WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical biopsy system

  1. Optical Systems of Biopsy: The Invisible Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Bagri-Manjrekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of new methods and techniques for the diagnosis of malignant tumours has always attracted the attention of scientists. The development of adjunct tools to facilitate the non invasive screening of high risk lesions in real time has the potential to significantly improve our ability to reduce the dismal morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. Despite easy accessibility of the oral cavity to examination, there is no satisfactory method to adequately screen and detect precancers non-invasively. The current method of oral cancer diagnosis clinically relies heavily on visual examination of the oral cavity. However, discerning potentially malignant and early malignant lesions from common benign inflammatory conditions can be difficult at times. There is a need for an objective method that could provide real- time results and be routinely applied to a large population. Though science is yet to present such a perfect technique, Optical Biopsy Systems developed using knowledge of light and tissue interaction, can provide a plausible option.

  2. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: Recent clinical demonstrations with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Loree, T.R.; Mourant, J.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Story-Held, K.; Glickman, R.D. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Urology

    1993-08-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic tool that could identify malignancy in situ and in real time would have a major impact on the detection and treatment of cancer. We have developed and are testing early prototypes of an optical biopsy system (OBS) for detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the microscopic structure of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be strongly wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength dependence of elastic scattering. The data acquisition and storage/display time with the OBS instrument is {approximately}1 second. Thus, in addition to the reduced invasiveness of this technique compared with current state-of-the-art methods (surgical biopsy and pathology analysis), the OBS offers the possibility of impressively faster diagnostic assessment. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope, catheter or hypodermic, or to direct surface examination (e.g. as in skin cancer or cervical cancer). It has been tested in vitro on animal and human tissue samples, and clinical testing in vivo is currently in progress.

  3. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: An update of clinical demonstrations with the Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Mourant, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bohorfoush, A. [Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. Our clinical studies have expanded since the last Biomedical Optics Europe conference (Budapest, September 1993), and we report here on the latest results of clinical tests in gastrointestinal tract. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. The OBS employs a small fiberoptic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination. The probe is designed to be used in optical contact with the tissue under examination and has separate illuminating and collecting fibers. Thus, the light that is collected and transmitted to the analyzing spectrometer must first scatter through a small volume of the tissue before entering the collection fiber(s). Consequently, the system is also sensitive to the optical absorption spectrum of the tissue, over an effective operating range of <300 to 950 nm, and such absorption adds valuable complexity to the scattering spectral signature.

  4. Telepathology and Optical Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ferrer-Roca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to obtain information about the structure of tissue without taking a sample for pathology has opened the way for new diagnostic techniques. The present paper reviews all currently available techniques capable of producing an optical biopsy, with or without morphological images. Most of these techniques are carried out by physicians who are not specialized in pathology and therefore not trained to interpret the results as a pathologist would. In these cases, the use of telepathology or distant consultation techniques is essential.

  5. Biopsy system for CT-guided biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onik, G.; Cosman, E.; Wells, T.; Goldberg, H.I.; Moss, A.; Costello, P.; Kane, R.

    1987-01-01

    CT stereotaxic brain biopsies have made brain biopsies safe and minimally invasive. CT-guided biopsies of the body, however, have traditionally used a hand-guidance method. CT biopsy guidance systems for the body have recently become available that have similar capabilities as those of brain biopsy systems. To compare the clinical utility of stereotaxically guided biopsies with hand-guided biopsies, the authors prospectively compared 40 biopsies performed with each method. In the stereotaxic method, a localizor grid was placed on the patient to define a reference point, and a frame was used to guide the needle along the intended path. Computer software programs calculated complex paths from one scan plane to another. Although the results disclosed no significant differences in lesion size or path length between the two groups, the stereotaxically guided biopsies required 75% fewer needle manipulations to hit the intended target. Consequently, the stereotaxically guided biopsies required 40% less time and 80% fewer localization scans to find the biopsy needle than did the hand-guided biopsies

  6. Detection of gastrointestinal cancer by elastic scattering and absorption spectroscopies with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourant, J.R.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Bigio, I.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bohorfoush, A. [Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Mellow, M. [Univ. of Oklahoma Medical School, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Dept. of Gastroenterology

    1995-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. In proceedings of earlier SPIE conferences we reported on clinical measurements in the bladder, and we report here on recent results of clinical tests in the gastrointestinal tract. With the OBS, tissue pathologies are detected/diagnosed using spectral measurements of the elastic optical transport properties (scattering and absorption) of the tissue over a wide range of wavelengths. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, exhibit significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes m an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. Additionally, the optical geometry of the OBS beneficially enhances its sensitivity for measuring absorption bands. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination, as well as interstitial needle insertion. Data acquistion/display time is <1 second.

  7. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the mid-infrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy ('opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ...... in the body for real-time diagnosis. This new paradigm will be enabled through focused development of devices and systems which are robust, functionally designed, safe, compact and cost effective and are based on active and passive mid-infrared optical fibers. In particular, this will enable early diagnosis...... of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security...

  8. Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oropharynx lesion biopsy Pleural needle biopsy Polyp biopsy Rectal biopsy Renal biopsy Salivary gland biopsy Skin lesion ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  9. MRI-guided trephine biopsy and fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of bone lesions in low-field (0.23 T) MRI system using optical instrument tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Sequeiros, Roberto; Klemola, Rauli; Ojala, Risto; Jyrkinen, Lasse; Tervonen, Osmo; Lappi-Blanco, Elisa; Soini, Ylermi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of MRI-guided bone biopsy with optical instrument tracking and evaluate advantage of combined fine-needle aspiration (FNA) with trephine biopsy. Twenty trephine bone biopsies and 13 FNAs were performed under MRI and CT guidance in 14 patients. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. The evaluation of diagnostic accuracy was achieved by comparing the histopathological and cytological diagnosis with current or final diagnosis made during 6-month clinical follow-up. A 0.23-T open MRI scanner with interventional tools (Outlook Proview, Marconi Medical Systems, Cleveland, Ohio) was used. A surface coil was used. For trephine biopsy MRI-compatible bone biopsy set (Daum medical, Schwerin, Germany) was used. The FNA was performed with MRI compatible 20-G needle (Cook, Bloomington, Ind.). The diagnostic accuracy of MRI-guided trephine biopsy was 95%. The FNA sample diagnosis concurred with the histological in 54%. Our results show that MRI guidance in bone biopsies is accurate and safe. It is comparable to CT-guided or open biopsy. The role of combined FNA with bone biopsies remains controversial. (orig.)

  10. Ultrasound-guided renal biopsy: experience using an automated core biopsy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Common, A A; Marcuzzi, D

    2000-04-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy using an automated core biopsy system, and to determine radiologists' accuracy in predicting sample adequacy. Ninety-five biopsies were performed on 25 native kidneys and 70 renal allografts using a 16-gauge automated, spring-loaded core biopsy device under real-time sonographic guidance. Radiologists performing the biopsy estimated the number of core samples needed to obtain an adequate specimen, based on visual inspection of each core. The final determination of the number of samples was made by a pathology technologist who attended each biopsy, based on preliminary microscopic examination of tissue cores. After each biopsy, an ultrasonographic examination was performed to search for biopsy-related hemorrhage, and a questionnaire was given to the patient to determine biopsy-related complications, which were categorized as either minor or major. The main indication for biopsy was acute renal failure (in 43.2% of biopsies). An average of 3 tissue cores per biopsy were obtained. Of the 94 patients in whom a biopsy was conducted to exclude diffuse renal disease, a mean of 12.5 glomeruli were present in each specimen. Overall, adequate tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 98.9% of cases. The radiologists' estimate of the number of core samples needed concurred with the pathology technologists' determination of sample adequacy in 88.4% of cases. A total of 26 complications occurred (in 27.4% of biopsies), consisting of 23 minor (24.2%) and 3 major (3.2%) complications. Real-time sonographic guidance in conjunction with an automated core biopsy system is a safe and accurate method of performing percutaneous renal biopsy. Routine use of sonographic examinations to search for biopsy-related complications is not indicated. Radiologists are accurate in estimating sample adequacy in most cases; however, the presence of a pathology technologist at the biopsy procedure virtually eliminates the

  11. Optical biopsy - a new armamentarium to detect disease using light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been considered a promising method for cancer detection for past thirty years because of its advantages over the conventional diagnostic methods of no tissue removal, minimal invasiveness, rapid diagnoses, less time consumption and reproducibility since the first use in 1984. It offers a new armamentarium. Human tissue is mainly composed of extracellular matrix of collagen fiber, proteins, fat, water, and epithelial cells with key molecules in different structures. Tissues contain a number of key fingerprint native endogenous fluorophore molecules, such as tryptophan, collagen, elastin, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and porphyrins. It is well known that abnormalities in metabolic activity precede the onset of a lot of main diseases: carcinoma, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease, etc. Optical spectroscopy may help in detecting various disorders. Conceivably the biochemical or morphologic changes that cause the spectra variations would appear earlier than the histological aberration. Therefore, "optical biopsy" holds a great promise as clinical tool for diagnosing early stage of carcinomas and other deceases by combining with available photonic technology (e.g. optical fibers, photon detectors, spectrographs spectroscopic ratiometer, fiber-optic endomicroscope and nasopharyngoscope) for in vivo use. This paper focuses on various methods available to detect spectroscopic changes in tissues, for example to distinguish cancerous prostate tissues and/or cells from normal prostate tissues and/or cells. The methods to be described are fluorescence, stokes shift, scattering, Raman, and time-resolved spectroscopy will be reviewed. The underlying physical and biological basis for these optical approaches will be discussed with examples. The idea is to present some of the salient works to show the usefulness and methods of Optical Biopsy for cancer detection and

  12. Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Nguyen, Freddy T; Zysk, Adam M; Ralston, Tyler S; Brockenbrough, John; Marks, Daniel L; Oldenburg, Amy L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2005-10-01

    Optical diagnostic imaging techniques are increasingly being used in the clinical environment, allowing for improved screening and diagnosis while minimizing the number of invasive procedures. Diffuse optical tomography, for example, is capable of whole-breast imaging and is being developed as an alternative to traditional X-ray mammography. While this may eventually be a very effective screening method, other optical techniques are better suited for imaging on the cellular and molecular scale. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), for instance, is capable of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue morphology. In a manner analogous to ultrasound imaging except using optics, pulses of near-infrared light are sent into the tissue while coherence-gated reflections are measured interferometrically to form a cross-sectional image of tissue. In this paper we apply OCT techniques for the high-resolution three-dimensional visualization of lymph node morphology. We present the first reported OCT images showing detailed morphological structure and corresponding histological features of lymph nodes from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor model, as well as from a human lymph node containing late stage metastatic disease. The results illustrate the potential for OCT to visualize detailed lymph node structures on the scale of micrometastases and the potential for the detection of metastatic nodal disease intraoperatively.

  13. Optical Biopsy Using Tissue Spectroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman S Nishioka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Optical biopsy’ or ‘optical diagnostics’ is a technique whereby light energy is used to obtain information about the structure and function of tissues without disrupting them. In fluorescence spectroscopy, light energy (usually provided by a laser is used to excite tissues and the resulting fluorescence provides information about the target tissue. Its major gastrointestinal application has been in the evaluation of colonic polyps, in which it can reliably distinguish malignant from benign lesions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT has been used in the investigation of Barrett’s epithelium (and dysplasia, although a variety of other applications are feasible. For example, OCT could assist in the identification and staging of mucosal and submucosal neoplasms, the grading of inflammation in the stomach and intestine, the diagnosis of biliary tumours and the assessment of villous architecture. OCT differs from endoscopic ultrasound, a complementary modality, in that it has a much higher resolution but lesser depth of penetration. The images correlate with the histopathological appearance of tissues, and the addition of Doppler methods may enable it to evaluate the vascularity of tumours and the amount of blood flow in varices. Refinements in these new optical techniques will likely make them valuable in clinical practice, although their specific roles have yet to be determined.

  14. Systemic Air Embolism After CT-guided Lung Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Lung Biopsy Under CT Guidance; Patients Who Presented Systemic Air Embolism After Percutaneous Lung Biopsy Under CT Guidance Depicted at the Time of the Procedure on a Whole Thoracic CT

  15. Transjugular liver biopsy : the efficacy of quick-core biopsy needle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Gyoo Sik; Ahn, Byung Kwon; Lee, Sang Ouk; Chang, Hee Kyong; Oh, Kyung Seung; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin Medical College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the Quick-Core biopsy needle system in performing transjugular liver biopsy. Between December 1995 and June 1997, eight patients underwent transjugular liver biopsy involving use of the Quick-Core biopsy needle system; the conditions involved were coagulopathy (n=4), thrombocytopenia (n=3), and ascites (n=1). Via the right internal jugular vein, the right hepatic vein was selectively catheterized with a 7-F transjugular guiding catheter, and a14-guage stiffening cannula was then inserted through this catheter; to obtain core tissue, a Quick-Core needle was then advanced into the liver parenchyma through the catheter-cannula combination. Eighteen- and 19-guage needles were used in three and five patients, respectively; specimen size, adequacy of the biopsy specimen and histologic diagnosis were determined, and complications were recorded. Biopsy was successful in all patients. The mean length of the specimen was 1.4 cm (1.0 - 1.8 cm), and all were adequate for pathologic examinations ; specific diagnosis was determined in all patients. There were two malignant neoplasms, two cases of veno-occlusive disease, and one case each of cirrhosis, fulminant hepatitis, Banti syndrome and Budd-Chiari syndrome. One patient complained of neck pain after the procedure, but no serious procedural complications were noted. Our preliminary study shows that the Quick-Core biopsy needle system is safe and provides adequate core tissues with high diagnostic yields. (author). 23 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  16. Transjugular liver biopsy : the efficacy of quick-core biopsy needle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyoo Sik; Ahn, Byung Kwon; Lee, Sang Ouk; Chang, Hee Kyong; Oh, Kyung Seung; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the Quick-Core biopsy needle system in performing transjugular liver biopsy. Between December 1995 and June 1997, eight patients underwent transjugular liver biopsy involving use of the Quick-Core biopsy needle system; the conditions involved were coagulopathy (n=4), thrombocytopenia (n=3), and ascites (n=1). Via the right internal jugular vein, the right hepatic vein was selectively catheterized with a 7-F transjugular guiding catheter, and a14-guage stiffening cannula was then inserted through this catheter; to obtain core tissue, a Quick-Core needle was then advanced into the liver parenchyma through the catheter-cannula combination. Eighteen- and 19-guage needles were used in three and five patients, respectively; specimen size, adequacy of the biopsy specimen and histologic diagnosis were determined, and complications were recorded. Biopsy was successful in all patients. The mean length of the specimen was 1.4 cm (1.0 - 1.8 cm), and all were adequate for pathologic examinations ; specific diagnosis was determined in all patients. There were two malignant neoplasms, two cases of veno-occlusive disease, and one case each of cirrhosis, fulminant hepatitis, Banti syndrome and Budd-Chiari syndrome. One patient complained of neck pain after the procedure, but no serious procedural complications were noted. Our preliminary study shows that the Quick-Core biopsy needle system is safe and provides adequate core tissues with high diagnostic yields. (author). 23 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  17. Optical coherence tomography and polarimetry of superficial skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Utz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. Of this study was to develop and assess the efficacy of polarization probing of biotissues in vitro. The method is based on the determination of polarization parameters of scattered radiation. Materials and methods. The well-known superficial epidermis stripping method was applied using the Sulfacrylate self-sterile medical adhesive. Small portions of thin layers of the adhesive were applied to slide plates and then to different skin sites. The corneous layer in the normal condition and in case of skin diseases (psoriasis, lichen acuminatus, discoid lupus erythematosus, alopecia, itching and demodectic mange was examined based on the optical coherence tomography (OCT method using the 0CS1300SS device (Thorlabs Inc, USA. Results. The authors obtained pictures visualizing the structural organization of different layers of the epidermis using the superficial epidermis biopsy method in case of lichen acuminatus, hyperkeratosis, itching and other skin diseases. Conclusion. This method ensures non-invasive high-precision measurement of the structure of different layers of the epidermis, which may be useful both for research purposes and practical dermatology.

  18. Functional quality of MR-compatible automatic biopsy guns compared with conventional ferromagnetic biopsy systems. An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, H.J.; Landwehr, P.

    2001-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of specimens obtained with different MR-compatible biopsy systems and a conventional ferromagnetic system. Methods: Biopsies of a pig liver were performed post-mortem with three different MR-compatible (Somatex; E-Z-EM; Daum) and one conventional biopsy system (Somatex), five with each device. The specimens were measured and the histopathological quality was graded on a scale from 0 (no tissue) to 9 (best). The tip of the needle was examined with an electron microscope before and after biopsy to demonstrate abrasion. Results: The histopathological score between the first and fifth specimen taken with one biopsy device showed no significant difference. The conventional system yielded significantly better results in nearly all categories (p 2 ) were significantly smaller than those from the conventional system (9.98 mm 2 ). The needle tip abrasion of the different biopsy systems determined by electron microscopy showed no substantial difference. (orig.) [de

  19. Optical skin biopsies by clinical CARS and multiphoton fluorescence/SHG tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    König, K; Breunig, H G; Bückle, R; Kellner-Höfer, M; Weinigel, M; Büttner, E; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate challenge for early diagnostics is label-free high-resolution intratissue imaging without taking physical biopsies. A novel hybrid femtosecond laser tomograph provides in vivo optical biopsies of human skin based on non-linear excitation of autofluorescence and the detection of lipids and water by CARS. Applications include skin cancer detection, biosafety tests of intradermal nanoparticles, and the testing of anti-aging products

  20. An evaluation of in-office flexible fiber-optic biopsies for laryngopharyngeal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Francisco; Smith, Kristine A; Chandarana, Shamir; Matthews, T Wayne; Bosch, J Douglas; Nakoneshny, Steven C; Dort, Joseph C

    2018-05-09

    Operative endoscopy and flexible fiber-optic in-office tissue biopsy are common techniques to assess suspicious laryngopharyngeal lesions. The primary outcome was the delay to the initiation of treatment. Secondary outcomes were delay to biopsy, histopathological diagnosis, and assessment at a multidisciplinary oncology clinic. A retrospective analysis was performed to assess the relative delays between these approaches to biopsy of laryngopharyngeal lesions. There were 114 patients in the study cohort; 44 in-office and 70 operative endoscopic biopsies). The mean delay from consultation to biopsy was 17.4 days for the operative endoscopy group and 1.3 days for the in-office group. The mean delay from initial otolaryngology consultation to initiation of treatment was 51.7 days and 44.6 days for the operative endoscopy and in-office groups, respectively. In-office biopsy reduced the time from initial consultation to biopsy. The temporal gains via in-office biopsy did not translate into faster access to treatment. This outcome highlights the opportunity to improve access to treatment for patients with early diagnosis.

  1. Comparison of Battery-Powered and Manual Bone Biopsy Systems for Core Needle Biopsy of Sclerotic Bone Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Micah G; McMahon, Colm J; Kung, Justin W; Wu, Jim S

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare manual and battery-powered bone biopsy systems for diagnostic yield and procedural factors during core needle biopsy of sclerotic bone lesions. A total of 155 consecutive CT-guided core needle biopsies of sclerotic bone lesions were performed at one institution from January 2006 to November 2014. Before March 2012, lesions were biopsied with manual bone drill systems. After March 2012, most biopsies were performed with a battery-powered system and either noncoaxial or coaxial biopsy needles. Diagnostic yield, crush artifact, CT procedure time, procedure radiation dose, conscious sedation dose, and complications were compared between the manual and battery-powered core needle biopsy systems by Fisher exact test and t test. One-way ANOVA was used for subgroup analysis of the two battery-powered systems for procedure time and radiation dose. The diagnostic yield for all sclerotic lesions was 60.0% (93/155) and was significantly higher with the battery-powered system (73.0% [27/37]) than with the manual systems (55.9% [66/118]) (p = 0.047). There was no significant difference between the two systems in terms of crush artifact, procedure time, radiation dose, conscious sedation administered, or complications. In subgroup analysis, the coaxial battery-powered biopsies had shorter procedure times (p = 0.01) and lower radiation doses (p = 0.002) than the coaxial manual systems, but the noncoaxial battery-powered biopsies had longer average procedure times and higher radiation doses than the coaxial manual systems. In biopsy of sclerotic bone lesions, use of a battery-powered bone drill system improves diagnostic yield over use of a manual system.

  2. Peroperative optical autofluorescence biopsy-verification of its diagnostic potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducháč, V.; Zavadil, Jiří; Vránová, J.; Jirásek, T.; Štukavec, J.; Horák, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2011), s. 325-333 ISSN 0268-8921 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Autofluorescence spectroscopy * Colorectal cancer * Optical fibres Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2011

  3. MR-guided breast biopsy and hook wire marking using a low-field (0.23 T) scanner with optical instrument tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Sequeiros, Roberto; Reinikainen, Heli; Blanco Sequeiros, Andreas M.; Ojala, Risto; Paeaekkoe, Eija; Tervonen, Osmo; Vaara, Teuvo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of MR-guided percutaneous breast biopsy (LCNB) and breast hook wire marking in a low-field (0.23 T) MRI system with optical instrument tracking. MR-guided core biopsy and/or hook wire marking was performed on 13 lesions observable at MR imaging only. Seven breast LCNBs and 10 hook wire markings were performed under MR guidance on 11 patients. The diagnosis was confirmed by excision biopsy or mastectomy in 12 lesions and with histopathological and cytological diagnosis and 12-month clinical follow-up in one lesion. All lesions seen in the high-field scanner were also successfully identified and targeted in the low-field scanner. The following procedures were typically technically successful. There were difficulties due to unsatisfactory functioning of some core biopsy guns. Detailed description of low-field MR guidance and optical tracking in breast biopsies is provided. The procedure seems accurate and safe and provides means to obtain a histological diagnosis of a breast lesion only seen with MRI. The low-field biopsy system is comparable to the high-field MRI system. MR-compatible biopsy guns need to be improved. (orig.)

  4. Stormram 4: An MR Safe Robotic System for Breast Biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuis, Vincent; Siepel, Françoise Jeanette; Veltman, Jeroen; van Zandwijk, Jordy Kristian; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Suspicious lesions in the breast that are only visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) need to be biopsied under MR guidance with high accuracy and efficiency for accurate diagnosis. The aim of this study is to present a novel robotic system, the Stormram 4, and to perform preclinical tests in

  5. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) as a method for identifying benign and malignant prostate biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Ling, Yuting; Lang, Stephen; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong; Nabi, Ghulam

    2015-03-01

    Objectives. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. Digital rectal examination (DRE) - a known clinical tool based on alteration in the mechanical properties of tissues due to cancer has traditionally been used for screening prostate cancer. Essentially, DRE estimates relative stiffness of cancerous and normal prostate tissue. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) are new optical imaging techniques capable of providing cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure as well as elastogram in vivo and in real time. In this preliminary study, OCE was used in the setting of the human prostate biopsies ex vivo, and the images acquired were compared with those obtained using standard histopathologic methods. Methods. 120 prostate biopsies were obtained by TRUS guided needle biopsy procedures from 9 patients with clinically suspected cancer of the prostate. The biopsies were approximately 0.8mm in diameter and 12mm in length, and prepared in Formalin solution. Quantitative assessment of biopsy samples using OCE was obtained in kilopascals (kPa) before histopathologic evaluation. The results obtained from OCE and standard histopathologic evaluation were compared provided the cross-validation. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for OCE (histopathology was a reference standard). Results. OCE could provide quantitative elasticity properties of prostate biopsies within benign prostate tissue, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical hyperplasia and malignant prostate cancer. Data analysed showed that the sensitivity and specificity of OCE for PCa detection were 1 and 0.91, respectively. PCa had significantly higher stiffness values compared to benign tissues, with a trend of increasing in stiffness with increasing of malignancy. Conclusions. Using OCE, microscopic resolution elastogram is promising in diagnosis of human prostatic diseases. Further studies using this technique to improve the

  6. Investigation of tissue cellularity at the tip of the core biopsy needle with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimia, Nicusor; Park, Jesung; Maguluri, Gopi; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; McWatters, Amanda; Sabir, Sharjeel H

    2018-02-01

    We report the development and the pre-clinical testing of a new technology based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) for investigating tissue composition at the tip of the core biopsy needle. While ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely used to guide needle placement within a tumor, they still do not provide the resolution needed to investigate tissue cellularity (ratio between viable tumor and benign stroma) at the needle tip prior to taking a biopsy core. High resolution OCT imaging, however, can be used to investigate tissue morphology at the micron scale, and thus to determine if the biopsy core would likely have the expected composition. Therefore, we implemented this capability within a custom-made biopsy gun and evaluated its capability for a correct estimation of tumor tissue cellularity. A pilot study on a rabbit model of soft tissue cancer has shown the capability of this technique to provide correct evaluation of tumor tissue cellularity in over 85% of the cases. These initial results indicate the potential benefit of the OCT-based approach for improving the success of the core biopsy procedures.

  7. Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, Robert L P van; Amelink, Arjen; Menke-Pluymers, Marian; Pol, Carmen van der; Sterenborg, Henricus J C M

    2005-01-01

    Differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) was used to determine the local optical properties of breast tissue in vivo. DPS measurements were made on healthy and malignant breast tissue using a fibre-optic needle probe, and were correlated to the histological outcome of core-needle biopsies taken from the same location as the measurements. DPS yields information on the local tissue blood content, the local blood oxygenation, the average micro-vessel diameter, the β-carotene concentration and the scatter slope. Our data show that malignant breast tissue is characterized by a significant decrease in tissue oxygenation and a higher blood content compared to normal breast tissue

  8. Application of a New Guiding System in Percutaneous Biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petsas, Theodore; Tsota, Irene; Kalogeropoulou, Christina P.; Liatsikos, Evangelos N.

    2007-01-01

    We herein describe the application of a new guiding system designed for percutaneous biopsies. The guiding system set is composed of a 0.41 mm (27G) stainless steel guide stylet and a 22G Chiba needle. Following the initial insertion of the Chiba needle, the stylet is advanced via the needle toward the lesion. The stylet serves either as a guide for the Chiba needle or as an exchange wire for the introduction of larger or cutting biopsy needles. The stylet can also be curved prior to its insertion to facilitate access to lesions which require needle redirection. The technique was applied to 117 cases (54 thoracic, 31 abdominal, 21 pelvic, and 11 vertebral lesions.) The main advantage of the stylet is its small diameter, rendering it atraumatic and permitting multiple punctures for the successful final targeting of the lesion. With this guiding set we achieved targeting of difficult lesions. Furthermore, larger needles were more easily introduced in locations that posed technical difficulties. No major complications were observed. The complication rate was comparable to that of the conventional biopsy technique. The technique using the guide stylet was easily performed and could be applied to almost all organs

  9. Optical biopsy of head and neck cancer using hyperspectral imaging and convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halicek, Martin; Little, James V.; Wang, Xu; Patel, Mihir; Griffith, Christopher C.; El-Deiry, Mark W.; Chen, Amy Y.; Fei, Baowei

    2018-02-01

    Successful outcomes of surgical cancer resection necessitate negative, cancer-free surgical margins. Currently, tissue samples are sent to pathology for diagnostic confirmation. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging, non-contact optical imaging technique. A reliable optical method could serve to diagnose and biopsy specimens in real-time. Using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as a tissue classifier, we developed a method to use HSI to perform an optical biopsy of ex-vivo surgical specimens, collected from 21 patients undergoing surgical cancer resection. Training and testing on samples from different patients, the CNN can distinguish squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa) from normal aerodigestive tract tissues with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.82, 81% accuracy, 81% sensitivity, and 80% specificity. Additionally, normal oral tissues can be sub-classified into epithelium, muscle, and glandular mucosa using a decision tree method, with an average AUC of 0.94, 90% accuracy, 93% sensitivity, and 89% specificity. After separately training on thyroid tissue, the CNN differentiates between thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid with an AUC of 0.95, 92% accuracy, 92% sensitivity, and 92% specificity. Moreover, the CNN can discriminate medullary thyroid carcinoma from benign multi-nodular goiter (MNG) with an AUC of 0.93, 87% accuracy, 88% sensitivity, and 85% specificity. Classical-type papillary thyroid carcinoma is differentiated from benign MNG with an AUC of 0.91, 86% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, and 86% specificity. Our preliminary results demonstrate that an HSI-based optical biopsy method using CNNs can provide multi-category diagnostic information for normal head-and-neck tissue, SCCa, and thyroid carcinomas. More patient data are needed in order to fully investigate the proposed technique to establish reliability and generalizability of the work.

  10. Optical Airborne Tracker System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Airborne Tracker System (OATS) is an airborne dual-axis optical tracking system capable of pointing at any sky location or ground target.  The objectives...

  11. Optical biopsy of tissue with Mueller polarimetry: theory and experiments (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Tatiana; Meglinski, Igor; Garcia-Caurel, Enric; Bykov, Alexander; Rehbinder, Jean; Deby, Stanislas; Vizet, Jérémy; Pierangelo, Angelo; Moreau, François; Validire, Pierre; Benali, Abdelali; Gayet, Brice; Teig, Benjamin; Nazac, André; Ossikovski, Razvigor

    2017-02-01

    The rise of optical biopsy as an alternative to classical biopsy is dictated by ongoing technological progress: any type of measurements has to be fast, precise, non-invasive and implemented in-vivo. The use of polarized light for optical biopsy has a long history. As Mueller-Stokes formalism provides the most complete description of polarized light interaction with any type of sample (even depolarizing one) we explored the capabilities of in-house multi-wavelength Mueller imaging polarimeter for the detection of pre-malignancy and malignancy. Our studies were performed with both scattering phantom tissues (in transmission configuration) and specimens of human colon and uterine cervix (in backscattering configuration). For the interpretation of measurement results we decomposed Mueller matrix of a sample into product of elementary Mueller matrices of homogeneous diattenuator, retarder, and depolarizer. This phenomenological approach does not require the exact solution of Maxwell equations and provides the "effective" values of polarimetric properties of sample. Exploring differential Mueller matrix formalism for fluctuating medium we showed that depolarization in homogeneous turbid medium varied parabolically with the pathlength of transmitted light, while the standard deviation of elementary polarization properties of medium depends linearly on the concentration of scatterers. Neither scattering phantoms nor human tissue possessed any measurable diattenuation in backscattering configuration. The polarimetric images of tissue depolarization power, scalar birefringence and orientation of optical axis were compared with the analysis of histological slides. The spectral dependence of depolarization power and scalar birefringence values ascertained the potential of imaging Mueller polarimetry to discriminate healthy and diseased tissue zones.

  12. In-Bore MR-Guided Biopsy Systems and Utility of PI-RADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fütterer, Jurgen J; Moche, Michael; Busse, Harald; Yakar, Derya

    2016-06-01

    A diagnostic dilemma exists in cases wherein a patient with clinical suspicion for prostate cancer has a negative transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy session. Although transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy is the standard of care, a paradigm shift is being observed. In biopsy-naive patients and patients with at least 1 negative biopsy session, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being utilized for tumor detection and subsequent targeting. Several commercial devices are now available for targeted prostate biopsy ranging from transrectal ultrasound-MR fusion biopsy to in bore MR-guided biopsy. In this review, we will give an update on the current status of in-bore MRI-guided biopsy systems and discuss value of prostate imaging-reporting and data system (PIRADS).

  13. [Musculoskeletal biopsies in an open 0.5-T-MR system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzsch, M; Scholz, R; Moche, M; Thomas, M; Tannapfel, A; von Salis-Soglio, G

    2005-01-01

    MR-guided interventions have been successful in different medical disciplines. The aim of this paper is to report our results with the application of MR-guided biopsies of musculoskeletal lesions using an open 0.5-T-MR scanner and further to discuss these results on the basis of the available literature. Between 1998 and 2003 30 patients (average age 44.1 years) underwent a total of 31 biopsies. The interventions were performed in an open 0.5-T MRI system using an active optical localization system as well as a navigation system. For the motion tracking we used T (1)-weighted real-time sequences with 0.25 pictures per second. For the sampling MR-compatible instruments were used that were specially developed for this purpose. The data of this retrospective investigation are based on the evaluation of the patient documents and the radiological findings. On the basis of the histological findings the technical success rate and the histological overall accuracy were determined. In 81 % of the biopsies the histological diagnosis was correct. In cases of suspected inflammation the histological accuracy was smaller (70 %). No differences were observed between skeletal and soft-tissue lesions. The technical success rate amounted to 77.5 %. No procedural or anesthesiological complications occurred. The mean operating time amounted to 65 min including the time for motion tracking. In cases of suspected lesions of the musculoskeletal system, the MR-guided biopsy represents a promising and safe procedure to get a histological diagnosis. In cases of sufficient size of the lesion sampling of a representative probe is possible. On account of the outstanding performance in soft-part contrasting, the sensitive structures surrounding the lesion can be saved. Substantial disadvantages of the procedure are the high costs for personal and material and the long operating time.

  14. Optical characterization of thin female breast biopsies based on the reduced scattering coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalakis, A; Zacharakis, G; Filippidis, G; Sanidas, E; Tsiftsis, D D; Stathopoulos, E; Kafousi, M; Ripoll, J; Papazoglou, T G

    2005-01-01

    One of the main goals in optical characterization of biopsies is to discern between tissue types. Usually, the theory used for deriving the optical properties of such highly scattering media is based on the diffusion approximation. However, biopsies are usually small in size compared to the transport mean free path and thus cannot be treated with standard diffusion theory. To account for this, an improved theory was developed, by the authors, that can correctly describe light propagation in small geometries (Garofalakis et al 2004 J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6 725-35). The theory's limit was validated by both Monte Carlo simulations and experiments performed on tissue-like phantoms, and was found to be two transport mean free paths. With the aid of this theory, we have characterized 59 samples of breast tissue including cancerous samples by retrieving their reduced scattering coefficients from time-resolved transmission data. The mean values for the reduced scattering coefficients of the normal and the tumour tissue were measured to be 9.7 ± 2.2 cm -1 and 10.8 ± 1.8 cm -1 , respectively. The correlation with age was also investigated

  15. Stormram 4: An MR Safe Robotic System for Breast Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenhuis, Vincent; Siepel, Françoise J; Veltman, Jeroen; van Zandwijk, Jordy K; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2018-05-21

    Suspicious lesions in the breast that are only visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) need to be biopsied under MR guidance with high accuracy and efficiency for accurate diagnosis. The aim of this study is to present a novel robotic system, the Stormram 4, and to perform preclinical tests in an MRI environment. Excluding racks and needle, its dimensions are 72 × 51 × 40 mm. The Stormram 4 is driven by two linear and two curved pneumatic stepper motors. The linear motor is capable of exerting 63 N of force at a pressure of 0.65 MPa. In an MRI environment the maximum observed stepping frequency is 30 Hz (unloaded), or 8 Hz when full force is needed. The Stormram 4's mean positioning error is 0.73 ± 0.47 mm in free air, and 1.29 ± 0.59 mm when targeting breast phantoms in MRI. Excluding the off-the-shelf needle, the robot is inherently MR safe. The robot is able to accurately target lesions under MRI guidance, reducing tissue damage and risk of false negatives. These results are promising for clinical experiments, improving the quality of healthcare in the field of MRI-guided breast biopsies.

  16. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  17. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  18. Percutaneous biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions with the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI): analysis of indication strategies; Perkutane stereotaktische Biopsie nicht palpabler Mammalaesionen mit dem Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrumentation (ABBI) System: kritische Evaluation der Indikationsstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, U.; Otto, U.; Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Bremerich, J.; Bongartz, G. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Oertli, D. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Chirurgie; Torhorst, J. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Pathologie

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: To compare the indications for biopsy with and without the use of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. Material and methods: Biopsies using the ABBI were performed in 62 patients with 64 non-palpable evident mammographic lesions. The initial decision for biopsy was made by non-radiologists due to suspicious microcalcifications (n=53) and masses (n=11). The indication was retrospectively reassessed by adopting the BI-RADS classification by three radiologists in consensus. The positive predictive value (PPV) of both indication strategies was assessed and compared. Results: Biopsies adopting ABBI were performed without major side-effects and were diagnostic. Carcinoma was present in 14 lesions: nine specimens were diagnosed as DCIS and five as invasive carcinomas. For the 50 benign lesions histology revealed mastopathies (26/50) and fibroadenomas (8/50) as the most frequent diagnosis. The positive predictive value (PPV) for the initial indication was 22%, whereas PPV for BI-RADS based indications (categories 4 and 5) was 31%. Conclusion: ABBI enables stereotactically-guided procedures that result in representative and diagnostic biopsies. Standardized criteria like BI-RADS improve the PPV and should be a mandatory part of mammographic evaluation. Radiologists should remain involved in the decision making. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Perkutane stereotaktische Biopsien mit dem ABBI stellen eine neue Alternative in der Abklaerung nicht palpabler Mammalaesionen dar. Es soll die Indikationsstellung mit und ohne Anwendung des Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) analysiert werden. Material und Methoden: Insgesamt wurde bei 62 Patientinnen mit 64 Laesionen eine Biopsie mit dem ABBI System durchgefuehrt. Die primaere Indikation zur ABBI Biopsie wurde von Nicht-Radiologen aufgrund von Mikrokalzifikationen in 53 Faellen und einer unklaren Verdichtung in 11 Faellen gestellt. Zusaetzlich erfolgte eine retrospektive Indikationsstellung der biopsierten

  19. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: Review of 408 biopsy-confirmed cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitong Zou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF has now been virtually eliminated by the discovery of its association with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs and the consequent reduced use of GBCA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in severe renal failure patients. This review of 408 biopsy-confirmed cases shows how to minimize NSF risk when performing GBCA-enhanced MRI or magnetic resonance angiography. The absence of any NSF cases in patients less than 8 years old or greater than 87 years old suggests that infants and elderly patients are already protected. Limiting GBCA dose to a maximum of 0.1 mMol/kg, dialyzing dialysis patients quickly following GBCA administration, delaying administration of GBCA in acute renal failure until after renal function returns or dialysis is initiated, and avoiding nonionic linear GBCA in renal failure patients, especially when there are pro-inflammatory conditions, appear to have reduced NSF risk to the point where safe GBCA-enhanced MRI is possible in most patients.

  20. FIBER OPTIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir BATUR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been many important and valuable developments in the communication industry. The huge increase in the sound, data and visual communications has caused a parallel increase in the demand for systems with wider capacity, higher speed and higher quality. Communication systems that use light to transfer data are immensely increased. There have recently many systems in which glass or plastic fiber cables were developed for light wave to be transmitted from a source to a target place. Fiber optic systems, are nowadays widely used in energy transmission control systems, medicine, industry and lighting. The basics of the system is, movement of light from one point to another point in fiber cable with reflections. Fiber optic lighting systems are quite secure than other lighting systems and have flexibility for realizing many different designs. This situation makes fiber optics an alternative for other lighting systems. Fiber optic lighting systems usage is increasing day-by-day in our life. In this article, these systems are discussed in detail.

  1. Percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of the musculoskeletal system: Results of 2027 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimondi, Eugenio; Rossi, Giuseppe; Bartalena, Tommaso; Ciminari, Rosanna; Alberghini, Marco; Ruggieri, Pietro; Errani, Costantino; Angelini, Andrea; Calabro, Teresa; Abati, Caterina Novella; Balladelli, Alba; Tranfaglia, Cristina; Mavrogenis, Andreas F.; Vanel, Daniel; Mercuri, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Biopsy of the musculoskeletal system is useful in the management of bone lesions particularly in oncology but they are often challenging procedures with a significant risk of complications. Computed tomography (CT)-guided needle biopsies may decrease these risks but doubts still exist about their diagnostic accuracy. This retrospective analysis of the experience of a single institution with percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of musculoskeletal lesions evaluates the results of these biopsies for bone lesions either in the appendicular skeleton or in the spine, and defines indications. Materials and methods: We reviewed the results of 2027 core needle biopsies performed over the past 18 years at the authors' institution. The results obtained are subject of this paper. Results: In 1567 cases the correct diagnosis was made with the first CT-guided needle biopsy (77.3% accuracy rate), in 408 cases the sample was not diagnostic and in 52 inadequate. Within 30 days these 408 patients underwent another biopsy, which was diagnostic in 340 cases with a final diagnostic accuracy of 94%. Highest accuracy rates were obtained in primary and secondary malignant lesions. Most false negative results were found in cervical lesions and in benign, pseudotumoral, flogistic, and systemic pathologies. There were 22 complications (18 transient paresis, 3 haematomas, 1 retroperitoneal haematoma) which had no influence on the treatment strategy, nor on patient outcome. Conclusion: This technique is reliable and safe and should be considered nowadays the gold standard for biopsies of the musculoskeletal system.

  2. Retrospective 5-year analysis of MR-guided biopsies in a low-field MR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangos, Stephan; Mueller, C.; Mayer, F.; Naguib, N.N.; Nour-Eldin, N.E.A.; Herzog, C.; Hammerstingl, R.M.; Thalhammer, A.; Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J.; Eichler, K.; Hansmann, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical value of MR-guided biopsies in an open 0.2 T low-field system. Materials and methods: A total of 322 patients with suspicious lesions of different body regions were biopsied in a low-field MRI system (0.2 T, Concerto, Siemens). The procedures were guided using T1-weighted Flash sequences (TR/TE = 100/9; 70 ). The lesions were repeatedly biopsied using the coaxial technique with a 15-gauge (diameter 2 mm) puncture needle. Complications and biopsy findings were analyzed retrospectively. Results: In all cases the biopsy procedures were successfully performed with MR guidance. In 298 patients diagnosis was able to be confirmed on the basis of the probes. The clinical follow-up showed that in 24 patients the lesions were missed by MR-guided biopsy. From this a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 87% and an accuracy of 93% were calculated. In two patients major complications were observed (morbidity rate 0.6%). Conclusion: MR-guided biopsy can be performed safely and precisely in a low-field MR system and are a supplement to US or CT-guided biopsies. (orig.)

  3. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  4. Multiaperture Optical System Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-06

    pp. 179-185 (1965). 6. Welford, W. T. and Winston , R., The Optics of Nonimaging Concentrators , P. 3, Academic Press, New York (1978). 7. Schneider, R...Welford and Winston investigated it was a possible concentrator for solar energy. They came up with the "ideal concentrator ", which has walls shaped...MULTIAPZRTURE OPTICAL SYSTEM RESEARCH ." Office of Naval Research Contract Number N00014-85-C-0862 . FINAL REPORT by RTS LABORATORIES, INC. 1663

  5. Optical Coherencetomography for Bladder Cancer-Ready as a Surrogate for Optical Biopsy? Results of a Prospective Mono-Centre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl, H. Stepp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is no perfect noninvasive diagnostic technique for bladder cancer. Cystoscopy and transurethral resection (TUR are stil gold standard for the diagnosis of muscle invasive bladder cancer. On the other hand, Optical CoherenceTomography (OCT can be alternative in the future. OCT was the first applied for opthalmology. OCT provides layer by layer images from target tissues with high-resolution, optical cross-sectional tomographic imaging. OCT’s concept is similar to ultrasound, differently it use light for detection. OCT’s resolution may vary from 20 microns (μm up to 1 μm that depends on optical system and lightsource. The image penetration depth of OCT can reach to 2-3 mm. Recently, there are many research about OCT for the diagnosis of urogenital tumors in the literature. In this study, A.Karl reported sensitivity and specificty of OCT for detecting the presence of malignant lession as 100% and %65. But, this small study includes only 52 patients who have 166 suspicious lesions. Specifity of OCT was inadequate due to false positive images, in this report. Contrary, there were no false negative lesions and its sensitivity was 100% depend on all invasive tumors detected and staged correctly beyond the lamina propria. False positive results were associated with edema, inflammation and scar. The overall OCT sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative and positive predictive values are reported as 75-100%, 65-98%, 92%, 75% and 100% in the literature. We need more large-scale studies about this topic. It will be promissing technique for diagnostics of urogenital malignant lesions. OCT (optical biopsy will progress with tecnical development and it will be alternative method for staging of bladder cancer.

  6. Optics Supply Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylord, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  7. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  8. Aurora laser optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, J.A.; McLeod, J.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is the Los Alamos short-pulse high-power krypton fluoride laser system. It is primarily an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale UV laser systems of interest for short-wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and aerial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver to ICF targets a stack of pulses with a duration of 5 ns containing several kilojoules at a wavelength of 248 nm. A program of high-energy density plasma physics investigations is now planned, and a sophisticated target chamber was constructed. The authors describe the design of the optical system for Aurora and report its status. This optical system was designed and is being constructed in two phases. The first phase carries only through the amplifier train and does not include a target chamber or any demultiplexing. Installation should be complete, and some performance results should be available. The second phase provides demultiplexing and carries the laser light to target. The complete design is reported

  9. OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA L.Y. CHIENG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of bandwidth in this modern internet age has been testing the existing telecommunication infrastructures around the world. With broadband speeds moving towards the region of Gbps and Tbps, many researches have begun on the development of using optical wireless technology as feasible and future methods to the current wireless technology. Unlike the existing radio frequency wireless applications, optical wireless uses electromagnetic spectrums that are unlicensed and free. With that, this project aim to understand and gain better understanding of optical wireless communication system by building an experimental and simulated model. The quality of service and system performance will be investigated and reviewed. This project employs laser diode as the propagation medium and successfully transferred audio signals as far as 15 meters. On its quality of service, results of the project model reveal that the bit error rate increases, signal-to-noise ratio and quality factor decreases as the link distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. OptiSystem was used to build the simulated model and MATLAB was used to assist signal-to-noise ratio calculations. By comparing the simulated and experimental receiver’s power output, the experimental model’s efficiency is at 66.3%. Other than the system’s performance, challenges and factors affecting the system have been investigated and discussed. Such challenges include beam divergence, misalignment and particle absorption.

  10. A needle guidance system for biopsy and therapy using two-dimensional ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluvol, Nathan; Sheikh, Allison; Kornecki, Anat; Del Rey Fernandez, David; Downey, Donal; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Image-guided needle biopsies are currently used to provide a definitive diagnosis of breast cancer; however, difficulties in tumor targeting exist as the ultrasound (United States) scan plane and biopsy needle must remain coplanar throughout the procedure to display the actual needle tip position. The additional time associated with aligning and maintaining this coplanar relationship results in increased patient discomfort. Biopsy procedural efficiency is further hindered since needle pathway interpretation is often difficult, especially for needle insertions at large depths that usually require multiple reinsertions. The authors developed a system that would increase the speed and accuracy of current breast biopsy procedures using readily available two-dimensional (2D) US technology. This system is composed of a passive articulated mechanical arm that attaches to a 2D US transducer. The arm is connected to a computer through custom electronics and software, which were developed as an interface for tracking the positioning of the mechanical components in real time. The arm couples to the biopsy needle and provides visual guidance for the physician performing the procedure in the form of a real-time projected needle pathway overlay on an US image of the breast. An agar test phantom, with stainless steel targets interspersed randomly throughout, was used to validate needle trajectory positioning accuracy. The biopsy needle was guided by both the software and hardware components to the targets. The phantom, with the needle inserted and device decoupled, was placed in an x-ray stereotactic mammography (SM) machine. The needle trajectory and bead target locations were determined in three dimensions from the SM images. Results indicated a mean needle trajectory accuracy error of 0.75±0.42 mm. This is adequate to sample lesions that are <2 mm in diameter. Chicken tissue test phantoms were used to compare core needle biopsy procedure times between experienced radiologists

  11. Optically pumped laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  12. Optical fiber inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

  13. Three cases of systemic amyloidosis successfully diagnosed by subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arahata M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Masahisa Arahata,1 Shigeru Shimadoi,1 Satosi Yamatani,1 Shin-ichi Hayashi,2 Shigeharu Miwa,2 Hidesaku Asakura,3 Shinji Nakao4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Nanto Municipal Hospital, Nanto, 2Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, 3Department of Internal Medicine (III, 4Department of Cellular Transplantation Biology, Division of Cancer Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan Abstract: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the abdominal fat pad is considered to be a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis. However, this procedure is sometimes difficult and can be dangerous for elderly patients whose abdominal fat layer is thin because of malnutrition. In such cases, alternative diagnostic methods are required. We report three elderly patients with heart failure complicated by malnutrition. In all cases, electrocardiogram showed low voltage in the limb leads and a pseudoinfarct pattern in the chest leads, and echocardiography showed left ventricular wall thickening with granular sparkling appearance. These patients were suspected of having amyloid cardiomyopathy but could not undergo myocardial biopsies because of their poor conditions. After failed attempts at biopsy of the abdominal fat pad or the other organs, subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy over the hip led to the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis with cardiomyopathy. The resultant diagnosis guided us to choose the appropriate treatment for the patients. This article illustrates that subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip could be a useful procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis in elderly patients, particularly when a fat tissue biopsy of the abdomen is associated with a high risk of complications because of malnutrition. Keywords: systemic amyloidosis, amyloid cardiomyopathy, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, subcutaneous fat tissue, hip

  14. Optical absorption measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  15. Control of optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, D.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the current and planned activities at the Air Force Systems Command in structures and controls for optical-type systems are summarized. Many of the activities are contracted to industry; one task is an in-house program which includes a hardware test program. The objective of the in-house program, referred to as the Aluminum Beam Expander Structure (ABES), is to address issues involved in on-orbit system identification. The structure, which appears similar to the LDR backup structure, is about 35 feet tall. The activity to date has been limited to acquisition of about 250 hours of test data. About 30 hours of data per excitation force is gathered in order to obtain sufficient data for a good statistical estimate of the structural parameters. The development of an Integrated Structural Modeling (ISM) computer program is being done by Boeing Aerospace Company. The objective of the contracted effort is to develop a combined optics, structures, thermal, controls, and multibody dynamics simulation code.

  16. A New System for Neuronavigation and Stereotactic Biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This hybrid system comprises three main parts: main frame, monitoring system, and pantograph, which are connected to each other and to the operating table by particular attachments. For using this system, after performing CT SCAN or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) the axial view will be transferred to Liquid Cristal ...

  17. Evaluation of computational endomicroscopy architectures for minimally-invasive optical biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, John P.; Lodhi, Muhammad A.; Bajwa, Waheed U.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2017-02-01

    We are investigating compressive sensing architectures for applications in endomicroscopy, where the narrow diameter probes required for tissue access can limit the achievable spatial resolution. We hypothesize that the compressive sensing framework can be used to overcome the fundamental pixel number limitation in fiber-bundle based endomicroscopy by reconstructing images with more resolvable points than fibers in the bundle. An experimental test platform was assembled to evaluate and compare two candidate architectures, based on introducing a coded amplitude mask at either a conjugate image or Fourier plane within the optical system. The benchtop platform consists of a common illumination and object path followed by separate imaging arms for each compressive architecture. The imaging arms contain a digital micromirror device (DMD) as a reprogrammable mask, with a CCD camera for image acquisition. One arm has the DMD positioned at a conjugate image plane ("IP arm"), while the other arm has the DMD positioned at a Fourier plane ("FP arm"). Lenses were selected and positioned within each arm to achieve an element-to-pixel ratio of 16 (230,400 mask elements mapped onto 14,400 camera pixels). We discuss our mathematical model for each system arm and outline the importance of accounting for system non-idealities. Reconstruction of a 1951 USAF resolution target using optimization-based compressive sensing algorithms produced images with higher spatial resolution than bicubic interpolation for both system arms when system non-idealities are included in the model. Furthermore, images generated with image plane coding appear to exhibit higher spatial resolution, but more noise, than images acquired through Fourier plane coding.

  18. Robot-assisted biopsies in a high-field MRI system. First clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, B.; Eichler, K.; Mack, M.G.; Mueller, C.; Kerl, J.M.; Beeres, M.; Thalhammer, A.; Vogl, T.J.; Zangos, S.; Czerny, C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical use of MR-guided biopsies in patients with suspicious lesions using a new MR-compatible assistance system in a high-field MR system. Materials and Methods: Six patients with suspicious focal lesions in various anatomic regions underwent percutanous biopsy in a high-field MR system (1.5 T, Magnetom Espree, Siemens) using a new MR-compatible assistance system (Innomotion). The procedures were planned and guided using T1-weighted FLASH and TrueFISP sequences. A servopneumatic drive then moved the guiding arm automatically to the insertion point. An MRI compatible 15G biopsy system (Somatex) was introduced by a physician guided by the needle holder and multiple biopsies were performed using the coaxial technique. The feasibility, duration of the intervention and biopsy findings were analyzed. Results: The proposed new system allows accurate punctures in a high-field MR system. The assistance device did not interfere with the image quality, and guided the needle virtually exactly as planned. Histological examination could be conducted on every patient. The lesion was malignant in four cases, and an infectious etiology was diagnosed for the two remaining lesions. Regarding the differentiation of anatomical and pathological structures and position monitoring of the insertion needle, TrueFISP images are to be given preference. The average intervention time was 41 minutes. Lesions up to 15.4 cm beneath the skin surface were punctured. Conclusion: The proposed MR-guided assistance system can be successfully utilized in a high-field MR system for accurate punctures of even deep lesions in various anatomic regions. (orig.)

  19. Intelligent Optical Systems Using Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the phrase adaptive optics generally conjured images of large deformable mirrors being integrated into telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. However, the development of smaller, cheaper devices has sparked interest for other aerospace and commercial applications. Variable focal length lenses, liquid crystal spatial light modulators, tunable filters, phase compensators, polarization compensation, and deformable mirrors are becoming increasingly useful for other imaging applications including guidance navigation and control (GNC), coronagraphs, foveated imaging, situational awareness, autonomous rendezvous and docking, non-mechanical zoom, phase diversity, and enhanced multi-spectral imaging. The active components presented here allow flexibility in the optical design, increasing performance. In addition, the intelligent optical systems presented offer advantages in size and weight and radiation tolerance.

  20. Stormram 3: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Compatible Robotic System for Breast Biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuis, Vincent; Veltman, Jeroen; Siepel, Françoise Jeanette; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Stormram 3 is an MRI-compatible robotic system that can perform MR guided breast biopsies of suspicious lesions. The base of the robot measures 160x180x90 mm and it is actuated by five custom pneumatic linear stepper motors, driven by a valve manifold outside the Faraday cage of the MRI scanner. All

  1. Evolution of Robot-assisted ultrasound-guided breast biopsy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Z. Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot-assisted ultrasound-guided breast biopsy combines ultrasound (US imaging with a robotic system for medical interventions. This study was designed to provide a literature review of a robotic US-guided breast biopsy system to delineate its efficacious impact on current medical practice. In addition, the strengths and limitations of this approach were also addressed. Articles published in the English language between 2000 and 2016 were appraised in this review. A wide range of systems that bind robotics with US imaging and guided breast biopsy were examined in this article. The fundamental safety and real-time imaging capabilities of US, together with the accuracy and maneuverability of robotic devices, is clearly an effective association with unmatched capabilities. Numerous experimental systems have obvious benefits over old-fashioned techniques, and the future of robot-assisted US-guided breast biopsy will be characterized by increasing levels of automation, and they hold tremendous possibility to impact doctor achievement, patient recovery, and clinical management.

  2. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  3. Preliminary experience with interactive guided brain biopsies using a vertically opened 0.5-T MR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.P.; Dietrich, J.; Lieberenz, S.; Schmidt, F.; Sorge, O.; Trantakis, C.; Seifert, V.; Kellermann, S.; Schober, R.; Franke, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of brain biopsies performed within a vertically opened MR system. We worked with the interventional 0.5-T MR ''SIGNA SP'' (General Electric Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Wis.) with an integrated tracking device ''Flashpoint Position Encoder'' (Image Guided Technologies, USA). As a holding device for this instrument we constructed a special frame. The whole system allows an exact adjustment of an optimum biopsy direction and guidance of the biopsy in a non-stereotactic, interactive mode in near real-time. As biopsy tools we used MR-compatible aspiration and specially made side-cut needles (Daum, Germany; E-Z-EM, USA). We performed a prospective diagnostic brain biopsy study in 18 patients. Guidance of the needle was carried out using gradient-echo single-slice technique. The sample was taken after controlling the exact position of the needle tip on spin-echo images. In 12 cases an exact neuropathological diagnosis was possible. In 6 cases of negative biopsy (4 aspiration biopsies) the samples were not representative. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of interactive MR-guided minimally invasive brain biopsies in an open MR system. The best results were achieved using cut needles for biopsies of contrast-enhancing lesions visible on T1-weighted gradient-echo guidance sequence. (orig.)

  4. Applying tattoo dye as a third-harmonic generation contrast agent for in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Rung; Lin, Chen-Yu; Liao, Yi-Hua; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-02-01

    Third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy has been reported to provide intrinsic contrast in elastic fibers, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, actin filaments, lipid bodies, hemoglobin, and melanin in human skin. For advanced molecular imaging, exogenous contrast agents are developed for a higher structural or molecular specificity. We demonstrate the potential of the commonly adopted tattoo dye as a THG contrast agent for in vivo optical biopsy of human skin. Spectroscopy and microscopy experiments were performed on cultured cells with tattoo dyes, in tattooed mouse skin, and in tattooed human skin to demonstrate the THG enhancement effect. Compared with other absorbing dyes or nanoparticles used as exogenous THG contrast agents, tattoo dyes are widely adopted in human skin so that future clinical biocompatibility evaluation is relatively achievable. Combined with the demonstrated THG enhancement effect, tattoo dyes show their promise for future clinical imaging applications.

  5. Value of Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Prostate Cancer: Comparison with Systemic Prostate Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seong Kuk; Kim, Dong Won; Ha, Dong Ho; Kwon, Hee Jin; Kang, Myong Jin; Choi, Sun Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jung Il [Dong-A University, Medical Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to correlate systemic twelve biopsy in prostate cancer. Thirty-one patients with suspected prostate cancer underwent MR imaging. DTI was performed prior to a prostate biopsy. We prospectively calculated the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) value in each corresponding biopsy site. Twenty-three of 31 patients had histopathologically proven adenocarcinoma. Among the 276 biopsy cores of 23 patients with prostate cancer, 109 cores showed positive results (39%). The ADC and FA value of positive cores were 1.31 {+-} 0.34x10-3 mm2/s and 0.68 {+-} 0.07, and those of the negative cores were 1.74 {+-} 0.45x10-3 mm2/s and 0.54 {+-} 0.09, respectively. Eight patients without carcinoma showed an ADC value of 1.83 {+-} 0.26x10-3 mm2/s and an FA value of 0.47 {+-} 0.07. The ADC and FA value of positive cores were significantly lower and higher than those of negative cores and cancer-free patients, respectively (p < 0.05). The ADC and FA values using DTI may provide useful diagnostic information in the differentiation of cancerous tissues, although there is overlap in some cases

  6. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  7. Quality assurance procedure for a gamma guided stereotactic breast biopsy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Benjamin L; Brem, Rachel; Black, Rachel; Majewski, Stan

    2006-01-01

    A quality assurance procedure has been developed for a prototype gamma-ray guided stereotactic biopsy system. The system consists of a compact small-field-of-view gamma-ray camera mounted to the rotational arm of a Lorad stereotactic biopsy system. The small-field-of-view gamma-ray camera has been developed for clinical applications where mammographic X-ray localization is not possible. Marker sources that can be imaged with the gamma-camera have been designed and built for quality assurance testing and to provide a fiducial reference mark. An algorithm for determining the three dimensional location of a region of interest, such as a lesion, relative to the fiducial mark has been implemented into the software control of the camera. This system can be used to determine the three-dimensional location of a region of interest from a stereo pair of images and that information can be used to guide a biopsy needle to that site. Point source phantom tests performed with the system have demonstrated that the camera can be used to localize a point of interest to within 1 mm, which is satisfactory for its use in needle localization.

  8. System for testing optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

  9. Holographic optical security systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F.

    1990-06-01

    One of the most successful applications of Holography,in recent years,has been its use as an optical security technique.Indeed the general public's awareness of holograms has been greatly enhanced by the incorporation of holographic elements into the VISA and MASTERCHARGE credit cards.Optical techniques related to Holography,are also being used to protect the currencies of several countries against the counterfeiter. The mass production of high quality holographic images is by no means a trivial task as a considerable degree of expertise is required together with an optical laboratory and embossing machinery.This paper will present an overview of the principal holographic and related optical techniques used for security purposes.Worldwide, over thirty companies are involved in the production of security elements utilising holographic and related optical technologies.Counterfeiting of many products is a major criminal activity with severe consequences not only for the manufacturer but for the public in general as defective automobile parts,aircraft components,and pharmaceutical products, to cite only a few of the more prominent examples,have at one time or another been illegally copied.

  10. The Mammotome biopsy system is an effective treatment strategy for breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keren; Ye, Yuqin; Sun, Guang; Xu, Zheli

    2013-01-01

    Although most breast abscesses can be treated with the current first-line treatment of antibiotics by needle aspiration, the therapeutic duration is lengthy and recurrences often occur. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of the Mammotome biopsy system (Johnson & Johnson Corp., New Brunswick, NJ) in a cohort of patients with breast abscesses. Forty lactating and 30 nonlactating breast abscess patients with unfavorable outcomes with antibiotic treatment and/or needle aspiration failure were recruited and treated with the Mammotome biopsy system. Skin inflammation of all patients disappeared within 6 days with no recurrence. The clinical outcomes in patients with an abscess size ≤ 3.5 cm was significantly better than those with an abscess size >3.5 cm (P = .025). The Mammotome biopsy system, an effective treatment strategy that is minimally invasive and less damaging, in combination with appropriate antibiotic therapy can be used safely as the first-line approach to breast abscess management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    2000-02-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t) = k(t) + Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  12. Toward a real-time system for temporal enhanced ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Shekoofeh; Van Woudenberg, Nathan; Sojoudi, Samira; Li, Ming; Xu, Sheng; Abu Anas, Emran M; Yan, Pingkun; Tahmasebi, Amir; Kwak, Jin Tae; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford; Mousavi, Parvin; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2018-03-27

    We have previously proposed temporal enhanced ultrasound (TeUS) as a new paradigm for tissue characterization. TeUS is based on analyzing a sequence of ultrasound data with deep learning and has been demonstrated to be successful for detection of cancer in ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Our aim is to enable the dissemination of this technology to the community for large-scale clinical validation. In this paper, we present a unified software framework demonstrating near-real-time analysis of ultrasound data stream using a deep learning solution. The system integrates ultrasound imaging hardware, visualization and a deep learning back-end to build an accessible, flexible and robust platform. A client-server approach is used in order to run computationally expensive algorithms in parallel. We demonstrate the efficacy of the framework using two applications as case studies. First, we show that prostate cancer detection using near-real-time analysis of RF and B-mode TeUS data and deep learning is feasible. Second, we present real-time segmentation of ultrasound prostate data using an integrated deep learning solution. The system is evaluated for cancer detection accuracy on ultrasound data obtained from a large clinical study with 255 biopsy cores from 157 subjects. It is further assessed with an independent dataset with 21 biopsy targets from six subjects. In the first study, we achieve area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.94, 0.77, 0.94 and 0.92, respectively, for the detection of prostate cancer. In the second study, we achieve an AUC of 0.85. Our results suggest that TeUS-guided biopsy can be potentially effective for the detection of prostate cancer.

  13. Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer - ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy? - results of a prospective mono-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction New modalities like Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT allow non-invasive examination of the internal structure of biological tissue in vivo. The potential benefits and limitations of this new technology for the detection and evaluation of bladder cancer were examined in this study. Materials and methods Between January 2007 and January 2008, 52 patients who underwent transurethral bladder biopsy or TUR-BT for surveillance or due to initial suspicion of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder were enrolled in this study. In total, 166 lesions were suspicious for malignancy according to standard white light cystoscopy. All suspicious lesions were scanned and interpreted during perioperative cystoscopy using OCT. Cold cup biopsies and/or TUR-B was performed for all these lesions. For this study we used an OCT-device (Niris®, Imalux®, Cleveland, US, that utilizes near-infrared light guided through a flexible fibre-based applicator, which is placed into the bladder via the working channel of the cystoscope. The technology provides high spatial resolution on the order of about 10-20 μm, and a visualization of tissue to a depth of about 2 mm across a lateral span of about 2 mm in width. The device used received market clearance from the FDA and CE approval in Germany. The diagnostic and surgical procedure was videotaped and analyzed afterwards for definitive matching of scanned and biopsied lesion. The primary aim of this study was to determine the level of correlation between OCT interpretation and final histological result. Results Of 166 scanned OCT images, 102 lesions (61.4% matched to the same site where the biopsy/TUR-BT was taken according to videoanalysis. Only these video-verified lesions were used for further analysis. Of all analyzed lesions 88 were benign (inflammation, edema, hyperplasia etc. and 14 were malignant (CIS, Ta, T1, T2 as shown by final histo pathology. All 14 malignant lesions were detected correctly by

  14. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1996-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  15. Optical detection in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2009-01-01

    Optical detection schemes continue to be favoured for measurements in microfluidic systems. A selection of the latest progress mainly within the last two years is critically reviewed. Emphasis is on integrated solutions, such as planar waveguides, coupling schemes to the outside world, evanescent...... to ease commercialisation of the devices. This work will hopefully result in more commercial products that benefit from integrated optics, because the impact on commercial devices so far has been modest....

  16. Fiber-optic communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive account of fiber-optic communication systems. The 3rd edition of this book is used worldwide as a textbook in many universities. This 4th edition incorporates recent advances that have occurred, in particular two new chapters. One deals with the advanced modulation formats (such as DPSK, QPSK, and QAM) that are increasingly being used for improving spectral efficiency of WDM lightwave systems. The second chapter focuses on new techniques such as all-optical regeneration that are under development and likely to be used in future communication systems. All othe

  17. Prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... give the cells a grade called a Gleason score . This helps predict how fast the cancer will ... TRUS); Stereotactic transperineal prostate biopsy (STPB) Images Male reproductive anatomy References Babayan RK, Katz MH. Biopsy prophylaxis, ...

  18. Kidney biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the kidney (in rare cases, may require a blood transfusion) Bleeding into the muscle, which might cause soreness Infection (small risk) Alternative Names Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney Images Kidney anatomy ...

  19. In-Bore MR-Guided Biopsy Systems and Utility of PI-RADS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Futterer, J.J.; Moche, M.; Busse, H.; Yakar, D.

    2016-01-01

    A diagnostic dilemma exists in cases wherein a patient with clinical suspicion for prostate cancer has a negative transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy session. Although transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy is the standard of care, a paradigm shift is being observed. In biopsy-naive patients and

  20. Laboratory testing & measurement on optical imaging systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available on Optical Imaging Systems Bertus Theron 27 April 2013 presented at SIECPC 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Overview of Workshop Part 1. Introduction & Context  Some history of Arabic Optics  Context: Global vs Local optical testing... of Arabic Optics 1 See [4]  Arabic records of study of geometrical optics  Traced to Hellenistic (Greek) optics  Translated to Arabic  9th century  Arabic contribution to geometric optics  Not just translation to Arabic  Innovative research...

  1. Influence able and Avoidable Risk Factors for Systemic Air Embolism due to Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsy: Patient Positioning and Coaxial Biopsy Technique-Case Report, Systematic Literature Review, and a Technical Note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rott, G.; Boecker, F.

    2014-01-01

    Following the first case of a systemic air embolism due to percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy in our clinic we analysed the literature regarding this matter in view of influence able or avoidable risk factors. A systematic review of literature reporting cases of systemic air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy was performed to find out whether prone positioning might be a risk factor regarding this issue. In addition, a technical note concerning coaxial biopsy practice is presented. Prone position seems to have relevance for the development and/or clinical manifestation of air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy and should be considered a risk factor, at least as far as lesions in the lower parts of the lung are concerned. Biopsies of small or cavitary lesions in coaxial technique should be performed using a hemo static valve.

  2. Fiber Optic Augmented Reality System (FOARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovation: Fiber Optics Augmented Reality System. This system in form of a mobile app interacts real time with the actual FOSS(Fiber Optics Sensing System) data and...

  3. Targeting Accuracy, Procedure Times and User Experience of 240 Experimental MRI Biopsies Guided by a Clinical Add-On Navigation System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Busse

    Full Text Available MRI is of great clinical utility for the guidance of special diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The majority of such procedures are performed iteratively ("in-and-out" in standard, closed-bore MRI systems with control imaging inside the bore and needle adjustments outside the bore. The fundamental limitations of such an approach have led to the development of various assistance techniques, from simple guidance tools to advanced navigation systems. The purpose of this work was to thoroughly assess the targeting accuracy, workflow and usability of a clinical add-on navigation solution on 240 simulated biopsies by different medical operators.Navigation relied on a virtual 3D MRI scene with real-time overlay of the optically tracked biopsy needle. Smart reference markers on a freely adjustable arm ensured proper registration. Twenty-four operators - attending (AR and resident radiologists (RR as well as medical students (MS - performed well-controlled biopsies of 10 embedded model targets (mean diameter: 8.5 mm, insertion depths: 17-76 mm. Targeting accuracy, procedure times and 13 Likert scores on system performance were determined (strong agreement: 5.0.Differences in diagnostic success rates (AR: 93%, RR: 88%, MS: 81% were not significant. In contrast, between-group differences in biopsy times (AR: 4:15, RR: 4:40, MS: 5:06 min:sec differed significantly (p<0.01. Mean overall rating was 4.2. The average operator would use the system again (4.8 and stated that the outcome justifies the extra effort (4.4. Lowest agreement was reported for the robustness against external perturbations (2.8.The described combination of optical tracking technology with an automatic MRI registration appears to be sufficiently accurate for instrument guidance in a standard (closed-bore MRI environment. High targeting accuracy and usability was demonstrated on a relatively large number of procedures and operators. Between groups with different expertise there were

  4. Targeting Accuracy, Procedure Times and User Experience of 240 Experimental MRI Biopsies Guided by a Clinical Add-On Navigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Harald; Riedel, Tim; Garnov, Nikita; Thörmer, Gregor; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael

    2015-01-01

    MRI is of great clinical utility for the guidance of special diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The majority of such procedures are performed iteratively ("in-and-out") in standard, closed-bore MRI systems with control imaging inside the bore and needle adjustments outside the bore. The fundamental limitations of such an approach have led to the development of various assistance techniques, from simple guidance tools to advanced navigation systems. The purpose of this work was to thoroughly assess the targeting accuracy, workflow and usability of a clinical add-on navigation solution on 240 simulated biopsies by different medical operators. Navigation relied on a virtual 3D MRI scene with real-time overlay of the optically tracked biopsy needle. Smart reference markers on a freely adjustable arm ensured proper registration. Twenty-four operators - attending (AR) and resident radiologists (RR) as well as medical students (MS) - performed well-controlled biopsies of 10 embedded model targets (mean diameter: 8.5 mm, insertion depths: 17-76 mm). Targeting accuracy, procedure times and 13 Likert scores on system performance were determined (strong agreement: 5.0). Differences in diagnostic success rates (AR: 93%, RR: 88%, MS: 81%) were not significant. In contrast, between-group differences in biopsy times (AR: 4:15, RR: 4:40, MS: 5:06 min:sec) differed significantly (p<0.01). Mean overall rating was 4.2. The average operator would use the system again (4.8) and stated that the outcome justifies the extra effort (4.4). Lowest agreement was reported for the robustness against external perturbations (2.8). The described combination of optical tracking technology with an automatic MRI registration appears to be sufficiently accurate for instrument guidance in a standard (closed-bore) MRI environment. High targeting accuracy and usability was demonstrated on a relatively large number of procedures and operators. Between groups with different expertise there were

  5. Cold knife cone biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References Baggish ...

  6. Analysis of 62 cases with stereotaxic breast biopsy with a prone table system: emphasis on lesions with microcalcificatios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Il Gyu; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Han, Boo Kyung; Byun, Hong Sik; Choo, In Wook

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of stereotaxic breast core biopsy using a prone table system, and the effects of operator experience, lesion characteristics and number of samples on biopsy results in cases involving nonpalpable breast lesions. We performed stereotaxic core biopsies of 62 nonpalpable mammographic lesions in 61 patients. Subsequent surgical excision was performed in 11 cases with microcalcifications and one case with a mass. We equally divided patients with microcalcifications into two groups (early and late periods) and analyzed the mammographic findings. Correlation of the pathologic results of core biopsy with those of surgical excision were investigated. In two patients, stereotaxic biopsy was impossible due to poor visibility of microcalcifications and thinness of the compressed breast. In 59 patients, core biopsy was successfully performed and specimens were adequate for pathologic examination. The average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography in the two groups was 1.8(range : 0x8) and 2.5(range : 0x4) respectively. In patients from whom less than five and five or more samples were taken, the average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography was 1.5(range : 0x6) and 2.6(range : 0x8), respectively, throughout the whole period. The pathologic findings were fibrocystic change in 50 cases, fibroadenoma in four, ductal carcinoma in situ in four, invasive ductal carcinoma in one, and atypical ductal hyperplasia in one. The agreement rate of pathologic results between core biopsy and surgical excision was 83%(10/12) for malignancy and 75% for histology. In three cases with disagreement between core and surgical pathologic results, the sampling number was small (3x 4 times) and in two of the three cases, microcalcifications were not visible on mammography operator experience and sampling numbers larger than five results in an increased number of microcalcifications in specimens and more reliable core biopsy

  7. Analysis of 62 cases with stereotaxic breast biopsy with a prone table system: emphasis on lesions with microcalcificatios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Il Gyu; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Han, Boo Kyung; Byun, Hong Sik; Choo, In Wook [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of stereotaxic breast core biopsy using a prone table system, and the effects of operator experience, lesion characteristics and number of samples on biopsy results in cases involving nonpalpable breast lesions. We performed stereotaxic core biopsies of 62 nonpalpable mammographic lesions in 61 patients. Subsequent surgical excision was performed in 11 cases with microcalcifications and one case with a mass. We equally divided patients with microcalcifications into two groups (early and late periods) and analyzed the mammographic findings. Correlation of the pathologic results of core biopsy with those of surgical excision were investigated. In two patients, stereotaxic biopsy was impossible due to poor visibility of microcalcifications and thinness of the compressed breast. In 59 patients, core biopsy was successfully performed and specimens were adequate for pathologic examination. The average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography in the two groups was 1.8(range : 0x8) and 2.5(range : 0x4) respectively. In patients from whom less than five and five or more samples were taken, the average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography was 1.5(range : 0x6) and 2.6(range : 0x8), respectively, throughout the whole period. The pathologic findings were fibrocystic change in 50 cases, fibroadenoma in four, ductal carcinoma in situ in four, invasive ductal carcinoma in one, and atypical ductal hyperplasia in one. The agreement rate of pathologic results between core biopsy and surgical excision was 83%(10/12) for malignancy and 75% for histology. In three cases with disagreement between core and surgical pathologic results, the sampling number was small (3x 4 times) and in two of the three cases, microcalcifications were not visible on mammography operator experience and sampling numbers larger than five results in an increased number of microcalcifications in specimens and more reliable core biopsy.

  8. An automated robot arm system for small animal tissue biopsy under dual-image modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.H.; Wu, T.H.; Lin, M.H.; Yang, C.C.; Guo, W.Y.; Wang, Z.J.; Chen, C.L.; Lee, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor cell biology in vivo is one of the most important goals of molecular imaging. Imaging procedures could be inter-subject performed repeatedly at different investigating stages; thereby need not sacrifice small animals during the entire study period. Thus, the ultimate goal of this study was to design a stereotactic image-guided system for small animals and integrated it with an automatic robot arm for in vivo tissue biopsy analysis. The system was composed of three main parts, including one small animal stereotactic frame, one imaging-fusion software and an automatic robot arm system. The system has been thoroughly evaluated with three components; the robot position accuracy was 0.05±0.02 mm, the image registration accuracy was 0.37±0.18 mm and the system integration was satisfactorily within 1.20±0.39 mm of error. From these results, the system demonstrated sufficient accuracy to guide the micro-injector from the planned delivery routes into practice. The entire system accuracy was limited by the image fusion and orientation procedures, due to its nature of the blurred PET imaging obtained from the small objects. The primary improvement is to acquire as higher resolution as possible the fused imaging for localizing the targets in the future

  9. Systems and methods for enhancing optical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Peter Thomas Setsuda; Chou, Jason T.

    2018-01-02

    An Optical Information Transfer Enhancer System includes a first system for producing an information bearing first optical wave that is impressed with a first information having a first information strength wherein the first optical wave has a first shape. A second system produces a second optical wave. An information strength enhancer module receives the first and said second optical waves and impresses the first optical wave upon the second optical wave via cross-phase modulation (XPM) to produce an information-strength-enhanced second optical wave having a second information strength that is greater than the first information strength of the first optical wave. Following a center-wavelength changer by an Optical Information Transfer Enhancer System improves its performance.

  10. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2005-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized our telecommunication infrastructures – currently, almost all telephone land-line, cellular, and internet communications must travel via some form of optical fibers. In these transmission systems, neither the phase nor frequency of the optical signal carries information – only the intensity of the signal is used. To transmit more information in a single optical carrier, the phase of the optical carrier must be explored. As a result, there is renewed interest in phase-modulated optical communications, mainly in direct-detection DPSK signals for long-haul optical communication systems. When optical amplifiers are used to maintain certain signal level among the fiber link, the system is limited by amplifier noises and fiber nonlinearities. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems surveys this newly popular area, covering the following topics: The transmitter and receiver for phase-modulated coherent lightwave systems Method for performance analysis o...

  11. Optical Manipulation System Using a Plurality of Optical Traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical manipulation system (10) for generation of a plurality of optical traps for manipulation of micro-objects including nano-objects using electromagnetic radiation forces in a micro-object manipulation volume (14), the system comprising a spatially modulat...

  12. Combined Fluoroscopy- and CT-Guided Transthoracic Needle Biopsy Using a C-Arm Cone-Beam CT System: Comparison with Fluoroscopy-Guided Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Joo Yeon; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Shim, Sung Shine; Lim, Soo Mee [School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of combined fluoroscopy- and CT-guided transthoracic needle biopsy (FC-TNB) using a cone beam CT system in comparison to fluoroscopy-guided TNB (F-TNB). We retrospectively evaluated 74 FC-TNB cases (group A) and 97 F-TNB cases (group B) to compare their respective diagnostic accuracies according to the size and depth of the lesion, as well as complications, procedure time, and radiation dose. The sensitivity for malignancy and diagnostic accuracy for small (< 30 mm in size) and deep ({>=} 50 mm in depth) lesions were higher in group A (91% and 94%, 92% and 94%) than in group B (73% and 81%, 84% and 88%), however not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Concerning lesions {>=} 30 mm in size and < 50 mm in depth, both groups displayed similar results (group A, 91% and 92%, 80% and 87%: group B, 90% and 92%, 86% and 90%). Pneumothorax occurred 26% of the time in group A and 14% for group B. The mean procedure time and patient skin dose were significantly higher in group A (13.6 {+-} 4.0 minutes, 157.1 {+-} 76.5 mGy) than in group B (9.0 {+-} 3.5 minutes, 21.9 {+-} 15.2 mGy) (p < 0.05). Combined fluoroscopy- and CT-guided TNB allows the biopsy of small (< 30 mm) and deep lesions ({>=} 50 mm) with high diagnostic accuracy and short procedure times, whereas F-TNB is still a useful method for large and superficial lesions with a low radiation dose

  13. The ANTARES optical beacon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Albert, A.

    2007-01-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented

  14. The ANTARES optical beacon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, M. [CPPM - Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC - Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios de Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: J.A.Aguilar@ific.uv.es; Albert, A. [GRPHE - Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 Rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France)) (and others)

    2007-08-11

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented.

  15. The ANTARES optical beacon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Bigi, A.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; de Botton, N.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Busto, J.; Cafagna, F.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, P.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Colnard, C.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Cussatlegras, A.-S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; de Marzo, C.; de Vita, R.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Denans, D.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dinkespieler, B.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Drogou, J.-F.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galeotti, S.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Gojak, C.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Hallewell, G.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hoffman, C.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kudryavstev, V. A.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laschinsky, H.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le van Suu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Megna, R.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Milovanovic, A.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Naumann, C.; Niess, V.; Noble, T.; Olivetto, C.; Ostasch, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Perez, A.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pillet, R.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Randazzo, N.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; van Rens, B.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Rigaud, V.; Ripani, M.; Roca, V.; Roda, C.; Rolin, J. F.; Rose, H. J.; Rostovtsev, A.; Roux, J.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Rusydi, G.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Sokalski, I.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Stolarczyk, T.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Terreni, G.; Thompson, L. F.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Vallage, B.; Vaudaine, G.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; de Witt Huberts, P.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yao, A.-F.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2007-08-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented.

  16. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  17. Computer program for optical systems ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T. J.; Konn, H.

    1967-01-01

    Program traces rays of light through optical systems consisting of up to 65 different optical surfaces and computes the aberrations. For design purposes, paraxial tracings with astigmation and third order tracings are provided.

  18. Optical redox ratio and endogenous porphyrins in the detection of urinary bladder cancer: A patient biopsy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Scott; Litvinova, Karina; Dunaev, Andrey; Yubo, Ji; McGloin, David; Nabi, Ghulam

    2017-08-01

    Bladder cancer is among the most common cancers in the UK and conventional detection techniques suffer from low sensitivity, low specificity, or both. Recent attempts to address the disparity have led to progress in the field of autofluorescence as a means to diagnose the disease with high efficiency, however there is still a lot not known about autofluorescence profiles in the disease. The multi-functional diagnostic system "LAKK-M" was used to assess autofluorescence profiles of healthy and cancerous bladder tissue to identify novel biomarkers of the disease. Statistically significant differences were observed in the optical redox ratio (a measure of tissue metabolic activity), the amplitude of endogenous porphyrins and the NADH/porphyrin ratio between tissue types. These findings could advance understanding of bladder cancer and aid in the development of new techniques for detection and surveillance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  20. En bloc excision of nonpalpable breast lesions using the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation system: an alternative to needle guided surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifrange, E.; Colin, C.; Dondelinger, R.F.; Fridman, V.

    2001-01-01

    This study was prospectively conducted to evaluate the clinical potential of the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) system as an alternative to needle localization and open surgery in the management of nonpalpable breast lesions (NPBL). One hundred and eighty-six consecutive patients were referred for management of NPBL. Thirty-six underwent an ABBI procedure, offered as a first step before possible surgery for lesions which would in any case have required complete excision. The 18 patients with a malignant ABBI biopsy underwent re-excision of the biopsy site and axillary dissection was carried out in cases of infiltrating carcinoma. The other 150 patients underwent image-guided needle biopsy. Following these procedures, 60/150 (40 %) patients underwent needle-guided surgery. Finally, 96/186 (51 %) patients required complete excision. A total of 43 benign lesions and 53 carcinomas were confirmed. Thirty-six out of 96 (38 %) excisions were obtained with the ABBI system; 17/43 (40 %) benign lesions and 11/53 (21 %) carcinomas were completely removed with the ABBI system. Out of 9 malignant specimens with a pathological size less than 10 mm, 5/9 (55 %) had tumor-free margins and in 8/9 (89 %) no residual disease was found at re-excision. The preliminary results of this study suggest that, in selected cases, en bloc excision using the ABBI procedure could be an alternative to conventional surgery. (orig.)

  1. Endoscopic trans-nasal approach for biopsy of orbital tumors using image-guided neuro-navigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieskiewicz, A.; Mariak, Z.; Rogowski, M.; Lyson, T.

    2008-01-01

    Histopathological diagnosis of intraorbital tumors is of crucial value for planning further therapy. The aim of the study was to explore clinical utility of image-guided endoscopy for biopsy of orbital tumors. Trans-nasal endoscopic biopsy of intraorbital mass lesions was performed in 6 patients using a neuro-navigation system (Medtronic Stealth Station Treon plus). The CT and MRI 1 mm slice images were fused by the system in order to visualise both bony and soft tissue structures. The anatomic fiducial registration protocol was used during the procedure. All lesions were precisely localised and the biopsies could be taken from the representative part of the pathological mass. None of the patients developed aggravation of ocular symptoms after the procedure. The operative corridor as well as the size of orbital wall fenestration could be limited to a minimum. The accuracy of neuro-navigation remained high and stable during the entire procedure. The image-guided neuro-navigation system facilitated endoscopic localisation and biopsy of intraorbital tumors and contributed to the reduction of surgical trauma during the procedure. The technique was particularly useful in small, medially located, retrobulbar tumors and in unclear situations when the structure of the lesion resembled surrounding intraorbital tissue. (author)

  2. Bilateral Non-arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy as the Presentation of Systemic Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, M Z; Lorenzi, A R; Thampy, N; Pandit, R; Dayan, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    A 75-year-old hypertensive female with stable idiopathic intermediate uveitis presented with bilateral sequential optic neuropathy with optic disc swelling. The optic neuropathy in the first affected eye (right) was thought to be due to non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Asymptomatic left optic disc swelling was found at routine review 2 months later, and a diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA) was sought. Temporal artery duplex ultrasound showed the "halo sign," but a subsequent temporal artery biopsy showed light-chain (AL) amyloidosis with no signs of giant cell arteritis. In this case, bilateral sequential ischaemic optic neuropathy mimicking non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy was the presenting sign of systemic amyloidosis involving the temporal arteries.

  3. Optical determination of the hemoglobin oxygenation state of breast biopsies and human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Fay A.

    1992-05-01

    Differences in the oxygenation state of benign and malignant breast biopsies, and human breast cancer xenografts in immune-deficient mice were monitored using a spectrophotometer with integrating sphere. The breast biopsies were maintained below -50 degree(s)C and the mouse model tumors maintained in growth medium at 0 degree(s)C. Tissue sections 500 (mu) thick were allowed to come up to room temperature for mounting between quartz slides and were evaluated over the wavelength region 240 - 2500 nm. Data collection was done within 10 minutes of the removal of the biopsies from storage and, within 5 minutes for the xenografts. That this preparation protocol allowed us to study the samples very close to the in- vivo state was evident from the lack of deoxyhemoglobin in the benign samples. Component analysis performed in the 300 - 800 nm region showed that the malignant samples contained predominantly deoxygenated blood while the benign samples exhibited oxyhemoglobin signature. Absorption peaks due to fat and traces of bilirubin were also resolved in some of the samples. Assuming that the samples are very nearly representative of the in-vivo condition, these hemoglobin differences may well serve as a basis for imaging tumors or, for tissue characterization in a minimally invasive environment.

  4. The usefulness of the transrectal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of the prostate cancer : comparison with systemic sextant biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Min Hoan; Seong, Chang Kyu; Jeong, Jun Yong; Choi, Huck Jae; Sim, Jung Suk; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2001-01-01

    To retrospectively compared the usefulness of the transrectal ultrasonography LEAVE A SPACE(TRUS) and systemic sextant biopsy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. A total of 84 patients with clinical and laboratory findings suggestive of prostate cancer underwent TRUS and systemic sextant biopsy. Nine patients with diffuse prostatic lesion had been excluded from the list. Following sonographic evaluation, additional targeted biopsy for the focal lesion was performed in 14 patients. A total of 464 biopsy specimens were obtained and retrospectively compared with the sonographic findings. For cancer, the sensitivity, specificity and false-positive rate of TRUS were 48%, 97% and 53%, respectively. The hypoechoic nodules seen in prostate cancer were more commonly located in the outer half of the peripheral zone of the prostate, while most BPH lesions were located in the inner half of this zone. Between prostate cancer and BPH there was statistically significant difference in the location of hypoechoic nodules revealed by TRUS (p=0.01). The location of the hypoechoic nodules provides useful information for differentiating between BPH nodules and malignant prostatic nodules and may reduce the false-positive rate of TRUS in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

  5. Abdominal fat pad excisional biopsy for the diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yessica; Collins, A Bernard; Stone, James R

    2018-02-01

    In the past, the diagnosis and typing of amyloidosis often required an invasive biopsy of an internal organ, such as the heart or kidneys. Abdominal fat pad excisional biopsy (FPEB) offers a less invasive approach, but the sensitivity of this technique has been unclear. To determine the sensitivity of FPEB for immunoglobulin light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, we performed a retrospective clinicopathologic analysis of 97 patients who had undergone FPEB, of which 16 were positive for amyloid. The most significant pretest feature predicting a positive FPEB was a serum free light chain κ/λ ratio less than .5, and in this group of patients the probability of a positive biopsy was dependent on the size of the biopsy (P=.004). In FPEBs, the amyloid was present in multiple distinct patterns: pericellular, septal, medium-sized vessel, small vessel, and nodular. For patients with AL amyloidosis for which direct typing was attempted using the FPEB tissue, the amyloid was successfully typed in the FPEB in 90% of cases. The overall sensitivity of FPEB was 79% for AL amyloidosis and 12% for ATTR amyloidosis (P=.0003). In patients with AL amyloidosis, the sensitivity of FPEB was dependent on biopsy size, with small biopsies (≤700 mm 3 ) having a sensitivity of ~50%, and large biopsies (>700 mm 3 ) having a sensitivity of ~100%. This study demonstrates that FPEB has high sensitivity for AL amyloidosis, and can be routinely used to type the amyloid. However, FPEB has low sensitivity for ATTR amyloidosis in our patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Percutaneous excisional biopsy of clinically benign breast lesions with vacuum-assisted system: comparison of three devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Li; Liu, Gang; Huang, Yan; Wan, Wen Bo; Li, Jun Lai

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three devices in percutaneous excisional biopsy of clinically benign breast lesions in terms of complete excision rate, duration of procedure and complications. In a retrospective study from March 2005 to May 2009, 983 lesions underwent ultrasound-guided excisional biopsy with three vacuum-assisted systems, respectively. The lesions were category 3 lesions as determined by ultrasound imaging according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) (n=951) or had been confirmed as benign by a previous core needle biopsy (n=32). The completely excision rate, duration of procedure and complications (hematoma, pain and ecchymosis) were recorded. 99.7% (980/983) lesions were demonstrated to be benign by pathology after percutaneous excisional biopsy. The overall complete excision rate was 94.8% (932/983). In lesions whose largest diameter equal to or larger than 1.5cm, the complete excision rates of EnCor(®) group (97.8%, 348/356) and Mammotome(®) group (97.2%, 139/143) were significantly higher than that of Vacora(®) group (91.9%, 445/484) (P<0.05). The EnCor(®) group (6.6±6.5min) had a significant less duration than Mammotome(®) (10.6±9.3min) and Vacora(®) group (25.6±23.3min) (P<0.05). Hematoma occurred more in EnCor(®) group and Mammotome(®) group than in Vacora(®) group (P<0.05). All these three vacuum-assisted systems are highly successful for excisional biopsy of benign breast lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. First use of a truly-hybrid x-ray/MR imaging system for guidance of brain biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrig, R.; Daniel, B.L.; Butts, K.; Pelc, N.J.; Heit, G.; Wen, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The use of a new hybrid imaging system for guidance of a brain biopsy is described. The system combines the strengths of MRI (soft-tissue contrast, arbitrary plane selection) with those of x-ray fluoroscopy (high-resolution real-time projection images, clear portrayal of bony structures) and allows switching between the imaging modalities without moving the patient. The biopsy was carried out using x-ray guidance for direction of the needle through the foramen ovale and MR guidance to target the soft-tissue lesion. Appropriate samples were acquired. The system could be particularly effective for guidance of those cases where motion, swelling, resection and other intra-operative anatomical changes cannot be accounted for using traditional stereotactic-based imaging approaches. (author)

  8. Combination of prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density predicts biopsy outcome in prostate biopsy naïve patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washino, Satoshi; Okochi, Tomohisa; Saito, Kimitoshi; Konishi, Tsuzumi; Hirai, Masaru; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Tomoaki

    2017-02-01

    To assess the value of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scoring system, for prostate multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to detect prostate cancer, and classical parameters, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume and PSA density, for predicting biopsy outcome in biopsy naïve patients who have suspected prostate cancer. Patients who underwent mpMRI at our hospital, and who had their first prostate biopsy between July 2010 and April 2014, were analysed retrospectively. The prostate biopsies were taken transperineally under transrectal ultrasonography guidance. In all, 14 cores were biopsied as a systematic biopsy in all patients. Two cognitive fusion-targeted biopsy cores were added for each lesion in patients who had suspicious or equivocal lesions on mpMRI. The PI-RADS scoring system version 2.0 (PI-RADS v2) was used to describe the MRI findings. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer. In all, 288 patients were analysed. The median patient age, PSA level, prostate volume and PSA density were 69 years, 7.5 ng/mL, 28.7 mL, and 0.26 ng/mL/mL, respectively. The biopsy results were benign, clinically insignificant, and clinically significant prostate cancer in 129 (45%), 18 (6%) and 141 (49%) patients, respectively. The multivariate analysis revealed that PI-RADS v2 score and PSA density were independent predictors for prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer. When PI-RADS v2 score and PSA density were combined, a PI-RADS v2 score of ≥4 and PSA density ≥0.15 ng/mL/mL, or PI-RADS v2 score of 3 and PSA density of ≥0.30 ng/mL/mL, was associated with the highest clinically significant prostate cancer detection rates (76-97%) on the first biopsy. Of the patients in this group with negative biopsy results, 22% were subsequently diagnosed as prostate cancer. In contrast, a PI

  9. Optically coupled CAMAC analog input output system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Katsuzo; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Minehara, Eisuke; Hanashima, Susumu

    1985-08-01

    In an accelerator system, especially in ion sources, signals are exchanged between devices at different potentials. We have four ion sources in the negative ion injector for the JAERI tandem accelerator. Voltage to frequency conversion technic and optical fiber were used in the previous system. When we intended to extend the injector, we decided to revise the system to improve accuracy and reliability. For the purpose, we developed a new CAMAC module. It is an interface device between CAMAC dataway and optical fiber. The module has frequency synthesizers, frequency counters, optical transmitters and optical receivers in it. Accuracy, reliability and maintenability of the system were greatly improved by the module. (author)

  10. Sentinel-Lymphknoten-Biopsie des Melanoms mittels Indocyaningrün und "FOVIS"-System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göppner, Daniela; Nekwasil, Stephan; Jellestad, Anne; Sachse, Alexander; Schönborn, Karl-Heinz; Gollnick, Harald

    2017-02-01

    Der Nachweis metastatischer Infiltrate im Sentinel-Lymphkoten (SLN) gilt als wesentlicher prognostischer Faktor des Melanoms. Alternativ zur Farbstoffmethode mit Patentblau zum Goldstandard der SLN-Biopsie (SLNB) mittels Radiokolloid wird die fluoreszenzoptische Darstellung mit Hilfe von Indocyaningrün (ICG) und Nahinfrarot (NIR)-Kamerasystem kommuniziert. Im Vergleich zur konventionellen Methode wurde die Wertigkeit des ICG-/NIR-Verfahrens in Abhängigkeit vom Body-Mass-Index (BMI) des Patienten und der Konzentration von ICG bezüglich der Visualisierung des Lymphabstroms und des SLNs untersucht. An zehn Patienten wurde die SLNB mittels Technetium-99m, Patentblau und ICG durchgeführt. Die Fluoreszenz-Darstellung von Lymphbahnen und SLN erfolgte in Echtzeit mittels der NIR-Kameratechnik "FOVIS". Je nach erzielter Bildqualität wurde ICG in einer Dosis von 0,25 mg bis 2,5 mg intrakutan appliziert. Neun der zehn SLN wurden fluoreszenzoptisch identifiziert (90 %), alle zehn radioaktiv (100 %), nur acht (80 %) mittels ICG-Grünfärbung bzw. Patenblau-Markierung. Transdermal wurde ein SLN dargestellt (10 %). In Korrelation zum BMI waren höhere ICG-Mengen, bis zu 2,5 mg intrakutan absolut, in der Darstellung der Lymphbahnen von Vorteil. Die SLN-Fluoreszenzmarkierung mit dem ICG/NIR-Kamera-System "FOVIS" stellt eine sichere Alternative zur Farbstoffmethode mit Patentblau ergänzend zur Radiokolloidmethode mit Technetium-99m dar. Weitere Studien zur optimalen Dosierung von ICG und transdermalen Bildgebung in Relation zum BMI sind notwendig. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Renal biopsy pathology in a cohort of patients from southwest Sydney with clinically diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jim Lc; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The pathological manifestations in the kidneys in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are commonly known as lupus nephritis. We have studied the pathological changes in renal biopsies from 59 cases of clinically diagnosed SLE obtained over a 15-year period from a racially diverse population in the Sydney metropolitan area. Our aim was to see if there was any regional variation in the morphological changes. Renal biopsy changes were assessed by routine light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. We used the modified 1974 World Health Organization classification of lupus nephritis to classify cases into six classes. Disease severity was assessed by age, sex, and across racial groups, including Caucasian, Asian, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Indian subcontinental, South American, and Pacific Islander. Our analysis showed that cases of lupus nephritis contributed 5.4% of our total renal biopsies examined over a 15-year period. The overall incidence of biopsy-proven cases was 0.49 per 100,000 per year. The ages of our patients ranged from 10 to 79 years, with most below 50 years of age. A female to male ratio was determined to be 4.4:1. There was no relationship to ethnicity, nor was there a relationship between any of these parameters and the class or severity of disease. Renal biopsy with multimodal morphological and immunohistochemical analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosis and determination of the level of disease in lupus nephritis. Based on this approach we have identified an incidence rate for southwest Sydney that is slightly higher but comparable to that found in a similar study from the United Kingdom. We also found that there was no relationship between sex, race, or age and severity of disease.

  12. Liver Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called if any of the following occur: ● Persistent abdominal or chest pain ● Vomiting ● Pallor, weakness or dizziness ● Bleeding from the site of the biopsy ● Passage of tarry black stools For more information or to locate a pediatric gastroen- terologist in your area please visit our ...

  13. Controlling the Stormram 2: An MRI-compatible Robotic System for Breast Biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed E.M.K.; Groenhuis, Vincent; Veltman, Jeroen; Siepel, Françoise Jeanette; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently life-threatening diagnosed type of cancer among women. Early and accurate diagnosis by acquiring a tissue sample using biopsy techniques is essential. However, small lesions only visible by MRI are often missed in standard methods, indicating the need for a

  14. The role of biopsy in the diagnosis of infections of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jansen, M

    2010-01-01

    CNS infections require prompt appropriate therapy, but do not usually require tissue biopsy for diagnosis. We performed a 5 year audit of CNS infections which required brain or spinal biopsy to determine or confirm a diagnosis of CNS infection. Sixteen cases were identified in which clinical, radiological or additional investigations including culture, serology or PCR for the suspected specific infective agents were not diagnostic. 6 (37.5%) were bacterial abscesses presenting as space-occupying intracerebral lesions with a differential diagnosis of neoplasm. There were 3 (18.7%) cases of toxoplasmosis and 2 (12.5%) cases of aspergillosis. There was one case (6.2%) of herpes simplex encephalitis, one cysticercosis and one progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, all biopsied as possible neoplasms. There were 2 (12.5%) cases of spinal tuberculosis, one multifocal, mimicking neurofibromatosis. This review highlights the usefulness of targeted biopsy in the rapid diagnosis of CNS infections. It also emphasizes the lack of specificity of \\'negative\\' culture and serology in certain cases, especially in the setting of immune-compromise.

  15. Prostate biopsy with image fusion: system validation and clinical results (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruecker, J.; Kadoury, S.; Xu, S.; Turkbey, B.; Choyke, P.; Pinto, P.; Wood, B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Prostate cancer (PCA) is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death in men in the United States and Europe. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided systematic prostate biopsy is the standard of care for detection and diagnosis of PCA. However, due to inadequate visualization of PCA

  16. Optimized systems for energy efficient optical tweezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, R.; Kleindienst, R.; Grewe, A.; Bürger, Elisabeth; Oeder, A.; Sinzinger, S.

    2013-03-01

    Compared to conventional optics like singlet lenses or even microscope objectives advanced optical designs help to develop properties specifically useful for efficient optical tweezers. We present an optical setup providing a customized intensity distribution optimized with respect to large trapping forces. The optical design concept combines a refractive double axicon with a reflective parabolic focusing mirror. The axicon arrangement creates an annular field distribution and thus clears space for additional integrated observation optics in the center of the system. Finally the beam is focused to the desired intensity distribution by a parabolic ring mirror. The compact realization of the system potentially opens new fields of applications for optical tweezers such as in production industries and micro-nano assembly.

  17. Micro-optical-mechanical system photoacoustic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack; Benett, William J.; Tooker, Angela C.; Alameda, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    All-optical photoacoustic spectrometer sensing systems (PASS system) and methods include all the hardware needed to analyze the presence of a large variety of materials (solid, liquid and gas). Some of the all-optical PASS systems require only two optical-fibers to communicate with the opto-electronic power and readout systems that exist outside of the material environment. Methods for improving the signal-to-noise are provided and enable mirco-scale systems and methods for operating such systems.

  18. Upgrading and downgrading of prostate cancer from biopsy to radical prostatectomy: incidence and predictive factors using the modified Gleason grading system and factoring in tertiary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Feng, Zhaoyong; Trock, Bruce J; Pierorazio, Phillip M

    2012-05-01

    Prior studies assessing the correlation of Gleason score (GS) at needle biopsy and corresponding radical prostatectomy (RP) predated the use of the modified Gleason scoring system and did not factor in tertiary grade patterns. To assess the relation of biopsy and RP grade in the largest study to date. A total of 7643 totally embedded RP and corresponding needle biopsies (2004-2010) were analyzed according to the updated Gleason system. All patients underwent prostate biopsy prior to RP. The relation of upgrading or downgrading to patient and cancer characteristics was compared using the chi-square test, Student t test, and multivariable logistic regression. A total of 36.3% of cases were upgraded from a needle biopsy GS 5-6 to a higher grade at RP (11.2% with GS 6 plus tertiary). Half of the cases had matching GS 3+4=7 at biopsy and RP with an approximately equal number of cases downgraded and upgraded at RP. With biopsy GS 4+3=7, RP GS was almost equally 3+4=7 and 4+3=7. Biopsy GS 8 led to an almost equal distribution between RP GS 4+3=7, 8, and 9-10. A total of 58% of the cases had matching GS 9-10 at biopsy and RP. In multivariable analysis, increasing age (pfactoring in multiple variables including the number of positive cores and the maximum percentage of cancer per core, the concordance indexes were not sufficiently high to justify the use of nomograms for predicting upgrading and downgrading for the individual patient. Almost 20% of RP cases have tertiary patterns. A needle biopsy can sample a tertiary higher Gleason pattern in the RP, which is then not recorded in the standard GS reporting, resulting in an apparent overgrading on the needle biopsy. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical multicast system for data center networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Payman; Gupta, Varun; Xu, Junjie; Wang, Howard; Zussman, Gil; Bergman, Keren

    2015-08-24

    We present the design and experimental evaluation of an Optical Multicast System for Data Center Networks, a hardware-software system architecture that uniquely integrates passive optical splitters in a hybrid network architecture for faster and simpler delivery of multicast traffic flows. An application-driven control plane manages the integrated optical and electronic switched traffic routing in the data plane layer. The control plane includes a resource allocation algorithm to optimally assign optical splitters to the flows. The hardware architecture is built on a hybrid network with both Electronic Packet Switching (EPS) and Optical Circuit Switching (OCS) networks to aggregate Top-of-Rack switches. The OCS is also the connectivity substrate of splitters to the optical network. The optical multicast system implementation requires only commodity optical components. We built a prototype and developed a simulation environment to evaluate the performance of the system for bulk multicasting. Experimental and numerical results show simultaneous delivery of multicast flows to all receivers with steady throughput. Compared to IP multicast that is the electronic counterpart, optical multicast performs with less protocol complexity and reduced energy consumption. Compared to peer-to-peer multicast methods, it achieves at minimum an order of magnitude higher throughput for flows under 250 MB with significantly less connection overheads. Furthermore, for delivering 20 TB of data containing only 15% multicast flows, it reduces the total delivery energy consumption by 50% and improves latency by 55% compared to a data center with a sole non-blocking EPS network.

  20. All-Optical Regeneration System for Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexed Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an all-optical regeneration system for regeneration of optical wavelength division multiplexed WDM data signals in an optical WDM communication system. The system comprises a WDM-to-Optical time domain multiplexing OTDM, WDM-to-OTDM, converter, capable of converting....... The system additionally comprises an OTDM-to-WDM converter for converting the output OTDM data signal to an output WDM data signal. An input of the all-optical regenerator unit is in optical communication with an output of the WDM-to-OTDM converter, and an output of the all-optical regenerator unit...... an input WDM data signal comprising multiple wavelength channels into an input OTDM data signal comprising multiple time multiplexed time channels. The system further comprises an all-optical regenerator unit being configured for regenerating the input OTDM data signal into an output OTDM data signal...

  1. Integrated Optical Interconnect Architectures for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a broad overview of current research in optical interconnect technologies and architectures. Introductory chapters on high-performance computing and the associated issues in conventional interconnect architectures, and on the fundamental building blocks for integrated optical interconnect, provide the foundations for the bulk of the book which brings together leading experts in the field of optical interconnect architectures for data communication. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which the photonic components are assembled into architectures to address the needs of data-intensive on-chip communication, and to the performance evaluation of such architectures for specific applications.   Provides state-of-the-art research on the use of optical interconnects in Embedded Systems; Begins with coverage of the basics for high-performance computing and optical interconnect; Includes a variety of on-chip optical communication topologies; Features coverage of system integration and opti...

  2. Non-Hermitian optics in atomic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Ma, Danmeng; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2018-04-01

    A wide class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians can possess entirely real eigenvalues when they have parity-time (PT) symmetric potentials. Recently, this family of non-Hermitian systems has attracted considerable attention in diverse areas of physics due to their extraordinary properties, especially in optical systems based on solid-state materials, such as coupled gain-loss waveguides and microcavities. Considering the desired refractive index can be effectively manipulated through atomic coherence, it is important to realize such non-Hermitian optical potentials and further investigate their distinct properties in atomic systems. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and experimental progress of non-Hermitian optics with coherently prepared multi-level atomic configurations. The realizations of (anti-) PT symmetry with different schemes have extensively demonstrated the special optical properties of non-Hermitian optical systems with atomic coherence.

  3. Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease secondary to electronic nicotine delivery system use confirmed with open lung biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Mark; Nandakumar, Lakshmy; Singh, Mahendra; Wyld, David; Windsor, Morgan; Fielding, David

    2017-05-01

    As a modern phenomenon, there is currently limited understanding of the possible toxic effects and broader implications of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Large volumes of aerosolized particles are inhaled during "vaping" and there are now an increasing number of case reports demonstrating toxic effects of ENDS, as well as human studies demonstrating impaired lung function in users. This article presents a case of respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) precipitated by vaping in a 33-year-old male with 10 pack years of traditional cigarette and prior treatment for mixed germ cell tumour. The patient had started vaping 10-15 times per day while continuing to smoke 10 traditional cigarettes per day. After 3 months of exposure to e-cigarette vapour, chest computed tomography demonstrated multiple new poorly defined pulmonary nodules with fluffy parenchyma opacification centred along the terminal bronchovascular units. Video-assisted thoracoscopy with lung biopsy of the right upper and right middle lobes was undertaken. The microscopic findings were overall consistent with RB-ILD. This case demonstrates toxicity with use of ENDS on open lung biopsy with resolution of radiographic findings on cessation. We believe that this is the first case where open lung biopsy has demonstrated this and our findings are consistent with RB-ILD.

  4. MR-guided transgluteal biopsies with an open low-field system in patients with clinically suspected prostate cancer: technique and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangos, Stephan [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Eichler, Katrin; Engelmann, Kerstin; Ahmed, Mukhtiar; Dettmer, Sebastian; Herzog, Christopher; Pegios, Wasilios; Wetter, A.; Lehnert, Thomas; Mack, Martin G.; Vogl, Thomas J. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of MR-guided biopsies with a transgluteal approach in patients with uncertain or suspicious prostate lesions. Twenty-five patients with uncertain or suspicious focal prostate lesions detected by high-field MR imaging of the prostate gland using endorectal coil imaging were biopsied with a transgluteal approach in a low-field MRI system (0.2 T, Concerto, Siemens). The procedures were guided using T1-weighted FLASH sequences. The prostate gland was biopsied repeatedly with a coaxial technique through a 15-gauge pencil tip with a 16-gauge biopsy handy (median 3.8 samples per patient). Complications and biopsy findings were documented retrospectively. Using T1-weighted sequences biopsy procedures were performed successfully with MR guidance in all cases without any side effects or complications. The median intervention time was 11.3 min. Pathological findings revealed ten cases of hyperplasia or atrophy, three cases of prostatitis, ten cases of carcinoma and two cases of normal tissue. The clinical follow-up showed that in two patients prostate cancer was missed at MR-guided biopsy. Transgluteal MR-guided biopsy of the prostate gland is a safe and promising approach for histological clarification of uncertain or suspicious lesions. (orig.)

  5. Optical system for trapping particles in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, R; Chall, A K; Kleindienst, R; Sinzinger, S

    2014-02-01

    An innovative optical system for trapping particles in air is presented. We demonstrate an optical system specifically optimized for high precision positioning of objects with a size of several micrometers within a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPMM). Based on a specification sheet, an initial system design was calculated and optimized in an iterative design process. By combining optical design software with optical force simulation tools, a highly efficient optical system was developed. Both components of the system, which include a refractive double axicon and a parabolic ring mirror, were fabricated by ultra-precision turning. The characterization of the optical elements and the whole system, especially the force simulations based on caustic measurements, represent an important interim result for the subsequently performed trapping experiments. The caustic of the trapping beam produced by the system was visualized with the help of image processing techniques. Finally, we demonstrated the unique efficiency of the configuration by reproducibly trapping fused silica spheres with a diameter of 10 μm at a distance of 2.05 mm from the final optical surface.

  6. Laser systems with diamond optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    High power laser systems with optical elements of diamond having a thermal conductivity of at least 10 W/cm. 0 K at 300 0 K and an optical absorption at the laser beam wavelength of no more than 10 to 20 percent are described. (U.S.)

  7. Computer programs simplify optical system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The optical ray-trace computer program performs geometrical ray tracing. The energy-trace program calculates the relative monochromatic flux density on a specific target area. This program uses the ray-trace program as a subroutine to generate a representation of the optical system.

  8. Renal biopsy pathology in a cohort of patients from southwest Sydney with clinically diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jim LC Yong,1,2 Murray C Killingsworth,1–3 Ken Lai1,21Department of Anatomical Pathology, Sydney South West Pathology Service, 2University of Western Sydney, School of Medicine, 3University of New South Wales, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaPurpose: The pathological manifestations in the kidneys in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are commonly known as lupus nephritis. We have studied the pathological changes in renal biopsies from 59 cases of clinically diagnosed SLE obtained over a 15-year period from a racially diverse population in the Sydney metropolitan area. Our aim was to see if there was any regional variation in the morphological changes.Methods: Renal biopsy changes were assessed by routine light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. We used the modified 1974 World Health Organization classification of lupus nephritis to classify cases into six classes. Disease severity was assessed by age, sex, and across racial groups, including Caucasian, Asian, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Indian subcontinental, South American, and Pacific Islander.Results: Our analysis showed that cases of lupus nephritis contributed 5.4% of our total renal biopsies examined over a 15-year period. The overall incidence of biopsy-proven cases was 0.49 per 100,000 per year. The ages of our patients ranged from 10 to 79 years, with most below 50 years of age. A female to male ratio was determined to be 4.4:1. There was no relationship to ethnicity, nor was there a relationship between any of these parameters and the class or severity of disease.Conclusion: Renal biopsy with multimodal morphological and immunohistochemical analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosis and determination of the level of disease in lupus nephritis. Based on this approach we have identified an incidence rate for southwest Sydney that is slightly higher but comparable to that found in a similar study from the United Kingdom. We also found that there

  9. Mobile based optical form evaluation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Sinan YÜKSEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical forms that contain multiple-choice answers are widely used both for electing students and evaluating student achievements in education systems in our country and worldwide. Optical forms are evaluated by employing optical mark recognition techniques through optical readers. High cost of these machines, limited access to them, long waiting time for evaluation results make the process hard for educationists working in cities or countries. In this study, a mobile application was developed for the educationists who own mobile phones or tablets for the purpose of evaluating students' answer sheets quickly and independent of location and optical readers. Optical form recognition, reading and evaluation processes are done on the image of student's answer sheet that is taken with the mobile phone or tablet of educationist. The Android based mobile application that we developed has a user-friendly interface, high success rate and is the first of our knowledge application that operates on mobile platforms in this field.

  10. Sextant localization of prostate cancer in peripheral zone by MRI: correlation with systemic biopsy pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Rong; Wang Xiaoying; Li Feiyu; Xu Yufeng; Jiang Xuexiang; He Yunfeng; Liu Pengcheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of sextant localization of prostate cancer (PCa) in PZ (peripheral zone) by MR Imaging. Methods: Fifty-one cases of PCa and 29 cases of benign prostate diseases were enrolled in the study. Each peripheral zone was divided into 6 sections (left/right bottom, middle and tip ) in the same fashion for biopsy and the characteristics of each sextant was evaluated separately. Being blinded to clinical data, 2 radiologists with different subspeciahy experience analyzed MR images of the 480 sections of these 80 cases retrospectively. Each sextant region impression of likelihood for cancer was estimated by the rank of a five-point rating scale (1=definite PCa, 2=probable PCa, 3=possible PCa, 4=probably not PCa, 5=definitely not PCa). If definite PCa was considered, then it was staged furthermore. Each diagnosis of sextant region was compared with the pathological result of corresponding biopsy site. Result: (1) Four hundred and seventy sections (205 cancerous and 265 benign) were proved by biopsy. The diagnosis efficacy was best when cutoff point was 2. There was moderate consistency between the results of MRI and pathology with the kappa value of 0.549-0.560. The total accuracy was 78.1%-78.3% with the sensitivity of 69.3%-76.1% and the specificity of 84.9%-80.0%. The positive predictive value was 78.0%-74.6% and the negative predictive value was 78.1%-81.2%. (2) The ROC analysis demonstrated that Az with total impression recorded by two readers had not significant difference(0.829±0.020 vs. 0.840±0.019, U=-0.3988, P>0.05). Conclusion: MRI may be an elementary way to localize PCa in PZ, but the diagnosis efficacy need to be improved furthermore. (authors)

  11. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  12. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...... in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer...... units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects....

  13. Optical spring effect in nanoelectromechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we report a hybrid system consisting of nano-optical and nano-mechanical springs, in which the optical spring effect works to adjust the mechanical frequency of a nanoelectromechanical systems resonator. Nano-scale folded beams are fabricated as the mechanical springs and double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities are used to pump the “optical spring.” The dynamic characteristics of this hybrid system are measured and analyzed at both low and high input optical powers. This study leads the physical phenomenon of optomechanics in complex nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) and could benefit the future applications of NOEMS in chip-level communication and sensing

  14. Fiber optic neutron imaging system: calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, R.M.; Gow, C.E.; Thayer, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two neutron imaging experiments using fiber optics have been performed at the Nevada Test Site. In each experiment, an array of scintillator fluor tubes is exposed to neutrons. Light is coupled out through radiation resistant PCS fibers (8-m long) into high-bandwidth, graded index fibers. For image reconstruction to be accurate, common timing differences and transmission variations between fiber optic channels are needed. The calibration system featured a scanning pulsed dye laser, a specially designed fiber optic star coupler, a tektronix 7912AD transient digitizer, and a DEC PDP 11/34 computing system

  15. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor); Stone, William C. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An optical energy transfer and conversion system comprising a fiber spooler and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the spooler with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy. The fiber spooler may reside on the remote mobility platform which may be a vehicle, or apparatus that is either self-propelled or is carried by a secondary mobility platform either on land, under the sea, in the air or in space.

  16. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  17. Central Nervous System Involvement of T-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia Diagnosed with Stereotactic Brain Biopsy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Göçmen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL is a generalized malignancy of the lymphoid tissue characterized by the accumulation of monoclonal lymphocytes, usually of B cell type. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS is an extremely rare complication of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL. We describe a case of T-PLL presenting with symptomatic infiltration of the brain that was histopathologically proven by stereotactic brain biopsy. We emphasize the importance of rapid diagnosis and immediate treatment for patients presenting with CNS involvement and a history of leukemia or lymphoma.

  18. Optical system storage design with diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuk, Raymond K.; Haggans, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Optical data storage systems are gaining widespread acceptance due to their high areal density and the ability to remove the high capacity hard disk from the system. In magneto-optical read-write systems, a small rotation of the polarization state in the return signal from the MO media is the signal which must be sensed. A typical arrangement used for detecting these signals and correcting for errors in tracking and focusing on the disk is illustrated. The components required to achieve these functions are listed. The assembly and alignment of this complex system has a direct impact on cost, and also affects the size, weight, and corresponding data access rates. As a result, integrating these optical components and improving packaging techniques is an active area of research and development. Most designs of binary optic elements have been concerned with optimizing grating efficiency. However, rigorous coupled wave models for vector field diffraction from grating surfaces can be extended to determine the phase and polarization state of the diffracted field, and the design of polarization components. A typical grating geometry and the phase and polarization angles associated with the incident and diffracted fields are shown. In our current stage of work, we are examining system configurations which cascade several polarization functions on a single substrate. In this design, the beam returning from the MO disk illuminates a cascaded grating element which first couples light into the substrate, then introduces a quarter wave retardation, then a polarization rotation, and finally separates s- and p-polarized fields through a polarization beam splitter. The input coupler and polarization beam splitter are formed in volume gratings, and the two intermediate elements are zero-order elements.

  19. Stereotactic breast biopsy with a biopsy gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, S.H.; Lovin, J.; Luethke, J.; Jobe, W.E.; Hopper, K.D.; Yakes, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    With the recent introduction of stereotactic mammographic localizing devices, the authors have been performing histologic core needle breast biopsies in which the Bard biopsy gun is used in conjunction with sterotactic guidance. The authors have performed 60 breast gun biopsies with 16-gauge and 18-gauge biopsy-cut needles. These biopsies were followed immediately by traditional surgical excision. Pathologic results correlated well in 52 of the 60 patients, including 10 of 13 cancers. Three of the eight negative correlations occurred when diagnosis was made on gun biopsy but not on surgical biopsy. The stereotactic- guided gun biopsies appear to approach the surgical gold standard, decrease patient discomfort and potential disfigurement, lower the cost of breast biopsy, and lower the threshold necessary to perform breast biopsy

  20. Optical seismic sensor systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, A. Craig; Cummings, Malcolm E.; Zavriyev, Anton; Christensen, Caleb A.; Lee, Keun

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed is an optical seismic sensor system for measuring seismic events in a geological formation, including a surface unit for generating and processing an optical signal, and a sensor device optically connected to the surface unit for receiving the optical signal over an optical conduit. The sensor device includes at least one sensor head for sensing a seismic disturbance from at least one direction during a deployment of the sensor device within a borehole of the geological formation. The sensor head includes a frame and a reference mass attached to the frame via at least one flexure, such that movement of the reference mass relative to the frame is constrained to a single predetermined path.

  1. C-arm cone-beam CT combined with a new electromagnetic navigation system for guidance of percutaneous needle biopsies. Initial clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kickuth, R.; Reichling, C.; Bley, T.; Hahn, D.; Ritter, C.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of C-arm fluoroscopic cone-beam computed tomography (CACT) in combination with a new electromagnetic tracking (EMT) system for needle guidance during percutaneous biopsies. 53 patients were referred for biopsy of thoracic (n = 19) and abdominal (n = 34) lesions. CT-like images of the anatomical region of interest (ROI) were generated using a flat panel-based angiographic system. These images were transmitted to an EMT system. A coaxial puncture needle with a sensor in its tip was connected with the navigation system and tracked into an electromagnetic field created via a field generator. Data generated within this field were merged with the CACT images. On a monitor both the anatomical ROI and needle tip position were displayed to enable precise needle insertion into the target. Through the coaxial needle, biopsy specimens for the histologic evaluation were extracted. Number of representative biopsy samples, number of core biopsies/patient, total procedure time, dose-area product, fluoroscopic time, and complications were recorded. 53 CACT/EMT-guided biopsy procedures were performed, 48 of which (91 %) yielded representative tissue samples. Four core biopsies were obtained from each patient. 40 (75 %) lesions were malignant and 13 (25 %) lesions were benign. The total procedure time was 9 ± 5 min (range, 3 - 23 min), fluoroscopic time was 0.8 ± 0.4 min (range, 0.4 - 2 min). The mean dose-area product (cGy cm 2 ) was 7373 (range, 895 - 26 904). The rate of complications (1 pneumothorax, 2 hemoptyses) was 6 %. CACT combined with EMT appears to be a feasible and effective technique for the guidance of percutaneous biopsies with a low rate of therapeutically relevant complications.

  2. C-arm cone-beam CT combined with a new electromagnetic navigation system for guidance of percutaneous needle biopsies. Initial clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kickuth, R.; Reichling, C.; Bley, T.; Hahn, D.; Ritter, C. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of C-arm fluoroscopic cone-beam computed tomography (CACT) in combination with a new electromagnetic tracking (EMT) system for needle guidance during percutaneous biopsies. 53 patients were referred for biopsy of thoracic (n = 19) and abdominal (n = 34) lesions. CT-like images of the anatomical region of interest (ROI) were generated using a flat panel-based angiographic system. These images were transmitted to an EMT system. A coaxial puncture needle with a sensor in its tip was connected with the navigation system and tracked into an electromagnetic field created via a field generator. Data generated within this field were merged with the CACT images. On a monitor both the anatomical ROI and needle tip position were displayed to enable precise needle insertion into the target. Through the coaxial needle, biopsy specimens for the histologic evaluation were extracted. Number of representative biopsy samples, number of core biopsies/patient, total procedure time, dose-area product, fluoroscopic time, and complications were recorded. 53 CACT/EMT-guided biopsy procedures were performed, 48 of which (91 %) yielded representative tissue samples. Four core biopsies were obtained from each patient. 40 (75 %) lesions were malignant and 13 (25 %) lesions were benign. The total procedure time was 9 ± 5 min (range, 3 - 23 min), fluoroscopic time was 0.8 ± 0.4 min (range, 0.4 - 2 min). The mean dose-area product (cGy cm{sup 2}) was 7373 (range, 895 - 26 904). The rate of complications (1 pneumothorax, 2 hemoptyses) was 6 %. CACT combined with EMT appears to be a feasible and effective technique for the guidance of percutaneous biopsies with a low rate of therapeutically relevant complications.

  3. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis Overlap Syndrome in Patients With Biopsy-Proven Glomerulonephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrot, Pierre-Andre; Chiche, Laurent; Hervier, Baptiste; Daniel, Laurent; Vuiblet, Vincent; Bardin, Nathalie; Bertin, Daniel; Terrier, Benjamin; Amoura, Zahir; Andrés, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Eric; Hamidou, Mohamed; Pennaforte, Jean-Loup; Halfon, Philippe; Daugas, Eric; Dussol, Bertrand; Puéchal, Xavier; Kaplanski, Gilles; Jourde-Chiche, Noemie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to report the clinical, biological, and pathological characteristics of patients with glomerulonephritis (GN) secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)/antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) overlap syndrome. A nationwide survey was conducted to identify cases of SLE/AAV overlap syndrome. Data were collected from SLE and AAV French research groups. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of both SLE and AAV according to international classification criteria and biopsy-proven GN between 1995 and 2014. Additional cases were identified through a systematic literature review. A cohort of consecutive biopsy-proven GN was used to study the prevalence of overlapping antibodies and/or overlap syndrome. The national survey identified 8 cases of SLE/AAV overlap syndrome. All patients were female; median age was 40 years. AAV occurred before SLE (n = 3), after (n = 3), or concomitantly (n = 2). Six patients had rapidly progressive GN and 3/8 had alveolar hemorrhage. All patients had antinuclear antibodies (ANA); 7/8 had p-ANCA antimyeloperoxidase (MPO) antibodies. Renal biopsies showed lupus nephritis (LN) or pauci-immune GN. Remission was obtained in 4/8 patients. A literature review identified 31 additional cases with a similarly severe presentation. In the GN cohort, ANCA positivity was found in 30% of LN, ANA positivity in 52% of pauci-immune GN, with no correlation with pathological findings. The estimated prevalence for SLE/AAV overlap syndrome was 2/101 (2%). In patients with GN, SLE/AAV overlap syndrome may occur but with a low prevalence. Most patients have an aggressive renal presentation, with usually both ANA and anti-MPO antibodies. Further studies are needed to assess shared pathogenesis and therapeutic options. PMID:27258503

  5. Biopsy-proven case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated vasculitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Kohei; Katayama, Takayuki; Takeguchi, Shiori; Asanome, Asuka; Takahashi, Kae; Saito, Tsukasa; Sawada, Jun; Saito, Masato; Anei, Ryogo; Kamada, Kyousuke; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2017-06-01

    A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with rapidly deteriorating consciousness disturbance. She had a 7-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which had been treated with methotrexate (MTX) and prednisolone. Brain T2-weighted MRI showed diffuse high-intensity lesions in the cerebral subcortical and deep white matter, bilateral basal ganglia and thalamus. A cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed elevated protein levels and positive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA. Human immunodeficiency virus was negative. Brain biopsy showed perivascular lymphocytic infiltration in the parenchyma and meninx with EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER). Since this case did not fulfill the criteria for chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), she was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated vasculitis of the central nervous system. High-dose methylprednisolone, acyclovir, ganciclovir and foscarnet were not effective. Although EBV is a causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), lymphomas and nasopharyngeal carcinomas, vasculitic pathology of the central nervous system with EBV reactivation in the elderly is rare. Immunosuppressive drugs such as steroids and MTX are widely used to treat autoimmune disorders, but may exacerbate the reactivation of EBV. This is the first case of biopsy-proven EBV-positive/HIV-negative vasculitis during the treatment of RA with MTX and steroids. This case indicates that EBV-associated vasculitis needs to be considered as a differential diagnosis of CNS vasculitis. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  6. Real-time navigation system for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients using projection mapping with indocyanine green fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Megumi; Suzuki, Eiji; Sato, Fumiaki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Torii, Masae; Kawaguchi-Sakita, Nobuko; Nishino, Hiroto; Seo, Satoru; Hatano, Etsuro; Toi, Masakazu

    2018-05-09

    Inability to visualize indocyanine green fluorescence images in the surgical field limits the application of current near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIR) systems for real-time navigation during sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Medical Imaging Projection System (MIPS), which uses active projection mapping, for SLN biopsy. A total of 56 patients (59 procedures) underwent SLN biopsy using the MIPS between March 2016 and November 2017. After SLN biopsy using the MIPS, residual SLNs were removed using a conventional NIR camera and/or radioisotope method. The primary endpoint of this study was identification rate of SLNs using the MIPS. In all procedures, at least one SLN was detected by the MIPS, giving an SLN identification rate of 100% [95% confidence interval (CI) 94-100%]. SLN biopsy was successfully performed without operating lights in all procedures. In total, 3 positive SLNs were excised using MIPS, but were not included in the additional SLNs excised by other methods. The median number of SLNs excised using the MIPS was 3 (range 1-7). Of procedures performed after preoperative systemic therapy, the median number of SLNs excised using the MIPS was 3 (range 2-6). The MIPS is effective in detecting SLNs in patients with breast cancer, providing continuous and accurate projection of fluorescence signals in the surgical field, without need for operating lights, and could be useful in real-time navigation surgery for SLN biopsy.

  7. Radiation effects on optical data transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides and receivers in both steady state and pulsed radiation environments is reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of irradiation on the performance of light emitting and laser diodes, optical fiber waveguides and photodiodes. The influence of radiation-induced attenuation of optical fibers due to total dose, dose rate, time after irradiation, temperature, radiation history, photobleaching, OH and impurity content, dopant type and concentration is described. The performance of candidate components of the transmission system intended for deployment in the Superconducting Super Collider Detector and primary beam tunnel nuclear environment is discussed

  8. Characterization of Fiber Optic CMM Probe System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.W.Swallow

    2007-05-15

    This report documents a study completed on the fiber optic probe system that is a part of the Werth optical CMM. This study was necessary due to a lack of documentation from the vendor for the proper use and calibration of the fiber probe, and was performed in support of the Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) development program at the FM&T. As a result of this study, a better understanding of the fiber optic probe has been developed, including guidelines for its proper use and calibration.

  9. Full-duplex optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor); Horan, Stephen (Inventor); Payne, Jason A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method of full-duplex electromagnetic communication wherein a pair of data modulation formats are selected for the forward and return data links respectively such that the forward data electro-magnetic beam serves as a carrier for the return data. A method of encoding optical information is used wherein right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations are assigned to optical information to represent binary states. An application for an earth to low earth orbit optical communications system is presented which implements the full-duplex communication and circular polarization keying modulation format.

  10. Camera System MTF: combining optic with detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Torben B.; Granger, Zachary A.

    2017-08-01

    MTF is one of the most common metrics used to quantify the resolving power of an optical component. Extensive literature is dedicated to describing methods to calculate the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for stand-alone optical components such as a camera lens or telescope, and some literature addresses approaches to determine an MTF for combination of an optic with a detector. The formulations pertaining to a combined electro-optical system MTF are mostly based on theory, and assumptions that detector MTF is described only by the pixel pitch which does not account for wavelength dependencies. When working with real hardware, detectors are often characterized by testing MTF at discrete wavelengths. This paper presents a method to simplify the calculation of a polychromatic system MTF when it is permissible to consider the detector MTF to be independent of wavelength.

  11. Electro-optical fuel pin identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, T.L.

    1978-09-01

    A prototype Electro-Optical Fuel Pin Identification System referred to as the Fuel Pin Identification System (FPIS) has been developed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in support of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) presently under construction at HEDL. The system is designed to remotely read an alpha-numeric identification number that is roll stamped on the top of the fuel pin end cap. The prototype FPIS consists of four major subassemblies: optical read head, digital compression electronics, video display, and line printer

  12. Fiber optic gyroscopes for vehicle navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Tatsuya; Soekawa, Hirokazu; Yuhara, Toshiya; Kajioka, Hiroshi; Oho, Shigeru; Sonobe, Hisao

    1994-03-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes (FOGs) have been developed for vehicle navigation systems and are used in Toyota Motor Corporation models Mark II, Chaser and Cresta in Japan. Use of FOGs in these systems requires high reliability under a wide range of conditions, especially in a temperature range between -40 and 85 degree(s)C. In addition, a high cost-performance ratio is needed. We have developed optical and electrical systems that are inexpensive and can perform well. They are ready to be mass-produced. FOGs have already been installed in luxury automobiles, and will soon be included in more basic vehicles. We have developed more inexpensive FOGs for this purpose.

  13. Optical measuring system with an interrogator and a polymer-based single-mode fibre optic sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical measuring system comprising a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system (102), an optical interrogator (101), and an optical arrangement (103) interconnecting the optical interrogator (101) and the polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor...... system (102). The invention further relates to an optical interrogator adapted to be connected to a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system via an optical arrangement. The interrogator comprises a broadband light source arrangement (104) and a spectrum analysing arrangement which receives...

  14. MR-guided preoperative localization and percutaneous core biopsy of suspicious breast lesions - experience on the vertically open 0.5 T system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.P.; Schulz, T.; Rueger, S.; Schmidt, F.; Kahn, T.; Leinung, S.; Briest, S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility of performing breast interventions in a vertically open 0.5 T MR system (SIGNA SP/i, GE Medical Systems). To develop fitted equipment and to establish preoperative wire localization and percutaneous breast core biopsy as clinical routine procedures. Patients and methods. Initially, we applied a localization method with the patient placed in a sitting position in 31 cases using a single loop coil and a self-developed fixation device. Subsequently, 46 wire localizations and 28 percutaneous core biopsies were carried out in prone patient position using an open breast coil with an integrated biopsy device. The used instruments were either MR-compatible (18 G biopsy needle and localization wire, 14 G coaxial needle, prototype of a 16 G double-shoot gun) or MR-safe (double-shoot gun with 16 G needle). Results. After biopsy we found the needle tip (18 G for a wire localization and 14 G for a percutaneous core biopsy, respectively) placed either within or close to the lesions ( [de

  15. Preliminary clinical experience with a dedicated interventional robotic system for CT-guided biopsies of lung lesions: a comparison with the conventional manual technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzidei, Michele; Argiro, Renato; Porfiri, Andrea; Boni, Fabrizio; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Napoli, Alessandro; Leonardi, Andrea; Bezzi, Mario; Catalano, Carlo; Anile, Marco; Venuta, Federico; Vitolo, Domenico; Saba, Luca; Longo, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate the performance of a robotic system for CT-guided lung biopsy in comparison to the conventional manual technique. One hundred patients referred for CT-guided lung biopsy were randomly assigned to group A (robot-assisted procedure) or group B (conventional procedure). Size, distance from entry point and position in lung of target lesions were evaluated to assess homogeneity differences between the two groups. Procedure duration, dose length product (DLP), precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were evaluated to assess the clinical performance of the robotic system as compared to the conventional technique. All biopsies were successfully performed. The size (p = 0.41), distance from entry point (p = 0.86) and position in lung (p = 0.32) of target lesions were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Procedure duration and radiation dose were significantly reduced in group A as compared to group B (p = 0.001). Precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Robot-assisted CT-guided lung biopsy can be performed safely and with high diagnostic accuracy, reducing procedure duration and radiation dose in comparison to the conventional manual technique. (orig.)

  16. Preliminary clinical experience with a dedicated interventional robotic system for CT-guided biopsies of lung lesions: a comparison with the conventional manual technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzidei, Michele; Argiro, Renato; Porfiri, Andrea; Boni, Fabrizio; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Napoli, Alessandro; Leonardi, Andrea; Bezzi, Mario; Catalano, Carlo [University of Rome, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences - Radiology - Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Anile, Marco; Venuta, Federico [University of Rome, Department of Thoracic Surgery - Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Vitolo, Domenico [University of Rome, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences - Pathology - Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Saba, Luca [Department of Radiology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), di Cagliari-Polo di Monserrato, Monserrato (Italy); Longo, Flavia [University of Rome, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences - Oncology - Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Evaluate the performance of a robotic system for CT-guided lung biopsy in comparison to the conventional manual technique. One hundred patients referred for CT-guided lung biopsy were randomly assigned to group A (robot-assisted procedure) or group B (conventional procedure). Size, distance from entry point and position in lung of target lesions were evaluated to assess homogeneity differences between the two groups. Procedure duration, dose length product (DLP), precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were evaluated to assess the clinical performance of the robotic system as compared to the conventional technique. All biopsies were successfully performed. The size (p = 0.41), distance from entry point (p = 0.86) and position in lung (p = 0.32) of target lesions were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Procedure duration and radiation dose were significantly reduced in group A as compared to group B (p = 0.001). Precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Robot-assisted CT-guided lung biopsy can be performed safely and with high diagnostic accuracy, reducing procedure duration and radiation dose in comparison to the conventional manual technique. (orig.)

  17. Stereotactic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwangi, M.N.; Handa, A.

    2006-01-01

    This technology is capable of locating lesions precise detected by the mammography examinations. This devise allows the surgeon to position automatically the needle to perform the cytological/histological biopsy with maximum position accuracy. This is under sterile procedure. to position the lesion in the beam, two radiographic procedures are carried out: the first with the X-ray beam at an inclination of -15 degrees with respect to the position 0 degrees and the second at the inclination +15 degrees. After processing the film the lesion will appear on both radiographs but on light are of the negatoscope. With the cursor information is fed from four points. On the display the length of the needle will appear immediately. The length of the needle to be used in suction is chosen on the basis of the two values on the display. This information fed on the control panel will move the needle unit position where the lesion is. the needle is then introduced under local anaesthesia at the preselected length until it clicks into position. An exposure is made with needle in situ in position at +15 degrees and -15 degrees to ensure the needle is in position. the suction is then carried out and the needle removed. The machine is then reset to return at the initial position

  18. Control systems in optical fibre industry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostka, František

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (1998), s. 195-200 ISSN 1405-5546 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) KSK1067601 Projekt 10/96/K:4107 Keywords : control systems * real time systems * microcomputers * optical fibres Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  19. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

  20. Biopsy-proven case of childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system presenting with bilateral panuveitis and anisocoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saettele, Megan R. [University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); St. Luke' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Loskutov, Anatoly; Sigley, Matthew J. [University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [St. Luke' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Nielsen, David B. [University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2014-06-25

    Childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system (cPACNS) is a rare and poorly understood immune-mediated vasculitis that preferentially affects blood vessels of the central nervous system (CNS). It must be distinguished from other disorders to initiate prompt treatment and improve the patient's prognosis. The presentation of cPACNS is highly variable, making a clinical diagnosis challenging. However, MRI may be helpful in showing typical findings including perivascular space inflammation and enhancement. Identification of these imaging features allows the radiologist to specifically suggest this rare diagnosis. The purpose of this manuscript is to present a biopsy-confirmed case of cPACNS in a 9-year-old girl who presented uniquely with panuveitis and anisocoria, and emphasize the MRI features that should prompt the radiologist to suggest this rare diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Biopsy-proven case of childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system presenting with bilateral panuveitis and anisocoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saettele, Megan R.; Loskutov, Anatoly; Sigley, Matthew J.; Lowe, Lisa H.; Nielsen, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system (cPACNS) is a rare and poorly understood immune-mediated vasculitis that preferentially affects blood vessels of the central nervous system (CNS). It must be distinguished from other disorders to initiate prompt treatment and improve the patient's prognosis. The presentation of cPACNS is highly variable, making a clinical diagnosis challenging. However, MRI may be helpful in showing typical findings including perivascular space inflammation and enhancement. Identification of these imaging features allows the radiologist to specifically suggest this rare diagnosis. The purpose of this manuscript is to present a biopsy-confirmed case of cPACNS in a 9-year-old girl who presented uniquely with panuveitis and anisocoria, and emphasize the MRI features that should prompt the radiologist to suggest this rare diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Adjustment of gripping force by optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Barz, C.

    2018-01-01

    With increasing automation, robotics also requires ever more intelligent solutions in the handling of various tasks. In this context, many grippers must also be re-designed. For this, they must always be adapted for different requirements. The equipment of the gripper systems with sensors should help to make the gripping process more intelligent. In order to achieve such objectives, optical systems can also be used. This work analyzes how the gripping force can be adjusted by means of an optical recognition. The result of this work is the creation of a connection between optical recognition, tolerances, gripping force and real-time control. In this way, algorithms can be created, with the aid of which robot grippers as well as other gripping systems become more intelligent.

  3. A tristate optical logic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuray, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kumar Ghosh, Hirak; Datta, A. K.

    1991-09-01

    A method is described to represent data in a tristate logic system which are subsequently replaced by Modified Trinary Numbers (MTN). This system is advantagegeous in parallel processing as carry and borrow free operations in arithmatic computation is possible. The logical operations are also modified according to the three states available. A possible practical application of the same using polarized light is also suggested.

  4. Optical fiber telecommunications systems and networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E

    2013-01-01

    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  5. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  6. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  7. Liquid biopsy for brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Ganesh M.; Balaj, Leonora; Stott, Shannon L.; Nahed, Brian; Carter, Bob S.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive methods will augment the clinical approach for establishing the diagnosis or monitoring treatment response of central nervous system tumors. Liquid biopsy by blood or cerebrospinal fluid sampling holds promise in this regard. Areas covered In this literature review, the authors highlight recent studies describing the analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell free nucleic acids, and extracellular vesicles as strategies to accomplish liquid biopsy in glioblastoma and metastatic tumors. The authors then discuss the continued efforts to improve signal detection, standardize the liquid biopsy handling and preparation, develop platforms for clinical application, and establish a role for liquid biopsies in personalized medicine. Expert commentary As the technologies used to analyze these biomarkers continue to evolve, we propose that there is a future potential to precisely diagnose and monitor treatment response with liquid biopsies. PMID:28875730

  8. Fiber-optic voltage measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miaoyuan; Nie, De-Xin; Li, Yan; Peng, Yu; Lin, Qi-Qing; Wang, Jing-Gang

    1993-09-01

    A new fibre optic voltage measuring system has been developed based on the electrooptic effect of bismuth germanium oxide (Bi4Ge3O12)crystal. It uses the LED as the light source. The light beam emitted from the light source is transmitted to the sensor through the optic fibre and the intensity of the output beam is changed by the applied voltage. This optic signal is transmitted to the PIN detector and converted to an electric signal which is processed by the electronic circuit and 8098 single chip microcomputer the output voltage signal obtained is directly proportional to the applied voltage. This paper describes the principle the configuration and the performance parameters of the system. Test results are evaluated and discussed.

  9. Initial Experience Performing In-office Ultrasound-guided Transperineal Prostate Biopsy Under Local Anesthesia Using the PrecisionPoint Transperineal Access System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Alexa R; Joice, Gregory A; Schwen, Zeyad R; Partin, Alan W; Allaf, Mohamad E; Gorin, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    To describe our procedural technique and initial outcomes performing in-office transperineal prostate biopsies using the PrecisionPoint Transperineal Access System (Perineologic, Cumberland, MD). Following institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed the records of men who underwent an in-office transperineal prostate biopsy using the PrecisionPoint device. Records were reviewed for baseline characteristics, biopsy results, and postbiopsy complications. Between January 4, 2017 and August 23, 2017, 43 men underwent an in-office transperineal prostate biopsy using the PrecisionPoint Transperineal Access System. Patients had a median serum prostate specific antigen level of 6.1 ng/mL (range 0.8-32.9). Of the 43 biopsies, 12 (27.9%) were performed for active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer and 31 (72.1%) were performed for cancer screening. Overall, 21 (48.8%) men were found to have prostate cancer. Among those on active surveillance, cancer was detected in 8 of 12 (66.7%) patients, with 2 of 12 (16.7%) found to have Gleason ≥3 + 4 = 7 prostate cancer. Additionally, cancer was detected in 13 of 31 (41.9%) patients undergoing a biopsy for prostate cancer screening, with 5 (16.1%) found to have Gleason ≥3 + 4 = 7 disease. In total, 3 (7.0%) patients experienced a postbiopsy complication: 2 (4.7%) with urinary retention and 1 (2.3%) with gross hematuria requiring catheterization. No patient experienced an infectious complication despite omission of periprocedural antibiotics in all cases. The PrecisionPoint device allowed for the successful performance of in-office transperineal prostate biopsies under local anesthesia without the need for periprocedural antibiotics. We observed an acceptable cancer detection rate with no infectious complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Management Concerns for Optical Based Filing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    terminals, WORM Palo Alto, CA 94303 drives, optical jukeboxes, printers, scanners. Candi Technology Inc. Systems integrators providing 2354 Calle Del Mundo ...firms are using them to help design everything from parts to buildings. Auto makers use them to design new car moaels and even build the cars using

  11. Optical interconnect for large-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a switchless, optical interconnect module that serves as a node in a network of identical distribution modules for large-scale systems. Thousands to millions of hosts or endpoints may be interconnected by a network of such modules, avoiding the need for multi-level switches. Several common network topologies are reviewed and their scaling properties assessed. The concept of message-flow routing is discussed in conjunction with the unique properties enabled by the optical distribution module where it is shown how top-down software control (global routing tables, spanning-tree algorithms) may be avoided.

  12. The CEBAF fiber optic phase reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, K.; Simrock, S.; Hovater, C.; Krycuk, A.

    1995-01-01

    The specified phase stability of the CEBAF RF distribution system is 2.9 degree rms per linac. Stability is achieved through the use of a temperature and pressure regulated coaxial drive line. Purpose of the fiber optic phase reference system is to monitor the relative phase at the beginning and ending of this drive line, between linacs, injector and separator to determine drift due to ambient temperature fluctuations. The system utilizes an Ortel 1310 nm single mode laser driving Sumitumo optical fiber to distribute a reference signal at 1497 MHz. Phase of this reference signal is compared to the 1427 MHz (LO) and the 70 MHz (IF) via a 360 degree phase detector. The detected information is then routed to the CEBAF control system for display with a specified resolution of ±0.2 degree over a 20 degree phase delta

  13. Biopsy Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma by the Combination of Morphological and Spectral Methods Based on Embedded Relay Lens Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Mang; Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    Cytopathological examination through biopsy is very important for carcinoma detection. The embedded relay lens microscopic hyperspectral imaging system (ERL-MHIS) provides a morphological image of a biopsy sample and the spectrum of each pixel in the image simultaneously. Based on the ERL-MHIS, this work develops morphological and spectral methods to diagnose oral carcinoma biopsy. In morphological discrimination, the fractal dimension method is applied to differentiate between normal and abnormal tissues. In spectral identification, normal and cancerous cells are distinguished using five methods. However, the spectra of normal and cancerous cells vary with patient. The diagnostic performances of the five methods are thus not ideal. Hence, the proposed cocktail approach is used to determine the effectiveness of the spectral methods in correlating with the sampling conditions. And then we use a combination of effective spectral methods according to the sample conditions for diagnosing a sample. A total of 68 biopsies from 34 patients are analyzed using the ERL-MHIS. The results demonstrate a sensitivity of 90 ± 4.53 % and a specificity of 87.8 ± 5.21 %. Furthermore, in our survey, this system is the first time utilized to study oral carcinoma biopsies.

  14. Dynamic optical coupled system employing Dammann gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Caihui; Zhou, Changhe; Ru, Huayi

    2004-10-01

    With the increasing of the number of users in optical fiber communications, fiber-to-home project has a larger market value. Then the need of dynamic optical couplers, especially of N broad-band couplers, becomes greater. Though some advanced fiber fusion techniques have been developed, they still have many shortcomings. In this paper we propose a dynamic optical coupled system employing even-numbered Dammann gratings, which have the characteristic that the phase distribution in the first half-period accurately equals to that in the second-period with π phase inversion. In our experiment, we divide a conventional even-numbered Dammann grating into two identical gratings. The system can achieve the beam splitter and combiner as the switch between them according to the relative shift between two complementary gratings. When there is no shift between the gratings, the demonstrated 1×8 dynamic optical coupler achieves good uniformity of 0.06 and insertion loss of around 10.8 dB for each channel as a splitter. When the two gratings have an accurate shift of a half-period between them, our system has a low insertion loss of 0.46 dB as a combiner at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  15. Optical fibres for fusion plasma diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brichard, B.

    2005-01-01

    The condition to achieve and maintain the ignition of a thermonuclear fusion plasma ignition calls for the construction of a large scale fusion reactor, namely ITER. This reactor is designed to deliver an average fusion power of 500 MW. The burning of fusion plasma at such high power level will release a tremendous amount of energy in the form of particle fluxes and ionising radiation. This energy release, primarily absorbed by the plasma facing components, can significantly degrade the performances of the plasma diagnostic equipment surrounding the machine. To ensure a correct operation of the Tokamak we need to develop highly radiation-resistance devices. In plasma diagnostic systems, optical fibre is viewed as a convenient tool to transport light from the plasma edge to the diagnostic area. Radiation affects the optical performances of the fibre mainly by the occurrence of radiation-induced absorption and luminescence. Both effects degrade the light signal used for plasma diagnostic. SCK-CEN is currently assessing radiation-resistant glasses for optical fibres and is developing the associated qualification procedure. The main objectives of this study were to increase the lifetime of optical components in high radiation background and to develop a radiation resistance optical fibre capable to operate in the radiation background of ITER

  16. Optical fiber-applied radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Ryuichi; Uranaka, Yasuo; Izumi, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    A technique to measure radiation by using plastic scintillation fibers doped radiation fluorescent (scintillator) to plastic optical fiber for a radiation sensor, was developed. The technique contains some superiority such as high flexibility due to using fibers, relatively easy large area due to detecting portion of whole of fibers, and no electromagnetic noise effect due to optical radiation detection and signal transmission. Measurable to wide range of and continuous radiation distribution along optical fiber cable at a testing portion using scintillation fiber and flight time method, the optical fiber-applied radiation sensing system can effectively monitor space radiation dose or apparatus operation condition monitoring. And, a portable type scintillation optical fiber body surface pollution monitor can measure pollution concentration of radioactive materials attached onto body surface by arranging scintillation fiber processed to a plate with small size and flexibility around a man to be tested. Here were described on outline and fundamental properties of various application products using these plastic scintillation fiber. (G.K.)

  17. Automatic design of optical systems by digital computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, T. A.; Schmidt, L. F.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program uses geometrical optical techniques and a least squares optimization method employing computing equipment for the automatic design of optical systems. It evaluates changes in various optical parameters, provides comprehensive ray-tracing, and generally determines the acceptability of the optical system characteristics.

  18. Interchip link system using an optical wiring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Kui; Ryu, Jin-Hwa; Jeong, Myung-Yung

    2008-08-15

    A chip-scale optical link system is presented with a transmitter/receiver and optical wire link. The interchip link system consists of a metal optical bench, a printed circuit board module, a driver/receiver integrated circuit, a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser/photodiode array, and an optical wire link composed of plastic optical fibers (POFs). We have developed a downsized POF and an optical wiring method that allows on-site installation with a simple annealing as optical wiring technologies for achieving high-density optical interchip interconnection within such devices. Successful data transfer measurements are presented.

  19. Small Field of View Scintimammography Gamma Camera Integrated to a Stereotactic Core Biopsy Digital X-ray System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Weisenberger; Fernando Barbosa; T. D. Green; R. Hoefer; Cynthia Keppel; Brian Kross; Stanislaw Majewski; Vladimir Popov; Randolph Wojcik

    2002-10-01

    A small field of view gamma camera has been developed for integration with a commercial stereotactic core biopsy system. The goal is to develop and implement a dual-modality imaging system utilizing scintimammography and digital radiography to evaluate the reliability of scintimammography in predicting the malignancy of suspected breast lesions from conventional X-ray mammography. The scintimammography gamma camera is a custom-built mini gamma camera with an active area of 5.3 cm /spl times/ 5.3 cm and is based on a 2 /spl times/ 2 array of Hamamatsu R7600-C8 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The spatial resolution of the gamma camera at the collimator surface is < 4 mm full-width at half-maximum and a sensitivity of /spl sim/ 4000 Hz/mCi. The system is also capable of acquiring dynamic scintimammographic data to allow for dynamic uptake studies. Sample images of preliminary clinical results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  20. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  1. Robot-assisted biopsies in a high-field MRI system. First clinical results; Roboterunterstuetzte Punktion in einem Hochfeld-Kernspintomografen. Erste klinische Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schell, B.; Eichler, K.; Mack, M.G.; Mueller, C.; Kerl, J.M.; Beeres, M.; Thalhammer, A.; Vogl, T.J.; Zangos, S. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Czerny, C. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Unfall-, Hand- und Wiederherstellungschirurgie

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical use of MR-guided biopsies in patients with suspicious lesions using a new MR-compatible assistance system in a high-field MR system. Materials and Methods: Six patients with suspicious focal lesions in various anatomic regions underwent percutanous biopsy in a high-field MR system (1.5 T, Magnetom Espree, Siemens) using a new MR-compatible assistance system (Innomotion). The procedures were planned and guided using T1-weighted FLASH and TrueFISP sequences. A servopneumatic drive then moved the guiding arm automatically to the insertion point. An MRI compatible 15G biopsy system (Somatex) was introduced by a physician guided by the needle holder and multiple biopsies were performed using the coaxial technique. The feasibility, duration of the intervention and biopsy findings were analyzed. Results: The proposed new system allows accurate punctures in a high-field MR system. The assistance device did not interfere with the image quality, and guided the needle virtually exactly as planned. Histological examination could be conducted on every patient. The lesion was malignant in four cases, and an infectious etiology was diagnosed for the two remaining lesions. Regarding the differentiation of anatomical and pathological structures and position monitoring of the insertion needle, TrueFISP images are to be given preference. The average intervention time was 41 minutes. Lesions up to 15.4 cm beneath the skin surface were punctured. Conclusion: The proposed MR-guided assistance system can be successfully utilized in a high-field MR system for accurate punctures of even deep lesions in various anatomic regions. (orig.)

  2. The experimental optical burst switching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Wu, Guiling; Wang, Hui; Lu, Jialin; Ye, Ailun

    2005-02-01

    The first optical burst switching (OBS) system has been demonstrated in China, which includes three edge routers and one core-node. A kind of fast wavelength selective optical switching was used in the system. The core OBS node consists of a kind of wavelength selective optical switch we developed. It consists of two SOA switches and one wavelength selective thin film filter with centre wavelength at one wavelength. There are one input optical fiber and two output fibers, each fiber carries two wavelengths. The Dell PE2650 servers act as the edge OBS routers. The wavelength of each data channel is located in C-band and the bit rate is at 1.25Gbps. The control channel uses bit rate of 100Mbps at wavelength of 1310 nm. A novel effective scheme for Just-In-Time (JIT) protocol was proposed and implemented. OBS services, such as Video on Demand (VOD) and file transfer protocol (FTP), have been demonstrated. Assembling and scheduling methods that are capable to guarantee the QoS (quality of service) of the transported service are studied.

  3. SAFARI optical system architecture and design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Carmen; Jellema, Willem; Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arrazola, David; Fernández-Rodriguez, M.; Belenguer, Tomás.; González Fernández, Luis M.; Audley, Michael D.; Evers, Jaap; Eggens, Martin; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Najarro, Francisco; Roelfsema, Peter

    2016-07-01

    SpicA FAR infrared Instrument, SAFARI, is one of the instruments planned for the SPICA mission. The SPICA mission is the next great leap forward in space-based far-infrared astronomy and will study the evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. SPICA will utilize a deeply cooled 2.5m-class telescope, provided by European industry, to realize zodiacal background limited performance, and high spatial resolution. The instrument SAFARI is a cryogenic grating-based point source spectrometer working in the wavelength domain 34 to 230 μm, providing spectral resolving power from 300 to at least 2000. The instrument shall provide low and high resolution spectroscopy in four spectral bands. Low Resolution mode is the native instrument mode, while the high Resolution mode is achieved by means of a Martin-Pupplet interferometer. The optical system is all-reflective and consists of three main modules; an input optics module, followed by the Band and Mode Distributing Optics and the grating Modules. The instrument utilizes Nyquist sampled filled linear arrays of very sensitive TES detectors. The work presented in this paper describes the optical design architecture and design concept compatible with the current instrument performance and volume design drivers.

  4. Optical coherence tomography using the Niris system in otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Marc; Armstrong, William B.; Djalilian, Hamid R.; Crumley, Roger L.; Kim, Jason H.; Nguyen, Quoc A.; Foulad, Allen I.; Ghasri, Pedram E.; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2009-02-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility and accuracy of the Niris Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system in imaging of the mucosal abnormalities of the head and neck. The Niris system is the first commercially available OCT device for applications outside ophthalmology. Methods: We obtained OCT images of benign, premalignant and malignant lesions throughout the head and neck, using the Niris OCT imaging system (Imalux, Cleveland, OH). This imaging system has a tissue penetration depth of approximately 1-2mm, a scanning range of 2mm and a spatial depth resolution of approximately 10-20μm. Imaging was performed in the outpatient setting and in the operating room using a flexible probe. Results: High-resolution cross-sectional images from the oral cavity, nasal cavity, ears and larynx showed distinct layers and structures such as mucosa layer, basal membrane and lamina propria, were clearly identified. In the pathology images disruption of the basal membrane was clearly shown. Device set-up took approximately 5 minutes and the image acquisition was rapid. The system can be operated by the person performing the exam. Conclusions: The Niris system is non invasive and easy to incorporate into the operating room and the clinic. It requires minimal set-up and requires only one person to operate. The unique ability of the OCT offers high-resolution images showing the microanatomy of different sites. OCT imaging with the Niris device potentially offers an efficient, quick and reliable imaging modality in guiding surgical biopsies, intra-operative decision making, and therapeutic options for different otolaryngologic pathologies and premalignant disease.

  5. A synoptic reporting system for bone marrow aspiration and core biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Manjula; Pandey, Rakesh

    2006-12-01

    Advances in information technology have made electronic systems productive tools for pathology report generation. Structured data formats are recommended for better understanding of pathology reports by clinicians and for retrieval of pathology reports. Suitable formats need to be developed to include structured data elements for report generation in electronic systems. To conform to the requirement of protocol-based reporting and to provide uniform and standardized data entry and retrieval, we developed a synoptic reporting system for generation of bone marrow cytology and histology reports for incorporation into our hospital information system. A combination of macro text, short preformatted templates of tabular data entry sheets, and canned files was developed using a text editor enabling protocol-based input. The system is flexible and has facility for appending free text entry. It also incorporates SNOMED coding and codes for teaching, research, and internal auditing. This synoptic reporting system is easy to use and adaptable. Features and advantages include pick-up text with defined choices, flexibility for appending free text, facility for data entry for protocol-based reports for research use, standardized and uniform format of reporting, comparable follow-up reports, minimized typographical and transcription errors, and saving on reporting time, thus helping shorten the turnaround time. Simple structured pathology report templates are a powerful means for supporting uniformity in reporting as well as subsequent data viewing and extraction, particularly suitable to computerized reporting.

  6. MR-guided biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehl, H.B.; Frahm, C.

    1998-01-01

    Biopsies were the first 'intervention' under MR guidance. After initial difficulties concerning ferromagnetic biopsy instruments and the design of MR scanners, the latest technological improvements rendered MR guidance for biopsies more feasible. In this article we illustrate present-day clinical experience in the field of abdominal, breast and bone biopsy. Important aspects regarding the different designs of 'interventional' MR scanners and the visualization of instruments for biopsy are discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. High sensitivity optical molecular imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yu; Yuan, Gao; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Shixin; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Optical Molecular Imaging (OMI) has the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use. By labeling the regions of interest with fluorescent or bioluminescence probes, OMI can noninvasively obtain the distribution of the probes in vivo, which play the key role in cancer research, pharmacokinetics and other biological studies. In preclinical and clinical application, the image depth, resolution and sensitivity are the key factors for researchers to use OMI. In this paper, we report a high sensitivity optical molecular imaging system developed by our group, which can improve the imaging depth in phantom to nearly 5cm, high resolution at 2cm depth, and high image sensitivity. To validate the performance of the system, special designed phantom experiments and weak light detection experiment were implemented. The results shows that cooperated with high performance electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, precision design of light path system and high efficient image techniques, our OMI system can simultaneously collect the light-emitted signals generated by fluorescence molecular imaging, bioluminescence imaging, Cherenkov luminance and other optical imaging modality, and observe the internal distribution of light-emitting agents fast and accurately.

  8. Design and characterization of Stormram 4 : an MRI-compatible robotic system for breast biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuis, Vincent; Siepel, Françoise Jeanette; Veltman, Jeroen; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Targeting of small lesions with high precision is essential in an early phase of breast cancer for diagnosis and accurate follow up, and subsequently determines prognosis. Current techniques to diagnose breast cancer are suboptimal, and there is a need for a small, MRI-compatible robotic system able

  9. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  10. Quantum optical properties in plasmonic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Plasmonic metallic particle (MP) can affect the optical properties of a quantum system (QS) in a remarkable way. We develop a general quantum nonlinear formalism with exact vectorial description for the scattered photons by the QS. The formalism enables us to study the variations of the dielectric function and photon spectrum of the QS with the particle distance between QS and MP, exciting laser direction, polarization and phase in the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the MP. The quantum formalism also serves as a powerful tool for studying the effects of these parameters on the nonclassical properties of the scattered photons. The plasmonic effect of nanoparticles has promising possibilities as it provides a new way for manipulating quantum optical properties of light in nanophotonic systems.

  11. Percutaneous Management of Accidentally Retained Foreign Bodies During Image-Guided Non-vascular Procedures: Novel Technique Using a Large-Bore Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: georgia.tsoumakidou@chru-strasbourg.fr; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Thénint, Marie-Aude, E-mail: marie-aude.thenint@chru-strasbourg.fr; Rao, Pramod, E-mail: pramodrao@me.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@chru-strasbourg.fr; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France)

    2016-07-15

    ObjectiveTo describe a novel percutaneous image-guided technique using a large-bore biopsy system to retrieve foreign bodies (FBs) accidentally retained during non-vascular interventional procedures.Materials and MethodsBetween May 2013 and October 2015, five patients underwent percutaneous retrieval of five iatrogenic FBs, including a biopsy needle tip in the femoral head following osteoblastoma biopsy and radiofrequency ablation (RFA); a co-axial needle shaft within a giant desmoid tumour following cryoablation; and three post-vertebroplasty cement tails within paraspinal muscles. All FBs were retrieved immediately following original procedures under local or general anaesthesia, using combined computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopic guidance. The basic technique involved positioning a 6G trocar sleeve around the FB long axis and co-axially advancing an 8G biopsy needle to retrieve the FB within the biopsy core. Retrospective chart review facilitated analysis of procedures, FBs, technical success, and complications.ResultsMean FB size was 23 mm (range 8–74 mm). Four FBs were located within 10 mm of non-vascular significant anatomic structures. The basic technique was successful in 3 cases; 2 cases required technical modifications including using a stiff guide-wire to facilitate retrieval in the case of the post-cryoablation FB; and using the central mandrin of the 6G trocar to push a cement tract back into an augmented vertebra when initial retrieval failed. Overall technical success (FB retrieval or removal to non-hazardous location) was 100 %, with no complications.ConclusionPercutaneous image-guided retrieval of iatrogenic FBs using a large-bore biopsy system is a feasible, safe, effective, and versatile technique, with potential advantages over existing methods.

  12. The Airborne Optical Systems Testbed (AOSTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    are the Atlantic Ocean and coastal waterways, which reflect back very little light at our SWIR operating wavelength of 1064 nm. The Airborne Optical...demonstrate our typical FOPEN capabilities, figure 5 shows two images taken over a forested area near Burlington, VT. Figure 5(a) is a 3D point...Systems Testbed (AOSTB) 1 - 6 STO-MP-SET-999 (a) (b) Fig. 5. Ladar target scan of a forested area in northern Vermont

  13. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  14. Designing generalized conic concentrators for conventional optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Generalized nonimaging concentrators can be incorporated into conventional optical systems in situations where flux concentration rather than imaging is required. The parameters of the concentrator for maximum flux concentration depend on the design of the particular optical system under consideration. Rationale for determining the concentrator parameters is given for one particular optical system and the procedure used for calculation of these parameters is outlined. The calculations are done for three concentrators applicable to the optical system.

  15. Optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukcelebi, Doruk

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR (3.7μm - 4.8μm) is described. The dual field of view infrared optical system is designed based on the principle of passive athermalization method not only to achieve athermal optical system but also to keep the high image quality within the working temperature between -40°C and +60°C. The infrared optical system used in this study had a 320 pixel x 256 pixel resolution, 20μm pixel pitch size cooled MWIR focal plane array detector. In this study, the step zoom mechanism, which has the axial motion due to consisting of a lens group, is considered to simplify mechanical structure. The optical design was based on moving a single lens along the optical axis for changing the optical system's field of view not only to reduce the number of moving parts but also to athermalize for the optical system. The optical design began with an optimization process using paraxial optics when first-order optics parameters are determined. During the optimization process, in order to reduce aberrations, such as coma, astigmatism, spherical and chromatic aberrations, aspherical surfaces were used. As a result, athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical design is proposed and the performance of the design using proposed method was verified by providing the focus shifts, spot diagrams and MTF analyzes' plots.

  16. Robust adaptive optics systems for vision science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. A.; de Castro, A.; Sawides, L.; Luo, T.; Sapoznik, K.

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is of growing importance for understanding the impact of retinal and systemic diseases on the retina. While AO retinal imaging in healthy eyes is now routine, AO imaging in older eyes and eyes with optical changes to the anterior eye can be difficult and requires a control and an imaging system that is resilient when there is scattering and occlusion from the cornea and lens, as well as in the presence of irregular and small pupils. Our AO retinal imaging system combines evaluation of local image quality of the pupil, with spatially programmable detection. The wavefront control system uses a woofer tweeter approach, combining an electromagnetic mirror and a MEMS mirror and a single Shack Hartmann sensor. The SH sensor samples an 8 mm exit pupil and the subject is aligned to a region within this larger system pupil using a chin and forehead rest. A spot quality metric is calculated in real time for each lenslet. Individual lenslets that do not meet the quality metric are eliminated from the processing. Mirror shapes are smoothed outside the region of wavefront control when pupils are small. The system allows imaging even with smaller irregular pupils, however because the depth of field increases under these conditions, sectioning performance decreases. A retinal conjugate micromirror array selectively directs mid-range scatter to additional detectors. This improves detection of retinal capillaries even when the confocal image has poorer image quality that includes both photoreceptors and blood vessels.

  17. Spike Bursts from an Excitable Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Leite, Jose R.; Rosero, Edison J.; Barbosa, Wendson A. S.; Tredicce, Jorge R.

    Diode Lasers with double optical feedback are shown to present power drop spikes with statistical distribution controllable by the ratio of the two feedback times. The average time between spikes and the variance within long time series are studied. The system is shown to be excitable and present bursting of spikes created with specific feedback time ratios and strength. A rate equation model, extending the Lang-Kobayashi single feedback for semiconductor lasers proves to match the experimental observations. Potential applications to construct network to mimic neural systems having controlled bursting properties in each unit will be discussed. Brazilian Agency CNPQ.

  18. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  19. Optical tristability in a hybrid optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Nejad, A.; Askari, H. R.; Baghshahi, H. R.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of two cavities, which one of them is an optomechanical cavity that includes an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and the other is a traditional cavity which contains an atomic medium. Hamiltonian of the system is written in a rotating frame with a rotation frequency of the frequency of input field to the system. Using Heisenberg-Langevin equations of motion, the dynamics of the system is described. Applying the steady-state conditions leads to a system of equations of the mean values of the operators of the system. The stability condition of the system is satisfied numerically and behavior of optomechanical cavity is investigated in different situations to find the effect of changing of the parameters of the system on the type of its stability. We show proposed system has the capability of tristable behavior, where, the gain coefficient of OPA acts as a switch in changing the bistability of the system to a tristable manner. The building block of the tristability in this system can be figured out as the enhanced nonlinearity of the system due to the presence of OPA.

  20. Optical design of a LED searchlight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Xu, Haiping; Liang, Jinhua; Liu, Yunfei; Yuan, Zengquan

    2018-01-01

    A 1200m visible searchlight system is designed based on photometry and application of geometric optics. To generate intensity distribution of this relatively powerful light beam we propose to use a high power LED and several refractive optical elements, which are composed of two plane-convex lenses and a conventional Fresnel lens. Two plane-convex lenses enable refraction of the side rays from the LED to the front direction which incident on the Fresnel lens. Fresnel lens, in its turn, concentrate the light flux and provide a nearly collimated beam to meet the requirement of forming a well-illuminated area across the road in the far field. Simulation data shows that this searchlight allow generating an appropriate illumination distribution for the long range requirements. A proof-of-concept prototype producing acceptable illuminance is developed.

  1. Diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis: The role of abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halloush Ruba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic amyloidosis (SA has a broad nonspecific clinical presentation. Its diagnosis depends on identifying amyloid in tissues. Abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FPFNA has been suggested as a sensitive and specific test for diagnosing SA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine FPFNA from 38 patients (16 women and 20 men, age range 40-88 years during a 15-year period were reviewed. Smears and cell blocks were stained with Congo red (CR. A panel of antibodies (serum amyloid protein, serum amyloid A, albumin, transthyretin, kappa light chain and lambda light chain was used on six cell blocks from five patients. The FNA findings were correlated with clinical and histological follow-up. Results: FPFNAs were positive, confirmed by CR in 5/39 (13%, suspicious in 1/39 (3%, negative in 28/39 (72%, and insufficient for diagnosis in 5/39 (13% of cases. In all the positive cases, SA was confirmed within 2-16 weeks. Among the 28 negative cases, SA was diagnosed in 21, the rest were lost to follow-up. Among the insufficient cases, SA was diagnosed in four and one was lost to follow-up. Specificity was 100%, whereas sensitivity was 19%. SA typing using cell block sections was successful in three, un-interpretable in one, and negative in two cases. Conclusion: FPFNA for SA is not as good as previously reported. This may be due to different practice setting, level of experience, diagnostic technique, or absence of abdominal soft tissue involvement. A negative result of FPFNA does not exclude SA. Immune phenotyping of amyloid is possible on cell block.

  2. Diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis: The role of abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloush, Ruba A; Lavrovskaya, Elena; Mody, Dina R; Lager, Donna; Truong, Luan

    2010-01-15

    Systemic amyloidosis (SA) has a broad nonspecific clinical presentation. Its diagnosis depends on identifying amyloid in tissues. Abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FPFNA) has been suggested as a sensitive and specific test for diagnosing SA. Thirty-nine FPFNA from 38 patients (16 women and 20 men, age range 40-88 years) during a 15-year period were reviewed. Smears and cell blocks were stained with Congo red (CR). A panel of antibodies (serum amyloid protein, serum amyloid A, albumin, transthyretin, kappa light chain and lambda light chain) was used on six cell blocks from five patients. The FNA findings were correlated with clinical and histological follow-up. FPFNAs were positive, confirmed by CR in 5/39 (13%), suspicious in 1/39 (3%), negative in 28/39 (72%), and insufficient for diagnosis in 5/39 (13%) of cases. In all the positive cases, SA was confirmed within 2-16 weeks. Among the 28 negative cases, SA was diagnosed in 21, the rest were lost to follow-up. Among the insufficient cases, SA was diagnosed in four and one was lost to follow-up. Specificity was 100%, whereas sensitivity was 19%. SA typing using cell block sections was successful in three, un-interpretable in one, and negative in two cases. FPFNA for SA is not as good as previously reported. This may be due to different practice setting, level of experience, diagnostic technique, or absence of abdominal soft tissue involvement. A negative result of FPFNA does not exclude SA. Immune phenotyping of amyloid is possible on cell block.

  3. ADVANTAGES OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICAL ELEMENTS APPLICATION IN SIMPLE OPTICAL IMAGING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Zoric

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of diffractive optical elements on the optical aberrations. The correction of optical aberrations was investigated in the simple optical systems with one and two lenses (singlet and doublet. The advantages of diffractive optical elements are their ability to generate arbitrary complex wave fronts from a piece of optical material that is essentially flat. The optical systems consisting of the standard surfaces were designed and optimized by using the same starting points. Further, the diffractive and aspheric surfaces were introduced into the developed systems. The resulting hybrid systems were optimized. To compare the complicity of the development of narrow field systems and wide field optical systems, the optimization has been done separately for these two types of the instruments. The optical systems were designed by using special Optical Design Software. Тhe characteristics of designed diffractive surfaces were controlled in Software DIFSYS 2.30. Due to the application of diffractive optical elements the longitudinal chromatic aberration was 5 times reduced for the narrow field systems. The absolute value of Seidel coefficient related to the spherical aberration was reduced in the range of 0.03. Considering that diffractive optical elements have the known disadvantages, like possible parasitic diffraction orders and probable decrease of the transmission, we also developed and analyzed the optical systems with combined aspheric and diffractive surfaces. A combination of the aspheric and diffractive surfaces in the optical disk system of the disk reading lens, gave cutting down of the longitudinal color aberrations almost 15 times on-axis, comparing to the lens consisting of the aspherical and standard surfaces. All of the designed diffractive optical elements possess the parameters within the fabrication limits.

  4. All-optical virtual private network and ONUs communication in optical OFDM-based PON system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Huang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Kun

    2011-11-21

    We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme, which enables all-optical virtual private network (VPN) and all-optical optical network units (ONUs) inter-communications in optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system using the subcarrier bands allocation for the first time (to our knowledge). We consider the intra-VPN and inter-VPN communications which correspond to two different cases: VPN communication among ONUs in one group and in different groups. The proposed scheme can provide the enhanced security and a more flexible configuration for VPN users compared to the VPN in WDM-PON or TDM-PON systems. The all-optical VPN and inter-ONU communications at 10-Gbit/s with 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) for the proposed optical OFDM-PON system are demonstrated. These results verify that the proposed scheme is feasible. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  5. The Orientation of Gastric Biopsy Samples Improves the Inter-observer Agreement of the OLGA Staging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotruta, Bogdan; Gheorghe, Cristian; Iacob, Razvan; Dumbrava, Mona; Radu, Cristina; Bancila, Ion; Becheanu, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of severity and extension of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia is recommended to identify subjects with a high risk for gastric cancer. The inter-observer agreement for the assessment of gastric atrophy is reported to be low. The aim of the study was to evaluate the inter-observer agreement for the assessment of severity and extension of gastric atrophy using oriented and unoriented gastric biopsy samples. Furthermore, the quality of biopsy specimens in oriented and unoriented samples was analyzed. A total of 35 subjects with dyspeptic symptoms addressed for gastrointestinal endoscopy that agreed to enter the study were prospectively enrolled. The OLGA/OLGIM gastric biopsies protocol was used. From each subject two sets of biopsies were obtained (four from the antrum, two oriented and two unoriented, two from the gastric incisure, one oriented and one unoriented, four from the gastric body, two oriented and two unoriented). The orientation of the biopsy samples was completed using nitrocellulose filters (Endokit®, BioOptica, Milan, Italy). The samples were blindly examined by two experienced pathologists. Inter-observer agreement was evaluated using kappa statistic for inter-rater agreement. The quality of histopathology specimens taking into account the identification of lamina propria was analyzed in oriented vs. unoriented samples. The samples with detectable lamina propria mucosae were defined as good quality specimens. Categorical data was analyzed using chi-square test and a two-sided p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 350 biopsy samples were analyzed (175 oriented / 175 unoriented). The kappa index values for oriented/unoriented OLGA 0/I/II/III and IV stages have been 0.62/0.13, 0.70/0.20, 0.61/0.06, 0.62/0.46, and 0.77/0.50, respectively. For OLGIM 0/I/II/III stages the kappa index values for oriented/unoriented samples were 0.83/0.83, 0.88/0.89, 0.70/0.88 and 0.83/1, respectively. No case of OLGIM IV

  6. Salivary gland biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also be performed to diagnose diseases such as Sjogren syndrome . How to Prepare for the Test There is ... few days after the biopsy. The biopsy for Sjogren syndrome requires an injection of the anesthetic in the ...

  7. Optical monitoring system for a turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Dennis H; Smed, Jan P; Williams, James P; Jonnalagadda, Vinay

    2013-05-14

    The monitoring system for a gas turbine engine including a viewing tube assembly having an inner end and an outer end. The inner end is located adjacent to a hot gas flow path within the gas turbine engine and the outer end is located adjacent to an outer casing of the gas turbine engine. An aperture wall is located at the inner end of the viewing tube assembly and an optical element is located within the viewing tube assembly adjacent to the inner end and is spaced from the aperture wall to define a cooling and purge chamber therebetween. An aperture is defined in the aperture wall for passage of light from the hot gas flow path to the optical element. Swirl passages are defined in the viewing tube assembly between the aperture wall and the optical element for passage of cooling air from a location outside the viewing tube assembly into the chamber, wherein swirl passages effect a swirling movement of air in a circumferential direction within the chamber.

  8. The Optical Bichromatic Force in Molecular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Leland; Galica, Scott; Eyler, E. E.

    2015-05-01

    The optical bichromatic force has been demonstrated to be useful for slowing atomic beams much more rapidly than radiative forces. Through numerical simulations, we examine several aspects of applying the bichromatic force to molecular beams. One is the unavoidable existence of out-of-system radiative decay, requiring one or more repumping beams. We find that the average deceleration varies strongly with the repumping intensity, but when using optimal parameters, the force approaches the limiting value allowed by population statistics. Another consideration is the effect of fine and hyperfine structure. We examine a simplified multlevel model based on the B X transition in calcium monofluoride. To circumvent optical pumping into coherent dark states, we include two possible schemes: (1) a skewed dc magnetic field, and (2) rapid optical polarization switching. Our results indicate that the bichromatic force remains a viable option for creating large forces in molecular beams, with a reduction in the peak force by approximately an order of magnitude compared to a two-level atom, but little effect on the velocity range over which the force is effective. We also describe our progress towards experimental tests of the bichromatic force on a molecular beam of CaF. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  9. Systems and methods for free space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2011-05-10

    Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.

  10. Imaging Freeform Optical Systems Designed with NURBS Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    reflective, anastigmat 1 Introduction The imaging freeform optical systems described here are designed using non-uniform rational basis-spline (NURBS...code, but to succeed in designing NURBS freeform optical systems an optimization code is required. The motivation for developing the optical design

  11. Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xun; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2015-04-20

    We present the first experimental demonstration and characterization of the application of optical physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. It combines two optical OFDM frames to share the same link so as to enhance system throughput, while individual OFDM frames can be recovered with digital signal processing at the destined node.

  12. Self-imaging in first-order optical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.; Nijhawan, O.P.; Guota, A.K.; Musla, A.K.; Singh, Kehar

    1998-01-01

    The structure and main properties of coherent and partially coherent optical fields that are self-reproducible under propagation through a first-order optical system are investigated. A phase space description of self-imaging in first-order optical systems is presented. The Wigner distribution

  13. Precision-analog fiber-optic transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1981-06-01

    This article describes the design, experimental development, and construction of a DC-coupled precision analog fiber optic link. Topics to be covered include overall electrical and mechanical system parameters, basic circuit organization, modulation format, optical system design, optical receiver circuit analysis, and the experimental verification of the major design parameters

  14. Energy flow in angularly dispersive optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, M.; Dibble, W. E.; Glasgow, S. A.; Peatross, J.

    2001-01-01

    Light-pulse propagation in angularly dispersive systems is explored in the context of a center-of-mass definition of energy arrival time. In this context the time of travel is given by a superposition of group delays weighted by the spectral content of the pulse. With this description the time of travel from one point to the next for a pulse is found to be completely determined by the spectral content, independent of the state of chirp. The effect of sensor orientation on arrival time is also considered. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  15. Theoretical optical spectroscopy of complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, A. Mosca; Violante, C.; Missori, M.; Bechstedt, F.; Teodonio, L.; Ippoliti, E.; Carloni, P.; Guidoni, L.; Pulci, O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We review some theoretical condensed matter ab initio spectroscopic computational techniques. ► We show several applications ranging from 0 to 3 dimensional systems. ► For each system studied, we show which kind of information it is possible to obtain by performing these calculations. -- Abstract: We review here some of the most reliable and efficient computational theoretical ab initio techniques for the prediction of optical and electronic spectroscopic properties and show some important applications to molecules, surfaces, and solids. We investigate the role of the solvent in the optical absorption spectrum of indole molecule. We study the excited-state properties of a photo-active minimal model molecule for the retinal of rhodopsin, responsible for vision mechanism in animals. We then show a study about spectroscopic properties of Si(1 1 1) surface. Finally we simulate a bulk system: paper, that is mainly made of cellulose, a pseudo-crystalline material representing 40% of annual biomass production in the Earth

  16. Theoretical optical spectroscopy of complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, A. Mosca, E-mail: adriano.mosca.conte@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Violante, C., E-mail: claudia.violante@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Missori, M., E-mail: mauro.missori@isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome) (Italy); Bechstedt, F., E-mail: bech@ifto.physik.uni-jena.de [Institut fur Festkorpertheorie und -optik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Teodonio, L. [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Istituto centrale per il restauro e la conservazione del patrimonio archivistico e librario (IC-RCPAL), Italian Minister for Cultural Heritage, Via Milano 76, 00184 Rome (Italy); Ippoliti, E.; Carloni, P. [German Research School for Simulation Sciences, Julich (Germany); Guidoni, L., E-mail: leonardo.guidoni@univaq.it [Università degli Studi di L’Aquila, Dipartimento di Chimica e Materiali, Via Campo di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Pulci, O., E-mail: olivia.pulci@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► We review some theoretical condensed matter ab initio spectroscopic computational techniques. ► We show several applications ranging from 0 to 3 dimensional systems. ► For each system studied, we show which kind of information it is possible to obtain by performing these calculations. -- Abstract: We review here some of the most reliable and efficient computational theoretical ab initio techniques for the prediction of optical and electronic spectroscopic properties and show some important applications to molecules, surfaces, and solids. We investigate the role of the solvent in the optical absorption spectrum of indole molecule. We study the excited-state properties of a photo-active minimal model molecule for the retinal of rhodopsin, responsible for vision mechanism in animals. We then show a study about spectroscopic properties of Si(1 1 1) surface. Finally we simulate a bulk system: paper, that is mainly made of cellulose, a pseudo-crystalline material representing 40% of annual biomass production in the Earth.

  17. Optical camera system for radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi; Senoo, Makoto; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Shibata, Keiichiro; Honda, Takuro.

    1995-01-01

    An infrared-ray camera comprises a transmitting filter used exclusively for infrared-rays at a specific wavelength, such as far infrared-rays and a lens used exclusively for infrared rays. An infrared ray emitter-incorporated photoelectric image converter comprising an infrared ray emitting device, a focusing lens and a semiconductor image pick-up plate is disposed at a place of low gamma-ray dose rate. Infrared rays emitted from an objective member are passed through the lens system of the camera, and real images are formed by way of the filter. They are transferred by image fibers, introduced to the photoelectric image converter and focused on the image pick-up plate by the image-forming lens. Further, they are converted into electric signals and introduced to a display and monitored. With such a constitution, an optical material used exclusively for infrared rays, for example, ZnSe can be used for the lens system and the optical transmission system. Accordingly, it can be used in a radiation field of high gamma ray dose rate around the periphery of the reactor container. (I.N.)

  18. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  19. Breast cancer with Her-22 hormone receptor-positive neu: primary systemic treatment, sentinel node biopsy and hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez C, Nayara; Sanchez M, Jose Ignacio; De Santiago G, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an interesting option in the therapy of some breast cancer cases. Cases in which the timing for sentinel lymph node biopsy is controversial. Co-expression of estrogen receptors and Her2/neu (cc-erbB-2) in breast cancer may imply hormone resistance, especially to tamoxifen. We present a clinic case with co-expression of estrogen receptors and Her2/neu that was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and previous sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by breast tumorectomy with axillar lympha- denectomy, radiotherapy and hormonotherapy with letrozol, geserelina and trastuzumab. A good treatment response as found

  20. Bridge SHM system based on fiber optical sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Fan, Dian; Fu, Jiang-hua; Huang, Xing; Jiang, De-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The latest progress of our lab in recent 10 years on the area of bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) based on optical fiber sensing technology is introduced. Firstly, in the part of sensing technology, optical fiber force test-ring, optical fiber vibration sensor, optical fiber smart cable, optical fiber prestressing loss monitoring method and optical fiber continuous curve mode inspection system are developed, which not only rich the sensor types, but also provides new monitoring means that are needed for the bridge health monitoring system. Secondly, in the optical fiber sensing network and computer system platform, the monitoring system architecture model is designed to effectively meet the integration scale and effect requirement of engineering application, especially the bridge expert system proposed integration of sensing information and informatization manual inspection to realize the mode of multi index intelligence and practical monitoring, diagnosis and evaluation. Finally, the Jingyue bridge monitoring system as the representative, the research on the technology of engineering applications are given.

  1. Systems engineering and analysis of electro-optical and infrared systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arrasmith, William Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Electro-optic and Infrared (EO/IR) Systems Engineering?Radiation in the Visible and Infrared Parts of the Electromagnetic SpectrumRadiation SourcesThe Effect of the Atmosphere on Optical PropagationBasic OpticsOptical ModulationThe Detection of Optical RadiationNoise in the Optical Detection ProcessTechnical Performance Measures and Metrics of Optical DetectorsModern Detectors and their Measures of PerformanceThe Effects of Cooling on Optical Detector NoiseSignal and Image ProcessingElectro-Optic and Infrared Systems AnalysisLaser Imaging Systems?Spectral Imaging?LIDAR and LADA

  2. Can Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies in men with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Wu, Yu-Peng; Chen, Dong-Ning; Ke, Zhi-Bin; Cai, Hai; Wei, Yong; Zheng, Qing-Shui; Huang, Jin-Bei; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xue, Xue-Yi

    2018-05-01

    To explore the value of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 (PI-RADS v2) for predicting prostate biopsy results in patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of 4-10 ng/ml. We retrospectively reviewed multi-parameter magnetic resonance images from 528 patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies between May 2015 and May 2017. Among them, 137 were diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa), and we further subdivided them according to pathological results into the significant PCa (S-PCa) and insignificant significant PCa (Ins-PCa) groups (121 cases were defined by surgical pathological specimen and 16 by biopsy). Age, PSA, percent free PSA, PSA density (PSAD), prostate volume (PV), and PI-RADS score were collected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of pathological results. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to analyze the diagnostic value of PI-RADS v2 in PCa. Multivariate analysis indicated that age, PV, percent free PSA, and PI-RADS score were independent predictors of biopsy findings, while only PI-RADS score was an independent predictor of S-PCa (P PSA, and PI-RADS score were 0.570, 0.430, 0.589 and 0.836, respectively. The area under the curve for diagnosing S-PCa with respect to PI-RADS score was 0.732. A PI-RADS score of 3 was the best cutoff for predicting PCa, and 4 was the best cutoff for predicting S-PCa. Thus, 92.8% of patients with PI-RADS scores of 1-2 would have avoided biopsy, but at the cost of missing 2.2% of the potential PCa cases. Similarly, 83.82% of patients with a PI-RADS score ≤ 3 would have avoided biopsy, but at the cost of missing 3.3% of the potential S-PCa cases. PI-RADS v2 could be used to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies in patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml.

  3. Hybrid electronic/optical synchronized chaos communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, J P; Kane, D M; Davidović, A; Huntington, E H

    2009-04-27

    A hybrid electronic/optical system for synchronizing a chaotic receiver to a chaotic transmitter has been demonstrated. The chaotic signal is generated electronically and injected, in addition to a constant bias current, to a semiconductor laser to produce an optical carrier for transmission. The optical chaotic carrier is photodetected to regenerate an electronic signal for synchronization in a matched electronic receiver The system has been successfully used for the transmission and recovery of a chaos masked message that is added to the chaotic optical carrier. Past demonstrations of synchronized chaos based, secure communication systems have used either an electronic chaotic carrier or an optical chaotic carrier (such as the chaotic output of various nonlinear laser systems). This is the first electronic/optical hybrid system to be demonstrated. We call this generation of a chaotic optical carrier by electronic injection.

  4. Optical manipulation with two beam traps in microfluidic polymer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Matteucci, Marco; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2015-01-01

    An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written in the microflui......An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written...

  5. Electron-optical systems for Mott polarimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishkova, T.Ya.; Mamaev, Yu.A.; Ovsyannikova, I.P.; Petrov, V.N.; Shpak, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    Electron-optical systems, forming polarized electron beams from solid and gaseous sources at a Mott detector with operating potentials of 20 and 50 kV, have been theoretically investigated. The integral EOS creates a beam <2.6 nm in diameter at the target of the Mott detector for secondary electrons with energies of 1-20 eV and exit angles of 0 -60 . The differential EOS provides an energy resolution of 2-6% within the range of 3-2000 eV, the illumination being 5-13% for a 4π angle; at the target of the Mott detector it creates a beam of 1-6 mm in diameter. Both systems have been constructed at the laboratory of Spin-polarized Electron Spectroscopy (Department of Experimental Physics) at St. Petersburg State Technical University. ((orig.))

  6. Adaptive optics system application for solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Krivolutskiy, N. P.; Lavrionova, L. N.; Skomorovski, V. I.

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of applying adaptive correction to ground-based solar astronomy is considered. Several experimental systems for image stabilization are described along with the results of their tests. Using our work along several years and world experience in solar adaptive optics (AO) we are assuming to obtain first light to the end of 2008 for the first Russian low order ANGARA solar AO system on the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (BSVT) with 37 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based of our modified correlation tracker algorithm, DALSTAR video camera, 37 elements deformable bimorph mirror, home made fast tip-tip mirror with separate correlation tracker. Too strong daytime turbulence is on the BSVT site and we are planning to obtain a partial correction for part of Sun surface image.

  7. Noncontacting Optical Measurement And Inspection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Robert L.

    1986-10-01

    Product inspection continues to play a growing role in the improvement of quality and reduction of scrap. Recent emphasis on precision measurements and in-process inspection have been a driving force for the development of noncontacting sensors. Noncontacting sensors can provide long term, unattended use due to the lack of sensor wear. Further, in applications where, sensor contact can damage or geometrically change the part to be measured or inspected, noncontacting sensors are the only technical approach available. MTI is involved in the development and sale of noncontacting sensors and custom inspection systems. This paper will review the recent advances in noncontacting sensor development. Machine vision and fiber optics sensor systems are finding a wide variety of industrial inspection applications. This paper will provide detailed examples of several state-of-the-art applications for these noncontacting sensors.

  8. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  9. Optics study of liquid scintillation counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran Ramiro, M. T.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    2005-01-01

    Optics is a key issue in the development of any liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system. Light emission in the scintillating solution, transmission through the vial and reflector design are some aspects that need to be considered in detail. This paper describes measurements and calculations carried out to optimise these factors for the design of a new family of LSC counters. Measurements of the light distribution emitted by a scintillation vial were done by autoradiographs of cylindrical vials made of various materials and results were compared to those obtained by direct measurements of the light distribution made by scanning the vial with a photomultiplier tube. Calculations were also carried out to study the light transmission in the vial and the optimal design of the reflector for a system with one photomultiplier tube. (Author)

  10. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  11. The Modular Optical Underwater Survey System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhul Amin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center deploys the Modular Optical Underwater Survey System (MOUSS to estimate the species-specific, size-structured abundance of commercially-important fish species in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. The MOUSS is an autonomous stereo-video camera system designed for the in situ visual sampling of fish assemblages. This system is rated to 500 m and its low-light, stereo-video cameras enable identification, counting, and sizing of individuals at a range of 0.5–10 m. The modular nature of MOUSS allows for the efficient and cost-effective use of various imaging sensors, power systems, and deployment platforms. The MOUSS is in use for surveys in Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, and Southern California. In Hawaiian waters, the system can effectively identify individuals to a depth of 250 m using only ambient light. In this paper, we describe the MOUSS’s application in fisheries research, including the design, calibration, analysis techniques, and deployment mechanism.

  12. Optical design of the adaptive optics laser guide star system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The design of an adaptive optics package for the 3 meter Lick telescope is presented. This instrument package includes a 69 actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann type wavefront sensor operating in the visible wavelength; a quadrant detector for the tip-tile sensor and a tip-tilt mirror to stabilize atmospheric first order tip-tile errors. A high speed computer drives the deformable mirror to achieve near diffraction limited imagery. The different optical components and their individual design constraints are described. motorized stages and diagnostics tools are used to operate and maintain alignment throughout observation time from a remote control room. The expected performance are summarized and actual results of astronomical sources are presented.

  13. Calculation Of Extraction Optics For Ion System With Plazma Emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, B A

    2004-01-01

    The 2-D code for simulating of ion optics system of positive ion extraction from a plasma source is described. Example calculation of 100 kV optics for the extraction ion IHEP gun is presented. The trajectories of particles and emittance plots are resulted. The aberrations influ-ence strongly on ion optics for considered geometry.

  14. The Wigner distribution function applied to optical signals and systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the Wigner distribution function has been introduced for optical signals and systems. The Wigner distribution function of an optical signal appears to be in close resemblance to the ray concept in geometrical optics. This resemblance reaches even farther: although derived from Fourier

  15. Optical Imaging and Microscopy Techniques and Advanced Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Török, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This text on contemporary optical systems is intended for optical researchers and engineers, graduate students and optical microscopists in the biological and biomedical sciences. This second edition contains two completely new chapters. In addition most of the chapters from the first edition have been revised and updated. The book consists of three parts: The first discusses high-aperture optical systems, which form the backbone of optical microscopes. An example is a chapter new in the second edition on the emerging field of high numerical aperture diffractive lenses which seems to have particular promise in improving the correction of lenses. In this part particular attention is paid to optical data storage. The second part is on the use of non-linear optical techniques, including nonlinear optical excitation (total internal reflection fluorescence, second and third harmonic generation and two photon microscopy) and non-linear spectroscopy (CARS). The final part of the book presents miscellaneous technique...

  16. Optical design and tolerancing of an ophthalmological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Ingo; Martin, Thomas; Yi, Allen; Li, Likai; Rübenach, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Tolerance analysis by means of simulation is an essential step in system integration. Tolerance analysis allows for predicting the performance of a system setup of real manufactured parts and for an estimation of the yield with respect to evaluation figures, such as performance requirements, systems specification or cost demands. Currently, optical freeform optics is gaining importance in optical systems design. The performance of freeform optics often strongly depends on the manufacturing accuracy of the surfaces. For this reason, a tolerance analysis with respect to the fabrication accuracy is of crucial importance. The characterization of form tolerances caused by the manufacturing process is based on the definition of straightness, flatness, roundness, and cylindricity. In case of freeform components, however, it is often impossible to define a form deviation by means of this standard classification. Hence, prediction of the impact of manufacturing tolerances on the optical performance is not possible by means of a conventional tolerance analysis. To carry out a tolerance analysis of the optical subsystem, including freeform optics, metrology data of the fabricated surfaces have to be integrated into the optical model. The focus of this article is on design for manufacturability of freeform optics with integrated alignment structures and on tolerance analysis of the optical subsystem based on the measured surface data of manufactured optical freeform components with respect to assembly and manufacturing tolerances. This approach will be reported here using an ophthalmological system as an example.

  17. Raman amplification in optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Fiber Raman amplifiers are investigated with the purpose of identifying new applications and limitations for their use in optical communication systems. Three main topics are investigated, namely: New applications of dispersion compensating Raman amplifiers, the use Raman amplification to increase...... fiberbaserede Raman-forstærkere med henblik på at identificere både deres begrænsninger og nye anvendelsesmuligheder i optiske kommunikationssystemer. En numerisk forstærkermodel er blevet udviklet for bedre at forstå forstærkerens dynamik, dens gain- og støjbegrænsninger. Modellen bruges til at forudsige...... forstærkerens statiske og dynamiske egenskaber, og det eftervises at dens resultater er i god overensstemmelse med eksperimentelle forstærkermålinger. Dispersions-kompenserende fiber er på grund af sin store udbredelse og fiberens høje Raman gain effektivitet et meget velegnet Raman gain-medium. Tre nye...

  18. Advanced modelling of optical coherence tomography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Peter E; Thrane, Lars; Yura, Harold T; Tycho, Andreas; Joergensen, Thomas M; Frosz, Michael H

    2004-01-01

    Analytical and numerical models for describing and understanding the light propagation in samples imaged by optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems are presented. An analytical model for calculating the OCT signal based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle valid both for the single and multiple scattering regimes is reviewed. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also reviewed, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Moreover, for the first time the model is verified experimentally. From the analytical model, an algorithm for enhancing OCT images is developed; the so-called true-reflection algorithm in which the OCT signal may be corrected for the attenuation caused by scattering. For the first time, the algorithm is demonstrated by using the Monte Carlo model as a numerical tissue phantom. Such algorithm holds promise for improving OCT imagery and to extend the possibility for functional imaging

  19. Accuracy of biopsy needle navigation using the Medarpa system - computed tomography reality superimposed on the site of intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Fawad; Maataoui, Adel; Gurung, Jessen; Schiemann, Mirko; Vogl, Thomas J.; Dogan, Selami; Ackermann, Hanns; Wesarg, Stefan; Sakas, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the accuracy of a new navigational system, Medarpa, with a transparent display superimposing computed tomography (CT) reality on the site of intervention. Medarpa uses an optical and an electromagnetic tracking system which allows tracking of instruments, the radiologist and the transparent display. The display superimposes a CT view of a phantom chest on a phantom chest model, in real time. In group A, needle positioning was performed using the Medarpa system. Three targets (diameter 1.5 mm) located inside the phantom were punctured. In group B, the same targets were used to perform standard CT-guided puncturing using the single-slice technique. The same needles were used in both groups (15 G, 15 cm). A total of 42 punctures were performed in each group. Post puncture, CT scans were made to verify needle tip positions. The mean deviation from the needle tip to the targets was 6.65±1.61 mm for group A (range 3.54-9.51 mm) and 7.05±1.33 mm for group B (range 4.10-9.45 mm). No significant difference was found between group A and group B for any target (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between the targets of the same group (p>0.05). The accuracy in needle puncturing using the augmented reality system, Medarpa, matches the accuracy achieved by CT-guided puncturing technique. (orig.)

  20. Multiparameter fiber optic sensing system for monitoring enhanced geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challener, William A

    2014-12-04

    The goal of this project was to design, fabricate and test an optical fiber cable which supports multiple sensing modalities for measurements in the harsh environment of enhanced geothermal systems. To accomplish this task, optical fiber was tested at both high temperatures and strains for mechanical integrity, and in the presence of hydrogen for resistance to darkening. Both single mode (SM) and multimode (MM) commercially available optical fiber were identified and selected for the cable based on the results of these tests. The cable was designed and fabricated using a tube-within-tube construction containing two MM fibers and one SM fiber, and without supporting gel that is not suitable for high temperature environments. Commercial fiber optic sensing instruments using Raman DTS (distributed temperature sensing), Brillouin DTSS (distributed temperature and strain sensing), and Raleigh COTDR (coherent optical time domain reflectometry) were selected for field testing. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, packaged, and calibrated for high pressure measurements at high temperatures and spliced to the cable. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor was also spliced to the cable. A geothermal well was selected and its temperature and pressure were logged. The cable was then deployed in the well in two separate field tests and measurements were made on these different sensing modalities. Raman DTS measurements were found to be accurate to ±5°C, even with some residual hydrogen darkening. Brillouin DTSS measurements were in good agreement with the Raman results. The Rayleigh COTDR instrument was able to detect some acoustic signatures, but was generally disappointing. The FBG sensor was used to determine the effects of hydrogen darkening, but drift over time made it unreliable as a temperature or pressure sensor. The MEMS sensor was found to be highly stable and accurate to better than its 0.1% calibration.

  1. Case report of a 28-year-old male with the rapid progression of steroid-resistant central nervous system vasculitis diagnosed by a brain biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keigo; Sato, Hideki; Hattori, Hidenori; Takao, Masaki; Takahashi, Shinichi; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2017-09-30

    A 28-year-old Japanese male without a significant past medical history presented with new-onset generalized clonic seizure and headache. A brain MRI revealed multiple enhanced lesions on both cerebral hemispheres. Laboratory exams showed no evidence of systemic inflammation or auto-immune antibodies such as ANCAs. Despite four courses of high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy and five treatments with plasmapheresis, his symptoms worsened and the MRI lesions progressed rapidly. During these treatments, we performed a targeted brain biopsy, that revealed histological findings consistent with a predominant angiitis of parenchymal and subdural small vessels. He was provided with diagnosis of central nervous system vasculitis (CNSV). Subsequent cyclophosphamide pulse therapy enabled a progressive successful improvement of his symptoms. While diagnostic methods for CNSV remain controversial, histological findings are thought to be more useful in obtaining a more definitive diagnosis than findings in image studies, such as MRI and angiography. We suggest that a brain biopsy should be considered during the early period of cases with suspected CNSV and rapid clinical deterioration. We also detected human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) using PCR technology in brain biopsy specimens, however the relationship between CNSV and HHV-7 infection is unknow.

  2. Problems of Aero-optics and Adaptive Optical Systems: Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Shanin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical review gives the basic concepts of the aero-optics problem arising from the radiation propagation in the region of the boundary layers of a laser installation carrier aircraft. Estimates the radiation wave front distortions at its propagation in the near and far field. Presents main calculation approaches and methods to solve the gas-dynamic and optical problems in propagating laser radiation. Conducts a detailed analysis of the flows and their generating optical aberrations introduced by the aircraft turret (a projection platform of the on-board laser. Considers the effect of various factors (shock wave, difference in wall and flow temperatures on the flow pattern and the optical aberrations. Provides research data on the aero-optics obtained in the flying laboratory directly while in flight. Briefly considers the experimental research methods, diagnostic equipment, and synthesis of results while studying the aero-optics problem. Discusses some methods for mitigating the aerodynamic effects on the light propagation under flight conditions. Presents data about the passive, active, and hybrid effects on the flow in the boundary layers in order to reduce aberrations through improving the flow aerodynamics.The paper considers operation of adaptive optical systems under conditions of aero-optical distortions. Presents the study results concerning the reduction of the aero-optics effect on the characteristics of radiation in far field. Gives some research results regarding the effect on the efficiency of the adaptive system of a laser beam jitter and a time delay in the feedback signal transmission, which occur under application conditions. Provides data on adaptive correction of aero-optical wave fronts of radiation. Considers some application aspects in control systems of the on-board adaptive optics of adaptive filtration as a way to improve the efficiency of adaptive optical systems. The project in mind is to use obtained results

  3. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    R. V. Anitropov; P. Benitez; I. L. Livshits S. K. Stafeev; S. K. Stafeev; V. N. Vasilev; M. V. Letunovskaya; A. S. Zaitceva

    2016-01-01

    Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures ...

  4. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS), in collaboration with North Carolina State University, successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg...

  5. Electro-Optical Data Acquisition and Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electro-Optical Data Acquisition and Tracking System (EDATS) dynamically tracks and measures target signatures. It consists of an instrumentation van integrated...

  6. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures of its optimization were proposed. Method. We investigated the applicability of the theory of composition and synthesis of non-imaging optical systems. The main provisions of the theory of composition are based on the division of all available optical elements in four types depending on their functionality, which corresponds to a modular design. Similar items were identified in non-imaging optical systems and adaptation of composition theory to their design became possible. Main Results. General design patterns of imaging and non-imaging optical systems were studied. Classification of systems, components, as well as technical and generic characteristics of imaging and non-imaging optical systems was determined. Search mechanism of the initial optical system by means of structural and parametric synthesis of non-imaging optical system was formalized. The basic elements were determined included in non-imaging systems and their classification by functionality was done. They were subdivided into basic, corrective, wide angle and high aperture ones. The rules for formation of these elements and their composition were determined: surface reflecting, refracting, spherical and nonspherical elements with total internal reflection. The foundations of composition theory for non-imaging optical systems were laid. The approbation of this method was carried out on the example of the illumination system calculation for surgical room. A 3D model of an illumination optical

  7. Needle muscle biopsy and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-long CHEN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Needle muscle biopsy is a straightforward and reliable minimally-invasive technique. During the past century, the needle biopsy can provide adequate samples and the technique has gradually gained wider acceptance. Compared with open biopsy, needle biopsy is less traumatic, with low rate of complications, and is suitable for the identifications and evaluations of muscular dystrophy, inflammatory myopathies and systemic diseases involving muscles, specially for infants and young children. Domestic insiders should be encouraged to apply this technique. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.003 

  8. Potential for integrated optical circuits in advanced aircraft with fiber optic control and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1991-02-01

    Fiber optic technology is expected to be used in future advanced weapons platforms as well as commercial aerospace applications. Fiber optic waveguides will be used to transmit noise free high speed data between a multitude of computers as well as audio and video information to the flight crew. Passive optical sensors connected to control computers with optical fiber interconnects will serve both control and monitoring functions. Implementation of fiber optic technology has already begun. Both the military and NASA have several programs in place. A cooperative program called FOCSI (Fiber Optic Control System Integration) between NASA Lewis and the NAVY to build environmentally test and flight demonstrate sensor systems for propul sion and flight control systems is currently underway. Integrated Optical Circuits (IOC''s) are also being given serious consideration for use in advanced aircraft sys tems. IOC''s will result in miniaturization and localization of components to gener ate detect optical signals and process them for use by the control computers. In some complex systems IOC''s may be required to perform calculations optically if the technology is ready replacing some of the electronic systems used today. IOC''s are attractive because they will result in rugged components capable of withstanding severe environments in advanced aerospace vehicles. Manufacturing technology devel oped for microelectronic integrated circuits applied to IOC''s will result in cost effective manufacturing. This paper reviews the current FOCSI program and describes the role of IOC''s in FOCSI applications.

  9. La biopsie prostatique

    OpenAIRE

    DJEDOUI, MERIEM

    2013-01-01

    La preuve d'un cancer de la prostate est apportée par la biopsie prostatique. Malheureusement, une biopsie négative, bien que rassurante, ne suffit pas à exclure un noyau cancéreux à côté duquel l'aiguille est passée. L'urologue peut être amené à proposer une nouvelle biopsie, en augmentant, s'il le faut, le nombre de prélèvements de tissu prostatique. Ayant connu Le but d'une biopsie prostatique, le patient pourrait maintenant décider d'entrer dans d'autres alternatives qui...

  10. Optimisation of optical receiver for 10 Gbit/s optical duobinary transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Xueyan; Liu, Fenghai; Jeppesen, Palle

    2001-01-01

    Optimisation of a receiver for an optical duobinary signal is studied numerically. It is shown that a conventional receiver is not optimum neither when a DCF is used before the receiver nor without a DCF being used. The optimum receiver for an optical duobinary system is identified.......Optimisation of a receiver for an optical duobinary signal is studied numerically. It is shown that a conventional receiver is not optimum neither when a DCF is used before the receiver nor without a DCF being used. The optimum receiver for an optical duobinary system is identified....

  11. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Infections after Transrectal Biopsy of the Prostate in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Antoun Saade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent reports suggest that infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli are an increasingly common complication of transrectal biopsy of the prostate (TBP in the United States. A better understanding of the magnitude and scope of these infections is needed to guide prevention efforts. Our objective is to determine whether the incidence of infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli after TBP has increased nationwide in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System and to identify risk factors for infection. Methods: We performed a retrospective, observational cohort study and a nested case-control study within the US Deparment of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System. The primary outcomes were the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI and bacteremia with E. coli and with fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains within 30 days after TBP. Secondary endpoints focused on the correlation between fluoroquinolone-resistance in all urinary E. coli isolates and post-TBP infection and risk factors for infection due to fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli infection. Results: 245 618 patients undergoing 302 168 TBP procedures from 2000 through 2013 were included in the cohort study, and 59 469 patients undergoing TBP from 2011 through 2013 were included in the nested case-control study. Between 2000 and 2013, there was a 5-fold increase in the incidence of E. coli UTI (0.18%–0.93% and a 4-fold increase in the incidence of E. coli bacteremia (0.04%–0.18% after TBP that was attributable to an increase in the incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli UTI (0.03%–0.75% and bacteremia (0.01%–0.14%. The increasing incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli infections after TBP occurred in parallel with increasing rates of fluoroquinolone-resistance in all urinary E. coli isolates. By multivariable logistic regression analysis, independent risk factors for fluoroquinolone

  12. Organo-erbium systems for optical amplification at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, H Q; Li, Z; Peng, Y; Wang, C C; Li, T Y; Zheng, Y X; Sapelkin, A; Adamopoulos, G; Hernández, I; Wyatt, P B; Gillin, W P

    2014-04-01

    Modern telecommunications rely on the transmission and manipulation of optical signals. Optical amplification plays a vital part in this technology, as all components in a real telecommunications system produce some loss. The two main issues with present amplifiers, which rely on erbium ions in a glass matrix, are the difficulty in integration onto a single substrate and the need of high pump power densities to produce gain. Here we show a potential organic optical amplifier material that demonstrates population inversion when pumped from above using low-power visible light. This system is integrated into an organic light-emitting diode demonstrating that electrical pumping can be achieved. This opens the possibility of direct electrically driven optical amplifiers and optical circuits. Our results provide an alternative approach to producing low-cost integrated optics that is compatible with existing silicon photonics and a different route to an effective integrated optics technology.

  13. Passive thermo-optic feedback for robust athermal photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, Peter T.; Watts, Michael R.; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-06-23

    Thermal control devices, photonic systems and methods of stabilizing a temperature of a photonic system are provided. A thermal control device thermally coupled to a substrate includes a waveguide for receiving light, an absorption element optically coupled to the waveguide for converting the received light to heat and an optical filter. The optical filter is optically coupled to the waveguide and thermally coupled to the absorption element. An operating point of the optical filter is tuned responsive to the heat from the absorption element. When the operating point is less than a predetermined temperature, the received light is passed to the absorption element via the optical filter. When the operating point is greater than or equal to the predetermined temperature, the received light is transmitted out of the thermal control device via the optical filter, without being passed to the absorption element.

  14. [Skin biopsy in diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease in patients after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: pathologist's point of view on quantitative scoring system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzanka, Dariusz; Styczyński, Jan; Debski, Robert; Krenska, Anna; Pacholska, Małgorzata; Prokurat, Andrzej I; Wysocki, Mariusz; Marszałek, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Pathology diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an important issue in clinical follow-up, in spite of frequent difficulties in interpretation., related to dynamic changes occurring in the skin during the disease, as well as to sequelae of basic disease and immunosuppressive therapy. Recently presented Consensus NIH (National Health Institute, Bethesda, USA) of histopathologic (HP) analysis is still complex and intrinsically divergent, thus clinically difficult to implement. Analysis of clinical value of histological evaluation results of skin biopsy in children after allo-HSCT and its correlation with clinical status. Ten skin biopsies were taken from 7 patients (4 boys, 3 girls, age 3-15 years) after allo-HSCT (6 MFD, 1 MMUD) and analyzed after hematoxylin/eosine and immunohistochemical (CD3, CD45T, CD20) staining. Pathology analysis was based on commonly accepted criteria enabling simple and unambiguous interpretation. Results were compared with clinical data and indications for immunosuppressive therapy. It was found that reliable and coherent interpretation can be made when following parameters were taken into account: 1. in epithelium: the presence of apoptosis, archetypical changes and vacuolar degeneration in the basilar layer, presence of CD3/CD45 in the epidermis; 2. in the dermis: the extent of collagenization, presence of melanophages and lymphocyte infiltrations; 3. in the eccrine glands epithelium: eccrine glands atrophy and presence of lymphocytes. A new scoring system of skin biopsy analysis in patients with chronic GVHD based on the modified NIH Consensus was proposed. The preliminary clinical value of histological results was assessed. Skin biopsy evaluation based on limited qualitative and quantitative analysis of lymphocyte infiltrates together with studies on intensity of apoptosis, collagenization and archetypical changes is a valuable diagnostic method

  15. CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy: Comparison of conventional CT fluoroscopy to CT fluoroscopy with electromagnetic navigation system in 60 consecutive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grand, David Justin, E-mail: dgrand@lifespan.org [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903 (United States); Atalay, Michael A., E-mail: matalay@lifespan.org [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903 (United States); Cronan, John J., E-mail: cronan@lifespan.org [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903 (United States); Mayo-Smith, William W., E-mail: wmayo-smith@lifespan.org [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903 (United States); Dupuy, Damian E., E-mail: ddupuy@lifespan.org [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To determine if use of an electromagnetic navigation system (EMN) decreases radiation dose and procedure time of CT fluoroscopy guided lung biopsy in lesions smaller than 2.5 cm. Materials/methods: 86 consecutive patients with small lung masses (<2.5 cm) were approached. 60 consented and were randomized to undergo biopsy with CT fluoroscopy (CTF) (34 patients) or EMN (26 patients). Technical failure required conversion to CTF in 8/26 EMN patients; 18 patients completed biopsy with EMN. Numerous biopsy parameters were compared as described below. Results: Average fluoroscopy time using CTF was 28.2 s compared to 35.0 s for EMN (p = 0.1). Average radiation dose was 117 mGy using CTF and 123 mGy for EMN (p = 0.7). Average number of needle repositions was 3.7 for CTF and 4.4 for EMN (p = 0.4). Average procedure time was 15 min for CTF and 20 min for EMN (p = 0.01). There were 7 pneumothoracesin the CTF group and 6 pneumothoraces in the EMN group (p = 0.7). One pneumothorax in the CTF group and 3 pneumothoraces in the EMN group required chest tube placement (p = 0.1). One pneumothorax patient in each group required hospital admission. Diagnostic specimens were obtained in 31/34 patients in the CTF group and 22/26 patients in the EMN group (p = 0.4). Conclusions: EMN was not statistically different than CTF for fluoroscopy time, radiation dose, number of needle repositions, incidence of pneumothorax, need for chest tube, or diagnostic yield. Procedure time was increased with EMN.

  16. Drawing inspiration from biological optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2009-08-01

    Bio-Mimicking/Bio-Inspiration: How can we not be inspired by Nature? Life has evolved on earth over the last 3.5 to 4 billion years. Materials formed during this time were not toxic; they were created at low temperatures and low pressures unlike many of the materials developed today. The natural materials formed are self-assembled, multifunctional, nonlinear, complex, adaptive, self-repairing and biodegradable. The designs that failed are fossils. Those that survived are the success stories. Natural materials are mostly formed from organics, inorganic crystals and amorphous phases. The materials make economic sense by optimizing the design of the structures or systems to meet multiple needs. We constantly "see" many similar strategies in approaches, between man and nature, but we seldom look at the details of natures approaches. The power of image processing, in many of natures creatures, is a detail that is often overlooked. Seldon does the engineer interact with the biologist and learn what nature has to teach us. The variety and complexity of biological materials and the optical systems formed should inspire us.

  17. Multiple wavelength multitimescale optical absorption system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, R.; Allan, D.; Hodgson, B.W.; Swallow, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A new workstation for pulse radiolysis studies has been developed for the Paterson Institute Linear Accelerator Laboratory. It is particularly suited to the study of materials available only in limited quantities. The analysing light beam is dispersed into a plane spectrum by a McPherson 270 monochromator and focused down to a line spectrum by a rod lens. The spectral intensity distribution is sampled by a linear array of optical fibres which conduct the light to photodiodes. A preamplifier unit amplifies and buffers the diode photocurrent signal which then passes to the main electronics unit incorporating further amplification stages, filters, backing-off of the background photocurrent, analog-to-digital conversion, data storage memory and a computer interface. All control of the electronic system is performed from a computer equipped with appropriate software. The system has 10 channels of spectral bandwidth 16 nm, a useful spectral response from 350 nm to 1 μm with a high signal-to-noise ratio, signal sampling rates from 20 MHz to 2 kHz and 8 kbyte of local memory for each channel. (author)

  18. Multiple wavelength multitimescale optical absorption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, R.; Allan, D.; Hodgson, B. W.; Swallow, A. J.

    A new workstation for pulse radiolysis studies has been developed for the Paterson Institute Linear Accelerator Laboratory. It is particularly suited to the study of materials available only in limited quantities. The analysing light beam is dispersed into a plane spectrum by a McPherson 270 monochromator and focused down to a line spectrum by a rod lens. The spectral intensity distribution is sampled by a linear array of optical fibres which conduct the light to photodiodes. A preamplifier unit amplifies and buffers the diode photocurrent signal which then passes to the main electronics unit incorporating further amplification stages, filters, backing-off of the background photocurrent, analog-to-digital conversion, data storage memory and a computer interface. All control of the electronic system is performed from a computer equipped with appropriate software. The system has 10 channels of spectral bandwidth 16 nm, a useful spectral response from 350 nm to 1 μm with a high signal-to-noise ratio, signal sampling rates from 20 MHz to 2 kHz and 8 kbyte of local memory for each channel.

  19. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast...... written waveguides and in an injection molded polymer chip with grooves for optical fibers. (C) 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics....

  20. Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available equally well to both classical and quantum optical systems. A projective measurement, in the context of quantum mechanics, is understood to be the process where a projection operator operates on some input state. Often this projection operator is composed...) Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems Filippus S. Roux* and Yingwen Zhang CSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa (Received 3 July 2014; published 22 September 2014) Experimental setups for the optical...

  1. Building electro-optical systems making it all work

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Philip C D

    2009-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""Now a new laboratory bible for optics researchers has joined the list: it is Phil Hobbs's Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work.""-Tony Siegman, Optics & Photonics News Building a modern electro-optical instrument may be the most interdisciplinary job in all of engineering. Be it a DVD player or a laboratory one-off, it involves physics, electrical engineering, optical engineering, and computer science interacting in complex ways. This book will help all kinds of technical people sort through the complexit

  2. Air driven fiber optic coupled pulser system for ZT-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.; Brousseau, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of an air powered fiber optic coupled pulser system for initiating various high-voltage systems in the ZT-40 experiment is displayed. The air fiber optic system provides complete electrical isolation of the experimental high-voltage circuits from the digital timing and control circuits. In addition, this pulser system prevents cross talk between individual output channels and eliminates trigger system ground loops. The system uses an additional fiber optic bundle to confirm pulser output in the screen room

  3. Navigated MRI-guided liver biopsies in a closed-bore scanner: experience in 52 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Michael; Heinig, Susann; Garnov, Nikita; Fuchs, Jochen; Petersen, Tim-Ole; Seider, Daniel; Brandmaier, Philipp; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate clinical effectiveness and diagnostic efficiency of a navigation device for MR-guided biopsies of focal liver lesions in a closed-bore scanner. In 52 patients, 55 biopsies were performed. An add-on MR navigation system with optical instrument tracking was used for image guidance and biopsy device insertion outside the bore. Fast control imaging allowed visualization of the true needle position at any time. The biopsy workflow and procedure duration were recorded. Histological analysis and clinical course/outcome were used to calculate sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy. Fifty-four of 55 liver biopsies were performed successfully with the system. No major and four minor complications occurred. Mean tumour size was 23 ± 14 mm and the skin-to-target length ranged from 22 to 177 mm. In 39 cases, access path was double oblique. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 88 %, 100 % and 92 %, respectively. The mean procedure time was 51 ± 12 min, whereas the puncture itself lasted 16 ± 6 min. On average, four control scans were taken. Using this navigation device, biopsies of poorly visible and difficult accessible liver lesions could be performed safely and reliably in a closed-bore MRI scanner. The system can be easily implemented in clinical routine workflow. • Targeted liver biopsies could be reliably performed in a closed-bore MRI. • The navigation system allows for image guidance outside of the scanner bore. • Assisted MRI-guided biopsies are helpful for focal lesions with a difficult access. • Successful integration of the method in clinical workflow was shown. • Subsequent system installation in an existing MRI environment is feasible.

  4. Development of Optical System for ARGO-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakyoung Nah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ARGO-M is a satellite laser ranging (SLR system developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute with the consideration of mobility and daytime and nighttime satellite observation. The ARGO-M optical system consists of 40 cm receiving telescope, 10 cm transmitting telescope, and detecting optics. For the development of ARGO-M optical system, the structural analysis was performed with regard to the optics and optomechanics design and the optical components. To ensure the optical performance, the quality was tested at the level of parts using the laser interferometer and ultra-high-precision measuring instruments. The assembly and alignment of ARGO-M optical system were conducted at an auto-collimation facility. As the transmission and reception are separated in the ARGO-M optical system, the pointing alignment between the transmitting telescope and receiving telescope is critical for precise target pointing. Thus, the alignment using the ground target and the radiant point observation of transmitting laser beam was carried out, and the lines of sight for the two telescopes were aligned within the required pointing precision. This paper describes the design, structural analysis, manufacture and assembly of parts, and entire process related with the alignment for the ARGO-M optical system.

  5. Biopsy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biopsy - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Biopsy - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Colposcopy - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF ...

  6. Digital optical computers at the optoelectronic computing systems center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Harry F.

    1991-01-01

    The Digital Optical Computing Program within the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Opto-electronic Computing Systems has as its specific goal research on optical computing architectures suitable for use at the highest possible speeds. The program can be targeted toward exploiting the time domain because other programs in the Center are pursuing research on parallel optical systems, exploiting optical interconnection and optical devices and materials. Using a general purpose computing architecture as the focus, we are developing design techniques, tools and architecture for operation at the speed of light limit. Experimental work is being done with the somewhat low speed components currently available but with architectures which will scale up in speed as faster devices are developed. The design algorithms and tools developed for a general purpose, stored program computer are being applied to other systems such as optimally controlled optical communication networks.

  7. Comparison between target magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in-gantry and cognitively directed transperineal or transrectal-guided prostate biopsies for Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) 3-5 MRI lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaxley, Anna J; Yaxley, John W; Thangasamy, Isaac A; Ballard, Emma; Pokorny, Morgan R

    2017-11-01

    To compare the detection rates of prostate cancer (PCa) in men with Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) 3-5 abnormalities on 3-Tesla multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using in-bore MRI-guided biopsy compared with cognitively directed transperineal (cTP) biopsy and transrectal ultrasonography (cTRUS) biopsy. This was a retrospective single-centre study of consecutive men attending the private practice clinic of an experienced urologist performing MRI-guided biopsy and an experienced urologist performing cTP and cTRUS biopsy techniques for PI-RADS 3-5 lesions identified on 3-Tesla mpMRI. There were 595 target mpMRI lesions from 482 men with PI-RADS 3-5 regions of interest during 483 episodes of biopsy. The abnormal mpMRI target lesion was biopsied using the MRI-guided method for 298 biopsies, the cTP method for 248 biopsies and the cTRUS method for 49 biopsies. There were no significant differences in PCa detection among the three biopsy methods in PI-RADS 3 (48.9%, 40.0% and 44.4%, respectively), PI-RADS 4 (73.2%, 81.0% and 85.0%, respectively) or PI-RADS 5 (95.2, 92.0% and 95.0%, respectively) lesions, and there was no significant difference in detection of significant PCa among the biopsy methods in PI-RADS 3 (42.2%, 30.0% and 33.3%, respectively), PI-RADS 4 (66.8%, 66.0% and 80.0%, respectively) or PI-RADS 5 (90.5%, 89.8% and 90.0%, respectively) lesions. There were also no differences in PCa or significant PCa detection based on lesion location or size among the methods. We found no significant difference in the ability to detect PCa or significant PCa using targeted MRI-guided, cTP or cTRUS biopsy methods. Identification of an abnormal area on mpMRI appears to be more important in increasing the detection of PCa than the technique used to biopsy an MRI abnormality. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Neuronavigator-guided cerebral biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, J; Louhisalmi, Y; Alakuijala, J; Oikarinen, J

    1993-01-01

    Neuronavigators are new dynamic interactive instruments that use on-line computers to orient imaging data to the surgical field and guide the neurosurgeon to his target. We have been working since 1987 on a neuronavigator that serves not only as a precise pointer, but also as a dynamic arm that can be used to hold instruments, such as biopsy guides. The neuronavigator arm consists of six joints with optical encoders and is attached to the Mayfield headholder. The arm is connected to a workstation running customized 3D image graphics software. Special instruments and surgical technique have been developed. Here, we report on early clinical experience with ten biopsy procedures: 4 low-grade and 3 high-grade astrocytomas, one craniopharyngioma and one chronic intracerebral haematoma and intracerebral cyst, both of the latter with surrounding tumour suspect tissue. In all glioma cases serial biopsies were taken from optimal sites under ultrasound imaging control. Eight cases showed representative tumour tissue, while in two cases neoplasia was ruled out. The neuronavigator proved to be versatile, allowing comprehensive imaging data to be adapted to the surgical field.

  9. Microcomputer-based real-time optical signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F. T. S.; Cao, M. F.; Ludman, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    A microcomputer-based real-time programmable optical signal processing system utilizing a Magneto-Optic Spatial Light Modulator (MOSLM) and a Liquid Crystal Light Valve (LCLV) is described. This system can perform a myriad of complicated optical operations, such as image correlation, image subtraction, matrix multiplication and many others. The important assets of this proposed system must be the programmability and the capability of real-time addressing. The design specification and the progress toward practical implementation of this proposed system are discussed. Some preliminary experimental demonstrations are conducted. The feasible applications of this proposed system to image correlation for optical pattern recognition, image subtraction for IC chip inspection and matrix multiplication for optical computing are demonstrated.

  10. Isolated primary central nervous system lymphoma arising from the optic chiasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassal, F; Pommier, B; Boutet, C; Forest, F; Campolmi, N; Nuti, C

    2014-12-01

    A 58-year-old previously healthy woman rapidly developed progressive bilateral visual loss. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a bulging appearance of the optic chiasm, with homogeneous enhancement after gadolinium administration, which suggested an optic glioma or inflammatory disease. In the absence of (para)clinical clues for a specific diagnosis despite extensive investigation, a biopsy of one optic nerve was performed, resulting in a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. There was no evidence of any other ocular or systemic involvement, therefore the conclusion was that this immunocompetent patient had a primary central nervous system lymphoma isolated in the anterior visual pathway. Treatment included two cycles of polychemotherapy (rituximab, methotrexate, carmustine, etoposide, methylprednisolone), followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and rituximab plus cytarabine consolidation therapy. Subsequently, the patient exhibited significant improvement in vision, and was still disease-free at the 1-year follow-up examination. The aim of the present paper was to provide well-documented clinical, radiological, and intraoperative features of isolated primary malignant lymphoma arising from the anterior visual pathway. A better recognition of this rare pathological entity is necessary for clinicians who may encounter similar presentations, as prompt management is crucial for both a visual and vital prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 1. Introductory topics. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    Various fundamental topics are considered which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation. The point of view of linear system theory is chosen which acts as a unifying concept throughout the series. In this context the important optical quantities usually appear as either impulse response functions (Green's functions) or frequency transfer functions (Fourier Transforms of the Green's functions). Topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free-space optical field propagation, optical properties of materials, dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations

  12. An optical system for controlling ion source parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baifang; Liu Zhenhao; Jiang Yi; Xu Zhengjia

    1999-01-01

    An optical control system used for adjusting the source's parameters of an ion separator is described. There are two slice microcomputers at HV terminal and the ground respectively. These microcomputers communicate each other with the full-duplex mode through two pieces of optical fiber, in which many parameters are time-share transmitted in the form of optical pulse. This system can stabilize the arc current and temperature, adjust and display all parameters and has safe-guard ability. At HV terminal, the optical coupling technique is used for connecting the CPU and the ion source, and at the ground the CPU can communicate with a control microcomputer

  13. Cartesian oval representation of freeform optics in illumination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, D; Schreiber, P; Bräuer, A

    2011-03-15

    The geometrical method for constructing optical surfaces for illumination purpose developed by Oliker and co-workers [Trends in Nonlinear Analysis (Springer, 2003)] is generalized in order to obtain freeform designs in arbitrary optical systems. The freeform is created by a set of primitive surface elements, which are generalized Cartesian ovals adapted to the given optical system. Those primitives are determined by Hamiltonian theory of ray optics. The potential of this approach is demonstrated by some examples, e.g., freeform lenses with collimating front elements.

  14. Optical System Critical Design Review (CDR) Flight Software Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mori

    2006-01-01

    The Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI FSW presentation covers: (1) Optical System FSW only and Cooling System FSW is covered at its CDR (2) Requirements & Interfaces (3) Relationship with the ISIM FSW (4) FSW Design Drivers & Solutions.

  15. Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) : Volume 1. Advanced System Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    A performance specification is provided in this report for an Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) scanner system which features 6% improved readability over existing industry scanner systems. It also includes the analysis and rationale which ...

  16. Improved transvenous liver biopsy needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Matzen, P; Christoffersen, P

    1979-01-01

    A modified type of the standard transvenous cholangiography biopsy needle is described. The modified tranvenous liver biopsy needle caused only minimal artefactual changes of the liver biopsy specimens. The new type of biopsy needle is a modified Menghini needle. The conventional Menghini needle...... should be avoided for transvenous catheter biopsies because of risk of leaving catheter fragments in the liver....

  17. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  18. Geometric optics theory and design of astronomical optical systems using Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This text, now in its second edition, presents the mathematical background needed to design many optical combinations that are used in astronomical telescopes and cameras. It uses a novel approach to third-order aberration theory based on Fermat’s principle and the use of particular optical paths (called stigmatic paths) instead of rays, allowing for easier derivation of third-order formulae. Each optical combination analyzed is accompanied by a downloadable Mathematica® notebook that automates its third-order design, eliminating the need for lengthy calculations. The essential aspects of an optical system with an axis of rotational symmetry are introduced first, along with a development of Gaussian optics from Fermat’s principal. A simpler approach to third-order monochromatic aberrations based on both Fermat’s principle and stigmatic paths is then described, followed by a new chapter on fifth-order aberrations and their classification. Several specific optical devices are discussed and analyzed, incl...

  19. PrediCTC, liquid biopsy in precision oncology: a technology transfer experience in the Spanish health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alconada, L; Barbazan, J; Candamio, S; Falco, J L; Anton, C; Martin-Saborido, C; Fuster, G; Sampedro, M; Grande, C; Lado, R; Sampietro-Colom, L; Crego, E; Figueiras, S; Leon-Mateos, L; Lopez-Lopez, R; Abal, M

    2018-05-01

    Management of metastatic disease in oncology includes monitoring of therapy response principally by imaging techniques like CT scan. In addition to some limitations, the irruption of liquid biopsy and its application in personalized medicine has encouraged the development of more efficient technologies for prognosis and follow-up of patients in advanced disease. PrediCTC constitutes a panel of genes for the assessment of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in metastatic colorectal cancer patients, with demonstrated improved efficiency compared to CT scan for the evaluation of early therapy response in a multicenter prospective study. In this work, we designed and developed a technology transfer strategy to define the market opportunity for an eventual implementation of PrediCTC in the clinical practice. This included the definition of the regulatory framework, the analysis of the regulatory roadmap needed for CE mark, a benchmarking study, the design of a product development strategy, a revision of intellectual property, a cost-effectiveness study and an expert panel consultation. The definition and analysis of an appropriate technology transfer strategy and the correct balance among regulatory, financial and technical determinants are critical for the transformation of a promising technology into a viable technology, and for the decision of implementing liquid biopsy in the monitoring of therapy response in advanced disease.

  20. Optical interconnect technologies for high-bandwidth ICT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Norio; Takai, Toshiaki; Mizushima, Akiko; Arimoto, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Yamashita, Hiroki; Matsushima, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The bandwidth of information and communication technology (ICT) systems is increasing and is predicted to reach more than 10 Tb/s. However, an electrical interconnect cannot achieve such bandwidth because of its density limits. To solve this problem, we propose two types of high-density optical fiber wiring for backplanes and circuit boards such as interface boards and switch boards. One type uses routed ribbon fiber in a circuit board because it has the ability to be formed into complex shapes to avoid interfering with the LSI and electrical components on the board. The backplane is required to exhibit high density and flexibility, so the second type uses loose fiber. We developed a 9.6-Tb/s optical interconnect demonstration system using embedded optical modules, optical backplane, and optical connector in a network apparatus chassis. We achieved 25-Gb/s transmission between FPGAs via the optical backplane.

  1. An Optical Receiver Post Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  2. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  3. Novel optical probe for quantum Hall system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to explore Landau levels of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in modulation doped ... Keywords. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy; quantum Hall effect; Landau levels; edge states. ... An optical fibre carries light from tunable diode laser.

  4. Optical surgical navigation system causes pulse oximeter malfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masaaki; Hara, Tetsuhito; Tamai, Kenji; Shiba, Juntaro; Hotta, Kunihisa; Takeuchi, Mamoru; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-01-01

    An optical surgical navigation system is used as a navigator to facilitate surgical approaches, and pulse oximeters provide valuable information for anesthetic management. However, saw-tooth waves on the monitor of a pulse oximeter and the inability of the pulse oximeter to accurately record the saturation of a percutaneous artery were observed when a surgeon started an optical navigation system. The current case is thought to be the first report of this navigation system interfering with pulse oximetry. The causes of pulse jamming and how to manage an optical navigation system are discussed.

  5. A Large Aperture, High Energy Laser System for Optics and Optical Component Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nostrand, M.C.; Weiland, T.L.; Luthi, R.L.; Vickers, J.L.; Sell, W.D.; Stanley, J.A.; Honig, J.; Auerbach, J.; Hackel, R.P.; Wegner, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    A large aperture, kJ-class, multi-wavelength Nd-glass laser system has been constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab which has unique capabilities for studying a wide variety of optical phenomena. The master-oscillator, power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration of this ''Optical Sciences Laser'' (OSL) produces 1053 nm radiation with shaped pulse lengths which are variable from 0.1-100 ns. The output can be frequency doubled or tripled with high conversion efficiency with a resultant 100 cm 2 high quality output beam. This facility can accommodate prototype hardware for large-scale inertial confinement fusion lasers allowing for investigation of integrated system issues such as optical lifetime at high fluence, optics contamination, compatibility of non-optical materials, and laser diagnostics

  6. No need for biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Skindersoe, Mette E; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare three sampling techniques used in routine diagnostics to identify the microbiota in chronic venous leg ulcers. A total of 46 patients with persisting venous leg ulcers were included in the study. At inclusion, swab, biopsy and filter paper pad samples were...... collected. After 4 weeks, additional biopsy and filter paper pad samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated and identified at species level by standard methods. The most common bacterial species detected was Staphylococcus aureus found in 89% of the ulcers. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates...... species present in chronic wounds, thus avoiding complications during and after biopsy sampling....

  7. MR-sequences for prostate cancer diagnostics: validation based on the PI-RADS scoring system and targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmoeller, Lars; Quentin, Michael; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsov, Christian; Hiester, Andreas; Rabenalt, Robert; Albers, Peter [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the accuracy of MR sequences [T2-, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (T2WI, DWI, and DCE) imaging] at 3T, based on the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) scoring system [Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS)] using MR-guided in-bore prostate biopsies as reference standard. In 235 consecutive patients [aged 65.7 ± 7.9 years; median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 8 ng/ml] with multiparametric prostate MRI (mp-MRI), 566 lesions were scored according to PI-RADS. Histology of all lesions was obtained by targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy. In 200 lesions, biopsy revealed prostate cancer (PCa). The area under the curve (AUC) for cancer detection was 0.70 (T2WI), 0.80 (DWI), and 0.74 (DCE). A combination of T2WI + DWI, T2WI + DCE, and DWI + DCE achieved an AUC of 0.81, 0.78, and 0.79. A summed PI-RADS score of T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved an AUC of 0.81. For higher grade PCa (primary Gleason pattern ≥ 4), the AUC was 0.85 for T2WI + DWI, 0.84 for T2WI + DCE, 0.86 for DWI + DCE, and 0.87 for T2WI + DWI + DCE. The AUC for T2WI + DWI + DCE for transitional-zone PCa was 0.73, and for the peripheral zone 0.88. Regarding higher-grade PCa, AUC for transitional-zone PCa was 0.88, and for peripheral zone 0.96. The combination of T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved the highest test accuracy, especially in patients with higher-grade PCa. The use of ≤2 MR sequences led to lower AUC in higher-grade and peripheral-zone cancers. (orig.)

  8. MR-sequences for prostate cancer diagnostics: validation based on the PI-RADS scoring system and targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmoeller, Lars; Quentin, Michael; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk; Arsov, Christian; Hiester, Andreas; Rabenalt, Robert; Albers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of MR sequences [T2-, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (T2WI, DWI, and DCE) imaging] at 3T, based on the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) scoring system [Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS)] using MR-guided in-bore prostate biopsies as reference standard. In 235 consecutive patients [aged 65.7 ± 7.9 years; median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 8 ng/ml] with multiparametric prostate MRI (mp-MRI), 566 lesions were scored according to PI-RADS. Histology of all lesions was obtained by targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy. In 200 lesions, biopsy revealed prostate cancer (PCa). The area under the curve (AUC) for cancer detection was 0.70 (T2WI), 0.80 (DWI), and 0.74 (DCE). A combination of T2WI + DWI, T2WI + DCE, and DWI + DCE achieved an AUC of 0.81, 0.78, and 0.79. A summed PI-RADS score of T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved an AUC of 0.81. For higher grade PCa (primary Gleason pattern ≥ 4), the AUC was 0.85 for T2WI + DWI, 0.84 for T2WI + DCE, 0.86 for DWI + DCE, and 0.87 for T2WI + DWI + DCE. The AUC for T2WI + DWI + DCE for transitional-zone PCa was 0.73, and for the peripheral zone 0.88. Regarding higher-grade PCa, AUC for transitional-zone PCa was 0.88, and for peripheral zone 0.96. The combination of T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved the highest test accuracy, especially in patients with higher-grade PCa. The use of ≤2 MR sequences led to lower AUC in higher-grade and peripheral-zone cancers. (orig.)

  9. Optical design of an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Abdolmalaki, Reza Yazdanpanah; Mancini, Gregory J; Tan, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method. The procedures include (1) ray map computation by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampere equation; (2) initial freeform optical surface construction by using Snell's law and a lens volume restriction; (3) correction of surface normal vectors due to accumulated errors from the initially constructed surfaces; and (4) feedback modification of the solution to deal with degraded illuminance uniformity caused by the extended sizes of the LEDs. We employed an optical design software package to evaluate the performance of our laparoscopic lighting system design. The simulation results show that our design achieves greater than 95% illuminance uniformity and greater than 89% optical efficiency (considering Fresnel losses) for illuminating the target surgical region. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  10. The positron emission mammography/tomography breast imaging and biopsy system (PEM/PET): design, construction and phantom-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Smith, Mark F.; Proffitt, James; Hammond, William; Srinivasan, Amarnath; McKisson, John; Popov, Vladimir; Weisenberger, Andrew; Judy, Clifford O.; Kross, Brian; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Banta, Larry E.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Champley, Kyle

    2008-02-01

    Tomographic breast imaging techniques can potentially improve detection and diagnosis of cancer in women with radiodense and/or fibrocystic breasts. We have developed a high-resolution positron emission mammography/tomography imaging and biopsy device (called PEM/PET) to detect and guide the biopsy of suspicious breast lesions. PET images are acquired to detect suspicious focal uptake of the radiotracer and guide biopsy of the area. Limited-angle PEM images could then be used to verify the biopsy needle position prior to tissue sampling. The PEM/PET scanner consists of two sets of rotating planar detector heads. Each detector consists of a 4 × 3 array of Hamamatsu H8500 flat panel position sensitive photomultipliers (PSPMTs) coupled to a 96 × 72 array of 2 × 2 × 15 mm3 LYSO detector elements (pitch = 2.1 mm). Image reconstruction is performed with a three-dimensional, ordered set expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm parallelized to run on a multi-processor computer system. The reconstructed field of view (FOV) is 15 × 15 × 15 cm3. Initial phantom-based testing of the device is focusing upon its PET imaging capabilities. Specifically, spatial resolution and detection sensitivity were assessed. The results from these measurements yielded a spatial resolution at the center of the FOV of 2.01 ± 0.09 mm (radial), 2.04 ± 0.08 mm (tangential) and 1.84 ± 0.07 mm (axial). At a radius of 7 cm from the center of the scanner, the results were 2.11 ± 0.08 mm (radial), 2.16 ± 0.07 mm (tangential) and 1.87 ± 0.08 mm (axial). Maximum system detection sensitivity of the scanner is 488.9 kcps µCi-1 ml-1 (6.88%). These promising findings indicate that PEM/PET may be an effective system for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer.

  11. The positron emission mammography/tomography breast imaging and biopsy system (PEM/PET): design, construction and phantom-based measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raylman, Raymond R [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Majewski, Stan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Smith, Mark F [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Proffitt, James [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Hammond, William [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Srinivasan, Amarnath [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); McKisson, John [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Popov, Vladimir [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Judy, Clifford O [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kross, Brian [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ramasubramanian, Srikanth [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Banta, Larry E [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kinahan, Paul E [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Champley, Kyle [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2008-02-07

    Tomographic breast imaging techniques can potentially improve detection and diagnosis of cancer in women with radiodense and/or fibrocystic breasts. We have developed a high-resolution positron emission mammography/tomography imaging and biopsy device (called PEM/PET) to detect and guide the biopsy of suspicious breast lesions. PET images are acquired to detect suspicious focal uptake of the radiotracer and guide biopsy of the area. Limited-angle PEM images could then be used to verify the biopsy needle position prior to tissue sampling. The PEM/PET scanner consists of two sets of rotating planar detector heads. Each detector consists of a 4 x 3 array of Hamamatsu H8500 flat panel position sensitive photomultipliers (PSPMTs) coupled to a 96 x 72 array of 2 x 2 x 15 mm{sup 3} LYSO detector elements (pitch = 2.1 mm). Image reconstruction is performed with a three-dimensional, ordered set expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm parallelized to run on a multi-processor computer system. The reconstructed field of view (FOV) is 15 x 15 x 15 cm{sup 3}. Initial phantom-based testing of the device is focusing upon its PET imaging capabilities. Specifically, spatial resolution and detection sensitivity were assessed. The results from these measurements yielded a spatial resolution at the center of the FOV of 2.01 {+-} 0.09 mm (radial), 2.04 {+-} 0.08 mm (tangential) and 1.84 {+-} 0.07 mm (axial). At a radius of 7 cm from the center of the scanner, the results were 2.11 {+-} 0.08 mm (radial), 2.16 {+-} 0.07 mm (tangential) and 1.87 {+-} 0.08 mm (axial). Maximum system detection sensitivity of the scanner is 488.9 kcps {mu}Ci{sup -1} ml{sup -1} (6.88%). These promising findings indicate that PEM/PET may be an effective system for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer.

  12. Evaluation of the ESUR PI-RADS scoring system for multiparametric MRI of the prostate with targeted MR/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roethke, M C; Kuru, T H; Schultze, S; Tichy, D; Kopp-Schneider, A; Fenchel, M; Schlemmer, H-P; Hadaschik, B A

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) proposed by the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in a consecutive cohort of patients with magnetic resonance/transrectal ultrasound (MR/TRUS) fusion-guided biopsy. Suspicious lesions on mpMRI at 3.0 T were scored according to the PI-RADS system before MR/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy and correlated to histopathology results. Statistical correlation was obtained by a Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and optimal thresholds were calculated. In 64 patients, 128/445 positive biopsy cores were obtained out of 95 suspicious regions of interest (ROIs). PCa was present in 27/64 (42%) of the patients. ROC results for the aggregated PI-RADS scores exhibited higher areas under the curve compared to those of the Likert score. Sensitivity/Specificity for the following thresholds were calculated: 85 %/73 % and 67 %/92 % for PI-RADS scores of 9 and 10, respectively; 85 %/60 % and 56 %/97 % for Likert scores of 3 and 4, respectively [corrected. The standardised ESUR PI-RADS system is beneficial to indicate the likelihood of PCa of suspicious lesions on mpMRI. It is also valuable to identify locations to be targeted with biopsy. The aggregated PI-RADS score achieved better results compared to the single five-point Likert score. • The ESUR PI-RADS scoring system was evaluated using multiparametric 3.0-T MRI. • To investigate suspicious findings, transperineal MR/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy was used. • PI-RADS can guide biopsy locations and improve detection of clinically significant cancer. • Biopsy procedures can be optimised, reducing unnecessary negative biopsies for patients. • The PI-RADS scoring system may contribute to more effective prostate MRI.

  13. Implementation of double-C-arm synchronous real-time X-ray positioning system computer aided for aspiration biopsy of small lung lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hong; Wang Dong; Ye Yukun; Zhou Yuan; Lu Jianfeng; Yang Jingyu; Wang Lining

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of a new type of real-time three-dimensional X-ray positioning system for aspiration biopsy of small lung lesions. Methods: Using X-ray imaging technology and X-ray collimator technology and combining with double-C-arm X-ray machine, two different synchronous real-time images were obtained from the vertical to the horizontal plane. Then, with the computer image processing and computer vision processing technologies, dynamic tracking for 3D information of a pulmonary lesion and the needle in aspiration, and the relative position of the two, were established. Results: There was no interference while the two imaging perpendicularly X-ray beam met, two synchronous real-time image acquisition and tracking of a lung lesion and a needle could be completed in free respiration. The average positioning system error was about 0.5 mm, the largest positioning error was about 1.0 mm, real-time display rate was 5 screen/sec. Conclusions: the establishment of a new type of double-C-arm synchronous real-time X-ray positioning system is feasible. It is available for the fast and accurate aspiration biopsy of small lung lesions. (authors)

  14. Near Infrared Optical Visualization of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Levels in COLO205 Colorectal Cell Line, Orthotopic Tumor in Mice and Human Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Lazarovici

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the applicability of imaging epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor levels in preclinical models of COLO205 carcinoma cells in vitro, mice with orthotopic tumors and ex vivo colorectal tumor biopsies, using EGF-labeled with IRDye800CW (EGF-NIR. The near infrared (NIR bio-imaging of COLO205 cultures indicated specific and selective binding, reflecting EGF receptors levels. In vivo imaging of tumors in mice showed that the highest signal/background ratio between tumor and adjacent tissue was achieved 48 hours post-injection. Dissected colorectal cancer tissues from different patients demonstrated ex vivo specific imaging using the NIR bio-imaging platform of the heterogeneous distributed EGF receptors. Moreover, in the adjacent gastrointestinal tissue of the same patients, which by Western blotting was demonstrated as EGF receptor negative, no labeling with EGF-NIR probe was detected. Present results support the concept of tumor imaging by measuring EGF receptor levels using EGF-NIR probe. This platform is advantageous for EGF receptor bio-imaging of the NCI-60 recommended panel of tumor cell lines including 6–9 colorectal cell lines, since it avoids radioactive probes and is appropriate for use in the clinical setting using NIR technologies in a real-time manner.

  15. The optical system of the proposed Chinese 12-m optical/infrared telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ding-qiang; Liang, Ming; Yuan, Xiangyan; Bai, Hua; Cui, Xiangqun

    2017-08-01

    The lack of a large-aperture optical/infrared telescope has seriously affected the development of astronomy in China. In 2016, the authors published their concept study and suggestions for a 12-m telescope optical system. This article presents the authors' further research and some new results. Considering that this telescope should be a general-purpose telescope for a wide range of scientific goals and could be used for frontier scientific research in the future, the authors studied and designed a variety of 12-m telescope optical systems for comparison and final decision-making. In general, we still adopt our previous configuration, but the Nasmyth and prime-focus corrector systems have been greatly improved. In this article, the adaptive optics is given special attention. Ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) is adopted. It has a 14-arcmin field of view. The secondary mirror is used as the adaptive optical deformable mirror. Obviously, not all the optical systems in this telescope configuration will be used or constructed at the same stage. Some will be for the future and some are meant for research rather than for construction.

  16. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-10-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  17. Structurally integrated fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, R M; Glossop, N D; Lymer, J; Leblanc, M; West, J; Dubois, S; Tsaw, W; Tennyson, R C

    1989-07-01

    Progress toward the development of a fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials is reported. This system, based on the fracture of embedded optical fibers, has been characterized with respect to the orientation and location of the optical fibers in the composite. Together with a special treatment, these parameters have been tailored to yield a system capable of detecting the threshold of damage for various impacted Kevlar/epoxy panels. The technique has been extended to measure the growth of a damage region which could arise from either impact, manufacturing flaws, or static overloading. The mechanism of optical fiber fracture has also been investigated. In addition, the influence of embedded optical fibers on the tensile and compressive strength of the composite material has been studied. Image enhanced backlighting has been shown to be a powerful and convenient method of assessing internal damage to translucent composite materials.

  18. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth treatment of both linear fiber-optic systems and their key enabling devices. It presents a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers. To the second edition of this book important new aspects of linear fiber-optic transmission technologies are added, such as high level system architectural issues, algorithms for deriving the optimal frequency assignment, directly modulated or externally modulated laser t...

  19. Information Optics and Photonics Algorithms, Systems, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    This book addresses applications, recent advances, and emerging areas in fields with applications in information optics and photonics systems. The objective of this book is to illustrate and discuss novel approaches, analytical techniques, models, and technologies that enhance sensing, measurement, processing, interpretation, and visualization of information using free space optics and photonics. The material in this book concentrates on integration of diverse fields for cross-disciplinary applications including bio-photonics, digitally enhanced sensing and imaging systems, multi-dimensional optical imaging and image processing, bio-inspired imaging, 3D visualization, 3D displays, imaging on the nano-scale, quantum optics, super resolution imaging, photonics for biological applications, and holographic information systems. As a result, this book is a useful resource for researchers, engineers, and graduate students who work in the diverse fields comprising information optics and photonics.

  20. Optical signal processing techniques and applications of optical phase modulation in high-speed communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ning

    In recent years, optical phase modulation has attracted much research attention in the field of fiber optic communications. Compared with the traditional optical intensity-modulated signal, one of the main merits of the optical phase-modulated signal is the better transmission performance. For optical phase modulation, in spite of the comprehensive study of its transmission performance, only a little research has been carried out in terms of its functions, applications and signal processing for future optical networks. These issues are systematically investigated in this thesis. The research findings suggest that optical phase modulation and its signal processing can greatly facilitate flexible network functions and high bandwidth which can be enjoyed by end users. In the thesis, the most important physical-layer technology, signal processing and multiplexing, are investigated with optical phase-modulated signals. Novel and advantageous signal processing and multiplexing approaches are proposed and studied. Experimental investigations are also reported and discussed in the thesis. Optical time-division multiplexing and demultiplexing. With the ever-increasing demand on communication bandwidth, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) is an effective approach to upgrade the capacity of each wavelength channel in current optical systems. OTDM multiplexing can be simply realized, however, the demultiplexing requires relatively complicated signal processing and stringent timing control, and thus hinders its practicability. To tackle this problem, in this thesis a new OTDM scheme with hybrid DPSK and OOK signals is proposed. Experimental investigation shows this scheme can greatly enhance the demultiplexing timing misalignment and improve the demultiplexing performance, and thus make OTDM more practical and cost effective. All-optical signal processing. In current and future optical communication systems and networks, the data rate per wavelength has been approaching

  1. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a modified microelectromechanical systems mirror for detection of bladder cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tuqiang; Xie, Huikai; Fedder, Gary K.; Pan, Yingtian

    2003-11-01

    Experimental results of a modified micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror for substantial enhancement of the transverse laser scanning performance of endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) are presented. Image distortion due to buckling of MEMS mirror in our previous designs was analyzed and found to be attributed to excessive internal stress of the transverse bimorph meshes. The modified MEMS mirror completely eliminates bimorph stress and the resultant buckling effect, which increases the wobbling-free angular optical actuation to greater than 37°, exceeding the transverse laser scanning requirements for EOCT and confocal endoscopy. The new optical coherence tomography (OCT) endoscope allows for two-dimensional cross-sectional imaging that covers an area of 4.2 mm × 2.8 mm (limited by scope size) and at roughly 5 frames/s instead of the previous area size of 2.9 mm × 2.8 mm and is highly suitable for noninvasive and high-resolution imaging diagnosis of epithelial lesions in vivo. EOCT images of normal rat bladders and rat bladder cancers are compared with the same cross sections acquired with conventional bench-top OCT. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of EOCT for in vivo imaging diagnosis and precise guidance for excisional biopsy of early bladder cancers.

  2. Breast biopsy -- stereotactic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/-/media/ACR/Files/Practice-Parameters/stereo-breast.pdf . Updated 2016. Accessed March 14, 2017. Parker C, Umphrey H, Bland K. The role of stereotactic breast biopsy in the management of breast disease. In: Cameron ...

  3. Breast biopsy -- ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/-/media/ACR/Files/Practice-Parameters/us-guidedbreast.pdf . Updated 2016. Accessed March 14, 2017. Torrente J, Brem RF. Minimally invasive image-guided breast biopsy and ablation. In: Mauro MA, Murphy KPJ, Thomson ...

  4. Pleural needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own. Sometimes, a chest tube is needed to drain the air and expand the lung. There is also a chance of excessive blood loss. Considerations If a closed pleural biopsy is not enough to make a diagnosis, ...

  5. Colposcopy - directed biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... squamous cells - colposcopy; Pap smear - colposcopy; HPV - colposcopy; Human papilloma virus - colposcopy; Cervix - colposcopy; Colposcopy ... also called cervical dysplasia) Cervical warts (infection with human papilloma virus , or HPV) If the biopsy does not ...

  6. Liver biopsy under hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P C; Stenn, P G

    1992-09-01

    Two patients underwent outpatient percutaneous liver biopsy under hypnosis without complications. One patient had severe anxiety about the procedure because of a previous adverse experience with liver biopsy and the other had a history of severe allergy to local anesthesia. Both patients had undergone a session of hypnosis at least once prior to the biopsy. One received no local anesthetic and the other received 1% lidocaine as a local anesthetic. Both patients were completely cooperative during the procedure with the required respiratory maneuvers. Both patients stated that they were aware of the procedure under hypnosis but described no pain and would be most willing to have the procedure done under hypnosis in the future. Hypnosis can be a useful method of preparing carefully selected patients for percutaneous liver biopsy.

  7. Note: Folded optical system for narrow forward looking probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Hsuan-Chao; Hah, Dooyoung; Kim, Jeonghwan; Feldman, M.

    2014-01-01

    An optical system is described in which a laser beam makes three passes through a single graded index lens, forming a focus along the optic axis. It has important applications in endoscopic probes, where the forward looking characteristic permits the avoidance of obstacles and the narrow structure makes it minimally invasive

  8. The analysis of an optical fibre communication system using laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such techniques include electrical and optical dispersion compensation, optical and electrical pulse shaping, and modifications of the fibre dispersion profiles. Some of these techniques and methods have resulted into very effective but expensive systems, and it has been difficult to adopt them. Others have resulted into ...

  9. Optical System Design and Integration of the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Schmidt, Stephen; Britt, Jamie; Mamakos, William; Trunzo, Raymond; Cavanaugh, John; Miller, Roger

    2005-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). developed for the 2004 MESSENGER mission to Mercury, is designed to measure the planet's topography via laser ranging. A description of the MLA optical system and its measured optical performance during instrument-level and spacecraft-level integration and testing are presented.

  10. Security System Responsive to Optical Fiber Having Bragg Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Charles K. (Inventor); Ozcan, Meric (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An optically responsive electronic lock is disclosed comprising an optical fiber serving as a key and having Bragg gratings placed therein. Further, an identification system is disclosed which has the optical fiber serving as means for tagging and identifying an object. The key or tagged object is inserted into a respective receptacle and the Bragg gratings cause the optical fiber to reflect a predetermined frequency spectra pattern of incident light which is detected by a decoder and compared against a predetermined spectrum to determine if an electrical signal is generated to either operate the lock or light a display of an authentication panel.

  11. Performance comparison of optical interference cancellation system architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Maddie; Chang, Matt; Deng, Yanhua; Prucnal, Paul R

    2013-04-10

    The performance of three optics-based interference cancellation systems are compared and contrasted with each other, and with traditional electronic techniques for interference cancellation. The comparison is based on a set of common performance metrics that we have developed for this purpose. It is shown that thorough evaluation of our optical approaches takes into account the traditional notions of depth of cancellation and dynamic range, along with notions of link loss and uniformity of cancellation. Our evaluation shows that our use of optical components affords performance that surpasses traditional electronic approaches, and that the optimal choice for an optical interference canceller requires taking into account the performance metrics discussed in this paper.

  12. THE LONG ROAD TO THE USE OF MICROSCOPE IN CLINICAL MEDICINE IN VIVO: FROM EARLY PIONEERING PROPOSALS TO THE MODERN PERSPECTIVES OF OPTICAL BIOPSY

    OpenAIRE

    Ponti, Giovanni; Muscatello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    For a long period the scientists did not recognized the potentialities of the compound microscope in medicine. Only few scientists recognized the potentialities of the microscope for the medicine; among them G. Campani who proposed the utilization of his microscope to investigate the skin lesions directly on the patient. The proposal was illustrated in a letter Acta Eruditorum of 1686. The recent development of optical techniques, capable of providing in-focus images of an object from differe...

  13. Corpus vitreum, retina og chorioidea biopsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherfig, Erik Christian Høegh

    2002-01-01

    oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma......oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma...

  14. An optical CDMA system based on chaotic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-lei; En, De; Wang, Li-guo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a coherent asynchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is proposed, whose encoder/decoder is an all-optical generator. This all-optical generator can generate analog and bipolar chaotic sequences satisfying the logistic maps. The formula of bit error rate (BER) is derived, and the relationship of BER and the number of simultaneous transmissions is analyzed. Due to the good property of correlation, this coherent OCDMA system based on these bipolar chaotic sequences can support a large number of simultaneous users, which shows that these chaotic sequences are suitable for asynchronous OCDMA system.

  15. Subcarrier multiplexing tolerant dispersion transmission system employing optical broadband sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Fulvio; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2009-03-16

    This paper presents a novel SCM optical transmission system for next-generation WDM-PONs combining broadband optical sources and a Mach-Zehnder interferometric structure. The approach leeds to transport RF signals up to 50 GHz being compatible with RoF systems since a second configuration has been proposed in order to overcome dispersion carrier suppression effect using DSB modulation. The theoretical analysis validates the potentiality of the system also considering the effects of the dispersion slope over the transmission window. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  16. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of bone tumors is based on careful evaluation of clinical, imaging and a pathologic findings. So the biopsy of bone and soft tissue sarcomas is the final step in evaluation and a fundamental step in the diagnosis of the lesion. It should not be performed as a shortcut to diagnosis (1. The biopsy should be performed in order to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate among few diagnoses after careful staged studies. Real and artificial changes in imaging studies will be superimposed after performing biopsy, which may alter the interpretation if done after biopsy is taken (1. The correct management of a sarcoma depends on the accurate diagnosis. Inadequate, inapprppriate, or inaccurate non-representative biopsy leads to poorer outcome in terms of survivorship and limb salvage. An incorrect, unplanned incision and biopsy may unnecessarily contaminate uninvolved compartments which may convert a salvageable limb to amputation. Anatomic approach along with the proper biopsy techniques may lead to success or catastrophe. It is clear that in patients with inappropriate biopsy, the chance of the need to change the treatment to more radical than would originally be expected is significantly higher. Also it is more probable to need to  convert curative to palliative treatment and to require adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with inappropriate biopsies. Patients with sarcoma are best served by early referral to a specialized center where staged investigations and biopsy can be performed with minimal morbidity (3. Open biopsy is still considered the gold standard; however, recent studies suggest comparable results with percutaneous core needle biopsy. Our study on 103 consecutive CNB and open biopsy showed comparable results as well. Surgeons need to answer to two questions prior to performing a biopsy: 1-          Where is the best part of the lesion to be biopsied? 2-          What is the safest route without contaminating

  17. Integrated Micro-Optical Fluorescence Detection System for Microfluidic Electrochromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALLERMAN, ANDREW A.; ARNOLD, DON W.; ASBILL, RANDOLPH E.; BAILEY, CHRISTOPHER G.; CARTER, TONY RAY; KEMME, SHANALYN A.; MATZKE, CAROLYN M.; SAMORA, SALLY; SWEATT, WILLIAM C.; WARREN, MIAL E.; WENDT, JOEL R.

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe the design and microfabrication of an extremely compact optical system as a key element in an integrated capillary-channel electrochromatograph with laser induced fluorescence detection. The optical design uses substrate-mode propagation within the fused silica substrate. The optical system includes a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array, two high performance microlenses and a commercial photodetector. The microlenses are multilevel diffractive optics patterned by electron beam lithography and etched by reactive ion etching in fused silica. Two generations of optical subsystems are described. The first generation design is integrated directly onto the capillary channel-containing substrate with a 6 mm separation between the VCSEL and photodetector. The second generation design separates the optical system onto its own module and the source to detector length is further compressed to 3.5 mm. The systems are designed for indirect fluorescence detection using infrared dyes. The first generation design has been tested with a 750 nm VCSEL exciting a 10(sup -4) M solution of CY-7 dye. The observed signal-to-noise ratio of better than 100:1 demonstrates that the background signal from scattered pump light is low despite the compact size of the optical system and meets the system sensitivity requirements

  18. High-speed optical feeder-link system using adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Yoshinori; Hayano, Yutaka; Klaus, Werner

    1997-05-01

    We propose a satellite laser communication system between a ground station and a geostationary satellite, named high- speed optical feeder link system. It is based on the application of (a) high-speed optical devices, which have been developed for ground-based high-speed fiber-optic communications, and (b) the adaptive optics which compensates wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulences using a real time feedback control. A link budget study shows that a system with 10-Gbps bit-rate are available assuming the state-of-the-art device performance of the Er-doped fiber amplifier. We further discuss preliminary measurement results of the atmospheric turbulence at the telescope site in Tokyo, and present current study on the design of the key components for the feeder-link laser transceiver.

  19. Design of partially optically stable reflector systems and prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    The characteristics and design method of the total optically stable (TOS) reflector systems/prisms were introduced in an early paper (Tsai and Lin in Appl. Opt. 47:4158-4163, 2008), where only two types of TOS reflector system exist, namely preservation or retroreflection. In this paper, we introduce the partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, which is only optically stable about a specific directional vector; nevertheless, the exiting light ray is not restricted to preservation or retroreflection. The proposed paper also presents an analytic method for the design of POS reflector systems comprised of multiple reflectors. Furthermore, it is shown that a POS prism can be obtained by adding two refracting flat boundary surfaces with specific conditions at the entrance and exit positions of the light ray in an optical system with multiple reflectors.

  20. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, F; Ahmad, A [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering; Ahmed, A Z [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Bureau of Reseaarch and Consultancy

    2006-12-15

    of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings.

  1. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, A.Z.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings

  2. Optical design of an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Abdolmalaki, Reza Yazdanpanah; Mancini, Gregory J.; Tan, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method. The procedures include (1) ray map computation by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampere equation; (2) initial freeform optical surface construction by using Snell's law and a lens volume restriction; (3) correction of surface normal vectors due to accumulated errors from the initially constructed surfaces; and (4) feedback modification of the solution to deal with degraded illuminance uniformity caused by the extended sizes of the LEDs. We employed an optical design software package to evaluate the performance of our laparoscopic lighting system design. The simulation results show that our design achieves greater than 95% illuminance uniformity and greater than 89% optical efficiency (considering Fresnel losses) for illuminating the target surgical region.

  3. Optical system for laser triggering of PBFA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamil, R.A.; Seamons, L.O.; Schanwald, L.P.; Gerber, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The PBFA II laser triggering optical system consists of nearly 300 optical components. These optics must be sufficiently precise to preserve the laser beam quality, as well as to equally distribute the energy of the UV laser beam to the 36, 5.5 MV gas-filled switches at precisely the same instant. Both index variation and cleanliness of the air long the laser path must be controlled. The manual alignment system is capable of alignment to better than the acceptable error of 200 microradians (laser to switches). A technique has been devised to ease the alignment procedure by using a special high gain video camera and a tool alignment telescope to view retroreflective tape targets having optical brightness gains over white surfaces of 10/sup 3/. The camera is a charge-coupled detector intensified by a double microchannel plate having an optical gain of between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 5/

  4. Design of a multimodal fibers optic system for small animal optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Pagliazzi, Marco; Boschi, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Small animals optical imaging systems are widely used in pre-clinical research to image in vivo the bio-distribution of light emitting probes using fluorescence or bioluminescence modalities. In this work we presented a set of simulated results of a novel small animal optical imaging module based on a fibers optics matrix, coupled with a position sensitive detector, devoted to acquire bioluminescence and Cerenkov images. Simulations were performed using GEANT 4 code with the GAMOS architecture using the tissue optics plugin. Results showed that it is possible to image a 30 × 30 mm region of interest using a fiber optics array containing 100 optical fibers without compromising the quality of the reconstruction. The number of fibers necessary to cover an adequate portion of a small animal is thus quite modest. This design allows integrating the module with magnetic resonance (MR) in order to acquire optical and MR images at the same time. A detailed model of the mouse anatomy, obtained by segmentation of 3D MRI images, will improve the quality of optical 3D reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Realization of first order optical systems using thin lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Mukunda, N.; Simon, R.

    1983-09-01

    A first order optical system is investigated in full generality within the context of wave optics. We reduce the problem to a study of the ray transfer matrices. The simplest such systems correspond to axially symmetric propagation. Realization of such systems by centrally located lenses separated by finite distances is studied. It is shown that every axially symmetric first order system can be realized using at most three lenses. Among anisotropic systems it is proven that every symplectic ray transfer matrix, and no others, can be realized using lenses and free propagations. Suggestions for further study of the general first order system are outlined. 16 references

  6. The long road to the use of microscope in clinical medicine in vivo: from early pioneering proposals to the modern perspectives of optical biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Giovanni; Muscatello, Umberto; Sgantzos, Markos

    2015-01-01

    For a long period the scientists did not recognized the potentialities of the compound microscope in medicine. Only few scientists recognized the potentialities of the microscope for the medicine; among them G. Campani who proposed the utilization of his microscope to investigate the skin lesions directly on the patient. The proposal was illustrated in a letter Acta Eruditorum of 1686. The recent development of optical techniques, capable of providing in-focus images of an object from different planes with high spatial resolution, significantly increased the diagnostic potential of the microscope directly on the patient.

  7. Student project of optical system analysis API-library development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Tatiana; Zhukova, Tatiana; Dantcaranov, Ruslan; Romanova, Maria; Zhadin, Alexander; Ivanov, Vyacheslav; Kalinkina, Olga

    2017-08-01

    In the paper API-library software developed by students of Applied and Computer Optics Department (ITMO University) for optical system design is presented. The library performs paraxial and real ray tracing, calculates 3d order (Seidel) aberration and real ray aberration of axis and non-axis beams (wave, lateral, longitudinal, coma, distortion etc.) and finally, approximate wave aberration by Zernike polynomials. Real aperture can be calculated by considering of real rays tracing failure on each surface. So far we assume optical system is centered, with spherical or 2d order aspherical surfaces. Optical glasses can be set directly by refraction index or by dispersion coefficients. The library can be used for education or research purposes in optical system design area. It provides ready to use software functions for optical system simulation and analysis that developer can simply plug into their software development for different purposes, for example for some specific synthesis tasks or investigation of new optimization modes. In the paper we present an example of using the library for development of cemented doublet synthesis software based on Slusarev's methodology. The library is used in optical system optimization recipes course for deep studying of optimization model and its application for optical system design. Development of such software is an excellent experience for students and help to understanding optical image modeling and quality analysis. This development is organized as student group joint project. We try to organize it as a group in real research and development project, so each student has his own role in the project and then use whole library functionality in his own master or bachelor thesis. Working in such group gives students useful experience and opportunity to work as research and development engineer of scientific software in the future.

  8. Automated Mulitple Object Optical Tracking and Recognition System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTRA proposes to develop an optical tracking system that is capable of recognizing and tracking up to 50 different objects within an approximately 2 degree x 3...

  9. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2006-01-01

    Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references. This book is intended for engineers and scientists in the relevant fields, graduate students, industry managers, university professors, government managers, and policy makers. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications focuses on research monographs in the areas of -Recognition and identification (including optical imaging, biometrics, authentication, verification, and smart surveillance systems) -Biological and chemical threat detection (including bios...

  10. Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    We present investigations on 10 and 40 GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers for applications in optical communications systems. New all-active lasers with one to three quantum wells have been designed, fabricated and characterized....

  11. FTTA System Demo Using Optical Fiber-Coupled Active Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Neumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of optical and wireless systems such as Radio-over-Fiber (RoF networks is the key to coping with the increasing bandwidth demands due to the increasing popularity of video and other high data rate applications. A high level of integration of optical technologies enables simple base stations with a fiber-to-the-antenna (FTTA approach. In this paper, we present a complete full-duplex RoF–FTTA system consisting of integrated active fiber-coupled optical receiving and transmitting antennas that are directly connected to a standard single mode fiber optical link. Data rates up to 1 Gbit/s could be shown without advanced modulation formats on a 1.5 GHz carrier frequency. The antennas as well as the whole system are explained and the results of the system experiments are discussed.

  12. Lithographically-Scribed Planar Holographic Optical CDMA Devices and Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mossberg, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    .... The present Phase II effort has harnessed new fabrication tools to perfect disruptive HBR-based multiplexer products for DoD avionics, optical communications systems computer data communications and local area networks...

  13. Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu

    spectrum narrowing tolerance 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK optical coherent systems using digital adaptive equalizer. The demonstrated results show that off-line DSP algorithms are able to reduce the bit error rate (BER) penalty induced by signal spectrum narrowing. Third, we also investigate bi...... wavelength division multiplex (U-DWDM) optical coherent systems based on 10-Gbaud QPSK. We report U-DWDM 1.2-Tb/s QPSK coherent system achieving spectral efficiency of 4.0-bit/s/Hz. In the experimental demonstration, digital decision feed back equalizer (DFE) algorithms and a finite impulse response (FIR......In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing...

  14. Digital optical feeder links system for broadband geostationary satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulenard, Sylvain; Mège, Alexandre; Fuchs, Christian; Perlot, Nicolas; Riedi, Jerome; Perdigues, Josep

    2017-02-01

    An optical link based on a multiplex of wavelengths at 1.55μm is foreseen to be a valuable solution for the feeder link of the next generation of high-throughput geostationary satellite. The main satellite operator specifications for such link are an availability of 99.9% over the year, a capacity around 500Gbit/s and to be bent-pipe. Optical ground station networks connected to Terabit/s terrestrial fibers are proposed. The availability of the optical feeder link is simulated over 5 years based on a state-of-the-art cloud mask data bank and an atmospheric turbulence strength model. Yearly and seasonal optical feeder link availabilities are derived and discussed. On-ground and on-board terminals are designed to be compliant with 10Gbit/s per optical channel data rate taking into account adaptive optic systems to mitigate the impact of atmospheric turbulences on single-mode optical fiber receivers. The forward and return transmission chains, concept and implementation, are described. These are based on a digital transparent on-off keying optical link with digitalization of the DVB-S2 and DVB-RCS signals prior to the transmission, and a forward error correcting code. In addition, the satellite architecture is described taking into account optical and radiofrequency payloads as well as their interfaces.

  15. Useful forms of the Hamiltonian for ion-optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.G.

    1991-04-01

    The symbiosis of differential algebra and the Lie-algebraic formulation of optics provides a set of very powerful tools for analyzing and understanding the orbit dynamics of complex accelerators up to very high orders. In order to use these tools effectively it is usually necessary to express the Hamiltonian in the appropriate coordinate system. In this report, the relativistic Hamiltonian is derived in curvilinear (the fundamental coordinate system for ion-optics), Cartesian and polar coordinates, in forms suitable for solving problems in ion optics and accelerator physics both with and without the help of differential algebra

  16. Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano-Photonics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    freedoms) 3 (3) Carried out initial research work related to semiconductor membrane transfer printing. Based on the customer designed PDMS stamp...for optical characterization and membrane printing/assembly. The system has the following features: Micro-precision alignment with integrated 50 nm...a FL300-12 Automated Alignment System was acquired from Ficontec (USA) Corporation for optical characterization and membrane printing/assembly. The

  17. Laser Transmitters for the optical link systems used in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    In the CMS experiment of the now new flagship LHC optical links will be used for the tracker readout system. One part of this components will be semiconductor laser (~50.000 !!!), named correctly: 1310 nm InGaAsP (DCPBH-MQW) edge-emitting laser. They are foreseen as transmitter in the Tx Hybrid part of the optical link system.

  18. Electrical biopsy of irradiated intestinal tissue with a simple electrical impedance spectroscopy system for radiation enteropathy in rats—a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yu-Jie; Lu, Yi-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Eng-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Electrical impedance is one of the most often used parameters for characterizing material properties, especially in biomedical applications. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), used for revealing both resistive and capacitive characteristics, is good for use in tissue characterization. In this study, a portable and simple EIS system based on a commercially available chip was used to assess rat intestinal tissues following irradiation. The EIS results were fitted to a resistor and capacitor electrical circuit model to solve the electrical properties of the tissue. The variation in the tissue's electrical characteristics was compared to the morphological and histological findings. From the experimental results, it was clear that the electrical properties, based on receiver operation curve analysis, demonstrated good detection performance relative to the histological changes. The electrical parameters of the tissues could be used to distinguish the tissue's status for investigation, which introduced a concept of 'electrical biopsy', and this 'electrical biopsy' approach may be used to complement histological examinations

  19. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limitedshort-wavelength optical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman,Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli,Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-08-03

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-{angstrom} and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date.

  20. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limited short-wavelength optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman, Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli, Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-01-01

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-(angstrom) and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date

  1. A new approach for the verification of optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Umair; Aravantinos, Vincent; Tahar, Sofiène

    2013-09-01

    Optical systems are increasingly used in microsystems, telecommunication, aerospace and laser industry. Due to the complexity and sensitivity of optical systems, their verification poses many challenges to engineers. Tra­ditionally, the analysis of such systems has been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and numerical computations. However, these techniques cannot provide perfectly accurate results due to the risk of human error and inherent approximations of numerical algorithms. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to use theorem proving (i.e., a computer-based technique that allows to express mathematical expressions and reason about them by taking into account all the details of mathematical reasoning) as an alternative to computational and numerical approaches to improve optical system analysis in a comprehensive framework. In particular, this paper provides a higher-order logic (a language used to express mathematical theories) formalization of ray optics in the HOL Light theorem prover. Based on the multivariate analysis library of HOL Light, we formalize the notion of light ray and optical system (by defining medium interfaces, mirrors, lenses, etc.), i.e., we express these notions mathematically in the software. This allows us to derive general theorems about the behavior of light in such optical systems. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness, we present the stability analysis of a Fabry-Perot resonator.

  2. Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dezhong; Xiong Jun; Wang Kaige

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the geometrical optics of correlated imaging for two kinds of spatial correlations corresponding, respectively, to a classical thermal light source and a quantum two-photon entangled source. Due to the different features in the second-order spatial correlation, the two sources obey different imaging equations. The quantum entangled source behaves as a mirror, whereas the classical thermal source looks like a phase-conjugate mirror in the correlated imaging

  3. Interventional bleeding, hematoma and scar-formation after vacuum-biopsy under stereotactic guidance: Mammotome®-system 11g/8g vs. ATEC®-system 12g/9g

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, F.K.W.; Order, B.M.; Eckmann-Scholz, C.; Strauss, A.; Hilpert, F.; Kroj, K.; Biernath-Wüpping, J.; Heller, M.; Jonat, W.; Schaefer, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the correlation of scar-formations after vacuum-assisted biopsy with different systems and needle-sizes and interventional bleeding/post-interventional hematoma. Methods and materials: Between 01/2008 and 12/2009, 479 patients underwent vacuum-assisted biopsy under stereotactic-guidance, using the Mammotome ® -system with 11/8-gauge and ATEC ® -system with 12/9-gauge, whereas in 178 cases with representative benign histology no surgical-biopsy after vacuum-assisted biopsy was performed and at least a 2-plane-follow-up-mammogram after 6 month post-vacuum-assisted biopsy was available. Bleeding during intervention, hematoma post-intervention and scar-tissue was scored as minimal and moderate/severe. Statistical analysis included Chi-Square-trend-test, p-value ® -system vs. 11-gauge-Mammotome ® -system (41.9% vs. 8.4%, p ® -systems 9-gauge vs. 12-gauge (26.9% vs. 29.7%, p = 0.799/42.3% vs. 43.2%, p = 0.596). 11-gauge-Mammotome ® -system vs. ATEC ® -12-gauge-system revealed significantly less bleedings/hematomas (8.4% vs. 29.7%, p = 0.015/16.7% vs. 43.2%, p = 0.001), no significant differences for the large-systems (p = 0.135/p = 0.352). Follow-up of Mammotome ® -11/8-gauge-system system has shown 13.1/16.1% minimal scar-formation and 1.2/3.2% moderate/severe scars, whereas ATEC ® -12/9-gauge-system has shown 10.8/3.8% minimal scar-formation and 0/11.5% moderate/severe scars, no significant differences. No significant difference was found when comparing Mammotome ® -11/8-g-systems vs. ATEC ® -12/9-g-systems (p = 0.609/p = 0.823). There was also no correlation between risk of scar-formation after occurrence of bleeding or hematoma with any examined VAB-system or any needle size in this study (p = 0.800). Conclusion: Using larger needle-sizes significantly (Mammotome ®) /not significant for ATEC ® ) more interventional bleedings and post-interventional hematomas were detected, only a tendency concerning scar-formation.

  4. Measurement of diabetic wounds with optical coherence tomography-based air-jet indentation system and a material testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M-C; Cheung, K-K; Ng, G Y-F; Zheng, Y-P; Cheing, G L-Y

    2015-11-01

    Material testing system is a conventional but destructive method for measuring the biomechanical properties of wound tissues in basic research. The recently developed optical coherence tomography-based air-jet indentation system is a non-destructive method for measuring these properties of soft tissues in a non-contact manner. The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between the biomechanical properties of wound tissues measured by the two systems. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic were wounded by a 6 mm biopsy punch on their hind limbs. The biomechanical properties of wound tissues were assessed with the two systems on post-wounding days 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21. Wound sections were stained with picro-sirius red for analysis on the collagen fibres. Data obtained on the different days were charted to obtain the change in biomechanical properties across the time points, and then pooled to examine the correlation between measurements made by the two devices. Qualitative analysis to determine any correlation between indentation stiffness measured by the air-jet indentation system and the orientation of collagen fibres. The indentation stiffness is significantly negatively correlated to the maximum load, maximum tensile stress, and Young's modulus by the material testing system (all pair-jet indentation system to evaluate the biomechanical properties of wounds in a non-contact manner. It is a potential clinical device to examine the biomechanical properties of chronic wounds in vivo in a repeatable manner.

  5. Variable-length code construction for incoherent optical CDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Yung; Jhou, Jhih-Syue; Wen, Jyh-Horng

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the multirate transmission in fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. In this article, we propose a variable-length code construction for any existing optical orthogonal code to implement a multirate optical CDMA system (called as the multirate code system). For comparison, a multirate system where the lower-rate user sends each symbol twice is implemented and is called as the repeat code system. The repetition as an error-detection code in an ARQ scheme in the repeat code system is also investigated. Moreover, a parallel approach for the optical CDMA systems, which is proposed by Marić et al., is also compared with other systems proposed in this study. Theoretical analysis shows that the bit error probability of the proposed multirate code system is smaller than other systems, especially when the number of lower-rate users is large. Moreover, if there is at least one lower-rate user in the system, the multirate code system accommodates more users than other systems when the error probability of system is set below 10 -9.

  6. Iterative Decoding for an Optical CDMA based Laser communication System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Cheol; Cha, Jae Sang

    2008-01-01

    An optical CDMA(code division multiple access)based Laser communication system has attracted much attention since it requires minimal optical Laser signal processing and it is virtually delay free, while from the theoretical point of view, its performance depends on the auto and cross correlation properties of employed sequences. Various kinds of channel coding schemes for optical CDMA based Laser communication systems have been proposed and analyzed to compensate nonideal channel and receiver conditions in impaired photon channels. In this paper, we propose and analyze an iterative decoding of optical CDMA based Laser communication signals for both shot noise limited and thermal noise limited systems. It is assumed that optical channel is an intensity modulated (IM)channel and direct detection scheme is employed to detect the received optical signal. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error probability and throughput. It is demonstrated that the BER and throughput performance is substantially improved with interleaver length for a fixed code rate and with alphabet size of PPM (pulse position modulation). Also, the BER and throughput performance is significantly enhanced with the number of iterations for decoding process. The results in this paper can be applied to the optical CDMA based Laser communication network with multiple access applications

  7. Iterative Decoding for an Optical CDMA based Laser communication System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Cheol [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Sang [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    An optical CDMA(code division multiple access)based Laser communication system has attracted much attention since it requires minimal optical Laser signal processing and it is virtually delay free, while from the theoretical point of view, its performance depends on the auto and cross correlation properties of employed sequences. Various kinds of channel coding schemes for optical CDMA based Laser communication systems have been proposed and analyzed to compensate nonideal channel and receiver conditions in impaired photon channels. In this paper, we propose and analyze an iterative decoding of optical CDMA based Laser communication signals for both shot noise limited and thermal noise limited systems. It is assumed that optical channel is an intensity modulated (IM)channel and direct detection scheme is employed to detect the received optical signal. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error probability and throughput. It is demonstrated that the BER and throughput performance is substantially improved with interleaver length for a fixed code rate and with alphabet size of PPM (pulse position modulation). Also, the BER and throughput performance is significantly enhanced with the number of iterations for decoding process. The results in this paper can be applied to the optical CDMA based Laser communication network with multiple access applications.

  8. Specification and testing of optics for LIS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sunita; Sridhar, G.; Rawat, V.S.; Gantayet, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Optical component specification for the high average power lasers and laser beam transport system used in the laser isotope separation demonstration facility must address demanding system performance requirements. In a typical demonstration facility a few thousand of commercial and custom optical components are required. The optical system is expected to perform at a high level of optical efficiency and reliability. Evaluation and testing of optical components used in LIS plant is critical for qualification of suppliers and assurance of performance in the actual process. The stringent specifications require specialized test equipment and techniques, which are not routine. Careful planning with the optics manufacturer, detailed quality assurance plan, comprehensive procedures for testing and evaluation, and a plan for corrective action are required. The specifications are given on material characteristics, surface quality and flatness, reflectance or transmittance and high average power laser damage. Our approach to specifying, testing the performance characteristics and assuring quality of optical components required for the technology demonstration of laser based isotopic clean-up of 233 U project is presented. (author)

  9. TV-acquired optical diagnostics systems on ATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.; Chong, Y.P.; Cornish, J.P.; Jackson, C.H.; Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on optical system developments on the ATA and their applications to ATA beam characterization. Television (TV)-acquired optical diagnostics data provide spatial and temporal properties of the ATA beam that complements recorded information from other types of sensors, such as, beam-wall current monitors, x-ray probes, and rf probes. The ATA beam operates: (1) in the normal mode at 50-MeV, 10-kA at a 1-Hz rate; and (2) in the 1-KHz burst mode (for 10-pulses) at a 0.5 Hz rate. The beam has a 70-ns pulse width in vacuum propagation; however, beam-head erosion will occur in atmospheric propagation, thus limiting the pulse width to less than 50-ns. Various optical systems are used for ATA diagnostics. Optical-imaging provides a convenient measurement in a single pulse of the 2-dimensional profile of the beam intensity. It can also provide multiple 2-D framing in a single pulse. In some studies it may be desirable to study optical events with temporal resolution less than 100-ps with 1-dimensional streak cameras. Spatially integrated data from phototube cameras can also be used for background measurement applications as well as for single pixel monitoring. The optical line-of-sight (LOS) configurations have been made versatile to accommodate a large number of options for the various optical systems

  10. Research on Retro-reflecting Modulation in Space Optical Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifeng; Wang, Guannan

    2018-01-01

    Retro-reflecting modulation space optical communication is a new type of free space optical communication technology. Unlike traditional free space optical communication system, it applys asymmetric optical systems to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of the system and can effectively solve the limits of traditional free space optical communication system application, so it can achieve the information transmission. This paper introduces the composition and working principle of retro-reflecting modulation optical communication system, analyzes the link budget of this system, reviews the types of optical system and optical modulator, summarizes this technology future research direction and application prospects.

  11. The control of an optical hyper-chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shumin; Tian Lixin; Wang Xuedi

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of hyper-chaos control of an optical system. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, a non-autonomous feedback controller is designed. The proposed controller ensures that the hyper-chaotic system will be asymptotically stable. Numerical simulation of the original and the controlled system is provided to show the effectiveness of our method

  12. A computer program to evaluate optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, D.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program is used to evaluate a 25.4 cm X-ray telescope at a field angle of 20 minutes of arc by geometrical analysis. The object is regarded as a point source of electromagnetic radiation, and the optical surfaces are treated as boundary conditions in the solution of the electromagnetic wave propagation equation. The electric field distribution is then determined in the region of the image and the intensity distribution inferred. A comparison of wave analysis results and photographs taken through the telescope shows excellent agreement.

  13. Testing methodologies and systems for semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckowski, Michael

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA's) are gaining increased prominence in both optical communication systems and high-speed optical processing systems, due primarily to their unique nonlinear characteristics. This in turn, has raised questions regarding their lifetime performance reliability and has generated a demand for effective testing techniques. This is especially critical for industries utilizing SOA's as components for system-in-package products. It is important to note that very little research to date has been conducted in this area, even though production volume and market demand has continued to increase. In this thesis, the reliability of dilute-mode InP semiconductor optical amplifiers is studied experimentally and theoretically. The aging characteristics of the production level devices are demonstrated and the necessary techniques to accurately characterize them are presented. In addition, this work proposes a new methodology for characterizing the optical performance of these devices using measurements in the electrical domain. It is shown that optical performance degradation, specifically with respect to gain, can be directly qualified through measurements of electrical subthreshold differential resistance. This metric exhibits a linear proportionality to the defect concentration in the active region, and as such, can be used for prescreening devices before employing traditional optical testing methods. A complete theoretical analysis is developed in this work to explain this relationship based upon the device's current-voltage curve and its associated leakage and recombination currents. These results are then extended to realize new techniques for testing semiconductor optical amplifiers and other similarly structured devices. These techniques can be employed after fabrication and during packaged operation through the use of a proposed stand-alone testing system, or using a proposed integrated CMOS self-testing circuit. Both methods are capable

  14. Fiber-Optic Monitoring System of Particle Counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Titov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a fiber-optic system to monitor the counters of particles. Presently, optical counters of particles, which are often arranged at considerable distance from each other, are used to study the saltation phenomenon. For monitoring the counters, can be used electric communication lines.However, it complicates and raises the price of system Therefore, we offered a fiber-optic system and the counter of particles, free from these shortcomings. The difference between the offered counter of particles and the known one is that the input of radiation to the counter and the output of radiation scattering on particles are made by the optical fibers, and direct radiation is entered the optical fiber rather than is delayed by a light trap and can be used for lighting the other counters thereby allowing to use their connection in series.The work involved a choice of the quartz multimode optical fiber for communication, defining the optical fiber and lenses parameters of the counter of particles, and a selection of the radiation source and the photo-detector.Using the theory of light diffraction on a particle, a measuring range of the particle sizes has been determined. The system speed has been estimated, and it has been shown that a range of communication can reach 200km.It should be noted that modulation noise of counters of particles connected in series have the impact on the useful signal. To assess the extent of this influence we have developed a calculation procedure to illustrate that with ten counters connected in series this influence on the signal-to-noise ratio will be insignificant.Thus, it has been shown that the offered fiber-optic system can be used for monitoring the counters of particles across the desertified territories. 

  15. The Wigner distribution function and Hamilton's characteristics of a geometric-optical system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Four system functions have been defined for an optical system; each of these functions describes the system completely in terms of Fourier optics. From the system functions the Wigner distribution function of an optical system has been defined; although derived from Fourier optics, this Wigner

  16. Optical components of adaptive systems for improving laser beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhov, Yuri I.; Atuchin, Victor V.; Kudryashov, Aleksis V.; Starikov, Fedor A.

    2008-10-01

    The short overview is given of optical equipment developed within the ISTC activity for adaptive systems of new generation allowing for correction of high-power laser beams carrying optical vortices onto the phase surface. They are the kinoform many-level optical elements of new generation, namely, special spiral phase plates and ordered rasters of microlenses, i.e. lenslet arrays, as well as the wide-aperture Hartmann-Shack sensors and bimorph deformable piezoceramics- based mirrors with various grids of control elements.

  17. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; Edstrom, Steve; Gilevich, Sasha; Glownia, James M.; Granados, Eduardo; Hering, Philippe; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Miahnahri, Alan; Milathianaki, Despina; Polzin, Wayne; Ratner, Daniel; Tavella, Franz; Vetter, Sharon; Welch, Marc; White, William E.; Fry, Alan R., E-mail: alanfry@slac.stanford.edu [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-22

    This manuscript serves as a reference to describe the optical laser sources and capabilities at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  18. Performance evaluation of an IMDD optical OFDM-CDMA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatli, Sofien; Mrabet, Hichem; Giacoumidis, Elias; Dayoub, Iyad

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a modulation technique for passive optical networks that harnesses two-dimensional prime hop system optical code division multiplexing access (OCDMA) and optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) for intensity modulation with direct-detection (IMDD) to enhance users' signal capacity in a cost-effective manner. The theoretical analysis is built from an analytical formula that takes into account both multiple-access interference and photodetector noise. Results show that OFDM-OCDMA with multiple users has similar performance to single-user conventional OOFDM for low transmitted powers.

  19. System Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Optical Broadband Correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-20

    shear-mode TeO2 , Model No. N45075-6-20, manufactured by Newport Electro- Optic Systems with a length of 75 pjs, acoustic direction 1110], optical...optical aperture (or useful length) TOA of our cells are shown in Table 3. The Bragg cells are shear-mode TeO2 , Model No. N45075-6-20, manufactured by...focusing or integrating (Fourier transform) lens is a laser diode glass doublet Model 06LAI013/076, from Melles Griot. Its focal length is 145 nun at 830

  20. A removable optical sealing system for application to international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.E.

    1985-06-01

    A removable, optically verifiable sealing system for CANDU spent fuel storage facilities has been developed. The seal is based on the use of unique crystal patterns formed in a pure metal identity/integrity element and has been designed for easy installation and removal using simple tooling. Since the seal is optically verified, a wide range of commercial instruments, including those in use by the IAEA, can be used to verify it. Futhermore, optical verification allows the level of scrutiny to be matched with the degree of confidence required to be confident that spent fuel has not been diverted

  1. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  2. The Impact Of Optical Storage Technology On Image Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garges, Daniel T.; Durbin, Gerald T.

    1984-09-01

    The recent announcement of commercially available high density optical storage devices will have a profound impact on the information processing industry. Just as the initial introduction of random access storage created entirely new processing strategies, optical technology will allow dramatic changes in the storage, retrieval, and dissemination of engineering drawings and other pictorial or text-based documents. Storage Technology Corporation has assumed a leading role in this arena with the introduction of the 7600 Optical Storage Subsystem, and the formation of StorageTek Integrated Systems, a subsidiary chartered to incorporate this new technology into deliverable total systems. This paper explores the impact of optical storage technology from the perspective of a leading-edge manufacturer and integrator.

  3. Respiratory monitoring system based on fiber optic macro bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri; Widyakinanti, Astari; Dhia, Arika; Gumelar, Muhammad Raditya; Widianto, Arif; Randy, Muhammad; Soedibyo, Harry

    2018-02-01

    We proposed a respiratory monitoring system for living activities in human body based on fiber optic macro-bending for laboratory scale. The respiration sensor consists of a single-mode optical fiber and operating on a wavelength at around 1550 nm. The fiber optic was integrated into an elastic fabric placed on the chest and stomach of the monitored human subject. Deformations of the flexible textile involving deformations of the fiber optic bending curvature, which was proportional to the chest and stomach expansion. The deformation of the fiber was detected using photodetector and processed using microcontroller PIC18F14K50. The results showed that this system able to display various respiration pattern and rate for sleeping, and after walking and running activities in real time.

  4. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam Y

    2009-01-01

    Designed for a one-semester course on fiber-optics systems and communication links, this book provides a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers.

  5. Nodal aberration theory for wild-filed asymmetric optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.

  6. A fiber optic synchronization system for LUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.; Staples, J.W.; Doolittle, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    The LUX femtosecond light source concept would support pump-probe experiments that need to synchronize laser light pulses with electron-beam-generated X-ray pulses to less than 50 fs at the experimenter endstations. To synchronize multiple endstation lasers with the X-ray pulse, we are developing a fiber-distributed optical timing network. A high frequency clock signal is distributed via fiber to RF cavities (controlling X-ray probe pulse timing) and mode-locked lasers at endstations (controlling pump pulse timing). The superconducting cavities are actively locked to the optical clock phase. Most of the RF timing error is contained within a 10 kHz bandwidth, so these errors and any others affecting X-ray pulse timing (such as RF gun phase) can be detected and transmitted digitally to correct laser timing at the endstations. Time delay through the fibers will be stabilized by comparing a retro-reflected pulse from the experimenter endstation end with a reference pulse from the sending en d, and actively controlling the fiber length

  7. Threshold-Based Multiple Optical Signal Selection Scheme for Free-Space Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Zhang, Lin; Ko, Young-Chai

    2017-01-01

    We propose a threshold-based multiple optical signal selection scheme (TMOS) for free-space optical wavelength division multiplexing systems. With this scheme, we can obtain higher spectral efficiency while reducing the possible complexity

  8. OPTICALLY BASED CHARGE INJECTION SYSTEM FOR IONIZATION DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHEN, H.; CITTERIO, M.; LANNI, F.; LEITE, M.A.L.; RADEKA, V.; RESCIA, S.; TAKAI, H.

    2001-01-01

    An optically coupled charge injection system for ionization based radiation detectors which allows a test charge to be injected without the creation of ground loops has been developed. An ionization like signal from an external source is brought into the detector through an optical fiber and injected into the electrodes by means of a photodiode. As an application example, crosstalk measurements on a liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter readout electrodes were performed

  9. Logarithmic axicon characterized by scanning optical probe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhaolou; Wang, Keyi; Wu, Qinglin

    2013-05-15

    A scanning optical probe system is proposed to measure a logarithmic axicon (LA) with subwavelength resolution. Multiple plane intensity profiles measured by a fiber probe are interpreted by solving an optimization problem to get the phase retardation function (PRF) of the LA. Experimental results show that this approach can accurately obtain the PRF with which the optical path difference of the generated quasi-nondiffracting beam in the propagation is calculated.

  10. Nonlinear Fourier transform for dual-polarization optical communication system

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiarin, Simone

    2018-01-01

    New services and applications are causing an exponential increase in the internet traffic. In a few years, the current fiber-optic communication system infrastructure will not be able to meet this demand because fiber nonlinearity dramatically limits the information transmission rate. Eigenvalue communication is considered an emerging paradigm in fiber-optic communications that could potentially overcome these limitations. It relies on a mathematical technique called “inverse scattering trans...

  11. Beam transport optics for high-power laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Beam transport optics receive output energy from the laser cavity and deliver it to the work site. Depending on the application, this may require a few simple elements or large complex systems. Collection of the laser energy depends on the spatial and temporal energy distribution as well as the wavelength and polarization of the laser cavity and output coupler. Transport optics can perform a variety of functions, including beam formatting, frequency doubling, and distribution to one or more work sites while maintaining or even improving the beam quality. The beam may be delivered to work sites as focused spots or images, projected to distant targets, or propagated through various media for sensing or photochemical processing. Design may involve optical modeling of the system, including diffraction effects and thermal management. A Gaussian beam profile is often used for convenience in modeling. When deviations from this ideal profile need to be considered, it is necessary to characterize the laser beam in detail. Design of the transport system requires understanding of the interaction of the laser energy with optical materials and components. Practical considerations include mounting the optics without stress and with the stability suitable for the intended application. Requirements for beam direction, stability, size, shape, and quality dictate the design approach for each specific situation. Attention also must be given to reliability, environmental, and commercial requirements. Damage to optics in high-power laser systems is a common concern. Environmental problems such as atmospheric turbulence, contamination by dust or vapor from the work site or other sources, or absorption of water vapor can directly degrade beam quality. Other potentially significant optical performance effects may result from instability and aging of the optics, temperature, humidity, pressure, transmitted vibration, and contamination from the work site or other sources

  12. All-optical delay technique for supporting multiple antennas in a hybrid optical - wireless transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Chiuchiarelli, A; Presi, M

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency.......We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency....

  13. Digital optical correlator x-ray telescope alignment monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Tomasz; Gaskin, Jessica; Jasper, John; Gregory, Don A.

    2018-01-01

    The High-Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) program is a balloon-borne x-ray telescope mission to observe hard x-rays (˜20 to 70 keV) from the sun and multiple astrophysical targets. The payload consists of eight mirror modules with a total of 114 optics that are mounted on a 6-m-long optical bench. Each mirror module is complemented by a high-pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counter. Attached to the payload is a camera that acquires star fields and then matches the acquired field to star maps to determine the pointing of the optical bench. Slight misalignments between the star camera, the optical bench, and the telescope elements attached to the optical bench may occur during flight due to mechanical shifts, thermal gradients, and gravitational effects. These misalignments can result in diminished imaging and reduced photon collection efficiency. To monitor these misalignments during flight, a supplementary Bench Alignment Monitoring System (BAMS) was added to the payload. BAMS hardware comprises two cameras mounted directly to the optical bench and rings of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) mounted onto the telescope components. The LEDs in these rings are mounted in a predefined, asymmetric pattern, and their positions are tracked using an optical/digital correlator. The BAMS analysis software is a digital adaption of an optical joint transform correlator. The aim is to enhance the observational proficiency of HEROES while providing insight into the magnitude of mechanically and thermally induced misalignments during flight. Results from a preflight test of the system are reported.

  14. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does not need treatment. But ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition ... of the lung High blood pressure in the lung arteries Severe ...

  15. Closed Pericardial Biopsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-28

    Sep 28, 1974 ... The instrument used is a hook biopsy needle (Fig. I). manufactured by Becton, Dickinson and Co., Rutherford,. New Jersey, USA. The instrument' and technique' will be reviewed. The instrument consists of an ll-gauge needle with a sharp cutting edge into which fits, interchangeably, a 13-gauge needle or a ...

  16. CONE BIOPSY IN PREGNANCY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Mei 1971. S.-A. TYDSKRIF VIR OBSTETRIE EN GINEKOLOGIE. CONE BIOPSY ... of the abnormal cervix in pregnancy is also no longer in question following the .... the concept of cancer prophylaxis to the majority of women, many of whom ...

  17. Optical detection system for MEMS-type pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareło, K; Górecka-Drzazga, A; Dziuban, J A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a special optical detection system designed for a MEMS-type (micro-electro-mechanical system) silicon pressure sensor is presented. The main part of the optical system—a detection unit with a perforated membrane—is bonded to the silicon sensor, and placed in a measuring system. An external light source illuminates the membrane of the pressure sensor. Owing to the light reflected from the deflected membrane sensor, the optical pattern consisting of light points is visible, and pressure can be estimated. The optical detection unit (20   ×   20   ×   20.4 mm 3 ) is fabricated using microengineering techniques. Its dimensions are adjusted to the dimensions of the pressure sensor (5   ×   5 mm 2 silicon membrane). Preliminary tests of the optical detection unit integrated with the silicon pressure sensor are carried out. For the membrane sensor from 15 to 60 µm thick, a repeatable detection of the differential pressure in the range of 0 to 280 kPa is achieved. The presented optical microsystem is especially suitable for the pressure measurements in a high radiation environment. (paper)

  18. Transbronchial biopsies safely diagnose amyloid lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Praveen; Keyes, Colleen M.; Hankinson, Elizabeth A.; O’Hara, Carl J.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Berk, John L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Autopsy identifies lung involvement in 58–92% of patients with the most prevalent forms of systemic amyloidoses. In the absence of lung biopsies, amyloid lung disease often goes unrecognized. Report of a death following transbronchial biopsies in a patient with systemic amyloidosis cautioned against the procedure in this patient cohort. We reviewed our experience with transbronchial biopsies in patients with amyloidosis to determine the safety and utility of bronchoscopic lung biopsies. Methods We identified patients referred to the Amyloidosis Center at Boston Medical Center with lung amyloidosis diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsies (TBBX). Amyloid typing was determined by immunohistochemistry or mass spectrometry. Standard end organ assessments, including pulmonary function test (PFT) and chest tomography (CT) imaging, and extra-thoracic biopsies established the extent of disease. Results Twenty-five (21.7%) of 115 patients with lung amyloidosis were diagnosed by TBBX. PFT classified 33.3% with restrictive physiology, 28.6% with obstructive disease, and 9.5% mixed physiology; 9.5% exhibited isolated diffusion defects while 19% had normal pulmonary testing. Two view chest or CT imaging identified focal opacities in 52% of cases and diffuse interstitial disease in 48%. Amyloid type and disease extent included 68% systemic AL disease, 16% localized (lung limited) AL disease, 12% ATTR disease, and 4% AA amyloidosis. Fluoroscopy was not used during biopsy. No procedure complications were reported. Conclusions Our case series of 25 patients supports the use of bronchoscopic transbronchial biopsies for diagnosis of parenchymal lung amyloidosis. Normal PFTs do not rule out the histologic presence of amyloid lung disease. PMID:28393574

  19. Optical response in a laser-driven quantum pseudodot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, D. Gul [Physics Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S., E-mail: serpil.sakiroglu@deu.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U. [Department of Optical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Kasapoglu, E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sari, H. [Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sokmen, I. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey)

    2017-03-15

    We investigate theoretically the intense laser-induced optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a two-dimensional quantum pseudodot system under an uniform magnetic field. The effects of non-resonant, monochromatic intense laser field upon the system are treated within the framework of high-frequency Floquet approach in which the system is supposed to be governed by a laser-dressed potential. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients and relative changes in the refractive index are obtained by means of the compact-density matrix approach and iterative method. The results of numerical calculations for a typical GaAs quantum dot reveal that the optical response depends strongly on the magnitude of external magnetic field and characteristic parameters of the confinement potential. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the intense laser field modifies the confinement and thereby causes remarkable changes in the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the system.

  20. Optical response in a laser-driven quantum pseudodot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, D. Gul; Sakiroglu, S.; Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sokmen, I.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the intense laser-induced optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a two-dimensional quantum pseudodot system under an uniform magnetic field. The effects of non-resonant, monochromatic intense laser field upon the system are treated within the framework of high-frequency Floquet approach in which the system is supposed to be governed by a laser-dressed potential. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients and relative changes in the refractive index are obtained by means of the compact-density matrix approach and iterative method. The results of numerical calculations for a typical GaAs quantum dot reveal that the optical response depends strongly on the magnitude of external magnetic field and characteristic parameters of the confinement potential. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the intense laser field modifies the confinement and thereby causes remarkable changes in the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the system.

  1. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Gallman, P.G.; Slotwinski, A.R.; Wagner, K.; Weaver, S.; Xu, Jieping

    1996-01-01

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution

  2. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  3. Microstructured optical fibers for gas sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, William Albert; Choudhury, Niloy; Palit, Sabarni

    2017-10-17

    Microstructured optical fiber (MOF) includes a cladding extending a length between first and second ends. The cladding includes an inner porous microstructure that at least partially surrounds a hollow core. A perimeter contour of the hollow core has a non-uniform radial distance from a center axis of the cladding such that first segments of the cladding along the perimeter contour have a shorter radial distance from the center axis relative to second segments of the cladding along the perimeter contour. The cladding receives and propagates light energy through the hollow core, and the inner porous microstructure substantially confines the light energy within the hollow core. The cladding defines at least one port hole that extends radially from an exterior surface of the cladding to the hollow core. Each port hole penetrates the perimeter contour of the hollow core through one of the second segments of the cladding.

  4. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system

  5. Optimization of a particle optical system in a mutilprocessor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Lei; Yin Hanchun; Wang Baoping; Tong Linsu

    2002-01-01

    In the design of a charged particle optical system, many geometrical and electric parameters have to be optimized to improve the performance characteristics. In every optimization cycle, the electromagnetic field and particle trajectories have to be calculated. Therefore, the optimization of a charged particle optical system is limited by the computer resources seriously. Apart from this, numerical errors of calculation may also influence the convergence of merit function. This article studies how to improve the optimization of charged particle optical systems. A new method is used to determine the gradient matrix. With this method, the accuracy of the Jacobian matrix can be improved. In this paper, the charged particle optical system is optimized with a Message Passing Interface (MPI). The electromagnetic field, particle trajectories and gradients of optimization variables are calculated on networks of workstations. Therefore, the speed of optimization has been increased largely. It is possible to design a complicated charged particle optical system with optimum quality on a MPI environment. Finally, an electron gun for a cathode ray tube has been optimized on a MPI environment to verify the method proposed in this paper

  6. Optical transfection using an endoscope-like system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Gunn-Moore, Frank; Dholakia, Kishan

    2011-02-01

    Optical transfection is a powerful method for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to biological cells. A tightly focused pulsed laser beam may transiently change the permeability of a cell membrane to facilitate the delivery of foreign genetic material into cells. We report the first realization of an endoscope-like integrated system for optical transfection. An imaging fiber (coherent optical fiber bundle) with ∼ 6000 cores (pixels) embedded in a fiber cladding of ∼ 300 μm in diameter, produces an image circle (area) of ∼ 270 μm diam. This imaging fiber, with an ordered axicon lens array chemically etched at its exit face, is used for the delivery of a femtosecond laser to the cell membrane for optical transfection along with subcellular resolution imaging. A microcapillary-based microfluidic system for localized drug delivery was also combined in this miniature, flexible system. Using this novel system, a plasmid transfection efficiency up to ∼ 72% was obtained for CHO-K1 cells. This endoscope-like system opens a range of exciting applications, in particular, in the targeted in vivo optical microsurgery area.

  7. Computed tomography guidance for skeletal biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frager, D.H.; Goldman, M.J.; Elkin, C.M.; Cynamon, J.; Leeds, N.E.; Seimon, L.P.; Habermann, E.T.; Schreiber, K.; Freeman, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) guided biopsy and abscess drainage of multiple organ systems have been well described. Reports of spinal and skeletal applications have been less common. This study describes the use of CT guidance in the biopsy of various skeletal lesions in 46 patients. Forty-one patients had skinny needle aspirations (18 or 22 gauge) and 23 patients had trephine core biopsies. Sites of the lesions included: thoracic spine - 15 patients, lumbosacral spine - 17 patients, bony pelvis - 6 patients, rib - 2 patients, and long bones - 6 patients. Fast scanners capable of rapid image reconstruction have overcome many constraints. With CT guidance, the physician who performs the procedure receives virtually no ionizing radiation. The exact location of the needle tip is accurately visualized in relation to the lesion being biopsied and to the vital organs. (orig.)

  8. Performance of an optical identification and interrogation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, A.; Ghosh, A. K.; Verma, P.; Cheng, S.

    2008-04-01

    A free space optics based identification and interrogation system has been designed. The applications of the proposed system lie primarily in areas which require a secure means of mutual identification and information exchange between optical readers and tags. Conventional RFIDs raise issues regarding security threats, electromagnetic interference and health safety. The security of RF-ID chips is low due to the wide spatial spread of radio waves. Malicious nodes can read data being transmitted on the network, if they are in the receiving range. The proposed system provides an alternative which utilizes the narrow paraxial beams of lasers and an RSA-based authentication scheme. These provide enhanced security to communication between a tag and the base station or reader. The optical reader can also perform remote identification and the tag can be read from a far off distance, given line of sight. The free space optical identification and interrogation system can be used for inventory management, security systems at airports, port security, communication with high security systems, etc. to name a few. The proposed system was implemented with low-cost, off-the-shelf components and its performance in terms of throughput and bit error rate has been measured and analyzed. The range of operation with a bit-error-rate lower than 10-9 was measured to be about 4.5 m. The security of the system is based on the strengths of the RSA encryption scheme implemented using more than 1024 bits.

  9. Kansas Communication and Instruction System through Fiber-Optic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Schools and communities will restructure as they move into the next decade. The success of this restructuring will be dependent upon access to and sharing of quality teaching and information through an expanded communication system. One of the major two-way interactive technologies is the fiber-optic cable: a delivery system that will provide…

  10. Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten

    2003-01-01

    The thesis deals with the design and fabrication of semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. The properties of pulse sources and characterization methods are described as well as requirements for application in communication systems. Especially, the importance of...

  11. Performance Analysis of Optical Code Division Multiplex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Bhatia, Kamaljit Singh

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the Pseudo-Orthogonal Code generator for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system which helps to reduce the need of bandwidth expansion and improve spectral efficiency. In this paper we investigate the performance of multi-user OCDMA system to achieve data rate more than 1 Tbit/s.

  12. Optical bus of centralized relay protection and automation system of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article deals with the system of information collection and transfer from a centralized relay protection and automation system for medium voltage electrical units based on a passive optical bus. The issues of electromagnetic compatibility of technical devices are also considered, and the intensity of electromagnetic ...

  13. First-order optical systems with unimodular eigenvalues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Alieva, T.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that a lossless first-order optical system whose real symplectic ray transformation matrix can be diagonalized and has only unimodular eigenvalues, is similar to a separable fractional Fourier transformer in the sense that the ray transformation matrices of the unimodular system and the

  14. Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, Don

    The total system capability, including all the special purpose and general purpose hardware comprising the Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation (AEOSS) System, is described. The functional relationship between hardware portions is described together with interface to the software portion of the computer image generation. Supporting rationale…

  15. Quantitative analysis of eyes and other optical systems in linear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William F; Evans, Tanya; van Gool, Radboud D

    2017-05-01

    To show that 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics, matrices obtained from the ray transference, are suitable for quantitative analysis although only the latter define an inner-product space and only on it can one define distances and angles. The paper examines the nature of the spaces and their relationships to other spaces including symmetric dioptric power space. The paper makes use of linear optics, a three-dimensional generalization of Gaussian optics. Symmetric 2 × 2 dioptric power matrices F define a three-dimensional inner-product space which provides a sound basis for quantitative analysis (calculation of changes, arithmetic means, etc.) of refractive errors and thin systems. For general systems the optical character is defined by the dimensionally-heterogeneous 4 × 4 symplectic matrix S, the transference, or if explicit allowance is made for heterocentricity, the 5 × 5 augmented symplectic matrix T. Ordinary quantitative analysis cannot be performed on them because matrices of neither of these types constitute vector spaces. Suitable transformations have been proposed but because the transforms are dimensionally heterogeneous the spaces are not naturally inner-product spaces. The paper obtains 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics. The 14-dimensional space defined by the augmented angle characteristics Q is dimensionally homogenous and an inner-product space. A 10-dimensional subspace of the space of augmented point characteristics P is also an inner-product space. The spaces are suitable for quantitative analysis of the optical character of eyes and many other systems. Distances and angles can be defined in the inner-product spaces. The optical systems may have multiple separated astigmatic and decentred refracting elements. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  16. Turnkey Optical Inspection Systems: Getting The Job Done Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Burton D.

    1988-05-01

    A turnkey optical inspection system is one for which the vendor, not the customer, assumes the responsibility for ensuring that the system satisfies the customer's needs. This paper presents some of the pitfalls that are encountered in reaching the goal of mutual satisfaction of vendor and customer, based on experience with actual turnkey inspection and measurement systems that have been developed for industrial assembly operations. A "roadmap" is presented for achieving a turnkey system that is satisfactory to both vendor and customer.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsies may improve diagnosis in biopsy-naive men with suspicion of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Mads Dochedahl; Balslev, Ingegerd; Boesen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate whether a short prostate biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (bp-MRI) protocol provides a valuable diagnostic addition for biopsy guidance in biopsy-naive men with a suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: A total of 62...... biopsy-naive patients referred to a systematic transrectal ultrasound biopsy (TRUS-bx) due to suspicion of PCa were prospectively enrolled. Bp-MRI was performed before biopsy. All lesions were scored according to the modified Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2. All patients...

  18. Directional amplifier in an optomechanical system with optical gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng; Song, L. N.; Li, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Directional amplifiers are crucial nonreciprocal devices in both classical and quantum information processing. Here we propose a scheme for realizing a directional amplifier between optical and microwave fields based on an optomechanical system with optical gain, where an active optical cavity and two passive microwave cavities are coupled to a common mechanical resonator via radiation pressure. The two passive cavities are coupled via hopping interaction to facilitate the directional amplification between the active and passive cavities. We obtain the condition of achieving optical directional amplification and find that the direction of amplification can be controlled by the phase differences between the effective optomechanical couplings. The effects of the gain rate of the active cavity and the effective coupling strengths on the maximum gain of the amplifier are discussed. We show that the noise added to this amplifier can be greatly suppressed in the large cooperativity limit.

  19. Chinese National Optical Education Small Private Online Course system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XiaoJie; Lin, YuanFang; Liu, Xu; Liu, XiangDong; Cen, ZhaoFeng; Li, XiaoTong; Zheng, XiaoDong; Wang, XiaoPing

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the sharing of high quality course resources and promote the deep integration of `Internet+' higher education and talent training, a new on-line to off-line specialized courses teaching mode was explored in Chinese colleges and universities, which emphasized different teaching places, being organized asynchronously and localized. The latest progress of the Chinese National Optical Education Small Private On-line Course (CNOESPOC) system set up by Zhejiang University and other colleges and universities having disciplines in the field of optics and photonics under the guidance of the Chinese National Steering Committee of Optics and Photonics (CNSCOP) was introduced in this paper. The On-line to Off-line (O2O) optical education teaching resource sharing practice offers a new good example for higher education in China under the background of Internet +.

  20. Optical filtering in directly modulated/detected OOFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, C; Ortega, B; Wei, J L; Capmany, J

    2013-12-16

    This work presents a theoretical investigation on the performance of directly modulated/detected (DM/DD) optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OOFDM) systems subject to optical filtering. The impact of both linear and nonlinear distortion effects are taken into account to calculate the effective signal-to-noise ratio of each subcarrier. These results are then employed to optimize the design parameters of two simple optical filtering structures: a Mach Zehnder interferometer and a uniform fiber Bragg grating, leading to a significant optical power budget improvement given by 3.3 and 3dB, respectively. These can be further increased to 5.5 and 4.2dB respectively when balanced detection configurations are employed. We find as well that this improvement is highly dependent on the clipping ratio.

  1. Evaluation of Geometrical Modulation Transfer Function in Optical Lens System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Mu Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ray tracing algorithms to evaluate the geometrical modulation transfer function (GMTF of optical lens system. There are two kinds of ray tracings methods that can be applied to help simulate the point spread function (PSF in the image plane, for example, paraxial optics and real ray tracings. The paraxial optics ray tracing is used to calculate the first-order properties such as the effective focal length (EFL and the entrance pupil position through less cost of computation. However, the PSF could have a large tolerance by only using paraxial optics ray tracing for simulation. Some formulas for real ray tracing are applied in the sagittal and tangential line spread function (LSF. The algorithms are developed to demonstrate the simulation of LSF. Finally, the GMTF is evaluated after the fast Fourier transform (FFT of the LSF.

  2. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, A.

    2008-04-15

    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  3. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A.

    2008-04-01

    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  4. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, legal representative, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  5. Optical gain in an optically driven three-level ? system in atomic Rb vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, C. W.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we report experimentally achieved optical gain of a weak probe beam in a three-level ? system in a low density Rubidium vapor cell driven by a single pump beam. The maximum measured gain of the probe beam was about 0.12%. This work could lead to new approaches for enhancing molecular spectroscopy applications.

  6. System and Method for Multi-Wavelength Optical Signal Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Thomas D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The system and method for multi-wavelength optical signal detection enables the detection of optical signal levels significantly below those processed at the discrete circuit level by the use of mixed-signal processing methods implemented with integrated circuit technologies. The present invention is configured to detect and process small signals, which enables the reduction of the optical power required to stimulate detection networks, and lowers the required laser power to make specific measurements. The present invention provides an adaptation of active pixel networks combined with mixed-signal processing methods to provide an integer representation of the received signal as an output. The present invention also provides multi-wavelength laser detection circuits for use in various systems, such as a differential absorption light detection and ranging system.

  7. Note: Optical receiver system for 152-channel magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong [Center for Biosignals, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    An optical receiver system composing 13 serial data restore/synchronizer modules and a single module combiner converted optical 32-bit serial data into 32-bit synchronous parallel data for a computer to acquire 152-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. A serial data restore/synchronizer module identified 32-bit channel-voltage bits from 48-bit streaming serial data, and then consecutively reproduced 13 times of 32-bit serial data, acting in a synchronous clock. After selecting a single among 13 reproduced data in each module, a module combiner converted it into 32-bit parallel data, which were carried to 32-port digital input board in a computer. When the receiver system together with optical transmitters were applied to 152-channel superconducting quantum interference device sensors, this MEG system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz at a sample rate of 1 kSample/s per channel.

  8. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  9. KIT D816V mutation-positive cell fractions in lesional skin biopsies from adults with systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Most adults with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry the somatic KIT D816V mutation, but the occurrence of the mutation in lesional skin remains to be characterized.......Most adults with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry the somatic KIT D816V mutation, but the occurrence of the mutation in lesional skin remains to be characterized....

  10. Computerized literature reference system: use of an optical scanner and optical character recognition software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossef, S V; Schwartz, L H

    1990-09-01

    A computerized reference system for radiology journal articles was developed by using an IBM-compatible personal computer with a hand-held optical scanner and optical character recognition software. This allows direct entry of scanned text from printed material into word processing or data-base files. Additionally, line diagrams and photographs of radiographs can be incorporated into these files. A text search and retrieval software program enables rapid searching for keywords in scanned documents. The hand scanner and software programs are commercially available, relatively inexpensive, and easily used. This permits construction of a personalized radiology literature file of readily accessible text and images requiring minimal typing or keystroke entry.

  11. Optical performance monitoring in high-speed optical fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changyuan; Yang, Jing; Hu, Junhao; Zhang, Banghong

    2011-11-01

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) becomes an attractive topic as the rapid growth of data rate in optical communication networks. It provides improved operation of the high capacity optical transmission systems. Among the various impairments, chromatic dispersion (CD) is one of major factors limiting the transmission distance in high-speed communication systems. Polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) also becomes a degrading effect in the system with data rate larger than 40 Gbit/s. In this paper, we summarize several CD and PMD monitoring methods based on RF spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling. By using a narrow band fiber Bragg grating (FBG) notch filter, centered at 10 GHz away from the optical carrier, 10-GHz RF power can be used as a CD-insensitive PMD monitoring signal. By taking the 10-GHz RF power ratio of non-filtered and filtered signal, PMD-insensitive CD monitoring can be achieved. If the FBG notch filter is placed at optical carrier, the RF clock power ratio between non-filtered and filtered signal is also a PMDinsensitive CD monitoring parameter, which has larger RF power dynamic range and better measurement resolution. Both simulation and experiment results show that the proposed methods are efficient on measuring CD and PMD values in 57-Gbit/s D8PSK systems. Delay-tap sampling is another efficient method of measuring residual CD. Amplitude ratio of asynchronous delay-tap sampling plot decreases with CD monotonously, and the amplitude ratio can be obtained by using low bandwidth balanced receiver. The simulated results show that our method is efficient on residual CD measurement in 50-Gbit/s 50% RZ DQPSK systems with a 12-GHz balanced receiver. Since no modification on the transmitter or receiver is required, the proposed scheme is simple and cost effective.

  12. Use of thermal sieve to allow optical testing of cryogenic optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Wook; Cai, Wenrui; Burge, James H

    2012-05-21

    Full aperture testing of large cryogenic optical systems has been impractical due to the difficulty of operating a large collimator at cryogenic temperatures. The Thermal Sieve solves this problem by acting as a thermal barrier between an ambient temperature collimator and the cryogenic system under test. The Thermal Sieve uses a set of thermally controlled baffles with array of holes that are lined up to pass the light from the collimator without degrading the wavefront, while attenuating the thermal background by nearly 4 orders of magnitude. This paper provides the theory behind the Thermal Sieve system, evaluates the optimization for its optical and thermal performance, and presents the design and analysis for a specific system.

  13. Bright, dark and singular optical solitons in a cascaded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qin; Zhu, Qiuping; Yu, Hua; Liu, Yaxian; Wei, Chun; Yao, Ping; Bhrawy, Ali H; Biswas, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    This work studies nonlinear dynamics of optical solitons in a cascaded system with Kerr law nonlinearity and spatio-temporal dispersion. The mathematical model that describes the propagation of optical solitons through a cascaded system is given by the vector-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is investigated analytically using three integration algorithms. The Jacobian elliptic equation expansion method, Bernoulli equation expansion approach and Riccati equation expansion scheme are the integration tools of this model that are recruited to extract singular, bright and dark solitons. The restrictions that need to hold for the existence of these solitons are derived. (paper)

  14. Optical design of high power excimer laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongsheng; Zhao Jun; Ma Lianying; Yi Aiping; Liu Jingru

    2011-01-01

    Image relay and angular multiplexing,which should be considered together in the design of high power excimer laser system, is reviewed. It's important to select proper illumination setup and laser beam shaping techniques. Given the complex and special angular multiplexing scheme in high power excimer laser systems, some detailed conceptual layout schemes are given in the paper. After a brief description of lens array and reflective telescope objective, which combine the incoming beams to a common focus, a new schematic layout which uses the final targeting optics and one optical delay line array, to realize multiplexing and de-multiplexing simultaneously is first proposed in the paper. (authors)

  15. Geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Lijun; Deng Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    The geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems are studied in detail with a wave-aberration theory. It is dealt with as an extension of the Seidel aberrations to realize a consistent aberration theory from axially symmetric to plane-symmetric systems. The aberration distribution is analyzed with the spot diagram of a ray and an aberration curve. Moreover, the root-mean-square value and the centroid of aberration distribution are discussed. The numerical results are obtained with the focusing optics of a toroidal mirror at grazing incidence.

  16. Optical sensors and their applications for probing biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palanco, Marta Espina

    There is a great interest in exploring and developing new optical sensitive methodologies for probing complex biological systems. In this project we developed non-invasive and sensitive biosensor strategies for studying physiologically relevant chemical and physical properties of plant and mammal......There is a great interest in exploring and developing new optical sensitive methodologies for probing complex biological systems. In this project we developed non-invasive and sensitive biosensor strategies for studying physiologically relevant chemical and physical properties of plant...... of a trapped cell. The project could provide new insights into the desired biosensor for future membrane-protein cell studies....

  17. Optical fiber sensors: Systems and applications. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culshaw, Brian; Dakin, John

    State-of-the-art fiber-optic (FO) sensors and their applications are described in chapters contributed by leading experts. Consideration is given to interferometers, FO gyros, intensity- and wavelength-based sensors and optical actuators, Si in FO sensors, point-sensor multiplexing principles, and distributed FO sensor systems. Also examined are chemical, biochemical, and medical sensors; physical and chemical sensors for process control; FO-sensor applications in the marine and aerospace industries; FO-sensor monitoring systems for security and safety, structural integrity, NDE, and the electric-power industry; and the market situation for FO-sensor technology. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  18. Optical design of digital control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tou, Julius T

    1963-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  19. Micro optical sensor systems for sunsensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, Johan; de Boom, Kees

    2017-11-01

    Optimum application of micro system technologies allows building small sensor systems that will alter procurement strategies for spacecraft manufacturers. One example is the decreased size and cost for state of the art sunsensors. Integrated sensor systems are being designed which, through use of microsystem technology, are an order of magnitutde smaller than most current sunsensors and which hold due to the large reproducibility through batch manufacturing the promise of drastic price reduction. If the Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) approach is adopted by satellite manufacturers, this will drastically decrease mass and cost budgets associated with sunsensing applications.

  20. The Multiaperture Optical (mao) System Based on the Apposition Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chao

    Automation freed mankind from repeated boring labor and/or labor requiring an instantaneous response. When applied as robotics it could even free mankind from dangerous labor such as handling radioactive material. For a robot or an automated system a vision device has proven to be an important element. Almost all artificial vision systems are similar in design to the human eye with its single large lens system. In contrast, the compound eye of an insect is much smaller than the human eye. Therefore, it is proposed to imitate the insect eye in order to develop a small viewing device useful in robotic design. The basic element of the multiaperture optical system described here is a non-imaging light horn. The optical studies on the non-imaging light horn (a simulated insect eye eyelet) have been done and show that this device may produce images when several horns are used together in an array. The study also shows that with several non -imaging devices the position of an object point light source can be determined very easily. One possible realization of multiaperture optical system design based on the apposition principle is proposed and discussed. The multiaperture optical system proposed is a small, low cost device with digital image processing.

  1. An optical ASK and FSK phase diversity transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, H.; Vanetten, W.; Dekrom, W. H. C.; Vanbennekom, P.; Huijskens, F.; Niessen, L.; Deleijer, F.

    1992-12-01

    The results of a contribution to an electrooptical project for a 'phase diversity system', covering ASK and FSK (Amplitude and Frequency Shift Keying), are described. Specifications of subsystems, and tolerances and consequences of these tolerances for the final system performance, were derived. For the optical network of the phase diversity receiver, a manufacturing set up for three by three fused biconical taper fiber couplers was developed. In order to characterize planar optical networks, a set up was constructed to measure the phase relations at 1523 nm. The optical frequency of the local oscillator laser has to be locked on to the frequency of the received optical signal. This locking circuit is described. A complete optical three by three phase diversity transmission system was developed that can be used as a testbed for subsystems. The sensitivity of the receiver at a bit error rate of 10 to the minus 9th power is -47.2 dBm, which is 4.2 dB better than the value of the specifications.

  2. Development of optical fiber frequency and time distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, G.

    1982-01-01

    The development of ultra stable optical fiber distribution systems for the dissemination of frequency and timing references is reported. The ultimate design goals for these systems are a frequency stability of 10 to the -17 power for tau or = 100 sec and time stability of + or - 0.1 ns for 1 year and operation over distances or = 30 km. A prototype system is reviewed and progress is discussed.

  3. DWDM Fiber-Wireless Access System with Centralized Optical Frequency Comb-based RF Carrier Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Beltrán, Marta; Sánchez, José

    2013-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical wireless DWDM system at 60 GHz with optical incoherent heterodyne up-conversion using an optical frequency comb. Multiple users with wireline and wireless services are simultaneously supported....

  4. Transparent thin film polarizing and optical control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson V. Tabiryan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We show that a diffractive waveplate can be combined with a phase retardation film for fully converting light of arbitrary polarization state into a polarized light. Incorporating a photonic bandgap layer into a system of such polarizers that unify different polarization states in the input light into a single polarization state at its output, rather than absorbing or reflecting half of it, we developed and demonstrated a polarization-independent optical controller capable of switching between transmittive and reflective states. The transition between those states is smoothly controlled with low-voltage and low-power sources. Using versatile fabrication methods, this “universally polarizing optical controller” can be integrated into a thin package compatible with a variety of display, spatial light modulation, optical communication, imaging and other photonics systems.

  5. Nonimaging optics maximizing exergy for hybrid solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Jiang, Lun; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Ferry, Jonathan; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Alexandr; Kirk, Alexander; Elarde, Victor; Osowski, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-Merced), Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and MicroLink Devices Inc. (MicroLink) are developing a hybrid solar system using a nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that maximizes the exergy by delivering direct electricity and on-demand heat. The hybrid solar system technology uses secondary optics in a solar receiver to achieve high efficiency at high temperature, collects heat in particles and uses reflective liftoff cooled double junction (2J) InGaP/GaAs solar cells with backside infrared (IR) reflectors on the secondary optical element to raise exergy efficiency. The nonimaging optics provides additional concentration towards the high temperature thermal stream and enables it to operate efficiently at 650 °C while the solar cell is maintained at 40 °C to operate as efficiently as possible.

  6. Active polarization imaging system based on optical heterodyne balanced receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Sun, Jianfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yu; Luan, Zhu; Hou, Peipei; Liu, liren

    2017-08-01

    Active polarization imaging technology has recently become the hot research field all over the world, which has great potential application value in the military and civil area. By introducing active light source, the Mueller matrix of the target can be calculated according to the incident light and the emitted or reflected light. Compared with conventional direct detection technology, optical heterodyne detection technology have higher receiving sensitivities, which can obtain the whole amplitude, frequency and phase information of the signal light. In this paper, an active polarization imaging system will be designed. Based on optical heterodyne balanced receiver, the system can acquire the horizontal and vertical polarization of reflected optical field simultaneously, which contain the polarization characteristic of the target. Besides, signal to noise ratio and imaging distance can be greatly improved.

  7. Present status of metrology of electro-optical surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a significant progress in equipment for testing electro-optical surveillance systems over the last decade. Modern test systems are increasingly computerized, employ advanced image processing and offer software support in measurement process. However, one great challenge, in form of relative low accuracy, still remains not solved. It is quite common that different test stations, when testing the same device, produce different results. It can even happen that two testing teams, while working on the same test station, with the same tested device, produce different results. Rapid growth of electro-optical technology, poor standardization, limited metrology infrastructure, subjective nature of some measurements, fundamental limitations from laws of physics, tendering rules and advances in artificial intelligence are major factors responsible for such situation. Regardless, next decade should bring significant improvements, since improvement in measurement accuracy is needed to sustain fast growth of electro-optical surveillance technology.

  8. Optical character recognition systems for different languages with soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arindam; Badelia, Pratixa; K Ghosh, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of soft-computing models for optical character recognition systems. The various techniques, including fuzzy and rough sets, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, are tested using real texts written in different languages, such as English, French, German, Latin, Hindi and Gujrati, which have been extracted by publicly available datasets. The simulation studies, which are reported in details here, show that soft-computing based modeling of OCR systems performs consistently better than traditional models. Mainly intended as state-of-the-art survey for postgraduates and researchers in pattern recognition, optical character recognition and soft computing, this book will be useful for professionals in computer vision and image processing alike, dealing with different issues related to optical character recognition.

  9. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, Aaron D.; Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno; Hannover Univ.

    2016-09-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  10. Image-Guided percutaneous biopsies with a biopsy gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hwan; Lim, Hyo Keun; Kim, Eun Ah; Yun, Ku Sub; Bae, Sang Hoo; Shin, Hyung Sik [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    We report the results of image-guided percutaneous biopsies with a biopsy gun and evaluate the clinical usefulness. One hundred and five biopsies under ultrasonographic or fluoroscopic guidance were performed. Various anatomic sites were targeted(liver; 50, chest; 22, kidney; 12, pancreas; 8, intraperitoeum; 7, retroperitoneum; ). Obtained tissue was diagnostic in 98 of the 105 biopsies(93%). In each instance, representative core tissue specimens were obtained. Evaluation of the core tissue by pathologist revealed consistent, uniform specimens that contained significant crush artifact in no case. Five biopsies yielded inadequate tissue which were too small for histopathologic interpretation or were composed of necrotic debris. Two biopsies yielded adequate tissues, but tissues were not of the target. The diagnoses were malignancy in 77 biopsies and benign disease in 21 biopsies. No complications other than mild, localized discomfort were encountered except a transient hemoptysis and pneumothorax which was observed in two patients. Cutting biopsy with a biopsy gun provided sufficient amount of target tissue for an accurate diagnosis of malignant and benign disease. It was a safe and useful procedure for percutaneous biopsy.

  11. Radiologically Guided Bone Biopsy: Results of 502 Biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Chaan S.; Salisbury, Jonathan R.; Darby, Alan J.; Gishen, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the results of 502 biopsies over a 19-year period for the purpose of highlighting the results that can be expected from such a large study, with emphasis on needle choice and anesthetic methods. Methods: The histological, cytological, and microbiological results of 477 patients who had 502 bone biopsies carried out between July 1977 and March 1996 were studied. Less than 5% of patients required second biopsies. There were almost equal numbers of males and females in the group. The lesions were visible radiologically and most of the biopsies were carried out by a single operator. The lesions were classified on their histopathological, cytopathological, and microbiological findings. Results: Tumors accounted for 40% of the biopsies, and infection for 16%. Biopsies which did not yield a 'positive' diagnosis accounted for 31%; these included specimens reported as normal, or as showing reactive changes, repair, remodelling, non-specific features, inflammation (but not clearly infective), or no evidence of malignancy or inflammation. Less than 4% of biopsies were incorrect, and some of these were re-biopsied. Conclusion: Bone biopsy is a valuable technique for positive diagnosis of malignancy or infection, as it enables a definitive plan for treatment and management of patients to be established. Exclusion of serious pathology is almost equally important. In principle, any osseous site can be biopsied using fluoroscopic or computed tomographic guidance. Care in the biopsy technique and selection of the bone needle is required

  12. SAFARI optical system architecture and design concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastor, Carmen; Jellema, Willem; Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arrazola, David; Fernández-Rodriguez, M.; Belenguer, Tomás; González Fernández, Luis M.; Audley, Michael D.; Evers, Jaap; Eggens, Martin; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Najarro, Francisco; Roelfsema, P.

    2016-01-01

    SpicA FAR infrared Instrument, SAFARI, is one of the instruments planned for the SPICA mission. The SPICA mission is the next great leap forward in space-based far-infrared astronomy and will study the evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. SPICA will utilize a deeply cooled 2.5m-class

  13. US-guided percutaneous biopsies with a biopsy gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, In Oak; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jae Hyung; Lee, Goo; Jung, Sung Hoon

    1993-01-01

    Core tissue for histologic study is believed by many pathologist to be more diagnostic than material from needle aspiration. Recently introduced automatched biopsy gun simplifies core biopsies with increased quantity and quality of samples. Authors performed 38 percutaneous biopsies from 38 patients with 18G automated biopsy guns under US guide. Diagnostic target tissues were obtained in 33 biopsies(87%), inadequate tissues in 4(11%), and adequate but not of target tissue in 1(3%). There was no major complication requiring treatment, but pain needing analgesics and pain with nausea/vomiting were experienced in 2 and 1 biopsies respectively. Average number of needle passes was 1.5. We concluded that US guided gun biopsy was a easy and safe way to obtain tissue samples of good quantity and quality, especially useful in hospitals without constant availability of specialist in cytopathology

  14. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jonghyun; Shin, Jun Geun; Park, Soongho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2016-05-20

    We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA) signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF) and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF). The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging.

  15. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jonghyun; Shin, Jun Geun; Park, Soongho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2016-01-01

    We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA) signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF) and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF). The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging. PMID:27213392

  16. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghyun Eom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT and optical coherence tomography (OCT. The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF. The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging.

  17. Water absorption length measurement with the ANTARES optical beacon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepes-Ramirez, Harold

    2011-01-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea with the aim of detecting high energy neutrinos of extra-terrestrial origin. It consists of a three dimensional array on 12 detection lines of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) able to detect the Cherenkov light induced by muons produced in the interaction of neutrinos with the surrounding water and seabed. To reach the best angular resolution, good time and positioning calibrations are required. The propagation of Cherenkov photons strongly depends on the optical properties of the sea water, which has an impact on the reconstruction efficiency. The determination of the optical parameters, as the absorption and scattering lengths, is crucial to calculate properly the effective area and the angular resolution of the detector. The ANTARES optical beacon system consists of pulsed and fast, well controlled light sources distributed throughout the detector to carry out in situ the relative time calibration of the detector components. In this contribution we show some results on the sea water optical properties and their stability measured with the optical beacon system.

  18. Thermal management evaluation of the complex electro-optical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijemčević Srećko S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal management of a complex electro-optical system aimed for outdoor application is challenging task due to the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure, harsh working environment, and an additional thermal load generated by sunlight. It is essential to consider the effect of heating loads in the system components, as well as the internal temperature distribution, that can have influence on the system life expectancy, operational readiness and parameters, and possibility for catastrophic failure. The main objective of this paper is to analyze internal temperature distribution and evaluate its influence on system component operation capability. The electro-optical system simplified model was defined and related thermal balance simulation model based on Solid Works thermal analysis module was set and applied for temperature distribution calculation. Various outdoor environment scenarios were compared to evaluate system temperature distribution and evaluate its influence on system operation, reliability, and life time in application environment. This work was done during the design process as a part of the electro-optical system optimization. The results show that temperature distribution will not be cause for catastrophic failure and malfunction operation during operation in the expected environment.

  19. Nail biopsy: A user's manual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Grover

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nail biopsy is a procedure not routinely resorted to; but when indicated, it is often the only clue left for diagnosis. At such times, it pays to be conversant with it. It is an investigation that not only provides etiologic, diagnostic, and prognostic information but also aids in understanding the pathogenesis of nail diseases. It can be of therapeutic value, especially with respect to nail tumors. This article compiles the procedural techniques for nail biopsy of various types and attempts to summarize the evidence available in the literature. The objective of nail biopsy is to clinch a precise diagnosis of nail pathology with a simple and safe surgical procedure, avoiding pain or permanent nail damage. Patient selection is of utmost importance, wherein, the patient does not have typical skin lesions, yields inadequate information on routine nail investigations, and has no peripheral vascular compromise. The patient needs to be explained about the risks associated, the expected functional handicap, the time required for regrowth, a possibility of permanent nail dystrophy, and a possibility of not achieving a diagnosis even after the biopsy. Techniques and types of various nail biopsies are being discussed in this article. The specimen could be collected as an excision biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, or longitudinal biopsy. The trick lies in choosing the appropriate area for biopsy. Various biopsy types discussed in this article include nail plate biopsy (easiest and least scarring; nail bed biopsy (elliptical excision or punch; nail matrix biopsy (elliptical excision, punch excision (≤3 mm or tangential/shave excision; and nail fold biopsy. Complications reported along with means to minimize them are also discussed.

  20. An Evaluation of PC-Based Optical Character Recognition Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, E. M.; Uslan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    The review examines six personal computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems designed for use by blind and visually impaired people. Considered are OCR components and terms, documentation, scanning and reading, command structure, conversion, unique features, accuracy of recognition, scanning time, speed, and cost. (DB)

  1. Advanced MEMS systems for optical communication and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horenstein, M N; Sumner, R; Freedman, D S; Datta, M; Kani, N; Miller, P; Stewart, J B; Cornelissen, S

    2011-01-01

    Optical communication and adaptive optics have emerged as two important uses of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) devices based on electrostatic actuation. Each application uses a mirror whose surface is altered by applying voltages of up to 300 V. Previous generations of adaptive-optic mirrors were large (∼1 m) and required the use of piezoelectric transducers. Beginning in the mid-1990s, a new class of small MEMS mirrors (∼1 cm) were developed. These mirrors are now a commercially available, mature technology. This paper describes three advanced applications of MEMS mirrors. The first is a mirror used for corona-graphic imaging, whereby an interferometric telescope blocks the direct light from a distant star so that nearby objects such as planets can be seen. We have developed a key component of the system: a 144-channel, fully-scalable, high-voltage multiplexer that reduces power consumption to only a few hundred milliwatts. In a second application, a MEMS mirror comprises part of a two-way optical communication system in which only one node emits a laser beam. The other node is passive, incorporating a retro-reflective, electrostatic MEMS mirror that digitally encodes the reflected beam. In a third application, the short (∼100-ns) pulses of a commercially-available laser rangefinder are returned by the MEMS mirror as a digital data stream. Suitable low-power drive systems comprise part of the system design.

  2. A beamforming system based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Beamforming techniques are usually based on microphone arrays. The present work uses a beam of light as a sensor element, and describes a beamforming system that locates sound sources based on the acousto-optic effect, this is, the interaction between sound and light. The use of light as a sensin...

  3. Wavelet-Based Processing for Fiber Optic Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamory, Philip J. (Inventor); Parker, Allen R., Jr. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of processing conglomerate data. The method employs a Triband Wavelet Transform that decomposes and decimates the conglomerate signal to obtain a final result. The invention may be employed to improve performance of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry systems.

  4. Temporal Probabilistic Constellation Shaping for WDM Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Finite state machine sources transmitting QPSK are studied as input to WDM optical fiber systems with ideal distributed Raman amplification. The probabilities of successive constellation symbols are shaped for nonlinear transmission and gains of around 500km (5-10%) are demonstrated...

  5. Temporal Probabilistic Constellation Shaping for WDM Optical Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Finite state machine sources transmitting QPSK are studied as input to WDM optical fiber systems with ideal distributed Raman amplification. The probabilities of successive constellation symbols are shaped for nonlinear transmission and gains of around 500km (5-10%) are demonstrated

  6. The Fiber Optic System for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm. The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  7. The fiber optic system for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-08-28

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm.[1] The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  8. The biopsy of the boar testes using ultrasonographic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laima Liepa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biopsy of live animal testes is an important clinical manipulation to control spermatogenesis and reproductive system pathologies. The aim was to develop a method of boar testes biopsy using a biopsy gun with ultrasound guidance and to investigate the influence of this procedure on the boar testes parenchyma and quality of ejaculate. The biopsy was carried out in six 8-month-old boars. Fourteen days prior to and 21 days after biopsy, the quality of ejaculate was examined (weight of ejaculate; concentration and motility of spermatozoa with a seven-day intervals. Ultrasound images of the testes parenchyma were recorded three times: directly before and 15 minutes after the biopsy, then 21 days after the procedure. The testes biopsies of generally anesthetized boars were performed with the biopsy gun for needle biopsy with a 12cm long, disposable 16-gauge needle 1.8mm in diameter (Vitesse through 1cm skin incision in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm of parenchyma. Fifteen minutes after the biopsy, macroscopic injures of the parenchyma of all the boar testes were not detected in the ultrasound image. Twenty one days after biopsy, the hyperechogenic line 0.1-0.2cm in diameter was seen in the testes parenchyma of six boars in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm. The biopsy of boar testes did not influence the quality of boars ejaculate. The ultrasonographic examination of boar testicles before the biopsy reduced possibilities to traumatize large blood vessels of the testes. A perfect boar testicular biopsy was easy to perform using ultrasonographic examination in the pigsty conditions.

  9. PYROLASER - PYROLASER OPTICAL PYROMETER OPERATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, F. E.

    1994-01-01

    The PYROLASER package is an operating system for the Pyrometer Instrument Company's Pyrolaser. There are 6 individual programs in the PYROLASER package: two main programs, two lower level subprograms, and two programs which, although independent, function predominantly as macros. The package provides a quick and easy way to setup, control, and program a standard Pyrolaser. Temperature and emissivity measurements may be either collected as if the Pyrolaser were in the manual operations mode, or displayed on real time strip charts and stored in standard spreadsheet format for post-test analysis. A shell is supplied to allow macros, which are test-specific, to be easily added to the system. The Pyrolaser Simple Operation program provides full on-screen remote operation capabilities, thus allowing the user to operate the Pyrolaser from the computer just as it would be operated manually. The Pyrolaser Simple Operation program also allows the use of "quick starts". Quick starts provide an easy way to permit routines to be used as setup macros for specific applications or tests. The specific procedures required for a test may be ordered in a sequence structure and then the sequence structure can be started with a simple button in the cluster structure provided. One quick start macro is provided for continuous Pyrolaser operation. A subprogram, Display Continuous Pyr Data, is used to display and store the resulting data output. Using this macro, the system is set up for continuous operation and the subprogram is called to display the data in real time on strip charts. The data is simultaneously stored in a spreadsheet format. The resulting spreadsheet file can be opened in any one of a number of commercially available spreadsheet programs. The Read Continuous Pyrometer program is provided as a continuously run subprogram for incorporation of the Pyrolaser software into a process control or feedback control scheme in a multi-component system. The program requires the

  10. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R.; Rossi, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2–3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5–0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05–0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3–5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7–1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07–0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing. PMID:26114033

  11. 40 Gb/s optical transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Nielsen, Steen Krogh

    2003-01-01

    ; chromatic dispersion, Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD), Self Phase Modulation (SPM) and linear or non-linear crosstalk among others. Regarding chromatic dispersion, sufficient evidence is presented for the need in 40 Gb/s systems of either modulation formats that allow for higher tolerance than....... Using a 9 ps pulsed RZ Tx, transmission is achieved over a 400 km link consisting of 5 spans of 80 km standard-SMF with a Quality (Q) factor of 17.7 dB, while for NRZ it is reduced to 15 dB. In another experimental verification over 40 km spans of standard-SMF, we could achieve transmission over 6 spans...

  12. Ion optics in an ion source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Salam, F W; Moustafa, O A; El-Khabeary, H [Accelerators Dept, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    An analysis of ion beams from an ion source which consisted of a hemispherical anode, a plane earthed cathode, and a focusing electrode has been carried out. The focal properties of such electrode arrangement were studied using axially symmetric fields. Axial and radial electric fields were obtained as functions of the axial distance. It was found that the radial component of the gradient of potential pushes the ions towards the axis, which indicates the convergent action of the system. The effect of voltage variation between the boundary and the focusing electrode on the position of the plasma boundary are given using the experimental data of the ion source characteristics and its geometrical parameters. The advantages of plasma diffusing outside the source through a small aperture were used by applying a potential to the focusing electrode. It was possible to extract a large ion current from the expanded plasma. The system constituted a lens with a focal length of 29.4 mm. 7 figs.

  13. High-speed photodetectors in optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zeping; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Ninghua

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review and discussion for high-speed photodetectors and their applications on optical communications and microwave photonics. A detailed and comprehensive demonstration of high-speed photodetectors from development history, research hotspots to packaging technologies is provided to the best of our knowledge. A few typical applications based on photodetectors are also illustrated, such as free-space optical communications, radio over fiber and millimeter terahertz signal generation systems. Project supported by the Preeminence Youth Fund of China (No. 61625504).

  14. Distributed fiber optic system for oil pipeline leakage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, R.; Liu, N.; Rumple, C.; Hara, Elmer H.

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel approach for the detection of leakage in oil pipelines using methods of fiber optic distributed sensors, a presence-of-oil based actuator, and Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). While the basic concepts of our approach are well understood, the integration of the components into a complete system is a real world engineering design problem. Our focus has been on the development of the actuator design and testing using installed dark fiber. Initial results are promising, however environmental studies into the long term effects of exposure to the environment are still pending.

  15. Detection system using scintillating optical fibers and image tube readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alspector, J.; Borenstein, S.

    1979-01-01

    The hodoscope subgroup has studied a detection system consisting of bundles of optical fibers with readout via image tubes. The basic building block is an optical fiber with a scintillator inner core. The inner core has refractive index n/sub o/ (1.58 for plastic scintillator), and the outer sheath has a low index (approx. 1.4). Light is created in the core by passage of a particle track; if the light strikes the sheath at an angle greater than the critical angle phi/sub c/, it is trapped in the fiber until it finds its way to the photon detector

  16. Optical Components for Reconfigurable Photonic Networks and Mobile Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Rommel, Simon

    communication needs to move to the millimeter-wavelength or sub-terahertz range. Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) technologies have evolved from a blue sky academic topic in the 90s to a main driver within the current quest for the 5th generation mobile systems (5G). A twist in RoF technologies is that it has found along...... processing, high speed modulators and photodiodes and optical switching technologies. A deep overview on the state-of-the-art and current efforts towards optical components enabling photonic reconfigurability will be given during the presentation....

  17. Design of optoelectronic system for optical diffusion tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erakhtin Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores issues connected with the circuit design of a device for optical diffusion tomography, which we are currently designing. We plan to use the device in experimental studies for the development of a faster method of brain hematoma detection. We reviewed currently existing methods for emergency diagnosis of hematomas, primarily the Infrascanner model 2000, for which we identified weaknesses, and outlined suggestions for improvements. This article describes the method of scanning tissues based on a triangulated arrangement of sources and receivers of optical radiation, and it discusses the optoelectronic system that implements that principle.

  18. Optical fiber communication systems with Matlab and Simulink models

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    ""This book adds an aspect of programming and simulation not so well developed in other books. It is complete in this sense and enables directly linking the physics of optical components and systems to realistic results.""-Martin Rochette, Associate Professor, McGill University, Quebec, Canada""…this will be an excellent textbook since it has all new development and information on optical communication systems…I think this book can easily replace many other textbooks in this field.""-Massoud Moussavi, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona""The book is well written. It describes the fu

  19. Ring resonator systems to perform optical communication enhancement using soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Iraj Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    The title explain new technique of secured and high capacity optical communication signals generation by using the micro and nano ring resonators. The pulses are known as soliton pulses which are more secured due to having the properties of chaotic and dark soliton signals with ultra short bandwidth. They have high capacity due to the fact that ring resonators are able to generate pulses in the form of solitons in multiples and train form. These pulses generated by ring resonators are suitable in optical communication due to use the compact and integrated rings system, easy to control, flexibi

  20. Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541

  1. An Antenna Measurement System Based on Optical Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Hosono

    2013-01-01

    the advantage of the system is demonstrated by measuring an ultra-wideband (UWB antenna both by the optical and electrical feeding systems and comparing with a calculated result. Ripples in radiation pattern due to the electrical feeding are successfully suppressed by the optical feeding. For example, in a radiation measurement on the azimuth plane at 3 GHz, ripple amplitude of 1.0 dB that appeared in the electrical feeding is reduced to 0.3 dB. In addition, a circularly polarized (CP antenna is successfully measured by the proposed system to show that the system is available not only for amplitude but also phase measurements.

  2. Initial study and verification of a distributed fiber optic corrosion monitoring system for transportation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    For this study, a novel optical fiber sensing system was developed and tested for the monitoring of corrosion in : transportation systems. The optical fiber sensing system consists of a reference long period fiber gratings (LPFG) sensor : for corrosi...

  3. Usefulness of automated biopsy guns in image-guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Hyung; Rhee, Chang Soo; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Sung Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of automated biopsy guns in image-guided biopsy of lung, liver, pancreas and other organs. Using automated biopsy devices, 160 biopsies of variable anatomic sites were performed: Biopsies were performed under ultrasonographic(US) guidance in 95 and computed tomographic (CT) guidance in 65. We retrospectively analyzed histologic results and complications. Specimens were adequate for histopathologic diagnosis in 143 of the 160 patients(89.4%)-Diagnostic tissue was obtained in 130 (81.3%), suggestive tissue obtained in 13(8.1%), and non-diagnostic tissue was obtained in 14(8.7%). Inadequate tissue was obtained in only 3(1.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between US-guided and CT-guided percutaneous biopsy. There was no occurrence of significant complication. We have experienced mild complications in only 5 patients-2 hematuria and 2 hematochezia in transrectal prostatic biopsy, and 1 minimal pneumothorax in CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy. All of them were resolved spontaneously. The image-guided biopsy using the automated biopsy gun was a simple, safe and accurate method of obtaining adequate specimen for the histopathologic diagnosis

  4. Usefulness of automated biopsy guns in image-guided biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Hyung; Rhee, Chang Soo; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Sung Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of automated biopsy guns in image-guided biopsy of lung, liver, pancreas and other organs. Using automated biopsy devices, 160 biopsies of variable anatomic sites were performed: Biopsies were performed under ultrasonographic(US) guidance in 95 and computed tomographic (CT) guidance in 65. We retrospectively analyzed histologic results and complications. Specimens were adequate for histopathologic diagnosis in 143 of the 160 patients(89.4%)-Diagnostic tissue was obtained in 130 (81.3%), suggestive tissue obtained in 13(8.1%), and non-diagnostic tissue was obtained in 14(8.7%). Inadequate tissue was obtained in only 3(1.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between US-guided and CT-guided percutaneous biopsy. There was no occurrence of significant complication. We have experienced mild complications in only 5 patients-2 hematuria and 2 hematochezia in transrectal prostatic biopsy, and 1 minimal pneumothorax in CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy. All of them were resolved spontaneously. The image-guided biopsy using the automated biopsy gun was a simple, safe and accurate method of obtaining adequate specimen for the histopathologic diagnosis.

  5. Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2001-01-01

    A transportable miniaturized fiber-pigtailed measurement system is presented which allows quantitative fluorescence detection in microliquid handling systems. The microliquid handling chips are made in silica on silicon technology and the optical functionality is monolithically integrated with th...... with two dyes, fluorescein, and Bodipy 650/665 X, showed good linear behavior over a wide range of concentrations. Minimally detected concentrations were 250 pM for fluorescein and 100 nM for Bodipy....

  6. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  7. Temperature control system for optical elements in astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verducci, Orlando; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Flávio F.; Vital de Arruda, Márcio; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Fraga, Luciano

    2014-07-01

    Extremely low temperatures may damage the optical components assembled inside of an astronomical instrument due to the crack in the resin or glue used to attach lenses and mirrors. The environment, very cold and dry, in most of the astronomical observatories contributes to this problem. This paper describes the solution implemented at SOAR for remotely monitoring and controlling temperatures inside of a spectrograph, in order to prevent a possible damage of the optical parts. The system automatically switches on and off some heat dissipation elements, located near the optics, as the measured temperature reaches a trigger value. This value is set to a temperature at which the instrument is not operational to prevent malfunction and only to protect the optics. The software was developed with LabVIEWTM and based on an object-oriented design that offers flexibility and ease of maintenance. As result, the system is able to keep the internal temperature of the instrument above a chosen limit, except perhaps during the response time, due to inertia of the temperature. This inertia can be controlled and even avoided by choosing the correct amount of heat dissipation and location of the thermal elements. A log file records the measured temperature values by the system for operation analysis.

  8. System and carrier for optical images and holographic information recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andries, A.; Bivol, V.; Iovu, M

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to the semiconducting silverless photography, in particular to the technique for optical information recording and may be used in microphotography for manifacture of microfiches, microfilms, storage disks, i the multiplication and copying technique, in holography, in micro- and optoelectronics, cinematography etc. The system for optical images and holographic information recording includes an optical exposure system, an information carrier , containing a dielectric substrate with the first electrode, a photosensitive element and the second electrode, arranged in consecutive order, a constant and impulse voltage source, a means for climbing and movement of the information carrier, a control unit for connection of the voltage source to the electroconducting strate, a personal computer, connected to the control unit of the recording modes ,to the exposure system and the information carrier, an electrooptical transparency, connected to the computer by means of the matching unit. The carrier for optical images and holographic information recording contains a dielectric substrate, a photosensitive element formed of a layer of the vitreous chalcogenic semiconductor and a layer of the crystalline or amorphous semiconductor, forming a heterojunction, the photosensitive element is arranged between two electrodes , one of which is made transparent , in such case rge layer of the vitreous chalcogenic semiconductor comes into contact with the superior transparent electrode, subjected to exposure

  9. Optical system for object detection and delineation in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Shwartz, Shoam; Donitza, Liad; Chaplanov, Loran

    2018-01-01

    Object recognition and delineation is an important task in many environments, such as in crime scenes and operating rooms. Marking evidence or surgical tools and attracting the attention of the surrounding staff to the marked objects can affect people's lives. We present an optical system comprising a camera, computer, and small laser projector that can detect and delineate objects in the environment. To prove the optical system's concept, we show that it can operate in a hypothetical crime scene in which a pistol is present and automatically recognize and segment it by various computer-vision algorithms. Based on such segmentation, the laser projector illuminates the actual boundaries of the pistol and thus allows the persons in the scene to comfortably locate and measure the pistol without holding any intermediator device, such as an augmented reality handheld device, glasses, or screens. Using additional optical devices, such as diffraction grating and a cylinder lens, the pistol size can be estimated. The exact location of the pistol in space remains static, even after its removal. Our optical system can be fixed or dynamically moved, making it suitable for various applications that require marking of objects in space.

  10. Optical methods for the optimization of system SWaP-C using aspheric components and advanced optical polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, Amy; Benson, Robert; Deegan, John; Walsh, Ken; Schmidt, W. David; Howe, Russell

    2013-06-01

    We describe the benefits to camera system SWaP-C associated with the use of aspheric molded glasses and optical polymers in the design and manufacture of optical components and elements. Both camera objectives and display eyepieces, typical for night vision man-portable EO/IR systems, are explored. We discuss optical trade-offs, system performance, and cost reductions associated with this approach in both visible and non-visible wavebands, specifically NIR and LWIR. Example optical models are presented, studied, and traded using this approach.

  11. Endobronkial ultralydsskanning af mediastinum med biopsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemsen, Mette; Steffensen, Ida E; Iversen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a minimally invasive diagnostic modality, by which it is possible to visualize and do biopsy of structures adjacent to the trachea and the central bronchial system. EBUS is mostly used for staging of lung cancer patients, but EBUS is now used worldwide as a diag......Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a minimally invasive diagnostic modality, by which it is possible to visualize and do biopsy of structures adjacent to the trachea and the central bronchial system. EBUS is mostly used for staging of lung cancer patients, but EBUS is now used worldwide...

  12. No need for biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Skindersoe, Mette E; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    collected. After 4 weeks, additional biopsy and filter paper pad samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated and identified at species level by standard methods. The most common bacterial species detected was Staphylococcus aureus found in 89% of the ulcers. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates...... were found. We did not find any significant differences regarding the bacterial species isolated between the three sampling techniques. However, using multiple techniques led to identification of more species. Our study suggests that it is sufficient to use swab specimens to identify the bacterial...

  13. Optical and spectroscopic investigation on Calcium Borotellurite glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, E. C.; Lodi, T. A.; Gomes, B. R. A.; Melo, G. H. A.; Pedrochi, F.; Steimacher, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the glass formation in Calcium Borotellurite (CBTx) system and their optical properties were studied. Six glass samples were prepared by melt-quenching technique and the samples obtained are transparent, lightly yellowish, without any visible crystallites. The results showed that TeO2 addition increases the density, the electronic polarizability and, consequently, the refractive index. The increase of electronic polarizability and optical basicity suggest that TeO2 addition increases the non-bridging oxygen (NBO) concentration. The increase of TeO2 shifts the band edge to longer wavelength owing to increase in non-bridging oxygen ions, resulting in a linear decrease of optical energy gap. The addition of TeO2 increases the temperature coefficient of the optical path length (dS/dT) in room temperature, which are comparable to phosphate and lower than Low Silica Calcium Alumino Silicate (LSCAS) glasses. The values of dS/dT present an increase as a function of temperature for all the samples measured. The results suggest that CBTx is a good candidate for rare-earth doping and several optical applications.

  14. Progress in Nano-Electro-Optics VII Chemical, Biological, and Nanophotonic Technologies for Nano-Optical Devices and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2010-01-01

    This book focuses on chemical and nanophotonic technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices and systems. It begins with temperature- and photo-induced phase transition of ferromagnetic materials. Further topics include: energy transfer in artificial photosynthesis, homoepitaxial multiple quantum wells in ZnO, near-field photochemical etching and nanophotonic devices based on a nonadiabatic process and optical near-field energy transfer, respectively and polarization control in the optical near-field for optical information security. Taken as a whole, this overview will be a valuable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nano-electro-optics.

  15. Impact of optical hard limiter on the performance of an optical overlapped-code division multiple access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaty, Elie; Raad, Robert; Tablieh, Nicole

    2011-08-01

    Throughout this paper, a closed form expression of the multiple access interference (MAI) limited bit error rate (BER) is provided for the multiwavelength optical code-division multiple-access system when the system is working above the nominal transmission rate limit imposed by the passive encoding-decoding operation. This system is known in literature as the optical overlapped code division multiple access (OV-CDMA) system. A unified analytical framework is presented emphasizing the impact of optical hard limiter (OHL) on the BER performance of such a system. Results show that the performance of the OV-CDMA system may be highly improved when using OHL preprocessing at the receiver side.

  16. Development of a fiber optic pavement subgrade strain measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig Emerson

    2000-11-01

    This dissertation describes the development of a fiber optic sensing system to measure strains within the soil subgrade of highway pavements resulting from traffic loads. The motivation to develop such a device include improvements to: (1)all phases of pavement design, (2)theoretical models used to predict pavement performance, and (3)pavement rehabilitation. The design of the sensing system encompasses selecting an appropriate transducer design as well as the development of optimal optical and demodulation systems. The first is spring based, which attempts to match its spring stiffness to that of the soil-data indicate it is not an optimal transducer design. The second transducer implements anchoring plates attached to two telescoping tubes which allows the soil to be compacted to a desired density between the plates to dictate the transducer's behavior. Both transducers include an extrinsic Fabry- Perot cavity to impose the soil strains onto a phase change of the optical signal propagating through the cavity. The optical system includes a low coherence source and allows phase modulation via path length stretching by adding a second interferometer in series with the transducer, resulting in a path matched differential interferometer. A digitally implemented synthetic heterodyne demodulator based on a four step phase stepping algorithm is used to obtain unambiguous soil strain information from the displacement of the Fabry-Perot cavity. The demodulator is calibrated and characterized by illuminating the transducer with a second long coherence source of different wavelength. The transducer using anchoring plates is embedded within cylindrical soil specimens of varying soil types and soil moisture contents. Loads are applied to the specimen and resulting strains are measured using the embedded fiber optic gage and LVDTs attached to the surface of the specimen. This experimental verification is substantiated using a finite element analysis to predict any differences

  17. [A case of neuro-neutrophilic disease presenting with 5 months' with cognitive decline, meningoencephalitis, and marked systemic inflammatory findings, and diagnosed with brain biopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Yasuko; Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Deguchi, Ichiro; Tamura, Naotoshi; Araki, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with cognitive decline. On admission, he had a fever and mild cognitive dysfunction, suggesting chronic meningoencephalitis. Apart from a mild increase in serum C-reactive protein level and marked neutrophilia, laboratory findings were unremarkable. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed multiple small T2-hyperintense lesions in the white matter. Systemic evaluations for infectious organisms, autoantibodies, and malignancy were all negative. For 5 months we conducted therapeutic trials of various antibacterial, antifungal, and antituberculous drugs, but these were completely ineffective, and both meningoencephalitis and inflammatory signs persisted. Repeated brain MRI during the clinical course showed growth of the white matter lesions and progressive cerebral atrophy. C11-methionine positron emission tomography demonstrated a bright focus in the right frontal lobe, and this was biopsied. Key neuropathological findings were neutrophilic infiltration in the subarachnoid space and the frontal lobe without necrotic angiitis. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of neuro-neutrophilic disease, although skin tissue findings characteristic of Sweet disease and a B51, B54, or Cw1 HLA-profile were absent. After intravenous bolus administration of steroid and prolonged oral steroid therapy, fever and inflammatory signs diminished and cognitive symptoms improved.

  18. Image-guided procedures in brain biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, K; Yanaka, K; Meguro, K; Narushima, K; Iguchi, M; Nakai, Y; Nose, T

    1999-07-01

    Image-guided procedures, such as computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic and ultrasound-guided methods, can assist neurosurgeons in localizing the relevant pathology. The characteristics of image-guided procedures are important for their appropriate use, especially in brain biopsy. This study reviewed the results of various image-guided brain biopsies to ascertain the advantages and disadvantages. Brain biopsies assisted by CT-guided stereotactic, ultrasound-guided, Neuronavigator-guided, and the combination of ultrasound and Neuronavigator-guided procedures were carried out in seven, eight, one, and three patients, respectively. Four patients underwent open biopsy without a guiding system. Twenty of 23 patients had a satisfactory diagnosis after the initial biopsy. Three patients failed to have a definitive diagnosis after the initial procedure, one due to insufficient volume sampling after CT-guided procedure, and two due to localization failure by ultrasound because the lesions were nonechogenic. All patients who underwent biopsy using the combination of ultrasound and Neuronavigator-guided methods had a satisfactory result. The CT-guided procedure provided an efficient method of approaching any intracranial target and was appropriate for the diagnosis of hypodense lesions, but tissue sampling was sometimes not sufficient to achieve a satisfactory diagnosis. The ultrasound-guided procedure was suitable for the investigation of hyperdense lesions, but was difficult to localize nonechogenic lesions. The combination of ultrasound and Neuronavigator methods improved the diagnostic accuracy even in nonechogenic lesions such as malignant lymphoma. Therefore, it is essential to choose the most appropriate guiding method for brain biopsy according to the radiological nature of the lesions.

  19. Optical Selection Rule of Excitons in Gapped Chiral Fermion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoou; Shan, Wen-Yu; Xiao, Di

    2018-02-01

    We show that the exciton optical selection rule in gapped chiral fermion systems is governed by their winding number w , a topological quantity of the Bloch bands. Specifically, in a CN-invariant chiral fermion system, the angular momentum of bright exciton states is given by w ±1 +n N with n being an integer. We demonstrate our theory by proposing two chiral fermion systems capable of hosting dark s -like excitons: gapped surface states of a topological crystalline insulator with C4 rotational symmetry and biased 3 R -stacked MoS2 bilayers. In the latter case, we show that gating can be used to tune the s -like excitons from bright to dark by changing the winding number. Our theory thus provides a pathway to electrical control of optical transitions in two-dimensional material.

  20. The selection criteria elements of X-ray optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chicherina, N. V.; Bays, S. S.; Bildanov, R. G.; Stary, O.

    2018-01-01

    At the design of new modifications of x-ray tomography there are difficulties in the right choice of elements of X-ray optical system. Now this problem is solved by practical consideration, selection of values of the corresponding parameters - tension on an x-ray tube taking into account the thickness and type of the studied material. For reduction of time and labor input of design it is necessary to create the criteria of the choice, to determine key parameters and characteristics of elements. In the article two main elements of X-ray optical system - an x-ray tube and the detector of x-ray radiation - are considered. Criteria of the choice of elements, their key characteristics, the main dependences of parameters, quality indicators and also recommendations according to the choice of elements of x-ray systems are received.

  1. Optical demodulation system for digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Li, Dongmei; He, Yonghong; Guan, Tian; Zhang, Yilong; Shen, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xuejing; Liu, Siyu; Lu, Bangrong; Ji, Yanhong

    2017-09-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy-coupled optical system is reported to demodulate digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay. It takes advantage of the plasma emissions of assembled elemental materials to digitally decode the suspension array, providing a more stable and accurate recognition to target biomolecules. By separating the decoding procedure of suspension array and adsorption quantity calculation of biomolecules into two independent channels, the cross talk between decoding and label signals in traditional methods had been successfully avoided, which promoted the accuracy of both processes and realized more sensitive quantitative detection of target biomolecules. We carried a multiplexed detection of several types of anti-IgG to verify the quantitative analysis performance of the system. A limit of detection of 1.48×10-10 M was achieved, demonstrating the detection sensitivity of the optical demodulation system.

  2. A radiographic image archive system on digital optical disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankovich, N.J.; Taira, R.K.; Cho, P.S.; Wong, W.K.; Stewart, B.K.; Huang, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The recent introduction of projection computed radiography (CR) systems allows radiology departments to consider digital operation in over 90% of performed procedures. Ideally, current patient procedures from CT, CT, and MR along with laser-digitized historical films should be centrally stored at their full digital resolution. Magnetic disks, because of their limited storage capacity and expense, can only retain these data on a limited basis. The author devised an optical disk archive system which automatically stores images directly onto 2.6-gigabyte optical cartridges without recourse to film. This system is in full clinical operation in the UCLA Pediatric Radiology Section of the authors' department. From this experience they present (a) an analysis of the digital archiving requirements of the Pediatric Radiology Section based on CR, CT, MR, and laser digitized films; (b) the archive and retrieval methods along with performance statistics; and (c) the procedure for assuring digital image integrity

  3. Fiber-optic perimeter security system based on WDM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Alexandre V.

    2017-10-01

    Intelligent underground fiber optic perimeter security system is presented. Their structure, operation, software and hardware with neural networks elements are described. System allows not only to establish the fact of violation of the perimeter, but also to locate violations. This is achieved through the use of WDM-technology division spectral information channels. As used quasi-distributed optoelectronic recirculation system as a discrete sensor. The principle of operation is based on registration of the recirculation period change in the closed optoelectronic circuit at different wavelengths under microstrain exposed optical fiber. As a result microstrain fiber having additional power loss in a fiber optical propagating pulse, which causes a time delay as a result of switching moments of the threshold device. To separate the signals generated by intruder noise and interference, the signal analyzer is used, based on the principle of a neural network. The system detects walking, running or crawling intruder, as well as undermining attempts to register under the perimeter line. These alarm systems can be used to protect the perimeters of facilities such as airports, nuclear reactors, power plants, warehouses, and other extended territory.

  4. Adaptive Optical System for Retina Imaging Approaches Clinic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, N.; Zhang, Y.; Rao, X.; Wang, C.; Hu, Y.; Jiang, W.; Jiang, C.

    We presented "A small adaptive optical system on table for human retinal imaging" at the 3rd Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine. In this system, a 19 element small deformable mirror was used as wavefront correction element. High resolution images of photo receptors and capillaries of human retina were obtained. In recent two years, at the base of this system a new adaptive optical system for human retina imaging has been developed. The wavefront correction element is a newly developed 37 element deformable mirror. Some modifications have been adopted for easy operation. Experiments for different imaging wavelengths and axial positions were conducted. Mosaic pictures of photoreceptors and capillaries were obtained. 100 normal and abnormal eyes of different ages have been inspected.The first report in the world concerning the most detailed capillary distribution images cover ±3° by ± 3° field around the fovea has been demonstrated. Some preliminary very early diagnosis experiment has been tried in laboratory. This system is being planned to move to the hospital for clinic experiments.

  5. Fiber optic perimeter system for security in smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav; Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Zboril, Ondrej; Novak, Martin; Jargus, Jan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Protection of persons and assets is the key challenge of Smart City safeguards technologies. Conventional security technologies are often outdated and easy to breach. Therefore, new technologies that could complement existing systems or replace them are developed. The use of optical fibers and their subsequent application in sensing is a trend of recent years. This article discusses the use of fiber-optic sensors in perimeter protection. The sensor consists of optical fibers and couplers only and being constructed without wires and metal parts bring many advantages. These include an absence of interference with electromagnetic waves, system presence can be difficult to detect as well as affect its operation. Testing installation of perimeter system was carried out under reinforced concrete structure. Subjects walked over the bridge at different speeds and over the different routes. The task for the system was an absolute detection of all subjects. The proposed system should find application mainly in areas with the presence of volatile substances, strong electromagnetic fields, or in explosive areas.

  6. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  7. Fiber-optic multipoint radiation sensing system using waveguide scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Yoda, Masaki; Tanaka, Koutarou; Masumaru, Tarou; Morimoto, Souichirou.

    1996-01-01

    Novel fiber-optic radiation sensors and a multipoint measurement method that takes advantage of them have been developed. The new sensor design, which we call a 'waveguide scintillator', consists of a scintillating material and a wavelength-shifting fiber (WLSF). The WLSF is embedded in the scintillating material, and each end is connected to a transparent optical fiber. These waveguide scintillators can be connected in series along an optical fiber loop to form a radiation monitoring system, and each end of the fiber loop is terminated with a photodetector. This new radiation monitoring arrangement dispenses with the need for electronic apparatus at each measuring point and consequently improves resistance to noise. Furthermore, it offers the advantages of multipoint monitoring - meaning that radiation intensity can be measured at multiple sensors - using only two photodetectors. We have examined the light output characteristics and time resolution of a prototype arrangement of these new waveguide scintillators, thus confirming the feasibility of multipoint measurements using a system of multiple waveguide scintillators connected in series in an optical fiber loop. (author)

  8. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    The unabated demand for more capacity due to the ever-increasing internet traffic dictates that the boundaries of the state of the art maybe pushed to send more data through the network. Traditionally, this need has been satisfied by multiple wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexing), higher order modulation formats and coherent communication (either individually or combined together). WDM has the ability to reduce cost by using multiple channels within the same physical fiber, and with EDFA amplifiers, the need for O-E-O regenerators is eliminated. Moreover the availability of multiple colors allows for wavelength-based routing and network planning. Higher order modulation formats increases the capacity of the link by their ability to encode data in both the phase and amplitude of light, thereby increasing the bits/sec/Hz as compared to simple on-off keyed format. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Polarization multiplexing of channels can double capacity by allowing two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX QPSK is increasingly becoming the industry's format of choice as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters

  9. Editorial: Special issue on smart optical instruments and systems for space applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING; Fei

    2015-01-01

    Optical systems are playing more and more important roles for space applications,such as high accurate attitude determination and remote sensing systems etc.Innovations in optical systems have brought great advantages,some even revolutionary for the space applications.Accordingly,in this special issue of Smart Optical systems and instruments

  10. Measuring the spatial resolution of an optical system in an undergraduate optics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Calvin; Donnelly, T. D.

    2017-06-01

    Two methods of quantifying the spatial resolution of a camera are described, performed, and compared, with the objective of designing an imaging-system experiment for students in an undergraduate optics laboratory. With the goal of characterizing the resolution of a typical digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, we motivate, introduce, and show agreement between traditional test-target contrast measurements and the technique of using Fourier analysis to obtain the modulation transfer function (MTF). The advantages and drawbacks of each method are compared. Finally, we explore the rich optical physics at work in the camera system by calculating the MTF as a function of wavelength and f-number. For example, we find that the Canon 40D demonstrates better spatial resolution at short wavelengths, in accordance with scalar diffraction theory, but is not diffraction-limited, being significantly affected by spherical aberration. The experiment and data analysis routines described here can be built and written in an undergraduate optics lab setting.

  11. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 2. Mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    The process of reflection of VUV and x-radiation is summarized. The functions of mirrors in synchrotron beamlines are described, which include deflection, filtration, power absorption, formation of a real image, focusing, and collimation. Fabrication of optical surfaces for synchrotron radiation beamlines are described, and include polishing of a near spherical surface as well as bending a cylindrical surface to toroidal shape. The imperfections present in mirrors, aberrations and surface figure inaccuracy, are discussed. Calculation of the thermal load of a mirror in a synchrotron radiation beam and the cooling of the mirror are covered briefly. 50 refs., 7 figs

  12. A planar waveguide optical discrete Fourier transformer design for 160 Gb/s all-optical OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liang, Xiaojun; Ma, Weidong; Zhou, Tianhong; Huang, Benxiong; Liu, Deming

    2010-01-01

    A cost-effective all-optical discrete Fourier transformer (ODFT) is designed based on a silicon planar lightwave circuit (PLC), which can be applied to all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission systems and can be achieved by current techniques. It consists of 2 × 2 directional couplers, phase shifters and optical delay lines. Metal-film heaters are used as phase shifters, according to the thermooptic effect of SiO 2. Based on the ODFT, a 160 Gb/s OFDM system is set up. Simulation results show excellent bit error rate (BER) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) performances after 400 km transmission.

  13. On Madelung systems in nonlinear optics: A reciprocal invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Colin; Malomed, Boris

    2018-05-01

    The role of the de Broglie-Bohm potential, originally established as central to Bohmian quantum mechanics, is examined for two canonical Madelung systems in nonlinear optics. In a seminal case, a Madelung system derived by Wagner et al. via the paraxial approximation and in which the de Broglie-Bohm potential is present is shown to admit a multi-parameter class of what are here introduced as "q-gaussons." In the limit, as the Tsallis parameter q → 1, the q-gaussons are shown to lead to standard gausson solitons, as admitted by the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation encapsulating the Madelung system. The q-gaussons are obtained for optical media with dual power-law refractive index. In the second case, a Madelung system originally derived via an eikonal approximation in the context of laser beam propagation and in which the de Broglie Bohm term is neglected is shown to admit invariance under a novel class of two-parameter class of reciprocal transformations. Model optical laws analogous to the celebrated Kármán-Tsien law of classical gas dynamics are introduced.

  14. Quantifying Optical Microangiography Images Obtained from a Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Reif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood vessel morphology is known to correlate with several diseases, such as cancer, and is important for describing several tissue physiological processes, like angiogenesis. Therefore, a quantitative method for characterizing the angiography obtained from medical images would have several clinical applications. Optical microangiography (OMAG is a method for obtaining three-dimensional images of blood vessels within a volume of tissue. In this study we propose to quantify OMAG images obtained with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system. A technique for determining three measureable parameters (the fractal dimension, the vessel length fraction, and the vessel area density is proposed and validated. Finally, the repeatability for acquiring OMAG images is determined, and a new method for analyzing small areas from these images is proposed.

  15. Hybrid optical security system using photonic crystals and MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosek, Jerzy; Ostrowski, Roman

    2017-10-01

    An important issue in security systems is that of selection of the appropriate detectors or sensors, whose sensitivity guarantees functional reliability whilst avoiding false alarms. Modern technology enables the optimization of sensor systems, tailored to specific risk factors. In optical security systems, one of the safety parameters considered is the spectral range in which the excitation signal is associated with a risk factor. Advanced safety systems should be designed taking into consideration the possible occurrence of, often multiple, complex risk factors, which can be identified individually. The hazards of concern in this work are chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds present in the forms of gases and aerosols. The proposed sensor solution is a hybrid optical system consisting of a multi-spectral structure of photonic crystals associated with a MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) resonator. The crystallographic structures of carbon present in graphene rings and graphenecarbon nanotube nanocomposites have properties which make them desirable for use in detectors. The advantage of this system is a multi-spectral sensitivity at the same time as narrow-band selectivity for the identification of risk factors. It is possible to design a system optimized for detecting specified types of risk factor from very complex signals.

  16. Holographic spectrum-splitting optical systems for solar photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deming

    Solar energy is the most abundant source of renewable energy available. The relatively high cost prevents solar photovoltaic (PV) from replacing fossil fuel on a larger scale. In solar PV power generation the cost is reduced with more efficient PV technologies. In this dissertation, methods to improve PV conversion efficiency with holographic optical components are discussed. The tandem multiple-junction approach has achieved very high conversion efficiency. However it is impossible to manufacture tandem PV cells at a low cost due to stringent fabrication standards and limited material types that satisfy lattice compatibility. Current produced by the tandem multi-junction PV cell is limited by the lowest junction due to series connection. Spectrum-splitting is a lateral multi-junction concept that is free of lattice and current matching constraints. Each PV cell can be optimized towards full absorption of a spectral band with tailored light-trapping schemes. Holographic optical components are designed to achieve spectrum-splitting PV energy conversion. The incident solar spectrum is separated onto multiple PV cells that are matched to the corresponding spectral band. Holographic spectrum-splitting can take advantage of existing and future low-cost technologies that produces high efficiency thin-film solar cells. Spectrum-splitting optical systems are designed and analyzed with both transmission and reflection holographic optical components. Prototype holograms are fabricated and high optical efficiency is achieved. Light-trapping in PV cells increases the effective optical path-length in the semiconductor material leading to improved absorption and conversion efficiency. It has been shown that the effective optical path length can be increased by a factor of 4n2 using diffusive surfaces. Ultra-light-trapping can be achieved with optical filters that limit the escape angle of the diffused light. Holographic reflection gratings have been shown to act as angle

  17. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyaev, Yu V [V.A.Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazaryan, M A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mokrushin, Yu M [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Shakin, O V [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  18. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, Yu V; Kazaryan, M A; Mokrushin, Yu M; Shakin, O V

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  19. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, Yu V.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Mokrushin, Yu M.; Shakin, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation.

  20. Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, Molly L.; Khalil, Michael A.; Al Abdi, Rabah; Kim, Hyun K.; Fong, Christopher J.; Desperito, Elise; Hershman, Dawn L.; Barbour, Randall L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2011-07-01

    Diffuse optical tomography has shown promising results as a tool for breast cancer screening and monitoring response to chemotherapy. Dynamic imaging of the transient response of the breast to an external stimulus, such as pressure or a respiratory maneuver, can provide additional information that can be used to detect tumors. We present a new digital continuous-wave optical tomography system designed to simultaneously image both breasts at fast frame rates and with a large number of sources and detectors. The system uses a master-slave digital signal processor-based detection architecture to achieve a dynamic range of 160 dB and a frame rate of 1.7 Hz with 32 sources, 64 detectors, and 4 wavelengths per breast. Included is a preliminary study of one healthy patient and two breast cancer patients showing the ability to identify an invasive carcinoma based on the hemodynamic response to a breath hold.