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Sample records for optical antipodes

  1. The antipodal sets of compact symmetric spaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Xingda; Deng, Shaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    We study the antipodal set of a point in a compact Riemannian symmetric space. It turns out that we can give an explicit description of the antipodal set of a point in any connected simply connected compact Riemannian symmetric space...

  2. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of the (+) Antipode of Zeylenone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An LIU; Zhan Zhu LIU; Zhong Mei ZOU; Shi Zhi CHEN; Li Zhen XU; Shi Lin YANG

    2004-01-01

    Starting from shikimic acid, the total synthesis of zeylenone was studied. The product was proved to be the (+)antipode of zeylenone through analysis and comparison of their respective spectra (including NMR, MS, IR and CD) and optical data. The absolute configuration of the natural product was thus determined to be (1 S,2S,3R).

  3. Black hole unitarity and antipodal entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Hooft, Gerard t

    2016-01-01

    Hawking particles emitted by a black hole are usually found to have thermal spectra, if not exactly, then by a very good approximation. Here, we argue differently. Locally, Hawking particles are thermal, but globally not: the Hawking particles emerging from one hemisphere of a black hole are 100 % entangled with the Hawking particles emerging from the other hemisphere. Consequently, their thermal fluctuations are identical, so if a rare event takes place on one hemisphere, the same event will be seen at the antipodal point on the other hemisphere. We explain why such bizarre behaviour is demanded by the requirement that black hole evaporation is described by a unitary scattering matrix. Region I and the diametrically opposite region II of the Penrose diagram represent antipodal points in a CPT relation, as was suggested before. On the horizon itself, antipodal points are identified, as long as there is no matter falling in. A candidate instanton is proposed to describe the formation and evaporation of virtual...

  4. Seismic interferometry with antipodal station pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fan-Chi; Tsai, Victor C.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we analyze continuous data from all Global Seismographic Network stations between year 2000 and 2009 and demonstrate that several body wave phases (e.g., PP, PcPPKP, SKSP, and PPS) propagating between nearly antipodal station pairs can be clearly observed without array stacking using the noise/coda cross-correlation method. Based on temporal correlations with global seismicity, we show that the observed body waves are clearly earthquake related. Moreover, based on single-earthquake analysis, we show that the earthquake coda energy observed between ~10,000 and 30,000 s after a large earthquake contributes the majority of the signal. We refine our method based on these observations and show that the signal can be significantly improved by selecting only earthquake coda times. With our improved processing, the PKIKP phase, which does not benefit from the focusing effect near the antipode, can now also clearly be observed for long-distance station pairs.

  5. Twistors and antipodes in de Sitter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Yasha

    2014-03-01

    We develop the basics of twistor theory in de Sitter space, up to the Penrose transform for free massless fields. We treat de Sitter space as fundamental, as one does for Minkowski space in conventional introductions to twistor theory. This involves viewing twistors as spinors of the de Sitter group SO(4,1). When attached to a spacetime point, such a twistor can be reinterpreted as a local SO(3,1) Dirac spinor. Our approach highlights the antipodal map in de Sitter space, which gives rise to doublings in the standard relations between twistors and spacetime. In particular, one can generate a field with both handedness signs from a single twistor function. Such fields naturally live on antipodally identified de Sitter space dS4/Z2, which has been put forward as the ideal laboratory for quantum gravity with a positive cosmological constant.

  6. Endopolyploidy in the antipodals of Ranunculus subgenus Ba trachium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Turała-Szybowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In three species of Ranunculus subgenus Batrachium, viz. Ranunculus peltatus Schrank., R. penicillatus (Dumort. Bab. and R. baudotii Godr., differentiation of antipodals is connected with endomitotic polyploidisation. Calculations of nuclei volume and analysis of nuclei structure were performed in successive developmental stages. Nuclei of the antipodals attained different levels of endopolyploidy: 32n (R. penicillatus, 64n (R. peltatus and 1024n (R. baudotii, as a maximum. In R. peltaius and R. baudotii, which reproduce sexually, the stimulating effect of fertilization on endomitotic polyploidisatian of the antipodals was found. The occurrence of giant chromosomes in highly endapolyploid nuclei of the antipodals in R. peltatus and baudotii was noted.

  7. Black Hole Unitarity and Antipodal Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2016-09-01

    Hawking particles emitted by a black hole are usually found to have thermal spectra, if not exactly, then by a very good approximation. Here, we argue differently. It was discovered that spherical partial waves of in-going and out-going matter can be described by unitary evolution operators independently, which allows for studies of space-time properties that were not possible before. Unitarity dictates space-time, as seen by a distant observer, to be topologically non-trivial. Consequently, Hawking particles are only locally thermal, but globally not: we explain why Hawking particles emerging from one hemisphere of a black hole must be 100 % entangled with the Hawking particles emerging from the other hemisphere. This produces exclusively pure quantum states evolving in a unitary manner, and removes the interior region for the outside observer, while it still completely agrees locally with the laws of general relativity. Unitarity is a starting point; no other assumptions are made. Region I and the diametrically opposite region II of the Penrose diagram represent antipodal points in a PT or CPT relation, as was suggested before. On the horizon itself, antipodal points are identified. A candidate instanton is proposed to describe the formation and evaporation of virtual black holes of the type described here.

  8. Quantum field theory and the antipodal identification of space time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, G.; Levinas, M.L. (IAFE-CONICET, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (AR)); Sanchez, N. (UA 336 CNRS-DEMIRM, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (FR))

    1988-01-01

    The authors investigate the elliptic interpretation of space-time (identification of antipodal points or vents) in anti-deSitter and in Rindler manifolds and its consequences for QFT. They compare and give a complete description of antipodal identification in space-times with and without event horizons. Antipodal identification relates the field theories on deSitter and on anti-deSitter spaces. In the elliptic Rindler manifold, imaginary time is periodic with period {beta}/2 but the Green functions (for both identifications with and without Conical singularity) have period {beta}. Additional new properties for the Green functions are obtained and the new terms added to the stress tensor computed.

  9. Antipodal symmetry and asymmetry in the embryo sac of Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Kosina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter- and intra-antipodal variation is presented for a free-nucleolar developmental stadium in the Avena sativa endosperm. Antipodals of common oat are uni- or multinuclear. Multinuclear antipodals, in a single cell, show nuclei of the same mitotic stage, but this is different for various antipodals. Examples of DNA amplification and anomalies occurring during mitosis are provided.

  10. Antipodal symmetry and asymmetry in the embryo sac of Avena sativa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Kosina; Joanna Krawczyk

    2016-01-01

    Inter- and intra-antipodal variation is presented for a free-nucleolar developmental stadium in the Avena sativa endosperm. Antipodals of common oat are uni- or multinuclear. Multinuclear antipodals, in a single cell, show nuclei of the same mitotic stage, but this is different for various antipodals. Examples of DNA amplification and anomalies occurring during mitosis are provided.

  11. Lunar magnetic anomaly concentrations at the antipodal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemant Singh, Kumar; Kuang, Weijia; Singh, Raghav

    2014-05-01

    The high resolution lunar-wide magnetic anomaly map derived from Lunar Prospector (LP) vector magnetometer data has revealed weak anomalies over the nearside large impact basins flooded by mare basalts. Stronger anomaly features are observed over many of the Nectarian and Pre-Nectarian aged lunar highlands. In particular, regions antipodal to some of the largest basin-forming impact craters show strong magnetic anomaly concentrations. Of the 43 basins investigated here, antipodal regions of 9 basins show these anomalous features with strengths in excess of 1-18 nT at LP's mapping altitude (30 km). These distinct anomalous concentrations were previously known to occur only at the antipodes of Imbrium, Orientale, Serenitatis, Crisium and Nectaris basins. The mean magnetic anomaly strength within each antipodal region, when plotted against increasing age of the antipodes, shows two age groupings with similar magnetic behavior. The first age grouping - (Imbrium, Orientale, Serenitatis, Crisium and Nectaris) is of Imbrium to Nectarian in age. This grouping is correlative with peak magnetic field enhancements between 3.6 and 3.9 Gyr, inferred from paleomagnetic data from the returned Apollo samples. The second age grouping (Lorentz, Coulomb-Sarton, Tranquillitatis and Cognitum) is of Mid to Early Pre-Nectarian age. This grouping has not been correlated to any known global magnetic field enhancement event, and needs further investigation to ascertain the origin of the anomalies. Although spatially adjacent, the magnetic field signatures of the Serenitatis and Imbrium antipodes exhibit distinct features, supporting the antipodal hypothesis. The absence of appreciable field enhancements at 34 other antipodes, however, indicates the importance of other processes, and superposition effects, that have operated on the Moon during its history.

  12. Endopolyploidy in the antipodals of Ranunculus subgenus Ba trachium

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Turała-Szybowska; Maria Wędzony

    2014-01-01

    In three species of Ranunculus subgenus Batrachium, viz. Ranunculus peltatus Schrank., R. penicillatus (Dumort.) Bab. and R. baudotii Godr., differentiation of antipodals is connected with endomitotic polyploidisation. Calculations of nuclei volume and analysis of nuclei structure were performed in successive developmental stages. Nuclei of the antipodals attained different levels of endopolyploidy: 32n (R. penicillatus), 64n (R. peltatus) and 1024n (R. baudotii), as a maximum. In R. peltaius...

  13. Antipodal focusing of seismic waves observed with the USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retailleau, L.; Shapiro, N. M.; Guilbert, J.; Campillo, M.; Roux, P.

    2014-11-01

    We present an analysis of the Mw = 5.3 earthquake that occurred in the Southeast Indian Ridge on 2010 February 11 using USArray data. The epicentre of this event is antipodal to the USArray, providing us with an opportunity to observe in details the antipodal focusing of seismic waves in space and time. We compare the observed signals with synthetic seismograms computed for a spherically symmetric earth model (PREM). A beamforming analysis is performed over the different seismic phases detected at antipodal distances. Direct spatial snapshots of the signals and the beamforming results show that the focusing is well predicted for the first P-wave phases such as PKP or PP. However, converted phases (SKSP, PPS) show a deviation of the energy focusing to the south, likely caused by the Earth's heterogeneity. Focusing of multiple S-wave phases strongly deteriorates and is barely observable.

  14. Correlation between a loss of auxin signaling and a loss of proliferation in maize antipodal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettoor, Antony M.; Evans, Matthew M. S.

    2015-01-01

    The plant life cycle alternates between two genetically active generations: the diploid sporophyte and the haploid gametophyte. In angiosperms the gametophytes are sexually dimorphic and consist of only a few cells. The female gametophyte, or embryo sac, is comprised of four cell types: two synergids, an egg cell, a central cell, and a variable number of antipodal cells. In some species the antipodal cells are indistinct and fail to proliferate, so many aspects of antipodal cell function and development have been unclear. In maize and many other grasses, the antipodal cells proliferate to produce a highly distinct cluster at the chalazal end of the embryo sac that persists at the apex of the endosperm after fertilization. The antipodal cells are a site of auxin accumulation in the maize embryo sac. Analysis of different families of genes involved in auxin biosynthesis, distribution, and signaling for expression in the embryo sac demonstrates that all steps are expressed within the embryo sac. In contrast to auxin signaling, cytokinin signaling is absent in the embryo sac and instead occurs adjacent to but outside of the antipodal cells. Mutant analysis shows a correlation between a loss of auxin signaling and a loss of proliferation of the antipodal cells. The leaf polarity mutant Laxmidrib1 causes a lack of antipodal cell proliferation coupled with a loss of DR5 and PIN1a expression in the antipodal cells. PMID:25859254

  15. Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna for Water Pipe Sensor and Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ruvio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An antipodal Vivaldi antenna operates simultaneously for telemetry and sensing when placed conformally onto PVC pipes. Good radiation efficiency is realised and the antenna impedance matching remains stable when a pipe is empty or contains water. The fidelity factor performance based on an input Ultra-Wideband Gaussian pulse is a suitable figure of merit to detect water presence. Different water levels and pipe conditions correspond to fidelity factors between 90% and 96%, which are a suitable dynamic range for sensing and the appropriate quality for pulse communications for remote monitoring.

  16. Detection of inner core solidification from observations of antipodal PKIIKP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Vernon F.

    2015-09-01

    PKIIKP waves, reflected from the underside of the inner core boundary, are very sensitive to the S velocity in the uppermost 80 km of the inner core at antipodal distances, undergoing a phase change and a factor of 4 amplification as the distance approaches 180°. Modeled PKIIKP waveforms are consistent with a near-zero shear modulus in the uppermost inner core in a 20-40 km thick patch beneath the eastern equatorial hemisphere. This bright spot of PKIIKP reflection correlates with a thin zone of low P velocity inferred from the complexity of PKIKP waveforms sampling this patch. Estimates of grain sizes from seismic attenuation, the absence of backscattered PKiKP coda in this region, and a prediction for enhanced heat flow through this patch suggest that it is a region of solidification rather than melting.

  17. An Impact Melt Origin for Tycho Antipodal Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, I. S.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent spacecraft measurements from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) radar, thermal infrared, and high-resolution imagery have been used to identify a region on the lunar far side that exhibits unusually high rock abundance and is covered by smooth deposits (Bandfield et al., 2011, 2015; Robinson et al., 2011, 2015). Further investigation of the region, centered at 42.5ºN, 167.5ºE, reveals three distinct regional morphologies. The first, flat deposits referred to as "ponds," occur in depressions such as crater bottoms; the second, a veneer with apparent viscous flow-like features, is regionally widespread but thickest in the interior of craters on the slopes above ponds; the third, which is most apparent in the Diviner Rock Abundance dataset, is rubble or rocky material that tends to occur preferentially on the upper slopes of craters within a specific range of azimuths. Although the region is host to a variety of features that suggest the presence of previously fluid material (e.g., equipotential pond surfaces, lobate-like flows), there is no clear source for volcanic activity in the region. Previous studies have suggested these deposits are from relatively young impact melts, with Tycho crater (located at the antipode to the deposits of interest) being the most likely source (Robinson et al., 2015). Here, we use the Diviner Rock Abundance data paired with NAC DEMs to evaluate the local extent of the three rock morphologies observed in the region. We then use this data to create an impact-heating model, taking into account the efficiency of heating for a range of slopes, which describes the distribution of materials in a regional context. Our model results provide sufficient evidence that melting and subsequent fluid flow was possible over the timescales required for material to arrive from the Tycho impact. Furthermore, the model predicts flow to have occurred over discrete areas within the Tycho antipode region, which is confirmed by observations.

  18. Antipodal Terrains Created by the Rheasilvia Impact on Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, T. J.; Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, H. J.; Ivanov, B. A.; O'Brien, D. P.; Gaskell, R.; Marchi, S.

    2013-08-01

    The Rheasilvia Impact on 4 Vesta was sufficiently large to have caused terrain disruption at the impact antipode. We simulate this event, investigate which internal parameters of the target body control deformation, and compare to Dawn observations.

  19. From Rome to the Antipodes: the medieval form of the world

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Here we discuss how some medieval scholars in the Western Europe viewed the form of the world and the problem of the Antipodes, starting from the Natural History written by Pliny and ending in the Hell of Dante Alighieri. From the center of the Earth, Dante and Virgil came to the Antipodes: eventually, their existence was accepted. Among the others, we will discuss the works of the Venerable Bede and Sylvester the Second.

  20. On linear $q$-ary completely regular codes with $\\rho=2$ and dual antipodal

    CERN Document Server

    Borges, Joaquim; Zinoviev, Victor

    2010-01-01

    We characterize all linear $q$-ary completely regular codes with covering radius $\\rho=2$ when the dual codes are antipodal. These completely regular codes are extensions of linear completely regular codes with covering radius 1, which are all classified. For $\\rho=2$, we give a list of all such codes known to us. This also gives the characterization of two weight linear antipodal codes.

  1. Antipodal terrains created by the Rheasilvia basin forming impact on asteroid 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, T. J.; Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, H. J.; Ivanov, B. A.; O'Brien, D. P.; Gaskell, R.; Marchi, S.

    2013-09-01

    Rheasilvia impact on asteroid 4 Vesta may have been sufficiently large to create disrupted terrains at the impact antipode. This paper investigates the amount of deformation expected at the Rheasilvia antipode using numerical models of sufficient resolution to directly observe terrain modification and material displacements following the arrival of impact stresses. We find that the magnitude and mode of deformation expected at the impact antipode is strongly dependent on both the sound speed and porosity of Vesta's mantle, as well as the strength of the Vestan core. In the case of low mantle porosities and high core strengths, we predict the existence of a topographic high (a peak) caused by the collection of spalled and uplifted material at the antipode. Observations by NASA's Dawn spacecraft cannot provide definite evidence that large amounts of deformation occurred at the Rheasilvia antipode, largely due to the presence of younger large impact craters in the region. However, a deficiency of small craters near the antipodal point suggests that some degree of deformation did occur.

  2. Positional variation of antipodal cells in polyembryonic rice ApⅢ before and after fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Liangchen; CHEN Yongzhe; MU Xijin; LIN Jinxing

    2003-01-01

    The variation in the position of antipodal cells before and after fertilization in polyembryonic rice strain ApⅢ was studied by using conventional sectioning technique. It was shown that initially the three antipodal cells lie at the chalazal end of the young embryo sacs. Along with the development of embryo sac, the antipodal cells proliferate into a multicellular structure containing up to about 20 cells. Most of the cells migrate to its dorsal side when the embryo sacs turn into mature. In a few embryo sacs the antipodal cells are situated in the positions adjacent to the egg apparatus at the micropylar end, while in other sacs, they spread from the midst of the embryo sac to the micropylar end clinging to the nucellar tissue. Furthermore, it is reported for the first time that cells of some egg apparatus or proembryos disorganize when antipodal cells lie at the micropylar end, indicating that the function of the antipodal cells may vary during the embryogenesis in rice ApⅢ.

  3. Antipodally Invariant Metrics for Fast Regression-Based Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Pellitero, Eduardo; Salvador, Jordi; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Javier; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    Dictionary-based super-resolution (SR) algorithms usually select dictionary atoms based on the distance or similarity metrics. Although the optimal selection of the nearest neighbors is of central importance for such methods, the impact of using proper metrics for SR has been overlooked in literature, mainly due to the vast usage of Euclidean distance. In this paper, we present a very fast regression-based algorithm, which builds on the densely populated anchored neighborhoods and sublinear search structures. We perform a study of the nature of the features commonly used for SR, observing that those features usually lie in the unitary hypersphere, where every point has a diametrically opposite one, i.e., its antipode, with same module and angle, but the opposite direction. Even though, we validate the benefits of using antipodally invariant metrics, most of the binary splits use Euclidean distance, which does not handle antipodes optimally. In order to benefit from both the worlds, we propose a simple yet effective antipodally invariant transform that can be easily included in the Euclidean distance calculation. We modify the original spherical hashing algorithm with this metric in our antipodally invariant spherical hashing scheme, obtaining the same performance as a pure antipodally invariant metric. We round up our contributions with a novel feature transform that obtains a better coarse approximation of the input image thanks to iterative backprojection. The performance of our method, which we named antipodally invariant SR, improves quality (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) and it is faster than any other state-of-the-art method.

  4. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenkool, S; King, T M; Seddon, P J; Waters, J M

    2008-09-01

    Twelve microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized in the endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) using enriched genomic libraries. Polymorphic loci revealed two to eight alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.21 to 0.77. These loci will be suitable for assessing current and historical patterns of genetic variability in yellow-eyed penguins.

  5. Antipodal Magnetic Anomalies on the Moon, Contributions from Impact Induced Currents Due to Positive Holes and Flexoelectric Phenomina and Dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletetschka, G.; Freund, F.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Mikula, V.; Kohout, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    Large impacts on the Moon generate large pressure pulses that penetrate the whole body. Several of these large impacts may have generated antipodal structure with anomalous magnetic intensity.These regions can be more than a thousand km across, with fields of the order of tens to hundreds of nT. This is the case of Orientale, Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, and Nectaris impact basins. The production of large-scale magnetic fields and associated crustal magnetization due to lunar basin-forming impacts was hypothesized to have an origin in fields external to the impact plasma cloud that are produced by the magnetohydrodynamic interaction of the cloud with ambient magnetic fields and plasmas. During the period of compressed antipodal field amplification, seismic compressional waves from the impact converge at the antipode resulting in transient shock pressures that reach 2 GPa (20 kbar). This can produce conditions for shock magnetic acquisition of the crust antipodal to impact basins.

  6. An Optimal Dimensionality Sampling Scheme on the Sphere for Antipodal Signals In Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Alice P; Kennedy, Rodney A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a sampling scheme on the sphere and develop a corresponding spherical harmonic transform (SHT) for the accurate reconstruction of the diffusion signal in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). By exploiting the antipodal symmetry, we design a sampling scheme that requires the optimal number of samples on the sphere, equal to the degrees of freedom required to represent the antipodally symmetric band-limited diffusion signal in the spectral (spherical harmonic) domain. Compared with existing sampling schemes on the sphere that allow for the accurate reconstruction of the diffusion signal, the proposed sampling scheme reduces the number of samples required by a factor of two or more. We analyse the numerical accuracy of the proposed SHT and show through experiments that the proposed sampling allows for the accurate and rotationally invariant computation of the SHT to near machine precision accuracy.

  7. Measurement of fluid motion using antipodal nToF detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Gary; Bionta, Richard; Caggiano, Jac; Eckart, Mark; Hartouni, Ed; Hatarik, Robert; Kilkenny, Joe; Moore, Alastair; Sayre, Daniel; Yeamans, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The mid-2016 implementation of a neutron time-of-flight (nToF) detector in the northern hemisphere of the NIF experimental areas has provided an approximately antipodal detector pair configuration. In addition to enabling the first measurements of neutron spectra in the northern hemisphere of the NIF Target Bay, this configuration enables the most sensitive measurement of north/south fluid motion during neutron production in inertial confinement fusion implosions. We present the status and initial results of measurements using the NIF antipodal nToF system. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Vesta's north pole quadrangle Av-1 (Albana): Geologic map and the nature of the south polar basin antipodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, David T.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Scully, Jennifer E.; O'Brien, David P.; Gaskell, Robert; Roatsch, Thomas; Bowling, Timothy J.; Ermakov, Anton; Hiesinger, Harald; Williams, David A.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2014-12-01

    As part of systematic global mapping of Vesta using data returned by the Dawn spacecraft, we have produced a geologic map of the north pole quadrangle, Av-1 Albana. Extensive seasonal shadows were present in the north polar region at the time of the Dawn observations, limiting the ability to map morphological features and employ color or spectral data for determination of composition. The major recognizable units present include ancient cratered highlands and younger crater-related units (undivided ejecta, and mass-wasting material on crater floors). The antipode of Vesta's large southern impact basins, Rheasilvia and Veneneia, lie within or near the Av-1 quadrangle. Therefore it is of particular interest to search for evidence of features of the kind that are found at basin antipodes on other planetary bodies. Albedo markings known as lunar swirls are correlated with basin antipodes and the presence of crustal magnetic anomalies on the Moon, but lighting conditions preclude recognition of such albedo features in images of the antipode of Vesta's Rheasilvia basin. “Hilly and lineated terrain,” found at the antipodes of large basins on the Moon and Mercury, is not present at the Rheasilvia or Veneneia antipodes. We have identified small-scale linear depressions that may be related to increased fracturing in the Rheasilvia and Veneneia antipodal areas, consistent with impact-induced stresses (Buczkowski, D. et al. [2012b]. Analysis of the large scale troughs on Vesta and correlation to a model of giant impact into a differentiated asteroid. Geol. Soc. of America Annual Meeting. Abstract 152-4; Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre.20123). The general high elevation of much of the north polar region could, in part, be a result of uplift caused by the Rheasilvia basin-forming impact, as predicted by numerical modeling (Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre

  9. Selection for protection from insolation results in the visual isolation of Yellow-eyed Penguin Megadyptes antipodes nests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clark, RD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concealed and widely dispersed nests of the rare and endangered Yellow-eyed Penguin Megadyptes antipodes, or “hoiho”, have been considered to reflect an essential requirement for the visual isolation of nest sites from conspecifics. However...

  10. Antipodal Linear Tapered Slot Antenna Based Radio Link Characterization in Narrow Hallway Environment at 60 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Purva; Rao, T. Rama

    2016-09-01

    The performance of wireless communication systems is predominantly dependent on propagation environment and respective radiating antennas. Due to the shorter wavelength at millimeter wave (MmW) frequencies, the propagation loss through the objects in indoor environments is typically very high. To improve the channel capacity and to reduce inter-user interference, a high gain directional antenna is desired at MmW frequencies. Traditional antennas used in MmW devices are not suitable for low-cost commercial devices due to their heavy and bulky configurations. This paper focuses on design and development of a very compact (44.61 × 9.93 × 0.381 mm) high gain antipodal linear tapered slot antenna (ALTSA) utilizing substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology at 60 GHz. Received signal strength (RSS), path loss, and capacity are studied for MmW indoor applications utilizing ALTSA with radio frequency (RF) measurement equipment in narrow hallway environment.

  11. Origin of strong lunar magnetic anomalies: Further mapping and examinations of LROC imagery in regions antipodal to young large impact basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Lon L.; Richmond, Nicola C.; Spudis, Paul D.

    2013-06-01

    The existence of magnetization signatures and landform modification antipodal to young lunar impact basins is investigated further by (a) producing more detailed regional crustal magnetic field maps at low altitudes using Lunar Prospector magnetometer data; and (b) examining Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera imagery. Of the eight youngest lunar basins, five are found to have concentrations of relatively strong magnetic anomalies centered within 10° of their antipodes. This includes the polar Schrödinger basin, which is one of the three youngest basins and has not previously been investigated in this context. Unusual terrain is also extensively present near the antipodes of the two largest basins (Orientale and Imbrium) while less pronounced manifestations of this terrain may be present near the antipodes of Serenitatis and Schrödinger. The area near the Imbrium antipode is characterized by enhanced surface thorium abundances, which may be a consequence of antipodal deposition of ejecta from Imbrium. The remaining three basins either have antipodal regions that have been heavily modified by later events (Hertzsprung and Bailly) or are not clearly recognized to be a true basin (Sikorsky-Rittenhouse). The most probable source of the Descartes anomaly, which is the strongest isolated magnetic anomaly, is the hilly and furrowed Descartes terrain near the Apollo 16 landing site, which has been inferred to consist of basin ejecta, probably from Imbrium according to one recent sample study. A model for the origin of both the modified landforms and the magnetization signatures near lunar basin antipodes involving shock effects of converging ejecta impacts is discussed.

  12. Schubert and Beethoven - Adorno’s early antipods of the music in bougeois epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić-Molnar Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors are reconstructing the dichotomies which the young Theodor Adorno was trying to detect in the music of the bourgeois epoch and personify in two antipodes - Franz Schubert and Ludwig van Beethoven. Although already a devotee of Arnold Schönberg and the 20th century music avantgardism, Adorno was, in his works prior to his exile from Germany (1934, intensively dealing with Schubert and his opposition towards Beethoven. While Beethoven was a bold and progressive revolutionary, fascinated by the “practical reason” and the mission to rise up and reach the stars, Schubert wanted none of it (almost anticipating the failure of the whole revolutionary project. Instead, he was looking backwards, to primordial nature and the possibility of man to participate in its mythic cycles of death and regeneration. The lack of synthesis between this two opposing tendencies in the music of early bourgeois epoch lead to the “negative dialectics” of Schönberg and 20th century music avantgardism and to the final separation of Beethovenian musical progress and Schubertian musical mimesis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177019: Identiteti srpske muzike u svetskom kulturnom kontekstu, i br. 179035: Izazovi nove društvene integracije u Srbiji - koncepti i akteri

  13. Interaction of Global-Scale Atmospheric Vortices: Modeling Based on Hamiltonian System for Antipodal Vortices on Rotating Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, Igor I; Chefranov, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    It is shown for the first time that only an antipodal vortex pair (APV) is the elementary singular vortex object on the sphere compatible with the hydrodynamic equations. The exact weak solution of the absolute vorticity equation on the rotating sphere is obtained in the form of Hamiltonian dynamic system for interacting APVs. This is the first model describing interaction of Barrett vortices corresponding to atmospheric centers of action (ACA). In particular, new steady-state conditions for N=2 are obtained. These analytical conditions are used for the analysis of coupled cyclone-anticyclone ACAs over oceans in the Northern Hemisphere.

  14. Synthesis of antipodal -trisubstituted meso-tetraphenylporphyrins and the crystal structure of hexaphenylporphinatozinc(II) bispyridinate complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhyrappa Puttaiah; Velkannan Veerapandian

    2015-04-01

    series of antipodal -trisubstituted meso-tetraphenylporphyrins, H2TPP(R)3 (R = CH3, Ph, PE, and 2′-thienyl) derivatives and their metal (Cu(II) and Zn(II)) complexes were synthesised and characterised by electronic absorption, 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The magnitude of the red-shift in absorption bands in these free-base porphyrins depend on the nature of the substituent and follow the general trend: PE > 2′ > Ph > CH3. Synthesis, characterisation and crystal structure of 2,5,10,12,15,20-hexaphenylporphinato zinc(II) bispyridinate, ZnTPP(Ph)2(Py)2 complex is also reported. It shows planar geometry of the porphyrin ring with two -phenyls located at the antipodal 2,12-pyrrole positions. The two axially coordinated pyridine ring planes are oriented almost parallel to each other and they are in staggered conformation relative to opposite pyrrolic nitrogens. The normal-coordinate structural decomposition analysis of the ZnTPP(Ph)2(Py)2 complex revealed slight wave distortion of the macrocycle.

  15. Multilocus assignment analyses reveal multiple units and rare migration events in the recently expanded yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Star, Bastiaan; Waters, Jonathan M; Seddon, Philip J

    2009-06-01

    The identification of demographically independent populations and the recognition of management units have been greatly facilitated by the continuing advances in genetic tools. Managements units now play a key role in short-term conservation management programmes of declining species, but their importance in expanding populations receives comparatively little attention. The endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) expanded its range from the subantarctic to New Zealand's South Island a few hundred years ago and this new population now represents almost half of the species' total census size. This dramatic expansion attests to M. antipodes' high dispersal abilities and suggests the species is likely to constitute a single demographic population. Here we test this hypothesis of panmixia by investigating genetic differentiation and levels of gene flow among penguin breeding areas using 12 autosomal microsatellite loci along with mitochondrial control region sequence analyses for 350 individuals. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, the analyses reveal two genetically and geographically distinct assemblages: South Island vs. subantarctic populations. Using assignment tests, we recognize just two first-generation migrants between these populations (corresponding to a migration rate of < 2%), indicating that ongoing levels of long-distance migration are low. Furthermore, the South Island population has low genetic variability compared to the subantarctic population. These results suggest that the South Island population was founded by only a small number of individuals, and that subsequent levels of gene flow have remained low. The demographic independence of the two populations warrants their designation as distinct management units and conservation efforts should be adjusted accordingly to protect both populations.

  16. Interaction between global-scale atmospheric vortices: Modeling with Hamiltonian dynamic system of antipodal point vortices on a rotating sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, Igor I; Chefranov, A G

    2016-01-01

    We get point vortices dynamics equations on a rotating sphere surface directly from the hydrodynamic equations as representing their weak exact solution contrary to the conventional case of the use of a kinematic relationship between a given singular vortex field and velocity field. It is first time that the effect of a sphere rotation on the vortices interaction is accounted for in exact form. We show that only the stream function of a vortex pair of antipodal vortices (APV), and only it satisfies the original three-dimensional hydrodynamics equations on a sphere. We prove that only APV pair with two point vortices in the diameter-conjugated points of a sphere with equal by quantity but different sign circulations may be correctly considered as an elementary (stationary, not self-affecting) singular point object on a sphere. We suggest using the axis connecting the two point vortices in an APV for describing of an axis of rotation of the global vortices introduced in (Barrett, 1958) to reflect the observed g...

  17. Ionospheric plasma deterioration in the area of enhanced seismic activity as compared to antipodal sites far from seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, Tamara; Arikan, Feza; Poustovalova, Ljubov; Stanislawska, Iwona

    2016-07-01

    The early magnetogram records from two nearly antipodal sites at Greenwich and Melbourne corresponding to the activity level at the invariant magnetic latitude of 50 deg give a long series of geomagnetic aa indices since 1868. The aa index derived from magnetic perturbation values at only two observatories (as distinct from the planetary ap index) experiences larger extreme values if either input site is well situated to the overhead ionospheric and/or field aligned current systems producing the magnetic storm effects. Analysis of the earthquakes catalogues since 1914 has shown the area of the peak global earthquake occurrence in the Pacific Ocean southwards from the magnetic equator, and, in particular, at Australia. In the present study the ionospheric critical frequency, foF2, is analyzed from the ionosonde measurements at the nearby observatories, Canberra and Slough (Chilton), and Moscow (control site) since 1944 to 2015. The daily-hourly-annual percentage occurrence of positive ionospheric W index (pW+) and negative index (pW-) is determined. It is found that the ionospheric plasma depletion pW- of the instant foF2 as compared to the monthly median is well correlated to the aa index at all three sites but the positive storm signatures show drastic difference at Canberra (no correlation of pW+ with aa index) as compared to two other sites where the high correlation is found of the ionospheric plasma density enhancement with the geomagnetic activity. A possible suppression of the enhanced ionospheric variability over the region of intense seismicity is discussed in the paper. This study is supported by TUBITAK EEEAG 115E915.

  18. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  19. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  20. Husserl and Shestov: philosophical antipodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szepieniec

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a general characteristics of the relation between Lev Shestov’s philosophy of existence and transcendental phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. The analysis was largely inspired by Cezary Wodziński’s research on Shestov’s writings, including his book published in Polish Wiedza a zbawienie. Studium myśli Lwa Szestowa (1991. In 1931, inspired by Descartes’ Meditationes de prima philosophiae, Husserl began a total transformation of philosophy into a science absolutely founded, assumptionless and developed in the spirit of absolute self-responsibility. Thus, the idea of philosophy as an exact science and Descartes’ idea of a science absolutely founded became the aim. It resulted in a project of universal science which — according to Husserl — has been the aim of European philosophy from the beginning. Ultimately, this philosophy was to rebuild the whole model of European culture. Less than two years after the first edition of Die Krisis der europäischen Wissenchaften und die transzendentale Phänomenologie, Lev Shestov published his Athens and Jerusalem (1938 where he agrees with Husserl’s diagnosis that the whole European culture is in a stage of a deep crisis which goes to its very foundations. However, Shestov points at the radically different sources of that crisis. Paradoxically, a remarkable friendship connecting these two thinkers did not affect the similarity of their views. In fact, they are located at the opposite poles of the contemporary philosophical scene. The friendship of Shestov and Husserl was born in the atmosphere of an intense and uncompromising intellectual debate. Both thinkers are strongly convinced that the fate of European culture and European understanding what it is to be man are decided in the realm of philosophy. So, the philosophical projects they offer are two extremely critical visions of culture. At the same time they suggest a way the European culture should be thoroughly reformed at its very basis.

  1. Pseudometrically Constrained Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations: Generating uniform antipodally symmetric points on the unit sphere with a novel acceleration strategy and its applications to Diffusion and 3D radial MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Koay, Cheng Guan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to investigate the hypothesis that uniform sampling measurements that are endowed with antipodal symmetry play an important role when the raw data and image data are related through the Fourier relationship as in q-space diffusion MRI and 3D radial MRI. Currently, it is extremely challenging to generate large uniform antipodally symmetric point sets suitable for 3D radial MRI. A novel approach is proposed to solve this important and long-standing problem. Methods: The proposed method is based upon constrained centroidal Voronoi tessellations of the upper hemisphere with a novel pseudometric. Geometrically intuitive approach to tessellating the upper hemisphere is also proposed. Results: The average time complexity of the proposed centroidal tessellations was shown to be effectively on the order of the product of the number of iterations and the number of generators. For small sample size, the proposed method was comparable to the state-of-the-art iterative method in terms ...

  2. Chemoenzymatic collective synthesis of optically active hydroxyl(methyl)tetrahydronaphthalene-based bioactive terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batwal, Ramesh U; Argade, Narshinha P

    2015-12-14

    Starting from succinic anhydride and 2-methylanisole, a chemoenzymatic collective formal/total synthesis of several optically active tetrahydronaphthalene based bioactive natural products has been presented via advanced level common precursors; the natural product and antipode (-)/(+)-aristelegone B. Regioselective benzylic oxidations, stereoselective introduction of hydroxyl groups at the α-position of ketone moiety in syn-orientation, efficient enzymatic resolutions with high enantiomeric purity, stereoselective reductions, samarium iodide induced deoxygenations and tandem acylation-Wittig reactions without racemization and/or eliminative aromatization were the key features. An attempted diastereoselective synthesis of (±)-vallapin has also been described.

  3. Capacity-Approaching Superposition Coding for Optical Fiber Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of superposition coded modulation (SCM) for polarization-multiplexed coherent-detection optical fiber links. The proposed coded modulation scheme is combined with phase-shifted bit-to-symbol mapping (PSM) in order to achieve geometric and passive...... shaping of the signal's waveform. The output constellations in SCM-PSM exhibit nonbijective quasi-Gaussian statistical distributions that asymptotically reach the Shannon capacity limit, showing up to 0.7 dB sensitivity improvement for 256-ary SCM-PSM with respect to 256-ary quadrature amplitude...... modulation (QAM). The characteristic wave formation based on superposition of antipodal symbols and the lack of need for additional encoders for signal shaping, greatly reduces the transmitter and receiver processing complexity in comparison to conventional alternatives. Single-level coding strategy (SL-SCM...

  4. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  5. Absorbing angles, Steiner minimal trees, and antipodality

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Horst; de Wet, P Oloff; 10.1007/s10957-009-9552-1

    2011-01-01

    We give a new proof that a star $\\{op_i:i=1,...,k\\}$ in a normed plane is a Steiner minimal tree of its vertices $\\{o,p_1,...,p_k\\}$ if and only if all angles formed by the edges at o are absorbing [Swanepoel, Networks \\textbf{36} (2000), 104--113]. The proof is more conceptual and simpler than the original one. We also find a new sufficient condition for higher-dimensional normed spaces to share this characterization. In particular, a star $\\{op_i: i=1,...,k\\}$ in any CL-space is a Steiner minimal tree of its vertices $\\{o,p_1,...,p_k\\}$ if and only if all angles are absorbing, which in turn holds if and only if all distances between the normalizations $\\frac{1}{\\|p_i\\|}p_i$ equal 2. CL-spaces include the mixed $\\ell_1$ and $\\ell_\\infty$ sum of finitely many copies of $R^1$.

  6. Black hole unitarity and antipodal entanglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Hawking particles emitted by a black hole are usually found to have thermal spectra, if not exactly, then by a very good approximation. Here, we argue differently. It was discovered that spherical partial waves of in-going and out-going matter can be described by unitary evolution operators independ

  7. Optic glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  8. The New Worlds Observer: The Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    the target star to its antipodal stars and compute where the telescope should appear among the antipodal stars. The addi- tion of corner-cube...starshade observes an optical beacon on the telescope to find the telescope’s location against antipodal stars for medium alignment. Proc. of SPIE Vol

  9. Optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, S. C.

    1985-12-01

    The technical contributions were as follows: (1) Optical parallel 2-D neighborhood processor and optical processor assessment technique; (2) High accuracy with moderately accurate components and optical fredkin gate architectures; (3) Integrated optical threshold computing, pipelined polynomial processor, and all optical analog/digital converter; (4) Adaptive optical associative memory model with attention; (5) Effectiveness of parallelism and connectivity in optical computers; (6) Optical systolic array processing using an integrated acoustooptic module; (7) Optical threshold elements and networks, holographic threshold processors, adaptive matched spatial filtering, and coherence theory in optical computing; (8) Time-varying optical processing for sub-pixel targets, optical Kalman filtering, and adaptive matched filtering; (9) Optical degrees of freedom, ultra short optical pulses, number representations, content-addressable-memory processors, and integrated optical Givens rotation devices; (10) Optical J-K flip flop analysis and interfacing for optical computers; (11) Matrix multiplication algorithms and limits of incoherent optical computers; (12) Architecture for machine vision with sensor fusion, pattern recognition functions, and neural net implementations; (13) Optical computing algorithms, architectures, and components; and (14) Dynamic optical interconnections, advantages and architectures.

  10. Modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, B D

    2015-01-01

    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  11. Optic Neuritis

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Demyelinating optic neuritis is the most common cause of unilateral painful visual loss in the United States. Although patients presenting with demyelinating optic neuritis have favorable long-term visual prognosis, optic neuritis is the initial clinical manifestation of multiple sclerosis in 20% of patients. The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT) has helped stratify the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after the first episode of optic neuritis based on abnormal findings on brain MRI....

  12. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  13. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  14. Optical Solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    1. Optical solitons in fibres: theoretical review A. Hasegawa; 2. Solitons in optical fibres: an experimental account L. F. Mollenauer; 3. All-optical long-distance soliton-based transmission systems K. Smith and L. F. Mollenauer; 4. Nonlinear propagation effects in optical fibres: numerical studies K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran; 5. Soliton-soliton interactions C. Desem and P. L. Chu; 6. Soliton amplification in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers and its application to soliton communication M. Nakazawa; 7. Nonlinear transformation of laser radiation and generation of Raman solitons in optical fibres E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, A. M. Prokhorov and V. N. Serkin; 8. Generation and compression of femtosecond solitons in optical fibers P. V. Mamyshev; 9. Optical fibre solitons in the presence of higher order dispersion and birefringence C. R. Menyuk and Ping-Kong A. Wai; 10. Dark optical solitons A. M. Weiner; 11. Soliton Raman effects J. R. Taylor; Bibliography; Index.

  15. Optical biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biose...

  16. Optical keyboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veligdan, James T.; Feichtner, John D.; Phillips, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  17. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  18. Optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, J; Boutruche, J P

    1986-01-01

    Optical Fibers covers numerous research works on the significant advances in optical fibers, with particular emphasis on their application.This text is composed of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. The first part deals with the manufacture of optical fibers and the materials used in their production. The second part describes optical-fiber connectors, terminals and branches. The third part is concerned with the major optoelectronic components encountered in optical-communication systems.This book will be of value to research scientists, engineers, and patent workers.

  19. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  20. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, A E

    2011-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  1. Optical effects of space weathering in lunar crustal magnetic anomaly regions based on CE-1 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Wang, X.; Cui, J.; Fu, X.; Zhang, G.; Yao, M.; Liu, B.; Liu, J.; Li, C.; Ouyang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of mini-magnetospheres above the lunar surface suggests that magnetic shielding could have led to anomalous space weathering (little darkening with limited reddening) in magnetic anomaly regions. Using spectral data from Chang'E 1 Imaging Interferometer (IIM) and data from Lunar Prospector's magnetometer, we instigate the relationship between lunar crustal magnetic anomalies and the optical effects in those areas in association with space weathering. The IIM onboard China's Chang'E 1 (CE-1) spacecraft is a Fourier transform Sagnac imaging spectrometer operating in the visible to near infrared (0.48-0.96 μm) spectral range, with 32 channels at spectral intervals of 325.5 cm-1. We selected four regions with crustal magnetic anomalies to study their albedo properties: three lunar swirls (Gerasimovich, Mare Marginis, and Reiner Gamma) and the area antipodal to Herzsprung. We found that all three of the anomalous albedo areas are associated with magnetic anomalies, however, no anomalous albedo feature is found in the last magnetic anomaly area. In addition, we also studied the correlation between magnetic anomaly strength and albedo anomaly on a global scale. Our initial analysis suggests an overall tread of less darkening with increased magnetic anomaly.

  2. Optical electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yariv, Amnon

    1991-01-01

    This classic text introduces engineering students to the first principles of major phenomena and devices of optoelectronics and optical communication technology. Yariv's "first principles" approach employs real-life examples and extensive problems. The text includes separate chapters on quantum well and semiconductor lasers, as well as phase conjugation and its applications. Optical fiber amplification, signal and noise considerations in optical fiber systems, laser arrays and distributed feedback lasers all are covered extensively in major sections within chapters.

  3. [Optic neuritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, H; Heine, C; Tonagel, F

    2014-11-01

    Optic neuritis is a frequent neuro-ophthalmological disease in which the diagnosis can be based on just a few symptoms and findings. It is not only important to differentiate from other optic nerve disorders but also to recognise special types of optic neuritis, which is mostly only possible during the course of the disease. This article presents a review of the current state in diagnosis and therapy from the authors' personal point of view.

  4. After Dark in the Antipodes: Pedagogy, Place and Queer Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Vicki; Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2010-01-01

    This paper pursues issues of pedagogy, place and queer phenomenology in the context of what might be meant by the term "after-queer" or "what falls outside queer" as we currently theorise, practice and locate queer. Inspired by Sara Ahmed's account of how bodies become oriented by the ways in which they take up time and space,…

  5. Design of Ka-band antipodal finline mixer and detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Changfei; Xu Jinping; Chen Mo

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the analysis and design of a finline single-ended mixer and detector. In the circuit, for the purpose of eliminating high-order resonant modes and improving transition loss, metallic via holes are implemented along the mounting edge of the substrate embedded in the split-block of the WG-finline-microstrip transition. Meanwhile, a Ka band slow-wave and bandstop filter, which represents a reactive termination, is designed for the utilization of idle frequencies and operation frequencies energy. Full-wave analysis is carried out to optimize the input matching network of the mixer and the detector circuit using lumped elements to model the nonlinear diode. The exported S-matrix of the optimized circuit is used for conversion loss and voltage sensitivity analysis.The lowest measured conversion loss is 3.52 dB at 32.2 GHz; the conversion loss is flat and less than 5.68 dB in the frequency band of 29-34 GHz. The highest measured zero-bias voltage sensitivity is 1450 mV/mW at 38.6 GHz,and the sensitivity is better than 1000 mV/mW in the frequency band of 38-40 GHz.

  6. Optical Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  7. Optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Roed, H; Sellebjerg, F

    2004-01-01

    To study the involvement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands (CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/ITAC) in optic neuritis (ON).......To study the involvement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands (CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/ITAC) in optic neuritis (ON)....

  8. Optical biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. PMID:27365039

  9. Lagrangian optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Thyagarajan, K

    2002-01-01

    Ingeometrical optics, light propagation is analyzed in terms of light rays which define the path of propagation of light energy in the limitofthe optical wavelength tending to zero. Many features oflight propagation can be analyzed in terms ofrays,ofcourse, subtle effects near foci, caustics or turning points would need an analysis based on the wave natureoflight. Allofgeometric optics can be derived from Fermat's principle which is an extremum principle. The counterpart in classical mechanics is of course Hamilton's principle. There is a very close analogy between mechanics ofparticles and optics oflight rays. Much insight (and useful results) can be obtained by analyzing these analogies. Asnoted by H. Goldstein in his book Classical Mechanics (Addison Wesley, Cambridge, MA, 1956), classical mechanics is only a geometrical optics approximation to a wave theory! In this book we begin with Fermat's principle and obtain the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures of ray propagation through various media. Given the ...

  10. UVIS ring occultations show F ring feature location and optical depth correlated with Prometheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Bonnie K.; Esposito, L. W.; Albers, N.

    2010-05-01

    We find 24 statistically significant features in the F ring occultations using the High Speed Photometer (HSP) channel of the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS). These features are likely transient clumps of material embedded in the ring, each of which attenuates stellar signal during an occultation because the ring material is more densely packed at that location. In fact, two of these features are opaque, indicating they may be solid moonlets. Two trends are evident in the azimuthal location of these 24 F ring features with respect to that of Prometheus. First, the orbital locations of these features are mostly opposite Prometheus, as 11 of the 24 occupy the orbital region separated from Prometheus by 180° ± 20°. Second, average feature optical depth is maximum near the antipode of Prometheus in orbit. Our hypothesis is that these results show aggregation and disaggregation of clumps after Prometheus passes by. As Prometheus passes interior to the F ring, it encounters material once every synodic period, 68 days. Optical depth indicates density of ring material along the line of sight, so as material clumps together, we expect to see higher optical depths. Thus we infer that the encounter stimulates clumping of material that reaches a maximum 180° downstream. This may reinforce similar evidence that Ring-Moon interaction stimulates clumping in the F ring region from Cassini imaging (Beurle, et al., 2010) and at the B ring edge (Esposito, et al., 2010). Esposito, et al. (2010) suggest that the combined mass and velocity evolution of the ring system resembles a predator/prey model. This research was supported by the Cassini Project.

  11. Évidences paléomagnétiques et paléontologiques en faveur d'une position antipodale du craton Ouest-Africain et de la Chine du Nord : conséquences paléogéographiquesPalaeomagnetic and palaeontologic evidence for an antipodal position of the West African Craton and of northern China in the Rodinia puzzle: palaeogeographic consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Jean-Pierre; Aı̈fa, Tahar; Bourrouilh, Robert

    2004-02-01

    Reappraisal of the palaeomagnetic data previously published about the West African Craton and their comparison with the most recent information obtained on doleritic dykes and stromatolite-bearing formations allow us to propose, after a critical examination of the old geochronological data, a new path for the West African Craton between 2200 and 700 Ma. This path has been compared with that of eastern China (which can be simply divided into a northern and a southern China block) between 1400 and 700 Ma. We can observe that these two blocks show a common path before their accretion to the Rodinia super-continent. These two blocks, which were located close the equator and at the outboard of Rodinia at about 1000 Ma, were also characterized by identical stromatolitic assemblages. This result shows that West Africa and Eastern China represented the antipodal continental margins of Rodinia. One can also deduce from our data that the accretion of Rodinia mainly resulted from north-south-oriented displacements. To cite this article: J.-P. Lefort et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  12. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  13. Optical holography

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Optical Holography deals with the use of optical holography to solve technical problems, with emphasis on the properties of holograms formed with visible light. Topics covered include the Fourier transform, propagation and diffraction, pulsed-laser holography, and optical systems with spherical lenses. A geometric analysis of point-source holograms is also presented, and holograms and hologram spatial filters formed with spatially modulated reference waves are described. This book is comprised of 20 chapters and begins with an introduction to concepts that are basic to understanding hologr

  14. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... containing systems and are characterized using techniques in optical spectroscopy. Of the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy, particular attention has been paid to those based on time-resolved measurements and polarization, which is reflected in the experiment design in the projects. Not all...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  15. Quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....

  16. Quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....

  17. Ocean optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  18. Optic nerve atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optic atrophy; Optic neuropathy ... There are many causes of optic atrophy. The most common is poor blood flow. This is called ischemic optic neuropathy. The problem most often affects older adults. The optic ...

  19. Optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  20. Semiconductor Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Klingshirn, Claus F

    2012-01-01

    This updated and enlarged new edition of Semiconductor Optics provides an introduction to and an overview of semiconductor optics from the IR through the visible to the UV, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, dynamics, magneto and electrooptics, high-excitation effects and laser processes, some applications, experimental techniques and group theory. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered extend from physics to materials science and optoelectronics. Significantly updated chapters add coverage of current topics such as electron hole plasma, Bose condensation of excitons and meta materials. Over 120 problems, chapter introductions and a detailed index make it the key textbook for graduate students in physics. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered ...

  1. CODEX optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabre, Bernard; Manescau, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    CODEX is a high resolution spectrograph for the ESO E-ELT. A classical spectrograph can only achieve a resolution of about 120.000 on a 42 m telescope with extremely large echelle gratings and cameras. This paper describes in detail the optical concept of CODEX, which uses only optical elements size similar to those in current high resolution spectrographs. This design is based on slicers, anamorphic beams and slanted VPHG as cross dispersers. In this new version of the CODEX design, no special expensive materials as calcium fluoride or abnormal dispersion glasses are needed. The optical quality is excellent and compatible with 10K x 10K detectors with 10 μm pixels.

  2. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  3. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  4. Optical profilometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieloszyńska, Aleksandra; StrÄ kowski, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    The profilometry plays a huge role in the most fields of science and technology. It allows to measure the profile of the surface with high-resolution. This technique is used in the fields like optic, electronic, medicine, automotive, and much more. The aim of the current work was to design and build optical profilometer based on the interference phenomena. The developed device has been working with He-Ne laser (632.8 nm). The optical parts have been chosen in order to reach the sized 2.0 mm x 1.6 mm of scanning area. The setup of the profilometer is based on Twyman-Green interferometer. Therefore, the phase distribution of the backreflected light from measured surface is recorded. The measurements are carried out with the aid of multiframe algorithms. In this approach we have used the Hariharan algorithm to obtain the exact value of the recorded phase. During tests, which have been carried out in order to check the functionality of the device, the interference patterns have been recoded and processed in order to obtain the 3D profile of measured surface. In this contribution the setup of the optical system, as well as signal processing methods are going to be presented. The brief discussion about the advantages and disadvantages, and usefulness of this approach will be carried out.

  5. Diophantine Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouan, D.

    2016-09-01

    What I call Diophantine optics is the exploitation in optics of some remarkable algebraic relations between powers of integers. The name comes from Diophantus of Alexandria, a greek mathematician, known as the father of algebra. He studied polynomial equations with integer coefficients and integer solutions, called diophantine equations. Since constructive or destructive interferences are playing with optical path differences which are multiple integer (odd or even) of λ/2 and that the complex amplitude is a highly non-linear function of the optical path difference (or equivalently of the phase), one can understand that any Taylor development of this amplitude implies powers of integers. This is the link with Diophantine equations. We show how, especially in the field of interferometry, remarkable relations between powers of integers can help to solve several problems, such as achromatization of a phase shifter or deep nulling efficiency. It appears that all the research that was conducted in this frame of thinking, relates to the field of detection of exoplanets, a very active domain of astrophysics today.

  6. Optical Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    34perceptron" (F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics ), workers in the neural network field have been seeking to understand how neural networks can perform...Moscow). 13. F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics , (Spartan, 1962). 14. W. Stoner "Incoherent optical processing via spatially offset pupil

  7. Optical correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boden, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is given of the most common types of coherent optical correlators, which are classified as spatial plane correlators, frequency plane correlators and special reference correlators. Only the spatial plane correlators are dealt with rather thoroughly. Basic principles, some special features,

  8. Optical metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gåsvik, Kjell J

    2003-01-01

    New material on computerized optical processes, computerized ray tracing, and the fast Fourier transform, Bibre-Bragg sensors, and temporal phase unwrapping.* New introductory sections to all chapters.* Detailed discussion on lasers and laser principles, including an introduction to radiometry and photometry.* Thorough coverage of the CCD camera.

  9. Pulsed Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirlimann, C.

    Optics is the field of physics which comprises knowledge on the interaction between light and matter. When the superposition principle can be applied to electromagnetic waves or when the properties of matter do not depend on the intensity of light, one speaks of linear optics. This situation occurs with regular light sources such as light bulbs, low-intensity light-emitting diodes and the sun. With such low-intensity sources the reaction of matter to light can be characterized by a set of parameters such as the index of refraction, the absorption and reflection coefficients and the orientation of the medium with respect to the polarization of the light. These parameters depend only on the nature of the medium. The situation changed dramatically after the development of lasers in the early sixties, which allowed the generation of light intensities larger than a kilowatt per square centimeter. Actual large-scale short-pulse lasers can generate peak powers in the petawatt regime. In that large-intensity regime the optical parameters of a material become functions of the intensity of the impinging light. In 1818 Fresnel wrote a letter to the French Academy of Sciences in which he noted that the proportionality between the vibration of the light and the subsequent vibration of matter was only true because no high intensities were available. The intensity dependence of the material response is what usually defines nonlinear optics.

  10. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi

  11. Diffractive Optical Elements for Dynamic Optical Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhe Zhou; Xin Zhao; Liren Liu

    2003-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements such as the complementary Dammann gratings are incorporated for dynamic optical fiber splitting and combining. Experimental results of 1′8 dynamic optical couplings are presented.

  12. Diffractive Optical Elements for Dynamic Optical Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements such as the complementary Dammann gratings are incorporated for dynamic optical fiber splitting and combining. Experimental results of 1×8 dynamic optical couplings are presented.

  13. Applied optics and optical engineering v.9

    CERN Document Server

    Shannon, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume IX covers the theories and applications of optics and optical engineering. The book discusses the basic algorithms for optical engineering; diffraction gratings, ruled and holographic; and recording and reading of information on optical disks. The text also describes the perfect point spread function; the multiple aperture telescope diffraction images; and the displays and simulators. Ophthalmic optics, as well as the canonical and real-space coordinates used in the theory of image formation are also encompassed. Optical engineers and students tak

  14. Soft optics in intelligent optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Chikong; Cao, Yang

    2001-10-01

    In addition to the recent advances in Hard-optics that pushes the optical transmission speed, distance, wave density and optical switching capacity, Soft-optics provides the necessary intelligence and control software that reduces operational costs, increase efficiency, and enhances revenue generating services by automating optimal optical circuit placement and restoration, and enabling value-added new services like Optical VPN. This paper describes the advances in 1) Overall Hard-optics and Soft-optics 2) Layered hierarchy of Soft-optics 3) Component of Soft-optics, including hard-optics drivers, Management Soft-optics, Routing Soft-optics and System Soft-optics 4) Key component of Routing and System Soft-optics, namely optical routing and signaling (including UNI/NNI and GMPLS signaling). In summary, the soft-optics on a new generation of OXC's enables Intelligent Optical Networks to provide just-in-time service delivery and fast restoration, and real-time capacity management that eliminates stranded bandwidth. It reduces operational costs and provides new revenue opportunities.

  15. Optical aeronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Stanley C.

    1991-01-01

    Optical measurements of thermospheric and ionospheric processes and their interpretation are reviewed and the chemical reactions and their effects on emissions are discussed. Also included are the phenomena which excite the airglow and aurora, i.e., the solar UV/EUV flux and auroral particle precipitation. Consideration is given to solar flux, atomic emissions, molecular emissions, hydrogen geocorona, and molecular oxygen and the green line nightglow.

  16. Applied Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Han, M; Wang, Anbo

    2004-01-01

    A straightforward theory is presented to accurately model the light inferences in a low-finesse multimode fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer. The effect on the fringe visibility of the gap length, sensor structure imperfections, and modal power distributions is explored. The analysis is particularly useful in the design and optimization of sensors that use an extrinsic FP cavity as the sensing element. (C) 2004 Optical Society of America.

  17. Power optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollonov, V V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it

  18. Power optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2014-02-01

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  19. Parallel optical sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-20

    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  20. Hamilton optics: transformational theory of optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Ge, Wenjun

    2013-09-01

    In 1824 William Rowan Hamilton presented a memoir to the Royal Irish Academy on Optics(Trans. R. Irish. Acacamy, XV, 1828), which was the foundation for transformational optics, classical mechanics, nonimaging optics and thermodynamical foundation of nonimaging optics,etc. It is useful for us even in 2013 to revisit the Hamilton resolution.

  1. Cloud optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, A

    2006-01-01

    Clouds affect the climate of the Earth, and they are an important factor in the weather. Therefore, their radiative properties must be understood in great detail. This book summarizes current knowledge on cloud optical properties, for example their ability to absorb, transmit, and reflect light, which depends on the clouds' geometrical and microphysical characteristics such as sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and structures. In addition, problems related to the image transfer through clouds and cloud remote sensing are addressed in this book in great detail. This book can be an im

  2. Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Garrison, J C

    2008-01-01

    Quantum optics, i.e. the interaction of individual photons with matter, began with the discoveries of Planck and Einstein, but in recent years it has expanded beyond pure physics to become an important driving force for technological innovation. This book serves the broader readership growing out of this development by starting with an elementary description of the underlying physics and then building up a more advanced treatment. The reader is led from the quantum theory of thesimple harmonic oscillator to the application of entangled states to quantum information processing. An equally impor

  3. Optical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-07-13

    An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.

  4. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  5. Optical Backplane Interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Herbert D.

    1991-01-01

    Optical backplane interconnection (OBIT), method of optically interconnecting many parallel outputs from data processor to many parallel inputs of other data processors by optically changing wavelength of output optical beam. Requires only one command: exact wavelength necessary to make connection between two desired processors. Many features, including smallness advantageous to incorporate OBIT into integrated optical device. Simplifies or eliminates wiring and speeds transfer of data over existing electrical or optical interconnections. Computer hookups and fiber-optical communication networks benefit from concept.

  6. Optical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  7. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  8. Congenital optic tract hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukawa, Yoshikazu; Fujio, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Masanori; Taylor, David

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of isolated unilateral optic tract hypoplasia, described only twice previously. Bilateral optic disk hypoplasia was seen ophthalmoscopically and visual field studies showed an incongruous right homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral hypoplasia of both optic nerves and the left optic tract. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography mapping correlated well with the visual field studies.

  9. Optical manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falicoff, Waqidi; Chaves, Julio C.; Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-02-23

    Optical systems are described that have at least one source of a beam of blue light with divergence under 15.degree.. A phosphor emits yellow light when excited by the blue light. A collimator is disposed with the phosphor and forms a yellow beam with divergence under 15.degree.. A dichroic filter is positioned to transmit the beam of blue light to the phosphor and to reflect the beam of yellow light to an exit aperture. In different embodiments, the beams of blue and yellow light are incident upon said filter with central angles of 15.degree., 22.degree., and 45.degree.. The filter may reflect all of one polarization and part of the other polarization, and a polarization rotating retroreflector may then be provided to return the unreflected light to the filter.

  10. Fiber optics engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Azadeh, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Covering fiber optics from an engineering perspective, this text emphasizes data conversion between electrical and optical domains. Techniques to improve the fidelity of this conversion (from electrical to optical domain, and vice versa) are also covered.

  11. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  12. Quantum optics for experimentalists

    CERN Document Server

    Ou, Zhe-Yu Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This book on quantum optics is from the point of view of an experimentalist. It approaches the theory of quantum optics with the language of optical modes of classical wave theory, with which experimentalists are most familiar.

  13. Applied optics and optical design, part two

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, A E

    2014-01-01

    Classic detailed treatment for practical designer. Fundamental concepts, systematic study and design of all types of optical systems. Reader can then design simpler optical systems without aid. Part Two of Two.

  14. Tunable laser optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ

    2015-01-01

    This Second Edition of a bestselling book describes the optics and optical principles needed to build lasers. It also highlights the optics instrumentation necessary to characterize laser emissions and focuses on laser-based optical instrumentation. The book emphasizes practical and utilitarian aspects of relevant optics including the essential theory. This revised, expanded, and improved edition contains new material on tunable lasers and discusses relevant topics in quantum optics.

  15. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  16. Fibre-optic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoy, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    This book describes in a comprehensive manner the components and systems of fiber optic communications and networks. The first section explains the theory of multimode and single-mode fibers, then the technological features, including manufacturing, cabling, and connecting. The second section describes the various components (passive and active optical components, integrated optics, opto-electronic transmitters and receivers, and optical amplifiers) used in fiber optic systems. Finally, the optical transmission system design is explained, and applications to optical networks and fiber optic se

  17. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  18. Investigation of Optical Fibers for Nonlinear Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-17

    Northwestern University, 1970. Experience Dr. Harrington has 13 years of research experi- ence in the area of optical properties of solids . Since joining...dynamics, and optical properties of solids . 34 34I ANTONIO C. PASTOR, Member of the Technical Staff, Optical Physics Department, Hughes Research

  19. Illusion optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun; Ng, Jack; Chen, Huan-Yang; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Chan, C. T.

    2010-09-01

    The technique of “transformation optics” establishes a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material constitutive parameters. Most of the transformation optics mappings give metamaterials that have graded positive refractive indices that can steer light in curves defined by the coordinate transformation. We will focus on those “folded-geometry mappings” that give negative refractive index materials that have special wave scattering properties. One interesting example is a kind of remote illusion device that can transform the stereoscopic image of an object into the illusion of some other object of our choice. The conceptual device can create the illusion without touching or encircling the object. For any incident wave, the device transforms the scattered waves of the original object into that of the object chosen for illusion outside a virtual boundary. We will illustrate some possible applications of this type of metamaterial remote device, including “cloaking at a distance,” partial cloaking, cloaking from an embedded device, revealing a hidden object inside a container, turning the image of one object into that of another object, and seeing through a wall. The feasibility of building this remote illusion device by metamaterials will also be discussed.

  20. Light Optics for Optical Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andorf, Matthew [NICADD, DeKalb; Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Piot, Philippe [NICADD, DeKalb; Ruan, Jinhao [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    In Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) radiation generated by a particle in a "pickup" undulator is amplified and transported to a downstream "kicker" undulator where it interacts with the same particle which radiated it. Fermilab plans to carry out both passive (no optical amplifier) and active (optical amplifier) tests of OSC at the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) currently in construction*. The performace of the optical system is analyzed with simulations in Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) accounting for the specific temporal and spectral properties of undulator radiation and being augmented to include dispersion of lens material.

  1. Transformation optics and metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C. T.; Sheng, Ping

    2010-05-01

    Underpinned by the advent of metamaterials, transformation optics offers great versatility for controlling electromagnetic waves to create materials with specially designed properties. Here we review the potential of transformation optics to create functionalities in which the optical properties can be designed almost at will. This approach can be used to engineer various optical illusion effects, such as the invisibility cloak.

  2. Optical image encryption topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Liang, Xiao; Xin, Zhou; Qiong-Hua, Wang; Sheng, Yuan; Yao-Yao, Chen

    2009-10-15

    Optical image encryption topology is proposed based on the principle of random-phase encoding. Various encryption topological units, involving peer-to-peer, ring, star, and tree topologies, can be realized by an optical 6f system. These topological units can be interconnected to constitute an optical image encryption network. The encryption and decryption can be performed in both digital and optical methods.

  3. Introduction to ocean optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, H. R.; Smith, R. C.; Zaneveld, J. R. V.

    1984-01-01

    In this introductory survey of optical oceanography, the fundamental inherent and apparent optical properties of natural waters are presented. Relationships between these inherent and apparent optical properties, as related through the radiative transfer equation, are then examined. Following the first three theoretical sections, brief discussions describing the application of ocean optics to geophysics, biological oceanography, and ocean remote sensing are then presented.

  4. Nonlinear Optical Rectennas

    CERN Document Server

    Stolz, A; Markey, L; Francs, G Colas des; Bouhelier, A

    2013-01-01

    We introduce strongly-coupled optical gap antennas to interface optical radiation with current-carrying electrons at the nanoscale. The transducer relies on the nonlinear optical and electrical properties of an optical antenna operating in the tunneling regime. We discuss the underlying physical mechanisms controlling the conversion and demonstrate that a two-wire optical antenna can provide advanced optoelectronic functionalities beyond tailoring the electromagnetic response of a single emitter. Interfacing an electronic command layer with a nanoscale optical device may thus be facilitated by the optical rectennas discussed here.

  5. Optics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Duree, Galen C

    2011-01-01

    The easy way to shed light on Optics In general terms, optics is the science of light. More specifically, optics is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light?including visible, infrared, and ultraviolet?and the interaction of light with matter. Optics For Dummies gives you an approachable introduction to optical science, methods, and applications. You'll get plain-English explanations of the nature of light and optical effects; reflection, refraction, and diffraction; color dispersion; optical devices, industrial, medical, and military applicatio

  6. [Hereditary optic neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milea, D; Verny, C

    2012-10-01

    Hereditary optic neuropathies are a group of heterogeneous conditions affecting both optic nerves, with an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-related or mitochondrial transmission. The two most common non-syndromic hereditary optic neuropathies (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and autosomal dominant optic atrophy) are very different in their clinical presentation and their genetic transmission, leading however to a common, non-specific optic nerve atrophy. Beyond the optic atrophy-related visual loss, which is the clinical hallmark of this group of diseases, other associated neurological signs are increasingly recognized.

  7. Principles of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    History and BackgroundIntroductionHistoryPhysical OpticsTerms in Adaptive OpticsSources of AberrationsAtmospheric TurbulenceThermal BloomingNonatmospheric SourcesAdaptive Optics CompensationPhase ConjugationLimitations of Phase ConjugationArtificial Guide StarsLasers for Guide StarsCombining the LimitationsLinear AnalysisPartial Phase ConjugationAdaptive Optics SystemsAdaptive Optics Imaging SystemsBeam Propagation Syst

  8. Optical imaging and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, David J

    2009-01-01

    An essential reference for optical sensor system design This is the first text to present an integrated view of the optical and mathematical analysis tools necessary to understand computational optical system design. It presents the foundations of computational optical sensor design with a focus entirely on digital imaging and spectroscopy. It systematically covers: Coded aperture and tomographic imaging Sampling and transformations in optical systems, including wavelets and generalized sampling techniques essential to digital system analysis Geometric, wave, and statis

  9. Design of optical switches by illusion optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoorian, H. R.; Abrishamian, M. S.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, illusion optics theory is employed to form Bragg gratings in an optical waveguide in order to design an optical switch. By using an illusion device at a certain distance from the waveguide, the effective refractive index of the waveguide is remotely modulated, turning the waveguide into a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) which blocks the waves at a stop band. By removing the illusion device, the waves propagate through the waveguide again. In addition, this method is used to remotely tune DBR optical properties such as resonant frequency and bandwidth in a wide range, which leads to a tunable filter for optical switching applications. Finally, using an illusion device at a distance, an optical cavity is created by inserting defects remotely in a DBR without any physical damage in the primary device.

  10. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P

    2001-01-01

    The Optical Society of America (OSA) and SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering have awarded Govind Agrawal with an honorable mention for the Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award for his work on Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd edition.Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd Edition, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers. It retains most of the material that appeared in the first edition, with the exception of Chapter 6, which is now devoted to the polarization effects relevant for light propagation in optical

  11. Introduction to nonimaging optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Nonimaging Optics covers the theoretical foundations and design methods of nonimaging optics, as well as key concepts from related fields. This fully updated, revised, and expanded Second Edition: Features a new and intuitive introduction with a basic description of the advantages of nonimaging opticsAdds new chapters on wavefronts for a prescribed output (irradiance or intensity), infinitesimal étendue optics (generalization of the aplanatic optics), and Köhler optics and color mixingIncorporates new material on the simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) design method in 3-D, int

  12. Organic nonlinear optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  13. Latching micro optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  14. Active optical zoom system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  15. Achromatic optical diode in fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Berent, Michal; Vitanov, Nikolay V

    2013-01-01

    We propose a broadband optical diode, which is composed of one achromatic reciprocal quarter-wave plate and one non-reciprocal quarter-wave plate, both placed between two crossed polarizers. The presented design of achromatic wave plates relies on an adiabatic evolution of the Stokes vector, thus, the scheme is robust and efficient. The possible simple implementation using fiber optics is suggested.

  16. Acousto-optic laser optical feedback imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquin, Olivier; Lacot, Eric; Hugon, Olivier; De Chatellus, Hugues Guillet; François, Ramaz

    2012-01-01

    We present a photon noise and diffraction limited imaging method combining the imaging laser and ultrasonic waves. The laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI) technique is an ultrasensitive imaging method for imaging objects through or embedded within a scattering medium. However, LOFI performances are dramatically limited by parasitic optical feedback occurring in the experimental setup. In this work, we have tagged the ballistic photons by an acousto-optic effect in order to filter the parasitic feedback effect and to reach the theoretical and ultimate sensitivity of the LOFI technique. We present the principle and the experimental setup of the acousto-optic laser optical feedback imaging (AO-LOFI) technique, and we demonstrate the suppression of the parasitic feedback.

  17. Optical Quantum Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeremy L. O'Brien

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, all-optical quantum computing became feasible with the discovery that scalable quantum computing is possible using only single-photon sources, linear optical elements, and single-photon detectors...

  18. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  19. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  20. Optical solenoid beams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Roichman, Yohai; Grier, David G

    2010-01-01

    We introduce optical solenoid beams, diffractionless solutions of the Helmholtz equation whose diffraction-limited in-plane intensity peak spirals around the optical axis, and whose wavefronts carry...

  1. Optical antennas and plasmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Q-Han

    2009-01-01

    Optical antenna is a nanoscale miniaturization of radio or microwave antennas that is also governed by the rule of plasmonics. We introduce various types of optical antenna and make an overview of recent developments in optical antenna research. The role of local and surface plasmons in optical antenna is explained through antenna resonance and resonance conditions for specific metal structures are explicitly obtained. Strong electric field is shown to exist within a highly localized region o...

  2. Fibre-Optic Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Saxena

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of mechanical, ring-laser and fibre-optic gyroscopes has been made. The single mode fibre-optic gyroscope having a large number of turns of the optical fibre in the spool, replacing He-Ne gas laser by a GaAs laser diode, there by reducing the noise level, and using fully integrated fibre-optics, works out to be the best in the final analysis, for safe navigation and homing of the guided missiles.

  3. Giant optical manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvedov, Vladlen G; Rode, Andrei V; Izdebskaya, Yana V; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2010-09-10

    We demonstrate a new principle of optical trapping and manipulation increasing more than 1000 times the manipulation distance by harnessing strong thermal forces while suppressing their stochastic nature with optical vortex beams. Our approach expands optical manipulation of particles into a gas media and provides a full control over trapped particles, including the optical transport and pinpoint positioning of ∼100  μm objects over a meter-scale distance with ±10  μm accuracy.

  4. Photonic crystal optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. Wirth; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2011-06-01

    After several decades pushing the technology and the development of the world, the electronics is giving space for technologies that use light. We propose and analyze an optical memory embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC), whose system of writing and reading data is controlled by an external command signal. This optical memory is based on optical directional couplers connected to a shared optical ring. Such a device can work over the C-Band of ITU (International Telecommunication Union).

  5. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2009-01-01

    In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Backscattering and Anderson localization of light- Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices- Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification- Invisibility cloaks

  6. Emerging Correlation Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Gbur, Gregory J.; Polyanskii, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting the state-of-the-art of correlation optics and showing synergetics between the theoretical background and experimental techniques.......This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting the state-of-the-art of correlation optics and showing synergetics between the theoretical background and experimental techniques....

  7. Ternary optical computer principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金翊; 何华灿; 吕养天

    2003-01-01

    The fundamental principle and the characteristics of ternary optical computer, using horizontal polarized light, vertical polarized light and no-intensity to express information, are propounded in thispaper. The practicability to make key parts of the ternary optical computer from modern micro or integrated optical devices, opto-electronic and electro-photonic elements is discussed. The principle can be applied in three-state optical fiber communication via horizontal and vertical polarized light.

  8. Advanced digital optical communications

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a fundamental understanding of digital communication applications in optical communication technologies. Emphasizing operation principles versus mathematical analysis, the Second Edition includes new coverage of superchannel optical transmission systems, metropolitan and long-haul optical systems and networks, and Nyquist pulse shaping and high spectral efficiency of optical transmission systems, as well as new homework problems and examples. Featuring theoretical foundations as well as practical case studies, the text focuses on enhancements to digital technologies that are

  9. Adaptive optical zoom sensor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweatt, William C.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor

    2005-11-01

    In order to optically vary the magnification of an imaging system, continuous mechanical zoom lenses require multiple optical elements and use fine mechanical motion to precisely adjust the separations between individual or groups of lenses. By incorporating active elements into the optical design, we have designed and demonstrated imaging systems that are capable of variable optical magnification with no macroscopic moving parts. Changing the effective focal length and magnification of an imaging system can be accomplished by adeptly positioning two or more active optics in the optical design and appropriately adjusting the optical power of those elements. In this application, the active optics (e.g. liquid crystal spatial light modulators or deformable mirrors) serve as variable focal-length lenses. Unfortunately, the range over which currently available devices can operate (i.e. their dynamic range) is relatively small. Therefore, the key to this concept is to create large changes in the effective focal length of the system with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual elements by leveraging the optical power of conventional optical elements surrounding the active optics. By appropriately designing the optical system, these variable focal-length lenses can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length, and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses.

  10. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  11. Integrated Optical Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The optical (tele-) communication is the main driving force for the worldwide R&D on integrated optical devices and microsystems. lO-sensors have to compete with many other sensor types both within the optical domain (fiber sensors) and outside that domain, where sensors based on measurand induced c

  12. Integrated Optical Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul V.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The optical (tele-) communication is the main driving force for the worldwide R&D on integrated optical devices and microsystems. lO-sensors have to compete with many other sensor types both within the optical domain (fiber sensors) and outside that domain, where sensors based on measurand induced c

  13. Optical Disk Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, George L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This special feature focuses on recent developments in optical disk technology. Nine articles discuss current trends, large scale image processing, data structures for optical disks, the use of computer simulators to create optical disks, videodisk use in training, interactive audio video systems, impacts on federal information policy, and…

  14. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  15. Integrated Optics Some Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hradaynath

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Status of some key individual integrated optics components, their application in the field of telecommunications, integrated optoelectronic circuits, fibre optics sensors, optical interconnects and logic devices are highlighted in this paper. Possibilities of opto-opto processors in the computers field are also outlined.

  16. Optics and optical instruments an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, B K

    2011-01-01

    This book illustrates basic practical applications of optical principle. Working models of telescopes, microscopes, photographic lenses, and optical projection systems are diagrammed and explained in full, as are the basic experiments for determining accuracy, power, angular field of view, amount of aberration, and all other necessary facts about the instrument. Throughout the book, only elementary mathematics is used, for the benefit of the student and the beginner in the field of optics.The author, an assistant professor at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, shows ho

  17. Optical Flashes Preceding GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Paczynski, B

    2001-01-01

    Only one optical flash associated with a gamma-ray burst has been detected so far by ROTSE. There are also upper limits obtained by several groups for several bursts. Recent model calculations indicate a possibility that optical flash may precede the GRB. Such flashes are undetectable in the currently popular observing mode, with optical instruments responding to GRB triggers. There is a need to develop all sky optical monitoring system capable of recognizing flashes in real time, and more powerful instruments that could respond robotically to optical triggers and carry out follow up observations.

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. Paraxial Ray Optics Cloaking

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Joseph S

    2014-01-01

    Despite much interest and progress in optical spatial cloaking, a three-dimensional (3D), transmitting, continuously multidirectional cloak in the visible regime has not yet been demonstrated. Here we experimentally demonstrate such a cloak using ray optics, albeit with some edge effects. Our device requires no new materials, uses isotropic off-the-shelf optics, scales easily to cloak arbitrarily large objects, and is as broadband as the choice of optical material, all of which have been challenges for current cloaking schemes. In addition, we provide a concise formalism that quantifies and produces perfect optical cloaks in the small-angle (`paraxial') limit, and must be satisfied by any good cloaks.

  20. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    1977-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  1. Optic disc oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Kromann; Hamann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Optic disc oedema describes the nonspecific, localized swelling of the optic nerve head regardless of aetiology. Therefore, differentiating among the various aetiologies depends on a thorough history and knowledge of the clinical characteristics of the underlying conditions. Papilloedema strictly...... refers to optic disc oedema as a consequence of elevated intracranial pressure. It is usually a bilateral condition and visual function is preserved until late. Optic disc oedema caused by an anterior optic neuropathy is usually unilateral and accompanied by the loss of visual function....

  2. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy.

  3. Optics in aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  4. Magneto-optical metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Sadatgol, Mehdi; Forati, Ebrahim; Levy, Miguel; Guney, Durdu O

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new class of metamaterials called magneto-optical metamaterials that offer enhanced angle of rotation in polarization compared to bulk magneto-optical materials. In the proposed approach, the permittivity tensor of a magneto-optical material is tailored by embedded wire meshes behaving as artificial plasma. We have shown that the angle of rotation in the magneto-optical metamaterial can be enhanced up to 9 times compared to bulk magneto-optical material alone while the polarization extinction ratio remains below -20dB and insertion loss is less than 1.5dB.

  5. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  6. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2006-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  7. [Aspheric optics: physical fundamentals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, M; Büeler, M

    2008-03-01

    Especially regarding intraocular lenses and refractive corneal surgery, one finds numerous concepts on how to improve the optical quality of the human eye through aspheric optics. Aspheric optics consists of optical surfaces in which at least one surface (for example, the corneal surface) deviates from the spherical shape. An aspheric (that is, not spherical) surface enables the correction of aberrations, especially the spherical aberration, by freely shaping the optical surface. The optical aberrations of the human eye can theoretically be minimized through the use of aspheric optics; however, the results are always affected by the optical properties of the cornea and the lens. Aspheric intraocular lenses allow a reduction of postoperative spherical aberrations of the patient's eye, but an optimal individualized conformation can result only when the shape of the cornea (asphericity) is considered. By the same token, the ideal corneal asphericity after refractive surgery for an individual eye cannot be defined without knowing the optical properties of the intraocular structure. Theoretical observations of aspheric optics in refractive surgery show that with aspheric approaches, a higher optical quality for the human eye can be attained. These theoretical advantages must, however, prove themselves in everyday clinical routine.

  8. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  9. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  10. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  11. Optical clock networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Within the last decade, optical atomic clocks have surpassed the best cesium clocks, which are used to realize the unit of time and frequency, in terms of accuracy and stability by about two orders of magnitude. When remote optical atomic clocks are connected by links without degradation in the clock signals, an optical clock network is formed, with distinct advantages for the dissemination of time, geodesy, astronomy and basic and applied research. Different approaches for time and frequency transfer in the microwave and optical regime, via satellites and free-space links, optical fibre links, or transportable optical atomic clocks, can be used to form a hybrid clock network that may allow a future redefinition of the unit of time based on an optical reference transition.

  12. Optical Robotics in Mesoscopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    of optical forces and optical torques that, in turn, requires optimization of the underlying light-matter interactions. The requirement of having tightly focused beams in optical tweezer systems exemplifies the need for optimal light-shaping in optical trapping. On the other hand, the recently demonstrated......With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and torques in advanced actuation and control at the nano- and micro-scale dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro-robotics requires the optimization...... optical lift or light foil shows that optical manipulation can be achieved, even by using unshaped light, and instead applying an appropriately shaped structure. Hence, a generic approach for optimizing lightmatter interaction will involve the combination of optimal light-shaping techniques with the use...

  13. MEMS optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical sensor utilizing effective index modulation of a waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of reflected light and a force sensing system accommodating said optical sensor. One embodiment of the invention relates to a sensor system comprising...... at least one multimode light source, one or more optical sensors comprising a multimode sensor optical waveguide accommodating a distributed Bragg reflector, at least one transmitting optical waveguide for guiding light from said at least one light source to said one or more multimode sensor optical...... waveguides, a detector for measuring light reflected from said Bragg reflector in said one or more multimode sensor optical waveguides, and a data processor adapted for analyzing variations in the Bragg wavelength of at least one higher order mode of the reflected light....

  14. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch;

    2005-01-01

    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  15. Fiber optic to integrated optical chip coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, Joseph I. (Inventor); Ramer, O. Glenn (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Optical fibers are clamped by a block onto a substrate. Thereupon, metal is plated over the fibers to hold them in place upon the substrate. The clamp block is removed and the opening, resulting from the clamp block's presence, is then plated in. The built-up metallic body is a coupling which holds the fibers in position so that the ends can be polished for coupling to an integrated optical chip upon a coupling fixture.

  16. Fibre-optical microendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, M; Bao, H; Kang, H

    2014-04-01

    Microendoscopy has been an essential tool in exploring micro/nano mechanisms in vivo due to high-quality imaging performance, compact size and flexible movement. The investigations into optical fibres, micro-scanners and miniature lens have boosted efficiencies of remote light delivery to sample site and signal collection. Given the light interaction with materials in the fluorescence imaging regime, this paper reviews two classes of compact microendoscopy based on a single fibre: linear optical microendoscopy and nonlinear optical microendoscopy. Due to the fact that fluorescence occurs only in the focal volume, nonlinear optical microendoscopy can provide stronger optical sectioning ability than linear optical microendoscopy, and is a good candidate for deep tissue imaging. Moreover, one-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopy as the linear optical microendoscopy suffers from severe photobleaching owing to the linear dependence of photobleaching rate on excitation laser power. On the contrary, nonlinear optical microendoscopy, including two-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopy and second harmonic generation microendoscopy, has the capability to minimize or avoid the photobleaching effect at a high excitation power and generate high image contrast. The combination of various nonlinear signals gained by the nonlinear optical microendoscopy provides a comprehensive insight into biophenomena in internal organs. Fibre-optical microendoscopy overcomes physical limitations of traditional microscopy and opens up a new path to achieve early cancer diagnosis and microsurgery in a minimally invasive and localized manner.

  17. Direct optical to microwave conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Henry F.

    1990-09-01

    Support of high frequency fiber optic links through development of innovative higher efficiency techniques to convert optical energy directly to RF Energy. Control of Phases Arrays by optical means in an area of expanding technology development. Fiber optics and other forms of optical waveguide can provide greater accuracy and true time delay in a phase delay network. Methods of improvement in transfer of optical energy to RF Energy are determined. Development of Direct Optical-to-RF-Direct Amplifiers will result in higher efficiency, low noise, optical receivers for fiber optic links with improved performance. This results in longer fiber optic links without repeaters and improved BER or shorter links.

  18. Optical material. Hikari zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T.; Sakate, N.; Ueoka, T.; Iwakuni, H. (Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    It is obvious that various electronic technologies will be positively adopted in automobiles in the future and optical materials are supporting the above trend greatly. In this article, with regard to the optical materials now adopted in automobiles or those expected to be adopted therein in the future, their principles as well as usage, etc. are outlined. Furthermore, the prospect of the materials in the future is stated. The optical materials selected in this article are as follows: as for optical communications; optical fibers, photo emission/reception components, connecting technologies, and photo switches, etc., concerning materials for display such as meters and instrument panels for automobiles, etc.; liquid crystal, electroluminescent elements, light emitting diodes, and polarization films, with regard to dimmering materials; electrochromism and photochromism, and concerning other optical materials; solar cells, and transparent electroconductive films. 13 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Entanglement in Classical Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghose, Partha

    2013-01-01

    The emerging field of entanglement or nonseparability in classical optics is reviewed, and its similarities with and differences from quantum entanglement clearly pointed out through a recapitulation of Hilbert spaces in general, the special restrictions on Hilbert spaces imposed in quantum mechanics and the role of Hilbert spaces in classical polarization optics. The production of Bell-like states in classical polarization optics is discussed, and new theorems are proved to discriminate between separable and nonseparable states in classical wave optics where no discreteness is involved. The influence of the Pancharatnam phase on a classical Bell-like state is deived. Finally, to what extent classical polarization optics can be used to simulate quantum information processing tasks is also discussed. This should be of great practical importance because coherence and entanglement are robust in classical optics but not in quantum systems.

  20. Advances in integrated optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, A; Bertolotti, M

    1994-01-01

    This volwne contains the Proceedings of a two-week summer conference titled "Advances in Integrated Optics" held June 1-9, 1993, in Erice, Sicily. This was the 18th annual course organized by the International School of Quantum Electronics, under the auspices of the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture. The term Integrated Optics signifies guided-wave optical circuits consisting of two or more devices on a single substrate. Since its inception in the late 1960's, Integrated Optics has evolved from a specialized research topic into a broad field of work, ranging from basic research through commercial applications. Today many devices are available on market while a big effort is devolved to research on integrated nonlinear optical devices. This conference was organized to provide a comprehensive survey of the frontiers of this technology, including fundamental concepts, nonlinear optical materials, devices both in the linear and nonlinear regimes, and selected applications. These Proceedings update a...

  1. Quantum optical waveform conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Wiseman, HM

    2010-01-01

    Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

  2. Tunable micro-optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duppé, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Presenting state-of-the-art research into the dynamic field of tunable micro-optics, this is the first book to provide a comprehensive survey covering a varied range of topics including novel materials, actuation concepts and new imaging systems in optics. Internationally renowned researchers present a diverse range of chapters on cutting-edge materials, devices and subsystems, including soft matter, artificial muscles, tunable lenses and apertures, photonic crystals, and complete tunable imagers. Special contributions also provide in-depth treatment of micro-optical characterisation, scanners, and the use of natural eye models as inspiration for new concepts in advanced optics. With applications extending from medical diagnosis to fibre telecommunications, Tunable Micro-optics equips readers with a solid understanding of the broader technical context through its interdisciplinary approach to the realisation of new types of optical systems. This is an essential resource for engineers in industry and academia,...

  3. Silicon Optical Modulator Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Thor LIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed a way of predicting and analyzing high speed optical modulator. Our research adopted a bottom-up approach to consider high-speed optical links using an eye diagram. Our method leverages on modular mapping of electrical characteristics to optical characteristics, while attaining the required accuracy necessary for device footprint approaching sub-micron scales where electrical data distribution varies drastically. We calculate for the bias dependent phase shift (2pi/mm and loss (dB/mm for the optical modulator based on the real and imaginary part of complex effective indices. Subsequently, combine effectively both the electrical and optical profiles to construct the optical eye diagram which is the essential gist of signal integrity of such devices.

  4. Silicon optical modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham T. Reed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the earliest research on optical circuits, dating back to the 1970s, there have been visions of an optical superchip (see for example1,2, containing a variety of integrated optical components to carry out light generation, modulation, manipulation, detection, and amplification (Fig. 1. The early work was associated with ferroelectric materials such as lithium niobate (LiNbO3, and III-V semiconductors such as gallium arsenide (GaAs and indium phosphide (InP based systems. LiNbO3 was interesting almost solely because of the fact that it possesses a large electro-optic coefficient3, enabling optical modulation via the Pockels effect. Alternatively, the III-V compounds were interesting because of the relative ease of laser fabrication and the prospect of optical and electronic integration.

  5. Synthesis of (-)-Harzialactone A from a Readily Accessible Epoxy Chiral Building Block%Synthesis of (-)-Harzialactone A from a Readily Accessible Epoxy Chiral Building Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何蕾; 张少敏; 伍贻康; 李焰

    2011-01-01

    The antipode of (+)-harzialactone A, an antitumor marine metabolite, was synthesized with the two stereogenic centers in the target structure taken from an optically active epoxy cbiral building block.

  6. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2008-01-01

    In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Metamaterials- Polarization Techniques- Linear Baisotropic Mediums- Ultrafast Optical Pulses- Quantum Imaging- Point-Spread Funcions- Discrete Wigner Functions

  7. Optics and Symbolic Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-31

    28, No. 10, 795 "- 979v 5. 6. A. Huang and S. Knauer, Starlite : A Wideband Digital Switch, Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Atlanta...4 31 : .-. I ?4 2A 8. A. Huang, The Relationship Between STARLITE , a Wideband Digital Switch and Optics, Proc. International Conference on...34 Applied Optics, voL 27, No. 2, pp. 202-203 (1988). [10] A. Huang. "The relationship between STARLITE . a wideband digital switch and optics". Proceedings of

  8. Optical Clocks in Space

    CERN Document Server

    Schiller, S; Nevsky, A; Koelemeij, J C J; Wicht, A; Gill, P; Klein, H A; Margolis, H S; Mileti, G; Sterr, U; Riehle, F; Peik, E; Tamm, C; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Klein, V; Salomon, C; Tino, G M; Lemonde, P; Holzwarth, R; Hänsch, T W; Tamm, Chr.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of optical clocks has strongly progressed in recent years, and accuracies and instabilities of 1 part in 10^18 are expected in the near future. The operation of optical clocks in space provides new scientific and technological opportunities. In particular, an earth-orbiting satellite containing an ensemble of optical clocks would allow a precision measurement of the gravitational redshift, navigation with improved precision, mapping of the earth's gravitational potential by relativistic geodesy, and comparisons between ground clocks.

  9. Optical Properties of Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-15

    Elementary theory of the optical properties of solids in Advances in solid state physics, Vol. 15. Seitz, F.; Turnbull, D., ed. New York, NY: Academic Press... Properties of Solids (Academic Press, New York, 1972). 2. H.E. Bennett and J.M. Bennett, Optical Properties and Elec- tronic Structure of Metals and...34*. . . . . . . . . . . . | *.**,. ..ś . REFERENCES 1. There are many texts and review papers in this field. An excellent modern reference is F. Wooten, Optical

  10. Optical Fibre Bundle

    CERN Multimedia

    These are sample fibre optic cables which are used for networking. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than wire cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. This is useful for somewhere like CERN where magnets with their highly powerful magnetic fields could pose a problem.

  11. Polymer optical motherboard technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, N.; Yao, H.; Zawadzki, C.; Grote, N.; Schell, M.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, different hybridly integrated optical devices including optical multiplexer/ demultiplexer and optical transceivers are described. The devices were made using polymer planar light wave circuit (P2LC) technology. Laser diodes, photodiodes, and thin-film filters have been integrated. Key issues involved in this technology, in particular the coupling between laser diodes and polymer waveguides, and between waveguides and photodiodes and also fibers are discussed.

  12. Optical Coherency Matrix Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-19

    optics has been studied theoretically11, but has not been demonstrated experimentally heretofore. Even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs6 (e.g...coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two...dense coding, etc. CREOL, The College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando , Florida 32816, USA. Correspondence and requests

  13. Optical atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

    2013-11-19

    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  14. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    2004-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  15. Optical packet switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekel, Eyal; Ruschin, Shlomo; Majer, Daniel; Levy, Jeff; Matmon, Guy; Koenigsberg, Lisa; Vecht, Jacob; Geron, Amir; Harlavan, Rotem; Shfaram, Harel; Arbel, Arnon; McDermott, Tom; Brewer, Tony

    2005-02-01

    We report here a scalable, multichassis, 6.3 terabit core router, which utilizes our proprietary optical switch. The router is commercially available and deployed in several customer sites. Our solution combines optical switching with electronic routing. An internal optical packet switching network interconnects the router"s electronic line cards, where routing and buffering functions take place electronically. The system architecture and performance will be described. The optical switch is based on Optical Phased Array (OPA) technology. It is a 64 x 64, fully non-blocking, optical crossbar switch, capable of switching in a fraction of a nanosecond. The basic principles of operation will be explained. Loss and crosstalk results will be presented, as well as the results of BER measurements of a 160 Gbps transmission through one channel. Basic principles of operation and measured results will be presented for the burst-mode-receivers, arbitration algorithm and synchronization. Finally, we will present some of our current research work on a next-generation optical switch. The technological issues we have solved in our internal optical packet network can have broad applicability to any global optical packet network.

  16. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  17. PILOT optical alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longval, Y.; Mot, B.; Ade, P.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Baustista, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bray, N.; de Bernardis, P.; Boulade, O.; Bousquet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Charra, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Crane, B.; Crussaire, J.-P.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J.-P.; Engel, C.; Etcheto, P.; Gélot, P.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P..; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Lepennec, Y.; Leriche, B.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Martignac, J.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Mirc, F.; Misawa, R.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Narbonne, J.; Nicot, J.-M.; Pajot, F.; Parot, G.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tapie, P.; Tauber, J.; Torre, J.-P.; Tucker, C.

    2016-07-01

    PILOT is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the polarization of dust emission in the diffuse interstellar medium in our Galaxy at wavelengths 240 μm with an angular resolution about two arcminutes. Pilot optics is composed an off-axis Gregorian type telescope and a refractive re-imager system. All optical elements, except the primary mirror, are in a cryostat cooled to 3K. We combined the optical, 3D dimensional measurement methods and thermo-elastic modeling to perform the optical alignment. The talk describes the system analysis, the alignment procedure, and finally the performances obtained during the first flight in September 2015.

  18. Optics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarzio, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    This book is an excellent resource for teaching any student or scientist who needs to use optical systems. I particularly like the addition of MATLAB scripts and functions. Highly recommended.-Professor James C. Wyant, Dean of College of Optical Sciences, University of ArizonaHis book is clear, concise and highly readable. This is an excellent text.-Professor Changhuei Yang, California Institute of TechnologyAt last, a book on optics that is written with the practising engineer in mind. I have been teaching optics to engineers for many years and have often longed for a text aimed at my student

  19. Optical engineering of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Rabeau, James R

    2013-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.

  20. Optics, light and lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Meschede, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the concepts of classical optics, Optics, Light and Lasers introduces in detail the phenomena of linear and nonlinear light matter interaction, the properties of modern laser sources, and the concepts of quantum optics. Several examples taken from the scope of modern research are provided to emphasize the relevance of optics in current developments within science and technology. The text has been written for newcomers to the topic and benefits from the author's ability to explain difficult sequences and effects in a straightforward and easily comprehensible way. To this second, c

  1. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  2. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  3. Elementary wave optics

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook presents thorough coverage of the standard topics of classical optics and optical instrument design; it also offers significant details regarding the concepts of modern optics. Its survey of the mathematical tools of optics grants students insights into the physical principles of quantum mechanics.Two principal concepts occur throughout: a treatment of scattering from real scatterers (leading to Huygens' principles, diffraction theory, the index of refraction, and related topics); and the difference between coherent and noncoherent wave phenomena. Examinations of su

  4. LSST Camera Optics Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riot, V J; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Pratuch, S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, D; Ku, J; Nordby, M; Foss, M; Antilogus, P; Morgado, N

    2012-05-24

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, telescope design feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat field at the focal plane with a wide field of view. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated in with the optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance. We discuss the rationale for the LSST camera optics design, describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing the lenses and filters, and present the results of detailed analyses demonstrating that the camera optics will meet their performance goals.

  5. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  6. Innovative Solar Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Carl M.

    1984-02-01

    A variety of optical coatings are discussed in the context of solar energy utilization. Well-known coatings such as transparent conductors (heat mirrors), selective absorbers, and reflective films are surveyed briefly. Emphasis is placed on the materials' limitations and on use of lesser-known optical coatings and materials. Physical and optical properties are detailed for protective antireflection films, cold mirrors, fluorescent concentrator materials, radiative cooling surfaces, and optical switching films including electrochromic, thermochromic, photochromic, and liquid crystal types. For many of these materials, research has only recently been considered, so various design and durability issues need to be addressed.

  7. Deformable Nanolaminate Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S S; Papavasiliou, A P; Barbee, T W; Miles, R R; Walton, C C; Cohn, M B; Chang, K

    2006-05-12

    We are developing a new class of deformable optic based on electrostatic actuation of nanolaminate foils. These foils are engineered at the atomic level to provide optimal opto-mechanical properties, including surface quality, strength and stiffness, for a wide range of deformable optics. We are combining these foils, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with commercial metal processing techniques to produce prototype deformable optics with aperture sizes up to 10 cm and actuator spacing from 1 mm to 1 cm and with a range of surface deformation designed to be as much as 10 microns. The existing capability for producing nanolaminate foils at LLNL, coupled with the commercial metal processing techniques being used, enable the potential production of these deformable optics with aperture sizes of over 1 m, and much larger deformable optics could potentially be produced by tiling multiple deformable segments. In addition, based on the fabrication processes being used, deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be produced with areal densities of less than 1 kg per square m for applications in which lightweight deformable optics are desirable, and deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be fabricated with intrinsically curved surfaces, including aspheric shapes. We will describe the basic principles of these devices, and we will present details of the design, fabrication and characterization of the prototype deformable nanolaminate optics that have been developed to date. We will also discuss the possibilities for future work on scaling these devices to larger sizes and developing both devices with lower areal densities and devices with curved surfaces.

  8. Optical linear algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many of the linear algebra operations and algorithms possible on optical matrix-vector processors are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the use of direct solutions and their realization on systolic optical processors. As an example, implicit and explicit solutions to partial differential equations are considered. The matrix-decomposition required is found to be the major operation recommended for optical realization. The pipelining and flow of data and operations are noted to be key issues in the realization of any algorithm on an optical systolic array processor. A realization of the direct solution by householder qr decomposition is provided as a specific case study. 19 references.

  9. Optical encryption interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  10. Optical network democratization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-06

    The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation.

  11. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI) The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from...

  12. Optical Design for Biomedical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Rongguang

    2010-01-01

    Designing an efficient imaging system for biomedical optics requires a solid understanding of the special requirements of the optical systems for biomedical imaging and the optical components used in the systems. However, a lack of reference books on optical design (imaging and illumination) for biomedical imaging has led to some inefficient systems. This book fills the gap between biomedical optics and optical design by addressing the fundamentals of biomedical optics and optical engineering, and biomedical imaging systems. The first half provides a brief introduction to biomedical optics and

  13. Optical Design and Active Optics Methods in Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaitre, Gerard R

    2013-01-01

    Optical designs for astronomy involve implementation of active optics and adaptive optics from X-ray to the infrared. Developments and results of active optics methods for telescopes, spectrographs and coronagraph planet finders are presented. The high accuracy and remarkable smoothness of surfaces generated by active optics methods also allow elaborating new optical design types with high aspheric and/or non-axisymmetric surfaces. Depending on the goal and performance requested for a deformable optical surface analytical investigations are carried out with one of the various facets of elasticity theory: small deformation thin plate theory, large deformation thin plate theory, shallow spherical shell theory, weakly conical shell theory. The resulting thickness distribution and associated bending force boundaries can be refined further with finite element analysis. Keywords: active optics, optical design, elasticity theory, astronomical optics, diffractive optics, X-ray optics

  14. Performance of the optical communication adaptive optics testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Mitchell; Roberts, Jennifer; Guiwits, Steve; Azevedo, Steve; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Brack, Gary; Garkanian, Vachik; Palmer, Dean; Platt, Benjamin; Truong, Tuan; Wilson, Keith; Wallace, Kent

    2005-01-01

    We describe the current performance of an adaptive optics testbed for optical communication. This adaptive optics system allows for simulation of night and day-time observing on a 1 meter telescope with a 97 actuator deformable mirror.

  15. Optical cryocooling of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, M.; Jeske, J.; Lau, D. W. M.; Greentree, A. D.; Jelezko, F.; Twamley, J.

    2017-06-01

    The cooling of solids by optical means only using anti-Stokes emission has a long history of research and achievements. Such cooling methods have many advantages ranging from no moving parts or fluids through to operation in vacuum and may have applications to cryosurgery. However, achieving large optical cryocooling powers has been difficult to manage except in certain rare-earth crystals but these are mostly toxic and not biocompatible. Through study of the emission and absorption cross sections we find that diamond, containing either nitrogen vacancy (NV) or silicon vacancy defects, shows potential for optical cryocooling and, in particular, NV doping shows promise for optical refrigeration. We study the optical cooling of doped diamond microcrystals ranging 10-250 μ m in diameter trapped either in vacuum or in water. For the vacuum case we find NV-doped microdiamond optical cooling below room temperature could exceed |Δ T |>10 K for irradiation powers of Pin<100 mW. We predict that such temperature changes should be easily observed via large alterations in the diffusion constant for optically cryocooled microdiamonds trapped in water in an optical tweezer or via spectroscopic signatures such as the zero-phonon line width or Raman line.

  16. Genetically determined optic neuropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milea, Dan; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Reynier, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    The present review focuses on recent advances in the knowledge of hereditary optic neuropathies resulting from retinal ganglion cell degeneration, mostly due to mitochondrial dysfunctions.......The present review focuses on recent advances in the knowledge of hereditary optic neuropathies resulting from retinal ganglion cell degeneration, mostly due to mitochondrial dysfunctions....

  17. The Athena Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Shortt, Brian;

    2015-01-01

    studies and in parallel a comprehensive series of technology preparation activities. [1-3].The core enabling technology for the high performance mirror is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), a modular X-ray optics technology, which utilises processes and equipment developed for the semiconductor industry [4...

  18. Nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D F

    1991-07-19

    The current state of materials development in nonlinear optics is summarized, and the promise of these materials is critically evaluated. Properties and important materials constants of current commercial materials and of new, promising, inorganic and organic molecular and polymeric materials with potential in second- and third-order nonlinear optical applications are presented.

  19. An optical vortex coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, David M.

    2005-08-01

    An optical vortex may be characterized as a dark core of destructive interference in a beam of spatially coherent light. This dark core may be used as a filter to attenuate a coherent beam of light so an incoherent background signal may be detected. Applications of such a filter include: eye and sensor protection, forward-scattered light measurement, and the detection of extra-solar planets. Optical vortices may be created by passing a beam of light through a vortex diffractive optical element, which is a plate of glass etched with a spiral pattern, such that the thickness of the glass increases in the azimuthal direction. An optical vortex coronagraph may be constructed by placing a vortex diffractive optical element near the image plane of a telescope. An optical vortex coronagraph opens a dark window in the glare of a distant star so nearby terrestrial sized planets and exo-zodiacal dust may be detected. An optical vortex coronagraph may hold several advantages over other techniques presently being developed for high contrast imaging, such as lower aberration sensitivity and multi-wavelength operation. In this manuscript, I will discuss the aberration sensitivity of an optical vortex coronagraph and the key advantages it may hold over other coronagraph architectures. I will also provide numerical simulations demonstrating high contrast imaging in the presence of low-order static aberrations.

  20. Nutritional optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka-Pierko, Anna; Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional optic neuropathy (aka deficiency optic neuropathy) is a dysfunction of the optic nerve resulting from improper dietary content of certain nutrients essential for normal functioning of the nerve fibers. Most commonly, it results from folic acid and vitamin B complex deficiency associated with malnutrition or poor dietary habits, incorrectly applied vegetarian diet, or chronic alcohol abuse. Obese patients after bariatric surgery constitute another risk group of optic neuropathy. Nutritional optic neuropathy is characterized by painless, gradually progressing, bilateral and symmetrical decrease in visual acuity, which can be accompanied by the color vision dysfunction. Progression of the neuropathy is associated with optic nerve atrophy, manifesting as complete disc pallor. Treatment of nutritional neuropathy includes dietary supplementation, aimed at compensating for the deficient nutrients. The treatment is mostly based on folic acid, vitamin B complex, and protein replacement, as well as eliminating risk factors of neuropathy. Early treatment commencement, prior to irreversible optic nerve atrophy, is a prerequisite of effective treatment. We would like to highlight this problem by presenting the case of a young woman in whom chronic use "water-based" diet resulted in anemia and bilateral nutritional optic neuropathy.

  1. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  2. The Fiber Optic Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the fiber optics programs at the Career and Technical Center in Berlin, Pennsylvania and the Charles S. Monroe Technology Center in Loudoun County, Virginia. Discusses the involvement of the Fiber Optic Association with education, research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, installation, and maintenance of fiber optic…

  3. Optical Thermal Ratchet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, L. P.; Bourdieu, L. S.; Kaplan, P. D.; Libchaber, A. J.

    1995-02-01

    We present an optical realization of a thermal ratchet. Directed motion of Brownian particles in water is induced by modulating in time a spatially periodic but asymmetric optical potential. The net drift shows a maximum as a function of the modulation period. The experimental results agree with a simple theoretical model based on diffusion.

  4. Fiber optic spanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2011-10-01

    Rotation is a fundamental function in nano/biotechnology and is being useful in a host of applications such as pumping of fluid flow in microfluidic channels for transport of micro/nano samples. Further, controlled rotation of single cell or microscopic object is useful for tomographic imaging. Though conventional microscope objective based laser spanners (based on transfer of spin or orbital angular momentum) have been used in the past, they are limited by the short working distance of the microscope objective. Here, we demonstrate development of a fiber optic spanner for rotation of microscopic objects using single-mode fiber optics. Fiber-optic trapping and simultaneous rotation of pin-wheel structure around axis perpendicular to fiber-optic axis was achieved using the fiber optic spanner. By adjusting the laser beam power, rotation speed of the trapped object and thus the microfluidic flow could be controlled. Since this method does not require special optical or structural properties of the sample to be rotated, three-dimensional rotation of a spherical cell could also be controlled. Further, using the fiber optic spanner, array of red blood cells could be assembled and actuated to generate vortex motion. Fiber optical trapping and spinning will enable physical and spectroscopic analysis of microscopic objects in solution and also find potential applications in lab- on-a-chip devices.

  5. Genetically determined optic neuropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milea, Dan; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Reynier, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    The present review focuses on recent advances in the knowledge of hereditary optic neuropathies resulting from retinal ganglion cell degeneration, mostly due to mitochondrial dysfunctions.......The present review focuses on recent advances in the knowledge of hereditary optic neuropathies resulting from retinal ganglion cell degeneration, mostly due to mitochondrial dysfunctions....

  6. Dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenaers, Guy; Hamel, Christian; Delettre, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC...

  7. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    . This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  8. Nanosecond Optical Shutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N. S. P.; Yates, G. J.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Pagano, T. S.; Black, J. Paul

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of gated optical shuttering responses for commercially available micro-channel plate image intensifier tubes (MCPTs) with the performance of a new design for improved optical shuttering is presented. Measurements of opacity, photocathode quantum efficiency, and shutter pulse propagation characteristics are discussed.

  9. Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical C: F49620-93-C-0039 Switching and Modulation 6. AUTHOR(S) Mr. Sandip K. Sengupta, Dr...D FINAL REPORT for Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation Prepared for: USAF, AFMC (AFOSR) Air Force...34Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation," contract number F49620-93-C-0039. The work has been performed by Dr

  10. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  11. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  12. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy ofSciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  13. Computational optical biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ming

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Optical molecular imaging is based on fluorescence or bioluminescence, and hindered by photon scattering in the tissue, especially in patient studies. Here we propose a computational optical biopsy (COB approach to localize and quantify a light source deep inside a subject. In contrast to existing optical biopsy techniques, our scheme is to collect optical signals directly from a region of interest along one or multiple biopsy paths in a subject, and then compute features of an underlying light source distribution. In this paper, we formulate this inverse problem in the framework of diffusion approximation, demonstrate the solution uniqueness properties in two representative configurations, and obtain analytic solutions for reconstruction of both optical properties and source parameters.

  14. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  15. Nonlinear optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guang S

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...

  16. Optical atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Poli, N; Gill, P; Tino, G M

    2014-01-01

    In the last ten years extraordinary results in time and frequency metrology have been demonstrated. Frequency-stabilization techniques for continuous-wave lasers and femto-second optical frequency combs have enabled a rapid development of frequency standards based on optical transitions in ultra-cold neutral atoms and trapped ions. As a result, today's best performing atomic clocks tick at an optical rate and allow scientists to perform high-resolution measurements with a precision approaching a few parts in $10^{18}$. This paper reviews the history and the state of the art in optical-clock research and addresses the implementation of optical clocks in a possible future redefinition of the SI second as well as in tests of fundamental physics.

  17. Optically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Shen, Zhenhua; Cao, Jianjun; Chen, Xianfeng; Liang, Xiaogan; Wan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Light-matter-light interactions serve as the backbone technology of all-optical information processing for both on-chip and long-haul communication purposes. The representative example of electromagnetically induced transparency has its unique ability of optically controlling transparency windows with relative low light in atomic systems, though its practical applications are limited due to rigid experimental requirements. Here we demonstrate a new form of optically induced transparency in a micro-cavity by introducing four-wave mixing gain in order to couple nonlinearly two separated resonances of the micro-cavity in ambient environment. A signature Fano-like resonance is also observed owing to the nonlinear interference of two coupled resonances. Moreover, we show that the unidirectional gain of four-wave mixing can lead to non-reciprocal transmission at the transparency windows. Optically induced transparency may offer a unique platform for a compact, integrated solution to all-optical processing and quant...

  18. ``OPTICAL Catalytic Nanomotors''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosary-Oyong, Se, Glory

    D. Kagan, et.al, 2009:'' a motion-based chemical sensing involving fuel-driven nanomotors is demonstrated. The new protocol relies on the use of an optical microscope for tracking charge in the speed of nanowire motors in the presence of target analyte''. Synthetic nanomotors are propelled by catalytic decomposition of .. they do not require external electric, magnetic or optical fields as energy..pubs.acs.org/cen/science/83/i08/8308sci1.html>. Accompanying Fig 2.6(a) of optical micrograph of a partial monolayer of silica microbeads [J.Gibbs, 2011 ] retrieves WF Paxton:''rods were characterized by transmission electron & dark-field optical microscopy..'' & LF Valadares:''dimer due to the limited resolution of optical microscopy, however the result..'. Acknowledged to HE. Mr. Prof. SEDIONO M.P. TJONDRONEGORO.

  19. Active optical clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN JingBiao

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the principles and techniques of active optical clock, a special laser combining the laser physics of one-atom laser, bad-cavity gas laser, super-cavity stabilized laser and optical atomic clock together. As a simple example, an active optical clock based on thermal strontium atomic beam shows a quantum-limited linewidth of 0.51 Hz, which is insensitive to laser cavity-length noise, and may surpass the recorded narrowest 6.7 Hz of Hg ion optical clock and 1.5 Hz of very recent optical lattice clock. The estimated 0.1 Hz one-second instability and 0.27 Hz uncertainty are limited only by the rela-tivistic Doppler effect, and can be improved by cold atoms.

  20. Elements of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Meystre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...

  1. Introduction to Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chartier, Germain

    2005-01-01

    Since the discovery of the laser in 1960 and optical fibers in 1970, optics has undergone dramatic changes that accentuate its multi-disciplinary character. This text covers essential concepts and reports the key developments and progress in current knowledge in the field. Inspired by the style of Richard Feynman, the method of presentation emphasizes "telling" optics, rather than deducing it from fundamental laws, as well as tactfully using mathematical tools so as not to obscure the physical phenomena of interest. For its excellent teaching approach, the book received the Arnulf-Francon Award of the French Optical Society. The concepts are formulated in a way such that the necessary mathematical tools do not hinder comprehension of the phenomena. Global in vision, the book can also be used as a reference. In addition to the traditional aspects of optics, it includes the tools and methods currently used by researchers and engineers, as well as explanation and implications of the most recent developments.

  2. Python fiber optic seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ystesund, K.; Bartberger, J.; Brusseau, C.; Fleming, P.; Insch, K.; Tolk, K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication of unauthorized entry. The seal includes a fingerprint feature that provides seal identity information in addition to the unique fiber optic pattern created when the seal is installed. The fiber optic cable used for the seal loop is produced with tamper resistant features that increase the difficulty of attacking that component of a seal. A Seal Reader has been developed that will record the seal signature and the fingerprint feature of the seal. A Correlator software program then compares seal images to establish a match or mismatch. SNL is also developing a Polaroid reader to permit hard copies of the seal patterns to be obtained directly from the seal.

  3. What ignites optical jets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian Jester

    2002-12-23

    The properties of radio galaxies and quasars with and without optical or X-ray jets are compared. The majority of jets from which high-frequency emission has been detected so far (13 with optical emission, 11 with X-rays, 13 with both) are associated with the most powerful radio sources at any given redshift. It is found that optical/X-ray jet sources are more strongly beamed than the average population of extragalactic radio sources. This suggests that the detection or non-detection of optical emission from jets has so far been dominated by surface brightness selection effects, not by jet physics. It implies that optical jets are much more common than is currently appreciated.

  4. The Optics of Bruising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeberg, Lise Lyngsnes; Skallerud, Bjørn; Langlois, Neil E. I.; Haugen, Olav Anton; Svaasand, Lars Othar

    Forensic medicine is a field of medicine where technology plays an increasingly important role in securing and evaluating evidence in, for example, child abuse cases and cases of domestic violence. Methods from chemistry and biological sciences have found a wide application within forensic medicine. Optical technologies like microscopy are also widely used. Despite this, in vivo or post mortem optical diagnostics by spectroscopy have traditionally not had an important role in clinical or forensic examinations. Forensic medical optics as a field might include all kinds of optical analysis for use within forensic science. This includes everything from microscopic techniques to methods for examination of evidence from a crime scene. This chapter will, however, focus on the use of optical diagnostics for examining skin, with a focus on identification, characterization and age determination of minor traumatic injuries like skin bruises.

  5. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  6. High speed optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Michael Y.; Livas, Jeff

    2005-02-01

    This overview will discuss core network technology and cost trade-offs inherent in choosing between "analog" architectures with high optical transparency, and ones heavily dependent on frequent "digital" signal regeneration. The exact balance will be related to the specific technology choices in each area outlined above, as well as the network needs such as node geographic spread, physical connectivity patterns, and demand loading. Over the course of a decade, optical networks have evolved from simple single-channel SONET regenerator-based links to multi-span multi-channel optically amplified ultra-long haul systems, fueled by high demand for bandwidth at reduced cost. In general, the cost of a well-designed high capacity system is dominated by the number of optical to electrical (OE) and electrical to optical (EO) conversions required. As the reach and channel capacity of the transport systems continued to increase, it became necessary to improve the granularity of the demand connections by introducing (optical add/drop multiplexers) OADMs. Thus, if a node requires only small demand connectivity, most of the optical channels are expressed through without regeneration (OEO). The network costs are correspondingly reduced, partially balanced by the increased cost of the OADM nodes. Lately, the industry has been aggressively pursuing a natural extension of this philosophy towards all-optical "analog" core networks, with each demand touching electrical digital circuitry only at the in/egress nodes. This is expected to produce a substantial elimination of OEO costs, increase in network capacity, and a notionally simpler operation and service turn-up. At the same time, such optical "analog" network requires a large amount of complicated hardware and software for monitoring and manipulating high bit rate optical signals. New and more complex modulation formats that provide resiliency to both optical noise and nonlinear propagation effects are important for extended

  7. Integrated-optics-based optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high resolution, imaging technique that has developed over the last 20 years from a complicated laboratory setup into a ready-to-use commercially available device. Instead of using electronic time gating as being used by ultrasound (US) imaging, in OCT, the op

  8. On chip shapeable optical tweezers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renaut, C; Cluzel, B; Dellinger, J; Lalouat, L; Picard, E; Peyrade, D; Hadji, E; de Fornel, F

    2013-01-01

    Particles manipulation with optical forces is known as optical tweezing. While tweezing in free space with laser beams was established in the 1980s, integrating the optical tweezers on a chip is a challenging task...

  9. Optical design and testing: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi Chin; Liang, Chao-Wen; Koshel, John; Sasian, Jose; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Wang, Yongtian; Zavisian, James M

    2015-10-01

    Optical design and testing have numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and bio-medical settings. This issue features original research ranging from the optical design of image and nonimage optical stimuli for human perception, optics applications, bio-optics applications, displays, and solar energy systems to novel imaging modalities from deep UV to infrared spectral imaging, a systems perspective to imaging, as well as optical measurement. In addition, new concepts and trends for optics and further optical systems will be especially highlighted in this special issue.

  10. Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Used for astrometry and astronomical imaging, the Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a distributed aperture optical telescope. It is operated...

  11. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Mario F

    2011-01-01

    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  12. Projection optics box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  13. Trajectories in parallel optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Iftach; Sochen, Nir; Mendlovic, David

    2011-10-01

    In our previous work we showed the ability to improve the optical system's matrix condition by optical design, thereby improving its robustness to noise. It was shown that by using singular value decomposition, a target point-spread function (PSF) matrix can be defined for an auxiliary optical system, which works parallel to the original system to achieve such an improvement. In this paper, after briefly introducing the all optics implementation of the auxiliary system, we show a method to decompose the target PSF matrix. This is done through a series of shifted responses of auxiliary optics (named trajectories), where a complicated hardware filter is replaced by postprocessing. This process manipulates the pixel confined PSF response of simple auxiliary optics, which in turn creates an auxiliary system with the required PSF matrix. This method is simulated on two space variant systems and reduces their system condition number from 18,598 to 197 and from 87,640 to 5.75, respectively. We perform a study of the latter result and show significant improvement in image restoration performance, in comparison to a system without auxiliary optics and to other previously suggested hybrid solutions. Image restoration results show that in a range of low signal-to-noise ratio values, the trajectories method gives a significant advantage over alternative approaches. A third space invariant study case is explored only briefly, and we present a significant improvement in the matrix condition number from 1.9160e+013 to 34,526.

  14. Handbook of optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Malacara-Hernández, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Optical Design, Third Edition covers the fundamental principles of geometric optics and their application to lens design in one volume. It incorporates classic aspects of lens design along with important modern methods, tools, and instruments, including contemporary astronomical telescopes, Gaussian beams, and computer lens design. Written by respected researchers, the book has been extensively classroom-tested and developed in their lens design courses. This well-illustrated handbook clearly and concisely explains the intricacies of optical system design and evaluation. It also di

  15. Handbook of optical microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Anthony H W

    2014-01-01

    An optical cavity confines light within its structure and constitutes an integral part of a laser device. Unlike traditional gas lasers, semiconductor lasers are invariably much smaller in dimensions, making optical confinement more critical than ever. In this book, modern methods that control and manipulate light at the micrometer and nanometer scales by using a variety of cavity geometries and demonstrate optical resonance from ultra-violet (UV) to infra-red (IR) bands across multiple material platforms are explored. The book has a comprehensive collection of chapters that cover a wide range

  16. MEMS optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical sensor utilizing effective index modulation of a waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of reflected light and a force sensing system accommodating said optical sensor. One embodiment of the invention relates to a sensor system comprising...... waveguides, a detector for measuring light reflected from said Bragg reflector in said one or more multimode sensor optical waveguides, and a data processor adapted for analyzing variations in the Bragg wavelength of at least one higher order mode of the reflected light....

  17. Quantum optics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Optics for Engineers provides a transparent and methodical introduction to quantum optics via the Dirac's bra-ket notation with an emphasis on practical applications and basic aspects of quantum mechanics such as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Schrodinger's equation. Self-contained and using mainly first-year calculus and algebra tools, the book:Illustrates the interferometric quantum origin of fundamental optical principles such as diffraction, refraction, and reflectionProvides a transparent introduction, via Dirac's notation, to the probability amplitude of quantum entanglem

  18. Optical imaging and metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Osten, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the state of the art and advances in the field, while also outlining the future potential and development trends of optical imaging and optical metrology, an area of fast growth with numerous applications in nanotechnology and nanophysics. Written by the world's leading experts in the field, it fills the gap in the current literature by bridging the fields of optical imaging and metrology, and is the only up-to-date resource in terms of fundamental knowledge, basic concepts, methodologies, applications, and development trends.

  19. Optical properties of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Wooten, Frederick

    1972-01-01

    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  20. Optical materials and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wakaki, Moriaki; Kudo, Keiei

    2012-01-01

    The definition of optical material has expanded in recent years, largely because of IT advances that have led to rapid growth in optoelectronics applications. Helping to explain this evolution, Optical Materials and Applications presents contributions from leading experts who explore the basic concepts of optical materials and the many typical applications in which they are used. An invaluable reference for readers ranging from professionals to technical managers to graduate engineering students, this book covers everything from traditional principles to more cutting-edge topics. It also detai

  1. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zenghu

    2011-01-01

    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  2. TOPS optical correlation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Scott D.

    1993-09-01

    Martin Marietta is conducting a TOPS optical correlation program in which several algorithms and four optical correlators involving two spatial light modulator technologies will be developed and tested. The program will culminate in 1994 with an automatic target recognition flight demonstration using a UH-1 helicopter flying a Fiber Optic Guide Missile (FOG-M) mission profile. The flight demonstration will be conducted by US Army Missile Command (MICOM) and Martin Marietta and will involve detecting, locating and tracking a M60A2 tank positioned among an array of five vehicle types. Current status of the TOPS program will be given.

  3. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  4. The ATHENA optics development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Shortt, Brian; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Collon, Maximilien; Barriere, Nicolas; Yanson, Alexei; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Haneveld, Jeroen; van Baren, Coen; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Christensen, Finn; Della Monica Ferreira, Desiree; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Vernani, Dervis

    2016-07-01

    ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) is being studied by the European Space Agency (ESA) as the second large science mission, with a launch slot in 2028. System studies and technology preparation activities are on-going. The optics of the telescope is based on the modular Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), a novel X-ray optics technology significantly benefiting from spin-in from the semiconductor industry. Several technology development activities are being implemented by ESA in collaboration with European industry and institutions. The related programmatic background, technology development approach and the associated implementation planning are presented.

  5. Theoretical Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Römer, Hartmann

    2004-01-01

    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researche

  6. Optical controlled keyboard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyński, Łukasz; Długosz, Dariusz; Niewiarowski, Bartosz; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2011-06-01

    Control systems of our computers are common devices, based on the manipulation of keys or a moving ball. Completely healthy people have no problems with the operation of such devices. Human disability makes everyday activities become a challenge and create trouble. When a man can not move his hands, the work becomes difficult or often impossible. Controlled optical keyboard is a modern device that allows to bypass the limitations of disability limbs. The use of wireless optical transmission allows to control computer using a laser beam, which cooperates with the photodetectors. The article presents the construction and operation of non-contact optical keyboard for people with disabilities.

  7. Microstructured polymer optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Large, Maryanne; Barton, Geoff; van Eijkelenborg, Martijn A

    2008-01-01

    Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres describes the optical properties of microstructured fibres, how they are made and modelled, and outlines some potential applications. These applications include areas where polymer fibres are already used, such as high-data rate transmission for Fibre-to-the Home or within cars, as well as completely new areas such as the photonic bandgap transmission of ""difficult"" wavelengths. Emphasising a conceptual understanding of the underlying physics, Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres is clearly written, and includes numerous illustrations. It provides an

  8. The ANTARES Optical Module

    CERN Document Server

    Amram, P; Anvar, S; Ardellier-Desages, F E; Aslanides, Elie; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Azoulay, R; Bailey, D; Basa, S; Battaglieri, M; Bellotti, R; Benhammou, Ya; Bernard, F; Berthier, R; Bertin, V; Billault, M; Blaes, R; Bland, R W; Blondeau, F; De Botton, N R; Boulesteix, J; Brooks, B; Brunner, J; Cafagna, F; Calzas, A; Capone, A; Caponetto, L; Cârloganu, C; Carmona, E; Carr, J; Carton, P H; Cartwright, S L; Cassol, F; Cecchini, S; Ciacio, F; Circella, M; Compere, C; Cooper, S; Coyle, P; Croquette, J; Cuneo, S; Danilov, M; Van Dantzig, R; De Marzo, C; De Vita, R; Deck, P; Destelle, J J; Dispau, G; Drougou, J F; Druillole, F; Engelen, J; Feinstein, F; Festy, D; Fopma, J; Gallone, J M; Giacomelli, G; Goret, P; Gosset, L G; Gournay, J F; Heijboer, A; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herrouin, G; Hubbard, John R; Jacquet, M; De Jong, M; Karolak, M; Kooijman, P M; Kouchner, A; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lachartre, D; Lafoux, H; Lamare, P; Languillat, J C; Laubier, L; Laugier, J P; Le Guen, Y; Le Provost, H; Le Van-Suu, A; Lemoine, L; Lo Nigro, L; Lo Presti, D; Loucatos, Sotirios S; Louis, F; Lyashuk, V I; Magnier, P; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Massol, A; Masullo, R; Mazéas, F; Mazeau, B; Mazure, A; McMillan, J E; Michel, J L; Migneco, E; Millot, C; Mols, P; Montanet, François; Montaruli, T; Morel, J P; Moscoso, L; Navas, S; Nezri, E; Nooren, G J L; Oberski, J; Olivetto, C; Oppelt-pohl, A; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Payre, P; Perrin, P; Petruccetti, M; Petta, P; Piattelli, P; Poinsignon, J; Popa, V; Potheau, R; Queinec, Y; Racca, C; Raia, G; Randazzo, N; Rethore, F; Riccobene, G; Ricol, J S; Ripani, M; Roca-Blay, V; Rolin, J F; Rostovtsev, A A; Russo, G V; Sacquin, Yu; Salusti, E; Schuller, J P; Schuster, W; Soirat, J P; Suvorova, O; Spooner, N J C; Spurio, M; Stolarczyk, T; Stubert, D; Taiuti, M; Tao, Charling; Tayalati, Y; Thompson, L F; Tilav, S; Triay, R; Valente, V; Varlamov, I; Vaudaine, G; Vernin, P; De Witt-Huberts, P K A; De Wolf, E; Zakharov, V; Zavatarelli, S; De Dios-Zornoza-Gomez, Juan; Zúñiga, J

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km-squared and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R & D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  9. The ANTARES optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Benhammou, Y.; Bernard, F.; Berthier, R.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bland, R.W.; Blondeau, F.; Botton, N. de; Boulesteix, J.; Brooks, C.B.; Brunner, J.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Cartwright, S.L.; Cassol, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Croquette, J.; Cuneo, S.; Danilov, M.; Dantzig, R. van; De Marzo, C.; DeVita, R.; Deck, P.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dispau, G.; Drougou, J.F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Feinstein, F.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Goret, P.; Gosset, L.; Gournay, J.-F.; Heijboer, A.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Herrouin, G.; Hubbard, J.R.; Jaquet, M.; Jong, M. de; Karolak, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H. E-mail: lafoux@cea.fr; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Laugier, J.-P.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lemoine, L.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Massol, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J.E.; Michel, J.L.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Mols, P.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J.P.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Nooren, G.J.; Oberski, J.; Olivetto, C.; Oppelt-Pohl, A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Perrin, P.; Petruccetti, M.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Queinec, Y.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Ricol, J.-S.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Rolin, J.F.; Rostovstev, A.; Russo, G.V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salusti, E.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Soirat, J.-P.; Souvorova, O.; Spooner, N.J.C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tao, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Thompson, L.F.

    2002-05-21

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km{sup 2} and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R and D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  10. Wireless optical telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Wireless optical communication refers to communication based on the unguided propagation of optical waves. The past 30 years have seen significant improvements in this technique - a wireless communication solution for the current millennium - that offers an alternative to radio systems; a technique that could gain attractiveness due to recent concerns regarding the potential effects of radiofrequency waves on human health.The aim of this book is to look at the free space optics that are already used for the exchange of current information; its many benefits, such as incorporating chan

  11. Optical Microangiography Based on Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Roberto; Wang, Ruikang K.

    Proper homeostasis regulation of in vivo biological systems requires microvascular blood perfusion, which is the process of delivering blood into the tissue's capillary beds. Abnormal tissue vascularization has been associated with various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders, wounds, and inflammation. Understanding the changes in the vascular network or microangiography will have an important role in determining the causes and developing potential treatments for these diseases. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method for imaging three-dimensional biological tissues with high resolution (~10 µm) and without requiring the use of contrast agents. In this chapter we review several techniques for using OCT to determine blood flow velocities and the vessel morphology (optical microangiography). Different techniques will be discussed with a brief explanation of their limitations. Also, methods for quantifying these images are presented, as well as the depiction of several applications.

  12. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  13. Vertically Integrated Thermo-Optic Waveguide Switch Using Optical Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Hong; Kim; Sang-Yung; Shin; Doo-Sun; Choi

    2003-01-01

    We propose and fabricate a vertically integrated thermo-optic waveguide switch. It controls the optical path between two vertically stacked waveguides using the thermo-optic effect of optical polymer. The measured crosstalk is less than -10 dB.

  14. Vertically Integrated Thermo-Optic Waveguide Switch Using Optical Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Hong Kim; Sang-Yung Shin; Doo-Sun Choi

    2003-01-01

    We propose and fabricate a vertically integrated thermo-optic waveguide switch. It controls the optical path between two vertically stacked waveguides using the thermo-optic effect of optical polymer. The measured crosstalk is less than-10 dB.

  15. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is one of the series of science and technology in-

  16. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

  17. Problems in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rousseau, Madeleine; Ter Haar, D

    1973-01-01

    This collection of problems and accompanying solutions provide the reader with a full introduction to physical optics. The subject coverage is fairly traditional, with chapters on interference and diffraction, and there is a general emphasis on spectroscopy.

  18. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Clifford S.

    1987-01-01

    An improved optical system which provides the operator a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  19. Optics for SIERRA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and demonstrate a software architecture, initially based on GPU’s but expandable to multiple CPU platforms, to provide optical raytraces with more than...

  20. Fiberless Optical Gyroscope Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a radical new approach for to the design and fabrication of a fiber-less Interferometric Optical Gyroscope (IOG) that enables the production of a very...

  1. Fiberless Optical Gyroscope Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a radical new approach for to the design and fabrication of a fiber-less Interferometric Optical Gyroscope (IOG) that enables the production of a...

  2. Fiber Optics: No Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  3. Optical quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2007-12-07

    In 2001, all-optical quantum computing became feasible with the discovery that scalable quantum computing is possible using only single-photon sources, linear optical elements, and single-photon detectors. Although it was in principle scalable, the massive resource overhead made the scheme practically daunting. However, several simplifications were followed by proof-of-principle demonstrations, and recent approaches based on cluster states or error encoding have dramatically reduced this worrying resource overhead, making an all-optical architecture a serious contender for the ultimate goal of a large-scale quantum computer. Key challenges will be the realization of high-efficiency sources of indistinguishable single photons, low-loss, scalable optical circuits, high-efficiency single-photon detectors, and low-loss interfacing of these components.

  4. Optical fiber communications

    CERN Document Server

    Keiser, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The fourth edition of this popular text and reference book presents the fundamental principles for understanding and applying optical fiber technology to sophisticated modern telecommunication systems. Optical-fiber-based telecommunication networks have become a major information-transmission-system, with high capacity links encircling the globe in both terrestrial and undersea installations. Numerous passive and active optical devices within these links perform complex transmission and networking functions in the optical domain, such as signal amplification, restoration, routing, and switching. Along with the need to understand the functions of these devices comes the necessity to measure both component and network performance, and to model and stimulate the complex behavior of reliable high-capacity networks.

  5. [Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo-Kottler, B; Wissinger, B

    2011-12-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a rare disease primarily affecting the retinal ganglion cells. In most cases patients with LHON develop permanent visual loss with a large central scotoma in the visual field of both eyes. The optic disc becomes partially or completely pale. At the onset of the disease many patients are considered to suffer from an optic neuritis and are treated under the diagnostic and therapeutic regimen of optic neuritis. LHON is mostly only considered when high dose cortisone therapy fails to be effective or the second eye is affected. Thereafter, molecular genetic analysis will prove LHON in these cases. Detailed anamnesis including pedigree analysis in combination with observance of the peripapillary microangiopathic alterations at the fundus will help to speed up the diagnosis of LHON, but even after exact clinical and molecular genetic diagnosis of LHON some aspects of the disease still remain a mystery today.

  6. Optical fiber synaptic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Jaimes-Reátegui, R.; Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; García-Lopez, J. H.; Kazantsev, V. B.

    2011-06-01

    Understanding neuron connections is a great challenge, which is needed to solve many important problems in neurobiology and neuroengineering for recreation of brain functions and efficient biorobotics. In particular, a design of an optical synapse capable to communicate with neuron spike sequences would be crucial to improve the functionality of neuromimmetic networks. In this work we propose an optical synaptic sensor based on an erbium-doped fiber laser driven by a FitzHung-Nagumo electronic neuron, to connect with another electronic neuron. Two possible optical synaptic configurations are analyzed for optoelectronic coupling between neurons: laser cavity loss modulation and pump laser modulation. The control parameters of the proposed optical synapse provide additional degrees of flexibility to the neuron connection traditionally controlled only by coupling strengths in artificial networks.

  7. Improved Optical Keyboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Optical keyboard surfaces used in typewriters, computer terminals, and telephone inexpensively fabricated using stack of printed-circuit cards set in laminate. Internal laminations carry all illuminating and sensing light conductors to keys.

  8. Atypical Optic Neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric D; Boudreault, Katherine; Rizzo, Joseph F; Falardeau, Julie; Cestari, Dean M

    2015-12-01

    Classic demyelinative optic neuritis is associated with multiple sclerosis and typically carries a good prognosis for visual recovery. This disorder is well characterized with respect to its presentation and clinical features by baseline data obtained through the optic neuritis treatment trial and numerous other studies. Atypical optic neuritis entails clinical manifestations that deviate from this classic pattern of features. Clinical signs and symptoms that deviate from the typical presentation should prompt consideration of less common etiologies. Atypical features to consider include lack of pain, simultaneous or near-simultaneous onset, lack of response to or relapse upon tapering from corticosteroids, or optic nerve head or peripapillary hemorrhages. The most important alternative etiologies to consider and the steps towards their respective diagnostic evaluations are suggested for these atypical features.

  9. Introduction to Optical Tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Matthias D; Shaevitz, Joshua W

    2017-01-01

    Thirty years after their invention by Arthur Ashkin and colleagues at Bell Labs in 1986 [1], optical tweezers (or traps) have become a versatile tool to address numerous biological problems. Put simply, an optical trap is a highly focused laser beam that is capable of holding and applying forces to micron-sized dielectric objects. However, their development over the last few decades has converted these tools from boutique instruments into highly versatile instruments of molecular biophysics. This introductory chapter intends to give a brief overview of the field, highlight some important scientific achievements, and demonstrate why optical traps have become a powerful tool in the biological sciences. We introduce a typical optical setup, describe the basic theoretical concepts of how trapping forces arise, and present the quantitative position and force measurement techniques that are most widely used today.

  10. Optical wear monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidane, Getnet S; Desilva, Upul P.; He, Chengli; Ulerich, Nancy H.

    2016-07-26

    A gas turbine includes first and second parts having outer surfaces located adjacent to each other to create an interface where wear occurs. A wear probe is provided for monitoring wear of the outer surface of the first part, and includes an optical guide having first and second ends, wherein the first end is configured to be located flush with the outer surface of the first part. A fiber bundle includes first and second ends, the first end being located proximate to the second end of the optical guide. The fiber bundle includes a transmit fiber bundle comprising a first plurality of optical fibers coupled to a light source, and a receive fiber bundle coupled to a light detector and configured to detect reflected light. A processor is configured to determine a length of the optical guide based on the detected reflected light.

  11. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  12. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  13. Roadmap on optical security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Bahram; Carnicer, Artur; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Nomura, Takanori; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Millán, María S.; Nishchal, Naveen K.; Torroba, Roberto; Fredy Barrera, John; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Stern, Adrian; Rivenson, Yair; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Guo, Changliang; Sheridan, John T.; Situ, Guohai; Naruse, Makoto; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Juvells, Ignasi; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis, Jesús; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.; Markman, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Information security and authentication are important challenges facing society. Recent attacks by hackers on the databases of large commercial and financial companies have demonstrated that more research and development of advanced approaches are necessary to deny unauthorized access to critical data. Free space optical technology has been investigated by many researchers in information security, encryption, and authentication. The main motivation for using optics and photonics for information security is that optical waveforms possess many complex degrees of freedom such as amplitude, phase, polarization, large bandwidth, nonlinear transformations, quantum properties of photons, and multiplexing that can be combined in many ways to make information encryption more secure and more difficult to attack. This roadmap article presents an overview of the potential, recent advances, and challenges of optical security and encryption using free space optics. The roadmap on optical security is comprised of six categories that together include 16 short sections written by authors who have made relevant contributions in this field. The first category of this roadmap describes novel encryption approaches, including secure optical sensing which summarizes double random phase encryption applications and flaws [Yamaguchi], the digital holographic encryption in free space optical technique which describes encryption using multidimensional digital holography [Nomura], simultaneous encryption of multiple signals [Pérez-Cabré], asymmetric methods based on information truncation [Nishchal], and dynamic encryption of video sequences [Torroba]. Asymmetric and one-way cryptosystems are analyzed by Peng. The second category is on compression for encryption. In their respective contributions, Alfalou and Stern propose similar goals involving compressed data and compressive sensing encryption. The very important area of cryptanalysis is the topic of the third category with two sections

  14. Computational toolbox for optical tweezers in geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Callegari, Agnese; Gököz, A Burak; Volpe, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers have found widespread application in many fields, from physics to biology. Here, we explain in detail how optical forces and torques can be described within the geometrical optics approximation and we show that this approximation provides reliable results in agreement with experiments for particles whose characteristic dimensions are larger than the wavelength of the trapping light. Furthermore, we provide an object-oriented software package implemented in MatLab for the calculation of optical forces and torques in the geometrical optics regime: \\texttt{OTGO - Optical Tweezers in Geometrical Optics}. We provide all source codes for \\texttt{OTGO} as well as the documentation and code examples -- e.g., standard optical tweezers, optical tweezers with elongated particle, windmill effect, Kramers transitions between two optical traps -- necessary to enable users to effectively employ it in their research and teaching.

  15. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts , sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,with the name of Chinese Science and Technology Document Catalogues: Optics andApplied Optics. It changed into a bimonthly publication with the name of Chinese Opticsand Applied Optics Abstracts in 1987. In combination with the Chinese Optics

  16. Optical remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Saurabh; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing relies on exploiting multispectral and hyper spectral imagery possessing high spatial and spectral resolutions respectively. These modalities, although useful for most remote sensing tasks, often present challenges that must be addressed for their effective exploitation. This book presents current state-of-the-art algorithms that address the following key challenges encountered in representation and analysis of such optical remotely sensed data: challenges in pre-processing images, storing and representing high dimensional data, fusing different sensor modalities, patter

  17. Fiber optic detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  18. Hybrid Optical Inference Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-27

    imaging. A PC controlled data acquistion system with digital to analog-output was setup with serial- 66 - I controlled linear translation and rotation...rules in Eq. (4) of specific conclusions which are logica ,, .ferred form-the knowledge base. from the facts and rules in response to the queries. In...error rates, digital S 0ucries Conclusions optical signals (binary intensity levels) are assumed for all input and output signals in the optical

  19. Nonlinear optical thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  20. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Lorenzo, Ruben M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project.......Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project....

  1. Velocity selective optical pumping

    OpenAIRE

    Aminoff, C. G.; Pinard, M.

    1982-01-01

    We consider optical pumping with a quasi monochromatic tunable light beam, in the low intensity limit where a rate equation regime is obtained The velocity selective optical pumping (V.S.O.P.) introduces a correlation between atomic velocity and internal variables in the ground (or metastable) state. The aim of this article is to evaluate these atomic observables (orientation, alignment, population) as a function of velocity, using a phenomenological description of the relaxation effect of co...

  2. Optically fixed photorefractive correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘友文; 刘立人; 周常河; 徐良瑛

    2002-01-01

    An optically fixed photorefractive correlator is presented, where two-centre non-volatile holographic recording isemployed to write and fix the matched filter in doubly doped LiNbO3 crystals. This correlator shows good correlationcharacteristics and insensitivity to the writing beam during readout. It can be used in cases requiring stability and notrequiring modification for a long period, and it is refreshed optically when new information needs to be registered.

  3. Fiber optics welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  4. Toroidal optical activity

    CERN Document Server

    Raybould, T A; Papasimakis, N; Kuprov, I; Youngs, I; Chen, W T; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I

    2015-01-01

    Optical activity is ubiquitous across natural and artificial media and is conventionally understood in terms of scattering from electric and magnetic moments. Here we demonstrate experimentally and confirm numerically a type of optical activity that cannot be attributed to electric and magnetic multipoles. We show that our observations can only be accounted for by the inclusion of the toroidal dipole moment, the first term of the recently established peculiar family of toroidal multipoles.

  5. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  6. Optical Diagnostics in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimia, Nicusor

    2003-03-01

    Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at

  7. Pappus in optical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Kappers, Astrid M L; Todd, James T

    2002-04-01

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generally been assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction, we do not assume any metric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two lines a unique point). (The incidence relations have generally been assumed implicitly by earlier authors.) The condition that makes such an incidence structure into a projective space is the Pappus condition. The Pappus condition describes a projective relation between three collinear triples of points, whose validity can--in principle--be verified empirically. The Pappus condition is a necessary condition for optical space to be a homogeneous space (Lobatchevski hyperbolic or Riemann elliptic space) as assumed by, for example, the well-known Luneburg theory. We test the Pappus condition in a full-cue situation (open field, broad daylight, distances of up to 20 m, visual fields of up to 160 degrees diameter). We found that although optical space is definitely not veridical, even under full-cue conditions, violations of the Pappus condition are the exception. Apparently optical space is not totally different from a homogeneous space, although it is in no way close to Euclidean.

  8. Physics of optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Timo A; Knöner, Gregor; Heckenberg, Norman R; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2007-01-01

    We outline the basic principles of optical tweezers as well as the fundamental theory underlying optical tweezers. The optical forces responsible for trapping result from the transfer of momentum from the trapping beam to the particle and are explained in terms of the momenta of incoming and reflected or refracted rays. We also consider the angular momentum flux of the beam in order to understand and explain optical torques. In order to provide a qualitative picture of the trapping, we treat the particle as a weak positive lens and the forces on the lens are shown. However, this representation does not provide quantitative results for the force. We, therefore, present results of applying exact electromagnetic theory to optical trapping. First, we consider a tightly focused laser beam. We give results for trapping of spherical particles and examine the limits of trappability in terms of type and size of the particles. We also study the effect of a particle on the beam. This exact solution reproduces the same qualitative effect as when treating the particle as a lens where changes in the convergence or divergence and in the direction of the trapping beam result in restoring forces acting on the particle. Finally, we review the fundamental theory of optical tweezers.

  9. Optical computer motherboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz P.; Xu, Guoda; Bartha, John M.; Gruntman, Michael A.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the application of precision plastic optics into a communication/computer sub-system, such as a hybrid computer motherboard. We believe that using optical waveguides for next-generation computer motherboards can provide a high performance alternative for present multi-layer printed circuit motherboards. In response to this demand, we suggest our novel concept of a hybrid motherboard based on an internal-fiber-coupling (IFC) wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical backplane. The IFC/WDM backplane provides dedicated Tx/Rx connections, and applies low-cost, high-performance components, including CD LDs, GRIN plastic fibers, molding housing, and nonimaging optics connectors. Preliminary motherboard parameters are: speed 100 MHz/100 m, or 1 GHz/10 m; fiber loss approximately 0.01 dB/m; almost zero fan-out/fan-in optical power loss, and eight standard wavelength channels. The proposed hybrid computer motherboard, based on innovative optical backplane technology, should solve low-speed, low-parallelism bottlenecks in present electric computer motherboards.

  10. Magneto-optical multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, S.D.

    1992-02-01

    Magneto-optical multilayers are of interest to the optical data storage community as a possible second-generation medium of the future. The important Co/Pt-superlattice system is introduced in this respect, and an extensive reference listing is provided to previous research. Magneto-optical modeling studies of Co/Pt are presented, and it is concluded that the interfacial Pt is magnetized and is magneto-optically active at the short wavelengths of interest ({approximately}4 eV) for applications. Magneto-optics in the ultrathin limit are discussed, and an additivity law is presented and verified experimentally utilizing data for epitaxial Fe/Ag(111) superlattices. Finally, the surface magnetic anisotropy that provides the vertical easy axes of magnetization in candidate superlattice systems is discussed and illustrated experimentally using ultrathin epitaxial films of Fe grown on a variety of substrates. It is concluded that magneto-optic multilayers will provide many stimulating basic and applied challenges in the years ahead.

  11. Improved optically driven microrotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavei, Theodor; Loke, Vincent L. Y.; Nieminen, Timo A.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2008-08-01

    Two-photon polymerization of optically curing resins is a powerful method to fabricate micron sized objects which can be used as tools to measure properties at small scales. These microdevices can be driven by means of externally applied focused laser beams (optical tweezers) through angular momentum exchange, giving rise to a net torque. The advantage of the optical drive is that no contact is required, therefore making the microdevices suited to non-invasive biological applications. The fabrication method is versatile and allows building objects of any 3D shape. We discuss the design and modelling of various optically driven rotors. In particular, we consider fabrication of microspheres with an internal shape birefringence in order to obtain rotation in an optical trap. The reason for fabricating this type of object is that they are well-suited for studies of mechanical properties of single biomolecules such as the torsional stiffness of DNA or torque generated by molecular motors. The microspheres fabricated are able to transduce torques of 2000 pNnm with optical powers of 500 mW and could be rotated with frequencies up to 40 Hz in circularly polarized light.

  12. Fiber Optic Microphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.; George, Thomas; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research into advanced pressure sensors using fiber-optic technology is aimed at developing compact size microphones. Fiber optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic noise, and are very sensitive, light weight, and highly flexible. In FY 98, NASA researchers successfully designed and assembled a prototype fiber-optic microphone. The sensing technique employed was fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The sensing head is composed of an optical fiber terminated in a miniature ferrule with a thin, silicon-microfabricated diaphragm mounted on it. The optical fiber is a single mode fiber with a core diameter of 8 micron, with the cleaved end positioned 50 micron from the diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is made up of a 0.2 micron thick silicon nitride membrane whose inner surface is metallized with layers of 30 nm titanium, 30 nm platinum, and 0.2 micron gold for efficient reflection. The active sensing area is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. The measured differential pressure tolerance of this diaphragm is more than 1 bar, yielding a dynamic range of more than 100 dB.

  13. Incoherent broadband optical pulse generation using an optical gate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biao Chen; Qiong Jiang

    2008-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2D) time-spreading/wavelength-hopping optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems, employing less coherent broadband optical pulse sources allows lower electrical operating rate and better system performance. An optical gate based scheme for generating weakly coherent(approximately incoherent) broadband optical pulses was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Inthis scheme, the terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer, together with a coherent narrowband controlpulse source, turns an incoherent broadband continuous-wave (CW) light source into the required pulse source.

  14. Characteristics of a drift tube cavity with a stabilizing structure of the antipode type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomko, V.A.; Khizhnyak, N.A.; Klyucharev, A.P.; Rudyak, B.I.

    1976-07-01

    The passband of a conventional drift tube linac structure has modes which lie uncomfortably close to the fundamental, operating mode. Methods which have been proposed to steepen the dispersion curve in the neighborhood of the operating point include multistem drift tubes, post couplers, crossbar structures, and other techniques. A method is described based on compensation of intermode interaction by suppression of the fields of interfering modes using posts mounted opposite to the drift tube stems.

  15. AA Geomagnetic Activity Indices From Two Antipodal Observatories in Australia and England

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) receives, on a monthly basis, indices that are based on the data...

  16. Stereochemical mechanism of two sabinene hydrate synthases forming antipodal monoterpenes in thyme (Thymus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Asbach, Julia; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2013-01-15

    The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris consists of a complex blend of mono- and sesquiterpenes that provides the plant with its characteristic aromatic odor. Several chemotypes have been described for thyme. In this study, we identified two enzymes of the sabinene hydrate chemotype which are responsible for the biosynthesis of its major monoterpene alcohols, (1S,2R,4S)-(Z)-sabinene hydrate and (1S,2S,4R)-(E)-sabinene hydrate. Both TPS6 and TPS7 are multiproduct enzymes that formed 16 monoterpenes and thus cover almost the whole monoterpene spectrum of the chemotype. Although the product spectra of both enzymes are similar, they form opposing enantiomers of their chiral products. Incubation of the enzymes with the potential reaction intermediates revealed that the stereospecificity of TPS6 and TPS7 is determined by the formation of the first intermediate, linalyl diphosphate. Since TPS6 and TPS7 shared an amino acid sequence identity of 85%, a mutagenesis study was employed to identify the amino acids that determine the stereoselectivity. One amino acid position had a major influence on the stereochemistry of the formed products. Based on comparative models of TPS6 and TPS7 protein structures with the GPP substrate docked in the active site pocket, the influence of this amino acid residue on the reaction mechanism is discussed.

  17. Prevalence of Leucocytozoon spp, in the endangered yellow-eyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A G; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D; Alley, M R

    2010-09-01

    Yellow-eyed penguins on Stewart Island were identified with a Leucocytozoon spp. of a novel lineage in association with a high regional incidence of chick mortality (n=32, 100% mortality) during the November 2006 to January 2007 breeding season. Fourteen chicks from Stewart Island were examined post-mortem and histologically for Leucocytozoon infection. In addition, a survey of blood to detect Leucocytozoon spp. infections using PCR was performed on 107 yellow-eyed penguins from 4 distinct nesting areas on the South Island (Oamaru, Otago Peninsula, and Catlins) (n=95), and Stewart Island (n=12). The results of the study revealed that 2 of the 14 (14%) chicks necropsied showed severe, disseminated megaloschizont formation in the liver, spleen, lung, kidney and other tissues characteristic of leucocytozoonosis. Eighty-three percent (83%) of blood samples collected from Stewart Island penguins contained Leucocytozoon DNA, whereas samples from the 3 other nesting areas were negative for the blood parasite. Leucocytozoon spp. DNA sequences isolated from blood and tissues of adults (n=10) and chicks (n=7) were similar and grouped with other published Leucocytozoon spp. sequences but in a distinct cluster together with closely related isolates from a Western march harrier (Circus aerginosus) and common loon (Gavia immer). These findings suggest that yellow-eyed penguins on Stewart Island are infected with a regionally isolated, host-specific Leucocytozoon spp. which may contribute to the high chick mortality observed during this period.

  18. Playing With "patriotic fire": women and football in the Antipodes during the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The revelation that women first played Australian Rules football during the period of the Great War is an important element in overall understandings of how both masculine and feminine ideals were challenged and redefined by sporting practices in a time of general social flux. This paper reveals that the genesis of the women's code was in Western Australia, where contests occurred as early as 1915. Three years later, with the war nearing its conclusion, the template of women's involvement in charity matches with strong military and patriotic overtones was adopted in the state of Victoria, the code's heartland. Investigations such as this one, indicative of the complex relationships between sport and gender during the First World War, offer scope for deeper comprehension of a much-studied military conflict, and point the way forward for those that bemoan the static agenda of research into women's football.

  19. Antievolutionism in the Antipodes: from protesting evolution to promoting creationism in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbers, R L; Stenhouse, J

    2000-09-01

    Like other English-speaking peoples around the world, New Zealanders began debating Darwinism in the early 1860s, shortly after the publication of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. Despite the opposition of some religious and political leaders - and even the odd scientist - biological evolution made deep inroads in a culture that increasingly identified itself as secular. The introduction of pro-evolution curricula and radio broadcasts provoked occasional antievolution outbursts, but creationism remained more an object of ridicule than a threat until the last decades of the twentieth century, when first American and then Australian creationists began fomenting antievolutionism among New Zealanders. Although Stephen Jay Gould assured them in 1986 that they had little to fear from so-called scientific creationism, because it was a 'peculiarly American' phenomenon, scientific creationism by the mid-1990s had captured the allegiance of an estimated five per cent of the country and proved especially attractive to Maori and Pacific Islanders. In 1992 New Zealand creationists formed their own antievolution society, Creation Science (NZ).

  20. Optical design and testing: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao-Wen; Koshel, John; Sasian, Jose; Breault, Robert; Wang, Yongtian; Fang, Yi Chin

    2014-10-10

    Optical design and testing has numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging or nonimage optical system may require the integration of optics, mechatronics, lighting technology, optimization, ray tracing, aberration analysis, image processing, tolerance compensation, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from the optical design of image and nonimage optical stimuli for human perception, optics applications, bio-optics applications, 3D display, solar energy system, opto-mechatronics to novel imaging or nonimage modalities in visible and infrared spectral imaging, modulation transfer function measurement, and innovative interferometry.

  1. Roadmap on optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mário F. S.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Ottaway, David J.; López-Higuera, José Miguel; Feng, Xian; Jin, Wei; Jeong, Yoonchan; Picqué, Nathalie; Tong, Limin; Reinhard, Björn M.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Méndez, Alexis; Diem, Max; Vollmer, Frank; Quan, Qimin

    2017-08-01

    Sensors are devices or systems able to detect, measure and convert magnitudes from any domain to an electrical one. Using light as a probe for optical sensing is one of the most efficient approaches for this purpose. The history of optical sensing using some methods based on absorbance, emissive and florescence properties date back to the 16th century. The field of optical sensors evolved during the following centuries, but it did not achieve maturity until the demonstration of the first laser in 1960. The unique properties of laser light become particularly important in the case of laser-based sensors, whose operation is entirely based upon the direct detection of laser light itself, without relying on any additional mediating device. However, compared with freely propagating light beams, artificially engineered optical fields are in increasing demand for probing samples with very small sizes and/or weak light-matter interaction. Optical fiber sensors constitute a subarea of optical sensors in which fiber technologies are employed. Different types of specialty and photonic crystal fibers provide improved performance and novel sensing concepts. Actually, structurization with wavelength or subwavelength feature size appears as the most efficient way to enhance sensor sensitivity and its detection limit. This leads to the area of micro- and nano-engineered optical sensors. It is expected that the combination of better fabrication techniques and new physical effects may open new and fascinating opportunities in this area. This roadmap on optical sensors addresses different technologies and application areas of the field. Fourteen contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide insights into the current state-of-the-art and the challenges faced by researchers currently. Two sections of this paper provide an overview of laser-based and frequency comb-based sensors. Three sections address the area of optical fiber sensors, encompassing both

  2. New optical microbarometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Nathalie; Olivier, Serge; Hue, Anthony; Le Mallet, Serge

    2017-04-01

    Usually, transducers implemented in infrasound sensor (microbarometer) are mainly composed of two associated elements. The first one converts the external pressure variation into a physical linear displacement. The second one converts this motion into an electrical signal. According to this configuration, MB3, MB2000 and MB2005 microbarometers are using an aneroid capsule for the first one, and an electromagnetic transducer (Magnet-coil or LVDT) for the second one. CEA DAM (designer of MB series) and PROLANN / SEISMO WAVE (manufacturer and seller of MB3) have associated their expertise to design a new optical microbarometer: We aim at thinking that changing the electromagnetic transducer by an interferometer is an interesting solution in order to increase the dynamic and the resolution of the sensor. Currently, we are exploring this way in order to propose a future optical microbarometer which will enlarge the panel of infrasound sensors. First, we will present the new transducer principles, taking into account the aneroid capsule and the interferometer using integrated optics technology. More specifically, we will explain the operation of this optical technology, and discuss on its advantages and drawbacks. Secondly, we will present the optical microbarometer in which the interferometer is positioned inside the aneroid capsule under vacuum. The adjustment of the interferometer position is a challenge we solved. The optical measurement is naturally protected from environmental disturbances. Four prototypes were manufactured in order to compare their performances, and also an optical digitizer specifically designed to record the four channels interferometer. Finally, we will present the results we obtained with this sensor (sensitivity, self-noise, effect of environmental disturbance, etc) compared to those of a MB3 microbarometer, and discuss about the advantages of this new sensor.

  3. Optical communication components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay

    2004-03-01

    We review and contrast key technologies developed to address the optical components market for communication applications. We first review the component requirements from a network perspective. We then look at different material systems, compare their properties, and describe the functions achieved to date in each of them. The material systems reviewed include silica fiber, silica on silicon, silicon on insulator, silicon oxynitride, sol-gels, polymers, thin-film dielectrics, lithium niobate, indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, magneto-optic materials, and birefringent crystals. We then describe the most commonly used classes of optical device technology and present their pros and cons as well as the functions achieved to date in each of them. The technologies reviewed include passive, actuation, and active technologies. The passive technologies described include fused fibers, dispersion-compensating fiber, beam steering, Bragg gratings, diffraction gratings, holographic elements, thin-film filters, photonic crystals, microrings, and birefringent elements. The actuation technologies include thermo-optics, electro-optics, acousto-optics, magneto-optics, electroabsorption, liquid crystals, total internal reflection technologies, and mechanical actuation. The active technologies include heterostructures, quantum wells, rare-earth doping, dye doping, Raman amplification, and semiconductor amplification. We also investigate the use of different material systems and device technologies to achieve building-block functions, including lasers, amplifiers, detectors, modulators, polarization controllers, couplers, filters, switches, attenuators, isolators, circulators, wavelength converters, chromatic dispersion compensators, and polarization mode dispersion compensators. Some of the technologies presented are well established in the industry and in some cases have reached the commodity stage, others have recently become ready for commercial introduction, while some others

  4. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zachary M; Wollstein, Gadi; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel S

    2017-03-01

    Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT. The incorporation of AO into ophthalmic imaging modalities has enhanced OCT by improving image resolution and quality, particularly in the posterior segment of the eye. Although OCT previously captured in-vivo cross-sectional images with unparalleled high resolution in the axial direction, monochromatic aberrations of the eye limit transverse or lateral resolution to about 15-20 μm and reduce overall image quality. In pairing AO technology with OCT, it is now possible to obtain diffraction-limited resolution images of the optic nerve head and retina in three-dimensions, increasing resolution down to a theoretical 3 μm(3). It is now possible to visualize discrete structures within the posterior eye, such as photoreceptors, retinal nerve fiber layer bundles, the lamina cribrosa, and other structures relevant to glaucoma. Despite its limitations and barriers to widespread commercialization, the expanding role of AO in OCT is propelling this technology into clinical trials and onto becoming an invaluable modality in the clinician's arsenal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optical closure of parameterized bio-optical relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuangyan; Fischer, Jürgen; Schaale, Michael; He, Ming-xia

    2014-03-01

    An optical closure study on bio-optical relationships was carried out using radiative transfer model matrix operator method developed by Freie Universität Berlin. As a case study, the optical closure of bio-optical relationships empirically parameterized with in situ data for the East China Sea was examined. Remote-sensing reflectance ( R rs) was computed from the inherent optical properties predicted by these biooptical relationships and compared with published in situ data. It was found that the simulated R rs was overestimated for turbid water. To achieve optical closure, bio-optical relationships for absorption and scattering coefficients for suspended particulate matter were adjusted. Furthermore, the results show that the Fournier and Forand phase functions obtained from the adjusted relationships perform better than the Petzold phase function. Therefore, before bio-optical relationships are used for a local sea area, the optical closure should be examined.

  6. Optical Performance Monitoring and Signal Optimization in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2006-01-01

    -optical-electrical regeneration points decreases. This thesis evaluates the impact of signal degrading effects that are becoming of increasing concern in all-optical high-speed networks due to all-optical switching and higher bit-rates. Especially group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) and a number of nonlinear effects will require......The thesis studies performance monitoring for the next generation optical networks. The focus is on all-optical networks with bit-rates of 10 Gb/s or above. Next generation all-optical networks offer large challenges as the optical transmitted distance increases and the occurrence of electrical...... enhanced attention to avoid signal degradations. The requirements for optical performance monitoring features are discussed, and the thesis evaluates the advantages and necessity of increasing the level of performance monitoring parameters in the physical layer. In particular, methods for optical...

  7. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L; Gu, M

    2007-06-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy has been an indispensable laboratory tool of high-resolution imaging in thick tissue and live animals. Rapid developments of fibre-optic components in terms of growing functionality and decreasing size provide enormous opportunities for innovations in nonlinear optical microscopy. Fibre-based nonlinear optical endoscopy is the sole instrumentation to permit the cellular imaging within hollow tissue tracts or solid organs that are inaccessible to a conventional optical microscope. This article reviews the current development of fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy, which includes crucial technologies for miniaturized nonlinear optical microscopy and their embodiments of endoscopic systems. A particular attention is given to several classes of photonic crystal fibres that have been applied to nonlinear optical microscopy due to their unique properties for ultrashort pulse delivery and signal collection. Furthermore, fibre-optic nonlinear optical imaging systems can be classified into portable microscopes suitable for imaging behaving animals, rigid endoscopes that allow for deep tissue imaging with minimally invasive manners, and flexible endoscopes enabling imaging of internal organs. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical endoscopy is coming of age and a paradigm shift leading to optical microscope tools for early cancer detection and minimally invasive surgery.

  8. Optics Supply Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylord, J

    2009-04-30

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  9. Quantum optical rotatory dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Nora; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Vidal, Xavier; Zeilinger, Anton; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of molecular optical activity manifests itself as the rotation of the plane of linear polarization when light passes through chiral media. Measurements of optical activity and its wavelength dependence, that is, optical rotatory dispersion, can reveal information about intricate properties of molecules, such as the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms comprising a molecule. Given a limited probe power, quantum metrology offers the possibility of outperforming classical measurements. This has particular appeal when samples may be damaged by high power, which is a potential concern for chiroptical studies. We present the first experiment in which multiwavelength polarization-entangled photon pairs are used to measure the optical activity and optical rotatory dispersion exhibited by a solution of chiral molecules. Our work paves the way for quantum-enhanced measurements of chirality, with potential applications in chemistry, biology, materials science, and the pharmaceutical industry. The scheme that we use for probing wavelength dependence not only allows one to surpass the information extracted per photon in a classical measurement but also can be used for more general differential measurements. PMID:27713928

  10. Roadmap on optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbas, Augustine M.; Jacob, Zubin; Dal Negro, Luca; Engheta, Nader; Boardman, A. D.; Egan, P.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Menon, Vinod; Ferrera, Marcello; Kinsey, Nathaniel; DeVault, Clayton; Kim, Jongbum; Shalaev, Vladimir; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Valentine, Jason; Pfeiffer, Carl; Grbic, Anthony; Narimanov, Evgenii; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Alù, Andrea; Poutrina, Ekaterina; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Noginov, Mikhail A.; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Liu, Xiaoying; Nealey, Paul F.; Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Chanda, Debashis

    2016-09-01

    Optical metamaterials have redefined how we understand light in notable ways: from strong response to optical magnetic fields, negative refraction, fast and slow light propagation in zero index and trapping structures, to flat, thin and perfect lenses. Many rules of thumb regarding optics, such as μ = 1, now have an exception, and basic formulas, such as the Fresnel equations, have been expanded. The field of metamaterials has developed strongly over the past two decades. Leveraging structured materials systems to generate tailored response to a stimulus, it has grown to encompass research in optics, electromagnetics, acoustics and, increasingly, novel hybrid material responses. This roadmap is an effort to present emerging fronts in areas of optical metamaterials that could contribute and apply to other research communities. By anchoring each contribution in current work and prospectively discussing future potential and directions, the authors are translating the work of the field in selected areas to a wider community and offering an incentive for outside researchers to engage our community where solid links do not already exist.

  11. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  12. Roadmap of optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrell, Erik; Karlsson, Magnus; Chraplyvy, A. R.; Richardson, David J.; Krummrich, Peter M.; Winzer, Peter; Roberts, Kim; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Savory, Seb J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Secondini, Marco; Kschischang, Frank R.; Lord, Andrew; Prat, Josep; Tomkos, Ioannis; Bowers, John E.; Srinivasan, Sudha; Brandt-Pearce, Maïté; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Lightwave communications is a necessity for the information age. Optical links provide enormous bandwidth, and the optical fiber is the only medium that can meet the modern society's needs for transporting massive amounts of data over long distances. Applications range from global high-capacity networks, which constitute the backbone of the internet, to the massively parallel interconnects that provide data connectivity inside datacenters and supercomputers. Optical communications is a diverse and rapidly changing field, where experts in photonics, communications, electronics, and signal processing work side by side to meet the ever-increasing demands for higher capacity, lower cost, and lower energy consumption, while adapting the system design to novel services and technologies. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of this rich research field, Journal of Optics has invited 16 researchers, each a world-leading expert in their respective subfields, to contribute a section to this invited review article, summarizing their views on state-of-the-art and future developments in optical communications.

  13. Wearable Optical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ballard, Zachary S.

    2017-07-12

    The market for wearable sensors is predicted to grow to $5.5 billion by 2025, impacting global health in unprecedented ways. Optics and photonics will play a key role in the future of these wearable technologies, enabling highly sensitive measurements of otherwise invisible information and parameters about our health and surrounding environment. Through the implementation of optical wearable technologies, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and glucose monitors, among others, individuals are becoming more empowered to generate a wealth of rich, multifaceted physiological and environmental data, making personalized medicine a reality. Furthermore, these technologies can also be implemented in hospitals, clinics, point-of-care offices, assisted living facilities or even in patients’ homes for real-time, remote patient monitoring, creating more expeditious as well as resource-efficient systems. Several key optical technologies make such sensors possible, including e.g., optical fiber textiles, colorimetric, plasmonic, and fluorometric sensors, as well as Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) and Organic Photo-Diode (OPD) technologies. These emerging technologies and platforms show great promise as basic sensing elements in future wearable devices and will be reviewed in this chapter along-side currently existing fully integrated wearable optical sensors.

  14. Meta-Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engheta, Nader

    2014-03-01

    As the fields of metamaterial and plasmonic nanophotonics reach certain levels of development, new directions and novel vistas appear in the horizon. Modularization, parameterization and functionalization of metamaterials may be exploited to provide new functionalities and applications stemming from such interesting platforms of ``meta-optics.'' Indeed, the metamaterial ``forms'' may lead to novel ``functions.'' These may include metamaterial ``bits'' and ``bytes'' as building blocks for digitizing metamaterials, ``optical metatronics'' - metamaterial-inspired optical nanocircuitry - formed by judicious arrangement of nanostructures capable of optical processing at the nanoscale, ``meta-systems'' formed by metamaterials and metasurfaces providing wave-based signal handling and processing, graphene metatronics as one-atom-thick mid IR circuits, and nonreciprocal metastructures for unusual control over flow of photons, to name a few. We are exploring various features and characteristics of these concepts, topics, and directions in the paradigms of meta-optics and are investigating new classes of potential applications such paradigms may provide. We will present an overview of our most recent results from a sample of these topics and will discuss future directions and potentials.

  15. Illusion induced overlapped optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, XiaoFei; Shi, Cheng; Li, Zhou; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing; Zhu, HaiBin

    2014-01-13

    The traditional transformation-based cloak seems like it can only hide objects by bending the incident electromagnetic waves around the hidden region. In this paper, we prove that invisible cloaks can be applied to realize the overlapped optics. No matter how many in-phase point sources are located in the hidden region, all of them can overlap each other (this can be considered as illusion effect), leading to the perfect optical interference effect. In addition, a singular parameter-independent cloak is also designed to obtain quasi-overlapped optics. Even more amazing of overlapped optics is that if N identical separated in-phase point sources covered with the illusion media, the total power outside the transformation region is N2I0 (not NI0) (I0 is the power of just one point source, and N is the number point sources), which seems violating the law of conservation of energy. A theoretical model based on interference effect is proposed to interpret the total power of these two kinds of overlapped optics effects. Our investigation may have wide applications in high power coherent laser beams, and multiple laser diodes, and so on.

  16. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang

    2014-03-10

    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  17. Plasmonic optical nanotweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Rehab; El Maklizi, Mahmoud; Ismail, Yehea; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic grating structures can be used in many applications such as nanolithography and optical trapping. In this paper, we used plasmonic grating as optical tweezers to trap and manipulate dielectric nano-particles. Different plasmonic grating structures with single, double, and triple slits have been investigated and analyzed. The three configurations are optimized and compared to find the best candidate to trap and manipulate nanoparticles. The three optimized structures results in capability to super focusing and beaming the light effectively beyond the diffraction limit. A high transverse gradient optical force is obtained using the triple slit configuration that managed to significantly enhance the field and its gradient. Therefore, it has been chosen as an efficient optical tweezers. This structure managed to trap sub10nm particles efficiently. The resultant 50KT potential well traps the nano particles stably. The proposed structure is used also to manipulate the nano-particles by simply changing the angle of the incident light. We managed to control the movement of nano particle over an area of (5μm x 5μm) precisely. The proposed structure has the advantage of trapping and manipulating the particles outside the structure (not inside the structure such as the most proposed optical tweezers). As a result, it can be used in many applications such as drug delivery and biomedical analysis.

  18. Superconducting optical modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, Patricia S.; Ference, Thomas G.; Puzey, Kenneth A.; Tanner, David B.; Tache, Nacira; Varhue, Walter J.

    2000-12-01

    An optical modulator based on the physical properties of high temperature superconductors has been fabricated and tested. The modulator was constructed form a film of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO) grown on undoped silicon with a buffer layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia. Standard lithographic procedures were used to pattern the superconducting film into a micro bridge. Optical modulation was achieved by passing IR light through the composite structure normal to the micro bridge and switching the superconducting film in the bridge region between the superconducting and non-superconducting states. In the superconducting state, IR light reflects from the superconducting film surface. When a critical current is passed through the micro bridge, it causes the film in this region to switch to the non-superconducting state allowing IR light to pass through it. Superconducting materials have the potential to switch between these two states at speeds up to 1 picosecond using electrical current. Presently, fiber optic transmission capacity is limited by the rate at which optical data can be modulated. The superconducting modulator, when combined with other components, may have the potential to increase the transmission capacity of fiber optic lines.

  19. Optical phased array radiating optical vortex with manipulated topological charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Zhao, Bo; Cui, Jianhua; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-02-23

    Optical antennas are key elements in quantum optics emitting and sensing, and behave wide range applications in optical domain. However, integration of optical antenna radiating orbital angular momentum is still a challenge in nano-scale. We theoretically demonstrate a sub-wavelength phased optical antenna array, which manipulates the distribution of the orbital angular momentum in the near field. Orbital angular momentum with topological charge of 4 can be obtained by controlling the phase distribution of the fundamental mode orbital angular momentum in each antenna element. Our results indicate this phased array may be utilized in high integrated optical communication systems.

  20. Optical manipulation of gold nanoparticles using an optical nanofiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Hu Yan-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are gaining increasing attention due to their biological and medical applications.In this letter,we experimentally demonstrate the optical manipulation of 250-nm-diameter gold nanoparticles along an optical nanofiber (550 nm in diameter) injected by an 808-nm laser light.The nanoparticles situated in the evanescent optical field are trapped by optical gradient force and move along the direction of light propagation due to optical scattering force.The velocities reach as high as 132 μm/s at an optical power of 80 mW.

  1. Optical trapping and optical binding using cylindrical vector beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Skelton

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of cylindrical vector beams for optical manipulation of micron and sub-micron sized particles using the methods of a single-beam gradient force trap (optical tweezers and an evanescent-field surface trap (optical binding. We have demonstrated a stable interferometric method for the synthesis of cylindrical vector beams (CVBs, and present measurements demonstrating polarization-controlled focal volume shaping using CVBs in an optical tweezers. Furthermore we show how appropriate combinations of CVBs corresponding to superpositions of optical fibre modes can be used for controlled trapping and trafficking of micro- and nanoparticles along a tapered optical fibre.

  2. The optic nerve head in hereditary optic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C; Mackey, David A; Connell, Paul P; Hewitt, Alex W; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Crowston, Jonathan G

    2009-05-01

    Hereditary optic neuropathies are a prominent cause of blindness in both children and adults. The disorders in this group share many overlapping clinical characteristics, including morphological changes that occur at the optic nerve head. Accurate and prompt clinical diagnosis, supplemented with imaging when indicated, is essential for optimum management of the relevant optic neuropathy and appropriate counseling of the patient on its natural history. Patient history, visual field assessment, optic disc findings and imaging are the cornerstones of a correct diagnosis. This Review highlights the characteristic optic nerve head features that are common to the various hereditary optic neuropathies, and describes the features that enable the conditions to be differentiated.

  3. [Introduction to tissue optics and optical dosimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, J; Kim, B M

    2001-01-01

    The spatial distribution of radiation during medical laser application is determined by the characteristics of the beam (power, time, beam geometry) and the optical properties of the tissue. The irradiance E (in W/m2) describes the primary laser beam. Scattered radiation, in turn, is taken into account by the fluence rate phi (also in W/m2). The basic parameters of tissue optics are the absorption coefficient mu a, the scattering coefficient mu s and the anisotropy factor g. In addition, derived parameters are also used, i.e., total attenuation coefficient mu t, reduced scattering coefficient mu s', effective attenuation coefficient mu eff, mean free path of a photon d and penetration depth delta. Further tissue properties are the diffuse reflectance Rd and the back-scattering factor k. In an one-dimensional model the fluence rate phi in tissue is a nearly exponential function characterized by the penetration depth delta. At the tissue surface, the relationship exists phi = kE. This model is compared with the results of a computer program based on the finite element method.

  4. Fiber optic sensing and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book is designed to highlight the basic principles of fiber optic imaging and sensing devices. The editor has organized the book to provide the reader with a solid foundation in fiber optic imaging and sensing devices. It begins with an introductory chapter that starts from Maxwell’s equations and ends with the derivation of the basic optical fiber characteristic equations and solutions (i.e. fiber modes). Chapter 2 reviews most common fiber optic interferometric devices and Chapter 3 discusses the basics of fiber optic imagers with emphasis on fiber optic confocal microscope. The fiber optic interferometric sensors are discussed in detail in chapter 4 and 5. Chapter 6 covers optical coherence tomography and goes into the details of signal processing and systems level approach of the real-time OCT implementation. Also useful forms of device characteristic equations are provided so that this book can be used as a reference for scientists and engineers in the optics and related fields.

  5. Optical characterization of muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Pais Clemente, Manuel; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2012-03-01

    Optical characterization and internal structure of biological tissues is highly important for biomedical optics. In particular for optical clearing processes, such information is of vital importance to understand the mechanisms involved through the variation of the refractive indices of tissue components. The skeletal muscle presents a fibrous structure with an internal arrangement of muscle fiber cords surrounded by interstitial fluid that is responsible for strong light scattering. To determine the refractive index of muscle components we have used a simple method of measuring tissue mass and refractive index during dehydration. After performing measurements for natural and ten dehydration states of the muscle samples, we have determined the dependence between the refractive index of the muscle and its water content. Also, we have joined our measurements with some values reported in literature to perform some calculations that have permitted to determine the refractive index of the dried muscle fibers and their corresponding volume percentage inside the natural muscle.

  6. Polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  7. Electrically driven optical antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Johannes; Kullock, René; Prangsma, Jord; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Unlike radiowave antennas, so far optical nanoantennas cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or indirectly via excited discrete states in active materials in their vicinity. Here we demonstrate the direct electrical driving of an in-plane optical antenna by the broadband quantum-shot noise of electrons tunnelling across its feed gap. The spectrum of the emitted photons is determined by the antenna geometry and can be tuned via the applied voltage. Moreover, the direction and polarization of the light emission are controlled by the antenna resonance, which also improves the external quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. The one-material planar design offers facile integration of electrical and optical circuits and thus represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometre scale, for example for on-chip wireless communication and highly configurable electrically driven subwavelength photon sources.

  8. Optical source transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundtz, N; Roberts, D A; Allen, J; Cummer, S; Smith, D R

    2008-12-22

    Transformation optics is a recently appreciated methodology for the design of complex media that control the propagation of electromagnetic and other types of waves. The transformation optical technique involves the use of coordinate transformations applied to some region of space, providing a conceptual means to redirect the flow of waves. Successfully designed devices to date have made use of transformations acting on passive space only; however, the technique can also be applied when source distributions (e.g., current and charge) are included within the space being transformed. In this paper we present examples of source transformations that illustrate the potential of these expanded transformation optical methods. In particular, using finite-element full-wave simulations, we confirm the restoration of dipole radiation patterns from both a distorted 'pin-wheel' antenna and a bent dipole partially occluded by a cylindrical scatterer. We propose the technique of source transformations as a powerful approach for antenna design, especially in relation to conformal antennas.

  9. Anisotropic Contrast Optical Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Peev, D; Kananizadeh, N; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-01-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by mea...

  10. Ultrafast nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Leburn, Christopher; Reid, Derryck

    2013-01-01

    The field of ultrafast nonlinear optics is broad and multidisciplinary, and encompasses areas concerned with both the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses of light, as well as those concerned with the applications of such pulses. Ultrashort pulses are extreme events – both in terms of their durations, and also the high peak powers which their short durations can facilitate. These extreme properties make them powerful experiment tools. On one hand, their ultrashort durations facilitate the probing and manipulation of matter on incredibly short timescales. On the other, their ultrashort durations can facilitate high peak powers which can drive highly nonlinear light-matter interaction processes. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics covers a complete range of topics, both applied and fundamental in nature, within the area of ultrafast nonlinear optics. Chapters 1 to 4 are concerned with the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses. Chapters 5 to 7 are concerned with fundamental applications of ultrasho...

  11. Linearizing nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Bruno E; Ernotte, Guilmot; Clerici, Matteo; Morandotti, Roberto; Ibrahim, Heide; Legare, Francois

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of linear optics, light fields do not interact with each other in a medium. Yet, when their field amplitude becomes comparable to the electron binding energies of matter, the nonlinear motion of these electrons emits new dipole radiation whose amplitude, frequency and phase differ from the incoming fields. Such high fields are typically achieved with ultra-short, femtosecond (1fs = 10-15 sec.) laser pulses containing very broad frequency spectra. Here, the matter not only couples incoming and outgoing fields but also causes different spectral components to interact and mix through a convolution process. In this contribution, we describe how frequency domain nonlinear optics overcomes the shortcomings arising from this convolution in conventional time domain nonlinear optics1. We generate light fields with previously inaccessible properties because the uncontrolled coupling of amplitudes and phases is turned off. For example, arbitrary phase functions are transferred linearly to the second har...

  12. Silicon photonics: optical modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Gardes, F. Y.; Hu, Youfang; Thomson, D.; Lever, L.; Kelsall, R.; Ikonic, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon Photonics has the potential to revolutionise a whole raft of application areas. Currently, the main focus is on various forms of optical interconnects as this is a near term bottleneck for the computing industry, and hence a number of companies have also released products onto the market place. The adoption of silicon photonics for mass production will significantly benefit a range of other application areas. One of the key components that will enable silicon photonics to flourish in all of the potential application areas is a high performance optical modulator. An overview is given of the major Si photonics modulator research that has been pursued at the University of Surrey to date as well as a worldwide state of the art showing the trend and technology available. We will show the trend taken toward integration of optical and electronic components with the difficulties that are inherent in such a technology.

  13. Transformation optics using graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Ashkan; Engheta, Nader

    2011-06-10

    Metamaterials and transformation optics play substantial roles in various branches of optical science and engineering by providing schemes to tailor electromagnetic fields into desired spatial patterns. We report a theoretical study showing that by designing and manipulating spatially inhomogeneous, nonuniform conductivity patterns across a flake of graphene, one can have this material as a one-atom-thick platform for infrared metamaterials and transformation optical devices. Varying the graphene chemical potential by using static electric field yields a way to tune the graphene conductivity in the terahertz and infrared frequencies. Such degree of freedom provides the prospect of having different "patches" with different conductivities on a single flake of graphene. Numerous photonic functions and metamaterial concepts can be expected to follow from such a platform.

  14. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies......The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include......, are reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described....

  15. Optical imaging. Expansion microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Boyden, Edward S

    2015-01-30

    In optical microscopy, fine structural details are resolved by using refraction to magnify images of a specimen. We discovered that by synthesizing a swellable polymer network within a specimen, it can be physically expanded, resulting in physical magnification. By covalently anchoring specific labels located within the specimen directly to the polymer network, labels spaced closer than the optical diffraction limit can be isotropically separated and optically resolved, a process we call expansion microscopy (ExM). Thus, this process can be used to perform scalable superresolution microscopy with diffraction-limited microscopes. We demonstrate ExM with apparent ~70-nanometer lateral resolution in both cultured cells and brain tissue, performing three-color superresolution imaging of ~10(7) cubic micrometers of the mouse hippocampus with a conventional confocal microscope.

  16. Digital Optical Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David H.; Tipton, Charles A.; Christmann, Charles E.; Hochhausler, Nils P.

    1988-09-01

    We describe the digital optical control system (DOGS), a state-of-the-art controller for electrical feedback in an optical system. The need for a versatile optical controller arose from a number of unique experiments being performed by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. These experiments use similar detectors and actuator-controlled mirrors, but the control requirements vary greatly. The experiments have in common a requirement for parallel control systems. The DOGS satisfies these needs by allowing several control systems to occupy a single chassis with one master controller. The architecture was designed to allow upward compatibility with future configurations. Combinations of off-the-shelf and custom boards are configured to meet the requirements of each experiment. The configuration described here was used to control piston error to X/80 at a wavelength of 0.51 Am. A peak sample rate of 8 kHz, yielding a closed loop bandwidth of 800 Hz, was achieved.

  17. The optical rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, T; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    1997-01-01

    The optical rotator is an unbiased, local stereological principle for estimation of cell volume and cell surface area in thick, transparent slabs, The underlying principle was first described in 1993 by Kieu Jensen (T. Microsc. 170, 45-51) who also derived an estimator of length, In this study we...... further discuss the methods derived from this principle and present two new local volume estimators. The optical rotator benefits from information obtained in all three dimensions in thick sections but avoids over-/ underprojection problems at the extremes of the cell. Using computer-assisted microscopes...... the extra measurements demand minimal extra effort and make this estimator even more efficient when it comes to estimation of individual cell size than many of the previous local estimators, We demonstrate the principle of the optical rotator in an example (the cells in the dorsal root ganglion of the rat...

  18. Inherited mitochondrial optic neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Wai-Man, P; Griffiths, P G; Hudson, G; Chinnery, P F

    2009-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA) are the two most common inherited optic neuropathies and they result in significant visual morbidity among young adults. Both disorders are the result of mitochondrial dysfunction: LHON from primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations affecting the respiratory chain complexes; and the majority of DOA families have mutations in the OPA1 gene, which codes for an inner mitochondrial membrane protein critical for mtDNA maintenance and oxidative phosphorylation. Additional genetic and environmental factors modulate the penetrance of LHON, and the same is likely to be the case for DOA which has a markedly variable clinical phenotype. The selective vulnerability of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a key pathological feature and understanding the fundamental mechanisms that underlie RGC loss in these disorders is a prerequisite for the development of effective therapeutic strategies which are currently limited. PMID:19001017

  19. Optical tweezers: wideband microrheology

    CERN Document Server

    Preece, Daryl; Tassieri, Manlio; Evans, R M L; Gibson, Graham M; Padgett, Miles J; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2010-01-01

    Microrheology is a branch of rheology having the same principles as conventional bulk rheology, but working on micron length scales and micro-litre volumes. Optical tweezers have been successfully used with Newtonian fluids for rheological purposes such as determining fluid viscosity. Conversely, when optical tweezers are used to measure the viscoelastic properties of complex fluids the results are either limited to the material's high-frequency response, discarding important information related to the low-frequency behavior, or they are supplemented by low-frequency measurements performed with different techniques, often without presenting an overlapping region of clear agreement between the sets of results. We present a simple experimental procedure to perform microrheological measurements over the widest frequency range possible with optical tweezers. A generalised Langevin equation is used to relate the frequency-dependent moduli of the complex fluid to the time-dependent trajectory of a probe particle as...

  20. Optically Reconfigurable Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Gholipour, Behrad; Wang, Chih-Ming; Yuan, Guanghui; Teng, Jinghua; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    Optoelectronic components with adjustable parameters, from variable-focal-length lenses to spectral filters that can change functionality upon stimulation, have enormous technological importance. Tuning of such components is conventionally achieved by either micro- or nano-mechanical actuation of their consitutive parts, stretching or application of thermal stimuli. Here we report a new dielectric metasurface platform for reconfigurable optical components that are created with light in a non-volatile and reversible fashion. Such components are written, erased and re-written as two-dimensional binary or grey-scale patterns into a nanoscale film of phase change material by inducing a refractive-index-changing phase-transition with tailored trains of femtosecond pulses. We combine germanium-antimony-tellurium-based films optimized for high-optical-contrast ovonic switching with a sub-wavelength-resolution optical writing process to demonstrate technologically relevant devices: visible-range reconfigurable bi-chr...

  1. Quantum enhanced optical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfermeier, Clemens

    The work in this thesis is embedded in the framework of quantum metrology and explores quantum effects in solid state emitters and optical sensing. Specifically, the thesis comprises studies on silicon vacancy centres in nanodiamonds, phase measurements and cavity optomechanics utilising optical...... squeezed states, and a theoretical study on quantum amplifiers. Due to its similarity to single atoms, colour centres in diamond are ideal objects for exploring and exploiting quantum effects, because they are comparably easy to produce, probe and maintain. While nitrogen vacancy centres are the most...... identified spectral diffusion as the main hindrance in extending spin coherence times. Overcoming this issue will provide a promising candidate as an emitter for quantum information. Next, the question of how squeezed states of light can improve optical sensing was addressed. For this purpose, a squeezed...

  2. Optics and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Manuel F M; De Campos, J Ayres; Lira, Madalena; Franco, Sandra [Centro de Fisica da Universidade do Minho (Portugal); Vazquez-Dorrio, Jose B, E-mail: mfcosta@fisica.uminho.pt [Universidad de Vigo, EIM, Departamento de Fisica (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    Light and Optics are subjects that 'naturally' attracts the interest and sympathy of children even from very early ages. In this communication, we present a series of experiments and support material designed in this hands-on perspective, to be used to introduce the study of light and optics to kindergarten and early basic school students. Our hands-on investigative approach leads the students, aged 4 to 10 years, to observe the experiment and discover themselves, in a critical and active way, different aspects of light and optics. Preparing funny eye catching situations and experiments predispose the children to work, effectively, enjoying themselves while building up their self-confidence.

  3. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  4. Holographic Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, G.

    For the last two decades adaptive optics has been used as a technique for correcting imaging applications and directed energy/laser targeting and laser communications systems affected by atmospheric turbulence. Typically these systems are bulky and limited to system with the potential to operate at speeds of MHz. The system utilizes a hologram to perform an all-optical wavefront analysis that removes the need for any computer. Finally, the sensing is made on a modal basis so it is largely insensitive to scintillation and obscuration. We have constructed a prototype device and will present experimental results from our research. The holographic adaptive optics system begins with the creation of a multiplexed hologram. This hologram is created by recording the maximum and minimum response functions of every actuator in the deformable mirror against a unique focused reference beam. When a wavefront of some arbitrary phase is incident on the processed hologram, a number of focal spots are created -- one pair for each actuator in the DM. The absolute phase error at each particular actuator location is simply related to the ratio of the intensity of each pair of spots. In this way we can use an array of photodetectors to give a direct readout of phase error without the need for any calculations. The advantages of holographic adaptive optics are many. To begin with, the measurement of phase error is made all optically, so the wavefront sensor directly controls the actuators in the DM without any computers. Using fast, photon counting photodetectors allows for closed loop correction limited only by the speed of the deformable mirror which in the case of MEMS devices can be 100 kHz or more. All this can be achieved in an extremely compact and lightweight package making it perfectly suited to applications such as UAV surveillance imagery and free space optical communications systems. Lastly, since the correction is made on a modal basis instead of zonal, it is virtually

  5. Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new method for noninvasive cross-sectional imaging in biological systems. In OCT, the longitudinal locations of tissue structures are determined by measuring the time-of-flight delays of light backscattered from these structures. The optical delays are measured by low coherence interferometry. Information on lateral position is provided by transverse scanning of the probe beam. The two dimensional map of optical scattering from internal tissue microstructures is then represented in a false-color or grayscale image. OCT is the optical analog of ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging, but with greatly improved spatial resolutions (a few microns). This thesis describes the development of this new high resolution tomographic imaging technology and the demonstration of its use in a variety of tissues under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro OCT ranging and imaging studies were performed using human ocular and arterial tissues, two clinically relevant examples of transparent and turbid media, respectively. In the anterior eye, precise measurements of cornea and anterior chamber dimensions were made. In the arterial specimens, the differentiation between fatty -calcified and fibromuscular tissues was demonstrated. In vivo OCT imaging in the retina and optic nerve head in human subjects was also performed. The delineation of retinal layers, which has not been possible with other noninvasive imaging techniques, is demonstrated in these OCT images. OCT has high spatial resolution but limited penetration into turbid tissue. It has potential for diagnostic applications where high resolution is needed and optical access is available, such as in the eye, skin, surgically exposed tissues, and surfaces that can be reached by various catheters and endoscopic probes. In particular, the measurement of fine retinal structures promises improvements in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma, macular edema and other vitreo-retinal diseases

  6. All-optical signal processing technique for secure optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng-chen; Su, Bing; Ye, Ya-lin; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Shao-feng; Duan, Tao; Duan, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Secure optical communication technologies are important means to solve the physical layer security for optical network. We present a scheme of secure optical communication system by all-optical signal processing technique. The scheme consists of three parts, as all-optical signal processing unit, optical key sequence generator, and synchronous control unit. In the paper, all-optical signal processing method is key technology using all-optical exclusive disjunction (XOR) gate based on optical cross-gain modulation effect, has advantages of wide dynamic range of input optical signal, simple structure and so on. All-optical XOR gate composed of two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) is a symmetrical structure. By controlling injection current, input signal power, delay and filter bandwidth, the extinction ratio of XOR can be greater than 8dB. Finally, some performance parameters are calculated and the results are analyzed. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can be achieved over 10Gbps optical signal encryption and decryption, which is simple, easy to implement, and error-free diffusion.

  7. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  8. Introduction to modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fowles, Grant R

    1989-01-01

    This incisive text provides a basic undergraduate-level course in modern optics for students in physics, technology and engineering. The first half of the book deals with classical physical optics; the second principally with the quantum nature of light. Chapters 1 and 2 treat the propagation of light waves, including the concepts of phase and group velocities, and the vectorial nature of light. Chapter 3 applies the concepts of partial coherence and coherence length to the study of interference, and Chapter 4 takes up multiple-beam interference and includes Fabry-Perot interferometry and mul

  9. Optical fiber rotation sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, William K; Kelley, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing is the first book devoted to Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros (IFOG). This book provides a complete overview of IFOGs, beginning with a historical review of IFOG development and including a fundamental exposition of basic principles, a discussion of devices and components, and concluding with industry reports on state-of-the-art activity. With several chapters contributed by principal developers of this solid-state device, the result is an authoritative work which will serve as the resource for researchers, students, and users of IFOGs.* * State-of-t

  10. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  11. Microstructured Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    complete PBGs, which reflects light incident from air or vacuum. Such structures may be used as cladding structures in optical fibres, where light is confined and thereby guided in a hollow core region. In addition, the present invention relates to designs for ultra low-loss PBG waveguiding structures......The present invention relates to a new class of optical waveguides, in which waveguiding along one or more core regions is obtained through the application of the Photonic Bandgap (PBG) effect. The invention further relates to optimised two-dimensional lattice structures capable of providing...

  12. CELT optics Alignment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Terry S.; Nelson, Jerry E.; Chanan, Gary A.; Noethe, Lothar

    2003-01-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) is a project to build a 30-meter diameter telescope for research in astronomy at visible and infrared wavelengths. The current optical design calls for a primary, secondary, and tertiary mirror with Ritchey-Chretién foci at two Nasmyth platforms. The primary mirror is a mosaic of 1080 actively-stabilized hexagonal segments. This paper summarizes a CELT report that describes a step-by-step procedure for aligning the many degrees of freedom of the CELT optics.

  13. Reflecting telescope optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Raymond N

    2004-01-01

    R.N. Wilson's two-volume treatise on reflecting telescope optics has become a classic in its own right. It is intended to give a complete treatment of the subject, addressing professionals in research and industry as well as students of astronomy and amateur astronomers. This first volume, Basic Design Theory and its Historical Development, is devoted to the theory of reflecting telescope optics and systematically recounts the historical progress. The author's approach is morphological, with strong emphasis on the historical development. The book is richly illustrated including spot-diagrams a

  14. Optical plasma microelectronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Thyler; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices was successfully replaced with an optically triggered gas plasma channel. The combination of DC and laser-induced gas ionizations controls the conductivity of the channel, enabling us to realize different electronic devices such as transistors, switches, modulators, etc. A special micro-scale metasurface was used to enhance the laser-gas interaction, as well as combining it with DC ionization properly. Optical plasma devices benefit form the advantages of plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving most of the integrablity of semiconductor based devices.

  15. Optical Clocks and Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. W.; Hume, D. B.; Rosenband, T.; Wineland, D. J.

    2010-09-01

    Observers in relative motion or at different gravitational potentials measure disparate clock rates. These predictions of relativity have previously been observed with atomic clocks at high velocities and with large changes in elevation. We observed time dilation from relative speeds of less than 10 meters per second by comparing two optical atomic clocks connected by a 75-meter length of optical fiber. We can now also detect time dilation due to a change in height near Earth’s surface of less than 1 meter. This technique may be extended to the field of geodesy, with applications in geophysics and hydrology as well as in space-based tests of fundamental physics.

  16. Supersymmetric Optical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Miri, Mohammad-Ali; El-Ganainy, Ramy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2013-01-01

    We show that supersymmetry can provide a versatile platform in synthesizing a new class of optical structures with desired properties and functionalities. By exploiting the intimate relationship between superpatners, one can systematically construct index potentials capable of exhibiting the same scattering and guided wave characteristics. In particular, in the Helmholtz regime, we demonstrate that one-dimensional supersymmetric pairs display identical reflectivities and transmittivities for any angle of incidence. Optical SUSY is then extended to two-dimensional systems where a link between specific azimuthal mode subsets is established. Finally we explore supersymmetric photonic lattices where discreteness can be utilized to design lossless integrated mode filtering arrangements.

  17. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  18. Free space optical communication

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, Hemani; Kar, Subrat

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth understanding of free space optical (FSO) communication with a particular emphasis on optical beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence. The book is structured in such a way that it provides a basic framework for the beginners and also gives a concise description from a designer’s perspective. The book provides an exposure to FSO technology, fundamental limitations, design methodologies, system trade-offs, acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) techniques and link-feasibility analysis. The contents of this book will be of interest to professionals and researchers alike. The book may also be used as a textbook for engineering coursework and professional training.

  19. Optical Vorticity Meter Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-05

    should have a high-reflect- ______ ing power R of 95% to SO% transmitting only a small * percentage of the light. An auxiliary, usually much Ftc.1. wo- eam ...medium occupies the entire optical path of the ring cavity, which is drilled out of a Magneto-optic alternatives monolithic block of a special low...as the light So urce the rilninim delectable rotation rate i.s (for 1? 15 cm, c, = 2 dBr /hu, R - 10 se~,and to 0.5): -1.5 X 10 -9 rad,ec

  20. Optical fiber telecommunications IIIb

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Updated to include the latest information on light wave technology, Optical Fiber Telecommunication III, Volumes A & B are invaluable for scientists, students, and engineers in the modern telecommunications industry. This two-volume set includes the most current research available in optical fiber telecommunications, light wave technology, and photonics/optoelectronics. The authors cover important background concepts such as SONET, coding device technology, andWOM components as well as projecting the trends in telecommunications for the 21st century.Key Features* One of the hottest subjects of

  1. Fundamentals of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Peter Powers's rigorous but simple description of a difficult field keeps the reader's attention throughout. … All chapters contain a list of references and large numbers of practice examples to be worked through. … By carefully working through the proposed problems, students will develop a sound understanding of the fundamental principles and applications. … the book serves perfectly for an introductory-level course for second- and third-order nonlinear optical phenomena. The author's writing style is refreshing and original. I expect that Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics will fast become pop

  2. Grazing Incidence Neutron Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Neutron optics based on the two-reflection geometries are capable of controlling beams of long wavelength neutrons with low angular divergence. The preferred mirror fabrication technique is a replication process with electroform nickel replication process being preferable. In the preliminary demonstration test an electroform nickel optics gave the neutron current density gain at the focal spot of the mirror at least 8 for neutron wavelengths in the range from 6 to 20.ANG.. The replication techniques can be also be used to fabricate neutron beam controlling guides.

  3. Optically switchable photonic metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R. F.; MacDonald, K. F. [Centre for Photonic Metamaterials and Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hobson, P. A. [QinetiQ Ltd., Cody Technology Park, Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 0LX (United Kingdom); Zheludev, N. I. [Centre for Photonic Metamaterials and Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies and The Photonics Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-08-24

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically switchable gallium-based metasurface, in which a reversible light-induced transition between solid and liquid phases occurring in a confined nanoscale surface layer of the metal drives significant changes in reflectivity and absorption. The metasurface architecture resonantly enhances the metal's “active plasmonic” phase-change nonlinearity by an order of magnitude, offering high contrast all-optical switching in the near-infrared range at low, μW μm{sup −2}, excitation intensities.

  4. The Athena Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Shortt, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (Athena) was selected in 2014 as the second large class mission (L2) of the ESA Cosmic Vision Science Programme within the Directorate of Science and Robotic Exploration. The mission development is proceeding via the implementation of the system...... studies and in parallel a comprehensive series of technology preparation activities. [1-3].The core enabling technology for the high performance mirror is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), a modular X-ray optics technology, which utilises processes and equipment developed for the semiconductor industry [4...

  5. Optical Aberrations and Wavefront

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Polat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The deviation of light to create normal retinal image in the optical system is called aberration. Aberrations are divided two subgroup: low-order aberrations (defocus: spherical and cylindrical refractive errors and high-order aberrations (coma, spherical, trefoil, tetrafoil, quadrifoil, pentafoil, secondary astigmatism. Aberrations increase with aging. Spherical aberrations are compensated by positive corneal and negative lenticular spherical aberrations in youth. Total aberrations are elevated by positive corneal and positive lenticular spherical aberrations in elderly. In this study, we aimed to analyze the basic terms regarding optic aberrations which have gained significance recently. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 306-11

  6. Optical fiber crossbar switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Michael K.; Beccue, Stephen M.; Brar, Berinder; Robinson, G.; Pedrotti, Kenneth D.; Haber, William A.

    1990-07-01

    Advances in high performance computers and signal processing systems have led to parallel system architectures. The main limitation in achieving the performance expected of these parallel systems has been the realization of an efficient means to interconnect many processors into a effective parallel system. Electronic interconnections have proved cumbersome, costly and ineffective. The Optical Fiber Crossbar Switch (OFCS) is a compact low power, multi-gigahertz bandwidth multi-channel switch which can be used in large scale computer and telecommunication applications. The switch operates in the optical domain using GaAs semiconductor lasers to transmit wideband multiple channel optical data over fiber optic cables. Recently, a 32 X 32 crossbar switching system was completed and demonstrated. Error free performance was obtained at a data bandwidth of 410 MBPS, using a silicon switch IC. The switch can be completely reconfigured in less than 50 nanoseconds under computer control. The fully populated OFCS has the capability to handle 12.8 gigabits per second (GBPS) of data while switching this data over 32 channels without the loss of a single bit during switching. GaAs IC technology has now progressed to the point that 16 X 16 GaAs based crossbar switch Ics are available which have increased the data bandwidth capability to 2.4 GBPS. The present optical interfaces are integrated GaAs transmitter drivers, GaAs lasers, and integrated GaAs optical receivers with data bandwidths exceeding 2.4 GBPS. A system using all Ill-V switching and optoelectronic components is presently under development for both NASA and DoD programs. The overall system is designed to operate at 1.3 GBPS. It is expected that these systems will find wide application in high capacity computing systems based on parallel microprocessor architecture which require high data bandwidth communication between processors. The OFCS will also have application in commercial optical telecommunication systems

  7. Introductory Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, Christopher; Knight, Peter

    2004-10-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Field quantization; 3. Coherent states; 4. Emission and absorption of radiation by atoms; 5. Quantum coherence functions; 6. Beam splitters and interferometers; 7. Nonclassical light; 8. Dissipative interactions and decoherence; 9. Optical test of quantum mechanics; 10. Experiments in cavity QED and with trapped ions; 11. Applications of entanglement: Heisenberg-limited interferometry and quantum information processing; Appendix A. The density operator, entangled states, the Schmidt decomposition, and the von Neumann entropy; Appendix B. Quantum measurement theory in a (very small) nutshell; Appendix C. Derivation of the effective Hamiltonian for dispersive (far off-resonant) interactions; Appendix D. Nonlinear optics and spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

  8. Optical Packet Switching Demostrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brian Bach; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2002-01-01

    In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set-up and the m......In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set...

  9. Inorganic optical dielectric films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollam, John A.

    1996-07-01

    Dielectric coatings have been in use for a very long time, yet today they represent a steadily growing wold-wide industry. A wide range of materials, and applications from the near ultraviolet into the infrared are in use, or under development. This paper is a brief survey, including references to the literature, and a discussion of materials diagnostics. Discussed is the microstructure, optical constants and their relationship as determined especially by optical measurements. This paper emphasizes the materials science aspects rather than applications.

  10. Aperture optical antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This contribution reviews the studies on subwavelength aperture antennas in the optical regime, paying attention to both the fundamental investigations and the applications. Section 2 reports on the enhancement of light-matter interaction using three main types of aperture antennas: single subwavelength aperture, single aperture surrounded by shallow surface corrugations, and subwavelength aperture arrays. A large fraction of nanoaperture applications is devoted to the field of biophotonics to improve molecular sensing, which are reviewed in Section 3. Lastly, the applications towards nano-optics (sources, detectors and filters) are discussed in Section 4.

  11. Modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Bischoff, Svend; Berg, Tommy Winther

    We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed.......We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed....

  12. Field guide to nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Optomechanics is a field of mechanics that addresses the specific design challenges associated with optical systems. This [i]Field Guide [/i]describes how to mount optical components, as well as how to analyze a given design. It is intended for practicing optical and mechanical engineers whose work requires knowledge in both optics and mechanics. This Field Guide is designed for those looking for a condensed and concise source of key concepts, equations, and techniques for nonlinear optics. Topics covered include technologically important effects, recent developments in nonlinear optics

  13. Microwave to Optical Link Using an Optical Microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, J D; Lecaplain, C; Brasch, V; Pfeiffer, M H P; Kippenberg, T J

    2014-01-01

    The ability to phase coherently link optical to radio frequencies with femtosecond modelocked lasers has enabled counting cycles of light and is the basis of optical clocks, absolute frequency synthesis, tests of fundamental physics, and improved spectroscopy. Using an optical microresonator frequency comb to establish a coherent link promises to greatly extend optical frequency synthesis and measurements to areas requiring compact form factor, on chip integration and repetition rates in the microwave regime, including coherent telecommunications, astrophysical spectrometer calibration or microwave photonics. Here we demonstrate for the first time a microwave to optical link using a microresonator. Using a temporal dissipative single soliton state in an ultra high Q crystalline microresonator an optical frequency comb is generated that is self-referenced, allowing to phase coherently link a 190 THZ optical carrier directly to a 14 GHz microwave frequency. Our work demonstrates that precision optical frequency...

  14. Demonstrational Optics Part 2: Coherent and Statistical Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Marchenko, Oleg; Windholz, Laurentius

    2007-01-01

    Demonstrational Optics presents a new didactical approach to the study of optics. Emphasizing the importance of elaborate new experimental demonstrations, pictorial illustrations, computer simulations and models of optical phenomena in order to ensure a deeper understanding of wave and geometric optics. It includes problems focused on the pragmatic needs of students, secondary school teachers, university professors and optical engineers. Part 2, Coherent and Statistical Optics, contains chapters on interference, diffraction, Fourier optics, light quanta, thermal radiation (Shot noise and Gaussian light), Correlation of light fields and Correlation of light intensities. A substantial part of this volume is devoted to thermal radiation and its properties, especially with partial coherence. A detailed treatment of the photo-effect with respect to statistical properties leads to the basics of statistical optics. To illustrate the phenomena covered by this volume, a large number of demonstration experiments are de...

  15. Isolation of Integrated Optical Acousto-Optic Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Li-Feng; LIU Ying; WANG Wei-Peng; GENG Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Isolation of a new structured acousto-optic switch based on an integrated optical polarization-independent quasicollinear acousto-optic tunable filter is studied in detail. The factors that influence the isolation of the optical switch are analysed, the expressions of the isolation are educed, and the isolation of the device is measured in experiment. It is found that the isolation mainly depends on the TE/TM mode intensity ratio, the mode-splitter extinction rate, and the conversion efficiency.

  16. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. The optic nerve sheath on MRI in acute optic neuritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, S.J. [University College London, NMR Research Unit, Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Moorfields Eye Hospital, Department of Neuro-Ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Miszkiel, K.A. [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); Plant, G.T. [Moorfields Eye Hospital, Department of Neuro-Ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Miller, D.H. [University College London, NMR Research Unit, Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    Optic nerve sheath dilatation or gadolinium-enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging in acute optic neuritis have been previously reported but have been thought to be rare occurrences. This study recruited 33 patients with acute unilateral optic neuritis. All had their optic nerves imaged with fat-saturated fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging, and 28 had imaging before and after triple-dose gadolinium-enhanced fat-saturated T{sub 1}-weighted imaging. Follow-up imaging was performed on 20 patients (15 following gadolinium). A dilated subarachnoid space at the anterior end of the symptomatic optic nerve on FSE imaging was seen in 15/33 cases. In three of these cases, dilatation was visible on short-term follow-up. Optic nerve sheath enhancement was seen in 21/28 cases acutely: seven at the anterior end of the lesion only, five at the posterior end only and nine at both ends. Optic sheath enhancement was seen in 13 patients on follow-up. This study suggests that optic nerve sheath dilatation on FSE images and optic nerve sheath enhancement on triple-dose gadolinium-enhanced images are common findings in acute optic neuritis. Optic nerve sheath dilatation may be due to inflammation of the optic nerve, with its associated swelling, interrupting the communication between the subarachnoid space of the diseased optic nerve and the chiasmal cistern. Optic nerve sheath enhancement suggests that meningeal inflammation occurs in optic neuritis, in agreement with pathological studies of both optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis. (orig.)

  19. Optical switching device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, F.J.A. den; Hanzen, R.M.N.; Duine, P.A.; Jungblut, R.M.; Draijer, C.; Roozeboom, F.; Sluis, P. van der

    2000-01-01

    A description is given of an optical switching device (1) comprising a transparent substrate (3), a switching film (5) of a hydride compound of a trivalent transition or rare earth metal having a thickness of 300 nm, and a palladium capping layer (7) having a thickness of 30 nm. The capping layer is

  20. Optical Complex Systems 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Guillaume

    The Optical Complex Systems are more and more in the heart of various systems that industrial applications bring to everyday life. From environment up to spatial applications, OCS is also relevant in monitoring, transportation, robotics, life sciences, sub-marine, and even for agricultural purposes.

  1. Dielectric optical invisibility cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J.; Tamma, V. A.; Park, W.; Summers, C. J.

    2010-08-01

    Recently, metamaterial cloaks for the microwave frequency range have been designed using transformative optics design techniques and experimentally demonstrated. The design of these structures requires extreme values of permittivity and permeability within the device, which has been accomplished by the use of resonating metal elements. However, these elements severely limit the operating frequency range of the cloak due to their non-ideal dispersion properties at optical frequencies. In this paper we present designs to implement a simpler demonstration of cloaking, the carpet cloak, in which a curved reflective surface is compressed into a flat reflective surface, effectively shielding objects behind the curve from view with respect to the incoming radiation source. This approach eliminates the need for metallic resonant elements. These structures can now be fabricated using only high index dielectric materials by the use of electron beam lithography and standard cleanroom technologies. The design method, simulation analysis, device fabrication, and near field optical microscopy (NSOM) characterization results are presented for devices designed to operate in the 1400-1600nm wavelength range. Improvements to device performance by the deposition/infiltration of linear, and potentially non-linear optical materials, were investigated.

  2. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Feng Lin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed.

  3. Integrated Optical Circuit Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    with a carrier frequency exactly at phase match (w ■ OJQ). 68 I I’ I HI III I "I ■ ^^^^^m^r^^ REFLECTION COEFFICIENT...34 Applied Optics, v9, n 11,p 2444-2452, November 1^70 Marcuse , D., "TL Modes of Graded-Index Slab Waveguides," IFFt J of Quantum Electronics v QF

  4. Materials for Optical Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-07

    temperature.9,53 They used 5 mol% and 10 mol% Yb3+-doped YLF single crystals that were grown by AC Materials Inc. using the Czochralski method . The...reaching the attached payload. The design of the thermal link involves optimization of the optical geometry as well as careful choice of the methods

  5. SELENE Optics Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The SELENE Optics project was designed to send powerful laser beams into space to repower satellites and to recharge their batteries, as well as sending laser beams to the moon for the same purpose instead of relying on solar power. This project also was intended to be used for repowering extended space flights.

  6. MSFC Optical Test Pallet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, James B.; Stahl, H. Philip (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several mirror technology development programs have been initiated by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program. The goal is to advance the technology for producing 0.5-2.0 m class, ultra light-weight (<15 kg/sq m) mirrors that can be operated at or near 35 K. The NGST Mirror System Demonstrators (NMSDs) consist of a 1.6 m glass-on-composite mirror from Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) and a 2.0 m glass-on-actuators-on-composite mirror from the University of Arizona. The Subscale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBMD) is a 0.5 m beryllium mirror from Ball Aerospace. These mirrors require cryogenic surface figure and radius of curvature testing in order to verify their performance in the operational environment predicted for the NGST. An optical testing capability has been developed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at MSFC. This paper will describe the optical test goals, the optical testing system design, the test instrumentation, and the test system performance as used for SBMD & NMSD cryogenic testing.

  7. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    . JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  8. Isotropic optical metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, C.; Menzel, C.

    2010-01-01

    Metamaterial imaging applications require optical isotropy. We show that highly symmetric unit cells do not necessarily exhibit this property. We prove that the dispersion relation can be tailored using a supercell metama-terial. Such metamaterial exhibits an isotropic negative index close to -1...

  9. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to investigate basic physical properties in nonlinear optical materials with delayed or nonlocal nonlinearity. Soliton propagation, spectral broadening and the influence of the nonlocality or delay of the nonlinearity are the main focusses in the work...

  10. Beyond optical horizons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    When you open this book, you might expect to find an interesting description of state-of-the-art technologies within the field of modern optics or photonics. As you look closer, you will - indeed - find that but you will also find much, much more. We are giving you a glimpse into possible version...

  11. Magnetic-Optical Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Formicola, I; Pinto, C; Cerulo, P

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic-Optical Filter (MOF) is an instrument suited for high precision spectral measurements for its peculiar characteristics. It is employed in Astronomy and in the field of the telecommunications (it is called FADOF there). In this brief paper we summarize its fundamental structure and functioning.

  12. Nonlinear fibre optics overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, J. C.; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Dudley, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    , provides a background to the associated nonlinear optical processes, treats the generation mechanisms from continuous wave to femtosecond pulse pump regimes and highlights the diverse applications. A full discussion of numerical methods and comprehensive computer code are also provided, enabling readers...

  13. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  14. Optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savleen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65% than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED.

  15. Optically Active Organic Microrings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Beermann, J.; Bozhevolnyi, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    -hexaphenyl molecules are generated on mica surfaces, possessing narrow size distributions with mean diameters of a few micrometers, wall widths of 100 to 200 nm, and wall heights of several hundred nanometers. Polarized linear and nonlinear optics reveals that the rings are made up of radially...

  16. Optical properties of nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At the NBI I am involved in projects relating to optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in particular with respect to plasmonic heating with direct applications to photothermal cancer therapy. For this purpose we have developed heating assays that can be used to measure the heating of any...... nanoscopic heat source like an irradiated nanoparticle...

  17. Enhanced Optical Filter Design

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, David

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a supplement to the classic texts by Angus Macleod and Philip Baumeister, taking an intuitive approach to the enhancement of optical coating (or filter) performance. Drawing from 40 years of experience in thin film design, Cushing introduces the basics of thin films, the commonly used materials and their deposition, the major coatings and their applications, and improvement methods for each.

  18. Circuit switched optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan

    2003-01-01

    -connects can substitute the electrical nodes that today connect the installed optical fibres. This substitution will enable a massive increase in capacity since the bandwidth of the individual wavelength channels can be increased drastically when the electronic bit processing can be omitted. Furthermore...

  19. Loss Tolerant Optical Qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Ralph, T C; Gilchrist, A; Gilchrist, Alexei

    2005-01-01

    We present a linear optics quantum computation scheme that employs a new encoding approach that incrementally adds qubits and is tolerant to photon loss errors. The scheme employs a circuit model but uses techniques from cluster state computation and achieves comparable resource usage. To illustrate our techniques we describe a quantum memory which is fault tolerant to photon loss.

  20. Quantum optics, what next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kimble, H. Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Quantum optics is a well-established field that spans from fundamental physics to quantum information science. In the coming decade, areas including computation, communication and metrology are all likely to experience scientific and technological advances supported by this far-reaching research field.

  1. Isotropic optical metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, C.; Menzel, C.;

    2010-01-01

    Metamaterial imaging applications require optical isotropy. We show that highly symmetric unit cells do not necessarily exhibit this property. We prove that the dispersion relation can be tailored using a supercell metama-terial. Such metamaterial exhibits an isotropic negative index close to -1...

  2. Optically switchable natural silk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnov, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Krasnov@hzg.de; Müller, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Mueller@hzg.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Krekiehn, Nicolai R.; Jung, Ulrich; Magnussen, Olaf M. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Krywka, Christina [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Zillohu, Ahnaf U.; Strunskus, Thomas [Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Elbahri, Mady [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2015-03-02

    An optically active bio-material is created by blending natural silk fibers with photoisomerizable chromophore molecules—azobenzenebromide (AzBr). The material converts the energy of unpolarized light directly into mechanical work with a well-defined direction of action. The feasibility of the idea to produce optically driven microsized actuators on the basis of bio-material (silk) is proven. The switching behavior of the embedded AzBr molecules was studied in terms of UV/Vis spectroscopy. To test the opto-mechanical properties of the modified fibers and the structural changes they undergo upon optically induced switching, single fiber X-ray diffraction with a micron-sized synchrotron radiation beam was combined in situ with optical switching as well as with mechanical testing and monitoring. The crystalline regions of silk are not modified by the presence of the guest molecules, hence occupy only the amorphous part of the fibers. It is shown that chromophore molecules embedded into fibers can be reversibly switched between the trans and cis conformation by illumination with light of defined wavelengths. The host fibers respond to this switching with a variation of the internal stress. The amplitude of the mechanical response is independent of the applied external stress and its characteristic time is shorter than the relaxation time of the usual mechanical response of silk.

  3. Infrared Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Successive years of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Langley Research Center to Sensiv Inc., a joint venture between Foster-Miller Inc. and Isorad, Ltd., assisted in the creation of remote fiber optic sensing systems. NASA's SBIR interest in infrared, fiber optic sensor technology was geared to monitoring the curing cycles of advanced composite materials. These funds helped in the fabrication of an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. Foster-Miller ingenuity allowed infrared transmitting optical fibers to combine with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to enable remote sensing. Sensiv probes operate in the mid-infrared range of the spectrum, although modifications to the instrument also permits its use in the near-infrared region. The Sensiv needle-probe is built to be placed in a liquid or powder and analyze the chemicals in the mixture. Other applications of the probe system include food processing control; combustion control in furnaces; and maintenance problem solving.

  4. Optical physics: Supercavity lasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Light in a laser is confined in the form of standing waves. By engineering such waves, scientists have designed an optical system that enhances this confinement, producing a compact laser that emits a high-quality beam. See Letter p.196

  5. Technologies for Optical Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    The article consists of a Powerpoint presentation on technologies for optical processing. The paper concludes that the nonlinear elements based on SOA, fibers and waveguide structures have capabilities of simple processing at data rates of 100-600 Gb/s. Switching powers comparable to electronics...

  6. Optical waveguide sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, J.; Popma, Th.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the field of optical waveguide sensors is presented. Some emphasis is laid on the development of a single scheme under which the diversity of sensor principles can be arranged. First three types of sensors are distinguished: intrinsic, extrinsic and active. Next, two steps are disting

  7. Spatiotemporal optical solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malomed, Boris A [Department of Interdisciplinary Studies, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Mihalache, Dumitru [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Atomic Physics, PO Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania); Wise, Frank [Department of Applied Physics, 212 Clark Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Torner, Lluis [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, and Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona 08034 (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    In the course of the past several years, a new level of understanding has been achieved about conditions for the existence, stability, and generation of spatiotemporal optical solitons, which are nondiffracting and nondispersing wavepackets propagating in nonlinear optical media. Experimentally, effectively two-dimensional (2D) spatiotemporal solitons that overcome diffraction in one transverse spatial dimension have been created in quadratic nonlinear media. With regard to the theory, fundamentally new features of light pulses that self-trap in one or two transverse spatial dimensions and do not spread out in time, when propagating in various optical media, were thoroughly investigated in models with various nonlinearities. Stable vorticity-carrying spatiotemporal solitons have been predicted too, in media with competing nonlinearities (quadratic-cubic or cubic-quintic). This article offers an up-to-date survey of experimental and theoretical results in this field. Both achievements and outstanding difficulties are reviewed, and open problems are highlighted. Also briefly described are recent predictions for stable 2D and 3D solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates supported by full or low-dimensional optical lattices. (review article)

  8. Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Benjamin K; Bachar, Stephanie; Knouf, Emily; Bendoraite, Ausra; Tewari, Muneesh; Pun, Suzie H; Lin, Lih Y

    2009-01-01

    Non-invasive optical manipulation of particles has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool for biological study and nanotechnology. In particular, trapping and rotation of cells, cell nuclei and sub-micron particles enables unique functionality for various applications such as tissue engineering, cancer research and nanofabrication. We propose and demonstrate a purely optical approach to rotate and align particles using the interaction of polarized light with photonic crystal nanostructures to generate enhanced trapping force. With a weakly focused laser beam we observed efficient trapping and transportation of polystyrene beads with sizes ranging from 10 um down to 190 nm as well as cancer cell nuclei. In addition, we demonstrated alignment of non-spherical particles using a 1-D photonic crystal structure. Bacterial cells were trapped, rotated and aligned with optical intensity as low as 17 uW/um^2. Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the optical near-field and far-field above the photonic c...

  9. Optical dual self functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华建文; 刘立人; 王宁

    1997-01-01

    A recipe to construct the exact dual self-Fourier-Fresnel-transform functions is shown, where the Dirac comb function and transformable even periodic function are used. The mathematical proof and examples are given Then this kind of self-transform function is extended to the feasible optical dual self-transform functions.

  10. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  11. Optical Fiber Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. Mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample, in real time or at video rate. In addition...

  13. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta block...

  14. Vitality of optical vortices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical vortices are always created or annihilated in pairs with opposite topological charges. However, the presence of such a vortex dipole does not directly indicate whether they are associated with a creation or an annihilation event. Here we...

  15. Optical biopsy of epithelial cancers by optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, R.; Wessels, R.; de Bruin, D.M.; Faber, D.J.; van Leeuwen, Ton; van Beurden, M.F.B.; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical technique that measures the backscattering of near-infrared light by tissue. OCT yields in 2D and 3D images at micrometer-scale resolution, thus providing optical biopsies, approaching the resolution of histopathological imaging. The technique has

  16. Fiber-optic Michelson interferometer using an optical power divider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, M; Ohashi, T; Ohtsuka, Y

    1980-10-01

    A fiber-optic interferometer consisting of a multimode fiber-optical power divider was constructed in the Michelson arrangement and applied to measure a micrometer-order displacement of the vibrating object based on an optical homodyne technique. Improvement in the sensitivity of the apparatus is discussed from the viewpoint of increasing the minimum detectable beat signal.

  17. Ray-optics analysis of inhomogeneous optically anisotropic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, M.

    2010-01-01

    When the optical behavior of light in a medium depends on the direction in which light is traveling, the medium is called optically anisotropic. Light is an electromagnetic wave and in this thesis, we discuss the electromagnetic theory on optical anisotropy. We do this with the assumption that the w

  18. Ray-optics analysis of inhomogeneous optically anisotropic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, M.

    2010-01-01

    When the optical behavior of light in a medium depends on the direction in which light is traveling, the medium is called optically anisotropic. Light is an electromagnetic wave and in this thesis, we discuss the electromagnetic theory on optical anisotropy. We do this with the assumption that the w

  19. Energy-Efficient Optical Signal Processing Using Optical Time Lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes advanced functionalities for optical signal processing using optical time lenses. A special focus is devoted to functionalities that allow for energy-savings. In particular, we find that optical signal processing, where the processing is broadband and capable of handling ma...

  20. Ray-optics analysis of inhomogeneous optically anisotropic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, M.

    2010-01-01

    When the optical behavior of light in a medium depends on the direction in which light is traveling, the medium is called optically anisotropic. Light is an electromagnetic wave and in this thesis, we discuss the electromagnetic theory on optical anisotropy. We do this with the assumption that the

  1. Optical interference coatings for optics and photonics [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Optical interference coatings play as an important role in the progress in optics and photonics. In this article we give a minireview of the evolution of optical interference coatings from the theory, the design, to the manufacture. Some interesting but challenging topics for the future are also discussed.

  2. Optical scatter: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, John C.

    1991-12-01

    Optical scatter is a bothersome source of optical noise, limits resolution and reduces system throughput. However, it is also an extremely sensitive metrology tool. It is employed in a wide variety of applications in the optics industry (where direct scatter measurement is of concern) and is becoming a popular indirect measurement in other industries where its measurement in some form is an indicator of another component property - like roughness, contamination or position. This paper presents a brief review of the current state of this technology as it emerges from university and government laboratories into more general industry use. The bidirectional scatter distribution function (or BSDF) has become the common format for expressing scatter data and is now used almost universally. Measurements made at dozens of laboratories around the country cover the spectrum from the uv to the mid- IR. Data analysis of optical component scatter has progressed to the point where a variety of analysis tools are becoming available for discriminating between the various sources of scatter. Work has progressed on the analysis of rough surface scatter and the application of these techniques to some challenging problems outside the optical industry. Scatter metrology is acquiring standards and formal test procedures. The available scatter data base is rapidly expanding as the number and sophistication of measurement facilities increases. Scatter from contaminants is continuing to be a major area of work as scatterometers appear in vacuum chambers at various laboratories across the country. Another area of research driven by space applications is understanding the non-topographic sources of mid-IR scatter that are associated with Beryllium and other materials. The current flurry of work in this growing area of metrology can be expected to continue for several more years and to further expand to applications in other industries.

  3. Optical properties of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, optically functionalized materials have developed rapidly, from bulk matters to structured forms. Now we have a rich variety of attractive advanced materials. They are applied to optical and electrical devices that support the information communication technology in the mid 21-th century. Accordingly, it is quite important to have a broad knowledge of the optical properties of advanced materials for students, scientists and engineers working in optics and related fields. This book is designed to teach fundamental optical properties of such advanced materials effectively. These materials have their own peculiarities which are very interesting in modern optical physics and also for applications because the concepts of optical properties are quite different from those in conventional optical materials. Hence each chapter starts to review the basic concepts of the materials briefly and proceeds to the practical use. The important topics covered in this book include:  quantum structures of sem...

  4. Optical frequency combs generated mechanically

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that a highly equidistant optical frequency comb can be generated by the parametric excitation of an optical bottle microresonator with nanoscale effective radius variation by its natural mechanical vibrations.

  5. On chip shapeable optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, C; Cluzel, B; Dellinger, J; Lalouat, L; Picard, E; Peyrade, D; Hadji, E; de Fornel, F

    2013-01-01

    Particles manipulation with optical forces is known as optical tweezing. While tweezing in free space with laser beams was established in the 1980s, integrating the optical tweezers on a chip is a challenging task. Recent experiments with plasmonic nanoantennas, microring resonators, and photonic crystal nanocavities have demonstrated optical trapping. However, the optical field of a tweezer made of a single microscopic resonator cannot be shaped. So far, this prevents from optically driven micromanipulations. Here we propose an alternative approach where the shape of the optical trap can be tuned by the wavelength in coupled nanobeam cavities. Using these shapeable tweezers, we present micromanipulation of polystyrene microspheres trapped on a silicon chip. These results show that coupled nanobeam cavities are versatile building blocks for optical near-field engineering. They open the way to much complex integrated tweezers using networks of coupled nanobeam cavities for particles or bio-objects manipulation at a larger scale.

  6. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  7. Product Codes for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2002-01-01

    Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes.......Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes....

  8. Fundamentals of plastic optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Polymer photonics is an interdisciplinary field which demands excellence both in optics (photonics) and materials science (polymer). However, theses disciplines have developed independently, and therefore the demand for a comprehensive work featuring the fundamentals of photonic polymers is greater than ever.This volume focuses on Polymer Optical Fiber and their applications. The first part of the book introduces typical optical fibers according to their classifications of material, propagating mode, and structure. Optical properties, the high bandwidth POF and transmission loss are discussed,

  9. Optical fibre line failure detecting

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Feng

    2013-01-01

    With the development of modern communications, in order to meet the needs of social development and technological progress the optical fibre communications has become the main communication medium for its high reliability and security. Fibre-optic cable is the channel for signal transmission. It is an important component in the entire fibre-optic network. Once the fibre-optic cable fault happened, the entire communication system would be impacted seriously. When fault occurs, it is important ...

  10. Phase Referencing in Optical Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes E. Filho; Garcia, Paulo; Duvert, Gilles; Duchene, Gaspard; Thiebaut, Eric; Young, John; Absil, Olivier; Berger, Jean-Phillipe; Beckert, Thomas; Hoenig, Sebastian; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Testi, Leonardo; Tatuli, Eric; Borkowski, Virginie

    2008-01-01

    One of the aims of next generation optical interferometric instrumentation is to be able to make use of information contained in the visibility phase to construct high dynamic range images. Radio and optical interferometry are at the two extremes of phase corruption by the atmosphere. While in radio it is possible to obtain calibrated phases for the science objects, in the optical this is currently not possible. Instead, optical interferometry has relied on closure phase techniques to produce...

  11. Remote Atmospheric Nonlinear Optical Magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Boyd , Nonlinear Optics (Elsevier, Burlington, MA, 2008). [13] M. Scully and S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6703--14-9548 Remote Atmospheric Nonlinear Optical Magnetometry PhilliP SPrangle...b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Remote Atmospheric Nonlinear Optical Magnetometry Phillip Sprangle, Luke

  12. Superconducting Qubit Optical Transducer (SQOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-05

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The SQOT (Superconducting Qubit Optical Transducer ) project proposes to build a novel electro-optic system which can...Apr-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: "Superconducting Qubit Optical Transducer " (SQOT) The views, opinions and...journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: "Superconducting Qubit Optical Transducer " (SQOT) Report Title The

  13. Phenomena of optic-bound effect on fibre optic gyro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Ning-Fang; Zhang Chun-Xi; Jin Jing

    2007-01-01

    The optic-bound effect on fibre optic gyro (FOG) precision is analysed theoretically,and formulas describing the change of FOG light power under the action of optic-bound effect axe given.It is confirmed that optic-bound effect is a main instantaneous non-reciprocity effect of FOG in addition to the Sagnac effect and can lead to a dynamic error of FOG in practical environments.An approach to suppressing or eliminating the error due to the optic-bound effect is presented and verified experimentally.The result shows that the approach is valid and the precision of FOG is improved observably.

  14. Wavefront coding with adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbana, Temitope E.; Soloviev, Oleg; Bezzubik, Vitalii; Patlan, Vsevolod; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb

    2015-03-01

    We have implemented an extended depth of field optical system by wavefront coding with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror. This approach provides a versatile extension to standard wavefront coding based on fixed phase mask. First experimental results validate the feasibility of the use of adaptive optics for variable depth wavefront coding in imaging optical systems.

  15. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R.

    1985-12-01

    Various fundamental topics which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation are considered from the viewpoint of linear system theory. These topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free space propagation of an optical field, electromagnetic theory of optical properties of materials, theory of dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations. 32 refs., 5 figs. (LEW)

  16. Fibre Optics in Undersea Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Talwar

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Role of optical fibres for underwater communication cables and hydrophones is discussed. The fibre optics cables provide an excellent solution to the historical bandwidth-diameter problems of conventional coaxial cables.Fibre optic hydrophones are found to have many more advantages apart from high sensitivity and large dynamic range, over the classical sound sensors used in underwater work.

  17. Optic neuropathy in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, M; Kay, M D; Corrent, G F

    1997-06-01

    Optic atrophy, which is indicative of a CNS disorder, is a rarely described manifestation of familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome). As these patients are now living longer, the prevalence of optic neuropathy also may be increasing. We present a man with familial dysautonomia and visual loss resulting from optic atrophy and visual field defect suggestive of chiasmal pathology.

  18. Phase-preserved optical elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-01-01

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  19. Fiber Optics and Library Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Michael

    1984-01-01

    This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the key terminology, and speculates about the way fiber optics will change our world. Applications of fiber optics to library systems in three major areas--linkage of a number of mainframe computers, local area networks, and main trunk communications--are highlighted. (EJS)

  20. Buying Fiber-Optic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes consortia formed by college and university administrators to buy, manage, and maintain their own fiber-optic networks with the goals of cutting costs of leasing fiber-optic cable and planning for the future. Growth capacity is the real advantage of owning fiber-optic systems. (SLD)

  1. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprehn, Gregory A.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Sandler, Pamela H.

    1997-01-01

    An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency.

  2. 3D optical vortices generated by micro-optical elements and its novel applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU J.; LIN J.; K. J. Moh; B. P. S. Ahluwalia; CHEN H. L.; PENG X.; NIU H. B.; YUAN X.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report on recent development in the areas of optical vortices generated by micro-optical elements and applications of optical vortices, including optical manipulation, radial polarization and secure free space optical communication

  3. Socio-optics: optical knowledge applied in modeling social phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisleag, Radu; Chisleag Losada, Ioana-Roxana

    2011-05-01

    The term "Socio-optics" (as a natural part of Socio-physics), is rather not found in literature or at Congresses. In Optics books, there are not made references to optical models applied to explain social phenomena, in spite of Optics relying on the duality particle-wave which seems convenient to model relationships among society and its members. The authors, who have developed a few models applied to explain social phenomena based on knowledge in Optics, along with a few other models applying, in Social Sciences, knowledge from other branches of Physics, give their own examples of such optical models, f. e., of relationships among social groups and their sub-groups, by using kowledge from partially coherent optical phenomena or to explain by tunnel effect, the apparently impossible penetration of social barriers by individuals. They consider that the term "Socio-optics" may come to life. There is mentioned the authors' expertise in stimulating Socio-optics approach by systematically asking students taken courses in Optics to find applications of the newly got Wave and Photon Optics knowledge, to model social and even everyday life phenomena, eventually engaging in such activities other possibly interested colleagues.

  4. Analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with optical image rejection receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Foged; Mikkelsen, Benny; Mahon, Cathal J.

    1992-01-01

    performance. Two types of optical image rejection receivers are investigated: a novel, all-optical configuration and the conventional, microwave-based configuration. The analysis shows that local oscillator-spontaneous emission beat noise (LO-SP), signal-spontaneous emission beat noise (S-SP), and spontaneous......A detailed theoretical analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with heterodyne receivers is presented. The analysis quantifies in particular how optical image rejection receiver configurations reduce the influence of optical amplifier noise on system......-spontaneous beat noise (SP-SP) can all be reduced by 3 dB, thereby doubling the dynamic range of the optical amplifier. A 2.5-dB improvement in dynamic range has been demonstrated experimentally with the all-optical image rejection configuration. The implications of the increased dynamic range thus obtained...

  5. Restoration of optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You SW

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Si-Wei You,1 Ming-Mei Wu,2 Fang Kuang,2 Kin-Sang Cho,3 Kwok-Fai So4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Xijing Hospital, 2Institute of Neurosciences, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China; 3Schepens Eye Research Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4GHM Institute of CNS Regeneration, Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Diseases, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 5Department of Ophthalmology, The State Key laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China Abstract: Optic neuropathy refers to disorders involving the optic nerve (ON. Any damage to ON or ON-deriving neurons, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, may lead to the breakdown of the optical signal transmission from the eye to the brain, thus resulting in a partial or complete vision loss. The causes of optic neuropathy include trauma, ischemia, inflammation, compression, infiltration, and mitochondrial damages. ON injuries include primary and secondary injuries. During these injury phases, various factors orchestrate injured axons to die back and become unable to regenerate, and these factors could be divided into two categories: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic inhibitory factors refer to the environmental conditions that influence the regeneration of injured axons. The presence of myelin inhibitors and glial scar, lack of neurotrophic factors, and inflammation mediated by injury are regarded as these extrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors need to trigger the intracellular signals to exert inhibitory effect. Proper regulation of these intracellular signals has been shown to be beneficial to ON regeneration. Intrinsic factors of RGCs are the pivotal reasons that inhibit ON regeneration and are closely linked with extrinsic factors. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and calcium levels affect axon guidance and growth cone response to guidance molecules

  6. Optical design and active optics methods in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.

    2013-03-01

    Optical designs for astronomy involve implementation of active optics and adaptive optics from X-ray to the infrared. Developments and results of active optics methods for telescopes, spectrographs and coronagraph planet finders are presented. The high accuracy and remarkable smoothness of surfaces generated by active optics methods also allow elaborating new optical design types with high aspheric and/or non-axisymmetric surfaces. Depending on the goal and performance requested for a deformable optical surface analytical investigations are carried out with one of the various facets of elasticity theory: small deformation thin plate theory, large deformation thin plate theory, shallow spherical shell theory, weakly conical shell theory. The resulting thickness distribution and associated bending force boundaries can be refined further with finite element analysis.

  7. Photothermal determination of optical coefficients using an optical fibre sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Laufer, J

    2000-01-01

    configuration is more sensitive to the thermal coefficients than the optical coefficients of the target. Pulsed photothermal radiometry was found to have higher sensitivity to the optical coefficients than has the optical fibre sensor in its present form. However, modifications to the configuration of the sensor can produce a performance matching that of pulsed photothermal radiometry. This thesis is concerned with the development of an optical fibre sensor for the photothermal determination of the optical coefficients of tissue. The detection of differences in tissue optical properties might be used for the diagnosis of cancers and other tissue pathologies. The sensor consists of a thin transparent polymer film mounted at the distal end of an optical fibre. The film acts as a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The absorption of short, low energy laser pulses transmitted through the film and into the tissue generates thermal as well as acoustic transients, which propagate into/the film and modulate its thickness. Th...

  8. Injection molded optical backplane for broadcast architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Paul; Mathai, Sagi; Sorin, Wayne V.; McLaren, Moray; Straznicky, Joseph; Panotopoulos, Georgios; Warren, David; Morris, Terry; Tan, Michael R. T.

    2012-01-01

    A low cost, blind mate, injection molded optical backplane is presented. The optical backplane is comprised of 12 channel optical broadcast buses, operating at 10Gbps/channel with six blindmate optical output ports spaced 1U apart.

  9. Key Technologies for Optical Packet Switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira; Okada

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes our recent progress on key technologies and components for realizing optical packet switching, including an out-of-band optical label switching technique, an optical packet synchronizer and a burst-mode optical receiver.

  10. Key Technologies for Optical Packet Switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Okada

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes our recent progress on key technologies and components for realizing optical packet switching,including an out-of-band optical label switching technique, an optical packet synchronizer and a burst-mode optical receiver.

  11. Semiconductor optical amplifier-based all-optical gates for high-speed optical processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers are useful building blocks for all-optical gates as wavelength converters and OTDM demultiplexers. The paper reviews the progress from simple gates using cross-gain modulation and four-wave mixing to the integrated interferometric gates using cross-phase modulation....... These gates are very efficient for high-speed signal processing and open up interesting new areas, such as all-optical regeneration and high-speed all-optical logic functions...

  12. Small optic suspensions for Advanced LIGO input optics and other precision optical experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Ciani, G; Aston, S M; Feldbaum, D; Fulda, P; Gleason, J; Heintze, M; Martin, R M; Mueller, C L; Kumar, D M Nanda; Pele, A; Reitze, D H; Sainathan, P; Tanner, D B; Williams, L F; Mueller, G

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design and performance of small optic suspensions developed to suppress seismic motion of out-of-cavity optics in the Input Optics subsystem of the Advanced LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detector. These compact single stage suspensions provide isolation in all six degrees of freedom of the optic, local sensing and actuation in three of them, and passive damping for the other three.

  13. Models of optical quantum computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krovi Hari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available I review some work on models of quantum computing, optical implementations of these models, as well as the associated computational power. In particular, we discuss the circuit model and cluster state implementations using quantum optics with various encodings such as dual rail encoding, Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill encoding, and coherent state encoding. Then we discuss intermediate models of optical computing such as boson sampling and its variants. Finally, we review some recent work in optical implementations of adiabatic quantum computing and analog optical computing. We also provide a brief description of the relevant aspects from complexity theory needed to understand the results surveyed.

  14. Lighter side of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive optics has been under development for well over 40 years. It is an indisputable necessity for all major ground-based astronomical telescopes and is the foundation for laser and wavefront sensor design. Lighter Side of Adaptive Optics is a nontechnical explanation of optics, the atmosphere, and the technology for ""untwinkling"" the stars. While interweaving a fictional romantic relationship as an analogy to adaptive optics, and inserting satire, humor, and philosophical rants, Tyson makes a difficult scientific topic understandable. The ""why"" and ""how"" of adaptive optics has never

  15. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  16. Molded optics design and manufacture

    CERN Document Server

    Schaub, Michael

    2007-01-01

    While several available texts discuss molded plastic optics, none provide information on all classes of molded optics. Filling this gap, Molded Optics: Design and Manufacture presents detailed descriptions of molded plastic, glass, and infrared optics. Since an understanding of the manufacturing process is necessary to develop cost-effective, producible designs, the book extensively covers various manufacturing methods, design guidelines, trade-offs, best practices, and testing of critical parameters. It also discusses topics that often arise when designing systems with molded optics, such as

  17. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101).

  18. Essentials of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Murti, Y V G S

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on Nonlinear Optics varies widely in terms of content, style, and coverage of specific topics, relative emphasis of areas and the depth of treatment. While most of these books are excellent resources for the researchers, there is a strong need for books appropriate for presenting the subject at the undergraduate or postgraduate levels in Universities. The need for such a book to serve as a textbook at the level of the bachelors and masters courses was felt by the authors while teaching courses on nonlinear optics to students of both science and engineering during the past two decades. This book has emerged from an attempt to address the requirement of presenting the subject at college level. A one-semester course covering the essentials can effectively be designed based on this.

  19. The Athena optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Shortt, Brian; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Collon, Maximilien; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alexei; Vervest, Mark; Haneveld, Jeroen; van Baren, Coen; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Christensen, Finn; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Valsecchi, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (Athena) was selected in 2014 as the second large class mission (L2) of the ESA Cosmic Vision Science Programme within the Directorate of Science and Robotic Exploration. The mission development is proceeding via the implementation of the system studies and in parallel a comprehensive series of technology preparation activities. [1-3]. The core enabling technology for the high performance mirror is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), a modular X-ray optics technology, which utilises processes and equipment developed for the semiconductor industry [4-31]. This paper provides an overview of the programmatic background, the status of SPO technology and give an outline of the development roadmap and activities undertaken and planned by ESA.

  20. Nanodiamonds for optical bioimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Yuen Yung; Chang, Huan-Cheng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Chia-Liang, E-mail: yyhui@pub.iams.sinica.edu.t, E-mail: clcheng@mail.ndhu.edu.t, E-mail: hchang@gate.sinica.edu.t [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-22

    Diamond has received increasing attention for its promising biomedical applications. The material is highly biocompatible and can be easily conjugated with bioactive molecules. Recently, nanoscale diamond has been applied as light scattering labels and luminescent optical markers. The luminescence, arising from photoexcitation of colour centres, can be substantially enhanced when type Ib diamond nanocrystals are bombarded by a high-energy particle beam and then annealed to form negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centres. The centre absorbs strongly at 560 nm, fluoresces efficiently in the far-red region and is exceptionally photostable (without photoblinking and photobleaching). It is an ideal candidate for long-term imaging and tracking in complex cellular environments. This review summarizes recent advances in the development of fluorescent nanodiamonds for optical bioimaging with single particle sensitivity and nanometric resolution.

  1. Electrically driven optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-06-01

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors.

  2. Dominant optic atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaers Guy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. Clinical description DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Aetiology Two genes (OPA1, OPA3 encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8 are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7 are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Diagnosis Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of

  3. Optical Network Testbeds Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Mambretti

    2007-06-01

    This is the summary report of the third annual Optical Networking Testbed Workshop (ONT3), which brought together leading members of the international advanced research community to address major challenges in creating next generation communication services and technologies. Networking research and development (R&D) communities throughout the world continue to discover new methods and technologies that are enabling breakthroughs in advanced communications. These discoveries are keystones for building the foundation of the future economy, which requires the sophisticated management of extremely large qualities of digital information through high performance communications. This innovation is made possible by basic research and experiments within laboratories and on specialized testbeds. Initial network research and development initiatives are driven by diverse motives, including attempts to solve existing complex problems, the desire to create powerful new technologies that do not exist using traditional methods, and the need to create tools to address specific challenges, including those mandated by large scale science or government agency mission agendas. Many new discoveries related to communications technologies transition to wide-spread deployment through standards organizations and commercialization. These transition paths allow for new communications capabilities that drive many sectors of the digital economy. In the last few years, networking R&D has increasingly focused on advancing multiple new capabilities enabled by next generation optical networking. Both US Federal networking R&D and other national R&D initiatives, such as those organized by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan are creating optical networking technologies that allow for new, powerful communication services. Among the most promising services are those based on new types of multi-service or hybrid networks, which use new optical networking

  4. Electrically driven optical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-06-22

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors.

  5. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Sergey S; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-04-13

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light.

  6. Polymer optical fiber fuse

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    Although high-transmission-capacity optical fibers are in demand, the problem of the fiber fuse phenomenon needs to be resolved to prevent the destruction of fibers. As polymer optical fibers become more prevalent, clarifying their fuse properties has become important. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a fuse propagation velocity of 21.9 mm/s, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude slower than that in standard silica fibers. The achieved threshold power density and proportionality constant between the propagation velocity and the power density are respectively 1/186 of and 16.8 times the values for silica fibers. An oscillatory continuous curve instead of periodic voids is formed after the passage of the fuse. An easy fuse termination method is presented herein, along with its potential plasma applications.

  7. Amplified Dispersive Optical Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be a powerful technique for studying tissue morphology in ophthalmology, cardiology, and endomicroscopy. Its performance is limited by the fundamental trade-off between the imaging sensitivity and acquisition speed -- a predicament common in virtually all imaging systems. In this paper, we circumvent this limit by using distributed Raman post-amplification of the reflection from the sample. We combine the amplification with simultaneously performed dispersive Fourier transformation, a process that maps the optical spectrum into an easily measured time-domain waveform. The Raman amplification enables measurement of weak signals which are otherwise buried in noise. It extends the depth range without sacrificing the acquisition speed or causing damage to the sample. As proof of concept, single-shot imaging with 15 dB improvement in sensitivity at an axial scan rate of 36.6 MHz is demonstrated.

  8. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  9. Optically controlled welding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system (10) wherein a welding torch (12) having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter (56) to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder (15) to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features includes an actively cooled electrode holder (26) which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm (28) and a weld pool contour detector (14) comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  10. Optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1999-01-01

    Optical packet switched networks are investigated with emphasis on the performance of the packet switch blocks. Initially, the network context of the optical packet switched network is described showing that a packet network will provide transparency, flexibility and bridge the granularity gap...... between the electrical switched layer and the WDM transport layer. Analytical models are implemented to determine the signal quality ghrough the switch blocks in terms of power penalty and to assess the traffic performance of different switch block architectures. Further, a computer simulation model...... is used to investigate the influence on the traffic performance of asynchronous operation of the switch blocks. The signal quality investigation illustrates some of the component requirements in respect to gain saturation in SOA gates and crosstalk in order to obtain high cascadability of the switch...

  11. Negative optical torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C T

    2014-09-17

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of "negative optical torque", meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.

  12. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Kruk, Sergey S; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of the electric permittivity and/or magnetic permeability tensor have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wavevectors, and therefore they exhibit unique optical properties. However in all artificial and natural optical structures studied to date the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from their electric response. This restricts functionality of these materials for only one polarization of light and inhibits impedance matching with free space. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs in both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure experimentally metamaterial's dispersion and trace the topological transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic regimes. We experimentally demonstrate that due to the uniq...

  13. Emissivity independent optical pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; Kisner, Roger A.

    2017-04-04

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for determining the temperature of an object using an optical pyrometer. Certain embodiments of the disclosed technology allow for making optical temperature measurements that are independent of the surface emissivity of the object being sensed. In one of the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein, a plurality of spectral radiance measurements at a plurality of wavelengths is received from a surface of an object being measured. The plurality of the spectral radiance measurements is fit to a scaled version of a black body curve, the fitting comprising determining a temperature of the scaled version of the black body curve. The temperature is then output. The present disclosure is not to be construed as limiting and is instead directed toward all novel and nonobvious features and aspects of the various disclosed embodiments, alone or in various combinations and subcombinations with one another.

  14. Emissivity independent optical pyrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; Kisner, Roger A.

    2017-04-04

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for determining the temperature of an object using an optical pyrometer. Certain embodiments of the disclosed technology allow for making optical temperature measurements that are independent of the surface emissivity of the object being sensed. In one of the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein, a plurality of spectral radiance measurements at a plurality of wavelengths is received from a surface of an object being measured. The plurality of the spectral radiance measurements is fit to a scaled version of a black body curve, the fitting comprising determining a temperature of the scaled version of the black body curve. The temperature is then output. The present disclosure is not to be construed as limiting and is instead directed toward all novel and nonobvious features and aspects of the various disclosed embodiments, alone or in various combinations and subcombinations with one another.

  15. Optically Controlled Reconfigurable Filtenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is regarding the development of a novel antenna called optically controlled reconfigurable filtenna, which is based on the integration of a broadband printed antenna with a bandpass reconfigurable RF filter. The filter is designed by applying defected microstrip structure (DMS technique and positioned in printed antenna feeding line in order to keep the same size of the original antenna. The filtenna bandwidth is optically reconfigurable by using two photoconductive silicon switches excited by CW laser at 808 nm. Numerical results rely on independent and switchable operational modes through the 2.4 and 5.1 GHz ISM bands, whereas measurements demonstrate two reconfigurable modes based on single-band/dual-band operation over the same frequency bands. The proposed device is validated by theoretical, numerical, and experimental results.

  16. Optical tweezers absolute calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Dutra, R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past fifteen years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spo...

  17. Optical developments for optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiakoumou, Eirini

    2013-10-01

    Brain intricacies and the difficulty that scientists encounter in revealing its function with standard approaches such as electrical stimulation of neurons have led to the exploration of new tools that enable the study of neural circuits in a remote and non-invasive way. To this end, optogenetics has initialised a revolution for neuroscience in the last decade by enabling simultaneous monitoring and stimulation of specific neuronal populations in intact brain preparations through genetically targeted expression of light sensitive proteins and molecular photoswitches. In addition to ongoing molecular probe development and optimisation, novel optical techniques hold immense potential to amplify and diversify the utility of optogenetic methods. Importantly, by improving the spatio-temporal resolution of light stimulation, neural circuits can be photoactivated in patterns mimicking endogenous physiological processes. The following synopsis addresses the possibilities and limitations of optical stimulation methods applied to and developed for activation of neuronal optogenetic tools.

  18. Compact fiber optic accelerometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Peng; Jun Yang; Bing Wu; Yonggui Yuan; Xingliang Li; Ai Zhou; Libo Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A compact fiber optic accelerometer based on a Michelson interferometer is proposed and demonstrated.In the proposed system,the sensing element consists of two single-mode fibers glued together by epoxy,which then act as a simple supported beam.By demodulating the optical phase shift,the acceleration is determined as proportional to the force applied on the central position of the two single-mode fibers.This simple model is able to calculate the sensitivity and the resonant frequency of the compact accelerometer.The experimental results show that the sensitivity and the resonant frequency of the accelerometer are 0.42 rad/g and 600 Hz,respectively.

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Themstrup, Lotte; Banzhaf, Christina

    2014-01-01

    as the optical analogue to ultrasound. The inherent safety of the technology allows for in vivo use of OCT in patients. The main strength of OCT is the depth resolution. In dermatology, most OCT research has turned on non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and non-invasive monitoring of morphological changes......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described...... in a number of skin diseases based on pattern recognition, and studies have found good agreement between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT has shown high accuracy in distinguishing lesions from normal skin, which is of great importance in identifying tumour borders or residual neoplastic...

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fercher, A.F.; Andersen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    with a resolution comparable to conventional histology, but in real time, it can be used as a biopsy technique in a wide range of biological systems to detect diseases. These include the tomographic imaging of the internal microstructure of in vivo atherosclerotic plaques, the tomographic real-time diagnostics...... for intraoperative monitoring, and in microsurgical intervention. Optical biopsy based on OCT also provides diagnostic information by differentiating the architectural morphology of urological tissue, gastrointestinal tissue, and respiratory tissue....