor of each coil is essential to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance and throughput, because mouse brain specimen imaging at 7 T takes place in the coil-dominated noise regime. In that regime, we show a shielding configuration causing no SNR degradation in the two-coil system. To acquire data from several coils simultaneously, the coils are placed in the magnet bore, around the isocenter, in which gradient field distortions can bias diffusion tensor imaging metrics, affect tractography and contaminate measurements of the connectivity matrix. We quantified the experimental alterations in fractional anisotropy and eigenvector direction occurring in each coil. We showed that, when the coils were placed 12 mm away from the isocenter, measurements of the brain connectivity matrix appeared to be minimally altered by gradient field distortions. Simultaneous measurements on two mouse brain specimens demonstrated a full doubling of the diffusion tensor imaging throughput in practice. Each coil produced images devoid of shading or artifact. To further improve the throughput of mouse brain connectomics, we suggested a future expansion of the system to four coils. To better understand acceptable trade-offs between imaging throughput and connectivity

  8. Prediction of standard-dose brain PET image by using MRI and low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jiayin [School of Electronics Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang, Jiangsu 222005, China and IDEA Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Gao, Yaozong [IDEA Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Shi, Feng [IDEA Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Lalush, David S. [Joint UNC-NCSU Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Lin, Weili [MRI Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu [IDEA Laboratory, Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technology that produces 3D images reflecting tissue metabolic activity in human body. PET has been widely used in various clinical applications, such as in diagnosis of brain disorders. High-quality PET images play an essential role in diagnosing brain diseases/disorders. In practice, in order to obtain high-quality PET images, a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) needs to be used and injected into a living body. As a result, it will inevitably increase the patient’s exposure to radiation. One solution to solve this problem is predicting standard-dose PET images using low-dose PET images. As yet, no previous studies with this approach have been reported. Accordingly, in this paper, the authors propose a regression forest based framework for predicting a standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image by using a low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image and its corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image. Methods: The authors employ a regression forest for predicting the standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image by low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET and MRI images. Specifically, the proposed method consists of two main steps. First, based on the segmented brain tissues (i.e., cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter) in the MRI image, the authors extract features for each patch in the brain image from both low-dose PET and MRI images to build tissue-specific models that can be used to initially predict standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET images. Second, an iterative refinement strategy, via estimating the predicted image difference, is used to further improve the prediction accuracy. Results: The authors evaluated their algorithm on a brain dataset, consisting of 11 subjects with MRI, low-dose PET, and standard-dose PET images, using leave-one-out cross-validations. The proposed algorithm gives promising results with well-estimated standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET

  9. A technique for the deidentification of structural brain MR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Ozyurt, I Burak; Busa, Evelina

    2007-01-01

    inspection showed none had brain tissue removed. In a detailed analysis of the impact of defacing on skull-stripping, 16 datasets were bias corrected with N3 (Sled et al. [1998]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 17:87-97), defaced, and then skull-stripped using either a hybrid watershed algorithm (Ségonne et al. [2004...

  10. Reliability and Accuracy of Brain Volume Measurement on MR Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamagchii, Kechiro; Lassen, Anders; Ring, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Yamaguchi, K., Lassen, A. And Ring, P. Reliability and Accuracy of Brain Volume Measurement on MR Imaging. Abstract at ESMRMB98 European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology, Geneva, Sept 17-20, 1998 Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre University Hospital...

  11. Toward valid and reliable brain imaging results in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K W; Favaro, Angela; Marsh, Rachel; Ehrlich, Stefan; Lawson, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    Human brain imaging can help improve our understanding of mechanisms underlying brain function and how they drive behavior in health and disease. Such knowledge may eventually help us to devise better treatments for psychiatric disorders. However, the brain imaging literature in psychiatry and especially eating disorders has been inconsistent, and studies are often difficult to replicate. The extent or severity of extremes of eating and state of illness, which are often associated with differences in, for instance hormonal status, comorbidity, and medication use, commonly differ between studies and likely add to variation across study results. Those effects are in addition to the well-described problems arising from differences in task designs, data quality control procedures, image data preprocessing and analysis or statistical thresholds applied across studies. Which of those factors are most relevant to improve reproducibility is still a question for debate and further research. Here we propose guidelines for brain imaging research in eating disorders to acquire valid results that are more reliable and clinically useful. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Functional brain imaging in the clinical assessment of consciousness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Rafii

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that functional brain imaging might be used to identify consciousness in patients diagnosed with persistent vegetative state and minimally conscious state. Michael Rafii and James Brewer discuss the potential for fMRI's wider implementation in clinical practice, and associated caveats.

  13. STOCHASTIC OPTICS: A SCATTERING MITIGATION FRAMEWORK FOR RADIO INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Just as turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere can severely limit the angular resolution of optical telescopes, turbulence in the ionized interstellar medium fundamentally limits the resolution of radio telescopes. We present a scattering mitigation framework for radio imaging with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) that partially overcomes this limitation. Our framework, “stochastic optics,” derives from a simplification of strong interstellar scattering to separate small-scale (“diffractive”) effects from large-scale (“refractive”) effects, thereby separating deterministic and random contributions to the scattering. Stochastic optics extends traditional synthesis imaging by simultaneously reconstructing an unscattered image and its refractive perturbations. Its advantages over direct imaging come from utilizing the many deterministic properties of the scattering—such as the time-averaged “blurring,” polarization independence, and the deterministic evolution in frequency and time—while still accounting for the stochastic image distortions on large scales. These distortions are identified in the image reconstructions through regularization by their time-averaged power spectrum. Using synthetic data, we show that this framework effectively removes the blurring from diffractive scattering while reducing the spurious image features from refractive scattering. Stochastic optics can provide significant improvements over existing scattering mitigation strategies and is especially promising for imaging the Galactic Center supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, with the Global mm-VLBI Array and with the Event Horizon Telescope.

  14. STOCHASTIC OPTICS: A SCATTERING MITIGATION FRAMEWORK FOR RADIO INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael D., E-mail: mjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    Just as turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere can severely limit the angular resolution of optical telescopes, turbulence in the ionized interstellar medium fundamentally limits the resolution of radio telescopes. We present a scattering mitigation framework for radio imaging with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) that partially overcomes this limitation. Our framework, “stochastic optics,” derives from a simplification of strong interstellar scattering to separate small-scale (“diffractive”) effects from large-scale (“refractive”) effects, thereby separating deterministic and random contributions to the scattering. Stochastic optics extends traditional synthesis imaging by simultaneously reconstructing an unscattered image and its refractive perturbations. Its advantages over direct imaging come from utilizing the many deterministic properties of the scattering—such as the time-averaged “blurring,” polarization independence, and the deterministic evolution in frequency and time—while still accounting for the stochastic image distortions on large scales. These distortions are identified in the image reconstructions through regularization by their time-averaged power spectrum. Using synthetic data, we show that this framework effectively removes the blurring from diffractive scattering while reducing the spurious image features from refractive scattering. Stochastic optics can provide significant improvements over existing scattering mitigation strategies and is especially promising for imaging the Galactic Center supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, with the Global mm-VLBI Array and with the Event Horizon Telescope.

  15. Photoacoustic projection imaging using an all-optical detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Marschallinger, J.; Felbermayer, K.; Berer, T.

    2018-02-01

    We present a prototype for all-optical photoacoustic projection imaging. By generating projection images, photoacoustic information of large volumes can be retrieved with less effort compared to common photoacoustic computed tomography where many detectors and/or multiple measurements are required. In our approach, an array of 60 integrating line detectors is used to acquire photoacoustic waves. The line detector array consists of fiber-optic MachZehnder interferometers, distributed on a cylindrical surface. From the measured variation of the optical path lengths of the interferometers, induced by photoacoustic waves, a photoacoustic projection image can be reconstructed. The resulting images represent the projection of the three-dimensional spatial light absorbance within the imaged object onto a two-dimensional plane, perpendicular to the line detector array. The fiber-optic detectors achieve a noise-equivalent pressure of 24 Pascal at a 10 MHz bandwidth. We present the operational principle, the structure of the array, and resulting images. The system can acquire high-resolution projection images of large volumes within a short period of time. Imaging large volumes at high frame rates facilitates monitoring of dynamic processes.

  16. Diffusion MR Imaging of Postoperative Bilateral Acute Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, Anusha; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    We read with great interest, the case report on ischemic optic neuropathy (1). We would like to add a few points concerning the blood supply of the optic nerve and the correlation with the development of post-operative ischemic neuropathy. Actually, the perioperative or post-operative vision loss (postoperative ischemic neuropathy) is most likely due to ischemic optic neuropathy. Ischemic optic neuropathy (2) is classified as an anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION). This classification is based on the fact that blood supply (2) to the anterior segment of the optic nerve (part of the optic nerve in the scleral canal and the optic disc) is supplied by short posterior ciliary vessels or anastamotic ring branches around the optic nerve. The posterior part of the optic canal is relatively less perfused, and is supplied by ophthalmic artery and central fibres are perfused by a central retinal artery. So, in the post-operative period, the posterior part of the optic nerve is more vulnerable for ischemia, especially, after major surgeries (3), one of the theories being hypotension or anaemia (2) and resultant decreased perfusion. The onset of PION is slower than the anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. AION on the other hand, is usually spontaneous (idiopathic) or due to arteritis, and is usually sudden in its onset. The reported case is most likely a case of PION. The role of imaging, especially the diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, is very important because the ophthalmoscopic findings in early stages of PION is normal, and it may delay the diagnosis. On the other hand, edema of the disc is usually seen in the early stages of AION.

  17. Diffusion MR Imaging of Postoperative Bilateral Acute Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Anusha; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-09-15

    We read with great interest, the case report on ischemic optic neuropathy (1). We would like to add a few points concerning the blood supply of the optic nerve and the correlation with the development of post-operative ischemic neuropathy. Actually, the perioperative or post-operative vision loss (postoperative ischemic neuropathy) is most likely due to ischemic optic neuropathy. Ischemic optic neuropathy (2) is classified as an anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION). This classification is based on the fact that blood supply (2) to the anterior segment of the optic nerve (part of the optic nerve in the scleral canal and the optic disc) is supplied by short posterior ciliary vessels or anastamotic ring branches around the optic nerve. The posterior part of the optic canal is relatively less perfused, and is supplied by ophthalmic artery and central fibres are perfused by a central retinal artery. So, in the post-operative period, the posterior part of the optic nerve is more vulnerable for ischemia, especially, after major surgeries (3), one of the theories being hypotension or anaemia (2) and resultant decreased perfusion. The onset of PION is slower than the anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. AION on the other hand, is usually spontaneous (idiopathic) or due to arteritis, and is usually sudden in its onset. The reported case is most likely a case of PION. The role of imaging, especially the diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, is very important because the ophthalmoscopic findings in early stages of PION is normal, and it may delay the diagnosis. On the other hand, edema of the disc is usually seen in the early stages of AION.

  18. Integration of optical imaging with a small animal irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weersink, Robert A.; Ansell, Steve; Wang, An; Wilson, Graham; Shah, Duoaud; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system. Methods: The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources. Results: The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two

  19. Nuclear transverse sectional brain function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus comprises a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array that surrounds a scan field of interest. Each collimator is moveable relative to its adjacent collimator. Means are provided for imparting travel to the collimators such that the focal point of each uniformly samples at least one half of the scan field

  20. Reliability of magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of hypopituitarism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Shelton, Julie B; Glasier, Charles M; Phillips, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to identify hypopituitarism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) because they are at risk for developmental delay, seizures, or death. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of neurohypophyseal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of hypopituitarism in children with ONH. Cross-sectional study. One hundred one children with clinical ONH who underwent MRI of the brain and orbits and a detailed pediatric endocrinologic evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed on 1.5-Tesla scanners. The imaging protocol included sagittal T1-weighted images, axial fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery/T2-weighted images, and diffusion-weighted images of the brain. Orbital imaging included fat-saturated axial and coronal images and high-resolution axial T2-weighted images. The MRI studies were reviewed by 2 pediatric neuroradiologists for optic nerve hypoplasia, absent or ectopic posterior pituitary, absent pituitary infundibulum, absent septum pellucidum, migration anomalies, and hemispheric injury. Medical records were reviewed for clinical examination findings and endocrinologic status. All patients underwent a clinical evaluation by a pediatric endocrinologist and a standardized panel of serologic testing that included serum insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and free thyroxine levels. Radiologists were masked to patients' endocrinologic status and funduscopic findings. Sensitivity and specificity of MRI findings for the detection of hypopituitarism. Neurohypophyseal abnormalities, including absent pituitary infundibulum, ectopic posterior pituitary bright spot, and absent posterior pituitary bright spot, occurred in 33 children. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed neurohypophyseal abnormalities in 27 of the 28 children with hypopituitarism (sensitivity, 96%). A

  1. Functional imaging for brain tumors (perfusion, DTI and MR spectroscopy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Giesel, F.; Stieltjes, B.; Weber, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution considers the possibilities involved with using functional methods in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostics for brain tumors. Of the functional methods available, we discuss perfusion MRI (PWI), diffusion MRI (DWI and DTI) and MR spectroscopy (H-MRS). In cases of brain tumor, PWI aids in grading and better differentiation in diagnostics as well as for pre-therapeutic planning. In addition, the course of treatment, both after chemo- as well as radiotherapy in combination with surgical treatment, can be optimized. PWI allows better estimates of biological activity and aggressiveness in low grade brain tumors, and in the case of WHO grade II astrocytoma showing anaplastically transformed tumor areas, allows more rapid visualization and a better prediction of the course of the disease than conventional MRI diagnostics. Diffusion MRI, due to the directional dependence of the diffusion, can illustrate the course and direction of the nerve fibers, as well as reconstructing the nerve tracts in the cerebrum, pons and cerebellum 3-dimensionally. Diffusion imaging can be used for describing brain tumors, for evaluating contralateral involvement and the course of the nerve fibers near the tumor. Due to its operator dependence, DTI based fiber tracking for defining risk structures is controversial. DWI can also not differentiate accurately between cystic and necrotic brain tumors, or between metastases and brain abscesses. H-MRS provides information on cell membrane metabolism, neuronal integrity and the function of neuronal structures, energy metabolism and the formation of tumors and brain tissue necroses. Diagnostic problems such as the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, grading cerebral glioma and distinguishing between primary brain tumors and metastases can be resolved. An additional contribution will discuss the control of the course of glial tumors after radiotherapy. (orig.)

  2. The brain imaging study of the organophosphorus pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanmei; Liu Huaijun; Li Shuling; Wang Yongsheng; Huang Boyuan; Chi Cen; Shi Zhenyang; Cui Caixia; Zhou Lixia; Liu Runtian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the CT and MR imaging findings in acute organophosphorus pesticides poisoning patients, and to improve the early diagnostic ability. Methods: The imaging of 34 patients of organophosphorus pesticides poisoning was analyzed, the poisons were all taken orally. The pesticides included methamidophos (12 cases), omethoate (15 cases), DDV (3 cases), and methylparathion (4 cases). According to the diagnosis and classification diagnosis criterion of acute organophosphorus pesticides poisoning, the patients were divided into two groups: mild or moderate grade group (24 cases) and severe grade group (10 cases). The relationship between the clinic grade and CT and MRI findings was studied. Results: in the severe grade group, 4 patients showed brain edema, presenting as sulcus and fissure flattened or disappeared, and ventricles and cisterns narrowed or closed 2-3 days after poisoning. In 3 patients 3 days to 3 months after poisoning, bilateral basal ganglion and cerebral cortex showed prolonged T 1 and T 2 signals, and high signal intensity was detected on FLAIR, and bilateral basal ganglion low density was revealed on CT. T 1 relaxation was shortened, T 2 WI and FLAIR imaging showed high signal intensity in 1 patient. The imaging of 1 patient 6 months after poisoning showed the cerebral sulcus, fissure and ventricle were enlarged. CT and MRI in the mild or moderate group were normal. By the Fisher's exact probabilities test, the imaging exhibition difference between the severe grade and mild or moderate grade patients was significant. Conclusion: The CT and MRI can reflect the brain injury after poisoning, and the imaging exhibitions were various. The imaging information can provide credible foundation for the therapy for lightening the brain edema and nourishing the brain cell

  3. Evaluation of an automatic brain segmentation method developed for neonates on adult MR brain images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeskops, Pim; Viergever, Max A.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Išgum, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    Automatic brain tissue segmentation is of clinical relevance in images acquired at all ages. The literature presents a clear distinction between methods developed for MR images of infants, and methods developed for images of adults. The aim of this work is to evaluate a method developed for neonatal images in the segmentation of adult images. The evaluated method employs supervised voxel classification in subsequent stages, exploiting spatial and intensity information. Evaluation was performed using images available within the MRBrainS13 challenge. The obtained average Dice coefficients were 85.77% for grey matter, 88.66% for white matter, 81.08% for cerebrospinal fluid, 95.65% for cerebrum, and 96.92% for intracranial cavity, currently resulting in the best overall ranking. The possibility of applying the same method to neonatal as well as adult images can be of great value in cross-sectional studies that include a wide age range.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging based noninvasive measurements of brain hemodynamics in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, Jill B; Alderliesten, Thomas; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal disturbances of brain hemodynamics can have a detrimental effect on the brain's parenchyma with consequently adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Noninvasive, reliable tools to evaluate the neonate's brain hemodynamics are scarce. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging have provided new...

  5. Brain imaging before primary lung cancer resection: a controversial topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Zoe; Internullo, Eveline; Edey, Anthony; Laurence, Isabel; Bianchi, Davide; Addeo, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    International and national recommendations for brain imaging in patients planned to undergo potentially curative resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are variably implemented throughout the United Kingdom [Hudson BJ, Crawford MB, and Curtin J et al (2015) Brain imaging in lung cancer patients without symptoms of brain metastases: a national survey of current practice in England Clin Radiol https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2015.02.007]. However, the recommendations are not based on high-quality evidence and do not take into account cost implications and local resources. Our aim was to determine local practice based on historic outcomes in this patient cohort. This retrospective study took place in a regional thoracic surgical centre in the United Kingdom. Pathology records for all patients who had undergone lung resection with curative intent during the time period January 2012-December 2014 were analysed in October 2015. Electronic pathology and radiology reports were accessed for each patient and data collected about their histological findings, TNM stage, resection margins, and the presence of brain metastases on either pre-operative or post-operative imaging. From the dates given on imaging, we calculated the number of days post-resection that the brain metastases were detected. 585 patients were identified who had undergone resection of their lung cancer. Of these, 471 had accessible electronic radiology records to assess for the radiological evidence of brain metastases. When their electronic records were evaluated, 25/471 (5.3%) patients had radiological evidence of brain metastasis. Of these, five patients had been diagnosed with a brain metastasis at initial presentation and had undergone primary resection of the brain metastasis followed by resection of the lung primary. One patient had been diagnosed with both a primary lung and a primary bowel adenocarcinoma; on review of the case, it was felt that the brain metastasis was more likely to have

  6. Automatic intra-modality brain image registration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, J.M.; Ardekani, B.A.; Braun, M.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Registration of 3D images of brain of the same or different subjects has potential importance in clinical diagnosis, treatment planning and neurological research. The broad aim of our work is to produce an automatic and robust intra-modality, brain image registration algorithm for intra-subject and inter-subject studies. Our algorithm is composed of two stages. Initial alignment is achieved by finding the values of nine transformation parameters (representing translation, rotation and scale) that minimise the nonoverlapping regions of the head. This is achieved by minimisation of the sum of the exclusive OR of two binary head images, produced using the head extraction procedure described by Ardekani et al. (J Comput Assist Tomogr, 19:613-623, 1995). The initial alignment successfully determines the scale parameters and gross translation and rotation parameters. Fine alignment uses an objective function described for inter-modality registration in Ardekani et al. (ibid.). The algorithm segments one of the images to be aligned into a set of connected components using K-means clustering. Registration is achieved by minimising the K-means variance of the segmentation induced in the other image. Similarity of images of the same modality makes the method attractive for intra-modality registration. A 3D MR image, with voxel dimensions, 2x2x6 mm, was misaligned. The registered image shows visually accurate registration. The average displacement of a pixel from its correct location was measured to be 3.3 mm. The algorithm was tested on intra-subject MR images and was found to produce good qualitative results. Using the data available, the algorithm produced promising qualitative results in intra-subject registration. Further work is necessary in its application to intersubject registration, due to large variability in brain structure between subjects. Clinical evaluation of the algorithm for selected applications is required

  7. as-PSOCT: Volumetric microscopic imaging of human brain architecture and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Magnain, Caroline; Wang, Ruopeng; Dubb, Jay; Varjabedian, Ani; Tirrell, Lee S; Stevens, Allison; Augustinack, Jean C; Konukoglu, Ender; Aganj, Iman; Frosch, Matthew P; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Fischl, Bruce; Boas, David A

    2018-01-15

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) with serial sectioning has enabled the investigation of 3D structures in mouse and human brain tissue samples. By using intrinsic optical properties of back-scattering and birefringence, PSOCT reliably images cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and fiber orientations. In this study, we developed a fully automatic serial sectioning polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (as-PSOCT) system to enable volumetric reconstruction of human brain samples with unprecedented sample size and resolution. The 3.5 μm in-plane resolution and 50 μm through-plane voxel size allow inspection of cortical layers that are a single-cell in width, as well as small crossing fibers. We show the abilities of as-PSOCT in quantifying layer thicknesses of the cerebellar cortex and creating microscopic tractography of intricate fiber networks in the subcortical nuclei and internal capsule regions, all based on volumetric reconstructions. as-PSOCT provides a viable tool for studying quantitative cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture and mapping connectivity with microscopic resolution in the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.

    1997-02-01

    Implementation of optical imagery in a diffuse inhomogeneous medium such as biological tissue requires an understanding of photon migration and multiple scattering processes which act to randomize pathlength and degrade image quality. The nature of transmitted light from soft tissue ranges from the quasi-coherent properties of the minimally scattered component to the random incoherent light of the diffuse component. Recent experimental approaches have emphasized dynamic path-sensitive imaging measurements with either ultrashort laser pulses (ballistic photons) or amplitude modulated laser light launched into tissue (photon density waves) to increase image resolution and transmissive penetration depth. Ballistic imaging seeks to compensate for these {open_quotes}fog-like{close_quotes} effects by temporally isolating the weak early-arriving image-bearing component from the diffusely scattered background using a subpicosecond optical gate superimposed on the transmitted photon time-of-flight distribution. The authors have developed a broadly wavelength tunable (470 nm -2.4 {mu}m), ultrashort amplifying optical gate for transillumination spectral imaging based on optical parametric amplification in a nonlinear crystal. The time-gated image amplification process exhibits low noise and high sensitivity, with gains greater than 104 achievable for low light levels. We report preliminary benchmark experiments in which this system was used to reconstruct, spectrally upcovert, and enhance near-infrared two-dimensional images with feature sizes of 65 {mu}m/mm{sup 2} in background optical attenuations exceeding 10{sup 12}. Phase images of test objects exhibiting both absorptive contrast and diffuse scatter were acquired using a self-referencing Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in combination with short-pulse quasi-ballistic gating. The sensor employed a lenslet array based on binary optics technology and was sensitive to optical path distortions approaching {lambda}/100.

  9. Optically sectioned in vivo imaging with speckle illumination HiLo microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daryl; Ford, Tim N.; Chu, Kengyeh K.; Mertz, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple wide-field imaging technique, called HiLo microscopy, that is capable of producing optically sectioned images in real time, comparable in quality to confocal laser scanning microscopy. The technique is based on the fusion of two raw images, one acquired with speckle illumination and another with standard uniform illumination. The fusion can be numerically adjusted, using a single parameter, to produce optically sectioned images of varying thicknesses with the same raw data. Direct comparison between our HiLo microscope and a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope is made on the basis of sectioning strength and imaging performance. Specifically, we show that HiLo and confocal 3-D imaging of a GFP-labeled mouse brain hippocampus are comparable in quality. Moreover, HiLo microscopy is capable of faster, near video rate imaging over larger fields of view than attainable with standard confocal microscopes. The goal of this paper is to advertise the simplicity, robustness, and versatility of HiLo microscopy, which we highlight with in vivo imaging of common model organisms including planaria, C. elegans, and zebrafish.

  10. Diffractive optical element for creating visual 3D images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharsky, Alexander; Goncharsky, Anton; Durlevich, Svyatoslav

    2016-05-02

    A method is proposed to compute and synthesize the microrelief of a diffractive optical element to produce a new visual security feature - the vertical 3D/3D switch effect. The security feature consists in the alternation of two 3D color images when the diffractive element is tilted up/down. Optical security elements that produce the new security feature are synthesized using electron-beam technology. Sample optical security elements are manufactured that produce 3D to 3D visual switch effect when illuminated by white light. Photos and video records of the vertical 3D/3D switch effect of real optical elements are presented. The optical elements developed can be replicated using standard equipment employed for manufacturing security holograms. The new optical security feature is easy to control visually, safely protected against counterfeit, and designed to protect banknotes, documents, ID cards, etc.

  11. Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology based on light reflection. It provides real-time images with up to 2-mm penetration into the skin and a resolution of approximately 10 μm. It is routinely used in ophthalmology. The normal skin and its appendages have been studi...... technical solutions are being pursued to further improve the quality of the images and the data provided, and OCT is being integrated in multimodal imaging devices that would potentially be able to provide a quantum leap to the imaging of skin in vivo....

  12. Transport, monitoring, and successful brain MR imaging in unsedated neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Amit M.; Neil, Jeffrey J.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2008-01-01

    Neonatal cerebral MR imaging is a sensitive technique for evaluating brain injury in the term and preterm infant. In term encephalopathic infants, MR imaging reliably detects not only the pattern of brain injury but might also provide clues about the timing of injury. In premature infants, MR imaging has surpassed US in the detection of white matter injury, a common lesion in this population. Concerns remain about the safety and transport of sedated neonates for MR examination to radiology suites, which are usually located at a distance from neonatal intensive care units. We present our own institutional experience and guidelines used to optimize the performance of cerebral MR examinations in neonates without sedation or anesthesia. (orig.)

  13. Technetium SPECT agents for imaging heart and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    One major goal of radiopharmaceutical research has been the development of technetium-based perfusion tracers for SPECT imaging of the heart and brain. The recent clinical introduction of the technetium complexes HM-PAO, ECD and DMG-2MP for brain imaging, and of CDO-MEB and MIBI for heart imaging promises to revolutionize the field of nuclear medicine. All of these agents appear to localize in the target tissue in proportion to blood flow, but their mechanisms of localization and/or retention may differ quite widely. In this talk, a survey of the new technetium SPECT agents will be presented. The inorganic and biological chemistry of these complexes, mechanisms of uptake and retention, QSAR studies, and potential clinical applications are discussed

  14. AFM imaging of natural optical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaeva, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel; Prokopyeva, Elena; Kaspar, Pavel; Grmela, Lubomír.; Škarvada, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The colors of some living organisms assosiated with the surface structure. Irridesence butterfly wings is an example of such coloration. Optical effects such as interference, diffraction, polarization are responsible for physical colors appearance. Alongside with amazing beauty this structure represent interest for design of optical devices. Here we report the results of morphology investigation by atomic force microscopy. The difference in surface structure of black and blue wings areas is clearly observed. It explains the angle dependence of the wing blue color, since these micrometer and sub-micrometer quasiperiodical structures could control the light propagation, absorption and reflection.

  15. Fluorescence optical imaging in anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etrych, Tomáš; Lucas, Henrike; Janoušková, Olga; Chytil, Petr; Mueller, Thomas; Mäder, Karsten

    2016-03-28

    In the past several decades, nanosized drug delivery systems with various targeting functions and controlled drug release capabilities inside targeted tissues or cells have been intensively studied. Understanding their pharmacokinetic properties is crucial for the successful transition of this research into clinical practice. Among others, fluorescence imaging has become one of the most commonly used imaging tools in pre-clinical research. The development of increasing numbers of suitable fluorescent dyes excitable in the visible to near-infrared wavelengths of the spectrum has significantly expanded the applicability of fluorescence imaging. This paper focuses on the potential applications and limitations of non-invasive imaging techniques in the field of drug delivery, especially in anticancer therapy. Fluorescent imaging at both the cellular and systemic levels is discussed in detail. Additionally, we explore the possibility for simultaneous treatment and imaging using theranostics and combinations of different imaging techniques, e.g., fluorescence imaging with computed tomography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Amide Proton Transfer (APT) MR imaging and Magnetization Transfer (MT) MR imaging of pediatric brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Kang, Huiying; Peng, Yun; Zhao, Xuna; Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the brain maturation process during childhood using combined amide proton transfer (APT) and conventional magnetization transfer (MT) imaging at 3 Tesla. Eighty-two neurodevelopmentally normal children (44 males and 38 females; age range, 2-190 months) were imaged using an APT/MT imaging protocol with multiple saturation frequency offsets. The APT-weighted (APTW) and MT ratio (MTR) signals were quantitatively analyzed in multiple brain areas. Age-related changes in MTR and APTW were evaluated with a non-linear regression analysis. The APTW signals followed a decreasing exponential curve with age in all brain regions measured (R"2 = 0.7-0.8 for the corpus callosum, frontal and occipital white matter, and centrum semiovale). The most significant changes appeared within the first year. At maturation, larger decreases in APTW and lower APTW values were found in the white matter. On the contrary, the MTR signals followed an increasing exponential curve with age in the same brain regions measured, with the most significant changes appearing within the initial 2 years. There was an inverse correlation between the MTR and APTW signal intensities during brain maturation. Together with MT imaging, protein-based APT imaging can provide additional information in assessing brain myelination in the paediatric population. (orig.)

  17. Amide Proton Transfer (APT) MR imaging and Magnetization Transfer (MT) MR imaging of pediatric brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Kang, Huiying; Peng, Yun [Beijing Children' s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Xuna [Philips Healthcare, Beijing (China); Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University, Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-10-15

    To quantify the brain maturation process during childhood using combined amide proton transfer (APT) and conventional magnetization transfer (MT) imaging at 3 Tesla. Eighty-two neurodevelopmentally normal children (44 males and 38 females; age range, 2-190 months) were imaged using an APT/MT imaging protocol with multiple saturation frequency offsets. The APT-weighted (APTW) and MT ratio (MTR) signals were quantitatively analyzed in multiple brain areas. Age-related changes in MTR and APTW were evaluated with a non-linear regression analysis. The APTW signals followed a decreasing exponential curve with age in all brain regions measured (R{sup 2} = 0.7-0.8 for the corpus callosum, frontal and occipital white matter, and centrum semiovale). The most significant changes appeared within the first year. At maturation, larger decreases in APTW and lower APTW values were found in the white matter. On the contrary, the MTR signals followed an increasing exponential curve with age in the same brain regions measured, with the most significant changes appearing within the initial 2 years. There was an inverse correlation between the MTR and APTW signal intensities during brain maturation. Together with MT imaging, protein-based APT imaging can provide additional information in assessing brain myelination in the paediatric population. (orig.)

  18. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  19. What difference do brain images make in US criminal trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Valerie Gray; Lamb, Edward

    2018-05-09

    One of the early concerns regarding the use of neuroscience data in criminal trials is that even if the brain images are ambiguous or inconclusive, they still might influence a jury in virtue of the fact that they appear easy to understand. By appearing visually simple, even though they are really statistically constructed maps with a host of assumptions built into them, a lay jury or a judge might take brain scans to be more reliable or relevant than they actually are. Should courts exclude brain scans for being more prejudicial than probative? Herein, we rehearse a brief history of brain scans admitted into criminal trials in the United States, then describe the results of a recent analysis of appellate court decisions that referenced 1 or more brain scans in the judicial decision. In particular, we aim to explain how courts use neuroscience imaging data: Do they interpret the data correctly? Does it seem that scans play an oversized role in judicial decision-making? And have they changed how criminal defendants are judged? It is our hope that in answering these questions, clinicians and defence attorneys will be able to make better informed decisions regarding about how to manage those incarcerated. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. In vitro measurements of optical properties of porcine brain using a novel compact device

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yavari, N

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available describes measurements of the optical properties of porcine brain tissue using novel instrumentation for simultaneous absorption and scattering characterisation of small turbid samples. Integrating sphere measurements are widely used as a reference method...

  1. 3-D brain image registration using optimal morphological processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncaric, S.; Dhawan, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) registration of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) images of the brain is important for analysis of the human brain and its diseases. A procedure for optimization of (3-D) morphological structuring elements, based on a genetic algorithm, is presented in the paper. The registration of the MR and PET images is done by means of a registration procedure in two major phases. In the first phase, the Iterative Principal Axis Transform (IPAR) is used for initial registration. In the second phase, the optimal shape description method based on the Morphological Signature Transform (MST) is used for final registration. The morphological processing is used to improve the accuracy of the basic IPAR method. The brain ventricle is used as a landmark for MST registration. A near-optimal structuring element obtained by means of a genetic algorithm is used in MST to describe the shape of the ventricle. The method has been tested on the set of brain images demonstrating the feasibility of approach. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  2. Reversible acute methotrexate leukoencephalopathy: atypical brain MR imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziereisen, France; Damry, Nash; Christophe, Catherine; Dan, Bernard; Azzi, Nadira; Ferster, Alina

    2006-01-01

    Unusual acute symptomatic and reversible early-delayed leukoencephalopathy has been reported to be induced by methotrexate (MTX). We aimed to identify the occurrence of such atypical MTX neurotoxicity in children and document its MR presentation. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical findings and brain MRI obtained in 90 children treated with MTX for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or non-B malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma. All 90 patients had normal brain imaging before treatment. In these patients, brain imaging was performed after treatment completion and/or relapse and/or occurrence of neurological symptoms. Of the 90 patients, 15 (16.7%) showed signs of MTX neurotoxicity on brain MRI, 9 (10%) were asymptomatic, and 6 (6.7%) showed signs of acute leukoencephalopathy. On the routine brain MRI performed at the end of treatment, all asymptomatic patients had classical MR findings of reversible MTX neurotoxicity, such as abnormal high-intensity areas localized in the deep periventricular white matter on T2-weighted images. In contrast, the six symptomatic patients had atypical brain MRI characterized by T2 high-intensity areas in the supratentorial cortex and subcortical white matter (n=6), cerebellar cortex and white matter (n=4), deep periventricular white matter (n=2) and thalamus (n=1). MR normalization occurred later than clinical recovery in these six patients. In addition to mostly asymptomatic classical MTX neurotoxicity, MTX may induce severe but reversible unusual leukoencephalopathy. It is important to recognize this clinicoradiological presentation in the differential diagnosis of acute neurological deterioration in children treated with MTX. (orig.)

  3. Systematic Image Based Optical Alignment and Tensegrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Glenn W.; Montgomery, Edward E, IV (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will review the objectives and current status of two Small Business Innovative Research being performed by the Sirius Group, under the direction of MSFC. They all relate to the development of advanced optical systems technologies for automated segmented mirror alignment techniques and fundamental design methodologies for ultralight structures. These are important to future astronomical missions in space.

  4. Imaging of the brain in the HIV-positive child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safriel, Y.I.

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV) infection around the world, coupled with increasing population movement, make it likely that many physicians will treat HIV-infected patients. New treatment protocols for the specific manifestations of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) make distinguishing the different neurological diseases of great importance. The pattern of disease in children differs from those of adults both in its distribution and etiology. This article encapsulates the salient aspects relating to the imaging of the brain in HIV-positive children, paying particular attention to recent advances and the different features of the various pathological conditions affecting the HIV-infected brain in children. (orig.)

  5. Images to visualize the brain. PET: Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Diagnosis instrument and research tool, Positron Emission Tomography permits advanced technological developments on positron camera, on molecule labelling and principally on very complex 3D image processing. Cyceron Centre in Caen-France works on brain diseases and try to understand the mechanism of observed troubles and to assess the treatment efficiency with PET. Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot of CEA-France establishes a mapping of cognitive functions in PET as vision areas, anxiety regions, brain organization of language, different attention forms, voluntary actions and motor functions

  6. Image-guided urologic surgery: intraoperative optical imaging and tissue interrogation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Joseph C.

    2017-02-01

    Emerging optical imaging technologies can be integrated in the operating room environment during minimally invasive and open urologic surgery, including oncologic surgery of the bladder, prostate, and kidney. These technologies include macroscopic fluorescence imaging that provides contrast enhancement between normal and diseased tissue and microscopic imaging that provides tissue characterization. Optical imaging technologies that have reached the clinical arena in urologic surgery are reviewed, including photodynamic diagnosis, near infrared fluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. Molecular imaging represents an exciting future arena in conjugating cancer-specific contrast agents to fluorophores to improve the specificity of disease detection. Ongoing efforts are underway to translate optimal targeting agents and imaging modalities, with the goal to improve cancer-specific and functional outcomes.

  7. Quantitative Image Restoration in Bright Field Optical Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio; Sánchez Miranda, Manuel de Jesús

    2017-11-07

    Bright field (BF) optical microscopy is regarded as a poor method to observe unstained biological samples due to intrinsic low image contrast. We introduce quantitative image restoration in bright field (QRBF), a digital image processing method that restores out-of-focus BF images of unstained cells. Our procedure is based on deconvolution, using a point spread function modeled from theory. By comparing with reference images of bacteria observed in fluorescence, we show that QRBF faithfully recovers shape and enables quantify size of individual cells, even from a single input image. We applied QRBF in a high-throughput image cytometer to assess shape changes in Escherichia coli during hyperosmotic shock, finding size heterogeneity. We demonstrate that QRBF is also applicable to eukaryotic cells (yeast). Altogether, digital restoration emerges as a straightforward alternative to methods designed to generate contrast in BF imaging for quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High Spatial Resolution Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Human Optic Nerve Lipids and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David M. G.; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Rose, Kristie L.; Schey, Kevin L.

    2015-06-01

    The human optic nerve carries signals from the retina to the visual cortex of the brain. Each optic nerve is comprised of approximately one million nerve fibers that are organized into bundles of 800-1200 fibers surrounded by connective tissue and supportive glial cells. Damage to the optic nerve contributes to a number of blinding diseases including: glaucoma, neuromyelitis optica, optic neuritis, and neurofibromatosis; however, the molecular mechanisms of optic nerve damage and death are incompletely understood. Herein we present high spatial resolution MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) analysis of lipids and proteins to define the molecular anatomy of the human optic nerve. The localization of a number of lipids was observed in discrete anatomical regions corresponding to myelinated and unmyelinated nerve regions as well as to supporting connective tissue, glial cells, and blood vessels. A protein fragment from vimentin, a known intermediate filament marker for astrocytes, was observed surrounding nerved fiber bundles in the lamina cribrosa region. S100B was also found in supporting glial cell regions in the prelaminar region, and the hemoglobin alpha subunit was observed in blood vessel areas. The molecular anatomy of the optic nerve defined by MALDI IMS provides a firm foundation to study biochemical changes in blinding human diseases.

  9. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, legal representative, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  10. Contrast-based sensorless adaptive optics for retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Bui, Bang; Nguyen, Christine T O; He, Zheng; Metha, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Conventional adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes use wavefront sensing methods to characterize ocular aberrations for real-time correction. However, there are important situations in which the wavefront sensing step is susceptible to difficulties that affect the accuracy of the correction. To circumvent these, wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (or non-wavefront sensing AO; NS-AO) imaging has recently been developed and has been applied to point-scanning based retinal imaging modalities. In this study we show, for the first time, contrast-based NS-AO ophthalmoscopy for full-frame in vivo imaging of human and animal eyes. We suggest a robust image quality metric that could be used for any imaging modality, and test its performance against other metrics using (physical) model eyes.

  11. Radiation imaging with optically read out GEM-based detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunbauer, F. M.; Lupberger, M.; Oliveri, E.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; van Stenis, M.

    2018-02-01

    Modern imaging sensors allow for high granularity optical readout of radiation detectors such as MicroPattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). Taking advantage of the high signal amplification factors achievable by MPGD technologies such as Gaseous Electron Multipliers (GEMs), highly sensitive detectors can be realised and employing gas mixtures with strong scintillation yield in the visible wavelength regime, optical readout of such detectors can provide high-resolution event representations. Applications from X-ray imaging to fluoroscopy and tomography profit from the good spatial resolution of optical readout and the possibility to obtain images without the need for extensive reconstruction. Sensitivity to low-energy X-rays and energy resolution permit energy resolved imaging and material distinction in X-ray fluorescence measurements. Additionally, the low material budget of gaseous detectors and the possibility to couple scintillation light to imaging sensors via fibres or mirrors makes optically read out GEMs an ideal candidate for beam monitoring detectors in high energy physics as well as radiotherapy. We present applications and achievements of optically read out GEM-based detectors including high spatial resolution imaging and X-ray fluorescence measurements as an alternative readout approach for MPGDs. A detector concept for low intensity applications such as X-ray crystallography, which maximises detection efficiency with a thick conversion region but mitigates parallax-induced broadening is presented and beam monitoring capabilities of optical readout are explored. Augmenting high resolution 2D projections of particle tracks obtained with optical readout with timing information from fast photon detectors or transparent anodes for charge readout, 3D reconstruction of particle trajectories can be performed and permits the realisation of optically read out time projection chambers. Combining readily available high performance imaging sensors with compatible

  12. 3D surface reconstruction using optical flow for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Nan; Yang, Yee-Hong; Pierson, R.

    1996-01-01

    The recovery of a 3D model from a sequence of 2D images is very useful in medical image analysis. Image sequences obtained from the relative motion between the object and the camera or the scanner contain more 3D information than a single image. Methods to visualize the computed tomograms can be divided into two approaches: the surface rendering approach and the volume rendering approach. A new surface rendering method using optical flow is proposed. Optical flow is the apparent motion in the image plane produced by the projection of the real 3D motion onto 2D image. In this paper, the object remains stationary while the scanner undergoes translational motion. The 3D motion of an object can be recovered from the optical flow field using additional constraints. By extracting the surface information from 3D motion, it is possible to get an accurate 3D model of the object. Both synthetic and real image sequences have been used to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method. The experimental results suggest that the proposed method is suitable for the reconstruction of 3D models from ultrasound medical images as well as other computed tomograms

  13. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2006-01-01

    Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references. This book is intended for engineers and scientists in the relevant fields, graduate students, industry managers, university professors, government managers, and policy makers. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications focuses on research monographs in the areas of -Recognition and identification (including optical imaging, biometrics, authentication, verification, and smart surveillance systems) -Biological and chemical threat detection (including bios...

  14. Imaging brain microstructure with diffusion MRI: practicality and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Daniel C; Dyrby, Tim B; Nilsson, Markus; Zhang, Hui

    2017-11-29

    This article gives an overview of microstructure imaging of the brain with diffusion MRI and reviews the state of the art. The microstructure-imaging paradigm aims to estimate and map microscopic properties of tissue using a model that links these properties to the voxel scale MR signal. Imaging techniques of this type are just starting to make the transition from the technical research domain to wide application in biomedical studies. We focus here on the practicalities of both implementing such techniques and using them in applications. Specifically, the article summarizes the relevant aspects of brain microanatomy and the range of diffusion-weighted MR measurements that provide sensitivity to them. It then reviews the evolution of mathematical and computational models that relate the diffusion MR signal to brain tissue microstructure, as well as the expanding areas of application. Next we focus on practicalities of designing a working microstructure imaging technique: model selection, experiment design, parameter estimation, validation, and the pipeline of development of this class of technique. The article concludes with some future perspectives on opportunities in this topic and expectations on how the field will evolve in the short-to-medium term. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Time series analysis of brain regional volume by MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Mika; Tarusawa, Ayaka; Nihei, Mitsuyo; Fukami, Tadanori; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Wu, Jin; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The present study proposed a methodology of time series analysis of volumes of frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes and cerebellum because such volumetric reports along the process of individual's aging have been scarcely presented. Subjects analyzed were brain images of 2 healthy males and 18 females of av. age of 69.0 y, of which T1-weighted 3D SPGR (spoiled gradient recalled in the steady state) acquisitions with a GE SIGNA EXCITE HD 1.5T machine were conducted for 4 times in the time series of 42-50 months. The image size was 256 x 256 x (86-124) voxels with digitization level 16 bits. As the template for the regions, the standard gray matter atlas (icbn452 a tlas p robability g ray) and its labeled one (icbn.Labels), provided by UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, were used for individual's standardization. Segmentation, normalization and coregistration were performed with the MR imaging software SPM8 (Statistic Parametric Mapping 8). Volumes of regions were calculated as their voxel ratio to the whole brain voxel in percent. It was found that the regional volumes decreased with aging in all above lobes examined and cerebellum in average percent per year of -0.11, -0.07, -0.04, -0.02, and -0.03, respectively. The procedure for calculation of the regional volumes, which has been manually operated hitherto, can be automatically conducted for the individual brain using the standard atlases above. (T.T.)

  16. Radionuclide brain imaging in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.C.; Gacinovic, S.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) may produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and signs. CNS involvement in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) includes AIDS dementia complex or HIV-1 associated cognitive/motor complex (widely known as HIV encephalopathy), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), opportunistic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, TB, Cryptococcus and infiltration by non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma. High resolution structural imaging investigations, either X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have contributed to the understanding and definition of cerebral damage caused by HIV encephalopathy. Atrophy and mainly high signal scattered white matter abnormalities are commonly seen with MRI. PML produces focal white matter high signal abnormalities due to multiple foci of demyelination. However, using structural imaging techniques there are no reliable parameters to distinguish focal lesions due to opportunistic infection (Toxoplasma gondii abscess) from neoplasm (lymphoma infiltration). It is studied the use of radionuclide brain imaging techniques in the investigation of HIV infected patients. Brain perfusion Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET), neuroreceptor and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies are reviewed. Greater emphasis is put on the potential of some radiopharmaceuticals, considered to be brain tumour markers, to distinguish intracerebral lymphoma infiltration from Toxoplasma infection. SPET with 201 Tl using quantification (tumour to non-tumour radioactivity ratios) appears a very promising technique to identify intracerebral lymphoma

  17. Neuromyelitis optica with linear enhancement of corpus callosum in brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Moghadasi, Abdorreza Naser; Owji, Mahsa; Naghshineh, Hoda; Minagar, Alireza

    2015-06-10

    Neuromyelitis optica is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with various patterns of brain lesions. Corpus callosum may be involved in both multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Previous case reports have demonstrated that callosal lesions in neuromyelitis optica are usually large and edematous and have a heterogeneous intensity showing a "marbled pattern" in the acute phase. Their size and intensity may reduce with time or disappear in the chronic stages. In this report, we describe a case of a 25-year-old Caucasian man with neuromyelitis optica who presented clinically with optic neuritis and myelitis. His brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated linear enhancement of the corpus callosum. Brain images with contrast agent added also showed linear ependymal layer enhancement of the lateral ventricles, which has been reported in this disease previously. Linear enhancement of corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging with contrast agent could help in diagnosing neuromyelitis optica and differentiating it from other demyelinating disease, especially multiple sclerosis.

  18. Correlation characteristics of optical coherence tomography images of turbid media with statistically inhomogeneous optical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolin, Lev S.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Turchin, Ilya V.

    2012-01-01

    Noisy structure of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of turbid medium contains information about spatial variations of its optical parameters. We propose analytical model of statistical characteristics of OCT signal fluctuations from turbid medium with spatially inhomogeneous coefficients of absorption and backscattering. Analytically predicted correlation characteristics of OCT signal from spatially inhomogeneous medium are in good agreement with the results of correlation analysis of OCT images of different biological tissues. The proposed model can be efficiently applied for quantitative evaluation of statistical properties of absorption and backscattering fluctuations basing on correlation characteristics of OCT images.

  19. Brain perfusion imaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehisa; Morita, Mitsuya; Nakano, Imaharu

    2007-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been applied for evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in various neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS with dementia (ALS-D). Brain perfusion SPECT using statistical image analysis is useful for accurate and objective diagnosis to evaluate slight decreases in rCBF, even in cases difficult to assess by visual inspection. We have used statistical parametric mapping (SPM), three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP), easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS) as statistical image analyses. ALS-D cases, even if a case manifests minimal mentality change, showed obvious rCBF reduction in the bilateral prefrontal area with some irregularity and laterality of its decrease. This abnormality was clear in ALS-D compared with classic ALS. Our study has demonstrated that brain perfusion SPECT imaging using statistical image analyses is quite useful as an adjunct to presume the existence of dementia in ALS, even if ALS patients have trouble in verbal or manual communication of the language because of progressive bulbar symptoms and muscle weakness. Thus, for ALS patients with any subtle signs and symptoms suggesting dementia, we recommend a SPECT study with use of statistical image analyses. (author)

  20. Optimization of Butterworth filter for brain SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoshima, Satoshi; Maruno, Hirotaka; Yui, Nobuharu

    1993-01-01

    A method has been described to optimize the cutoff frequency of the Butterworth filter for brain SPECT imaging. Since a computer simulation study has demonstrated that separation between an object signal and the random noise in projection images in a spatial-frequency domain is influenced by the total number of counts, the cutoff frequency of the Butterworth filter should be optimized for individual subjects according to total counts in a study. To reveal the relationship between the optimal cutoff frequencies and total counts in brain SPECT study, we used a normal volunteer and 99m Tc hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) to obtain projection sets with different total counts. High quality images were created from a projection set with an acquisition time of 300-seconds per projection. The filter was optimized by calculating mean square errors from high quality images visually inspecting filtered reconstructed images. Dependence between total counts and optimal cutoff frequencies was clearly demonstrated in a nomogram. Using this nomogram, the optimal cutoff frequency for each study can be estimated from total counts, maximizing visual image quality. The results suggest that the cutoff frequency of Butterworth filter should be determined by referring to total counts in each study. (author)

  1. Implantable fiber-optic interface for parallel multisite long-term optical dynamic brain interrogation in freely moving mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Fedotov, I. V.; Ivashkina, O. I.; Zots, M. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Seeing the big picture of functional responses within large neural networks in a freely functioning brain is crucial for understanding the cellular mechanisms behind the higher nervous activity, including the most complex brain functions, such as cognition and memory. As a breakthrough toward meeting this challenge, implantable fiber-optic interfaces integrating advanced optogenetic technologies and cutting-edge fiber-optic solutions have been demonstrated, enabling a long-term optogenetic manipulation of neural circuits in freely moving mice. Here, we show that a specifically designed implantable fiber-optic interface provides a powerful tool for parallel long-term optical interrogation of distinctly separate, functionally different sites in the brain of freely moving mice. This interface allows the same groups of neurons lying deeply in the brain of a freely behaving mouse to be reproducibly accessed and optically interrogated over many weeks, providing a long-term dynamic detection of genome activity in response to a broad variety of pharmacological and physiological stimuli. PMID:24253232

  2. Active polarization imaging system based on optical heterodyne balanced receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Sun, Jianfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yu; Luan, Zhu; Hou, Peipei; Liu, liren

    2017-08-01

    Active polarization imaging technology has recently become the hot research field all over the world, which has great potential application value in the military and civil area. By introducing active light source, the Mueller matrix of the target can be calculated according to the incident light and the emitted or reflected light. Compared with conventional direct detection technology, optical heterodyne detection technology have higher receiving sensitivities, which can obtain the whole amplitude, frequency and phase information of the signal light. In this paper, an active polarization imaging system will be designed. Based on optical heterodyne balanced receiver, the system can acquire the horizontal and vertical polarization of reflected optical field simultaneously, which contain the polarization characteristic of the target. Besides, signal to noise ratio and imaging distance can be greatly improved.

  3. Inverting Image Data For Optical Testing And Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Michael; Redding, David; Yu, Jeffrey W.; Dumont, Philip J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from images produced by slightly incorrectly figured concave primary mirror in telescope processed into estimate of spherical aberration of mirror, by use of algorithm finding nonlinear least-squares best fit between actual images and synthetic images produced by multiparameter mathematical model of telescope optical system. Estimated spherical aberration, in turn, converted into estimate of deviation of reflector surface from nominal precise shape. Algorithm devised as part of effort to determine error in surface figure of primary mirror of Hubble space telescope, so corrective lens designed. Modified versions of algorithm also used to find optical errors in other components of telescope or of other optical systems, for purposes of testing, alignment, and/or correction.

  4. Simulated annealing in adaptive optics for imaging the eye retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zommer, S.; Adler, J.; Lipson, S. G.; Ribak, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Adaptive optics is a method designed to correct deformed images in real time. Once the distorted wavefront is known, a deformable mirror is used to compensate the aberrations and return the wavefront to a plane wave. This study concentrates on methods that omit wave front sensing from the reconstruction process. Such methods use stochastic algorithms to find the extremum of a certain sharpness function, thereby correcting the image without any information on the wavefront. Theoretical work [l] has shown that the optical problem can be mapped onto a model for crystal roughening. The main algorithm applied is simulated annealing. We present a first hardware realization of this algorithm in an adaptive optics system designed to image the retina of the human eye

  5. Imaging optical probe for pressurized steam-water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, M.R.; Pulfrey, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    An air-cooled imaging optical probe, with an outside diameter of 25.4 mm, has been developed to provide high resolution viewing of flow regimes in a steam-water environment at 343 0 C and 15.2 MPa. The design study considered a 3-m length probe. A 0.3-m length probe prototype was fabricated and tested. The optical probe consists of a 3.5-mm diameter optics train surrounded by two coaxial coolant flow channels and two coaxial insulating dead air spaces. With air flowing through the probe at 5.7 g/s, thermal analysis shows that no part of the optics train will exceed 93 0 C when a 3-m length probe is immersed in a 343 0 C environment. Computer stress analysis plus actual tests show that the probe can operate successfully with conservative safety factors. The imaging optical probe was tested five times in the design environment at the semiscale facility at the INEL. Two-phase flow regimes in the high temperature, high pressure, steam-water blowdown and reflood experiments were recorded on video tape for the first time with the imaging optical probe

  6. Data-driven forward model inference for EEG brain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Hauberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a flexible and accessible tool with excellent temporal resolution but with a spatial resolution hampered by volume conduction. Reconstruction of the cortical sources of measured EEG activity partly alleviates this problem and effectively turns EEG into a brain......-of-concept study, we show that, even when anatomical knowledge is unavailable, a suitable forward model can be estimated directly from the EEG. We propose a data-driven approach that provides a low-dimensional parametrization of head geometry and compartment conductivities, built using a corpus of forward models....... Combined with only a recorded EEG signal, we are able to estimate both the brain sources and a person-specific forward model by optimizing this parametrization. We thus not only solve an inverse problem, but also optimize over its specification. Our work demonstrates that personalized EEG brain imaging...

  7. A Cellular Perspective on Brain Energy Metabolism and Functional Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-05-01

    The energy demands of the brain are high: they account for at least 20% of the body\\'s energy consumption. Evolutionary studies indicate that the emergence of higher cognitive functions in humans is associated with an increased glucose utilization and expression of energy metabolism genes. Functional brain imaging techniques such as fMRI and PET, which are widely used in human neuroscience studies, detect signals that monitor energy delivery and use in register with neuronal activity. Recent technological advances in metabolic studies with cellular resolution have afforded decisive insights into the understanding of the cellular and molecular bases of the coupling between neuronal activity and energy metabolism and pointat a key role of neuron-astrocyte metabolic interactions. This article reviews some of the most salient features emerging from recent studies and aims at providing an integration of brain energy metabolism across resolution scales. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  8. A technique for the deidentification of structural brain MR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Ozyurt, I Burak; Busa, Evelina

    2007-01-01

    is presented, the optimal linear transform is computed for the input volume (Fischl et al. [2002]: Neuron 33:341-355; Fischl et al. [2004]: Neuroimage 23 (Suppl 1):S69-S84). A brain mask is constructed by forming the union of all voxels with nonzero probability of being brain and then morphologically dilated....... All voxels outside the mask with a nonzero probability of being a facial feature are set to 0. The algorithm was applied to 342 datasets that included two different T1-weighted pulse sequences and four different diagnoses (depressed, Alzheimer's, and elderly and young control groups). Visual...... inspection showed none had brain tissue removed. In a detailed analysis of the impact of defacing on skull-stripping, 16 datasets were bias corrected with N3 (Sled et al. [1998]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 17:87-97), defaced, and then skull-stripped using either a hybrid watershed algorithm (Ségonne et al. [2004...

  9. Radiation-induced optic neuropathy: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, J.; Mancuso, A.; Beck, R.; Moster, M.L.; Sedwick, L.A.; Quisling, R.G.; Rhoton, A.L. Jr.; Protzko, E.E.; Schiffman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Optic neuropathy induced by radiation is an infrequent cause of delayed visual loss that may at times be difficult to differentiate from compression of the visual pathways by recurrent neoplasm. The authors describe six patients with this disorder who experienced loss of vision 6 to 36 months after neurological surgery and radiation therapy. Of the six patients in the series, two had a pituitary adenoma and one each had a metastatic melanoma, multiple myeloma, craniopharyngioma, and lymphoepithelioma. Visual acuity in the affected eyes ranged from 20/25 to no light perception. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed sellar and parasellar recurrence of both pituitary adenomas, but the intrinsic lesions of the optic nerves and optic chiasm induced by radiation were enhanced after gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) administration and were clearly distinguishable from the suprasellar compression of tumor. Repeated MR imaging showed spontaneous resolution of gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve in a patient who was initially suspected of harboring recurrence of a metastatic malignant melanoma as the cause of visual loss. The authors found the presumptive diagnosis of radiation-induced optic neuropathy facilitated by MR imaging with gadolinium-DTPA. This neuro-imaging procedure may help avert exploratory surgery in some patients with recurrent neoplasm in whom the etiology of visual loss is uncertain

  10. Optical image reconstruction using DC data: simulations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huabei Jiang; Paulsen, K.D.; Oesterberg, U.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we explore optical image formation using a diffusion approximation of light propagation in tissue which is modelled with a finite-element method for optically heterogeneous media. We demonstrate successful image reconstruction based on absolute experimental DC data obtained with a continuous wave 633 nm He-Ne laser system and a 751 nm diode laser system in laboratory phantoms having two optically distinct regions. The experimental systems used exploit a tomographic type of data collection scheme that provides information from which a spatially variable optical property map is deduced. Reconstruction of scattering coefficient only and simultaneous reconstruction of both scattering and absorption profiles in tissue-like phantoms are obtained from measured and simulated data. Images with different contrast levels between the heterogeneity and the background are also reported and the results show that although it is possible to obtain qualitative visual information on the location and size of a heterogeneity, it may not be possible to quantitatively resolve contrast levels or optical properties using reconstructions from DC data only. Sensitivity of image reconstruction to noise in the measurement data is investigated through simulations. The application of boundary constraints has also been addressed. (author)

  11. Optic disc detection and boundary extraction in retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, A; Fraz, Muhammad Moazam

    2015-04-10

    With the development of digital image processing, analysis and modeling techniques, automatic retinal image analysis is emerging as an important screening tool for early detection of ophthalmologic disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. In this paper, a robust method for optic disc detection and extraction of the optic disc boundary is proposed to help in the development of computer-assisted diagnosis and treatment of such ophthalmic disease. The proposed method is based on morphological operations, smoothing filters, and the marker controlled watershed transform. Internal and external markers are used to first modify the gradient magnitude image and then the watershed transformation is applied on this modified gradient magnitude image for boundary extraction. This method has shown significant improvement over existing methods in terms of detection and boundary extraction of the optic disc. The proposed method has optic disc detection success rate of 100%, 100%, 100% and 98.9% for the DRIVE, Shifa, CHASE_DB1, and DIARETDB1 databases, respectively. The optic disc boundary detection achieved an average spatial overlap of 61.88%, 70.96%, 45.61%, and 54.69% for these databases, respectively, which are higher than currents methods.

  12. Computer vision applications for coronagraphic optical alignment and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savransky, Dmitry; Thomas, Sandrine J; Poyneer, Lisa A; Macintosh, Bruce A

    2013-05-10

    Modern coronagraphic systems require very precise alignment between optical components and can benefit greatly from automated image processing. We discuss three techniques commonly employed in the fields of computer vision and image analysis as applied to the Gemini Planet Imager, a new facility instrument for the Gemini South Observatory. We describe how feature extraction and clustering methods can be used to aid in automated system alignment tasks, and also present a search algorithm for finding regular features in science images used for calibration and data processing. Along with discussions of each technique, we present our specific implementation and show results of each one in operation.

  13. In vivo imaging of human photoreceptor mosaic with wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin S K; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2015-02-01

    Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation.

  14. Methods for processing and analysis functional and anatomical brain images: computerized tomography, emission tomography and nuclear resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The various methods for brain image processing and analysis are presented and compared. The following topics are developed: the physical basis of brain image comparison (nature and formation of signals intrinsic performance of the methods image characteristics); mathematical methods for image processing and analysis (filtering, functional parameter extraction, morphological analysis, robotics and artificial intelligence); methods for anatomical localization (neuro-anatomy atlas, proportional stereotaxic atlas, numerized atlas); methodology of cerebral image superposition (normalization, retiming); image networks [fr

  15. Brain Perfusion SPECT Imaging in Sturge - Weber Syndrome : Comparison with MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Choi, Yun Young; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Yang, Seoung Oh; Ko, Tae Sung; Yoo, Shi Joon; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluate the characteristic perfusion changes in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome by comparison of the findings of brain MR images and perfusion SPECT images. 99m Tc-HMPAO or 99m Tc-ECD interictal brain SPECTs were performed on 5 pediatric patients with Struge-Weber syndrome within 2 weeks after MR imaging. Brain SPECTs of three patients without calcification showed diminished perfusion in the affected area on MR image. A 3 month-old patient without brain atrophy or calcification demonstrated paradoxical hyperperfusion in the affected hemisphere, and follow-up perfusion SPECT revealed decreased perfusion in the same area. The other patient with advanced calcified lesion and atrophy on MR image showed diffusely decreased perfusion in the affected hemisphere, but a focal area of increased perfusion was also noted in the ipsilateral temporal lobe on SPECT. In conclusion, brain perfusion of the affected area of Sturge-Weber syndrome patients was usually diminished, but early or advanced patients may show paradoxical diffuse or focal hyperperfusion in the affected hemisphere. Further studies are needed for better understanding of these perfusion changes and pathophysiology of Struge-Weber syndrome.

  16. Transfection and imaging of diamond nanocrystals as scattering optical labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Bradley R.; Niebert, Marcus; Plakhotnik, Taras; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the first demonstration of nanodiamond (ND) as a scattering optical label in a biological environment. NDs were efficiently transfected into cells using cationic liposomes, and imaged using differential interference and Hoffman modulation 'space' contrast microscopy techniques. We have shown that 55 nm NDs are biologically inert and produce a bright signal compared to the cell background. ND as a scattering label presents the possibility for extended biological imaging with relatively little thermal or biochemical perturbations due to the optical transparency and biologically inert nature of diamond

  17. Optic Disc and Optic Cup Segmentation Methodologies for Glaucoma Image Detection: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazroa, Ahmed; Burman, Ritambhar; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Examining the head of optic nerve (cup-to-disc ratio) is very important for diagnosing glaucoma and for patient monitoring after diagnosis. Images of optic disc and optic cup are acquired by fundus camera as well as Optical Coherence Tomography. The optic disc and optic cup segmentation techniques are used to isolate the relevant parts of the retinal image and to calculate the cup-to-disc ratio. The main objective of this paper is to review segmentation methodologies and techniques for the disc and cup boundaries which are utilized to calculate the disc and cup geometrical parameters automatically and accurately to help the professionals in the glaucoma to have a wide view and more details about the optic nerve head structure using retinal fundus images. We provide a brief description of each technique, highlighting its classification and performance metrics. The current and future research directions are summarized and discussed. PMID:26688751

  18. Optic Disc and Optic Cup Segmentation Methodologies for Glaucoma Image Detection: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Almazroa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Examining the head of optic nerve (cup-to-disc ratio is very important for diagnosing glaucoma and for patient monitoring after diagnosis. Images of optic disc and optic cup are acquired by fundus camera as well as Optical Coherence Tomography. The optic disc and optic cup segmentation techniques are used to isolate the relevant parts of the retinal image and to calculate the cup-to-disc ratio. The main objective of this paper is to review segmentation methodologies and techniques for the disc and cup boundaries which are utilized to calculate the disc and cup geometrical parameters automatically and accurately to help the professionals in the glaucoma to have a wide view and more details about the optic nerve head structure using retinal fundus images. We provide a brief description of each technique, highlighting its classification and performance metrics. The current and future research directions are summarized and discussed.

  19. FIRST IMAGES FROM THE FOCUSING OPTICS X-RAY SOLAR IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krucker, Säm; Glesener, Lindsay; Turin, Paul; McBride, Stephen; Glaser, David; Fermin, Jose; Lin, Robert [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christe, Steven [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka (Japan); Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kilaru, Kiranmayee [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Saito, Shinya [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, Sagamihara (Japan); Tajima, Hiroyasu [Solar-Terrestial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Tanaka, Takaaki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); White, Stephen [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload flew for the first time on 2012 November 2, producing the first focused images of the Sun above 5 keV. To enable hard X-ray (HXR) imaging spectroscopy via direct focusing, FOXSI makes use of grazing-incidence replicated optics combined with fine-pitch solid-state detectors. On its first flight, FOXSI observed several targets that included active regions, the quiet Sun, and a GOES-class B2.7 microflare. This Letter provides an introduction to the FOXSI instrument and presents its first solar image. These data demonstrate the superiority in sensitivity and dynamic range that is achievable with a direct HXR imager with respect to previous, indirect imaging methods, and illustrate the technological readiness for a spaceborne mission to observe HXRs from solar flares via direct focusing optics.

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Praveena; Hanson, James V M; Olbert, Elisabeth D; Egger, Christine; Wicki, Carla; Gerth-Kahlert, Christina; Landau, Klara; Schippling, Sven

    2016-11-15

    Irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is largely attributed to neuronal and axonal degeneration, which, along with inflammation, is one of the major pathological hallmarks of these diseases. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging tool that has been used in MS, NMOSD, and other diseases to quantify damage to the retina, including the ganglion cells and their axons. The fact that these are the only unmyelinated axons within the central nervous system (CNS) renders the afferent visual pathway an ideal model for studying axonal and neuronal degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to obtain anatomical information about the CNS and to quantify evolving pathology in MS and NMOSD, both globally and in specific regions of the visual pathway including the optic nerve, optic radiations and visual cortex. Therefore, correlations between brain or optic nerve abnormalities on MRI, and retinal pathology using OCT, may shed light on how damage to one part of the CNS can affect others. In addition, these imaging techniques can help identify important differences between MS and NMOSD such as disease-specific damage to the visual pathway, trans-synaptic degeneration, or pathological changes independent of the underlying disease process. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the role of the visual pathway using OCT and MRI in patients with MS and NMOSD. Emphasis is placed on studies that employ both MRI and OCT to investigate damage to the visual system in these diseases.

  1. The image of a brain stroke in a computed tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, E.G.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of 100 findings from patients who suffered brain strokes and by the use of 1500 ensured stroke images it was tested whether or not the stroke-predilection typologie outlined by Zuelch is based on a coincidental summation of individual cases. The radio-computed tomography with the possibility of evaluation of non-lethal cases proved itself as a suited method for confirmation or repudiation of this stroke theory. By means of the consistently achieved association of the frontal, respectively horizontal sectional image for the typology it could be proven and - with the exception of a few rather seldom types - also demonstrated that the basic and predilection types of brain stroke repeated themselves in their pattern. In individual cases a specification of lower types could also be undertaken. (orig./TRV) [de

  2. A novel algorithm for segmentation of brain MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, M.Y.; Yu, L.; Chowdhry, B.S.; Rajput, A.Q.K.; Bhatti, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate and fully automatic segmentation of brain from magnetic resonance (MR) scans is a challenging problem that has received an enormous amount of . attention lately. Many researchers have applied various techniques however a standard fuzzy c-means algorithm has produced better results compared to other methods. In this paper, we present a modified fuzzy c-means (FCM) based algorithm for segmentation of brain MR images. Our algorithm is formulated by modifying the objective function of the standard FCM and uses a special spread method to get a smooth and slow varying bias field This method has the advantage that it can be applied at an early stage in an automated data analysis before a tissue model is available. The results on MRI images show that this method provides better results compared to standard FCM algorithms. (author)

  3. Imaging of macrophage dynamics with optical coherence tomography in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokona, Despina; Häner, Nathanael U; Ebneter, Andreas; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2017-01-01

    Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) is a relatively common cause of visual loss and results from hypoperfusion of the small arteries of the anterior portion of the optic nerve. AION is the leading cause of sudden optic nerve related vision loss with approximately 10 cases per 100'000 in the population over 50 years. To date there is no established treatment for AION and therefore a better understanding of the events occurring at the level of the optic nerve head (ONH) would be important to design future therapeutic strategies. The optical properties of the eye allow imaging of the optic nerve in vivo, which is a part of the CNS, during ischemia. Experimentally laser induced optic neuropathy (eLiON) displays similar anatomical features as anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in humans. After laser induced optic neuropathy we show that hyperreflective dots in optical coherence tomography correspond to mononuclear cells in histology. Using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry (FACS) we found these cells to peak one week after eLiON. These observations were translated to OCT findings in patients with AION, where similar dynamics of hyperreflective dots at the ONH were identified. Our data suggests that activated macrophages can be identified as hyperreflective dots in OCT. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Glaucoma severity affects diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the optic nerve and optic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidek, S. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Medical Imaging Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor (Malaysia); Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Ramli, N.M.; Abdulrahman, F. [Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tan, L.K. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate whether MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the optic nerve and optic radiation in glaucoma patients provides parameters to discriminate between mild and severe glaucoma and to determine whether DTI derived indices correlate with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness. Methods: 3-Tesla DTI was performed on 90 subjects (30 normal, 30 mild glaucoma and 30 severe glaucoma subjects) and the FA and MD of the optic nerve and optic radiation were measured. The categorisation into mild and severe glaucoma was done using the Hodapp–Parrish–Anderson (HPA) classification. RNFL thickness was also assessed on all subjects using OCT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient was carried out. Results: FA and MD values in the optic nerve and optic radiation decreased and increased respectively as the disease progressed. FA at the optic nerve had the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (80%). FA values displayed the strongest correlation with RNFL thickness in the optic nerve (r = 0.684, p ≤ 0.001) while MD at the optic radiation showed the weakest correlation with RNFL thickness (r = −0.360, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: The high sensitivity and specificity of DTI-derived FA values in the optic nerve and the strong correlation between DTI-FA and RNFL thickness suggest that these parameters could serve as indicators of disease severity.

  5. Glaucoma severity affects diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the optic nerve and optic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, S.; Ramli, N.; Rahmat, K.; Ramli, N.M.; Abdulrahman, F.; Tan, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the optic nerve and optic radiation in glaucoma patients provides parameters to discriminate between mild and severe glaucoma and to determine whether DTI derived indices correlate with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness. Methods: 3-Tesla DTI was performed on 90 subjects (30 normal, 30 mild glaucoma and 30 severe glaucoma subjects) and the FA and MD of the optic nerve and optic radiation were measured. The categorisation into mild and severe glaucoma was done using the Hodapp–Parrish–Anderson (HPA) classification. RNFL thickness was also assessed on all subjects using OCT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient was carried out. Results: FA and MD values in the optic nerve and optic radiation decreased and increased respectively as the disease progressed. FA at the optic nerve had the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (80%). FA values displayed the strongest correlation with RNFL thickness in the optic nerve (r = 0.684, p ≤ 0.001) while MD at the optic radiation showed the weakest correlation with RNFL thickness (r = −0.360, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: The high sensitivity and specificity of DTI-derived FA values in the optic nerve and the strong correlation between DTI-FA and RNFL thickness suggest that these parameters could serve as indicators of disease severity

  6. Study of functional brain imaging for bilingual language cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da

    2008-01-01

    Bilingual and multilingual brain studies of language recognition is an interdisciplinary subject which needs to identify different levels involved in the neural representation of languages, such as neuroanatomical, neurofunctional, biochemical, psychological and linguistic levels. Furthermore, specific factor's such as age, manner of acquisition and environmental factors seem to affect the neural representation. Functional brain imaging, such as PET, SPECT and functional MRI can explore the neurolinguistics representation of bilingualism in the brain in subjects, and elucidate the neuronal mechanisms of bilingual language processing. Functional imaging methods show differences in the pattern of cerebral activation associated with a second language compared with the subject's native language. It shows that verbal memory processing in two unrelated languages is mediated by a common neural system with some distinct cortical areas. The different patterns of activation differ according to the language used. It also could be ascribed either to age of acquisition or to proficiency level. And attained proficiency is more important than age of acquisition as a determinant of the cortical representation of the second language. The study used PET and SPECT shows that sign and spoken language seem to be localized in the same brain areas, and elicit similar regional cerebral blood flow patterns. But for sign language perception, the functional anatomy overlaps that of language processing contain both auditory and visual components. And the sign language is dependent on spatial information too. (authors)

  7. [Exploring the dark continent: medical image and brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Molina, A; Ensenat, A

    2017-04-01

    Until the late 19th century, direct observation of the central nervous system was practically impossible. The discovery of X-rays in 1895 and their subsequent application in the field of medicine brought about a shift of paradigm that completely revolutionised the way in which neurology was practised. The possibility of viewing the inside of the brain had a pronounced impact on clinical practice, and enriched the diagnosis and treatment of brain pathologies in a manner that was unimaginable up until then. The aim of this study is to describe the birth and development of medical imaging of the brain, from the discovery of X-rays and the early days of radiography to the appearance of computerised tomography and magnetic resonance in the 60s, both of which are techniques that were to change the world of diagnostic imaging forever. This brief overview of the history of radiology also includes the origins of angiography and other techniques that are no longer in use, but which were ground-breaking innovations in their time, such as ventriculography or pneumoencephalography. The procedures and techniques described in this article made it possible to view the inside of the brain, thereby facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of a number of neurological processes.

  8. A novel optical gating method for laser gated imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginat, Ran; Schneider, Ron; Zohar, Eyal; Nesher, Ofer

    2013-06-01

    For the past 15 years, Elbit Systems is developing time-resolved active laser-gated imaging (LGI) systems for various applications. Traditional LGI systems are based on high sensitive gated sensors, synchronized to pulsed laser sources. Elbit propriety multi-pulse per frame method, which is being implemented in LGI systems, improves significantly the imaging quality. A significant characteristic of the LGI is its ability to penetrate a disturbing media, such as rain, haze and some fog types. Current LGI systems are based on image intensifier (II) sensors, limiting the system in spectral response, image quality, reliability and cost. A novel propriety optical gating module was developed in Elbit, untying the dependency of LGI system on II. The optical gating module is not bounded to the radiance wavelength and positioned between the system optics and the sensor. This optical gating method supports the use of conventional solid state sensors. By selecting the appropriate solid state sensor, the new LGI systems can o