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Sample records for optical 2d fourier

  1. Motion analysis of optically trapped particles and cells using 2D Fourier analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Verner; Ahrendt, Peter; Lindballe, Thue Bjerring;

    2012-01-01

    Motion analysis of optically trapped objects is demonstrated using a simple 2D Fourier transform technique. The displacements of trapped objects are determined directly from the phase shift between the Fourier transform of subsequent images. Using end-and side-view imaging, the stiffness...... of the trap is determined in three dimensions. The Fourier transform method is simple to implement and applicable in cases where the trapped object changes shape or where the lighting conditions change. This is illustrated by tracking a fluorescent particle and a myoblast cell, with subsequent determination...

  2. Generalized fiber Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella

    2011-06-15

    A twofold generalization of the optical schemes that perform the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is given: new passive planar architectures are presented where the 2 × 2 3 dB couplers are replaced by M × M hybrids, reducing the number of required connections and phase shifters. Furthermore, the planar implementation of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) is also described, with a waveguide grating router (WGR) configuration and a properly modified slab coupler.

  3. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  4. Introduction to Fourier Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2007-01-01

    Much like a physical prism, which displays the frequency components of a light wave, Fourier analysis can be thought of as a mathematical prism that can tell us what harmonics or frequency components are contained in a recording of a sound wave. We wrote the MacScope II program so that the user could not only see a plot of the harmonic amplitudes…

  5. Introduction to Fourier Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2007-01-01

    Much like a physical prism, which displays the frequency components of a light wave, Fourier analysis can be thought of as a mathematical prism that can tell us what harmonics or frequency components are contained in a recording of a sound wave. We wrote the MacScope II program so that the user could not only see a plot of the harmonic amplitudes…

  6. Fourier-transform optical microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S. D.; Smith, R. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Stewart, K. P.; Hagopian, J. G.; Sirota, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and initial characterization of a miniature single-pass Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) that has an optical bench that measures 1 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm is presented. The FTS is predicated on the classic Michelson interferometer design with a moving mirror. Precision translation of the mirror is accomplished by microfabrication of dovetailed bearing surfaces along single-crystal planes in silicon. Although it is miniaturized, the FTS maintains a relatively high spectral resolution, 0.1 cm-1, with adequate optical throughput.

  7. A 2D Fourier tool for the analysis of photo-elastic effect in large granular assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewska, Danuta

    2017-06-01

    Fourier transforms are the basic tool in constructing different types of image filters, mainly those reducing optical noise. Some DIC or PIV software also uses frequency space to obtain displacement fields from a series of digital images of a deforming body. The paper presents series of 2D Fourier transforms of photo-elastic transmission images, representing large pseudo 2D granular assembly, deforming under varying boundary conditions. The images related to different scales were acquired using the same image resolution, but taken at different distance from the sample. Fourier transforms of images, representing different stages of deformation, reveal characteristic features at the three (`macro-`, `meso-` and `micro-`) scales, which can serve as a data to study internal order-disorder transition within granular materials.

  8. Double random fractional Fourier domain encoding for optical security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, G.; Singh, Kehar

    2000-11-01

    We propose a new optical encryption technique using the fractional Fourier transform. In this method, the data are encrypted to a stationary white noise by two statistically independent random phase masks in fractional Fourier domains. To decrypt the data correctly, one needs to specify the fractional domains in which the input plane, encryption plane, and output planes exist, in addition to the key used for encryption. The use of an anamorphic fractional Fourier transform for the encryption of 2D data is also discussed. We suggest an optical implementation of the proposed idea. Results of a numerical simulation to analyze the performance of the proposed method are presented.

  9. Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Phase of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a sample-of-interest is well understood in the context of quantitative phase imaging in transmission-mode microscopy. In the past decade, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography has been used to extend quantitative phase imaging to the reflection-mode. Unlike transmission-mode electromagnetic phase, however, the origin and characteristics of reflection-mode Fourier phase are poorly understood, especially in samples with a slowly varying refractive index. In this paper, the general theory of Fourier phase from first principles is presented, and it is shown that Fourier phase is a joint estimate of subresolution offset and mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated sample refractive index. It is also shown that both spectral-domain phase microscopy and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy are special cases of this general theory. Analytical expressions are provided for both, and simulations are presented to explain and support the theoretical results. These results are further used to show how Fourier phase allows the estimation of an axial mean spatial frequency profile of the sample, along with depth-resolved characterization of localized optical density change and sample heterogeneity. Finally, a Fourier phase-based explanation of Doppler optical coherence tomography is also provided.

  10. Building a symbolic computer algebra toolbox to compute 2D Fourier transforms in polar coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Edem; Baddour, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The development of a symbolic computer algebra toolbox for the computation of two dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms in polar coordinates is presented. Multidimensional Fourier transforms are widely used in image processing, tomographic reconstructions and in fact any application that requires a multidimensional convolution. By examining a function in the frequency domain, additional information and insights may be obtained. The advantages of our method include: •The implementation of the 2D Fourier transform in polar coordinates within the toolbox via the combination of two significantly simpler transforms.•The modular approach along with the idea of lookup tables implemented help avoid the issue of indeterminate results which may occur when attempting to directly evaluate the transform.•The concept also helps prevent unnecessary computation of already known transforms thereby saving memory and processing time.

  11. 2D Fourier series representation of gravitational functionals in spherical coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi-Far, Khosro; Sharifi, Mohammad Ali; Sneeuw, Nico

    2016-09-01

    2D Fourier series representation of a scalar field like gravitational potential is conventionally derived by making use of the Fourier series of the Legendre functions in the spherical harmonic representation. This representation has been employed so far only in the case of a scalar field or the functionals that are related to it through a radial derivative. This paper provides a unified scheme to represent any gravitational functional in terms of spherical coordinates using a 2D Fourier series representation. The 2D Fourier series representation for each individual point is derived by transforming the spherical harmonics from the geocentric Earth-fixed frame to a rotated frame so that its equator coincides with the local meridian plane of that point. In the obtained formulation, each functional is linked to the potential in the spectral domain using a spectral transfer. We provide the spectral transfers of the first-, second- and third-order gradients of the gravitational potential in the local north-oriented reference frame and also those of some functionals of frequent use in the physical geodesy. The obtained representation is verified numerically. Moreover, spherical harmonic analysis of anisotropic functionals and contribution analysis of the third-order gradient tensor are provided as two numerical examples to show the power of the formulation. In conclusion, the 2D Fourier series representation on the sphere is generalized to functionals of the potential. In addition, the set of the spectral transfers can be considered as a pocket guide that provides the spectral characteristics of the functionals. Therefore, it extends the so-called Meissl scheme.

  12. Spatial Fourier-decomposition optical fluorescen tomography-theoretical investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Liu; Dug Young Kim; Jianqiang Zhu

    2008-01-01

    A new three-dimensional (3D) optical fluorescent tomographic imaging scheme is proposed with structured illumination and spatial Fourierdomain decomposition methods for the first time. In this spatial Fourier-decomposition optical fluorescence tomography (SF-OFT), the intensity of focused excitation light from an objective lens is modulated to be a cosine function along the optical axis of the system. For a given position in a two-dimensional (2D) raster scanning process, the spatial frequency of the cosine function along the optical axis sweeps in a proper range while a series of fluorescence intensity are detected accordingly. By making an inverse discrete cosine transformation of these recorded intensity profiles, the distribution of fluorescent markers along the optical axis of a focused laser beam is obtained. A 3D optical fluorescent tomography can be achieved with this proposed SF-OFT technique with a simple 2D raster scanning process.

  13. Adaptive optics implementation with a Fourier reconstructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Oded; Ribak, Erez N; Mirkin, Leonid

    2007-02-01

    Adaptive optics takes its servo feedback error cue from a wavefront sensor. The common Hartmann-Shack spot grid that represents the wavefront slopes is usually analyzed by finding the spot centroids. In a novel application, we used the Fourier decomposition of a spot pattern to find deviations from grid regularity. This decomposition was performed either in the Fourier domain or in the image domain, as a demodulation of the grid of spots. We analyzed the system, built a control loop for it, and tested it thoroughly. This allowed us to close the loop on wavefront errors caused by turbulence in the optical system.

  14. Illustrative EDOF topics in Fourier optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nicholas; Chen, Xi; Chi, Wanli

    2011-10-01

    In this talk we present a series of illustrative topics in Fourier Optics that are proving valuable in the design of EDOF camera systems. They are at the level of final examination problems that have been made solvable by a student or professoi having studied from one of Joseph W. Goodman's books---our tribute for his 75fr year. As time permits, four illustrative topics are l) Electromagnetic waves and Fourier optics;2) The perfect lens; 3) Connection between phase delay and radially varying focal length in an asphere and 4) tailored EDOF designs.

  15. Optical Planar Discrete Fourier and Wavelet Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella; Moreolo, Michela Svaluto; Neri, Alessandro

    2007-10-01

    We present all-optical architectures to perform discrete wavelet transform (DWT), wavelet packet (WP) decomposition and discrete Fourier transform (DFT) using planar lightwave circuits (PLC) technology. Any compact-support wavelet filter can be implemented as an optical planar two-port lattice-form device, and different subband filtering schemes are possible to denoise, or multiplex optical signals. We consider both parallel and serial input cases. We design a multiport decoder/decoder that is able to generate/process optical codes simultaneously and a flexible logarithmic wavelength multiplexer, with flat top profile and reduced crosstalk.

  16. Entangled-photon Fourier optics

    CERN Document Server

    Abouraddy, A F; Sergienko, A V; Teich, M C; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2002-01-01

    Entangled photons, generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion from a second-order nonlinear crystal, present a rich potential for imaging and image-processing applications. Since this source is an example of a three-wave mixing process, there is more flexibility in the choices of illumination and detection wavelengths and in the placement of object(s) to be imaged. Moreover, this source is entangled, a fact that allows for imaging configurations and capabilities that cannot be achieved using classical sources of light. In this paper we examine a number of imaging and image-processing configurations that can be realized using this source. The formalism that we utilize facilitates the determination of the dependence of imaging resolution on the physical parameters of the optical arrangement.

  17. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  18. 2D Magneto-optical trapping of diatomic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummon, Matthew T; Yeo, Mark; Stuhl, Benjamin K; Collopy, Alejandra L; Xia, Yong; Ye, Jun

    2013-04-05

    We demonstrate one- and two-dimensional transverse laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping of the polar molecule yttrium (II) oxide (YO). In a 1D magneto-optical trap (MOT), we characterize the magneto-optical trapping force and decrease the transverse temperature by an order of magnitude, from 25 to 2 mK, limited by interaction time. In a 2D MOT, we enhance the intensity of the YO beam and reduce the transverse temperature in both transverse directions. The approach demonstrated here can be applied to many molecular species and can also be extended to 3D.

  19. Model of computation for Fourier optical processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Thomas J.

    2000-05-01

    We present a novel and simple theoretical model of computation that captures what we believe are the most important characteristics of an optical Fourier transform processor. We use this abstract model to reason about the computational properties of the physical systems it describes. We define a grammar for our model's instruction language, and use it to write algorithms for well-known filtering and correlation techniques. We also suggest suitable computational complexity measures that could be used to analyze any coherent optical information processing technique, described with the language, for efficiency. Our choice of instruction language allows us to argue that algorithms describable with this model should have optical implementations that do not require a digital electronic computer to act as a master unit. Through simulation of a well known model of computation from computer theory we investigate the general-purpose capabilities of analog optical processors.

  20. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR in the slow-motional and rigid limits: 2D-ELDOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, Baldev R.; Crepeau, Richard H.; Gamliel, Dan; Freed, Jack H.

    1990-12-01

    The two-dimensional Fourier transform ESP techniques of stimulated SECSY and 2D-ELDOR are shown to be powerful methods for the study of slow motions for nitroxides. Stimulated SECSY provides magnetization transfer rates, whereas 2D-ELDOR displays how the rotational motions spread the spins out from their initial spectral positions to new spectral positions, as a function of mixing time. The role of nuclear modulation in studies of structure and dynamics is also considered.

  1. Optical diffraction by ordered 2D arrays of silica microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, A. A.; Shavdina, O.; Tishchenko, A. V.; Veillas, C.; Verrier, I.; Dellea, O.; Jourlin, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The article presents experimental and theoretical studies of angular dependent diffraction properties of 2D monolayer arrays of silica microspheres. High-quality large area defect-free monolayers of 1 μm diameter silica microspheres were deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique under an accurate optical control. Measured angular dependencies of zeroth and one of the first order diffraction efficiencies produced by deposited samples were simulated by the rigorous Generalized Source Method taking into account particle size dispersion and lattice nonideality.

  2. Fourier optics of image formation in LEEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, A B; Altman, M S [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Mueller, Th; Bauer, Ernst [Physikalisches Institute, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2009-08-05

    A Fourier optics calculation of image formation in low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) is presented. The adaptation of the existing theory for transmission electron microscopy to the treatment of LEEM and other forms of cathode lens electron microscopy is explained. The calculation incorporates imaging errors that are caused by the objective lens (aberrations), contrast aperture (diffraction), imperfect source characteristics, and voltage and current instabilities. It is used to evaluate the appearance of image features that arise from phase objects such as surface steps and amplitude objects that produce what is alternatively called amplitude, reflectivity or diffraction contrast in LEEM. This formalism can be used after appropriate modification to treat image formation in other emission microscopies. Implications for image formation in the latest aberration-corrected instruments are also discussed.

  3. α-bandlimited diffuser in fractional Fourier optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Vanegas, Alberto; Durand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Torres, Rafael; Pellat-Finet, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    We propose a method for calculating appropriate α-band limited diffusers using the fractional Fourier transform. In order to do this, we implement a method for performing a numerical interpolation in the fractional Fourier domain. Such diffusers with compact support in the Fresnel regime may be used in fractional Fourier optical systems where the use of diffusers produce speckles, e.g. digital holography or optical encryption. Numerical simulations are presented.

  4. Fiber Optic Fourier Transform White-Light Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Jiang; Cai-Jie Tang

    2008-01-01

    Fiber optic Fourier transform white-light inter-fereometry is presented to interrogate the absolute optical path difference of an Mach-Zehnder inter-ferometer. The phase change of the interferometer caused by scanning wavelength can be calculated by a Fourier transform-based phase demodulation technique. A linear output is achieved.

  5. Fourier transform optical profilometry using fiber optic Lloyd's mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kart, Türkay; Kösoğlu, Gülşen; Yüksel, Heba; İnci, Mehmet Naci

    2014-12-10

    A fiber optic Lloyd's mirror assembly is used to obtain various optical interference patterns for the detection of 3D rigid body shapes. Two types of fiber optic Lloyd's systems are used in this work. The first consists of a single-mode optical fiber and a highly reflecting flat mirror to produce bright and dark strips. The second is constructed by locating a single-mode optical fiber in a v-groove, which is formed by two orthogonal flat mirrors to allow the generation of square-type interference patterns for the desired applications. The structured light patterns formed by these two fiber Lloyd's techniques are projected onto 3D objects. Fringe patterns are deformed due to the object's surface topography, which are captured by a digital CCD camera and processed with a Fourier transform technique to accomplish 3D surface topography of the object. It is demonstrated that the fiber-optic Lloyd's technique proposed in this work is more compact, more stable, and easier to configure than other existing surface profilometry systems, since it does not include any high-cost optical tools such as aligners, couplers, or 3D stages. The fringe patterns are observed to be more robust against environmental disturbances such as ambient temperature and vibrations.

  6. Reducing aberration effect of Fourier transform lens by modifying Fourier spectrum of diffractive optical element in beam shaping optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Song, Qiang; Yue, Weirui; Liu, Jingdan; Wang, Jian; Situ, Guohai; Huang, Huijie

    2015-10-20

    In general, Fourier transform lenses are considered as ideal in the design algorithms of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). However, the inherent aberrations of a real Fourier transform lens disturb the far field pattern. The difference between the generated pattern and the expected design will impact the system performance. Therefore, a method for modifying the Fourier spectrum of DOEs without introducing other optical elements to reduce the aberration effect of the Fourier transform lens is proposed. By applying this method, beam shaping performance is improved markedly for the optical system with a real Fourier transform lens. The experiments carried out with a commercial Fourier transform lens give evidence for this method. The method is capable of reducing the system complexity as well as improving its performance.

  7. Waves in periodic media: Fourier analysis shortcuts and physical insights, case of 2D phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, S.; Gazalet, J.; Kastelik, J. C.

    2014-03-01

    Phononic crystal is a structured media with periodic modulation of its physical properties that influences the propagation of elastic waves and leads to a peculiar behaviour, for instance the phononic band gap effect by which elastic waves cannot propagate in certain frequency ranges. The formulation of the problem leads to a second order partial differential equation with periodic coefficients; different methods exist to determine the structure of the eigenmodes propagating in the material, both in the real or Fourier domain. Brillouin explains the periodicity of the band structure as a direct result of the discretization of the crystal in the real domain. Extending the Brillouin vision, we introduce digital signal processing tools developed in the frame of distribution functions theory. These tools associate physical meaning to mathematical expressions and reveal the correspondence between real and Fourier domains whatever is the physical domain under consideration. We present an illustrative practical example concerning two dimensions phononic crystals and highlight the appreciable shortcuts brought by the method and the benefits for physical interpretation.

  8. A Comparison of 2-D Shape Retrieval Using Fourier Descriptors and Wavelet Descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIQin; JonathanEdwards

    2005-01-01

    Choosing an appropriate image retrieval tool is the primary problem for a multimedia application such as digital image library and online image retrieval. Shape is often regarded as the most important image feature. Fourier descriptors (FDs) are widely used in shape recognition and retrieval. However, as global descriptors, they are often blamed for not being able to describe local shape features[1,2]. Wavelet descriptors (WDs) are proposed to overcome this drawback. Unfortunately, the extra information such as the multi-resolution scheme and local shape features cause much more complicate shape matching algorithms. The efficient or effective use of WD srequires more effort. Experiments are executed to evaluate the retrieval performance of this two descriptors. Some conclusions and suggestions are given according to the experimental results and the literature reviewed.

  9. A Beam-Fourier Technique for the Numerical Investigation of 2D Nonlinear Convective Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, N. C.

    2011-11-01

    In the current work, we develop a numerical method suitable for treating the problem of nonlinear two-dimensional flows in rectangular domains. For the spatial approximation we employ the Fourier-Galerkin approach. More specifically, our basis functions are products of trigonometric and Beam functions. This choice means that the solutions automatically satisfy the boundary and periodic conditions in the x and y directions respectively. The accuracy of the method is assessed by applying it to model problems which admit exact analytical solutions. The numerical and analytic solutions are found to be in good agreement. The convergence rate of the spectral coefficients is found to be fifth-order algebraic in the x-direction and y-direction, confirming the efficiency and speed of our technique.

  10. A discrete Fourier-encoded, diagonal-free experiment to simplify homonuclear 2D NMR correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zebin; Guan, Quanshuai; Chen, Zhong; Frydman, Lucio; Lin, Yulan

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has long served as an irreplaceable, versatile tool in physics, chemistry, biology, and materials sciences, owing to its ability to study molecular structure and dynamics in detail. In particular, the connectivity of chemical sites within molecules, and thereby molecular structure, becomes visible by multi-dimensional NMR. Homonuclear correlation experiments are a powerful tool for identifying coupled spins. Generally, diagonal peaks in these correlation spectra display the strongest intensities and do not offer any new information beyond the standard one-dimensional spectrum, whereas weaker, symmetrically placed cross peaks contain most of the coupling information. The cross peaks near the diagonal are often affected by the tails of strong diagonal peaks or even obscured entirely by the diagonal. In this paper, we demonstrate a homonuclear encoding approach based on imparting a discrete phase modulation of the targeted cross peaks and combine it with a site-selective sculpting scheme, capable of simplifying the patterns arising in these 2D correlation spectra. The theoretical principles of the new methods are laid out, and experimental observations are rationalized on the basis of theoretical analyses. The ensuing techniques provide a new way to retrieve 2D coupling information within homonuclear spin systems, with enhanced sensitivity, speed, and clarity.

  11. Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc. (BNS) proposes to develop an Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter (E-O IFTSP). The polarimetric system is...

  12. Angular emission from 1D and 2D meso- and nano-structures: Probed by dual-channel Fourier-plane microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Danveer; Sharma, Deepak Kumar; Chaubey, Shailendra Kumar; Kumar, G. V. Pavan

    2017-09-01

    The optical emission characteristics from individual nanostructures such as organic waveguides, plasmonic nanowires and 2D materials such as MoS2 can vary depending on the nature of interface on which they are grown or deposited. We constructed a dual-channel Fourier-plane microscopy, and studied the directional emission characteristics of an individual organic mesowires, Ag nanowires and MoS2 nanolayers through the glass substrate or air superstrate. Specifically, we show the ability of our microscope to quantitatively probe the radial and azimuthal angular spread in the waveguided PL from the distal ends of the mesowire across the interface without changing its position or orientation. Furthermore, from the guided PL spectral signatures, we show that the finesse of the waveguided Fabry-Perot resonance depends on whether the measurement was performed through the substrate or superstrate. To reveal the versatility of our microscope, we have quantified angular distribution of directional light scattering from the distal end of Ag nanowire at an interface, and angular distribution of excitonic emission from MoS2 nanolayers through a glass substrate. Our work highlights the capability of dual-channel Fourier microscope in quantifying the angular emission characteristics from individual optical antenna structures at an interface, and can be extrapolated to nonlinear organic nanophotonic regimes.

  13. Maximizing the Optical Band Gap in 2D Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.; Sigmund, Ole

    Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid.......Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid....

  14. Fourier optics through the looking glass of digital computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Leonid P.

    2011-10-01

    Optical transforms are represented in computers by their discrete versions. In particular, Fourier optics is represented through Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). Being discrete representation of the optical Fourier transform, these transforms feature a number of peculiarities that cast a new light on such fundamental properties of the Fourier Transform as sampling theorem and the uncertainty principle. In this paper, we formulate the Discrete Sampling Theorem and the discrete uncertainty principle, demonstrate that discrete signals can be both bandlimited in DFT or DCT domains and have strictly limited support in signal domain and present examples of such "bandlimited/ space-limited" signals that remain to be so for whatever large of their samples.

  15. Optical correlation based on the fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, S; Arizaga, R; Sicre, E E

    1997-09-10

    Some properties of optical correlation based on the fractional Fourier transform are analyzed. For a particular set of fractional orders, a filter is obtained that becomes insensitive to scale variations of the object. An optical configuration is also proposed to carry out the fractional correlation in a flexible way, and some experimental results are shown.

  16. Extending single-molecule microscopy using optical Fourier processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Adam S; Moerner, W E

    2014-07-17

    This article surveys the recent application of optical Fourier processing to the long-established but still expanding field of single-molecule imaging and microscopy. A variety of single-molecule studies can benefit from the additional image information that can be obtained by modulating the Fourier, or pupil, plane of a widefield microscope. After briefly reviewing several current applications, we present a comprehensive and computationally efficient theoretical model for simulating single-molecule fluorescence as it propagates through an imaging system. Furthermore, we describe how phase/amplitude-modulating optics inserted in the imaging pathway may be modeled, especially at the Fourier plane. Finally, we discuss selected recent applications of Fourier processing methods to measure the orientation, depth, and rotational mobility of single fluorescent molecules.

  17. Edge Transport in 2D Cold Atom Optical Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    V. W. Scarola; Sarma, S. Das

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically study the observable response of edge currents in two dimensional cold atom optical lattices. As an example we use Gutzwiller mean-field theory to relate persistent edge currents surrounding a Mott insulator in a slowly rotating trapped Bose-Hubbard system to time of flight measurements. We briefly discuss an application, the detection of Chern number using edge currents of a topologically ordered optical lattice insulator.

  18. A Fourier Optical Model for the Laser Doppler Velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars

    1972-01-01

    The treatment is based on a fourier optical model. It is shown how the various configurations (i.e. ldquodifferential moderdquo and reference beam mode with both one and two incident beams) are incorporated in the model, and how it can be extended to three dimensions. The particles are represented...... filtering ability vanishes as the aperture size converges towards zero. The results based on fourier optics are compared with the rough estimates obtainable by using the "antenna formular" for heterodyning (ArΩr≈λ2)....

  19. Fast Inverse Nonlinear Fourier Transform For Generating Multi-Solitons In Optical Fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Wahls, Sander

    2015-01-01

    The achievable data rates of current fiber-optic wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) systems are limited by nonlinear interactions between different subchannels. Recently, it was thus proposed to replace the conventional Fourier transform in WDM systems with an appropriately defined nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT). The computational complexity of NFTs is a topic of current research. In this paper, a fast inverse NFT algorithm for the important special case of multi-solitonic signals is presented. The algorithm requires only $\\mathcal{O}(D\\log^{2}D)$ floating point operations to compute $D$ samples of a multi-soliton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first algorithm for this problem with $\\log^{2}$-linear complexity. The paper also includes a many samples analysis of the generated nonlinear Fourier spectra.

  20. Optical analogue of 2D heteronuclear double-quantum NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Tollerud, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Heteronuclear multi-quantum spectroscopy is a powerful part of the NMR toolbox, commonly used to identify specific sequences of atoms in complex pulse sequences designed to determine the structure of complex molecules, including proteins. Optical coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) is analogous to multidimensional NMR and many of the techniques of NMR have been adapted for application in the optical regime. This has been highly successful, with CMDS being used to understand energy transfer in photosynthesis and many body effects in semiconductor nanostructures amongst many other scientific breakthroughs. Experimental challenges have, however, prevented the translation of heteronuclear multi-quantum NMR to the optical regime, where capabilities to isolate signals in otherwise congested spectra, reduce acquisition times and enable more incisive probes of multi-particle correlations and complex electronic systems would have great benefit. Here we utilise a diffraction based pulseshaper to impose the tw...

  1. Resonator chains of 2-D square dielectric optical microcavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeyer, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Chains of coupled square dielectric cavities are investigated. Resonant transfer of optical power can be achieved along quite arbitrary, moderately long rectangular paths, even with individual standing-wave resonators of limited quality. We introduce an ab-initio coupled mode model that helps to int

  2. Synchronization of Fourier-Synthesized Optical Pulses to a Mode-Locked Optical Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaharu; Hyodo; Kazi; Sarwal; Abedin; Noriaki; Onodera; Masayoshi; Watanabe

    2003-01-01

    A Fourier-synthesized 40-GHz optical pulse train was successfully synchronized to an 8-GHz optical clock generated from a mode-locked fiber ring laser. The measured timing jitter of the synchronization was 0.43 ps.

  3. Fourier holographic display for augmented reality using holographic optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-03-01

    A method for realizing a three-dimensional see-through augmented reality in Fourier holographic display is proposed. A holographic optical element (HOE) with the function of Fourier lens is adopted in the system. The Fourier hologram configuration causes the real scene located behind the lens to be distorted. In the proposed method, since the HOE is transparent and it functions as the lens just for Bragg matched condition, there is not any distortion when people observe the real scene through the lens HOE (LHOE). Furthermore, two optical characteristics of the recording material are measured for confirming the feasibility of using LHOE in the proposed see-through augmented reality holographic display. The results are verified experimentally.

  4. Imaginary angle fractional Fourier transform and its optical implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华建文; 刘立人; 李国强

    1997-01-01

    The concept of imaginary angle fractional Fourier transform is proposed. Its existence and additive operation are proved. With this concept, FRT is expanded to the optical transform of convex lens outside the range of double focal length and that of concave lens.

  5. Two-dimensional phase unwrapping in Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Huang, David; Su, Ya; Yao, X Steve

    2016-11-14

    For phase-related imaging modalities using interferometric techniques, it is important to develop effective method to recover phase information that is mathematically wrapped. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a two-dimensional (2D) method to achieve effective phase unwrapping in Doppler Fourier-domain (FD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), and recover the discontinuous phase distribution in retinal blood flow successfully for the first time in Doppler OCT studies. The proposed method is based on phase gradient approach in the axial dimension, with phase denoising performed through 2D window moving average in the sampled phase image using complex Doppler OCT data. The 2D unwrapping is carried out to correct phase discontinuities in the wrapped Doppler phase map, and the abrupt phase changes can be identified and corrected accurately. The proposed algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to be implemented.

  6. Electro-Optical Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying

    2006-01-01

    An electro-optical (E-O) imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS), now under development, is a prototype of improved imaging spectrometers to be used for hyperspectral imaging, especially in the infrared spectral region. Unlike both imaging and non-imaging traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers, the E-O IFTS does not contain any moving parts. Elimination of the moving parts and the associated actuator mechanisms and supporting structures would increase reliability while enabling reductions in size and mass, relative to traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers that offer equivalent capabilities. Elimination of moving parts would also eliminate the vibrations caused by the motions of those parts. Figure 1 schematically depicts a traditional Fourier-transform spectrometer, wherein a critical time delay is varied by translating one the mirrors of a Michelson interferometer. The time-dependent optical output is a periodic representation of the input spectrum. Data characterizing the input spectrum are generated through fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) post-processing of the output in conjunction with the varying time delay.

  7. Mean cell size and collagen orientation from 2D Fourier analysis on confocal laser scanning microscopy and two-photon fluorescence microscopy on human skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Gerald W.; Bakker, Bernard L.; Neerken, Sieglinde; Hendriks, Rob F. M.

    2003-07-01

    We present results from 2D Fourier analysis on 3D stacks of images obtained by confocal laser scanning reflectance microscopy (CLSM) and two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PM) on human skin in vivo. CLSM images were obtained with a modified commercial system (Vivascope1000, Lucid Inc, excitation wavelength 830 nm) equipped with a piezo-focusing element (350 μm range) for depth positioning of the objective lens. 2PM was performed with a specially designed set-up with excitation wavelength 730 nm. Mean cell size in the epidermal layer and structural orientation in the dermal layer have been determined as a function of depth by 2D Fourier analysis. Fourier analysis on microscopic images enables automatic non-invasive quantitative structural analysis (mean cell size and orientation) of living human skin.

  8. All-optical WDM Regeneration of DPSK Signals using Optical Fourier Transformation and Phase Sensitive Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time.......We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time....

  9. 2D wave-front shaping in optical superlattices using nonlinear volume holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Hong, Xu-Hao; Lu, Rong-Er; Yue, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear volume holography is employed to realize arbitrary wave-front shaping during nonlinear processes with properly designed 2D optical superlattices. The concept of a nonlinear polarization wave in nonlinear volume holography is investigated. The holographic imaging of irregular patterns was performed using 2D LiTaO3 crystals with fundamental wave propagating along the spontaneous polarization direction, and the results agree well with the theoretical predictions. This Letter not only extends the application area of optical superlattices, but also offers an efficient method for wave-front shaping technology.

  10. Fourier optics for polymeric substrates and coating textures analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    Several devices for substrate texture detection based on diffractive optics, for paper, textiles and non-wovens have been proposed in the past for direct inspection during the production processes. In spite of the presence of devices totally based on image processing, the use of diffractive optics cannot be considered surpassed for many reasons. Compared with image processing procedures, it is less sensitive to vibrations and does not suffer from the presence of ambient light. Based on transmitted light, it can give information on changes in refractive indexes, thickness variation and surface conditions. We study the use of optical Fourier spectrum to identify textures of polymer films. As the power spectrum reveals, the texture is seldom homogeneous. Here we report investigation on several substrates and on thin ink coatings on substrate. Role of bulk and surface conditions is analysed.

  11. Deep subwavelength nanometric image reconstruction using Fourier domain optical normalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Qin; Richard M Silver; Bryan M Barnes; Hui Zhou; Ronald G Dixson; Mark-Alexander Henn

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative optical measurements of deep subwavelength,three-dimensional (3D),nanometric structures with sensitivity to sub-nanometer details address a ubiquitous measurement challenge.A Fourier domain normalization approach is used in the Fourier optical imaging code to simulate the full 3D scattered light field of nominally 15 nm-sized structures,accurately replicating the light field as a function of the focus position.Using the full 3D light field,nanometer scale details such as a 2 nm thin conformal oxide and nanometer topography are rigorously fitted for features less than one-thirtiethof the wavelength in size.The densely packed structures are positioned nearly an order of magnitude closer than the conventional Rayleigh resolution limit and can be measured with sub-nanometer parametric uncertainties.This approach enables a practical measurement sensitivity to size variations of only a few atoms in size using a high-throughput optical configuration with broad application in measuring nanometric structures and nanoelectronic devices.

  12. Comparative Variable Temperature Studies of Polyamide II with a Benchtop Fourier Transform and a Miniature Handheld Near-Infrared Spectrometer Using 2D-COS and PCMW-2D Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Miriam; Pfeifer, Frank; Siesler, Heinz W

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this communication is to compare the performance of a miniaturized handheld near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer with a benchtop Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectrometer. Generally, NIR spectroscopy is an extremely powerful analytical tool to study hydrogen-bonding changes of amide functionalities in solid and liquid materials and therefore variable temperature NIR measurements of polyamide II (PAII) have been selected as a case study. The information content of the measurement data has been further enhanced by exploiting the potential of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) and the perturbation correlation moving window two-dimensional (PCMW2D) evaluation technique. The data provide valuable insights not only into the changes of the hydrogen-bonding structure and the recrystallization of the hydrocarbon segments of the investigated PAII but also in their sequential order. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the 2D-COS and PCMW2D results derived from the spectra measured with the miniaturized NIR instrument are equivalent to the information extracted from the data obtained with the high-performance FT-NIR instrument.

  13. Universal discrete Fourier optics RF photonic integrated circuit architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Trevor J; Hasan, Mehedi

    2016-04-04

    This paper describes a coherent electro-optic circuit architecture that generates a frequency comb consisting of N spatially separated orders using a generalised Mach-Zenhder interferometer (MZI) with its N × 1 combiner replaced by an optical N × N Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Advantage may be taken of the tight optical path-length control, component and circuit symmetries and emerging trimming algorithms offered by photonic integration in any platform that offers linear electro-optic phase modulation such as LiNbO3, silicon, III-V or hybrid technology. The circuit architecture subsumes all MZI-based RF photonic circuit architectures in the prior art given an appropriate choice of output port(s) and dimension N although the principal application envisaged is phase correlated subcarrier generation for all optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. A transfer matrix approach is used to model the operation of the architecture. The predictions of the model are validated by simulations performed using an industry standard software tool. Implementation is found to be practical.

  14. All-optical signal processing of OTDM and OFDM signals based on time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented.......All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented....

  15. Integrated optics in an electrically scanned imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, James B. (Inventor); Ocallaghan, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An efficient, lightweight and stable, Fourier transform spectrometer was developed. The mechanical slide mechanism needed to create a path difference was eliminated by the use of retro-reflecting mirrors in a monolithic interferometer assembly in which the mirrors are not at 90 degrees to the propagation vector of the radiation, but rather at a small angle. The resulting plane wave fronts create a double-sided inteferogram of the source irradiance distribution which is detected by a charge-coupled device image sensor array. The position of each CCD pixel in the array is an indication of the path difference between the two retro-reflecting mirrors in the monolithic optical structure. The Fourier transform of the signals generated by the image sensor provide the spectral irradiance distribution of the source. For imaging, the interferometer assembly scans the source of irradiation by moving the entire instrument, such as would occur if it was fixedly mounted to a moving platform, i.e., a spacecraft. During scanning, the entrace slot to the monolithic optical structure sends different pixels to corresponding interferograms detected by adjacent columns of pixels of the image sensor.

  16. Fourier optics analysis of grating sensors with tilt errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Toy, M Fatih; Urey, Hakan

    2011-06-15

    Dynamic diffraction gratings can be microfabricated with precision and offer extremely sensitive displacement measurements and light intensity modulation. The effect of pure translation of the moving part of the grating on diffracted order intensities is well known. This study focuses on the parameters that limit the intensity and the contrast of the interference. The effects of grating duty cycle, mirror reflectivities, sensor tilt and detector size are investigated using Fourier optics theory and Gaussian beam optics. Analytical findings reveal that fringe visibility becomes <0.3 when the optical path variation exceeds half the wavelength within the grating interferometer. The fringe visibility can be compensated by monitoring the interfering portion of the diffracted order light only through detector size reduction in the expense of optical power. Experiments were conducted with a grating interferometer that resulted in an eightfold increase in fringe visibility with reduced detector size, which is in agreement with theory. Findings show that diffraction grating readout principle is not limited to translating sensors but also can be used for sensors with tilt or other deflection modes.

  17. The tomography inside of a Fourier Optics course: some opto-mechanical illustrative arrays; La tomografia dentro de un curso de optica de Fourier: algunos arreglos optomecanicos ilustrativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Z, G.; Rodriguez V, R.; Luna C, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Apartado Postal 948, 37000 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    1999-05-01

    The introduction of tomography as an advanced topic to be included in a Fourier optics course at graduated level is proposed. It is shown a possible presentation sequence which features the use of typical Fourier optics techniques, as well as some well known opto-mechanical devices as examples. Finally, a simplified apparatus which illustrates the central Fourier theorem as an experimental project on Fourier optics is described. Corresponding experimental results are also shown. (Author)

  18. Continuously tunable optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P; Paul, J; Bylsma, J; Deminico, S; Karaiskaj, D

    2013-02-01

    A multidimensional optical nonlinear spectrometer (MONSTR) is a robust, ultrastable platform consisting of nested and folded Michelson interferometers that can be actively phase stabilized. The MONSTR provides output pulses for nonlinear excitation of materials and phase-stabilized reference pulses for heterodyne detection of the induced signal. This platform generates a square of identical laser pulses that can be adjusted to have arbitrary time delays between them while maintaining phase stability. This arrangement is ideal for performing coherent optical experiments, such as multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy. The present work reports on overcoming some important limitations on the original design of the MONSTR apparatus. One important advantage of the MONSTR is the fact that it is a closed platform, which provides the high stability. Once the optical alignment is performed, it is desirable to maintain the alignment over long periods of time. The previous design of the MONSTR was limited to a narrow spectral range defined by the optical coating of the beam splitters. In order to achieve tunability over a broad spectral range the internal optics needed to be changed. By using broadband coated and wedged beam splitters and compensator plates, combined with modifications of the beam paths, continuous tunability can be achieved from 520 nm to 1100 nm without changing any optics or performing alignment of the internal components of the MONSTR. Furthermore, in order to achieve continuous tunability in the spectral region between 520 nm and 720 nm, crucially important for studies on numerous biological molecules, a single longitudinal mode laser at 488.5 nm was identified and used as a metrology laser. The shorter wavelength of the metrology laser as compared to the usual HeNe laser has also increased the phase stability of the system. Finally, in order to perform experiments in the reflection geometry, a simple method to achieve active phase stabilization

  19. Resonant Doppler imaging with Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Szklumowska, Anna; Pircher, Michael; Gotzinger, Erich; Fercher, Adolf F.

    2005-04-01

    Fourier Domain Optical Coherene Tomography (FD OCT) is a high speed imaging modality with increased sensitivity as compared to standard time domain (TD) OCT. The higher sensitivity is especially important, if strongly scattering tissue such as blood is investigated. Recently it could be shown that retinal blood flow can be assessed in-vivo by high speed FD OCT. However the detection bandwidth of color Doppler (CD) FDOCT is strongly limited due to blurring of the detected interference fringes during exposure. This leads to a loss of sensitivity for detection of fast changes in tissue. Using a moving mirror as a reference one can effectively increase the detection bandwidth for CD FDOCT and perform perfusion sectioning. The modality is called resonant CD FDOCT imaging. The principle of the method is presented and experimentally verified.

  20. Optical design of the ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, I. R.; Reynolds, B. R.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Pritchard, J.

    1979-01-01

    The optical system design of the ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer to be operated from Spacelab for the measurement of stratospheric trace molecules is described. The design contains features which can achieve the required fringe contrast of 80% and spectral resolution of 0.02/cm over a spectral range of 2-16 microns. In particular, the design is based on the following features which alleviate the usual requirements for alignment precision: (1) 'cat's eye' mirror configuration in the two arms of the interferometer for retroreflection stability, (2) tilt-compensated system of beamsplitter, compensator, and fold mirrors for wavefront directional stability, (3) paraboloidal 'cat's eye' primary mirror for wavefront stability against shear, (4) rotatable compensator for matching chromatic dispersion, and (5) wedged refractive components to avoid channel spectra due to the Fabry-Perot effect.

  1. Evolution of Matter Wave Interference of Bose-Condensed Gas in a 2D Optical Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUZhi-Jun; LINGuo-Cheng; XUJun; LIZhen

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the average particle-number distribution of the atoms in the combined potential of 2D optical lattices and 31) harmonic magnetic trap based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. After the combined potential is switched of[, and only the optical lattice is switched off, we give the analytical results of the wavefunction of the Bosecondensed gas at any time t by using a propagator method. For both disk-shaped and cigar-shaped Bose-condensed gas,we discuss the evolution process of the central and side peaks of the interference pattern.

  2. Optical theorem for two-dimensional (2D) scalar monochromatic acoustical beams in cylindrical coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2015-09-01

    The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque.

  3. Selection of unstable patterns and control of optical turbulence by Fourier plane filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Saffman, M.

    1998-01-01

    We report on selection and stabilization of transverse optical patterns in a feedback mirror experiment. Amplitude filtering in the Fourier plane is used to select otherwise unstable spatial patterns. Optical turbulence observed for nonlinearities far above the pattern formation threshold...

  4. Bound states and Cooper pairs of molecules in 2D optical lattices bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-Guardian, A.; Dominguez-Castro, G.A.; Paredes, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    We investigate the formation of Cooper pairs, bound dimers and the dimer-dimer elastic scattering of ultracold dipolar Fermi molecules confined in a 2D optical lattice bilayer configuration. While the energy and their associated bound states are determined in a variational way, the correlated two-molecule pair is addressed as in the original Cooper formulation. We demonstrate that the 2D lattice confinement favors the formation of zero center mass momentum bound states. Regarding the Cooper pairs binding energy, this depends on the molecule populations in each layer. Maximum binding energies occur for non-zero (zero) pair momentum when the Fermi system is polarized (unpolarized). We find an analytic expression for the dimer-dimer effective interaction in the deep BEC regime. The present analysis represents a route for addressing the BCS-BEC crossover in dipolar Fermi gases confined in 2D optical lattices within the current experimental panorama. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-07-06

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration.

  6. Design & Analysis of Optical Lenses by using 2D Photonic Crystals for Sub-wavelength Focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 2D Photonic lenses (Convex-Convex, Convex-Plane, Plane-Convex, Concave-Concave, Concave-plane, and PlaneConcave have been designed, simulated and optimized for optical communication using FDTD method. The effect of Crystal structures (Rectangular, Hexagonal, Face centered Cubic (FCC, Body centered Cubic (BCC, variation lattice constant (Λ, hole radius(r, reflective index (n, is demonstrated to get optimized parameters. Finally, with optimized parameters the effect of variation of lens radius on focal lengths and Electrical Field Intensity (Ey is analyzed. Like optical lens, the focal length of photonic lens is also increased with lens radii, has dependency on optical axis. Moreover, with optimized parameters, ConcaveConcave lens have been found as an optimal photonic lens that show sub-wavelength focusing with spatial resolutions-9.22439μm (Rectangular crystal, 7.379512μm (Hexagonal Crystal, 7.840732μm (FCC, BCC.

  7. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration. PMID:26145177

  8. Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation for OTDM-DWDM and DWDM-OTDM Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Galili, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats.......Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats....

  9. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  10. Electronic and optical properties of strained graphene and other strained 2D materials: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumis, Gerardo G.; Barraza-Lopez, Salvador; Oliva-Leyva, Maurice; Terrones, Humberto

    2017-09-01

    This review presents the state of the art in strain and ripple-induced effects on the electronic and optical properties of graphene. It starts by providing the crystallographic description of mechanical deformations, as well as the diffraction pattern for different kinds of representative deformation fields. Then, the focus turns to the unique elastic properties of graphene, and to how strain is produced. Thereafter, various theoretical approaches used to study the electronic properties of strained graphene are examined, discussing the advantages of each. These approaches provide a platform to describe exotic properties, such as a fractal spectrum related with quasicrystals, a mixed Dirac–Schrödinger behavior, emergent gravity, topological insulator states, in molecular graphene and other 2D discrete lattices. The physical consequences of strain on the optical properties are reviewed next, with a focus on the Raman spectrum. At the same time, recent advances to tune the optical conductivity of graphene by strain engineering are given, which open new paths in device applications. Finally, a brief review of strain effects in multilayered graphene and other promising 2D materials like silicene and materials based on other group-IV elements, phosphorene, dichalcogenide- and monochalcogenide-monolayers is presented, with a brief discussion of interplays among strain, thermal effects, and illumination in the latter material family.

  11. Development of 2-D-MAX-DOAS and retrievals of trace gases and aerosols optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ivan

    Air pollution is a major problem worldwide that adversely a_ects human health, impacts ecosystems and climate. In the atmosphere, there are hundreds of important compounds participating in complex atmospheric reactions linked to air quality and climate. Aerosols are relevant because they modify the radiation balance, a_ect clouds, and thus Earth albedo. The amount of aerosol is often characterized by the vertical integral through the entire height of the atmosphere of the logarithm fraction of incident light that is extinguished called Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). The AOD at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is 0.19 (multi annual global mean), and that over oceans is 0.13. About 43 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions, sample spatial scales that resemble satellite ground-pixels and atmospheric models, and help integrate remote sensing and in-situ observations to obtain optical closure on the effects of aerosols and trace gases in our changing environment. In this work, I present the recent development of the University of Colorado two dimensional (2-D) Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument to measure the azimuth and altitude distribution of trace gases and aerosol optical properties simultaneously with a single instrument. The instrument measures solar scattered light from any direction in the sky, including direct sun light in the hyperspectral domain. In Chapter 2, I describe the capabilities of 2-D measurements in the context of retrievals of azimuth distributions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), and glyoxal (CHOCHO), which are precursors for tropospheric O3 and aerosols. The measurements were carried out during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) campaign in Mainz, Germany and show the ability to bridge spatial scales to

  12. Analysis of the High-Resolution Fourier Spectrum of the ν6 Band of the cis-C2h2d2 Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konov, I. A.; Chertavskikh, Yu. V.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Aslapovskaya, Yu. S.; Zhdanovich, S. A.; Sydow, C.

    2016-03-01

    The spectrum of the ν6 band of the cis-ethylene-d2 molecule (cis-C2H2D2) is recorded with a Bruker IFS 125 HR Fourier spectrometer in the range 580-1210 cm-1 with resolution of 0.0021 cm-1. An analysis of the experimental spectrum allows more than 1500 transitions belonging to this band to be assigned that by more than 2.5 times greater than it has been known in the literature so far. The obtained experimental data are then used to determine the model parameters of the molecule (the effective Hamiltonian in the A-reduction and I'- representation). Strong resonance interaction with the band ν4 forbidden in absorption by the symmetry of a molecule is taken into account. 10 parameters of the Hamiltonian obtained by solving inverse spectroscopic problem reproduce 427 initial experimental energies (more than 1500 transitions) with accuracy close to the experimental uncertainty.

  13. A fingerprint orientation model based on 2D Fourier expansion (FOMFE) and its application to singular-point detection and fingerprint indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Hu, Jiankun; Phillips, Damien

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a fingerprint orientation model based on 2D Fourier expansions (FOMFE) in the phase plane. The FOMFE does not require prior knowledge of singular points (SPs). It is able to describe the overall ridge topology seamlessly, including the SP regions, even for noisy fingerprints. Our statistical experiments on a public database show that the proposed FOMFE can significantly improve the accuracy of fingerprint feature extraction and thus that of fingerprint matching. Moreover, the FOMFE has a low-computational cost and can work very efficiently on large fingerprint databases. The FOMFE provides a comprehensive description for orientation features, which has enabled its beneficial use in feature-related applications such as fingerprint indexing. Unlike most indexing schemes using raw orientation data, we exploit FOMFE model coefficients to generate the feature vector. Our indexing experiments show remarkable results using different fingerprint databases.

  14. Transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect in 2D gold–garnet nanogratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetvertukhin, A.V., E-mail: chetvertukhin@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Musorin, A.I.; Dolgova, T.V. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Uchida, H. [Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8577 (Japan); Inoue, M. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fedyanin, A.A., E-mail: fedyanin@nanolab.phys.msu.ru [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    Planar magnetoplasmonic nanogratings composed of a two-dimensional square array of gold nanoparticles embedded into thin magnetic garnet films are proposed for enhancement of the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect due to excitation of a quasi-waveguiding mode with light concentrated mostly inside the magnetic film. A proper optimisation of the size and periodicity of plasmonic nanoparticles as well as the thickness of magnetic dielectrics allows spectral tuning of the waveguiding mode leading to the sharp asymmetric resonance in the magneto-optical response in the desired spectral region. - Highlights: • TMOKE in hybrid 2D magnetoplasmonic nanogratings is studied experimentally. • The enhancement of TMOKE is attributed to excitation of a quasi-waveguiding mode. • Quasi-waveguiding mode provides sharp asymmetric resonance of the TMOKE.

  15. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-05

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  16. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  17. Variable-temperature Fourier-transform infrared studies of poly(L-lactic acid) in different states of order: A 2DCOS and PCMW2D analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pudun; Unger, Miriam; Pfeifer, Frank; Siesler, Heinz W.

    2016-11-01

    Variable-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of a predominantly amorphous and a semi-crystalline poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) film were measured between 30 °C and 170 °C in order to investigate their temperature-dependent structural changes as a function of the initial state of order. For an in-depth analysis of the spectral variations in the carbonyl stretching band region (1803-1722 cm-1) two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and perturbation-correlation moving-window two-dimensional (PCMW2D) analyses were applied. Significant spectral changes were observed during heating of the amorphous PLLA sample whereas the semi-crystalline specimen showed only slight band shifts as a function of the external perturbation. The PCMW2D results suggested that for efficient 2DCOS analyses the heating process should be split up in two temperature intervals. These analyses then provided information on the recrystallization of the amorphous regions, the presence of an intermediate state of order and a sequence scenario for the observed spectral changes.

  18. Characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of a carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: cpopescu@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania); Gomez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Simionescu, Bogdan C. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania)

    2013-06-15

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy were used to study the microstructural changes occurring on heating of a new carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups. Temperature-dependent spectral variations in the 3,010-2,710, 1,530-1,170, and 1,170-625 cm{sup -1} regions were monitored during the heating process. The dependence, on temperature, of integral absorptions and position of spectral bands was established and the spectral modifications associated with molecular conformation rearrangements, allowing molecular shape changes, were found. Before 180 Degree-Sign C, the studied carbosilane dendrimer proved to be stable, while at higher temperatures it oxidizes and Si-O groups appear. 2D IR correlation spectroscopy gives new information about the effect of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the system. Synchronous and asynchronous spectra indicate that, at low temperature, conformational changes of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}-N{sup +} groups take place first. With increasing temperature, the intensity variation of the CH{sub 2}, C-N, Si-C and C-C groups from the dendritic core is faster than that of the terminal units. This indicates that, with increasing temperature, the segments of the dendritic core obtain enough energy to change their conformation more easily as compared to the terminal units, due to their internal flexibility.

  19. Graphene and graphene-like 2D materials for optical biosensing and bioimaging: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-09-01

    The increasing demands of bioassay and biomedical applications have significantly promoted the rational design and fabrication of a wide range of functional nanomaterials. Coupling these advanced nanomaterials with biomolecule recognition events leads to novel sensing and diagnostic platforms. Because of their unique structures and multifunctionalities, two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene and graphene-like materials (e.g., graphitic carbon nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, boron nitride, and transition metal oxides), have stimulated great interest in the field of optical biosensors and imaging because of their innovative mechanical, physicochemical and optical properties. Depending on the different applications, the graphene and graphene-like nanomaterials can be tailored to form either fluorescent emitters or efficient fluorescence quenchers, making them powerful platforms for fabricating a series of optical biosensors to sensitively detect various targets including ions, small biomolecules, DNA/RNA and proteins. This review highlights the recent progress in optical biosensors based on graphene and graphene-like 2D materials and their imaging applications. Finally, the opportunities and some critical challenges in this field are also addressed.

  20. Simple optical setup implementation for digital Fourier transform holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, G N [Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, TEM/PGMEC, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); Rodrigues, D M C; Dos Santos, P A M, E-mail: pams@if.uff.br [Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Nao-linear e Aplicada, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Nilton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.:24.210-346 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a simple implementation of Digital Fourier Transform Holography (DFTH) setup is discussed. This is obtained making a very simple modification in the classical setup arquiteture of the Fourier Transform holography. It is also demonstrated the easy and practical viability of the setup in an interferometric application for mechanical parameters determination. The work is also proposed as an interesting advanced introductory training for graduated students in digital holography.

  1. Novel 2D-sequential color code system employing Image Sensor Communications for Optical Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.7r1 Optical Wireless Communications Task Group (TG7r1, also known as the revision of the IEEE 802.15.7 Visible Light Communication standard targeting the commercial usage of visible light communication systems, is of interest in this paper. The paper is mainly concerned with Image Sensor Communications (ISC of TG7r1; however, the major challenge facing ISC, as addressed in the Technical Consideration Document (TCD of TG7r1, is Image Sensor Compatibility among the variety of different commercial cameras on the market. One of the most challenging but interesting compatibility requirements is the need to support the verified presence of frame rate variation. This paper proposes a novel design for 2D-sequential color code. Compared to a QR-code-based sequential transmission, the proposed design of 2D-sequential code can overcome the above challenge that it is compatible with different frame rate variations and different shutter operations, and has the ability to mitigate the rolling effect as well as the rotating effect while effectively minimizing transmission overhead. Practical implementations are demonstrated and a performance comparison is presented.

  2. Optical Signatures from Magnetic 2-D Electron Gases in High Magnetic Fields to 60 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooker, S.A.; Kikkawa, J.M.; Awschalom, D.D.; Smorchikova, I.P.; Samarth, N.

    1998-11-08

    We present experiments in the 60 Tesla Long-Pulse magnet at the Los Alamos National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) focusing on the high-field, low temperature photoluminescence (PL) from modulation-doped ZnSe/Zn(Cd,Mn)Se single quantum wells. High-speed charge-coupled array detectors and the long (2 second) duration of the magnet pulse permit continuous acquisition of optical spectra throughout a single magnet shot. High-field PL studies of the magnetic 2D electron gases at temperatures down to 350mK reveal clear intensity oscillations corresponding to integer quantum Hall filling factors, from which we determine the density of the electron gas. At very high magnetic fields, steps in the PL energy are observed which correspond to the partial unlocking of antiferromagnetically bound pairs of Mn2+ spins.

  3. OTDM-to-WDM Conversion of Complex Modulation Formats by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Richter, T.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information.......We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information....

  4. High-resolution 640 Gbit/s clock recovery using time-domain optical Fourier transformation and narrowband optical filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Guan, P.; Kasai, K.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate pre-scaled 40 GHz clock recovery from 640 Gbit/s optical time-division-multiplexed data using LiNbO$_3$ modulators, based on time-domain optical Fourier transformation and optical filtering. The clock recovery is used in a 640 Gbit/s error-free transmission over 300 km....

  5. Optical alignment of high resolution Fourier transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.; Cassie, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing, high resolution FTS instruments often contain three primary optical subsystems: Fore-Optics, Interferometer Optics, and Post, or Detector Optics. We discuss the alignment of a double-pass FTS containing a cat's-eye retro-reflector. Also, the alignment of fore-optics containing confocal paraboloids with a reflecting field stop which relays a field image onto a camera is discussed.

  6. Fourier optics analysis of phase-mask-based path-length-multiplexed optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Biwei; Dwelle, Jordan; Wang, Bingqing; Wang, Tianyi; Feldman, Marc D; Rylander, Henry G; Milner, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that constructs a depth-resolved image by measuring the optical path-length difference between broadband light backscattered from a sample and a reference surface. For many OCT sample arm optical configurations, sample illumination and backscattered light detection share a common path. When a phase mask is placed in the sample path, features in the detected signal are observed, which suggests that an analysis of a generic common path OCT imaging system is warranted. In this study, we present a Fourier optics analysis using a Fresnel diffraction approximation of an OCT system with a path-length-multiplexing element (PME) inserted in the sample arm optics. The analysis may be generalized for most phase-mask-based OCT systems. A radial-angle-diverse PME is analyzed in detail, and the point spread function, coherent transfer function, sensitivity of backscattering angular diversity detection, and signal formation in terms of sample spatial frequency are simulated and discussed. The analysis reveals important imaging features and application limitations of OCT imaging systems with a phase mask in the sample path optics.

  7. Microcomputer Simulation of a Fourier Approach to Optical Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    efficient method to model such ultrasonic propagation has been developed by Guyomar and Powers [Refs. 2,3]. Relying upon linear systems theory and...the application of linear systems theory , and the mathematical derivation of the field solution utilizing the Fourier approach. Chapter III commences...the spatial impulse response. Guyomar and Powers’ view differs from Stepanishen’s work in that linear systems theory is used to point out the

  8. Experimental investigation on the high chip rate of 2D incoherent optical CDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guorui; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Zheng, Jilin; Zhu, Huatao; Wu, Weijiang

    2015-08-01

    An innovative approach to realise high chip rate in OCDMA transmission system is proposed and experimentally investigation, the high chip rate is achieved through a 2-D wavelength-hopping time-spreading en/decoder based on the supercontinuum light source. The source used in the experiment is generated by high nonlinear optical fiber (HNLF), Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) which output power is 26 dBm, and distributed feed-back laser diode which works in the gain switch state. The span and the flatness of the light source are 20 nm and 3 dB, respectively, after equalization of wavelength selective switch (WSS). The wavelength-hopping time-spreading coder can be changed 20 nm in the wavelength and 400 ps in the time, is consist of WSS and delay lines. Therefore, the experimental results show that the chip rate can achieve 500 Gchip/s, in the case of 2.5 Gbit/s, while keeping a bit error rate below forward error correction limit after 40 km transmission.

  9. Addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscopy based on 2D acousto-optical deflector and spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yonghong; Liu, Honghai; Qin, Wan; Qu, Junle; Peng, Xiang; Niu, Hanben; Gao, Bruce Z

    2012-09-01

    We present an addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscope by combining a 2D acousto-optical deflector with a spatial light modulator. The SLM shapes an incoming mode-locked, near-infrared Ti:Sapphire laser beam into a multifocus array, which can be rapidly scanned by changing the incident angle of the laser beam using a 2D acousto-optical deflector. Compared to the single-beam-scan technique, the multifocus array scan can increase the scanning rate and the field-of-view size with the multi-region imaging ability.

  10. Optical contrast of 2D InSe on SiO2/Si and transparent substrates using bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons-Gisbert, M.; Andres-Penares, D.; Martínez-Pastor, J. P.; Cros, A.; Sánchez-Royo, J. F.

    2017-03-01

    The particular optical and electronic properties recently reported for 2D InSe depict this 2D material as being very versatile for future electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable and optimized functionalities. For its fundamental study and the development of practical applications, rapid and accurate identification methods of atomically thin InSe are essential. Here, we demonstrate an enhancement of the optical contrast between InSe nanosheets and the underlying SiO2/Si substrate by illuminating with a 40 nm wide bandpass filter centered at 500 nm. Moreover, we study the optical contrast of 2D InSe on transparent substrates. Our results suggest that a good optical contrast is achieved for transparent substrates with low real refractive indices such as LiF or a viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane stamp. In this case, an optimum optical contrast would be achieved by using a bandpass filter centered at 450 nm. These results can be very useful for speeding up the continuously growing research on 2D InSe and its applications.

  11. Optical contrast of 2D InSe on SiO2/Si and transparent substrates using bandpass filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons-Gisbert, M; Andres-Penares, D; Martínez-Pastor, J P; Cros, A; Sánchez-Royo, J F

    2017-03-17

    The particular optical and electronic properties recently reported for 2D InSe depict this 2D material as being very versatile for future electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable and optimized functionalities. For its fundamental study and the development of practical applications, rapid and accurate identification methods of atomically thin InSe are essential. Here, we demonstrate an enhancement of the optical contrast between InSe nanosheets and the underlying SiO2/Si substrate by illuminating with a 40 nm wide bandpass filter centered at 500 nm. Moreover, we study the optical contrast of 2D InSe on transparent substrates. Our results suggest that a good optical contrast is achieved for transparent substrates with low real refractive indices such as LiF or a viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane stamp. In this case, an optimum optical contrast would be achieved by using a bandpass filter centered at 450 nm. These results can be very useful for speeding up the continuously growing research on 2D InSe and its applications.

  12. Time lens based optical fourier transformation for advanced processing of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Morioka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals.......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals....

  13. Optical Image Addition and Encryption by Multi-Exposure Based on Fractional Fourier Transform Hologram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin-Fei; ZHAO Dao-Mu

    2006-01-01

    @@ We propose a new method to add different images together by optical implementation that is realized by the multi-exposure based on fractional Fourier transform hologram. Partial image fusion is proposed and realized by this method. Multiple images encryption can also be implemented by the multi-exposure of the hologram based on fractional Fourier transform. Computer simulations prove that this method is valid.

  14. Fractional Fourier transform-based optical encryption with treble random phase-encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yi; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue

    2008-03-01

    We propose a new architecture of optical encryption technique using the fractional Fourier transform with three statistically independent random phase masks. Compared with the existing double-phase encoding method in the fractional Fourier-domain, the proposed extra phase mask in the last fractional Fourier domain makes the architecture symmetrical, and additive processing to the encrypted image can be turned into complex stationary white noise after decryption, and enlarge the key space without any degradation of its robustness to blind decryption. This property can be utilized to improve the quality of the recover image. Simulation results have verified the validity.

  15. Fourier optics for polymeric substrates and coating textures analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia; Wolf, Rory A.

    2008-01-01

    Several devices for substrate texture detection based on diffractive optics, for paper, textiles and non-wovens have been proposed in the past for direct inspection during the production processes. In spite of the presence of devices totally based on image processing, the use of diffractive optics cannot be considered surpassed for many reasons. Compared with image processing procedures, it is less sensitive to vibrations and does not suffer from the presence of ambient light. Based on transm...

  16. Sparsity and level set regularization for diffuse optical tomography using a transport model in 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Kernel; Dorn, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address an inverse problem for the time-dependent linear transport equation (or radiative transfer equation) in 2D having in mind applications in diffuse optical tomography (DOT). We propose two new reconstruction algorithms which so far have not been applied to such a situation and compare their performances in certain practically relevant situations. The first of these reconstruction algorithms uses a sparsity promoting regularization scheme, whereas the second one uses a simultaneous level set reconstruction scheme for two parameters of the linear transport equation. We will also compare the results of both schemes with a third scheme which is a more traditional L 2-based Landweber-Kaczmarz scheme. We focus our attention on the DOT application of imaging the human head of a neonate where the simpler diffusion approximation is not well-suited for the inversion due to the presence of a clear layer beneath the skull which is filled with ‘low-scattering’ cerebrospinal fluid. This layer, even if its location and characteristics are known a priori, poses significant difficulties for most reconstruction schemes due to its ‘wave-guiding’ property which reduces sensitivity of the data to the interior regions. A further complication arises due to the necessity to reconstruct simultaneously two different parameters of the linear transport equation, the scattering and the absorption cross-section, from the same data set. A significant ‘cross-talk’ between these two parameters is usually expected. Our numerical experiments indicate that each of the three considered reconstruction schemes do have their merits and perform differently but reasonably well when the clear layer is a priori known. We also demonstrate the behavior of the three algorithms in the particular situation where the clear layer is unknown during the reconstruction.

  17. Rotationally relaxed, grating tuned laser oscillations in optically pumped C/sub 2/D/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, T.A.; Wittig, C.

    1982-07-15

    Rotationally relaxed, grating tuned laser oscillations are obtained in the frequency range 500--562 cm/sup -1/ via the optical pumping of C/sub 2/D/sub 2//He mixtures with a transverse, electric, atmospheric (TEA) CO/sub 2/ laser. Strong Q-branch oscillations at 530.8 cm/sup -1/ are also reported.

  18. Selection of convolution kernel in non-uniform fast Fourier transform for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenny K H; Tang, Shuo

    2011-12-19

    Gridding based non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) has recently been shown as an efficient method of processing non-linearly sampled data from Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). This method requires selecting design parameters, such as kernel function type, oversampling ratio and kernel width, to balance between computational complexity and accuracy. The Kaiser-Bessel (KB) and Gaussian kernels have been used independently on the NUFFT algorithm for FD-OCT. This paper compares the reconstruction error and speed for the optimization of these design parameters and justifies particular kernel choice for FD-OCT applications. It is found that for on-the-fly computation of the kernel function, the simpler Gaussian function offers a better accuracy-speed tradeoff. The KB kernel, however, is a better choice in the pre-computed kernel mode of NUFFT, in which the processing speed is no longer dependent on the kernel function type. Finally, the algorithm is used to reconstruct in-vivo images of a human finger at a camera limited 50k A-line/s.

  19. Optical Fourier techniques for medical image processing and phase contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekhar; Rao, D V G L N

    2008-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the basics of optical Fourier techniques (OFT) and applications for medical image processing as well as phase contrast imaging of live biological specimens. Enhancement of microcalcifications in a mammogram for early diagnosis of breast cancer is the main focus. Various spatial filtering techniques such as conventional 4f filtering using a spatial mask, photoinduced polarization rotation in photosensitive materials, Fourier holography, and nonlinear transmission characteristics of optical materials are discussed for processing mammograms. We also reviewed how the intensity dependent refractive index can be exploited as a phase filter for phase contrast imaging with a coherent source. This novel approach represents a significant advance in phase contrast microscopy.

  20. DWDM-TO-OTDM Conversion by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao; Galili, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We propose DWDM-OTDM conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Error-free conversion of a 16×10 Gbit/s 50 GHz-spacing DWDM data signal to a 160 Gbit/s OTDM signal with a 2.1 dB average penalty is demonstrated.......We propose DWDM-OTDM conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Error-free conversion of a 16×10 Gbit/s 50 GHz-spacing DWDM data signal to a 160 Gbit/s OTDM signal with a 2.1 dB average penalty is demonstrated....

  1. 1.28 Tbaud Nyquist Signal Transmission using Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation based Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate transmission of a 1.28-Tbaud Nyquist-OTDM signal over a record distance of 100 km with detection by time-domain optical Fourier transformation followed by FEC decoding, resulting in error-free performance for all tributaries.......We demonstrate transmission of a 1.28-Tbaud Nyquist-OTDM signal over a record distance of 100 km with detection by time-domain optical Fourier transformation followed by FEC decoding, resulting in error-free performance for all tributaries....

  2. 16 channel WDM regeneration in a single phase-sensitive amplifier through optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude......We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude...

  3. Room-Temperature Optical Tunability and Inhomogeneous Broadening in 2D-Layered Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Pseudobinary Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanty, Gaëtan; Jemli, Khaoula; Wei, Yi; Leymarie, Joël; Even, Jacky; Lauret, Jean-Sébastien; Deleporte, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-20

    We focus here our attention on a particular family of 2D-layered and 3D hybrid perovskite molecular crystals, the mixed perovskites (C6H5-C2H4-NH3)2PbZ4(1-x)Y4x and (CH3-NH3)PbZ3(1-x)Y3x, where Z and Y are halogen ions such as I, Br, and Cl. Studying experimentally the disorder-induced effects on the optical properties of the 2D mixed layered materials, we demonstrate that they can be considered as pseudobinary alloys, exactly like Ga1-xAlxAs, Cd1-xHgxTe inorganic semiconductors, or previously reported 3D mixed hybrid perovskite compounds. 2D-layered and 3D hybrid perovskites afford similar continuous optical tunability at room temperature. Our theoretical analysis allows one to describe the influence of alloying on the excitonic properties of 2D-layered perovskite molecular crystals. This model is further refined by considering different Bohr radii for pure compounds. This study confirms that despite a large binding energy of several 100 meV, the 2D excitons present a Wannier character rather than a Frenkel character. The small inhomogeneous broadening previously reported in 3D hybrid compounds at low temperature is similarly consistent with the Wannier character of free excitons.

  4. Quadridirectional eigenmode expansion scheme for 2-D modeling of wave propagation in integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeyer, Manfred; Honsa, R.; Richter, L.

    2003-01-01

    Superpositions of two perpendicularly oriented bidirectional eigenmode propagation (BEP) fields, composed of basis modes that satisfy Dirichlet boundary conditions, can establish rigorous semianalytical solutions for problems of 2-D fixed-frequency wave propagation on unbounded, cross-shaped domains

  5. Time Lens based Optical Fourier Transformation for All-Optical Signal Processing of Spectrally-Efficient Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Lillieholm, Mads;

    2016-01-01

    four-wave mixing (FWM), separated by a dispersive medium, which enables time-to-frequency and frequency-to-time conversions simultaneously, thus performing an exchange between the temporal and spectral profiles of the input signal. Using the proposed complete OFT, several advanced all-optical signal......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced all-optical signal processing. A novel time lens based complete optical Fourier transformation (OFT) technique is introduced. This complete OFT is based on two quadratic phase-modulation stages using...... processing schemes for spectrally-efficient systems and networks have been achieved, including all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient signals. The spectrally-efficient signals in this paper mainly refer to efficiently multiplexed signals with a high symbol rate per Hz...

  6. White-light optical implementation of the fractional fourier transform with adjustable order control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajahuerce, E; Saavedra, G; Furlan, W D; Sicre, E E; Andrés, P

    2000-01-10

    An optical implementation of the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) with broadband illumination is proposed by use of a single imaging element, namely, a blazed diffractive lens. The setup displays an achromatized version of the FRT of order P of any two-dimensional input function. This fractional order can be tuned continuously by shifting of the input along the optical axis. Our compact and flexible configuration is tested with a chirplike input signal, and the good experimental results obtained support the theory.

  7. 16 channel WDM regeneration in a single phase-sensitive amplifier through optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude...

  8. All-Optical Ultra-High-Speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM Conversion Based on Complete Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel all-optical ultra-high-speed orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) to Nyquist wavelength-division multiplexing (Nyquist-WDM) conversion scheme, achieved by exchanging the temporal and spectral profiles using a complete optical Fourier transformation (OFT). This scheme...... enables high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion without complex optical/electrical/optical conversion. The all-optical OFDM transmitter is based on the generation of OFDM symbols with a low duty cycle by rectangular temporal gating, which in combination with optical time-division multiplexing yields...... a higher symbol-rate OFDM signal. In the receiver, the converted Nyquist-WDM super-channel is WDM demultiplexed into individual Nyquist-WDM channels using a rectangular optical bandpass filter, followed by optical sampling at the intersymbol-interference free point. In the experimental demonstration...

  9. Compact optical true time delay beamformer for a 2D phased array antenna using tunable dispersive elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingwei; Zhang, Fangzheng; Pan, Shilong

    2016-09-01

    A hardware-compressive optical true time delay architecture for 2D beam steering in a planar phased array antenna is proposed using fiber-Bragg-grating-based tunable dispersive elements (TDEs). For an M×N array, the proposed system utilizes N TDEs and M wavelength-fixed optical carriers to control the time delays. Both azimuth and elevation beam steering are realized by programming the settings of the TDEs. An experiment is carried out to demonstrate the delay controlling in a 2×2 array, which is fed by a wideband pulsed signal. Radiation patterns calculated from the experimentally measured waveforms at the four antennas match well with the theoretical results.

  10. Optical imaging process based on two-dimensional Fourier transform for synthetic aperture imaging ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Zhi, Ya'nan; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Yu; Hou, Peipei

    2013-09-01

    The synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) systems typically generate large amounts of data difficult to compress with digital method. This paper presents an optical SAIL processor based on compensation of quadratic phase of echo in azimuth direction and two dimensional Fourier transform. The optical processor mainly consists of one phase-only liquid crystal spatial modulator(LCSLM) to load the phase data of target echo and one cylindrical lens to compensate the quadratic phase and one spherical lens to fulfill the task of two dimensional Fourier transform. We show the imaging processing result of practical target echo obtained by a synthetic aperture imaging ladar demonstrator. The optical processor is compact and lightweight and could provide inherent parallel and the speed-of-light computing capability, it has a promising application future especially in onboard and satellite borne SAIL systems.

  11. Enhanced optical cross section via collective coupling of atomic dipoles in a 2D array

    CERN Document Server

    Bettles, Robert J; Adams, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the optical cross section is an enticing goal in light-matter interactions, due to its fundamental role in quantum and non-linear optics. Here, we show how dipolar interactions can suppress off-axis scattering in a two-dimensional atomic array, leading to a subradiant collective mode where the optical cross section is enhanced by an order of magnitude. As a consequence, it is possible to attain an optical depth which implies high fidelity extinction, from a monolayer. Using realistic experimental parameters, we also model how lattice vacancies and the atomic trapping depth affect the transmission, concluding that such high extinction should be possible, using current experimental techniques.

  12. Auto- and hetero-associative memory using a 2-D optical logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    An optical associative memory system suitable for both auto- and hetero-associative recall is demonstrated. This system utilizes Hamming distance as the similarity measure between a binary input and a memory image with the aid of a two-dimensional optical EXCLUSIVE OR (XOR) gate and a parallel electronics comparator module. Based on the Hamming distance measurement, this optical associative memory performs a nearest neighbor search and the result is displayed in the output plane in real-time. This optical associative memory is fast and noniterative and produces no output spurious states as compared with that of the Hopfield neural network model.

  13. General insight into the complementary medium-based camouflage devices from Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping

    2010-07-01

    We present a general insight into complementary medium-based camouflage devices from Fourier optics. The cloaks are simply spatial filters with different transfer functions and play the role of passively remedying or actively modulating the propagation optical field to make an object invisible or changeable. We further analytically show and numerically demonstrate two filters for realizing another invisibility method: optically camouflaging an object at one place to appear at another place with parallel displacement or orientation changeable displacement, respectively. Our analysis is from a completely different point of view and should clarify understanding of the mechanism of invisibility phenomena.

  14. Fourier-transform-based model for carrier transport in semiconductor heterostructures: Longitudinal optical phonon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, X.; Schrottke, L.; Grahn, H. T. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Leibniz-Institut im Forschungsverbund Berlin e. V., Hausvogteiplatz 5–7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-07

    We present scattering rates for electrons at longitudinal optical phonons within a model completely formulated in the Fourier domain. The total intersubband scattering rates are obtained by averaging over the intrasubband electron distributions. The rates consist of the Fourier components of the electron wave functions and a contribution depending only on the intersubband energies and the intrasubband carrier distributions. The energy-dependent part can be reproduced by a rational function, which allows for the separation of the scattering rates into a dipole-like contribution, an overlap-like contribution, and a contribution which can be neglected for low and intermediate carrier densities of the initial subband. For a balance between accuracy and computation time, the number of Fourier components can be adjusted. This approach facilitates an efficient design of complex heterostructures with realistic, temperature- and carrier density-dependent rates.

  15. Terahertz all-optical NOR and AND logic gates based on 2D photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandin, Fariborz; Karkhanehchi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Usually, photonic crystals are used in designing optical logic gates. This study focuses on the design and simulation of an all optical NOR and AND logic gates based on two dimensional photonic crystals. The simplicity of the proposed structure is a characteristic feature of this designation. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) as well as Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) methods have been used for this structural analysis. The simulation results revealed an increase in the interval between "zero" and "one" logic levels. Also, the simple structure and its small size demonstrate the usefulness of this structure in optical integrated circuits. The proposed optical gates can operate with a bit rate of about 1.54 Tbit/s.

  16. Quadridirectional eigenmode expansion scheme for 2-D modeling of wave propagation in integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeyer, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    The propagation of guided and nonconfined optical waves at fixed frequency through dielectric structures with piecewise constant, rectangular permittivity is considered in two spatial dimensions. Bidirectional versions of eigenmodes, computed for sequences of multilayer slab waveguides, constitute t

  17. 2D optical manipulation and assembly of shape-complementary planar microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Kelemen, Lóránd; Alonzo, Carlo Amadeo; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Ormos, Pál; Glückstad, Jesper

    2007-07-09

    Optical trapping and manipulation offer great flexibility as a non-contact microassembly tool. Its application to the assembly of microscale building blocks may open new doors for micromachine technology. In this work, we demonstrate all-optical assembly of microscopic puzzle pieces in a fluidic environment using programmable arrays of trapping beams. Identical shape-complimentary pieces are optically fabricated with submicron resolution using two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique. These are efficiently assembled into space-filling tessellations by a multiple-beam optical micromanipulation system. The flexibility of the system allows us to demonstrate both user-interactive and computer-automated modes of serial and parallel assembly of microscale objects with high spatial and angular positioning precision.

  18. Optical properties of GaAs 2D hexagonal and cubic photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, F., E-mail: farab@CDTA.DZ; Assali, A.; Grain, R.; Kanouni, F. [Centre for Development of Advanced Technologies (CDTA) Research Unit in Optics and Photonics (UROP), University of Setif 1, El Bez, 19000 Setif (Algeria)

    2015-03-30

    In this paper we present our theoretical study of 2D hexagonal and cubic rods GaAs in air, with plan wave expansion (PWE) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) by using BandSOLVE and FullWAVE of Rsoft photonic CAD package. In order to investigate the effect of symmetry and radius, we performed calculations of the band structures for both TM and TE polarization, contour and electromagnetic propagation and transmission spectra. Our calculations show that the hexagonal structure gives a largest band gaps compare to cubic one for a same filling factor.

  19. Measurement of absolute optical thickness of mask glass by wavelength-tuning Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangjin; Hbino, Kenichi; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2015-07-01

    Optical thickness is a fundamental characteristic of an optical component. A measurement method combining discrete Fourier-transform (DFT) analysis and a phase-shifting technique gives an appropriate value for the absolute optical thickness of a transparent plate. However, there is a systematic error caused by the nonlinearity of the phase-shifting technique. In this research the absolute optical-thickness distribution of mask blank glass was measured using DFT and wavelength-tuning Fizeau interferometry without using sensitive phase-shifting techniques. The error occurring during the DFT analysis was compensated for by using the unwrapping correlation. The experimental results indicated that the absolute optical thickness of mask glass was measured with an accuracy of 5 nm.

  20. Optical nanostructures in 2D for wide-diameter and broadband beam collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James; Anguita, José V.; Chen, Ying; Silva, S. Ravi P.

    2016-01-01

    Eliminating curved refracting lensing components used in conventional projection, imaging and sensing optical assemblies, is critical to enable compactness and miniaturisation of optical devices. A suitable means is replacing refracting lenses with two-dimensional optical media in flat-slab form, to achieve an equivalent optical result. One approach, which has been the focus of intense research, uses a Veselago lens which features a negative-index metamaterial. However, practical implementations rely on resonance techniques, thus broadband operation at optical frequencies imposes significant technical challenges that have been difficult to overcome. Here, we demonstrate a highly-collimated, broadband, wide-diameter beam from a compact source in flat-slab form, based on light collimation using nanomaterials ordered in patterns and embedded into flexible polymers. These provide a highly anisotropic absorption coefficient due to patterns created by vertical carbon nanotube structures grown on glass, and the anisotropic electrical conductivity of the nanotubes. We show this nanostructure strongly absorbs unwanted off-axis light rays, whilst transmitting the desired on-axis rays, to achieve the required optical effect over broadband, from visible to short-infrared, thus circumventing some technical limitations of negative-index metamaterials. We further show a low substrate-temperature system for nanotube growth, allowing direct implementation into heat-sensitive large-area devices.

  1. Trapped fermions with short-range and dipolar interactions in 2D optical lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Louise G.

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices are ideal quantum simulators of complex many-body Hamiltonians that arise in condensed matter systems. Manipulation of these model systems allows us to explore a variety of physical phenomena taking place in solid state systems. Here, we present mean...

  2. Optical properties of GaAs 2D Archimedean photonic lattice tiling with the p4g symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Đ.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present our investigation of 2D Archimedean lattice photonic crystals with p4g space group symmetry. The structures are made of GaAs both as air holes and dielectric rods in air. In order to analyze the photonic crystal optical properties we performed calculations of the band structures, equi-frequency contours and electromagnetic propagation through the basic structures and waveguides. In addition, we investigated negative refraction and left-handedness in the p4g photonic crystal.

  3. Detection of mitochondrial fission with orientation-dependent optical Fourier filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Robert M; Zheng, Jing-Yi; Boustany, Nada N

    2011-02-01

    We utilize a recently developed optical imaging method based on Fourier processing with Gabor-like filters to detect changes in light scattering resulting from alterations in mitochondrial structure in endothelial cells undergoing apoptosis. Imaging based on Gabor filters shows a significant decrease in the orientation of subcellular organelles at 60 to 100 minutes following apoptosis induction and concomitant with mitochondrial fragmentation observed by fluorescence. The optical scatter changes can be detected at low resolution at the whole cell level. At high resolution, we combine fluorescence imaging of the mitochondria with optical Fourier-based imaging to demonstrate that the dynamic decrease in organelle orientation measured by optical Gabor filtering is spatially associated with fluorescent mitochondria and remains largely absent from nonfluorescent subcellular regions. These results provide strong evidence that the optical Gabor responses track mitochondrial fission during apoptosis and can be used to provide label-free, rapid monitoring of this morphological process within single cells. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. Capacity estimates for optical transmission based on the nonlinear Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyanko, Stanislav A.; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2016-09-01

    What is the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted error-free in fibre-optic communication systems? For linear channels, this was established in classic works of Nyquist and Shannon. However, despite the immense practical importance of fibre-optic communications providing for >99% of global data traffic, the channel capacity of optical links remains unknown due to the complexity introduced by fibre nonlinearity. Recently, there has been a flurry of studies examining an expected cap that nonlinearity puts on the information-carrying capacity of fibre-optic systems. Mastering the nonlinear channels requires paradigm shift from current modulation, coding and transmission techniques originally developed for linear communication systems. Here we demonstrate that using the integrability of the master model and the nonlinear Fourier transform, the lower bound on the capacity per symbol can be estimated as 10.7 bits per symbol with 500 GHz bandwidth over 2,000 km.

  5. Propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian

    2010-03-01

    Paraxial propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system is investigated. Analytical formulas for the electric field and effective beam width of a general-type beam in the FRT plane are derived based on the Collins formula. Our formulas can be used to study the propagation of a variety of laser beams--such as Gaussian, cos-Gaussian, cosh-Gaussian, sine-Gaussian, sinh-Gaussian, flat-topped, Hermite-cosh-Gaussian, Hermite-sine-Gaussian, higher-order annular Gaussian, Hermite-sinh-Gaussian and Hermite-cos-Gaussian beams--through a FRT optical system with or without truncation. The propagation properties of a Hermite-cos-Gaussian beam passing through a rectangularly truncated FRT optical system are studied as a numerical example. Our results clearly show that the truncated FRT optical system provides a convenient way for laser beam shaping.

  6. Integrated packaging of 2D MOEMS mirrors with optical position feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, M.; Lenzhofer, M.; Kremer, M. P.; Tortschanoff, A.

    2015-02-01

    Many applications of MOEMS microscanners rely on accurate position feedback. For MOEMS devices which do not have intrinsic on-chip feedback, position information can be provided with optical methods, most simply by using a reflection from the backside of a MOEMS scanner. By measuring the intensity distribution of the reflected beam across a quadrant diode, one can precisely detect the mirror's deflection angles. Previously, we have presented a position sensing device, applicable to arbitrary trajectories, which is based on the measurement of the position of the reflected laser beam with a quadrant diode. In this work, we present a novel setup, which comprises the optical position feedback functionality integrated into the device package itself. The new device's System-in-Package (SiP) design is based on a flip-folded 2.5D PCB layout and fully assembled as small as 9.2×7×4 mm³ in total. The device consists of four layers, which supply the MOEMS mirror, a spacer to provide the required optical path length, the quadrant photo-diode and a laser diode to serve as the light source. In addition to describing the mechanical setup of the novel device, we will present first experimental results and optical simulation studies. Accurate position feedback is the basis for closed-loop control of the MOEMS devices, which is crucial for some applications as image projection for example. Position feedback and the possibility of closed-loop control will significantly improve the performance of these devices.

  7. Optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) CdSe nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevkov, S. A.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.; Litvin, A. P.; Artemyev, M. V.; Prudnikau, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    The resonant and off-resonant Raman spectra of optical phonons in two-dimensional CdSe nanocrystals of 5, 6, and 7 monolayers are analysed. The spectra are dominated by SO and LO phonon bands of CdSe, whose frequencies are thickness-independent in the off-resonant Raman scattering but demonstrate an evident thickness dependence in the case of the resonant Raman scattering.

  8. Enhanced Doppler reflectometry power response: physical optics and 2D full wave modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón, J. R.; Happel, T.; Blanco, E.; Conway, G. D.; Estrada, T.; Stroth, U.

    2017-03-01

    The power response of a Doppler reflectometer is investigated by means of the physical optics model; a simple model which considers basic scattering processes at the reflection layer. Apart from linear and saturated scattering regimes, non-linear regimes with an enhanced backscattered power are found. The different regimes are characterized and understood based on analytical calculations. The power response is also studied with two-dimensional full wave simulations, where the enhanced backscattered power regimes are also found in qualitative agreement with the physical optics results. The ordinary and extraordinary modes are compared for the same angle of incidence, with the conclusion that the ordinary mode is better suited for Doppler reflectometry turbulence level measurements due to the linearity of its response. The scattering efficiency is studied and a first approximation to describe it is proposed. At the end, the application of the physical optics results to experimental data analysis is discussed. In particular, a formula to assess the linearity of Doppler reflectometry measurements is provided.

  9. Optical Observation of Plasmonic Nonlocal Effects in a 2D Superlattice of Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hao; Chen, Li; Ferrari, Lorenzo; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Mortensen, N Asger; Gwo, Shangjr; Liu, Zhaowei

    2017-03-02

    The advances in recent nanofabrication techniques have facilitated explorations of metal structures into nanometer scales, where the traditional local-response Drude model with hard-wall boundary conditions fails to accurately describe their optical responses. The emerging nonlocal effects in single ultrasmall silver nanoparticles have been experimentally observed in single-particle spectroscopy enabled by the unprecedented high spatial resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). However, the unambiguous optical observation of such new effects in gold nanoparticles has yet not been reported, due to the extremely weak scattering and the obscuring fingerprint of strong interband transitions. Here we present a nanosystem, a superlattice monolayer formed by sub-10 nm gold nanoparticles. Plasmon resonances are spectrally well-separated from interband transitions, while exhibiting clearly distinguishable blueshifts compared to predictions by the classical local-response model. Our far-field spectroscopy was performed by a standard optical transmission and reflection setup, and the results agreed excellently with the hydrodynamic nonlocal model, opening a simple and widely accessible way for addressing quantum effects in nanoplasmonic systems.

  10. Integrated optical sensors for 2D spatial chemical mapping (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Raquel; Janeiro, Ricardo; Viegas, Jaime

    2017-02-01

    Sensors based on optical waveguides for chemical sensing have attracted increasing interest over the last two decades, fueled by potential applications in commercial lab-on-a-chip devices for medical and food safety industries. Even though the early studies were oriented for single-point detection, progress in device size reduction and device yield afforded by photonics foundries have opened the opportunity for distributed dynamic chemical sensing at the microscale. This will allow researchers to follow the dynamics of chemical species in field of microbiology, and microchemistry, with a complementary method to current technologies based on microfluorescence and hyperspectral imaging. The study of the chemical dynamics at the surface of photoelectrodes in water splitting cells are a good candidate to benefit from such optochemical sensing devices that includes a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) with multiple sensors for real-time detection and spatial mapping of chemical species. In this project, we present experimental results on a prototype integrated optical system for chemical mapping based on the interaction of cascaded resonant optical devices, spatially covered with chemically sensitive polymers and plasmon-enhanced nanostructured metal/metal-oxide claddings offering chemical selectivity in a pixelated surface. In order to achieve a compact footprint, the prototype is based in a silicon photonics platform. A discussion on the relative merits of a photonic platform based on large bandgap metal oxides and nitrides which have higher chemical resistance than silicon is also presented.

  11. Highly sensitive size discrimination of sub-micron objects using optical Fourier processing based on two-dimensional Gabor filters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert M. Pasternack; Zhen Qian; Jing-Yi Zheng; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Nada N. Boustany

    2009-01-01

    .... The method consists of applying an optical Fourier filter bank consisting of Gabor-like filters of varying periods and extracting the optimum filter period that maximizes the filtered object signal...

  12. Ultra-low power threshold for laser induced changes in optical properties of 2D Molybdenum dichalcogenides

    CERN Document Server

    Cadiz, Fabian; Wang, Gang; Kong, Wilson; Fan, Xi; Blei, Mark; Lagarde, Delphine; Gay, Maxime; Manca, Marco; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Amand, Thierry; Marie, Xavier; Renucci, Pierre; Tongay, Sefaattin; Urbaszek, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The optical response of traditional semiconductors depends on the laser excitation power used in experiments. For two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, laser excitation effects are anticipated to be vastly different due to complexity added by their ultimate thinness, high surface to volume ratio, and laser-membrane interaction effects. We show in this article that under laser excitation the optical properties of 2D materials undergo irreversible changes. Most surprisingly these effects take place even at low steady state excitation, which is commonly thought to be non-intrusive. In low temperature photoluminescence (PL) we show for monolayer (ML) MoSe2 samples grown by different techniques that laser treatment increases significantly the trion (i.e. charged exciton) contribution to the emission compared to the neutral exciton emission. Comparison between samples exfoliated onto different substrates shows that laser induced doping is more efficient for ML MoSe2 on SiO2/Si compared to h-BN and gold. For ML MoS2 ...

  13. Optical nonlinearities of excitonic states in atomically thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Daniel Beom Soo

    2017-09-01

    We calculated the optical nonlinearities of the atomically thin monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide material (particularly MoS 2 ), particularly for those linear and nonlinear tran- sition processes that utilize the bound exciton states. We adopted the bound and the unbound exciton states as the basis for the Hilbert space, and derived all the dynamical density matri- ces that provides the induced current density, from which the nonlinear susceptibilities can be drawn order-by-order via perturbative calculations. We provide the nonlinear susceptibil- ities for the linear, the second-harmonic, the third-harmonic, and the kerr-type two-photon processes.

  14. Optical Observation of Plasnionic Nonlocal Effects in a 2D Superlattice of Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Hao; Chen, Li; Ferrari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    in single ultrasmall silver nanopartides have been experimentally observed in single-particle spectroscopy enabled by the unprecedented high spatial resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). However, the unambig-optical observation of such new effects in gold nanopartides has yet not been...... reported, due to the extremely weak scattering and the obscuring fingerprint of strong interband transitions. Here we present a nanosystem, a superlattice monolayer formed by sub-10 nm gold nanopartides. Plasmon resonances are spectrally well-separated from interband transitions, while exhibiting clearly...

  15. Optical properties and band structure of ZnP{sub 2}-D{sub 4}{sup 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamov, I.G. [T.G. Shevchenko State University of Pridnestrovie, 25 Oktyabrya street 107, 3300 Tiraspol, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Syrbu, N.N., E-mail: sirbunn@yahoo.com [Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Avenue, 2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Zalamai, V.V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 5 Academy Street, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    The emission lines of bound and free excitons and their phonon replicas were observed in the luminescence spectra of ZnP{sub 2}-D{sub 4}{sup 8} crystals doped with Mn, Sn, Cd and Sb measured at 10 K. The emission lines are described by the model of axial center levels. Models of the bands of the bound excitons with different axial centers (Mn, Sn, Cd and Sb) are presented. It was observed that the indirect transitions in the excitonic bands were nonpolarized and that the direct transitions were polarized. The minimal direct energy gaps in the polarization E∥c are due to the allowed Γ{sub 1}→Γ{sub 1} transitions, and the gaps in the polarization E⊥c are due to the Γ{sub 2}→Γ{sub 1} transitions. The temperature shift coefficient of the bands gaps differs for different polarizations in the temperature interval from 2 to 10 K (ΔE/ΔT=3.5 meV/K and 1 meV/K for E∥c and E⊥c, respectively). The optical constants n, k, ε{sub 1}, ε{sub 2,}d{sup 2}ε{sub 1}/dE{sup 2} and d{sup 2}ε{sub 2}/dE{sup 2} were calculated for the energy interval 1.5–10 eV using the Kramers-Kronig analysis of measured reflection spectra. The features observed in these spectra were interpreted using two types theoretical calculations of band structure as optical transitions.

  16. Real-time Fourier transformation of lightwave spectra and application in optical reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Antonio; Park, Yongwoo; Li, Ming; LaRochelle, Sophie; Azaña, José

    2015-12-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a fiber-optics scheme for real-time analog Fourier transform (FT) of a lightwave energy spectrum, such that the output signal maps the FT of the spectrum of interest along the time axis. This scheme avoids the need for analog-to-digital conversion and subsequent digital signal post-processing of the photo-detected spectrum, thus being capable of providing the desired FT processing directly in the optical domain at megahertz update rates. The proposed concept is particularly attractive for applications requiring FT analysis of optical spectra, such as in many optical Fourier-domain reflectrometry (OFDR), interferometry, spectroscopy and sensing systems. Examples are reported to illustrate the use of the method for real-time OFDR, where the target axial-line profile is directly observed in a single-shot oscilloscope trace, similarly to a time-of-flight measurement, but with a resolution and depth of range dictated by the underlying interferometry scheme.

  17. Experimental determination of Hurst exponent of the self-affine fractal patterns with optical fractional Fourier transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Shaotong; HAN; Dianrong; DING; Heping

    2004-01-01

    By means of experimental technique of optical fractional Fourier transform,we have determined the Hurst exponent of a regular self-affine fractal pattern to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Then we extend this method to determine the Hurst exponents of some irregular self-affine fractal patterns. Experimental results show that optical fractional Fourier transform is a practical method for analyzing the self-affine fractal patterns.

  18. Nanoscale Graphene Disk: A Natural Functionally Graded Material-How is Fourier's Law Violated along Radius Direction of 2D Disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nuo; Hu, Shiqian; Ma, Dengke; Lu, Tingyu; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-07

    In this Paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the thermal conductivity of nanoscale graphene disks (NGDs), and discussed the possibility to realize functionally graded material (FGM) with only one material, NGDs. Different from previous studies on divergence/non-diffusive of thermal conductivity in nano-structures with different size, we found a novel non-homogeneous (graded) thermal conductivity along the radius direction in a single nano-disk structure. We found that, instead of a constant value, the NGD has a graded thermal conductivity along the radius direction. That is, Fourier's law of heat conduction is not valid in two dimensional graphene disk structures Moreover, we show the dependent of NGDs' thermal conductivity on radius and temperature. Our study might inspire experimentalists to develop NGD based versatile FGMs, improve understanding of the heat removal of hot spots on chips, and enhance thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by two dimensional disk with a graded thermal conductivity.

  19. Interferometric approach to measuring band topology in 2D optical lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanin, Dmitry A; Kitagawa, Takuya; Bloch, Immanuel; Demler, Eugene

    2013-04-19

    Recently, optical lattices with nonzero Berry's phases of Bloch bands have been realized. New approaches for measuring Berry's phases and topological properties of bands with experimental tools appropriate for ultracold atoms need to be developed. In this Letter, we propose an interferometric method for measuring Berry's phases of two-dimensional Bloch bands. The key idea is to use a combination of Ramsey interference and Bloch oscillations to measure Zak phases, i.e., Berry's phases for closed trajectories corresponding to reciprocal lattice vectors. We demonstrate that this technique can be used to measure the Berry curvature of Bloch bands, the π Berry's phase of Dirac points, and the first Chern number of topological bands. We discuss several experimentally feasible realizations of this technique, which make it robust against low-frequency magnetic noise.

  20. Analysis of the localization of Michelson interferometer fringes using Fourier optics and temporal coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanamurthy, C S [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Department of Space (Govt of India), ATF Campus, VSSC, ISRO - PO, Thiruvananthapuram 695 022 (India)], E-mail: naamu.s@gmail.com

    2009-01-15

    Fringes formed in a Michelson interferometer never localize in any plane, in the detector plane and in the localization plane. Instead, the fringes are assumed to localize at infinity. Except for some explanation in Principles of Optics by Born and Wolf (1964 (New York: Macmillan)), the fringe localization phenomena of Michelson's interferometer have never been analysed seriously in any book. Because Michelson's interferometer is one of the important and fundamental optical experiments taught at both undergraduate and graduate levels, it would be appropriate to explain the localization of these fringes. In this paper, we analyse the localization of Michelson interferometer fringes using Fourier optics and temporal coherence, and show that they never localize at any plane even at infinity.

  1. Relative humidity multi-point optical sensors system based on fast Fourier multiplexing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Lopez-Torres, D.; Elosua, C.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Roy, P.; Arregui, F. J.; Lopez-Amo, M.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a new multipoint optical fiber system for relative humidity measurements based on SnO2-FP (Fabry-Pérot) sensing heads and an optical interrogator as single active device is presented and characterized. The interrogation of the sensing heads is carried out by monitoring the Fast Fourier Transform phase variations of the FP (Fabry-Pérot) interference frequencies. This method allows to multiplex several sensors with different wavelength spacing interference pattern. The sensors operate within a wide humidity range (20%-90% relative humidity) with low crosstalk between them. Five sensing heads have been measured using two different channels of the optical interrogator. The availability of four channels in the interrogator allows to multiplex a higher number of sensors, reducing proportionally the cost of each sensing point.

  2. 2D Optical Streaking for Ultra-Short Electron Beam Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y.T.; Huang, Z.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    field ionization, which occurs in plasma case, gases species with high field ionization threshold should be considered. For a linear polarized laser, the kick to the ionized electrons depends on the phase of the laser when the electrons are born and the unknown timing jitter between the electron beam and laser beam makes the data analysis very difficult. Here we propose to use a circular polarized laser to do a 2-dimensional (2D) streaking (both x and y) and measure the bunch length from the angular distribution on the screen, where the phase jitter causes only a rotation of the image on the screen without changing of the relative angular distribution. Also we only need to know the laser wavelength for calibration. A similar circular RF deflecting mode was used to measure long bunches. We developed a numerical particle-in-Cell (PIC) code to study the dynamics of ionization electrons with the high energy beam and the laser beam.

  3. Advanced Optical Signal Processing using Time Lens based Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    An overview of recent progress on time lens based advanced optical signal processing is presented, with a special focus on all-optical ultrafast 640 Gbit/s all-channel serial-to-parallel conversion, and scalable WDM regeneration....

  4. Comparison of 3D Maximum intensity projection (MIP reconstruction and 2D T2 Half-Fourier Acquisition Single-Shot Turbo Spin-Echo (HASTE sequence in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Julardžija

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP is a method that allows noninvasive visualization of pancreatobiliary tree and does not require contrast application. It is a modern method based on heavily T2-weighted imaging (hydrography, which uses bile and pancreatic secretions as a natural contrast medium. Certain weaknesses in quality of demonstration of pancreatobiliary tract can be observed in addition to its good characteristics. Our aim was to compare the 3D Maximum intensity projection (MIP reconstruction and 2D T2 Half-Fourier Acquisition Single-Shot Turbo Spin-Echo (HASTE sequence in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.Methods: During the period of one year 51 patients underwent MRCP on 3T „Trio“ system. Patients of different sex and age structure were included, both outpatient and hospitalized. 3D MIP reconstruction and 2D T2 haste sequence were used according to standard scanning protocols.Results: There were 45.1% (n= 23 male and 54.9% (n=28 female patients, age range from 17 to 81 years. 2D T2 haste sequence was more susceptible to respiratory artifacts presence in 64% patients, compared to 3D MIP reconstruction with standard error (0.09, result significance indication (p=0.129 and confidence interval (0.46 to 0.81. 2D T2 haste sequences is more sensitive and superior for pancreatic duct demonstration compared to 3D MIP reconstruction with standard error (0.07, result significance indication (p=0.01 and confidence interval (0.59 to 0.87Conclusion: In order to make qualitative demonstration and analysis of hepatobiliary and pancreatic system on MR, both 2D T2 haste sequence in transversal plane and 3D MIP reconstruction are required.

  5. Optical image encryption based on binary Fourier transform computer-generated hologram and pixel scrambling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Ying; Wang, Yu-Rong; Wang, Yong; Li, Hui-Juan; Sun, Wen-Jia

    2007-07-01

    A new method of optical image encryption with binary Fourier transform computer-generated hologram (CGH) and pixel-scrambling technology is presented. In this method, the orders of the pixel scrambling, as well as the encrypted image, are used as the keys to decrypt the original image. Therefore, higher security is achieved. Furthermore, the encrypted image is binary, so it is easy to be fabricated and robust against noise and distortion. Computer simulation results are given to verify the feasibility of this method and its robustness against occlusion and additional noise.

  6. Fourier transform acousto-optic imaging with a custom-designed CMOS smart-pixels array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjean, Kinia; Contreras, Kevin; Laudereau, Jean-Baptiste; Tinet, Éric; Ettori, Dominique; Ramaz, François; Tualle, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    We report acousto-optic imaging (AOI) into a scattering medium using a Fourier Transform (FT) analysis to achieve axial resolution. The measurement system was implemented using a CMOS smart-pixels sensor dedicated to the real-time analysis of speckle patterns. This first proof-of-principle of FT-AOI demonstrates some of its potential advantages, with a signal-to-noise ratio comparable to the one obtained without axial resolution, and with an acquisition rate compatible with a use on living biological tissue.

  7. A modified split—step fourier method for optical pulse propagation with polarization mode dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RaoMin; SunXiao-Han; ZhangMing-De

    2003-01-01

    A modified split-step Fourier method (SSFM) is presented to solve the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equation (CNLS) that can be used to model high-speed pulse propagation in optical fibres with polarization mode dispersion (PMD). We compare our approach with the SSFM and demonstrate that our approach is much faster with no loss of pre-chirped RZ(CRZ) formats in the presence of high PMD through this approach. The simulation results show that CRZ pulses are the most tolerant to high PMD values and the extinct ratio has a great impact on the transmission performance.

  8. Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Island, Joshua O.; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M.; Ares, José R.; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Ferrer, Isabel J.; D'Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2016-03-01

    We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance.

  9. Grade-2 Teflon (AF1601) PCF for optical communication using 2D FDTD technique: a simplest design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muduli, N.; Achary, J. S. N.; Padhy, Hemanta ku.

    2016-04-01

    A nonlinear ytterbium-doped rectangular proposed PCF structure of inner and outer cladding is used to analyze effective mode field area (Aeff), nonlinear coefficient (γ), dispersion (D), and confinement loss (CL) in a wide range of wavelength. The fabrication of PCF structure is due to different size doped air hole, pitch, and air hole diameter in a regular periodic geometrical array fashion. The various property of PCF structure such as mode field area, nonlinear coefficient, dispersion, and confinement loss are analyzed by implementing 2D FDTD technique. The above PCF property investigated using suitable parameters like Λ1, ?, ?, and ? in three different situations is discussed in simulation. The high nonlinear coefficient and dispersion property of PCF structure are tailored by setting the cladding parameter. However, highly nonlinear fibers with nonzero dispersion at the wavelength of 1.55 μm are very attractive for a range of optical communication application such as laser amplifier, pulse compression, wavelength conversion, all optical switching, and supercontinuum generation. So our newly proposed ytterbium-doped PCF seems to be most suitable exclusively for supercontinuum generation and nonlinear fiber optics. Finally, it is observed that ytterbium-doped Teflon (AF1601) PCF has more nonlinear coefficient (γ(λ) = 65.27 W-1 km-1) as compared to pure silica PCF (γ(λ) = 52 W-1 km-1) design to have same mode field area (Aeff) 1.7 μm2 at an operating wavelength of 1.55 μm.

  10. An algorithm for circular test and improved optical configuration by two-dimensional (2D) laser heterodyne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shanzhi; Yu, Shengrui; Han, Qingfu; Li, Ming; Wang, Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Circular test is an important tactic to assess motion accuracy in many fields especially machine tool and coordinate measuring machine. There are setup errors due to using directly centring of the measuring instrument for both of contact double ball bar and existed non-contact methods. To solve this problem, an algorithm for circular test using function construction based on matrix operation is proposed, which is not only used for the solution of radial deviation (F) but also should be applied to obtain two other evaluation parameters especially circular hysteresis (H). Furthermore, an improved optical configuration with a single laser is presented based on a 2D laser heterodyne interferometer. Compared with the existed non-contact method, it has a more pure homogeneity of the laser sources of 2D displacement sensing for advanced metrology. The algorithm and modeling are both illustrated. And error budget is also achieved. At last, to validate them, test experiments for motion paths are implemented based on a gantry machining center. Contrast test results support the proposal.

  11. A Practical Deconvolution Computation Algorithm to Extract 1D Spectra from 2D Images of Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guangwei; Bai, Zhongrui

    2015-01-01

    Bolton and Schlegel presented a promising deconvolution method to extract 1D spectra from a 2D optical fiber spectral CCD image. The method could eliminate the PSF difference between fibers, extract spectra to the photo noise level, as well as improve the resolution. But the method is limited by its huge computation requirement and thus cannot be implemented in actual data reduction. In this article, we develop a practical computation method to solve the computation problem. The new computation method can deconvolve a 2D fiber spectral image of any size with actual PSFs, which may vary with positions. Our method does not require large amounts of memory and can extract a 4k multi 4k noise-free CCD image with 250 fibers in 2 hr. To make our method more practical, we further consider the influence of noise, which is thought to be an intrinsic illposed problem in deconvolution algorithms. We modify our method with a Tikhonov regularization item to depress the method induced noise. Compared with the results of tra...

  12. Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Itagaki, Toshiki

    2009-01-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires resampling of spectrally resolved depth information from wavelength to wave number, and the subsequent application of the inverse Fourier transform. The display rates of OCT images are much slower than the image acquisition rates due to processing speed limitations on most computers. We demonstrate a real-time display of processed OCT images using a linear-in-wave-number (linear-k) spectrometer and a graphics processing unit (GPU). We use the linear-k spectrometer with the combination of a diffractive grating with 1200 lines/mm and a F2 equilateral prism in the 840-nm spectral region to avoid calculating the resampling process. The calculations of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are accelerated by the GPU with many stream processors, which realizes highly parallel processing. A display rate of 27.9 frames/sec for processed images (2048 FFT size x 1000 lateral A-scans) is achieved in our OCT system using a line scan CCD camera operated at 27.9 kHz.

  13. Fourier synthesis of asymmetrical optical potentials for atoms; Fourier-Synthese von asymmetrischen optischen Potentialen fuer Atome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritt, G.

    2007-07-13

    In this work a dissipationless asymmetrical optical potential for cold atoms was produced. In a first step a new type of optical lattice was generated, whose spatial periodicity only corresponds to a quarter of the wavelength of the light used for the generation. This corresponds to the half of the periodicity of a conventional optical lattice, which is formed by the light of the same wavelength. The generation of this new type of optical lattice was reached by the use of two degenerated raman transitions. Virtual processes occur, in which four photons are involved. In conventional optical lattices however virtual two-photon processes occur. By spatially superimposing this optical lattice with a conventional optical lattice an asymmetrical optical potential could be formed. By diffraction of a Bose Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms at the transient activated asymmetrical potential the asymmetrical structure was proven. (orig.)

  14. Topological defect formation in 1D and 2D spin chains realized by network of optical parametric oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Hamerly, Ryan; Inagaki, Takahiro; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    A network of optical parametric oscillators is used to simulate classical Ising and XY spin chains. The collective nonlinear dynamics of this network, driven by quantum noise rather than thermal fluctuations, seeks out the Ising / XY ground state as the system transitions from below to above the lasing threshold. We study the behavior of this "Ising machine" for three canonical problems: a 1D ferromagnetic spin chain, a 2D square lattice, and problems where next-nearest-neighbor couplings give rise to frustration. If the pump turn-on time is finite, topological defects form (domain walls for the Ising model, winding number and vortices for XY) and their density can be predicted from a numerical model involving a linear "growth stage" and a nonlinear "saturation stage". These predictions are compared against recent data for a 10,000-spin 1D Ising machine.

  15. Topological defect formation in 1D and 2D spin chains realized by network of optical parametric oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerly, Ryan; Inaba, Kensuke; Inagaki, Takahiro; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-09-01

    A network of optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) is used to simulate classical Ising and XY spin chains. The collective nonlinear dynamics of this network, driven by quantum noise rather than thermal fluctuations, seeks out the Ising/XY ground state as the system transitions from below to above the lasing threshold. We study the behavior of this “Ising machine” for three canonical problems: a 1D ferromagnetic spin chain, a 2D square lattice and problems where next-nearest-neighbor couplings give rise to frustration. If the pump turn-on time is finite, topological defects form (domain walls for the Ising model, winding number and vortices for XY) and their density can be predicted from a numerical model involving a linear “growth stage” and a nonlinear “saturation stage”. These predictions are compared against recent data for a 10,000-spin 1D Ising machine.

  16. High Time-Resolution 640-Gb/s Clock Recovery Using Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation and Narrowband Optical Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, P.; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Kasai, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel scheme for subharmonic clock recovery from an optical time-division-multiplexing signal using time-domain optical Fourier transformation and a narrowband optical filter. High-resolution 640-Gb/s clock recovery is successfully demonstrated with no pattern dependence. The clock...

  17. Swept source optical coherence tomography based on non-uniform discrete fourier transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Wu; Zhihua Ding; Kai Wang; Chuan Wang

    2009-01-01

    A high-speed high-sensitivity swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system using a high speed swept laser source is developed.Non-uniform discrete fourier transform (NDFT) method is introduced in the SSOCT system for data processing.Frequency calibration method based on a Mach-Zender interferometer (MZI) and conventional data interpolation method is also adopted in the system for comparison.Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images from SSOCT based on the NDFT method,the MZI method,and the interpolation method are illustrated.The axial resolution of the SSOCT based on the NDFT method is comparable to that of the SSOCT system using MZI calibration method and conventional data interpolation method.The SSOCT system based on the NDFT method can achieve higher signal intensity than that of the system based on the MZI calibration method and conventional data interpolation method because of the better utilization of the power of source.

  18. Broadband Fourier domain mode-locked laser for optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    , enable acquisition of densely sampled three-dimensional datasets covering a wide field of view. However, semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs)-the typical laser gain media for swept sources-for the 1060nm band could until recently only provide relatively low output power and bandwidth. We have......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the 1060nm range is interesting for in vivo imaging of the human posterior eye segment (retina, choroid, sclera) due to low absorption in water and deep penetration into the tissue. Rapidly tunable light sources, such as Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers...... implemented an FDML laser using a new SOA featuring broad gain bandwidth and high output power. The output spectrum coincides with the wavelength range of minimal water absorption, making the light source ideal for OCT imaging of the posterior eye segment. With a moderate SOA current (270 mA) we achieve up...

  19. Analyzing subcellular structure with optical Fourier filtering based on Gabor filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustany, Nada N.; Sierra, Heidy

    2013-02-01

    Label-free measurement of subcellular morphology can be used to track dynamically cellular function under various conditions and has important applications in cellular monitoring and in vitro cell assays. We show that optical filtering of scattered light by two-dimensional Gabor filters allows for direct and highly sensitive measurement of sample structure. The Gabor filters, which are defined by their spatial frequency, orientation and Gaussian envelope, can be used to track locally and in situ the characteristic size and orientation of structures within the sample. Our method consists of sequentially implementing a set of Gabor filters via a spatial light modulator placed in a conjugate Fourier plane during optical imaging and identifying the filters that yield maximum signal. Using this setup, we show that Gabor filtering of light forward-scattered by spheres yields an optical response which varies linearly with diameter between 100nm and 2000nm. The optical filtering sensitivity to changes in diameter is on the order of 20nm and can be achieved at low image resolution. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate that this linear response can be predicted from scatter theory and does not vary significantly with changes in refractive index ratio. By applying this Fourier filtering method in samples consisting of diatoms and cells, we generate false-color images of the object that encode at each pixel the size of the local structures within the object. The resolution of these encoded size maps in on the order of 0.36μm. The pixel histograms of these encoded images directly provide 20nm resolved "size spectra", depicting the size distribution of structures within the analyzed object. We use these size spectra to differentiate the morphology of apoptosis-competent and bax/bak null apoptosis-resistant cells during cell death. We also utilize the sensitivity of the Gabor filters to object orientation to track changes in organelle morphology, and detect mitochondrial

  20. Conversion of a DWDM signal to a single Nyquist channel based on a complete optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2014-01-01

    We propose a DWDM-to-Nyquist channel conversion scheme based on complete Optical Fourier Transformation and optical Nyquist filtering. We demonstrate conversion from 50-GHz-grid 16×10 Gbit/s DPSK DWDM to a 160-Gbit/s Nyquist channel (0.9 symbol/s/Hz spectral efficiency) with 1.4 dB power penalty....

  1. Flat-top pulse generation by the optical Fourier transform technique for ultrahigh speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super-Gaussian sp......This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super......-Gaussian spectral intensity profile is mapped into a flat-top pulse resembling its spectrum by simple propagation in SMF. Theoretical and experimental descriptions are given on flat-top pulse generation, and an experimental validation of the systems performance of the pulses is carried out, demonstrating a benefit...

  2. Refractometry of melanocyte cell nuclei using optical scatter images recorded by digital Fourier microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Katrina Y T; Nieminen, Timo A; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2009-01-01

    The cell nucleus is the dominant optical scatterer in the cell. Neoplastic cells are characterized by cell nucleus polymorphism and polychromism-i.e., the nuclei exhibits an increase in the distribution of both size and refractive index. The relative size parameter, and its distribution, is proportional to the product of the nucleus size and its relative refractive index and is a useful discriminant between normal and abnormal (cancerous) cells. We demonstrate a recently introduced holographic technique, digital Fourier microscopy (DFM), to provide a sensitive measure of this relative size parameter. Fourier holograms were recorded and optical scatter of individual scatterers were extracted and modeled with Mie theory to determine the relative size parameter. The relative size parameter of individual melanocyte cell nuclei were found to be 16.5+/-0.2, which gives a cell nucleus refractive index of 1.38+/-0.01 and is in good agreement with previously reported data. The relative size parameters of individual malignant melanocyte cell nuclei are expected to be greater than 16.5.

  3. Iterative Fourier transform algorithm: different approaches to diffractive optical element design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeren, Marek; Richter, Ivan; Fiala, Pavel

    2002-10-01

    This contribution focuses on the study and comparison of different design approaches for designing phase-only diffractive optical elements (PDOEs) for different possible applications in laser beam shaping. Especially, new results and approaches, concerning the iterative Fourier transform algorithm, are analyzed, implemented, and compared. Namely, various approaches within the iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA) are analyzed for the case of phase-only diffractive optical elements with quantizied phase levels (either binary or multilevel structures). First, the general scheme of the IFTA iterative approach with partial quantization is briefly presented and discussed. Then, the special assortment of the general IFTA scheme is given with respect to quantization constraint strategies. Based on such a special classification, the three practically interesting approaches are chosen, further-analyzed, and compared to eachother. The performance of these algorithms is compared in detail in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio characteristic developments with respect to the numberof iterations, for various input diffusive-type objects chose. Also, the performance is documented on the complex spectra developments for typical computer reconstruction results. The advantages and drawbacks of all approaches are discussed, and a brief guide on the choice of a particular approach for typical design tasks is given. Finally, the two ways of amplitude elimination within the design procedure are considered, namely the direct elimination and partial elimination of the amplitude of the complex hologram function.

  4. Real-time resampling in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Jeught, Sam; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2010-01-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) requires either a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer or a computationally heavy software algorithm to recalibrate the acquired optical signal from wavelength to wavenumber. The first method is sensitive to the position of the prism in the spectrometer, while the second method drastically slows down the system speed when it is implemented on a serially oriented central processing unit. We implement the full resampling process on a commercial graphics processing unit (GPU), distributing the necessary calculations to many stream processors that operate in parallel. A comparison between several recalibration methods is made in terms of performance and image quality. The GPU is also used to accelerate the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and to remove the background noise, thereby achieving full GPU-based signal processing without the need for extra resampling hardware. A display rate of 25 framessec is achieved for processed images (1,024 x 1,024 pixels) using a line-scan charge-coupled device (CCD) camera operating at 25.6 kHz.

  5. Subtle Solar Retinopathy Detected by Fourier-domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hsin Kung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar retinopathy is a retinal injury caused by direct or indirect sun-gazing and solar eclipse observation without protection. Subtle changes in the retinal damage might not be evident on fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. A 40-year-old veteran suffered from paracentral scotoma in his left eye shortly after unprotected solar eclipse observation about 1 month earlier. His visual acuity was 6/5 in the right eye and 6/6 in the left. Anterior segments were normal bilaterally. Dilated fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, and central visual field testing did not reveal any abnormal findings. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography was used for evaluation, and a focal defect in the inner and outer segments of the photoreceptor layer band was noted in the paracentral region of the fovea in the left eye, with central foveal thickness of 198 μm. Solar retinopathy is preventable with adequate eye protection. Education should be reinforced to the public. In mildly affected individuals with subtle retinal damage, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography could be a useful imaging tool to detect the disease.

  6. Long-Wavelength Infrared Surface Plasmons on Ga-Doped ZnO Films Excited via 2D Hole Arrays for Extraordinary Optical Transmission (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2013-0180 LONG-WAVELENGTH INFRARED SURFACE PLASMONS ON Ga- DOPED ZnO FILMS EXCITED VIA 2D HOLE ARRAYS FOR EXTRAORDINARY OPTICAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE LONG-WAVELENGTH INFRARED SURFACE PLASMONS ON Ga- DOPED ZnO FILMS EXCITED VIA 2D HOLE ARRAYS FOR EXTRAORDINARY OPTICAL TRANSMISSION...structure size such as period. Pulse laser deposited Ga- doped ZnO has been shown to have fluctuations in optical and electrical parameters based on

  7. 1 kHz 2D Visual Motion Sensor Using 20 × 20 Silicon Retina Optical Sensor and DSP Microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Yang, MinHao; Steiner, Andreas; Moeckel, Rico; Delbruck, Tobi

    2015-04-01

    Optical flow sensors have been a long running theme in neuromorphic vision sensors which include circuits that implement the local background intensity adaptation mechanism seen in biological retinas. This paper reports a bio-inspired optical motion sensor aimed towards miniature robotic and aerial platforms. It combines a 20 × 20 continuous-time CMOS silicon retina vision sensor with a DSP microcontroller. The retina sensor has pixels that have local gain control and adapt to background lighting. The system allows the user to validate various motion algorithms without building dedicated custom solutions. Measurements are presented to show that the system can compute global 2D translational motion from complex natural scenes using one particular algorithm: the image interpolation algorithm (I2A). With this algorithm, the system can compute global translational motion vectors at a sample rate of 1 kHz, for speeds up to ±1000 pixels/s, using less than 5 k instruction cycles (12 instructions per pixel) per frame. At 1 kHz sample rate the DSP is 12% occupied with motion computation. The sensor is implemented as a 6 g PCB consuming 170 mW of power.

  8. Rugged optical mirrors for Fourier-Transform Spectrometers operated in harsh environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Feist

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC operate a number of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers (FTSs that measure trace gases in the atmosphere by observing solar spectra. To guide the sunlight into the FTS, a solar tracker has to be placed outside. This device needs high-quality optical mirrors with good reflectivity in the near and mid infrared. More and more FTS stations are operated in remote locations with harsh environments. Optical mirrors are usually made for laboratory conditions and might not last very long there. At the MPI-BGC's TCCON site on Ascension Island, several mirrors from different optical manufacturers were destroyed within weeks. To continue operation, the MPI-BGC had to develop rugged mirrors that could sustain the harsh conditions for months or even years. While commercially available mirrors are typically made from a substrate coverered with a thin reflective coating, these rugged mirrors were made from stainless steel with no additional coating. Except for their lower reflectivity (which can easily be compensated for, their optical properties are comparable to existing mirrors. However, their rugged design makes them mostly immune to corrosion and scratching. Unlike most coated mirrors, they can also be cleaned easily.

  9. Periodic nonlinear Fourier transform for fiber-optic communications, Part I: theory and numerical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalian, Morteza; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Le, Son Thai; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-08-08

    In this work, we introduce the periodic nonlinear Fourier transform (PNFT) method as an alternative and efficacious tool for compensation of the nonlinear transmission effects in optical fiber links. In the Part I, we introduce the algorithmic platform of the technique, describing in details the direct and inverse PNFT operations, also known as the inverse scattering transform for periodic (in time variable) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). We pay a special attention to explaining the potential advantages of the PNFT-based processing over the previously studied nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) based methods. Further, we elucidate the issue of the numerical PNFT computation: we compare the performance of four known numerical methods applicable for the calculation of nonlinear spectral data (the direct PNFT), in particular, taking the main spectrum (utilized further in Part II for the modulation and transmission) associated with some simple example waveforms as the quality indicator for each method. We show that the Ablowitz-Ladik discretization approach for the direct PNFT provides the best performance in terms of the accuracy and computational time consumption.

  10. Study of Anterior Chamber Aqueous Tube Shunt by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This cross-sectional, observational study used Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT to examine the position, patency, and the interior entrance site of anterior chamber (AC aqueous tube shunts. Methods. The OCT, slitlamp biomicroscopy, and gonioscopy findings of 23 eyes of 18 patients with AC shunts were collected and compared. Results. OCT images demonstrated the shunt position and patency in all 23 eyes, and the details of the AC entrance in 16 eyes. The position of the tube varied, with the majority (14/23 on the surface of the iris. The exact position of the AC entrance relative to Schwalbe’s line (SL could be determined in 9 eyes (posterior to SL in 7 eyes, anterior in 2 eyes. At the AC entrance, growth of fibrous scar tissue was present between the tube and the corneal endothelium in all 16 eyes in which the entrance could be clearly visualized. It’s a new finding that could not be visualized by slitlamp examination or lower resolution OCT. Conclusion. Compared to slitlamp examination, Fourier-domain OCT of AC tube shunts provided more detailed anatomic information regarding the insertion level relative to SL, scar tissue between the tube and the corneal endothelium, and patency of the tube opening.

  11. Common-optical axis Fourier transform profilometry for water surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Mahdi; Krechetnikov, Rouslan

    2016-11-01

    The Fourier transform profilometry - a single-shot optical profilometric measurement of surface deformation - has been widely used to visualize and measure water surface waves. This well-known method is based on an optical system composed of a video projector displaying a fringe pattern on the surface and a camera recording this pattern as the reference image. The deformed fringe pattern following deformation of the surface later is then recorded and compared to the reference image in order to produce a phase map, from which the height of the deformed surface is reconstructed through a phase-to-height relation. The biggest challenge encountered while applying this method for water surface is the light reflection which previously has been partially treated by enhancing the water light diffusivity with the addition of Titanium dioxide. As part of the effort to improve the accuracy and practical applicability of the method, in this talk we will present a new implementation of a common-optical axis geometry along with an appropriate phase-height relation. Furthermore, in the case of water surface waves, we introduce a proper light filtration, which removes all the reflections remaining after addition of Titanium dioxide. The proposed technique provides an order of magnitude improvement in the accuracy of detecting and reconstructing the surface deformation, which is crucial for studying small amplitude waves and bifurcation phenomena.

  12. Characterization of polymer composites by fiber optic Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Bhat, Sanmitra A.; Osbaldiston, Richard; DiTaranto, Marie B.; Smith, Wayne W.; Rose, Jennifer; Liu, Yong-Ming; Shaw, Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    The in-use performance of polymer composites is highly dependent on the polymeric structure, which in turn, is highly dependent on the processing conditions. We have been developing a Fourier transform Raman system capable of high temperature measurements within curing devices through the use of fiber optic probes. The goal is to use real-time spectral data to control heat schedules and ultimately, composite properties. This presentation will describe the development of cure models based on reaction mechanisms for an epoxy resin and a polyimide using IR and Raman spectroscopy. It will also describe correlations between molecular structure and mechanical properties obtained by simultaneous Raman and rheology measurements. In addition, new spectral methods to determine cure kinetics will be presented.

  13. Feasibility investigation of integrated optics Fourier transform devices. [holographic subtraction for multichannel data preprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verber, C. M.; Vahey, D. W.; Wood, V. E.; Kenan, R. P.; Hartman, N. F.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of producing an integrated optics data processing device based upon Fourier transformations or other parallel processing techniques, and the ways in which such techniques may be used to upgrade the performance of present and projected NASA systems were investigated. Activities toward this goal include; (1) production of near-diffraction-limited geodesic lenses in glass waveguides; (2) development of grinding and polishing techniques for the production of geodesic lenses in LiNbO3 waveguides; (3) development of a characterization technique for waveguide lenses; and (4) development of a theory for corrected aspheric geodesic lenses. A holographic subtraction system was devised which should be capable of rapid on-board preprocessing of a large number of parallel data channels. The principle involved is validated in three demonstrations.

  14. A modified split-step Fourier method for optical pulse propagation with polarization mode dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶敏; 孙小菡; 张明德

    2003-01-01

    A modified split-step Fourier method (SSFM) is presented to solve the coupled nonlinear Schrǒdinger equation (CNLS) that can be used to model high-speed pulse propagation in optical fibres with polarization mode dispersion (PMD). We compare our approach with the SSFM and démonstrate that our approach is much faster with no loss of accuracy. We discuss the pulse distortion and system Q-factor of non-return-to-zero (NRZ), return-to-zero (RZ) and pre-chirped RZ (CRZ) formats in the presence of high PMD through this approach. The simulation results show that CRZ pulses are the most tolerant to high PMD wlues and the extinct ratio has a great impact on the transmission performance.

  15. Adaptive anisotropic diffusion for noise reduction of phase images in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Peng, Shizhao; Wu, Yanfeng; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-08-01

    Phase image in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography offers additional flow information of investigated samples, which provides valuable evidence towards accurate medical diagnosis. High quality phase images are thus desirable. We propose a noise reduction method for phase images by combining a synthetic noise estimation criteria based on local noise estimator (LNE) and distance median value (DMV) with anisotropic diffusion model. By identifying noise and signal pixels accurately and diffusing them with different coefficients respectively and adaptive iteration steps, we demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in both phantom and mouse artery images. Comparison with other methods such as filtering method (mean, median filtering), wavelet method, probabilistic method and partial differential equation based methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) showed the advantages of our method in reserving image energy and removing noise.

  16. Signal line shapes of Fourier transform cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy with optical frequency combs

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Alexandra C; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    We present a thorough analysis of the signal line shapes of Fourier transform-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS). We discuss the signal dependence on the ratio of the modulation frequency, f${_m}$, to the molecular line width, {\\Gamma}. We compare a full model of the signals and a simplified absorption-like analytical model that has high accuracy for low f${_m}$/{\\Gamma} ratios and is much faster to compute. We verify the theory experimentally by measuring and fitting NICE-OFCS spectra of CO${_2}$ at 1575 nm using a system based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser and a cavity with a finesse of ~11000.

  17. Retrieving the optical parameters of biological tissues using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Fourier series expansions. I. theory and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Morales, Aarón A; Vázquez Y Montiel, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    The determination of optical parameters of biological tissues is essential for the application of optical techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy is a widely used technique to analyze the optical characteristics of biological tissues. In this paper we show that by using diffuse reflectance spectra and a new mathematical model we can retrieve the optical parameters by applying an adjustment of the data with nonlinear least squares. In our model we represent the spectra using a Fourier series expansion finding mathematical relations between the polynomial coefficients and the optical parameters. In this first paper we use spectra generated by the Monte Carlo Multilayered Technique to simulate the propagation of photons in turbid media. Using these spectra we determine the behavior of Fourier series coefficients when varying the optical parameters of the medium under study. With this procedure we find mathematical relations between Fourier series coefficients and optical parameters. Finally, the results show that our method can retrieve the optical parameters of biological tissues with accuracy that is adequate for medical applications.

  18. Characterization of Al2O3 optically stimulated luminescence films for 2D dosimetry using a 6 MV photon beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Shrestha, N.; Schnell, E.; Ahmad, S.; Akselrod, M. S.; Yukihara, E. G.

    2016-11-01

    This work evaluates the dosimetric properties of newly developed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) films, fabricated with either Al2O3:C or Al2O3:C,Mg, using a prototype laser scanning reader, a developed image reconstruction algorithm, and a 6 MV therapeutic photon beam. Packages containing OSL films (Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg) and a radiochromic film (Gafchromic EBT3) were irradiated using a 6 MV photon beam using different doses, field sizes, with and without wedge filter. Dependence on film orientation of the OSL system was also tested. Diode-array (MapCHECK) and ionization chamber measurements were performed for comparison. The OSLD film doses agreed with the MapCHECK and ionization chamber data within the experimental uncertainties (response was approximately linear from the MDD up to a few grays (the linearity correction was  response, resolution and dosimetric properties. The negligible background and potential simple calibration make these OSLD films suitable for remote audits. The characterization presented here may motivate further commercial development of a 2D dosimetry system based on the OSL from Al2O3:C or Al2O3:C,Mg.

  19. Ultra-high-speed optical serial-to-parallel data conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation in a silicon nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Hu, Hao

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate conversion from 64 × 10 Gbit/s optical timedivision multiplexed (OTDM) data to dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) data with 25 GHz spacing. The conversion is achieved by time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a 3.6 mm long...

  20. A new way to characterize autostereoscopic 3D displays using Fourier optics instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boher, P.; Leroux, T.; Bignon, T.; Collomb-Patton, V.

    2009-02-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 3D displays offer presently the most attractive solution for entertainment and media consumption. Despite many studies devoted to this type of technology, efficient characterization methods are still missing. We present here an innovative optical method based on high angular resolution viewing angle measurements with Fourier optics instrument. This type of instrument allows measuring the full viewing angle aperture of the display very rapidly and accurately. The system used in the study presents a very high angular resolution below 0.04 degree which is mandatory for this type of characterization. We can predict from the luminance or color viewing angle measurements of the different views of the 3D display what will be seen by an observer at any position in front of the display. Quality criteria are derived both for 3D and standard properties at any observer position and Qualified Stereo Viewing Space (QSVS) is determined. The use of viewing angle measurements at different locations on the display surface during the observer computation gives more realistic estimation of QSVS and ensures its validity for the entire display surface. Optimum viewing position, viewing freedom, color shifts and standard parameters are also quantified. Simulation of the moire issues can be made leading to a better understanding of their origin.

  1. Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernhard; Choi, WooJhon; Potsaid, Benjamin; Huang, David; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2012-04-23

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional imaging method that provides additional contrast using the light polarizing properties of a sample. This manuscript describes PS-OCT based on ultrahigh speed swept source / Fourier domain OCT operating at 1050 nm at 100 kHz axial scan rates using single mode fiber optics and a multiplexing approach. Unlike previously reported PS-OCT multiplexing schemes, the method uses a passive polarization delay unit and does not require active polarization modulating devices. This advance decreases system cost and avoids complex synchronization requirements. The polarization delay unit was implemented in the sample beam path in order to simultaneously illuminate the sample with two different polarization states. The orthogonal polarization components for the depth-multiplexed signals from the two input states were detected using dual balanced detection. PS-OCT images were computed using Jones calculus. 3D PS-OCT imaging was performed in the human and rat retina. In addition to standard OCT images, PS-OCT images were generated using contrast form birefringence and depolarization. Enhanced tissue discrimination as well as quantitative measurements of sample properties was demonstrated using the additional contrast and information contained in the PS-OCT images.

  2. Real-time Graphics Processing Unit Based Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Surgical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kang

    2011-12-01

    In this dissertation, real-time Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) capable of multi-dimensional micrometer-resolution imaging targeted specifically for microsurgical intervention applications was developed and studied. As a part of this work several ultra-high speed real-time FD-OCT imaging and sensing systems were proposed and developed. A real-time 4D (3D+time) OCT system platform using the graphics processing unit (GPU) to accelerate OCT signal processing, the imaging reconstruction, visualization, and volume rendering was developed. Several GPU based algorithms such as non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT), numerical dispersion compensation, and multi-GPU implementation were developed to improve the impulse response, SNR roll-off and stability of the system. Full-range complex-conjugate-free FD-OCT was also implemented on the GPU architecture to achieve doubled image range and improved SNR. These technologies overcome the imaging reconstruction and visualization bottlenecks widely exist in current ultra-high speed FD-OCT systems and open the way to interventional OCT imaging for applications in guided microsurgery. A hand-held common-path optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) distance-sensor based microsurgical tool was developed and validated. Through real-time signal processing, edge detection and feed-back control, the tool was shown to be capable of track target surface and compensate motion. The micro-incision test using a phantom was performed using a CP-OCT-sensor integrated hand-held tool, which showed an incision error less than +/-5 microns, comparing to >100 microns error by free-hand incision. The CP-OCT distance sensor has also been utilized to enhance the accuracy and safety of optical nerve stimulation. Finally, several experiments were conducted to validate the system for surgical applications. One of them involved 4D OCT guided micro-manipulation using a phantom. Multiple volume renderings of one 3D data set were

  3. Fourier optics along a hybrid optical fiber for Bessel-like beam generation and its applications in multiple-particle trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongki; Jeong, Yoonseob; Lee, Sejin; Ha, Woosung; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2012-02-15

    Highly efficient Bessel-like beam generation was achieved based on a new all-fiber method that implements Fourier transformation of a micro annular aperture along a concatenated composite optical fiber. The beam showed unique characteristics of tilted washboard optical potential in the transverse plane and sustained a nondiffracting length over 400 μm along the axial direction. Optical trapping of multiple dielectric particles and living Jurkat cells were successfully demonstrated along the axial direction of the beam in the water.

  4. Enhanced Visibility of MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2 and Black-Phosphorus: Making Optical Identification of 2D Semiconductors Easier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabino Rubio-Bollinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use of Si3N4/Si substrates as a substitute of the standard SiO2/Si substrates employed nowadays to fabricate nanodevices based on 2D materials. We systematically study the visibility of several 2D semiconducting materials that are attracting a great deal of interest in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics: MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2 and black-phosphorus. We find that the use of Si3N4/Si substrates provides an increase of the optical contrast up to a 50%–100% and also the maximum contrast shifts towards wavelength values optimal for human eye detection, making optical identification of 2D semiconductors easier.

  5. Detection of 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM by polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist;

    2013-01-01

    320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM is generated by rectangular filtering with a bandwidth of 320 GHz and received by polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation (TD-OFT) followed by passive filtering. After the time-to-frequency mapping in the TD-OFT, the Nyquist-OTDM is converted...

  6. ScintSim1: A new Monte Carlo simulation code for transport of optical photons in 2D arrays of scintillation detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Zarrini-Monfared, Zinat; Karbasi, Sareh; Zamani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) arrays of thick segmented scintillators are of interest as X-ray detectors for both 2D and 3D image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Their detection process involves ionizing radiation energy deposition followed by production and transport of optical photons. Only a very limited number of optical Monte Carlo simulation models exist, which has limited the number of modeling studies that have considered both stages of the detection process. We present ScintSim1, an in-house optical Monte Carlo simulation code for 2D arrays of scintillation crystals, developed in the MATLAB programming environment. The code was rewritten and revised based on an existing program for single-element detectors, with the additional capability to model 2D arrays of elements with configurable dimensions, material, etc., The code generates and follows each optical photon history through the detector element (and, in case of cross-talk, the surrounding ones) until it reaches a configurable receptor, or is attenuated. The new model was verified by testing against relevant theoretically known behaviors or quantities and the results of a validated single-element model. For both sets of comparisons, the discrepancies in the calculated quantities were all detector optimization.

  7. Identification of iridocorneal angle structures assessed by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vigo, J I; Fernández-Vigo, C; Martínez de la Casa, J M; Sáenz-Francés, F; Santos-Bueso, E; García Feijóo, J; Fernández-Vigo, J A

    2016-02-01

    To study the structures of the iridocorneal angle using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) defining their tomographic characteristics and quantifying their identification frequency. A cross-sectional study was performed on 267 right eyes of 267 consecutive healthy patients. Fourier domain OCT RTVue (Optovue Inc, CA, EE. UU.) was used to examine the iridocorneal angle in the nasal and temporal sectors. The structures evaluated were: Sclerocorneal limbus, sclerocorneal transition, Schwalbe's line, trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal, scleral spur, and angular recess. Within and between agreements to identify structures were calculated using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The mean age was 41.3 ± 14.3 years (range 20-80), with 57% being women. The sclerocorneal limbus, sclerocorneal transition, and Schwalbe's line were identified by 98.7, 97 and 93.4% of the images, respectively, with the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal being identified in 91% of cases. The scleral spur could be identified in 85.4%, and the angular recess in 74.5%. There was no difference in the identification between the temporal and nasal sectors. Within and between agreement was k=0.92 and k=0.88, respectively, in the identification of the structures of the total images studied. Fourier domain OCT is a reliable technique for the identification of the structures of the iridocorneal angle, among which can be highlighted are, the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal, scleral spur, and Schwalbe's line. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Rugged optical mirrors for the operation of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers in rough environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Dietrich G.

    2014-05-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) operate a growing number of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers (FTS) that measure the total column of several atmospheric trace gases. For these measurements, the sun is used as a light source. This is typically achieved by a solar tracker that uses a pair of optical mirrors to guide the sunlight into the instrument. There is a growing demand to operate these instruments in remote locations that fill the gaps in the global observation network. Besides the logistical challenges of running a remote site, the environment at these locations can be very harsh compared to the sheltered environment of the instruments' home institutions. While the FTS itself is usually well protected inside a building or container, the solar tracker and especially its mirrors are exposed to the environment. There they may suffer from - temperature fluctuations - high humidity - sea salt corrosion at coastal sites - dirt and dust - air pollution from anthropogenic sources - deposition from plants or animals The Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) operates a TCCON station on Ascension Island, about 200 m from the sea. Under the rough conditions at this site, typical optical mirrors that are made for laboratory conditions are destroyed by sea salt spray within a few weeks. Besides, typical gold-coated mirrors cannot be cleaned as their soft surface is easily scratched or damaged. To overcome these problems, the MPI-BGC has developed optical mirrors that - offer good reflectivity in the near and mid infrared - are highly resistant to salt and chlorine - have a hard surface so that they can be cleaned often and easily - are not affected by organic solvents - last for months in very harsh environments - can be reused after polishing These mirrors could be applied to most TCCON and NDACC sites. This way, the network could be expanded to regions where operation

  9. Comparison of central corneal thickness measurements using optical low-coherence reflectometry, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography, and Scheimpflug camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Gonul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the results of central corneal thickness (CCT measurements obtained using optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT, and a Scheimpflug camera (SC, combined with Placido corneal topography. Methods: A total of 25 healthy subjects were enrolled in the present study, and one eye of each subject was included. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed in all cases following CCT measurements with OLCR, FD-OCT, and SC. The results were compared using an ANOVA test. Bland-Altman analysis was used to demonstrate agreement between methods. Intra-examiner repeatability was assessed by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between the results of the CCT measurements obtained using the three different devices (p=0.009. Significant correlations were found between OLCR and FD-OCT (r=0.97; p0.98. Conclusion: Although the results of CCT measurements obtained from these three devices were highly correlated with one another and the mean differences between instruments were comparable with the reported diurnal CCT fluctuation, the measurements are not directly interchangeable in clinical practice because of the wide LOA values.

  10. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument - Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Berg, Larry K.; Lantz, Kathy; Michalsky, Joseph; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    The multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is ˜ 0.19, and that over oceans is ˜ 0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), -0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), -0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMELAOD - MFRSRAOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments: DOASAOD = -(0.019 ± 0.006) + (1.03 ± 0.02) × CIMELAOD (R2 = 0.98), DOASAOD = -(0.006 ± 0.005) + (1.08 ± 0.02) × MFRSRAOD (R2 = 0.98), and CIMELAOD = (0.013 ± 0.004) + (1.05 ± 0.01)

  11. Simultaneous nonlinear encryption of grayscale and color images based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2013-09-01

    A nonlinear color and grayscale images cryptosystem based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle is proposed. In order to realize simultaneous encryption of color and grayscale images, each grayscale image is first converted into two phase masks by using an optical coherent superposition, one of which is treated as a part of input information that will be fractional Fourier transformed while the other in the form of a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) is used as a decryption key. For the purpose of optical performance, all the processes are performed through three channels, i.e., red, green, and blue. Different from most asymmetric encryption methods, the decryption process is designed to be linear for the sake of effective decryption. The encryption level of a double random phase encryption based on phase-truncated Fourier transform is enhanced by extending it into fractional Fourier domain and the load of the keys management and transmission is lightened by using CRPMs. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is discussed and computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  12. Optical memory system based on incoherent recorder and coherent reader of multiplexed computer generated one-dimensional Fourier transform holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokov, Sergey; Zlokazov, Evgenii; Donchenko, Sergey; Verenikina, Nina

    2017-09-01

    The present article highlights the development results of archive memory holographic system based on application of computer generated Fourier holograms. The proposed idea allows realization of holographic principles of digital data record using simple and compact optical devices. Special interest is paid to synthesis and multiplexed record of one-dimensional Fourier transform holograms. The principal schemes of constructed prototypes of incoherent data recorder and coherent data reader are described in the present paper. The results of experimental implementation of the constructed devices are presented.

  13. Optical Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with Resolution Exceeding the Limit Set by the Optical Path Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Rutkowski, Lucile; Johanssson, Alexandra C.; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Maslowski, Piotr; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Lee, Kevin; Fermann, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) based on optical frequency combs (OFC) allow detection of broadband molecular spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios within acquisition times orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIRs based on thermal sources. Due to the pulsed nature of OFCs the interferogram consists of a series of bursts rather than a single burst at zero optical path difference (OPD). The comb mode structure can be resolved by acquiring multiple bursts, in both mechanical FTS systems and dual-comb spectroscopy. However, in all existing demonstrations the resolution was ultimately limited either by the maximum available OPD between the interferometer arms or by the total acquisition time enabled by the storage memory. We present a method that provides spectral resolution exceeding the limit set by the maximum OPD using an interferogram containing only a single burst. The method allows measurements of absorption lines narrower than the OPD-limited resolution without any influence of the instrumental lineshape function. We demonstrate this by measuring undistorted CO2 and CO absorption lines with linewidth narrower than the OPD-limited resolution using OFC-based mechanical FTS in the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges. The near-infrared system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a high finesse cavity, while the mid-infrared system is based on a Tm:fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator coupled to a multi-pass cell. We show that the method allows acquisition of high-resolution molecular spectra with interferometer length orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIR. Mandon, J., G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Phot., 2009. 3(2): p. 99-102. Zeitouny, M., et al., Ann. Phys., 2013. 525(6): p. 437-442. Zolot, A.M., et al., Opt. Lett., 2012. 37(4): p. 638-640.

  14. Fourier transform infrared imaging and infrared fiber optic probe spectroscopy identify collagen type in connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hanifi

    Full Text Available Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in

  15. Reproducibility of Scleral Spur Identification and Angle Measurements Using Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Cumba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement in locating the scleral spur landmark (SSL and anterior chamber angle measurements obtained using Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT images. Methods. Two independent, masked observers (SR and AZC identified SSLs on ASOCT images from 31 eyes with open and nonopen angles. A third independent reader, NPB, adjudicated SSL placement if identifications differed by more than 80 μm. Nine months later, SR reidentified SSLs. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement in SSL placement, trabecular-iris space area (TISA750, and angle opening distance (AOD750 were calculated. Results. In 84% of quadrants, SR’s SSL placements during 2 sessions were within 80 μm in both the X- and Y-axes, and in 77% of quadrants, SR and AZC were within 80 μm in both axes. In adjudicated images, 90% of all quadrants were within 80 μm, 88% in nonopen-angle eyes, and 92% in open-angle eyes. The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients (with and without adjudication were above 0.9 for TISA750 and AOD750 for all quadrants. Conclusions. Reproducible identification of the SSL from images obtained with FD-ASOCT is possible. The ability to identify the SSL allows reproducible measurement of the anterior chamber angle using TISA750 and AOD750.

  16. Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate interobserver, intervisit, and interinstrument agreements for gonioscopy and Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (FD ASOCT for classifying open and narrow angle eyes. Methods. Eighty-six eyes with open or narrow anterior chamber angles were included. The superior angle was classified open or narrow by 2 of 5 glaucoma specialists using gonioscopy and imaged by FD ASOCT in the dark. The superior angle of each FD ASOCT image was graded as open or narrow by 2 masked readers. The same procedures were repeated within 6 months. Kappas for interobserver and intervisit agreements for each instrument and interinstrument agreements were calculated. Results. The mean age was 50.9 (±18.4 years. Interobserver agreements were moderate to good for both gonioscopy (0.57 and 0.69 and FD ASOCT (0.58 and 0.75. Intervisit agreements were moderate to excellent for both gonioscopy (0.53 to 0.86 and FD ASOCT (0.57 and 0.85. Interinstrument agreements were fair to good (0.34 to 0.63, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy. Conclusions. Both gonioscopy and FD ASOCT examiners were internally consistent with similar interobserver and intervisit agreements for angle classification. Agreement between instruments was fair to good, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy.

  17. Performance and scalability of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography acceleration using graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Bloch, Pavel; Xu, Jing; Sarunic, Marinko V; Shannon, Lesley

    2011-05-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) provides faster line rates, better resolution, and higher sensitivity for noninvasive, in vivo biomedical imaging compared to traditional time domain OCT (TD-OCT). However, because the signal processing for FD-OCT is computationally intensive, real-time FD-OCT applications demand powerful computing platforms to deliver acceptable performance. Graphics processing units (GPUs) have been used as coprocessors to accelerate FD-OCT by leveraging their relatively simple programming model to exploit thread-level parallelism. Unfortunately, GPUs do not "share" memory with their host processors, requiring additional data transfers between the GPU and CPU. In this paper, we implement a complete FD-OCT accelerator on a consumer grade GPU/CPU platform. Our data acquisition system uses spectrometer-based detection and a dual-arm interferometer topology with numerical dispersion compensation for retinal imaging. We demonstrate that the maximum line rate is dictated by the memory transfer time and not the processing time due to the GPU platform's memory model. Finally, we discuss how the performance trends of GPU-based accelerators compare to the expected future requirements of FD-OCT data rates.

  18. Microvascular anastomosis in rodent model evaluated by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Wu, Lehao; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Lee, WP Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-03-01

    Vascular and microvascular anastomosis are critical components of reconstructive microsurgery, vascular surgery and transplant surgery. Imaging modality that provides immediate, real-time in-depth view and 3D structure and flow information of the surgical site can be a great valuable tool for the surgeon to evaluate surgical outcome following both conventional and innovative anastomosis techniques, thus potentially increase the surgical success rate. Microvascular anastomosis for vessels with outer diameter smaller than 1.0 mm is extremely challenging and effective evaluation of the outcome is very difficult if not impossible using computed tomography (CT) angiograms, magnetic resonance (MR) angiograms and ultrasound Doppler. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive high-resolution (micron level), high-speed, 3D imaging modality that has been adopted widely in biomedical and clinical applications. Phaseresolved Doppler OCT that explores the phase information of OCT signals has been shown to be capable of characterizing dynamic blood flow clinically. In this work, we explore the capability of Fourier domain Doppler OCT as an evaluation tool to detect commonly encountered post-operative complications that will cause surgical failure and to confirm positive result with surgeon's observation. Both suture and cuff based techniques were evaluated on the femoral artery and vein in the rodent model.

  19. Comparison of 3D double inversion recovery and 2D STIR FLAIR MR sequences for the imaging of optic neuritis: pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodel, Jerome; Bocher, Anne-Laure; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Leclerc, Xavier [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neuroradiology, Lille (France); Outteryck, Olivier; Zephir, Helene; Vermersch, Patrick [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neurology, Lille (France); Lambert, Oriane [Fondation Ophtalmologique Rothschild, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine [Radiation Epidemiology Team, Inserm, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Villejuif (France); Chechin, David [Philips Medical Systems, Suresnes (France)

    2014-12-15

    We compared the three-dimensional (3D) double inversion recovery (DIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence with the coronal two-dimensional (2D) short tau inversion recovery (STIR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) for the detection of optic nerve signal abnormality in patients with optic neuritis (ON). The study group consisted of 31 patients with ON (44 pathological nerves) confirmed by visual-evoked potentials used as the reference. MRI examinations included 2D coronal STIR FLAIR and 3D DIR with 3-mm coronal reformats to match with STIR FLAIR. Image artefacts were graded for each portion of the optic nerves. Each set of MR images (2D STIR FLAIR, DIR reformats and multiplanar 3D DIR) was examined independently and separately for the detection of signal abnormality. Cisternal portion of optic nerves was better delineated with DIR (p < 0.001), while artefacts impaired analysis in four patients with STIR FLAIR. Inter-observer agreement was significantly improved (p < 0.001) on 3D DIR (κ = 0.96) compared with STIR FLAIR images (κ = 0.60). Multiplanar DIR images reached the best performance for the diagnosis of ON (95 % sensitive and 94 % specific). Our study showed a high sensitivity and specificity of 3D DIR compared with STIR FLAIR for the detection of ON. These findings suggest that the 3D DIR sequence may be more useful in patients suspected of ON. (orig.)

  20. Broadband photonic microwave phase shifter based on controlling two RF modulation sidebands via a Fourier-domain optical processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Chan, E H W; Wang, X; Feng, X; Guan, B

    2015-05-04

    An all-optical photonic microwave phase shifter that can realize a continuous 360° phase shift over a wide frequency range is presented. It is based on the new concept of controlling the amplitude and phase of the two RF modulation sidebands via a Fourier-domain optical processor. The operating frequency range of the phase shifter is largely increased compared to the previously reported Fourier-domain optical processor based phase shifter that uses only one RF modulation sideband. This is due to the extension of the lower RF operating frequency by designing the amplitude and phase of one of the RF modulation sidebands while the other sideband is designed to realize the required RF signal phase shift. The two-sideband amplitude-and-phase-control based photonic microwave phase shifter has a simple structure as it only requires a single laser source, a phase modulator, a Fourier-domain optical processor and a single photodetector. Investigation on the bandwidth limitation problem in the conventional Fourier-domain optical processor based phase shifter is presented. Comparisons between the measured phase shifter output RF amplitude and phase responses with theory, which show excellent agreement, are also presented for the first time. Experimental results demonstrate the full -180° to + 180° phase shift with little RF signal amplitude variation of less than 3 dB and with a phase deviation of less than 4° over a 7.5 GHz to 26.5 GHz frequency range, and the phase shifter exhibits a long term stable performance.

  1. Single-channel 1.28 Tbit/s-525 km DQPSK transmission using ultrafast time-domain optical Fourier transformation and nonlinear optical loop mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Tomiyama, Yutaro

    2011-01-01

    developed an ultrafast timedomain optical Fourier transformation technique in a round-trip configuration. By applying this technique to subpicosecond pulses, transmission impairments were greatly reduced, and BER performance below FEC limit was obtained with increased system margin. Copyright © 2011...

  2. Formation of Photonic Structures in Photorefractive Lithium Niobate by 1D and 2D Bessel-like Optical Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyushov, A.; Safronova, P.; Trushnikov, I.; Sarkyt, A.; Shandarov, V.

    2017-06-01

    Both, one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Bessel-like beams with different topology of 2D beam cross-sections are formed from Gaussian laser beams using the amplitude masks and Fresnel biprisms. These almost diffraction-free light fields with wavelengths of 532 and 633 nm can change the refractive indices of photorefractive lithium niobate samples and form within them the nonlinear photonic diffraction structures. The characteristics of photonic structures induced in this way are studied by diffraction of monochromatic light with wavelengths of 633 and 532 nm.

  3. Hidden image recovery using a biased photorefractive crystal in the Fourier plane of an optical imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Haiyong; Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Xu, Tao; Wang, Yanping; Sun, Zhixu; Ma, Chong; Wang, Jinjin; Song, Feng; Sun, Ming; Li, Li; Sheng, Chuanxiang

    2015-02-09

    Self-diffraction can be induced using a biased photorefractive crystal in the Fourier plane of an imaging system where the light beam intensity is naturally high due to the concentration effect of an optical lens. The spatial frequency spectrum of the output image is proportional to the optical power density distribution in the Fourier plane. A photorefractive crystal with small size can be used and hence an reduced amount of biased voltage is needed to obtain significant diffraction effect in the image plane. When the input image is an overlay of a signal and a noise pattern, theoretic model reveals that the induced diffraction in the Fourier plane may be preferably applied on the noise pattern. In order to illustrate the effect experimentally, a signal from a weakly illuminated object is coupled with an overwhelming noise pattern and then the hidden signal is successfully recovered using a SBN61 crystal with an applied voltage of 800 V in the Fourier plane. Such technology can be employed in encrypted spatial communication systems for security purposes.

  4. Wannier-Stark electro-optical effect, quasi-guided and photonic modes in 2D macroporous silicon structures with SiO2 coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, L.; Goltviansky, Yu.; Sapelnikova, O.; Lytvynenko, O.; Stronska, O.; Bo, Wang; Kartel, M.

    2016-12-01

    Opportunities to enhance the properties of structured surfaces were demonstrated on 2D macroporous silicon structures with SiO2 coatings. We investigated the IR light absorption oscillations in macroporous silicon structures with SiO2 coatings 0-800 nm thick. The Wannier-Stark electro-optical effect due to strong electric field on Si-SiO2boundary and an additional electric field of quasi-guided optical modes were taken into account. The photonic modes and band gaps were also considered as peculiarities in absorbance spectra of macroporous silicon structures with a thick SiO2 coating. The photonic modes do not coincide with the quasi-guided modes in the silicon matrix and do not appear in absorption spectra of 2D macroporous silicon structures with surface nanocrystals.

  5. MEMS-based handheld fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography for intraoperative microvascular anastomosis imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Huang

    Full Text Available To demonstrate the feasibility of a miniature handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT imager for real time intraoperative vascular patency evaluation in the setting of super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis.A novel handheld imager Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on a 1.3-µm central wavelength swept source for extravascular imaging was developed. The imager was minimized through the adoption of a 2.4-mm diameter microelectromechanical systems (MEMS scanning mirror, additionally a 12.7-mm diameter lens system was designed and combined with the MEMS mirror to achieve a small form factor that optimize functionality as a handheld extravascular OCT imager. To evaluate in-vivo applicability, super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis was performed in a mouse femoral vessel cut and repair model employing conventional interrupted suture technique as well as a novel non-suture cuff technique. Vascular anastomosis patency after clinically successful repair was evaluated using the novel handheld OCT imager.With an adjustable lateral image field of view up to 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm, high-resolution simultaneous structural and flow imaging of the blood vessels were successfully acquired for BALB/C mouse after orthotopic hind limb transplantation using a non-suture cuff technique and BALB/C mouse after femoral artery anastomosis using a suture technique. We experimentally quantify the axial and lateral resolution of the OCT to be 12.6 µm in air and 17.5 µm respectively. The OCT has a sensitivity of 84 dB and sensitivity roll-off of 5.7 dB/mm over an imaging range of 5 mm. Imaging with a frame rate of 36 Hz for an image size of 1000(lateral×512(axial pixels using a 50,000 A-lines per second swept source was achieved. Quantitative vessel lumen patency, lumen narrowing and thrombosis analysis were performed based on acquired structure and Doppler images.A miniature handheld OCT imager that can be used for intraoperative evaluation of

  6. OTDM-to-WDM Conversion Based on Time-to-Frequency Mapping by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Galili, Michael

    2012-01-01

    a dispersive medium followed by phase modulation; the latter being achieved by a four-wave mixing process with linearly chirped pump pulses. Both numerical and experimental investigations of the OTDM-to-WDM conversion technique are carried out. Experimental validations are performed on......This paper reports on the utilization of the timedomain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) data tributaries into dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) channels. The OFT is implemented by using...

  7. 80GHz waveform generator by optical Fourier synthesis of four spectral sidebands (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatome, Julien; Hammani, Kamal; Kibler, Bertrand; Finot, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Versatile and easy to implement methods to generate arbitrary optical waveforms at high repetition rates are of considerable interest with applications in optical communications, all-optical signal processing, instrumentation systems and microwave signal manipulation. While shaping sinusoidal, Gaussian or hyperbolic secant intensity profiles is commonly achieved by means of modulators or mode-locked lasers, other pulse profiles such as parabolic, triangular or flat-top shapes still remain challenging to synthesize. In this context, several strategies were already explored. First, the linear pulse shaping is a common method to carve an initial ultrashort pulse train into the desired shape. The line-by-line shaping of a coherent frequency comb made of tens of spectral components was also investigated to generate more complex structures whereas Fourier synthesis of a few discrete frequencies spectrum was exploited to efficiently generate high-fidelity ultrafast periodic intensity profiles. Besides linear shaping techniques, several nonlinear methods were implemented to benefit from the adiabatic evolution of the intensity pulse profile upon propagation in optical fibers. Other examples of efficient methods are based on the photonic generation involving specific Mach-Zehnder modulators, microwave photonic filters as well as frequency-to-time conversion. In this contribution, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a new approach enabling the synthesis of periodic high-repetition rate pulses with various intensity profiles ranging from parabola to triangular and flat-top pulses. More precisely by linear phase and amplitude shaping of only four spectral lines is it possible to reach the targeted temporal profile. Indeed, tailoring the input symmetric spectrum only requires the determination of two physical parameters: the phase difference between the inner and outer spectral sidebands and the ratio between the amplitude of these sidebands. Therefore, a systematic

  8. Label-free optical detection of C-reactive protein by nanoimprint lithography-based 2D-photonic crystal film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tatsuro; Kajita, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Yukio; Kosaka, Terumasa; Himi, Toshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    The development of high-sensitive, and cost-effective novel biosensors have been strongly desired for future medical diagnostics. To develop novel biosensor, the authors focused on the specific optical characteristics of photonic crystal. In this study, a label-free optical biosensor, polymer-based two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D-PhC) film fabricated using nanoimprint lithography (NIL), was developed for detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) in human serum. The nano-hole array constructed NIL-based 2D-PhC (hole diameter: 230 nm, distance: 230, depth: 200 nm) was fabricated on a cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) film (100 µm) using thermal NIL and required surface modifications to reduce nonspecific adsorption of target proteins. Antigen-antibody reactions on the NIL-based 2D-PhC caused changes to the surrounding refractive index, which was monitored as reflection spectrum changes in the visible region. By using surface modified 2D-PhC, the calculated detection limit for CRP was 12.24 pg/mL at an extremely short reaction time (5 min) without the need for additional labeling procedures and secondary antibody. Furthermore, using the dual-functional random copolymer, CRP could be detected in a pooled blood serum diluted 100× with dramatic reduction of nonspecific adsorption. From these results, the NIL-based 2D-PhC film has great potential for development of an on-site, high-sensitivity, cost-effective, label-free biosensor for medical diagnostics applications.

  9. 2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Gambino, M. C.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pelagotti, A.; Pezzati, L.; Poggi, P.; Sanapo, C.

    2005-06-01

    3D measurement and modelling have been traditionally applied to statues, buildings, archeological sites or similar large structures, but rarely to paintings. Recently, however, 3D measurements have been performed successfully also on easel paintings, allowing to detect and document the painting's surface. We used 3D models to integrate the results of various 2D imaging techniques on a common reference frame. These applications show how the 3D shape information, complemented with 2D colour maps as well as with other types of sensory data, provide the most interesting information. The 3D data acquisition was carried out by means of two devices: a high-resolution laser micro-profilometer, composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a scanning device, and a laser-line scanner. The 2D data acquisitions were carried out using a scanning device for simultaneous RGB colour imaging and IR reflectography, and a UV fluorescence multispectral image acquisition system. We present here the results of the techniques described, applied to the analysis of an important painting of the Italian Reinassance: `Madonna dei Fusi', attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

  10. Multi-wavelength integrated optical beamformer based on Wavelength division multiplexing for 2-D phased array antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burla, Maurizio; Marpaung, David; Zhuang, Leimeng; Khan, Muhannad Rezaul; Leinse, Arne; Beeker, Willem; Hoekman, Marcel; Heideman, René; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    A novel, hardware-compressive architecture for broadband and continuously tunable integrated optical truetime- delay beamformers for phased array antennas is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The novel idea consists in employing the frequency-periodic response of optical ring resonator (ORR)

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Optical Evaluation and Comparison of Symmetric 2D CPC and V-Trough Collector for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasen Ikwaba Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical and experimental optical evaluation and comparison of symmetric Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC and V-trough collector. For direct optical properties comparison, both concentrators were deliberately designed to have the same geometrical concentration ratio (1.96, aperture area, absorber area, and maximum concentrator length. The theoretical optical evaluation of the CPC and V-trough collector was carried out using a ray-trace technique while the experimental optical efficiency and solar energy flux distributions were analysed using an isolated cell PV module method. Results by simulation analysis showed that for the CPC, the highest optical efficiency was 95% achieved in the interval range of 0° to ±20° whereas the highest outdoor experimental optical efficiency was 94% in the interval range of 0° to ±20°. For the V-tough collector, the highest optical efficiency for simulation and outdoor experiments was about 96% and 93%, respectively, both in the interval range of 0° to ±5°. Simulation results also showed that the CPC and V-trough exhibit higher variation in non-illumination intensity distributions over the PV module surface for larger incidence angles than lower incidence angles. On the other hand, the maximum power output for the cells with concentrators varied depending on the location of the cell in the PV module.

  12. In situ optical measurement of the rapid Li intercalation and deintercalation dynamics in colloidal 2D layered TiS2 nanodiscs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiageng; Camacho-Forero, Luis E.; Rossi, Daniel; Park, Yerok; Balbuena, Perla B.; Son, Dong Hee

    2016-05-01

    We report the in situ optical measurements of the rapid Li intercalation and deintercalation dynamics in 2-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) with a nanoscale lateral dimension using thin films fabricated with size-controlled colloidal TiS2 nanodiscs. The films exhibiting high optical homogeneity, where the interband absorption changes near-linearly to the amount of intercalated Li, enabled facile optical probing of the intercalation dynamics overcoming the shortcomings of amperometry susceptible to complications from non-Faradaic processes. The time scale of Li intercalation and deintercalation was on the order of seconds in the nanodiscs of ~100 nm lateral dimension, indicating sufficiently rapid dynamic control of the intercalation-induced material properties with a reduced lateral dimension. The change in the rate and reversibility of the dynamics during the multiple intercalation/deintercalation cycles was also measured, providing a unique window to observe the effect of potential structural changes on the intercalation and deintercalation dynamics in 2D layered TMD structures with a nanoscale lateral dimension.We report the in situ optical measurements of the rapid Li intercalation and deintercalation dynamics in 2-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) with a nanoscale lateral dimension using thin films fabricated with size-controlled colloidal TiS2 nanodiscs. The films exhibiting high optical homogeneity, where the interband absorption changes near-linearly to the amount of intercalated Li, enabled facile optical probing of the intercalation dynamics overcoming the shortcomings of amperometry susceptible to complications from non-Faradaic processes. The time scale of Li intercalation and deintercalation was on the order of seconds in the nanodiscs of ~100 nm lateral dimension, indicating sufficiently rapid dynamic control of the intercalation-induced material properties with a reduced lateral dimension

  13. Enhanced secure strategy for electro-optic chaotic systems with delayed dynamics by using fractional Fourier transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mengfan; Deng, Lei; Li, Hao; Liu, Deming

    2014-03-10

    We propose a scheme whereby a time domain fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is used to post process the optical chaotic carrier generated by an electro-optic oscillator. The time delay signature of the delay dynamics is successfully masked by the FRFT when some conditions are satisfied. Meanwhile the dimension space of the physical parameters is increased. Pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) with low bit rate (hundreds of Mbps) is introduced to control the parameters of the FRFT. The chaotic optical carrier, FRFT parameters and the PRBS are covered by each other so that the eavesdropper has to search the whole key space to crack the system. The scheme allows enhancing the security of communication systems based on delay dynamics without modifying the chaotic source. In this way, the design of chaos based communication systems can be implemented in a modular manner.

  14. Natural and magnetic optical activity of 2-D chiral cyanido-bridged Mn(II)-Nb(IV) molecular ferrimagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorazy, Szymon; Podgajny, Robert; Nitek, Wojciech; Fic, Tomasz; Görlich, Edward; Rams, Michał; Sieklucka, Barbara

    2013-08-04

    Unique two dimensional enantiopure cyanido-bridged {[Mn(II)(R-mpm)2]2[Nb(IV)(CN)8]}·4H2O and {[Mn(II)(S-mpm)2]2[Nb(IV)(CN)8]}·4H2O (-S) (mpm = α-methyl-2-pyridine-methanol) ferrimagnets with TC = 23.5 K were synthesized and characterized. They reveal natural optical activity (NOA) due to the chiral crystal structure, and magnetic optical activity (MOA) in the presence of an external magnetic field, with the strong enhancement in the magnetically ordered phase below TC.

  15. Probing the dispersion properties of 1D nanophotonic waveguides with far-field Fourier optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Thomas, N.; Jágerská, J.; Houdré, R.

    2008-01-01

    We present an advanced Fourier space imaging technique to probe guided light in nanophotonic structures with an effective numerical aperture of 2.5. This superresolution technique allows us to successfully investigate the dispersive properties of 1D nanowaveguides such as photonic crystal W1...

  16. Image processing of 2D crystal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheit, Marcel; Castaño-Díez, Daniel; Thierry, Raphaël; Gipson, Bryant R; Zeng, Xiangyan; Stahlberg, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Electron crystallography of membrane proteins uses cryo-transmission electron microscopy to image frozen-hydrated 2D crystals. The processing of recorded images exploits the periodic arrangement of the structures in the images to extract the amplitudes and phases of diffraction spots in Fourier space. However, image imperfections require a crystal unbending procedure to be applied to the image before evaluation in Fourier space. We here describe the process of 2D crystal image unbending, using the 2dx software system.

  17. Influence and compensation of autocorrelation terms in depth-resolved spectroscopic Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Patrick; Meier, Christoph; Koch, Volker M

    2010-12-20

    We demonstrate depth-resolved spectral absorption measurements in the wavelength range from 750 to 850 nm using a broadband light source consisting of three spectrally shifted superluminescent light-emitting diode modules and a low-cost spectrometer-based Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system. We present the theoretical model and experimental verification of interferences between autocorrelation terms and the signal carrying cross-correlation terms, strongly affecting the absorption measurements. A simple background subtraction, minimizing the artifacts caused by the interferences of autocorrelation and cross-correlation terms, is presented.

  18. Fast calculation method of computer generated hologram animation for viewpoint parallel shift and rotation using Fourier transform optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2016-01-20

    Computer generated hologram (CGH) animations can be made by switching many CGHs on an electronic display. Some fast calculation methods for CGH animations have been proposed, but one for viewpoint movement has not been proposed. Therefore, we designed a fast calculation method of CGH animations for viewpoint parallel shifts and rotation. A Fourier transform optical system was adopted to expand the viewing angle. The results of experiments were that the calculation time of our method was over 6 times faster than that of the conventional method. Furthermore, the degradation in CGH animation quality was found to be sufficiently small.

  19. Ultra low-loss, isotropic 2D optical negative-index metamaterial based on hybrid metal-semiconductor nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Paniagua-Dominguez, R; Sanchez-Gil, J A

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, many of the fascinating and previously almost unconceivable properties predicted for those novel, artificial, man-made materials, so called metamaterials, were demonstrated to be not only a tangible reality, but a very useful one. However, plenty of the best achievements in that newly discovered field are far from having a direct translation to the, in many aspects more interesting, high frequency range, without being burdened not only by technological difficulties, but also conceptual ones. Of particular importance within the realm of optical metamaterials having a negative index of refraction, often designated negative-index metamaterials (NIM), is the issue of simultaneously achieving a strong response of the system and low associated losses. In the present work, we demonstrate the possibility to use hybrid metal-semiconductor nanowires to obtain an isotropic optical NIM, with very strong electric and magnetic responses, which exhibits extremely low losses (about two orders of magnit...

  20. Boresight calibration of construction misalignments for 3D scanners built with a 2D laser range finder rotating on its optical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jesús; Martínez, Jorge L; Mandow, Anthony; Reina, Antonio J; Pequeño-Boter, Alejandro; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2014-10-24

    Many applications, like mobile robotics, can profit from acquiring dense, wide-ranging and accurate 3D laser data. Off-the-shelf 2D scanners are commonly customized with an extra rotation as a low-cost, lightweight and low-power-demanding solution. Moreover, aligning the extra rotation axis with the optical center allows the 3D device to maintain the same minimum range as the 2D scanner and avoids offsets in computing Cartesian coordinates. The paper proposes a practical procedure to estimate construction misalignments based on a single scan taken from an arbitrary position in an unprepared environment that contains planar surfaces of unknown dimensions. Inherited measurement limitations from low-cost 2D devices prevent the estimation of very small translation misalignments, so the calibration problem reduces to obtaining boresight parameters. The distinctive approach with respect to previous plane-based intrinsic calibration techniques is the iterative maximization of both the flatness and the area of visible planes. Calibration results are presented for a case study. The method is currently being applied as the final stage in the production of a commercial 3D rangefinder.

  1. In situ orientation studies of a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) blend by rheo-optical fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Miriam; Siesler, Heinz W

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, the orientation of a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) blend was monitored during uniaxial elongation by rheo-optical Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and analyzed by generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The dichroism of the delta(CH(2)) absorption bands of PHB and PCL was employed to determine the polymer chain orientation in the PHB/PCL blend during the elongation up to 267% strain. From the PHB and PCL specific orientation functions it was derived that the PCL chains orient into the drawing direction while the PHB chains orient predominantly perpendicular to the applied strain. To extract more detailed information about the polymer orientation during uniaxial elongation, 2D-COS analysis was employed for the dichroic difference of the polarization spectra recorded during the drawing process. In the corresponding synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation plots, absorption bands characteristic of the crystalline and amorphous regions of PHB and PCL were separated. Furthermore, the 2D-COS analysis revealed that during the mechanical treatment the PCL domains orient before the PHB domains.

  2. GPU-accelerated non-uniform fast Fourier transform-based compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U

    2014-06-16

    We implemented the graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated compressive sensing (CS) non-uniform in k-space spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Kaiser-Bessel (KB) function and Gaussian function are used independently as the convolution kernel in the gridding-based non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) algorithm with different oversampling ratios and kernel widths. Our implementation is compared with the GPU-accelerated modified non-uniform discrete Fourier transform (MNUDFT) matrix-based CS SD OCT and the GPU-accelerated fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based CS SD OCT. It was found that our implementation has comparable performance to the GPU-accelerated MNUDFT-based CS SD OCT in terms of image quality while providing more than 5 times speed enhancement. When compared to the GPU-accelerated FFT based-CS SD OCT, it shows smaller background noise and less side lobes while eliminating the need for the cumbersome k-space grid filling and the k-linear calibration procedure. Finally, we demonstrated that by using a conventional desktop computer architecture having three GPUs, real-time B-mode imaging can be obtained in excess of 30 fps for the GPU-accelerated NUFFT based CS SD OCT with frame size 2048(axial) × 1,000(lateral).

  3. Optical image encryption based on compressive sensing and chaos in the fractional Fourier domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingbin; Mei, Wenbo; Du, Huiqian

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel image encryption algorithm based on compressive sensing (CS) and chaos in the fractional Fourier domain. The original image is dimensionality reduction measured using CS. The measured values are then encrypted using chaotic-based double-random-phase encoding technique in the fractional Fourier transform domain. The measurement matrix and the random-phase masks used in the encryption process are formed from pseudo-random sequences generated by the chaotic map. In this proposed algorithm, the final result is compressed and encrypted. The proposed cryptosystem decreases the volume of data to be transmitted and simplifies the keys for distribution simultaneously. Numerical experiments verify the validity and security of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Alignment free characterization of 2D gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Jørgensen, Jan Friis

    2015-01-01

    Fast characterization of 2-dimensional gratings is demonstrated using a Fourier lens optical system and a differential optimization algorithm. It is shown that both the grating specific parameters such as the basis vectors and the angle between them and the alignment of the sample, such as the rotation of the sample around the x-, y-, and z-axis, can be deduced from a single measurement. More specifically, the lattice vectors and the angle between them have been measured, while the corrections of the alignment parameters are used to improve the quality of the measurement, and hence reduce the measurement uncertainty. Alignment free characterization is demonstrated on both a 2D hexagonal grating with a period of 700 nm and a checkerboard grating with a pitch of 3000 nm. The method can also be used for both automatic alignment and in-line characterization of gratings.

  5. Valley-spin polarization in the magneto-optical response of silicene and other similar 2D crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabert, C J; Nicol, E J

    2013-05-10

    We calculate the magneto-optical conductivity and electronic density of states for silicene, the silicon equivalent of graphene, and similar crystals such as germanene. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field and electric field gating, we note that four spin- and valley-polarized levels can be seen in the density of states, and transitions between these levels lead to similarly polarized absorption lines in the longitudinal, transverse Hall, and circularly polarized dynamic conductivity. While previous spin and valley polarization predicted for the conductivity is only present in the response to circularly polarized light, we show that distinct spin and valley polarization can also be seen in the longitudinal magneto-optical conductivity at experimentally attainable energies. The frequency of the absorption lines may be tuned by the electric and magnetic field to onset in a range varying from THz to the infrared. This potential to isolate charge carriers of definite spin and valley label may make silicene a promising candidate for spin- and valleytronic devices.

  6. SnO2-MOF-Fabry-Perot humidity optical sensor system based on fast Fourier transform technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Lopez-Torres, D.; Ascorbe, J.; Rota-Rodrigo, S.; Elosua, C.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Arregui, F. J.; Corres, J. M.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Roy, P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new sensor system for relative humidity measurements based on a SnO2 sputtering deposition on a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) low-finesse Fabry-Perot (FP) sensing head is presented and characterized. The interrogation of the sensing head is carried out by monitoring the Fast Fourier Transform phase variations of the FP interference frequency. This method is low-sensitive to signal amplitude variations and also avoids the necessity of tracking the evolution of peaks and valleys in the spectrum. The sensor is operated within a wide humidity range (20%-90% relative humidity) with a maximum sensitivity achieved of 0.14rad/%. The measurement method uses a commercial optical interrogator as the only active element, this compact solution allows real time analysis of the data.

  7. Space-variant optical correlator based on the fractional Fourier transform: implementation by the use of a photorefractive Bi(12)GeO(2(a)) (BGO) holographic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, S; Del Carmen Lasprilla, M; Bolognini, N; Sicre, E E

    1996-12-10

    A space-variant optical correlator is proposed on the basis of the fractional Fourier transform. The optical device uses as a recording medium for the holographic filter a photorefractive Bi(12)GeO(2) (BGO) crystal. The experimental results confirm the shift-variance properties. Some limitations that arise from the volume diffraction are also considered.

  8. Analyzing Fourier Transforms for NASA DFRC's Fiber Optic Strain Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechtner, Kaitlyn Leann

    2010-01-01

    This document provides a basic overview of the fiber optic technology used for sensing stress, strain, and temperature. Also, the document summarizes the research concerning speed and accuracy of the possible mathematical algorithms that can be used for NASA DFRC's Fiber Optic Strain Sensing (FOSS) system.

  9. Facile synthesis of 2-D Cu doped WO3 nanoplates with structural, optical and differential anti cancer characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Faisal; Iqbal, Javed; Gul, Asma; Ahmed, Waqqar; Ismail, M.

    2017-04-01

    Simple chemical co-precipitation method has been employed to synthesize two dimensional copper (Cu) doped tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoplates. A numbers of characterization techniques have been used to investigate their structural, optical and biocompatible anti cancer properties. The XRD results have confirmed the monoclinic crystal structure of WO3 nanoplates, and also successful doping of Cu ions into the WO3 crystal lattice. The presence of functional groups and chemical bonding have been verified through FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM images demonstrate that both undoped and Cu doped WO3 samples have squares plate like morphology. The EDX spectra confirm the presence of Cu, W and O ions. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis has revealed a substantial red-shift in the absorption edge and a decrease in the band gap energy of nanoplates with Cu doping. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to study the presence of defects like oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, the differential cytotoxic properties of Cu doped WO3 samples have been evaluated against human breast (MCF-7) and liver (Hep-2) cancer cells with ectocervical epithelial (HECE) healthy cells. The present findings confirm that the Cu doped WO3 nanoplates can be used as an efficient biocompatible anti cancer agent.

  10. Fourier's law on a one-dimensional optical random lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platini, T [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Harris, R J [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Karevski, D [Institut Jean Lamour, Departement Physique de la Matiere et des Materiaux, Groupe de Physique Statistique, Nancy-Universite CNRS, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France)

    2010-04-02

    We study the transport properties of a one-dimensional hard-core bosonic lattice gas coupled to two particle reservoirs at different chemical potentials which generate a current flow through the system. In particular, the influence of random fluctuations of the underlying lattice on the stationary-state properties is investigated. We show analytically that the steady-state density presents a linear profile. The local steady-state current obeys the Fourier law j = -{kappa}({tau}){nabla}n where {tau} is a typical timescale of the lattice fluctuations and {nabla}n is the density gradient imposed by the reservoirs.

  11. Highly sensitive size discrimination of sub-micron objects using optical Fourier processing based on two-dimensional Gabor filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Robert M; Qian, Zhen; Zheng, Jing-Yi; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Boustany, Nada N

    2009-07-06

    We use optical Gabor-like filtering implemented with a digital micromirror device to achieve nanoscale sensitivity to changes in the size of finite and periodic objects imaged at low resolution. The method consists of applying an optical Fourier filter bank consisting of Gabor-like filters of varying periods and extracting the optimum filter period that maximizes the filtered object signal. Using this optimum filter period as a measure of object size, we show sensitivity to a 7.5 nm change in the period of a chirped phase mask with period around 1 microm. We also show 30 nm sensitivity to change in the size of polystyrene spheres with diameters around 500 nm. Unlike digital post-processing our optical processing method retains its sensitivity when implemented at low magnification in undersampled images. Furthermore, the optimum Gabor filter period found experimentally is linearly related to sphere diameter over the range 0.46 microm-1 microm and does not rely on a predictive scatter model such as Mie theory. The technique may have applications in high throughput optical analysis of subcellular morphology to study organelle function in living cells.

  12. Preliminary clinical results: an analyzing tool for 2D optical imaging in detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi Aizudin Bin Radin Nasirudin, Radin; Meier, Reinhard; Ahari, Carmen; Sievert, Matti; Fiebich, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; No"l, Peter B.

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging (OI) is a relatively new method in detecting active inflammation of hand joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the high number of people affected by this disease especially in western countries, the availability of OI as an early diagnostic imaging method is clinically highly relevant. In this paper, we present a newly in-house developed OI analyzing tool and a clinical evaluation study. Our analyzing tool extends the capability of existing OI tools. We include many features in the tool, such as region-based image analysis, hyper perfusion curve analysis, and multi-modality image fusion to aid clinicians in localizing and determining the intensity of inflammation in joints. Additionally, image data management options, such as the full integration of PACS/RIS, are included. In our clinical study we demonstrate how OI facilitates the detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary clinical results indicate a sensitivity of 43.5%, a specificity of 80.3%, an accuracy of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 76.6%, and a negative predictive value of 64.9% in relation to clinical results from MRI. The accuracy of inflammation detection serves as evidence to the potential of OI as a useful imaging modality for early detection of active inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With our in-house developed tool we extend the usefulness of OI imaging in the clinical arena. Overall, we show that OI is a fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and nonionizing yet highly sensitive and accurate imaging modality.-

  13. Noncontact common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography method for in vitro intraocular lens power measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U.; Calogero, Don; James, Robert H.; Ilev, Ilko K.

    2011-12-01

    We propose a novel common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (CP-FD-OCT) method for noncontact, accurate, and objective in vitro measurement of the dioptric power of intraocular lenses (IOLs) implants. The CP-FD-OCT method principle of operation is based on simple two-dimensional scanning common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. By reconstructing the anterior and posterior IOL surfaces, the radii of the two surfaces, and thus the IOL dioptric power are determined. The CP-FD-OCT design provides high accuracy of IOL surface reconstruction. The axial position detection accuracy is calibrated at 1.22 μm in balanced saline solution used for simulation of in situ conditions. The lateral sampling rate is controlled by the step size of linear scanning systems. IOL samples with labeled dioptric power in the low-power (5D), mid-power (20D and 22D), and high-power (36D) ranges under in situ conditions are tested. We obtained a mean power of 4.95/20.11/22.09/36.25 D with high levels of repeatability estimated by a standard deviation of 0.10/0.18/0.2/0.58 D and a relative error of 2/0.9/0.9/1.6%, based on five measurements for each IOL respectively. The new CP-FD-OCT method provides an independent source of IOL power measurement data as well as information for evaluating other optical properties of IOLs such as refractive index, central thickness, and aberrations.

  14. Environmental Screening Effects in 2D Materials: Renormalization of the Bandgap, Electronic Structure, and Optical Spectra of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Diana Y; da Jornada, Felipe H; Louie, Steven G

    2017-08-09

    Few-layer black phosphorus has recently emerged as a promising 2D semiconductor, notable for its widely tunable bandgap, highly anisotropic properties, and theoretically predicted large exciton binding energies. To avoid degradation, it has become common practice to encapsulate black phosphorus devices. It is generally assumed that this encapsulation does not qualitatively affect their optical properties. Here, we show that the contrary is true. We have performed ab initio GW and GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) calculations to determine the quasiparticle (QP) band structure and optical spectrum of one-layer (1L) through four-layer (4L) black phosphorus, with and without encapsulation between hexagonal boron nitride and sapphire. We show that black phosphorus is exceptionally sensitive to environmental screening. Encapsulation reduces the exciton binding energy in 1L by as much as 70% and completely eliminates the presence of a bound exciton in the 4L structure. The reduction in the exciton binding energies is offset by a similarly large renormalization of the QP bandgap so that the optical gap remains nearly unchanged, but the nature of the excited states and the qualitative features of the absorption spectrum change dramatically.

  15. Evaluation of Fourier transform coefficients for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis from diffuse optical tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo, Ludguier D.; Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2013-03-01

    We apply the Fourier Transform to absorption and scattering coefficient images of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints and evaluate the performance of these coefficients as classifiers using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We find 25 features that yield a Youden index over 0.7, 3 features that yield a Youden index over 0.8, and 1 feature that yields a Youden index over 0.9 (90.0% sensitivity and 100% specificity). In general, scattering coefficient images yield better one-dimensional classifiers compared to absorption coefficient images. Using features derived from scattering coefficient images we obtain an average Youden index of 0.58 +/- 0.16, and an average Youden index of 0.45 +/- 0.15 when using features from absorption coefficient images.

  16. Optical double image security using random phase fractional Fourier domain encoding and phase-retrieval algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Sudheesh K.; Nishchal, Naveen K.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a novel security scheme based on the double random phase fractional domain encoding (DRPE) and modified Gerchberg-Saxton (G-S) phase retrieval algorithm for securing two images simultaneously. Any one of the images to be encrypted is converted into a phase-only image using modified G-S algorithm and this function is used as a key for encrypting another image. The original images are retrieved employing the concept of known-plaintext attack and following the DRPE decryption steps with all correct keys. The proposed scheme is also used for encryption of two color images with the help of convolution theorem and phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform. With some modification, the scheme is extended for simultaneous encryption of gray-scale and color images. As a proof-of-concept, simulation results have been presented for securing two gray-scale images, two color images, and simultaneous gray-scale and color images.

  17. Combined impedance spectroscopy and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography to monitor cells in three-dimensional structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnaninchi, Pierre O

    2010-04-01

    To assess non-invasively and in real time the three- dimensional organization of cells within porous matrices by combining Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (FDOCT) and Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). Broadband interferences resulting from the recombination of in-depth light scattering events within the sample and light from a reference arm are measured as a modulation of the spectrum generated by a superluminescent laser diode (lambdao = 930nm, FWHM 90nm). Fourier transform allows in-depth localization of the scatterers, and the 3D microstructure of the sample is reconstructed by raster scanning. Simultaneously impedance spectroscopy is performed with a dielectric probe connected to an impedance analyzer to gather additional cellular information, and synchronized with FDOCT measurements. A combined IS-FDOCT system allowing an axial resolution of 5 micrometer in tissues and impedance measurements over the range 20MHz-1GHz has been developed. Alginate matrices have been characterized in terms of microstructure and impedance. Matrices seeded with adipose-derived stem cells have been monitored without the use of labeling agent. We have developed a multimodality system that will be instrumental to non-invasively monitor changes in total cell volume fraction and infer cell-specific dielectric properties in 3D structure.

  18. Spatial-phase code-division multiple-access system with multiplexed Fourier holography switching for reconfigurable optical interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasago, K; Takekawa, M; Shirakawa, A; Kannari, F

    2000-05-10

    A new, to our knowledge, space-variant optical interconnection system based on a spatial-phase code-division multiple-access technique with multiplexed Fourier holography is described. In this technique a signal beam is spread over wide spatial frequencies by an M-sequence pseudorandom phase code. At a receiver side a selected signal beam is properly decoded, and at the same time its spatial pattern is shaped with a Fourier hologram, which is recorded by light that is encoded with the same M-sequence phase mask as the desired signal beam and by light whose spatial beam pattern is shaped to a signal routing pattern. Using the multiplexed holography, we can simultaneously route multisignal flows into individually specified receiver elements. The routing pattern can also be varied by means of switching the encoding phase code or replacing the hologram. We demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment with a doubly multiplexed hologram that enables simultaneous routing of two signal beams. Using a numerical model, we showed that the proposed scheme can manage more than 250 routing patterns for one signal flow with one multiplexed hologram at a signal-to-noise ratio of ~5.

  19. Experimental modules covering imaging, diffraction, Fourier optics and polarization based on a liquid-crystal cell SLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    In close collaboration with four German universities, we have developed tutorials for experiments based on a transmissive liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). The experimental tutorials are grouped in six project modules, which cover a wide range of phenomena and have different levels of difficulty. At a basic level, students can investigate the SLM in its probably most well-known application as an image-generating element in a simple optical projector setup. At more advanced levels, the application as an adaptive optical element can be investigated in three different projects covering wave-optical phenomena. The fields covered include Fourier Optics using the SLM as a dynamic fan-out beam-splitter or kinoform, Computer-Generated Holography and basic Interferometry. For the support of these projects, software was developed which permits the generation of adaptive optical structures by the student with a user-friendly interface, while the underlying algorithms are explained in the theoretical tutorial. The modulation of the light by the twisted-neumatic liquid crystal cells of the SLM can be investigated in the two most advanced projects. In the first one, the parameters of the cell and the components of its Jones matrix can be derived from transmission measurements with rotatable polarizers at a number of different wavelengths. This project gives insight to the Jones matrix calculus at the level required for the analysis. In the second one, the complex-valued transmission of the SLM is determined by measuring the diffraction efficiency of dynamically addressed Ronchi gratings.

  20. Optical-Path-Difference Linear Mechanism for the Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavier, Jean-Francois L.; Heverly, Matthew C.; Key, Richard W.; Sander, Stanley P.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a mechanism that uses flex-pivots in a parallelogram arrangement to provide frictionless motion with an unlimited lifetime. A voicecoil actuator drives the parallelogram over the required 5-cm travel. An optical position sensor provides feedback for a servo loop that keeps the velocity within 1 percent of expected value. Residual tip/tilt error is compensated for by a piezo actuator that drives the interferometer mirror. This mechanism builds on previous work that targeted ground-based measurements. The main novelty aspects include cryogenic and vacuum operation, high reliability for spaceflight, compactness of the design, optical layout compatible with the needs of an imaging FTS (i.e. wide overall field-of-view), and mirror optical coatings to cover very broad wavelength range (i.e., 0.26 to 15 m).

  1. Molecular Dynamics at Electrical- and Optical-Driven Phase Transitions: Time-Resolved Infrared Studies Using Fourier-Transform Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, Tobias; Dressel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The time-dependent optical properties of molecular systems are investigated by step-scan Fourier-transform spectroscopy in order to explore the dynamics at phase transitions and molecular orientation in the milli- and microsecond range. The electrical switching of liquid crystals traced by vibrational spectroscopy reveals a rotation of the molecules with a relaxation time of 2 ms. The photo-induced neutral-ionic transition in TTF-CA takes place by a suppression of the dimerization in the ionic phase and creation of neutral domains. The time-dependent infrared spectra, employed to investigate the domain-wall dynamics, depend on temperature and laser pulse intensity; the relaxation of the spectra follows a stretched-exponential decay with relaxation times in the microsecond range strongly dependent on temperature and laser intensity. We present all details of the experimental setups and thoroughly discuss the technical challenges.

  2. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E; Kaiser, Nathan K; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Norheim, Randolph V; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Marshall, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Molecular Dynamics at Electrical- and Optical-Driven Phase Transitions: Time-Resolved Infrared Studies Using Fourier-Transform Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, Tobias; Dressel, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The time-dependent optical properties of molecular systems are investigated by step-scan Fourier-transform spectroscopy in order to explore the dynamics at phase transitions and molecular orientation in the milli- and microsecond range. The electrical switching of liquid crystals traced by vibrational spectroscopy reveals a rotation of the molecules with a relaxation time of 2 ms. The photo-induced neutral-ionic transition in TTF-CA takes place by a suppression of the dimerization in the ionic phase and creation of neutral domains. The time-dependent infrared spectra, employed to investigate the domain-wall dynamics, depend on temperature and laser pulse intensity; the relaxation of the spectra follows a stretched-exponential decay with relaxation times in the microsecond range strongly dependent on temperature and laser intensity. We present all details of the experimental setups and thoroughly discuss the technical challenges.

  4. 1.28 Tbit/s/channel single-polarization DQPSK transmission over 525 km using ultrafast time-domain optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, P.; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Tomiyama, Y.;

    2010-01-01

    A single-channel 1.28 Tbit/s transmission over 525 km is demonstrated for the first time with a single-polarization DQPSK signal. Ultrafast time-domain optical Fourier transformation is successfully applied to DQPSK signals and results in improved performance and increased system margin.......A single-channel 1.28 Tbit/s transmission over 525 km is demonstrated for the first time with a single-polarization DQPSK signal. Ultrafast time-domain optical Fourier transformation is successfully applied to DQPSK signals and results in improved performance and increased system margin....

  5. Doppler Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Label-Free Tissue Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Blatter, Cedric; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    Information about tissue perfusion and the vascular structure is certainly most important for assessment of tissue state or personal health and the diagnosis of any pathological conditions. It is therefore of key medical interest to have tools available for both quantitative blood flow assessment as well as qualitative vascular imaging. The strength of optical techniques is the unprecedented level of detail even for small capillary structures or microaneurysms and the possibility to combine different techniques for additional tissue spectroscopy giving insight into tissue metabolism. There is an immediate diagnostic and pharmacological demand for high-resolution, label-free, tissue angiography and flow assessment that in addition allow for precise depth gating of flow information. The most promising candidate is Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) being noncontact, label free, and without employing hazardous radiation. DOCT provides fully quantitative volumetric information about blood flow together with the vascular and structural anatomy. Besides flow quantification, analysis of OCT signal fluctuations allows to contrast moving scatterers in tissue such as red blood cells from static tissue. This allows for non-invasive optical angiography and yields high resolution even for smallest capillaries. Because of the huge potential of DOCT and lable-free optical angiography for diagnosis, the last years saw a rapid increase of publications in this field with many different approaches. The present chapter gives an overview over existing Doppler OCT approaches and angiography techniques. It furthermore discusses limitations and noise issues, and gives examples for angiography in the eye and the skin.

  6. Analysis of the Localization of Michelson Interferometer Fringes Using Fourier Optics and Temporal Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanamurthy, C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Fringes formed in a Michelson interferometer never localize in any plane, in the detector plane and in the localization plane. Instead, the fringes are assumed to localize at infinity. Except for some explanation in "Principles of Optics" by Born and Wolf (1964 (New York: Macmillan)), the fringe localization phenomena of Michelson's interferometer…

  7. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fiber optic monitoring of composites during cure in an autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druy, Mark A.; Elandjian, Lucy; Stevenson, William A.; Driver, Richard D.; Leskowitz, Garett M.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time in situ monitoring of the chemical states of epoxy resins was investigated during cure in an autoclave using infrared evanescent spectroscopy. Fiber evanescent sensors were developed which may be sandwiched between the plies of the prepreg sample. A short length of sapphire fiber was used as the sensor cell portion of the fiber probe. Heavy metal fluoride glass optical fiber cables were designed for connecting the FTIR spectrometer to the sensor fiber within the autoclave. The sapphire fibers have outstanding mechanical thermal properties which should permit their use as an embedded link in all thermoset composites. The system is capable of operation at a temperature of 250 C for periods up to 8 hours without major changes to the fiber transmission. A discussion of the selection of suitable sensor fibers, the construction of a fiber-optic interface, and the interpretation of in situ infrared spectra of the curing process is presented.

  8. Real-time all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain optical fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Kong, Deming; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel simple all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain OFT using time-lenses. A real-time 160 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM transmission with 16 decorrelated data subcarriers is successfully demonstrated over 100 km.......We propose a novel simple all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain OFT using time-lenses. A real-time 160 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM transmission with 16 decorrelated data subcarriers is successfully demonstrated over 100 km....

  9. Combining Gabor and Talbot bands techniques to enhance the sensitivity with depth in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradu, Adrian; Marques, Manuel J.; Bouchal, Petr; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to show how to favorably mix two e_ects to improve the sensitivity with depth in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT): Talbot bands (TB) and Gabor-based fusion (GF) technique. TB operation is achieved by directing the two beams, from the object arm and from the reference arm in the OCT interferometer, along parallel separate paths towards the spectrometer. By changing the lateral gap between the two beams in their path towards the spectrometer, the position for the maximum sensitivity versus the optical path difference in the interferometer is adjusted. For five values of the focus position, the gap between the two beams is readjusted to reach maximum sensitivity. Then, similar to the procedure employed in the GF technique, a composite image is formed by edging together the parts of the five images that exhibited maximum brightness. The combined procedure, TB/GF is examined for four different values of the beam diameters of the two beams. Also we demonstrate volumetric FD-OCT images with mirror term attenuation and sensitivity profile shifted towards higher OPD values by applying a Talbot bands configuration.

  10. In vivo sweat film layer thickness measured with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonathan, E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available and pore can be located. In addition, other measure- ments of interest, for example, thickness of the SCL, diameter of an open sweat pore or depth position of DEJ can be performed. References [1] Weller AS. Body temperature and its regulation. Physiol... of tissue microstructure is achieved from operating in the optical low-coherence interferometry domain. 1. Introduction Sweat secretion in humans is accepted as a mechanism by which the body cools off [1,2]. Interest in sweat secretion in humans’ dates...

  11. Measurement of retinal blood flow in the rat by combining Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with fundus imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister, René M.; Vietauer, Martin; Knopf, Corinna; Fürnsinn, Clemens; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Reitsamer, Herbert; Gröschl, Martin; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Vilser, Walthard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-10-01

    A wide variety of ocular diseases are associated with abnormalities in ocular circulation. As such, there is considerable interest in techniques for quantifying retinal blood flow, among which Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be the most promising. We present an approach to measure retinal blood flow in the rat using a new optical system that combines the measurement of blood flow velocities via Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and the measurement of vessel diameters using a fundus camera-based technique. Relying on fundus images for extraction of retinal vessel diameters instead of OCT images improves the reliability of the technique. The system was operated with an 841-nm superluminescent diode and a charge-coupled device camera that could be operated at a line rate of 20 kHz. We show that the system is capable of quantifying the response of 100% oxygen breathing on the retinal blood flow. In six rats, we observed a decrease in retinal vessel diameters of 13.2% and a decrease in retinal blood velocity of 42.6%, leading to a decrease in retinal blood flow of 56.7%. Furthermore, in four rats, the response of retinal blood flow during stimulation with diffuse flicker light was assessed. Retinal vessel diameter and blood velocity increased by 3.4% and 28.1%, respectively, leading to a relative increase in blood flow of 36.2%;. The presented technique shows much promise to quantify early changes in retinal blood flow during provocation with various stimuli in rodent models of ocular diseases in rats.

  12. Optical double image encryption employing a pseudo image technique in the Fourier domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changliang; Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T.

    2014-06-01

    A novel optical encryption method is proposed involving double image encryption in which one image is introduced as the pseudo image while the other is the original object image. The Double Random Phase Encoding technique is used to encrypt both the pseudo and object images into complex images. A unique binary image is then employed to first generate the random phase key for the object image encryption and then to embed the encrypted object image into the encrypted pseudo image, which acts as host image. Both the second random phase mask used for encoding the pseudo image and the binary image act as encryption keys. If an attacker attempts to crack the random phase key and decrypt the original object image, the pseudo image will be obtained instead. Simulation results and robustness tests are performed which demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithm.

  13. Design of Optical Tunable CNOT (XOR) and XNOR Logic Gates Based on 2D-Photonic Crystal Cavity Using Electro-Optic Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasian, Karim; Sadeghi, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed optical tunable CNOT (XOR) and XNOR logic gates using two-dimensional photonic crystal (2DPhC) cavities. Where, air rods with square lattice array have been embedded in Ag-Polymer substrate with refractive index of 1.59. In this work, we have enhanced speed of logic gates by applying two input signals with a phase dif?ference at the same wavelength for 2DPhC cavities. Where, we have adjusted the phases of input and control signals equal with {\\pi}/3 and zero, respectively. The response time of the structure and quality factor of the cavities are in the range of femtosecond and 2000, respectively. Then, we have used electro-optic property of the substrate material to change the cavities resonance wavelengths. By this means, we could design the logic gates and demonstrate a tunable range of 23nm for their operation wavelength. The quality factor and the response times of cavities remain constant in the tunable range of wavelength, approximately. The evaluated least ON to OFF logic-level contras...

  14. Verification of optical diagnostic methods in H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} - plasmas; Verifikation von optischen Diagnostikmethoden an H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} - Plasmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Stephan

    2010-12-02

    For the neutral beam injection of the fusion experiment ITER negative deuterium ions have to be extracted from an ion source, accelerated to 1 MeV and subsequently neutralized. To control the plasma processes of the non-thermal hydrogen low temperature plasmas in the ion sources the knowledge of the plasma parameters like electron temperature and electron density is necessary. Among the required diagnostic methods the optical emission spectroscopy has one of the simplest setups which allows non-invasive and in situ measurements of the parameters. Within the scope of this thesis a modular diode system was developed, which allows together with systematically verified and improved optical diagnostic methods a time resolved online monitoring of the plasma parameters. The verification was carried out in stable and reproducible electron cyclotron resonance plasmas. These plasmas allows a simple comparison between the optical emission spectroscopy and various reference methods in a large parameter range of electron temperature and electron density. In order to verify the effective population densities from collisional radiative models and the deduced emission rate coefficients reference measurements were carried out using a Langmuir probe, a double probe, the Boyd-Twiddy-Method, interferometry, laser detachment, a mass spectrometer and already verified optical diagnostic methods of diagnostic gases like helium and argon. By a correction of the used collisional radiative model the determination of the electron density was significantly improved. (orig.)

  15. Dynamic measurement of deformation using Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinya; Wu, Sijin; Yang, Lianxiang

    2013-10-01

    Digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a well-established optical technique for measurement of nano-scale deformations. It has become more and more important due to the rapid development of applications in aerospace engineering and biomedicine. Traditionally, phase shift technique is used to quantitatively measure the deformations in DHI. However, it cannot be applied in dynamic measurement. Fourier transform phase extraction method, which can determine the phase distribution from only a single hologram, becomes a promising method to extract transient phases in DHI. This paper introduces a digital holographic interferometric system based on 2D Fourier transform phase extraction method, with which deformations of objects can be measured quickly. In the optical setup, the object beam strikes a CCD via a lens and aperture, and the reference beam is projected on the CCD through a single-mode fiber. A small inclination angle between the diverging reference beam and optical axial is introduced in order to physically separate the Fourier components in frequency domain. Phase maps are then obtained by the utilization of Fourier transform and windowed inverse Fourier transform. The capability of the Fourier transform DHI is discussed by theoretical discussion as well as experiments.

  16. Consistency of corneal sublayer thickness measurements using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography after phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miguel, Alberto; Calabuig-Goena, María; Marqués-Fernández, Victoria; Fernández, Itziar; Alió, Jorge L; Maldonado, Miguel J

    2016-11-04

    To assess the reliability of corneal epithelial thickness (CET), nonepithelial central corneal thickness (NECCT), and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) in patients who did and did not undergo cataract surgery. Forty patients who underwent uneventful phacoemulsification and 40 healthy participants were recruited to evaluate the intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility of CET, NECCT, and CCT measurements using Cirrus HD-OCT. To analyze repeatability, one examiner obtained 5 consecutive scans in each participant; for interobserver reproducibility, another examiner randomly obtained another scan. Within-subject standard deviation, coefficient of variation (CV), limits of agreement, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) data were obtained. For intraobserver repeatability, the intrasession CV (CVw) and ICC values of the CET in the operated and nonoperated groups were 3.7% and 0.80 and 3.8% and 0.73, respectively; for NECCT, 0.7% and 0.98 and 0.8% and 0.97; and for CCT, 0.6% and 0.99 and 0.7% and 0.98. For interobserver reproducibility, the CVw and ICC values for the CET in the operated and nonoperated groups were 2.6% and 0.82 and 2.3% and 0.62, respectively; for NECCT, 0.7% and 0.98 and 0.5% and 0.98; and for CCT, 0.5% and 0.99 and 0.4% and 0.99. The corneal sublayer thickness can be measured reliably using Cirrus HD-OCT in patients who underwent cataract surgery and elderly participants; however, the CET consistency is poorer than the NECCT. Corneal epithelial thickness modifications exceeding 4% reflect true thickness changes instead of random error variations using HD-OCT.

  17. Real-time 3D Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography guided microvascular anastomosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Lee, W. P. A.; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-03-01

    Vascular and microvascular anastomosis is considered to be the foundation of plastic and reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, transplant surgery, vascular surgery and cardiac surgery. In the last two decades innovative techniques, such as vascular coupling devices, thermo-reversible poloxamers and suture-less cuff have been introduced. Intra-operative surgical guidance using a surgical imaging modality that provides in-depth view and 3D imaging can improve outcome following both conventional and innovative anastomosis techniques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive high-resolution (micron level), high-speed, 3D imaging modality that has been adopted widely in biomedical and clinical applications. In this work we performed a proof-of-concept evaluation study of OCT as an assisted intraoperative and post-operative imaging modality for microvascular anastomosis of rodent femoral vessels. The OCT imaging modality provided lateral resolution of 12 μm and 3.0 μm axial resolution in air and 0.27 volume/s imaging speed, which could provide the surgeon with clearly visualized vessel lumen wall and suture needle position relative to the vessel during intraoperative imaging. Graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated phase-resolved Doppler OCT (PRDOCT) imaging of the surgical site was performed as a post-operative evaluation of the anastomosed vessels and to visualize the blood flow and thrombus formation. This information could help surgeons improve surgical precision in this highly challenging anastomosis of rodent vessels with diameter less than 0.5 mm. Our imaging modality could not only detect accidental suture through the back wall of lumen but also promptly diagnose and predict thrombosis immediately after reperfusion. Hence, real-time OCT can assist in decision-making process intra-operatively and avoid post-operative complications.

  18. Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Lower Tear Meniscus in Dry Eye after Acupuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye is highly prevalent and has a significant impact on quality of life. Acupuncture was found to be effective to treat dry eye. However, little was known about the effect of acupuncture on different subtypes of dry eye. The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of tear meniscus assessment by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of acupuncture treatment response in dry eye patients and to explore the effect of acupuncture on different subtypes of dry eye compared with artificial tear treatment. A total of 108 dry eye patients were randomized into acupuncture or artificial tear group. Each group was divided into three subgroups including lipid tear deficiency (LTD, Sjögren syndrome dry eye (SSDE, and non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye (Non-SSDE for data analysis. After 4-week treatment, the low tear meniscus parameters including tear meniscus height (TMH, tear meniscus depth (TMD, and tear meniscus area (TMA in the acupuncture group increased significantly for the LTD and Non-SSDE subgroups compared with both the baseline and the control groups (all P values < 0.05, but not for the SSDE. Acupuncture provided a measurable improvement of the tear meniscus dimensions for the Non-SSDE and LTD patients, but not for the SSDE patients.

  19. Visual appearance effect on modified reconstruction color images of optical Fourier transform hologram by means of digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Masayuki; Kariya, Makoto; Uehara, Shinobu; Nakashima, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Mamoru

    2003-05-01

    A blue white He-Cd laser composed of three R/G/B component beams in place of He-Ne laser is directly applied to fabricate the optical Fourier transform hologram (OFTH) using the red sensitive silver halide material (SO-253 film) for holography. As a result, the red beams play an important role as the coherent beams in the fabrication of OFTH. A green solid state laser is applied to fabricate the OFTH using the same film for holography. The visual appearance of reconstruted color images caused by He-Cd laser is discussed in contrast to that of an ordinary OFTH which can be made using the He-Ne laser and solid state laser. The visual color effect using the He-Cd laser is checked from the viewpoint of the relative real size and its place in the OFTH, and the visual depth sensation of overlapped ghost images called cross-talk in the Fresnel hologram. The purpose using a commercially available software such as HSL color model is to carry out the intuitive modification of overlapped and deteriorated color images in the digital reconstruction of OFTH and Fresnel hologram.

  20. Assessment of Corneal Epithelial Thickness in Asymmetric Keratoconic Eyes and Normal Eyes Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Catalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the characteristics of asymmetric keratoconic eyes and normal eyes by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT corneal mapping. Methods. Retrospective corneal and epithelial thickness OCT data for 74 patients were compared in three groups of eyes: keratoconic (n=22 and normal fellow eyes (n=22 in patients with asymmetric keratoconus and normal eyes (n=104 in healthy subjects. Areas under the curve (AUC of receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves for each variable were compared across groups to indicate their discrimination capacity. Results. Three variables were found to differ significantly between fellow eyes and normal eyes (all p<0.05: minimum corneal thickness, thinnest corneal point, and central corneal thickness. These variables combined showed a high discrimination power to differentiate fellow eyes from normal eyes indicated by an AUC of 0.840 (95% CI: 0.762–0.918. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that topographically normal fellow eyes in patients with very asymmetric keratoconus differ from the eyes of healthy individuals in terms of their corneal epithelial and pachymetry maps. This type of information could be useful for an early diagnosis of keratoconus in topographically normal eyes.

  1. Fourier transform and Vernier spectroscopy using an optical frequency comb at 3-5.4  μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhsh, Amir; Ramaiah-Badarla, Venkata; Rutkowski, Lucile; Johansson, Alexandra C; Lee, Kevin F; Jiang, Jie; Mohr, Christian; Fermann, Martin E; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    We present a versatile mid-infrared frequency comb spectroscopy system based on a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator tunable in the 3-5.4 μm range and two detection methods: a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a continuous-filtering Vernier spectrometer (CF-VS). Using the FTS with a multipass cell, we measure high precision broadband absorption spectra of CH4 at 3.3 μm and NO at 5.25 μm, the latter for the first time with comb spectroscopy, and we detect atmospheric species (CH4, CO, CO2, and H2O) in air in the signal and idler ranges. Multiline fitting yields minimum detectable concentrations of 10-20  ppb Hz-1/2 for CH4, NO, and CO. For the first time in the mid-infrared, we perform CF-VS using an enhancement cavity, a grating, and a single detector, and we measure the absorption spectrum of CH4 and H2O in ambient air at ∼3.3  μm, reaching a 40 ppb concentration detection limit for CH4 in 2 ms.

  2. Fourier transform and Vernier spectroscopy using an optical frequency comb at 3-54 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhsh, Amir; Ramaiah-Badarla, Venkata; Rutkowski, Lucile; Johansson, Alexandra C.; Lee, Kevin F.; Jiang, Jie; Mohr, Christian; Fermann, Martin E.; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    We present a versatile mid-infrared frequency comb spectroscopy system based on a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator tunable in the 3-5.4 {\\mu}m range and two detection methods, a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a Vernier spectrometer. Using the FTS with a multipass cell we measure high-precision broadband absorption spectra of CH$_4$ and NO at ~3.3 {\\mu}m and ~5.2 {\\mu}m, respectively, and of atmospheric species (CH$_4$, CO, CO$_2$ and H$_2$O) in air in the signal and idler wavelength range. The figure of merit of the system is on the order of 10$^{-8}$ cm$^{-1}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ per spectral element, and multiline fitting yields minimum detectable concentrations of 10-20 ppb Hz$^{-1/2}$ for CH$_4$, NO and CO. For the first time in the mid-infrared, we perform continuous-filtering Vernier spectroscopy using a low finesse enhancement cavity, a grating and a single detector, and measure the absorption spectrum of CH$_4$ and H$_2$O in ambient air at ~3.3 {\\mu}m.

  3. Fiber-optic fourier transform mid-infrared reflectance spectroscopy: a suitable technique for in situ studies of mural paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliani, C; Rosi, F; Borgia, I; Benedetti, P; Brunetti, B G; Sgamellotti, A

    2007-03-01

    A prototypical in situ noninvasive study of ancient mural painting materials has been carried out using an easily manageable fiber-optic Fourier transform mid-infrared (mid-FT-IR) reflectance spectrophotometer. The reported object of the study is the Renaissance fresco by Pietro Vannucci, called il Perugino, located in the church of Santa Maria delle Lacrime (1521, Trevi, Perugia Italy). For the first classification and interpretation of infrared spectra, principal components analysis was used. Spectral artifacts due to lacunas, restoration materials, or alteration products have been identified, as well as two different secco refinements bound in a tempera medium. For the characterization of inorganic pigments, mid-FT-IR spectra have been integrated with other data obtained through in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analysis. This complementary noninvasive approach led to the characterization of Perugino's pigments, even in the presence of complex mixtures. The mid-FT-IR noninvasive technique, in combination with XRF, is thus recommended as a valuable first approach for the examination of mural paintings, permitting the assessment of the execution technique as well as contributing to the evaluation of the conservation state.

  4. Three-dimensional full-range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for in-vivo volumetric imaging of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Nan; Bu, Peng; Guo, Xin; Wang, Xiangzhao

    2012-03-01

    A three dimensional full-range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (complex FDOCT) system based on sinusoidal phase-modulating method is proposed. With the system, the range of imaging depth is doubled and the sensitivity degradation with the lateral scan distance is avoided. Fourier analysis of B-scan data along lateral scan distance is used for reconstructing the complex spectral interferograms. The B-scan based Fourier method improves the system tolerance of sample movement and makes data processing less time consuming. In vivo volumetric imaging of human skin with the proposed full-range FDOCT system is demonstrated. The mirror image rejection ratio is about 30 dB. The stratum corneum, the epidermis and the upper dermis of skin can be clearly identified in the reconstructed three dimensional FDOCT images.

  5. Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstov, Georgi P

    1962-01-01

    Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie

  6. Applications of visual evoked potentials and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in Parkinson's disease: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Barasnevicius Quagliato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this cross-sectional observational study was to quantify the pattern-shift visual evoked potentials (VEP and the thickness as well as the volume of retinal layers using optical coherence tomography (OCT across a cohort of Parkinson's disease (PD patients and age-matched controls. Methods: Forty-three PD patients and 38 controls were enrolled. All participants underwent a detailed neurological and ophthalmologic evaluation. Idiopathic PD cases were included. Cases with glaucoma or increased intra-ocular pressure were excluded. Patients were assessed by VEP and high-resolution Fourier-domain OCT, which quantified the inner and outer thicknesses of the retinal layers. VEP latencies and the thicknesses of the retinal layers were the main outcome measures. Results: The mean age, with standard deviation (SD, of the PD patients and controls were 63.1 (7.5 and 62.4 (7.2 years, respectively. The patients were predominantly in the initial Hoehn-Yahr (HY disease stages (34.8% in stage 1 or 1.5, and 55.8 % in stage 2. The VEP latencies and the thicknesses as well as the volumes of the retinal inner and outer layers of the groups were similar. A negative correlation between the retinal thickness and the age was noted in both groups. The thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL was 102.7 μm in PD patients vs. 104.2 μm in controls. Conclusions: The thicknesses of retinal layers, VEP, and RNFL of PD patients were similar to those of the controls. Despite the use of a representative cohort of PD patients and high-resolution OCT in this study, further studies are required to establish the validity of using OCT and VEP measurements as the anatomic and functional biomarkers for the evaluation of retinal and visual pathways in PD patients.

  7. Expansion of Schlemm's canal by travoprost in healthy subjects determined by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Huang, Haili; Zhang, Shenghai; Chen, Xueli; Sun, Xinghuai

    2013-02-07

    To determine the effect of travoprost 0.004% on Schlemm's canal (SC) in healthy human eyes using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, and paired comparison study. Right eyes of subjects were randomly assigned to receive either travoprost 0.004% or placebo; the contralateral eye received the other treatment. FD-OCT imaging of SC and measurements of IOP were carried out before and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 hours after eye drop instillation. After instillation of travoprost eye drops, IOP gradually reduced, and the SC lumens expanded, while those values remained unchanged in placebo treated eyes. At 8 hours after the travoprost administration, the mean SC area increased 90.30% and 90.20%, respectively, in the nasal and temporal quadrant of the treated eyes as compared with the placebo group. The SC area and IOP showed a similar pattern of changes at most time points examined. In travoprost-treated eyes, a statistically significant correlation between SC area and IOP is observed (r = -0.2817; P = 0.0004). Measurements of the SC area showed sufficient repeatability and reproducibility. SC can be noninvasively imaged and quantitatively assessed in the living healthy human eye by FD-OCT. Travoprost treatment leads to SC lumen expansion accompanied by a drop of IOP in the healthy eye, likely as a result of the enhancement of pressure sensitive trabecular meshwork outflow induced by travoprost.

  8. Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stade, Eric

    2005-01-01

    A reader-friendly, systematic introduction to Fourier analysis Rich in both theory and application, Fourier Analysis presents a unique and thorough approach to a key topic in advanced calculus. This pioneering resource tells the full story of Fourier analysis, including its history and its impact on the development of modern mathematical analysis, and also discusses essential concepts and today's applications. Written at a rigorous level, yet in an engaging style that does not dilute the material, Fourier Analysis brings two profound aspects of the discipline to the forefront: the wealth of ap

  9. Real-time processing for full-range Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography with zero-filling interpolation using multiple graphic processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Maeno, Seiya; Aoshima, Kenji; Hasegawa, Haruyuki; Koseki, Hitoshi

    2010-09-01

    The real-time display of full-range, 2048?axial pixelx1024?lateral pixel, Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography (FD-OCT) images is demonstrated. The required speed was achieved by using dual graphic processing units (GPUs) with many stream processors to realize highly parallel processing. We used a zero-filling technique, including a forward Fourier transform, a zero padding to increase the axial data-array size to 8192, an inverse-Fourier transform back to the spectral domain, a linear interpolation from wavelength to wavenumber, a lateral Hilbert transform to obtain the complex spectrum, a Fourier transform to obtain the axial profiles, and a log scaling. The data-transfer time of the frame grabber was 15.73?ms, and the processing time, which includes the data transfer between the GPU memory and the host computer, was 14.75?ms, for a total time shorter than the 36.70?ms frame-interval time using a line-scan CCD camera operated at 27.9?kHz. That is, our OCT system achieved a processed-image display rate of 27.23 frames/s.

  10. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Berg, Larry K.; Lantz, Kathy; Michalsky, Joseph; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is ~0.19, and that over oceans is ~0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), -0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), -0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMELAOD - MFRSRAOD) and yields the following

  11. Development of a phase-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system to measure mouse organ of Corti vibrations in two cochlear turns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramamoorthy, Sripriya [Oregon Hearing Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Zhang, Yuan; Jacques, Steven [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Petrie, Tracy; Wang, Ruikang [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Nuttall, Alfred L. [Oregon Hearing Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kresge Hearing Research Institute, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2015-12-31

    In this study, we have developed a phase-sensitive Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system to simultaneously measure the in vivo inner ear vibrations in the hook area and second turn of the mouse cochlea. This technical development will enable measurement of intra-cochlear distortion products at ideal locations such as the distortion product generation site and reflection site. This information is necessary to un-mix the complex mixture of intra-cochlear waves comprising the DPOAE and thus leads to the non-invasive identification of the local region of cochlear damage.

  12. Grazing-angle fiber-optic fourier transform infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy for the in situ detection and quantification of two active pharmaceutical ingredients on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perston, Benjamin B; Hamilton, Michelle L; Williamson, Bryce E; Harland, Peter W; Thomson, Mary A; Melling, Peter J

    2007-02-01

    Fourier transform infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy has been used with a fiber-optic grazing-angle reflectance probe as a rapid, in situ method for trace surface analysis of acetaminophen and aspirin at loadings of approximately 0-2 microg cm(-2) on glass. Partial least-squares multivariate regression permits the loadings to be quantified, simultaneously, with root-mean-squared errors of prediction of RMSEP approximately 0.1 microg cm(-2) for both compounds. The detection limits are estimated to be LD approximately 0.2 microg cm(-2).

  13. Development of a phase-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system to measure mouse organ of Corti vibrations in two cochlear turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Zhang, Yuan; Petrie, Tracy; Jacques, Steven; Wang, Ruikang; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we have developed a phase-sensitive Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system to simultaneously measure the in vivo inner ear vibrations in the hook area and second turn of the mouse cochlea. This technical development will enable measurement of intra-cochlear distortion products at ideal locations such as the distortion product generation site and reflection site. This information is necessary to un-mix the complex mixture of intra-cochlear waves comprising the DPOAE and thus leads to the non-invasive identification of the local region of cochlear damage.

  14. 片上光网络中Cluster Mesh拓扑和2D Mesh网络拓扑的性能比较%The Performance Comparison of Cluster-Mesh and 2D-Mesh Topology in Optical Network-on-Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 桑新柱

    2011-01-01

    片上光网络(NoC)可以有效地提高通信带宽,并降低多处理器系统级芯片的能量消耗。在片上网络架构中,2D Mesh是传统的拓扑结构,其路由器上连接单一的IP核。在本文介绍了一种新的名为“Cluster Mesh(CM)”的网状拓扑结构,在该拓扑结构中,一个路由器上连接了四个IP核。本文使用OPNET仿真软件建立了Cluster Mesh网络和2D Mesh网络的仿真平台,研究并比较了Cluster Mesh拓扑结构与传统的Mesh拓扑结构的性能。通过仿真得到了两种不同拓扑结构下,在不同的数据包注入率时,网络的端到端延迟和吞吐量。结果表明,在具有相同数目的IP核的条件下,与传统的2D Mesh片上光网络相比,Cluster Mesh片上光网络所需要的微环谐振器数目更少。而且在50%的流量为局部流量的情况下, Cluster Mesh片上光网络具有更好的性能。%Optical Networks-on-chip (NoCs) can effectively improve the communication bandwidth and reduce the power consume of multiprocessor systems-on-chip. 2D-Mesh is a traditional topology in the NoCs architectures. In this paper, we introduce a new Mesh topology with several IP cores on one router named Cluster-Mesh (CM) topology. We research and compare the performance of the Cluster-Mesh topology to the traditional mesh topology with single IP core on its router. We built simulated platforms for both Cluster-Mesh optical NoC with 2D optical mesh NoC use OPNET simulated software, and showed the End-to-End delay and throughput under different Packet Injection Rates. The results show that, with the same IP cores, the Cluster-Mesh optical NoC consumes less number of microring resonators, and better performance under 50%local traffic condition.

  15. Wavelength-swept spectral and pulse shaping utilizing hybrid Fourier domain modelocking by fiber optical parametric and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kyle H Y; Standish, Beau A; Yang, Victor X D; Cheung, K K Y; Gu, Xijia; Lam, Edmund Y; Wong, K K Y

    2010-02-01

    We report the first Fourier domain modelocked (FDML) laser constructed using optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in conjunction with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), centered at approximately 1555 nm, to the best of our knowledge. We utilize a one-pump OPA and a C-band EDFA in serial configuration with a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer to generate a hybrid FDML spectrum. Results demonstrate a substantially better spectral shape, output power and stability than individual configurations, with decreased sensitivity to polarization changes. We believe this technique has the potential to enable several amplifiers to complement individual deficiencies resulting in improved spectral shapes and power generation for imaging applications such as optical coherence tomography (OCT).

  16. Single-lens Fourier-transform-based optical color image encryption using dual two-dimensional chaotic maps and the Fresnel transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yonggang; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Chen, Xia; Xu, Wenjun; Cai, Yuanxue

    2017-01-20

    We propose an optical color image encryption system based on the single-lens Fourier transform, the Fresnel transform, and the chaotic random phase masks (CRPMs). The proposed encryption system contains only one optical lens, which makes it more efficient and concise to implement. The introduction of the Fresnel transform makes the first phase mask of the proposed system also act as the main secret key when the input image is a non-negative amplitude-only map. The two CRPMs generated by dual two-dimensional chaotic maps can provide more security to the proposed system. In the proposed system, the key management is more convenient and the transmission volume is reduced greatly. In addition, the secret keys can be updated conveniently in each encryption process to invalidate the chosen plaintext attack and the known plaintext attack. Numerical simulation results have demonstrated the feasibility and security of the proposed encryption system.

  17. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  18. Theoretical investigation on a general class of 2D quasicrystals with the rectangular projection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yang-Yang; Lu, Rong-er; Yang, Bo; Huang, Huang; Hong, Xu-Hao; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    We take a theoretical investigation on the reciprocal property of a class of 2D nonlinear photonic quasicrystal proposed by Lifshitz et al. in PRL 95, 133901 (2005). Using the rectangular projection method, the analytical expression for the Fourier spectrum of the quasicrystal structure is obtained explicitly. It is interesting to find that the result has a similar form to the corresponding expression of the well-known 1D Fibonacci lattice. In addition, we predict a further extension of the result to higher dimensions. This work is of practical importance for the photonic device design in nonlinear optical conversion progresses.

  19. Holographic method for site-resolved detection of a 2D array of ultracold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Daniel Kai; Limmer, Wolfgang; Denschlag, Johannes Hecker

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to site-resolved detection of a 2D gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A near resonant laser beam is coherently scattered by the atomic array and its interference pattern is holographically recorded by superimposing it with a reference laser beam on a CCD chip. Fourier transformation of the recorded intensity pattern reconstructs the atomic distribution in the lattice with single-site resolution. The holographic detection method requires only a few hundred scattered photons per atom in order to achieve a high reconstruction fidelity. Therefore, additional cooling during detection might not be necessary even for light atomic elements such as lithium.

  20. Simultaneous ultrafast optical pulse train bursts generation and shaping based on Fourier series developments using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Víctor; Preciado, Miguel A; Muriel, Miguel A

    2007-08-20

    We propose an all-fiber method for the generation of ultrafast shaped pulse train bursts from a single pulse based on Fourier Series Developments (FDSs). The implementation of the FSD based filter only requires the use of a very simple non apodized Superimposed Fiber Bragg Grating (S-FBG) for the generation of the Shaped Output Pulse Train Burst (SOPTB). In this approach, the shape, the period and the temporal length of the generated SOPTB have no dependency on the input pulse rate.

  1. FPGA-based phase control of acousto-optic modulator Fourier synthesis system through gradient descent phase-locking algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Kenneth J; Jones, Andrew M; Gopinath, Juliet T

    2015-06-20

    We present a new application of the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm to fast active phase control in a Fourier synthesis system. Pulses (4.9 ns) with an 80 MHz repetition rate are generated by feedback from a single phase-sensitive metric. Phase control is applied via fast current modulation of a tapered amplifier using an SPGD algorithm realized on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The waveforms are maintained by constant active feedback from the FPGA. We also discuss the extension of this technique to many more semiconductor laser emitters in a diode laser array.

  2. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  3. Real time processing of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with fixed-pattern noise removal by partial median subtraction using a graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki

    2012-05-01

    The author presents a graphics processing unit (GPU) programming for real-time Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) with fixed-pattern noise removal by subtracting mean and median. In general, the fixed-pattern noise can be removed by the averaged spectrum from the many spectra of an actual measurement. However, a mean-spectrum results in artifacts as residual lateral lines caused by a small number of high-reflective points on a sample surface. These artifacts can be eliminated from OCT images by using medians instead of means. However, median calculations that are based on a sorting algorithm can generate a large amount of computation time. With the developed GPU programming, highly reflective surface regions were obtained by calculating the standard deviation of the Fourier transformed data in the lateral direction. The medians and means were then subtracted at the observed regions and other regions, such as backgrounds. When the median calculation was less than 256 positions out of a total 512 depths in an OCT image with 1024 A-lines, the GPU processing rate was faster than that of the line scan camera (46.9 kHz). Therefore, processed OCT images can be displayed in real-time using partial medians.

  4. Image encryption techniques based on the fractional Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennelly, B. M.; Sheridan, J. T.

    2003-11-01

    The fractional Fourier transform, (FRT), is a generalisation of the Fourier transform which allows domains of mixed spatial frequency and spatial information to be examined. A number of method have recently been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two dimensional information using optical systems based on the FRT. Typically, these methods require random phase screen keys to decrypt the data, which must be stored at the receiver and must be carefully aligned with the received encrypted data. We have proposed a new technique based on a random shifting or Jigsaw transformation. This method does not require the use of phase keys. The image is encrypted by juxtaposition of sections of the image in various FRT domains. The new method has been compared numerically with existing methods and shows comparable or superior robustness to blind decryption. An optical implementation is also proposed and the sensitivity of the various encryption keys to blind decryption is quantified. We also present a second image encryption technique, which is based on a recently proposed method of optical phase retrieval using the optical FRT and one of its discrete counterparts. Numerical simulations of the new algorithm indicates that the sensitivity of the keys is much greater than any of the techniques currently available. In fact the sensitivity appears to be so high that optical implementation, based on existing optical signal processing technology, may be impossible. However, the technique has been shown to be a powerful method of 2-D image data encryption.

  5. Dose reconstruction in irradiated Fricke-agarose gels by means of MRI and optical techniques: 2D modelling of diffusion of ferric ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquale, F. de; Luciani, A.M.; Pacilio, M.; Guidoni, L.; Viti, V.; D' Errico, F.; Barone, P.; Sebastiani, G

    2002-07-01

    Fricke-agarose gels have elicited much interest in the field of radiation dosimetry, as tissue-equivalent dosemeters. Magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation rates are measured for dose reconstruction. A major problem of Fricke-agarose gels is the diffusion of the ferric ions formed after irradiation. Knowledge of the diffusion coefficient of ferric ions may be necessary. Xylene orange, a dye that specifically chelates ferric ions, was added to the Fricke gel system to reduce ion diffusion and, as the binding gives a coloured complex, to allow optical detection of ferric ions. Diffusion of ferric ions in two dimensions and time evolution of ion concentration were evaluated. MR images were obtained at different times after irradiation. Ferric ion distribution, the corresponding images and the doses at different times after irradiation were reconstructed taking into account the calculated diffusion coefficients. Diffusion was then estimated by means of two different optical methods. The agreement obtained supports the reliability of the MRI method and of the model. (author)

  6. Optical characterization of free electron concentration in heteroepitaxial InN layers using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 transfer-matrix algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsidis, C. C. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion-Crete (Greece); Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A. [Microelectronics Research Group, IESL, FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion-Crete (Greece); Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion-Crete (Greece)

    2013-02-21

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been implemented as a non-destructive, non-invasive, tool for the optical characterization of a set of c-plane InN single heteroepitaxial layers spanning a wide range of thicknesses (30-2000 nm). The c-plane (0001) InN epilayers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) on GaN(0001) buffer layers which had been grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates. It is shown that for arbitrary multilayers with homogeneous anisotropic layers having their principal axes coincident with the laboratory coordinates, a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 matrix algebra based on a general transfer-matrix method (GTMM) is adequate to interpret their optical response. Analysis of optical reflectance in the far and mid infrared spectral range has been found capable to discriminate between the bulk, the surface and interface contributions of free carriers in the InN epilayers revealing the existence of electron accumulation layers with carrier concentrations in mid 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at both the InN surface and the InN/GaN interface. The spectra could be fitted with a three-layer model, determining the different electron concentration and mobility values of the bulk and of the surface and the interface electron accumulation layers in the InN films. The variation of these values with increasing InN thickness could be also sensitively detected by the optical measurements. The comparison between the optically determined drift mobility and the Hall mobility of the thickest sample reveals a value of r{sub H} = 1.49 for the Hall factor of InN at a carrier concentration of 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at 300 Degree-Sign {Kappa}.

  7. Determination of the far infrared optical constants of η-doped bulk CdxHg1-xTe (CMT) by dispersive fourier transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, S. Farjami; Dumelow, T.; Parker, T. J.; Benushis, T. I.; Ershov, S. N.; Vasilevskiy, M. I.

    1995-04-01

    Far infrared phase and amplitude reflectivity measurements have been made on two bulk CdxHg1-xTe mixed crystals with composition x=0.29 and x=0.22 by dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopy (DFTS). The results have been used to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function (ɛ', ɛ″) from the Fresnel relations. A plasma contribution is observed in the spectra in addition to the phonon response. For both samples a broad but weak reflection band around 95 105 cm-1 is observed as well as the expected two-oscillator response from the HgTe-like and CdTe-like optical phonons. This feature is attributed to absorption due to phonon combination bands, but it is too broad to enable assignments to be made. There is no evidence of additional features in the CdTe region due to clustering.

  8. High-speed, high-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system for retinal imaging in the 1060 nm wavelength region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanathasan, Prabakar; Forbes, Peter; Ren, Zhao; Malchow, Doug; Boyd, Shelley; Bizheva, Kostadinka

    2008-11-01

    A high-speed (47,000 A-scans/s), ultrahigh axial resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for retinal imaging at approximately 1060 nm, based on a 1024 pixel linear array, 47 kHz readout rate InGaAs camera is presented. When interfaced with a custom superluminescent diode (lambda(c) = 1020 nm, Deltalambda = 108 nm, Pout = 9 mW), the system provides 3.3 microm axial OCT resolution at the surface of biological tissue, approximately 4.5 microm in vivo in rat retina, approximately 5.7 microm in vivo in human retina, and 110 dB sensitivity for 870 microW incident power and 21 mus integration time. Retinal tomograms acquired in vivo from a human volunteer and a rat animal model show clear visualization of all intraretinal layer and increased penetration into the choroid.

  9. Two dimensional vibrations of the guinea pig apex organ of Corti measured in vivo using phase sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Zhang, Yuan; Petrie, Tracy; Fridberger, Anders; Ren, Tianying; Wang, Ruikang; Jacques, Steven L.; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we measure the in vivo apical-turn vibrations of the guinea pig organ of Corti in both axial and radial directions using phase-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. The apical turn in guinea pig cochlea has best frequencies around 100 - 500 Hz which are relevant for human speech. Prior measurements of vibrations in the guinea pig apex involved opening the otic capsule, which has been questioned on the basis of the resulting changes to cochlear hydrodynamics. Here this limitation is overcome by measuring the vibrations through bone without opening the otic capsule. Furthermore, we have significantly reduced the surgery needed to access the guinea pig apex in the axial direction by introducing a miniature mirror inside the bulla. The method and preliminary data are discussed in this article.

  10. Imaging vibration of the cochlear partition of an excised guinea pig cochlea using phase-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Niloy; Zeng, Yaguang; Fridberger, Anders; Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Nuttall, Alfred L.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-03-01

    Studying the sound stimulated vibrations of various membranes that form the complex structure of the organ of Corti in the cochlea of the inner ear is essential for understanding how the travelling sound wave of the basilar membrane couples its energy to the organ structures. In this paper we report the feasibility of using phase-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) to image the vibration of various micro-structures of the cochlea at the same time. An excised cochlea of a guinea pig was stimulated using sounds at various frequencies and vibration image was obtained. When measuring the apex area, vibration signal from different turns, which have different best response frequencies are obtained in the same image. The method has the potential to measure the response from a much wider region of the cochlea than any other currently used method. The noise floor for vibration image for the system at 200 Hz was ~0.3nm.

  11. Monitoring of the degradation in the rat's articular cartilage inducing osteoarthritis using common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D. H.; Park, S. H.; Kim, B. Y.; Lee, M. Y.; Baik, H. K.; Seo, J. H.; Kang, J. U.; Song, C. G.

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the utility and limitations of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real-time, high-resolution structural analysis. We monitored the degradation of the rat's articular cartilage inducing osteoarthritis (OA) and the change of the rat's articular cartilage recovery by treatment medication, using our developed common-path Fourier-domain (CP-FD) OCT. Also, we have done a comparative analysis the rat's articular cartilage and OA grade. To observe the progression of OA, we induced OA by injecting the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the right knee joint. After the injection of MIA, we sacrificed the rats at intervals of 3 days and obtained OCT and histological images. OCT and histological images showed the OA progress of similar pattern. These results illustrated the potential for non-invasive diagnosis about the grade of OA using CP-FD OCT.

  12. 2D/3D switchable displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  13. Optical Determination of Lead Chrome Green in Green Tea by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Transmission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Xu, Kaiwen; Zhang, Yuying; Sun, Chanjun; He, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) transmission spectroscopy for determination of lead chrome green in green tea was investigated based on chemometric methods. Firstly, the qualitative analysis of lead chrome green in tea was performed based on partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and the correct rate of classification was 100%. And then, a hybrid method of interval partial least squares (iPLS) regression and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select characteristic wavenumbers for the quantitative analysis of lead chrome green in green tea, and 19 wavenumbers were obtained finally. Among these wavenumbers, 1384 (C = C), 1456, 1438, 1419(C = N), and 1506 (CNH) cm-1 were the characteristic wavenumbers of lead chrome green. Then, these 19 wavenumbers were used to build determination models. The best model was achieved by least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM)algorithm with high coefficient of determination and low root-mean square error of prediction set (R2p = 0.864 and RMSEP = 0.291). All these results indicated the feasibility of IR spectra for detecting lead chrome green in green tea. PMID:28068348

  14. High Dynamics and Precision Optical Measurement Using a Position Sensitive Detector (PSD in Reflection-Mode: Application to 2D Object Tracking over a Smart Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Alexandru Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When related to a single and good contrast object or a laser spot, position sensing, or sensitive, detectors (PSDs have a series of advantages over the classical camera sensors, including a good positioning accuracy for a fast response time and very simple signal conditioning circuits. To test the performance of this kind of sensor for microrobotics, we have made a comparative analysis between a precise but slow video camera and a custom-made fast PSD system applied to the tracking of a diffuse-reflectivity object transported by a pneumatic microconveyor called Smart-Surface. Until now, the fast system dynamics prevented the full control of the smart surface by visual servoing, unless using a very expensive high frame rate camera. We have built and tested a custom and low cost PSD-based embedded circuit, optically connected with a camera to a single objective by means of a beam splitter. A stroboscopic light source enhanced the resolution. The obtained results showed a good linearity and a fast (over 500 frames per second response time which will enable future closed-loop control by using PSD.

  15. High dynamics and precision optical measurement using a position sensitive detector (PSD) in reflection-mode: application to 2D object tracking over a Smart Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Ioan Alexandru; Ardeleanu, Mihai; Laurent, Guillaume J

    2012-12-06

    When related to a single and good contrast object or a laser spot, position sensing, or sensitive, detectors (PSDs) have a series of advantages over the classical camera sensors, including a good positioning accuracy for a fast response time and very simple signal conditioning circuits. To test the performance of this kind of sensor for microrobotics, we have made a comparative analysis between a precise but slow video camera and a custom-made fast PSD system applied to the tracking of a diffuse-reflectivity object transported by a pneumatic microconveyor called Smart-Surface. Until now, the fast system dynamics prevented the full control of the smart surface by visual servoing, unless using a very expensive high frame rate camera. We have built and tested a custom and low cost PSD-based embedded circuit, optically connected with a camera to a single objective by means of a beam splitter. A stroboscopic light source enhanced the resolution. The obtained results showed a good linearity and a fast (over 500 frames per second) response time which will enable future closed-loop control by using PSD.

  16. Design and Development of an Optical Path Difference Scan Mechanism for Fourier Transform Spectrometers using High Displacement RAINBOW Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Hardy, Robin C.; Dausch, David E.

    1997-01-01

    A new piezoelectric drive mechanism has been developed for optical translation in space-based spectrometer systems. The mechanism utilizes a stack of RAINBOW high displacement piezoelectric actuators to move optical components weighing less than 250 grams through a one centimeter travel. The mechanism uses the direct motion of the piezoelectric devices, stacked such that the displacement of the individual RAINBOW actuators is additive. A prototype device has been built which utilizes 21 RAINBOWs to accomplish the necessary travel. The mechanism weighs approximately 0.6 kilograms and uses less than 2 Watts of power at a scanning frequency of 0.5 Hertz, significantly less power than that required by state-of-the-art motor systems.

  17. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs...

  18. New families of Fourier eigenfunctions for steerable filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Campisi, Patrizio; Petkov, Nicolai

    2012-06-01

    A new diadic family of eigenfunctions of the 2-D Fourier transform has been discovered. Specifically, new wavelets are derived by steering the elongated Hermite-Gauss filters with respect to rotations, thus obtaining a natural generalization of the Laguerre-Gauss harmonics. Interestingly, these functions are also proportional to their 2-D Fourier transform. Their analytical expression is provided in a compact and treatable form, by means of a new ad hoc matrix notation in which the cases of even and odd orders of the Hermite polynomials are unified. Moreover, these functions can be efficiently implemented by means of a recursive formula that is derived in this paper. The proposed filters are applied to the problem of gradient estimation to improve the theoretical Canny tradeoff of position accuracy versus noise rejection that occurs in edge detection. Experimental results show considerable improvements in using the new wavelets over both isotropic Gaussian derivatives and other elongated steerable filters more recently introduced. Finally, being the proposed wavelets a set of Fourier eigenfunctions, they can be of interest in other fields of science, such as optics and quantum mechanics.

  19. Fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for detecting endotoxin contamination in ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDS) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Moinuddin; Ilev, Ilko

    2016-03-01

    Ophthalmic Viscosurgical Devices (OVDs) in clinical setting are a major health risk factor for potential endotoxin contamination in the eye, due to their extensive applications in cataract surgery for space creation, stabilization and protection of intraocular tissue and intraocular lens (IOL) during implantation. Endotoxin contamination of OVDs is implicated in toxic anterior syndrome (TASS), a severe complication of cataract surgery that leads to intraocular damage and even blindness. Current standard methods for endotoxin contamination detection utilize rabbit assay or Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assays. These endotoxin detection strategies are extremely difficult for gel-like type devices such as OVDs. To overcome the endotoxin detection limitations in OVDs, we have developed an alternative optical detection methodology for label-free and real-time sensing of bacterial endotoxin in OVDs, based on fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) transmission spectrometry in the mid-IR spectral range from 2.5 micron to 12 micron. Endotoxin contaminated OVD test samples were prepared by serial dilutions of endotoxins on OVDs. The major results of this study revealed two salient spectral peak shifts (in the regions 2925 to 2890 cm^-1 and 1125 to 1100 cm^-1), which are associated with endotoxin in OVDs. In addition, FO-FTIR experimental results processed using a multivariate analysis confirmed the observed specific peak shifts associated with endotoxin contamination in OVDs. Thus, employing the FO-FTIR sensing methodology integrated with a multivariate analysis could potentially be used as an alternative endotoxin detection technique in OVD.

  20. Motion-compensated hand-held common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography probe for image-guided intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Song, Cheol; Liu, Xuan; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-03-01

    A motion-compensated hand-held common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography imaging probe has been developed for image guided intervention during microsurgery. A hand-held prototype instrument was designed and fabricated by integrating an imaging fiber probe inside a stainless steel needle which is attached to the ceramic shaft of a piezoelectric motor housed in an aluminum handle. The fiber probe obtains A-scan images. The distance information was extracted from the A-scans to track the sample surface distance and a fixed distance was maintained by a feedback motor control which effectively compensated hand tremor and target movements in the axial direction. Graphical user interface, real-time data processing, and visualization based on a CPU-GPU hybrid programming architecture were developed and used in the implantation of this system. To validate the system, free-hand optical coherence tomography images using various samples were obtained. The system can be easily integrated into microsurgical tools and robotics for a wide range of clinical applications. Such tools could offer physicians the freedom to easily image sites of interest with reduced risk and higher image quality.

  1. All-optical encrypted movie based on fractional Fourier transform%基于分数阶傅里叶变换的光学加密影片

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜翔军; 陶少华

    2013-01-01

    随着通信与网络的快速发展,能够包含大容量信息的影片得到了广泛应用.利用分数阶傅里叶变换的特点,提出了一种全光学加密解密影片的方法.将现有的影片加密密钥从二重变为了四重,显著增加了影片的安全性.通过改变振幅型正弦光栅的作用位置,将影片的加密解密次数由现有的每帧各一次减小为总共一次,优化了算法.仿真结果验证了该方法的有效性.%With fast developments of communications and internets, movies containing huge information are widely used. An optical encryption/decryption method based on fractional Fourier transform is proposed. The method increases number of the encryption keys for an all-optical encrypted movie from two to four. The security level of the all-optical encrypted movie is enhanced greatly. The interaction site of the amplitude sinusoidal grating is optmized. Encryption and decryption are needed once for a whole movie in the proposed method rather than for every frame of the movie in the previous methods. The implementation of the method is significantly simplified. The effectiveness of the method is verified with simulations.

  2. Ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer measured by fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for early detection of structural damage in patients with preperimetric glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolle T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Rolle, Cristina Briamonte, Daniela Curto, Federico Maria GrignoloEye Clinic, Section of Ophthalmology, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, University of Torino, Torino, ItalyAims: To evaluate the capability of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT to detect structural damage in patients with preperimetric glaucoma.Methods: A total of 178 Caucasian subjects were enrolled in this cohort study: 116 preperimetric glaucoma patients and 52 healthy subjects. Using three-dimensional FD-OCT, the participants underwent imaging of the ganglion cell complex (GCC and the optic nerve head. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and predictive values were calculated for all parameters at the first and fifth percentiles. Areas under the curves (AUCs were generated for all parameters and were compared (Delong test. For both the GCC and the optic nerve head protocols, the OR logical disjunction (Boolean logic operator was calculated.Results: The AUCs didn’t significantly differ. Macular global loss volume had the largest AUC (0.81. Specificities were high at both the fifth and first percentiles (up to 97%, but sensitivities were low, especially at the first percentile (55%–27%.Conclusion: Macular and papillary diagnostic accuracies did not differ significantly based on the 95% confidence interval. The computation of the Boolean OR operator has been found to boost diagnostic accuracy. Using the software-provided classification, sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy were low for both the retinal nerve fiber layer and the GCC scans. FD-OCT does not seem to be decisive for early detection of structural damage in patients with no functional impairment. This suggests that there is a need for analysis software to be further refined to enhance glaucoma diagnostic capability.Keywords: OCT, RNFL, GCC, diagnostic accuracy 

  3. Programs for high-speed Fourier, Mellin and Fourier-Bessel transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhabisimov, D. K.; Debabov, A. S.; Kolosov, B. I.; Usikov, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Several FORTRAN program modules for performing one-dimensional and two-dimensional discrete Fourier transforms, Mellin, and Fourier-Bessel transforms are described along with programs that realize the algebra of high speed Fourier transforms on a computer. The programs can perform numerical harmonic analysis of functions, synthesize complex optical filters on a computer, and model holographic image processing methods.

  4. High Etendue Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer: initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Richard F.; Conger, Chris A.; Pelligrino, L. S.

    1997-10-01

    At the Denver meeting, last year, we presented the High Etendue Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer, (HEIFTS), theory and optical design. This device uses a new 'image plane interferometer' geometry to produce 'autocorrelation function modulation' in the image plane of a 2D imaging array, such that the phase offset of the modulation varies linearly across the image. As a 2D image is pushbroomed across the imaging, array, the record of an individual scene pixel is recorded for each autocorrelation phase offset. The 3D array of this data is processed to yield an 'autocorrelation function' data cube, which is Fourier transformed to yield a 'wavenumber' hyperspectral data curve. A phase I device has been demonstrated in the laboratory and initial results are presented. The significant increase in signal to noise ratio, which the HEIFTS optical design promises over conventional hyperspectral imaging schemes, has been simulated, and results will be discussed. A Phase II system is being prepared for initial field deployment, and will be described.

  5. Fourier Lucas-Kanade algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Simon; Navarathna, Rajitha; Ashraf, Ahmed Bilal; Sridharan, Sridha

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework for both gradient descent image and object alignment in the Fourier domain. Our method centers upon the classical Lucas & Kanade (LK) algorithm where we represent the source and template/model in the complex 2D Fourier domain rather than in the spatial 2D domain. We refer to our approach as the Fourier LK (FLK) algorithm. The FLK formulation is advantageous when one preprocesses the source image and template/model with a bank of filters (e.g., oriented edges, Gabor, etc.) as 1) it can handle substantial illumination variations, 2) the inefficient preprocessing filter bank step can be subsumed within the FLK algorithm as a sparse diagonal weighting matrix, 3) unlike traditional LK, the computational cost is invariant to the number of filters and as a result is far more efficient, and 4) this approach can be extended to the Inverse Compositional (IC) form of the LK algorithm where nearly all steps (including Fourier transform and filter bank preprocessing) can be precomputed, leading to an extremely efficient and robust approach to gradient descent image matching. Further, these computational savings translate to nonrigid object alignment tasks that are considered extensions of the LK algorithm, such as those found in Active Appearance Models (AAMs).

  6. Trabecular-Iris Circumference Volume in Open Angle Eyes Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV, which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan. Trabecular-iris space area (TISA and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15 years (range 20–79. TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD value of 4.75 µL (±2.30 for TICV500 and a mean (±SD value of 8.90 µL (±3.88 for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P=0.035. In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter.

  7. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W., E-mail: cwdomier@ucdavis.edu; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  8. Fourier transforms in spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kauppinen, Jyrki

    2000-01-01

    This modern approach to the subject is clearly and logically structured, and gives readers an understanding of the essence of Fourier transforms and their applications. All important aspects are included with respect to their use with optical spectroscopic data. Based on popular lectures, the authors provide the mathematical fundamentals and numerical applications which are essential in practical use. The main part of the book is dedicated to applications of FT in signal processing and spectroscopy, with IR and NIR, NMR and mass spectrometry dealt with both from a theoretical and practical poi

  9. Real-time display with large field of view on fourier domain optical coherence tomography at 1310 nm wavelength for dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qing; Hou, Jue; Fu, Ling

    2012-06-01

    A Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with 1310 nm light was demonstrated to study inflammatory human skin and the skin coated with a moisturizer in vivo. By using a graphics processing unit (GPU), the display rate could reach 20 frames/s with 1000 A-scans contained in one image. The field of view (FOV) of the cross-sectional image is 7 mm in the lateral direction and the penetration depth is ˜1 mm in skin. The result shows that, in inflammatory skin, the epidermis became thicker and had a decreased scattering; furthermore, the region of the severe lesion present an uneven thickness of the epidermis compared with the peripheral area. For the result of a finger tip coated with the moisturizer, the antireflection effect was significant and the stratum corneum became more transparent. In this letter, we demonstrated that real-time display with a large FOV could enable screening of a large tissue area; thereby increasing the dermatologic diagnostic potential of the method by permitting a comparison of the lesion and the normal peripheral region.

  10. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  11. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Shavanova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical. A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  12. Fast Numerical Nonlinear Fourier Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Wahls, Sander

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear Fourier transform, which is also known as the forward scattering transform, decomposes a periodic signal into nonlinearly interacting waves. In contrast to the common Fourier transform, these waves no longer have to be sinusoidal. Physically relevant waveforms are often available for the analysis instead. The details of the transform depend on the waveforms underlying the analysis, which in turn are specified through the implicit assumption that the signal is governed by a certain evolution equation. For example, water waves generated by the Korteweg-de Vries equation can be expressed in terms of cnoidal waves. Light waves in optical fiber governed by the nonlinear Schr\\"dinger equation (NSE) are another example. Nonlinear analogs of classic problems such as spectral analysis and filtering arise in many applications, with information transmission in optical fiber, as proposed by Yousefi and Kschischang, being a very recent one. The nonlinear Fourier transform is eminently suited to address them ...

  13. Nano-spatial parameters from 3D to 2D lattice dimensionality by organic variant in [ZnCl4]- [R]+ hybrid materials: Structure, architecture-lattice dimensionality, microscopy, optical Eg and PL correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Verma, Sanjay K.; Alvi, P. A.; Jasrotia, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    The nanospatial morphological features of [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ hybrid derivative depicts 28 nm granular size and 3D spreader shape packing pattern as analyzed by FESEM and single crystal XRD structural studies. The organic moiety connect the inorganic components through N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bond to form a hybrid composite, the replacement of organic derivatives from 2-methylpyridine to 2-Amino-5-choloropyridine results the increase in granular size from 28nm to 60nm and unit cell packing pattern from 3D-2D lattice dimensionality along ac plane. The change in optical energy direct band gap value from 3.01eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ (HM1) to 3.42eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H5ClN2]+ (HM2) indicates the role of organic moiety in optical properties of hybrid materials. The photoluminescence emission spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 370 to 600 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.66a.u. at 438 nm for (HM1) and 370 to 600 nm with max peak intensity of 9.91 a.u. at 442 nm for (HM2), indicating that the emission spectra lies in visible range. PL excitation spectra depicts the maximum excitation intensity [9.8] at 245.5 nm for (HM1) and its value of 9.9 a.u. at 294 nm, specify the excitation spectra lies in UV range. Photoluminescence excitation spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 280 to 350 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.4 a.u. at 285.5 nm and 9.9 a.u. at 294 and 297 nm, indicating excitation in the UV spectrum. Single crystal growth process and detailed physiochemical characterization such as XRD, FESEM image analysis photoluminescence property reveals the structure stability with non-covalent interactions, lattice dimensionality (3D-2D) correlations interweaving into the design of inorganic-organic hybrid materials.

  14. 反射转镜式干涉光谱仪光程差的一般表达式%General Expression of Optic Path Difference of Reflecting Rotating Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周锦松; 相里斌; 魏儒义; 景娟娟

    2011-01-01

    对反射转镜式干涉光谱仪的原理进行了介绍,从马吕斯定律和角反射体的反射特性入手,选择转镜反射面的旋转中心作为入射光束和出射光束等波面的参考点,对反射转镜式干涉光谱仪的光程差进行了分析计算,给出反射转镜式干涉光谱仪任意时刻光程差及最大光程差的一般表达式,分析影响最大光程差和光程差变化周期的因素,为反射转镜式干涉光谱仪的设计与研制提供理论指导.%The principle of reflecting rotating Fourier transform spectrometer was introduced in the present paper. Based on the Malus law and reflecting characteristic of cube corner, the optic path difference of reflecting rotating Fourier transform spectrometer was analyzed and calculated by choosing the center of rotating mirror as a reference point of the aplanatic surface of incidence beam and return beam. General expression of optic path difference at any time and maximal optic path difference of reflecting rotating Fourier transform spectrometer was presented. The factors that influence the maximal optic path difference and the period of optic path difference were analyzed. The results provide a theoretical guidance for design and manufacture of reflecting rotating Fourier transform spectrometer.

  15. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-01

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  16. Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-03-23

    Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools.

  17. Handbook of Fourier analysis & its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Marks, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Fourier analysis has many scientific applications - in physics, number theory, combinatorics, signal processing, probability theory, statistics, option pricing, cryptography, acoustics, oceanography, optics and diffraction, geometry, and other areas. In signal processing and related fields, Fourier analysis is typically thought of as decomposing a signal into its component frequencies and their amplitudes. This practical, applications-based professional handbook comprehensively covers the theory and applications of Fourier Analysis, spanning topics from engineering mathematics, signal process

  18. Phase-space analysis for fractional Fourier transform of first-order optical system%一阶光学系统分数傅里叶变换的相空间分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘卫清; 朱勇建; 王建中

    2009-01-01

    在维格纳相空间中,通过将一阶光学系统的传输矩阵分解为坐标旋转、比例缩放和啁啾矩阵的组合,得到了一阶光学系统在空域的分数傅里叶表示.结果表明:任意一阶光学系统均可表示为经过比例缩放和二次相位调制的分数傅里叶变换.通过将输入输出光场在相空间中作π/2角旋转,得到了一阶光学系统在频域的传输矩阵和衍射积分公式,进而得到了一阶光学系统在频域的分数傅里叶表示.比较空域和频域一阶光学系统的相空间变换矩阵,说明2个系统本质上属同一变换在不同基坐标下的表示,并推导出了光学系统在空域和频域具有相同分数傅里叶变换的条件.%The fractional Fourier express of the first-order optical system was derived by decomposing the transfer matrices of firstorder optical system into coordinate rotation matrix, scale matrix and chirp matrix in Wigner phase space. The results show that an arbitrary first-order optical system can be expressed as the scaled and chirp modulation fractional Fourier transform. The transfer matrix and diffractive integral formula in frequency domain were acquired by rotating the input and output optical field π/2 in the phase space. Accordingly the fractional Fourier transforms of a first-order optical system in frequency domain were also obtained. By comparing the transfer matrices of two first-order optical systems in space and frequency domains respectively, it is found that the two first-order optical systems in different domain can be expressed as two different expressions of one and the same transfer based on different coordinates. At last the condition is derived for an optical system to implement the fractional Fourier transform in space and frequency domains with the same order.

  19. Two-dimensional Fourier analysis of the spongy medullary keratin of structurally coloured feather barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, R. O.; Torres, R.; Williamson, S.; Dyck, J.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted two-dimensional (2D) discrete Fourier analyses of the spatial variation in refractive index of the spongy medullary keratin from four different colours of structurally coloured feather barbs from three species of bird: the rose-faced lovebird, Agapornis roseicollis (Psittacidae), the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittacidae), and the Gouldian finch, Poephila guttata (Estrildidae). These results indicate that the spongy medullary keratin is a nanostructured tissue that functions as an array of coherent scatterers. The nanostructure of the medullary keratin is nearly uniform in all directions. The largest Fourier components of spatial variation in refractive index in the tissue are of the appropriate size to produce the observed colours by constructive interference alone. The peaks of the predicted reflectance spectra calculated from the 2D Fourier power spectra are congruent with the reflectance spectra measured by using microspectrophotometry. The alternative physical models for the production of these colours, the Rayleigh and Mie theories, hypothesize that medullary keratin is an incoherent array and that scattered waves are independent in phase. This assumption is falsified by the ring-like Fourier power spectra of these feathers, and the spacing of the scattering air vacuoles in the medullary keratin. Structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by constructive interference of coherently scattered light waves from the optically heterogeneous matrix of keratin and air in the spongy medullary layer.

  20. Differentiating Fragmentation Pathways of Cholesterol by Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Agthoven, Maria A; Barrow, Mark P; Chiron, Lionel; Coutouly, Marie-Aude; Kilgour, David; Wootton, Christopher A; Wei, Juan; Soulby, Andrew; Delsuc, Marc-André; Rolando, Christian; O’Connor, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    ...) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. In the resulting 2D mass spectrum, the fragmentation patterns of the radical and protonated species from cholesterol are differentiated...

  1. HypGrid2D. A 2-d mesh generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, N.N.

    1998-03-01

    The implementation of a hyperbolic mesh generation procedure, based on an equation for orthogonality and an equation for the cell face area is described. The method is fast, robust and gives meshes with good smoothness and orthogonality. The procedure is implemented in a program called HypGrid2D. The HypGrid2D program is capable of generating C-, O- and `H`-meshes for use in connection with the EllipSys2D Navier-Stokes solver. To illustrate the capabilities of the program, some test examples are shown. First a series of C-meshes are generated around a NACA-0012 airfoil. Secondly a series of O-meshes are generated around a NACA-65-418 airfoil. Finally `H`-meshes are generated over a Gaussian hill and a linear escarpment. (au)

  2. Angular and radial mode analyzer for optical beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouraddy, Ayman F; Yarnall, Timothy M; Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2011-12-01

    We describe an approach to determining both the angular and the radial modal content of a scalar optical beam in terms of optical angular momentum modes. A modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer that incorporates a spatial rotator to determine the angular modes and an optical realization of the fractional Hankel transform (fHT) to determine the radial modes is analyzed. Varying the rotation angle and the order of the fHT produces a two-dimensional (2D) interferogram from which we extract the modal coefficients by simple 2D Fourier analysis.

  3. Ultrafast Fourier-transform parallel processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, W.L.

    1980-04-01

    A new, flexible, parallel-processing architecture is developed for a high-speed, high-precision Fourier transform processor. The processor is intended for use in 2-D signal processing including spatial filtering, matched filtering and image reconstruction from projections.

  4. Reflective Fourier ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Shaun; Zheng, Guoan; Liang, Rongguang

    2016-02-01

    The Fourier ptychography technique in reflection mode has great potential applications in tissue imaging and optical inspection, but the current configuration either has a limitation on cut-off frequency or is not practical. By placing the imaging aperture stop outside the illumination path, the illumination numerical aperture (NA) can be greater than the imaging NA of the objective lens. Thus, the cut-off frequency achieved in the proposed optical system is greater than twice the objective's NA divided by the wavelength (2NAobj/λ ), which is the diffraction limit for the cut-off frequency in an incoherent epi-illumination configuration. We experimentally demonstrated that the synthesized NA is increased by a factor of 4.5 using the proposed optical concept. The key advantage of the proposed system is that it can achieve high-resolution imaging over a large field of view with a simple objective. It will have a great potential for applications in endoscopy, biomedical imaging, surface metrology, and industrial inspection.

  5. Effect of organic chain length on structure, electronic composition, lattice potential energy, and optical properties of 2D hybrid perovskites [(NH3)(CH2) n (NH3)]CuCl4, n = 2-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, Seham K.; Kocher-Oberlehner, Gudrun; Ionov, Andrei; Mozhchil, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    Diammonium series of Cu hybrid perovskites of the formula [(NH3)(CH2) n (NH3)]CuCl4, n = 6-9 are prepared from an ethanolic solution in stoichiometric ratio 1:1 (organic/inorganic). Formation of the desired material was confirmed and characterizes by microchemical analysis, FTIR, XRD and XPS spectra. The structure consists of corner-shared octahedron [CuCl4]2- anion alternative by organic [(NH3)(CH2) n (NH3)]2+ cations. The organic and inorganic layers form infinite 2D sheet that are connected via NH···Cl hydrogen bond. The calculated lattice potential energy U pot (kJ/mol) and lattice enthalpy Δ H L (kJ/mol) are inversely proportional to the molecular volume V m (nm3) and organic chain length. Optical properties show strong absorption peak at UV-visible range. The band gap energy calculated using Kubelka-Munk equation shows the decrease of the energy gap as organic chain length increases. The introduction of bromide ion to [(NH3)(CH2) n (NH3)]CuCl2Br2 denoted 2C7CuCB hybrid has shifted the energy gap to lower values from 2.6 to 2.18 eV for 2C7CuCl (yellow) and 2C7CuCB (brown), respectively, at the same organic chain length. All elements of [(NH3)(CH2)9(NH3)]CuCl4 and [(NH3)(CH2)7(NH3)]CuCl2Br2 were found in XPS spectra, as well as valence band spectra.

  6. Fourier processing of quantum light

    CERN Document Server

    Poem, Eilon; Lahini, Yoav; Silberberg, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that a classical optical Fourier processor can be used for the shaping of quantum correlations between two or more photons, and the class of Fourier masks applicable in the multiphoton Fourier space is identified. This concept is experimentally demonstrated using two types of periodic phase masks illuminated with path-entangled photon pairs, a highly non-classical state of light. Applied first were sinusoidal phase masks, emulating two-particle quantum walk on a periodic lattice, yielding intricate correlation patterns with various spatial bunching and anti-bunching effects depending on the initial state. Then, a periodic Zernike-like filter was applied on top of the sinusoidal phase masks. Using this filter, phase information lost in the original correlation measurements was retrieved.

  7. Fractional Fourier processing of quantum light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifan; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-13

    We have extended Fourier transform of quantum light to a fractional Fourier processing, and demonstrated that a classical optical fractional Fourier processor can be used for the shaping of quantum correlations between two or more photons. Comparing the present method with that of Fourier processing, we find that fractional Fourier processing for quantum light possesses many advantages. Based on such a method, not only quantum correlations can be shaped more rich, but also the initial states can be easily identified. Moreover, the twisted phase information can be recovered and quantum states are easily controlled in performing quantum information experiments. Our findings open up new avenues for the manipulation of correlations between photons in optical quantum information processing.

  8. Aperture scanning Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is implemented through aperture scanning by an LCOS spatial light modulator at the back focal plane of the objective lens. This FPM configuration enables the capturing of the complex scattered field for a 3D sample both in the transmissive mode and the reflective mode. We further show that by combining with the compressive sensing theory, the reconstructed 2D complex scattered field can be used to recover the 3D sample scattering density. This implementation expands the scope of application for FPM and can be beneficial for areas such as tissue imaging and wafer inspection. PMID:27570705

  9. The derivative-free Fourier shell identity for photoacoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddour, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    In X-ray tomography, the Fourier slice theorem provides a relationship between the Fourier components of the object being imaged and the measured projection data. The Fourier slice theorem is the basis for X-ray Fourier-based tomographic inversion techniques. A similar relationship, referred to as the 'Fourier shell identity' has been previously derived for photoacoustic applications. However, this identity relates the pressure wavefield data function and its normal derivative measured on an arbitrary enclosing aperture to the three-dimensional Fourier transform of the enclosed object evaluated on a sphere. Since the normal derivative of pressure is not normally measured, the applicability of the formulation is limited in this form. In this paper, alternative derivations of the Fourier shell identity in 1D, 2D polar and 3D spherical polar coordinates are presented. The presented formulations do not require the normal derivative of pressure, thereby lending the formulas directly adaptable for Fourier based absorber reconstructions.

  10. A Fourier transform spectrometer without a beam splitter for the vacuum ultraviolet range: From the optical design to the first UV spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, N. de; Polack, F.; Vervloet, M.; Nahon, L. [Synchrotron Soleil, Orme des Merisiers, St AUBIN BP 48, 91192 GIF sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Joyeux, D.; Phalippou, D.; Rodier, J. C. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, RD 128, Campus Polytechnique, PALAISEAU cedex (France)

    2009-04-15

    We describe a Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer designed to operate down to 60 nm (20 eV) on a synchrotron radiation beamline for high resolution absorption spectrometry. As far as we know, such an instrument is not available below 140 nm mainly because manufacturing accurate and efficient beam splitters remains a major problem at these wavelengths, especially if a wide bandwidth operation is desired. In order to overcome this difficulty, we developed an interferometer based on wave front division instead of amplitude division. It relies on a modified Fresnel bimirror configuration that requires only flat mirrors. The instrument provides path difference scanning through the translation of one reflector. During the scanning, the moving reflector is controlled by an optical system that keeps its direction constant within a tolerable value and provides an accurate interferometric measurement of the path difference variation. Therefore, a regular interferogram sampling is obtained, producing a nominal spectral impulse response and an accurate spectral calibration. The first results presented in this paper show a measured spectral resolution of {delta}{sigma}=0.33 cm{sup -1} (interval between spectral samples). This was obtained with a sampling interval of 29 nm (path difference) and 512 K samples from a one-sided interferogram using a cosine FT. Such a sampling interval should allow the recording of large bandwidth spectra down to {lambda}=58 nm with an ultimate resolving power of 500 000 at this wavelength. In order to check the instrument performances, we first recorded an interferogram from a He-Ne stabilized laser. This provided the actual spectral impulse function, which was found to be fully satisfactory. The determination of the impulse response distortion and of the noise on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range provided accurate information in the sampling error profile over a typical scan. Finally, the instrument has been moved to the SU5 undulator

  11. Transformadas Discretas de Fourier

    OpenAIRE

    Alpízar-Brenes, Geisel; Calderón-Arce, Cindy; Soto-Quirós, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Proyecto de Investigación (VIE-5402-1440-4301). Este proyecto presenta un marco matem atico-computacional para el desarrollo de un conjunto de de niciones derivadas de la transformada discreta de Fourier (TDF), que son la funci on discreta de ambig uedad, la transformada discreta de Zak, la transformada discreta de Fourier en tiempo corto, la transformada discreta chirp-Fourier, la transformada discreta de Fourier de quaterniones, la transformada discreta de Cohen, la transform...

  12. Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Huber, Robert

    2009-03-15

    We demonstrate a subharmonically Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser source with a substantially reduced cavity fiber length. In contrast to a standard Fourier domain mode-locked configuration, light is recirculated repetitively in the delay line with the optical bandpass filter used as switch. The laser has a fundamental optical round trip frequency of 285 kHz and can be operated at integer fractions thereof (subharmonics). Sweep ranges up to 95 nm full width centred at 1317 nm are achieved at the 1/5th subharmonic. A maximum sensitivity of 116 dB and an axial resolution of 12 microm in air are measured at an average sweep power of 12 mW. A sensitivity roll-off of 11 dB over 4 mm and 25 dB over 10 mm is observed and optical coherence tomography imaging is demonstrated. Besides the advantage of a reduced fiber length, subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking (shFDML) enables simple scaling of the sweep speed by extracting light from the delay part of the resonator. A sweep rate of 570 kHz is achieved. Characteristic features of shFDML operation, such as power leakage during fly-back and cw breakthrough, are investigated.

  13. Interstudy reproducibility of the second generation, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography in patients with coronary artery disease and comparison with intravascular ultrasound: A study applying automated contour detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Jamil (Z.); G.J. Tearney (Guillermo); N. Bruining (Nico); K. Sihan (Kenji); G. van Soest (Gijs); J.M.R. Ligthart (Jürgen); R.T. van Domburg (Ron); B.E. Bouma (Brett); E.S. Regar (Eveline)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRecently, Fourier domain OCT (FD-OCT) has been introduced for clinical use. This approach allows in vivo, high resolution (15 micron) imaging with very fast data acquisition, however, it requires brief flushing of the lumen during imaging. The reproducibility of such fast data acquisitio

  14. Aero Fighter - 2D Gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Designing and developing quality based computer game is always a challenging task for developers. In this paper I briefly discuss aero fighting war game based on simple 2D gaming concepts and developed in C & C++ programming languages, using old bitmapping concepts. Going into the details of the game development, I discuss the designed strategies, flow of game and implemented prototype version of game, especially for beginners of game programming.

  15. Spin Waves in 2D ferromagnetic square lattice stripe

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Maher Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the area and edges spin wave calculations were carried out using the Heisenberg Hamiltonian and the tridiagonal method for the 2D ferromagnetic square lattice stripe, where the SW modes are characterized by a 1D in-plane wave vector $q_x$. The results show a general and an unexpected feature that the area and edge spin waves only exist as optic modes. This behavior is also seen in 2D Heisenberg antiferromagnetic square lattice. This absence of the acoustic modes in the 2D square...

  16. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  17. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.

  18. Efficient polar convolution based on the discrete Fourier-Bessel transform for application in computational biophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Melchert, O; Roth, B

    2016-01-01

    We discuss efficient algorithms for the accurate forward and reverse evaluation of the discrete Fourier-Bessel transform (dFBT) as numerical tools to assist in the 2D polar convolution of two radially symmetric functions, relevant, e.g., to applications in computational biophotonics. In our survey of the numerical procedure we account for the circumstance that the objective function might result from a more complex measurement process and is, in the worst case, known on a finite sequence of coordinate values, only. We contrast the performance of the resulting algorithms with a procedure based on a straight forward numerical quadrature of the underlying integral transform and asses its efficienty for two benchmark Fourier-Bessel pairs. An application to the problem of finite-size beam-shape convolution in polar coordinates, relevant in the context of tissue optics and optoacoustics, is used to illustrate the versatility and computational efficiency of the numerical procedure.

  19. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.

  20. Optical biosensing of bacteria and cells using porous silicon based, photonic lamellar gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsky, Y.; Nahor, A.; Edrei, E.; Massad-Ivanir, N.; Bonanno, L. M.; Segal, E.; Sa'ar, A.

    2013-07-01

    We report on a method to extend the optical sensing capabilities of conventional RIFTS (reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy) biosensors for real-time detection of large microorganisms, such as bacteria and cells. Using macro porous silicon based 2D arrays of phase (lamellar) grating, we demonstrate that the zero-order optical reflectivity exhibits a similar interference pattern to that obtained for ordinary RIFTS biosensors, which can be Fourier transformed into optical thickness and exploited for biosensing. The sensing capabilities are demonstrated for Escherichia coli bacteria that were captured inside the macro-pores. The entrapment process is monitored and verified by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  1. RNA folding pathways and kinetics using 2D energy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Evan; Dotu, Ivan; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    RNA folding pathways play an important role in various biological processes, such as (i) the hok/sok (host-killing/suppression of killing) system in E. coli to check for sufficient plasmid copy number, (ii) the conformational switch in spliced leader (SL) RNA from Leptomonas collosoma, which controls trans splicing of a portion of the '5 exon, and (iii) riboswitches--portions of the 5' untranslated region of messenger RNA that regulate genes by allostery. Since RNA folding pathways are determined by the energy landscape, we describe a novel algorithm, FFTbor2D, which computes the 2D projection of the energy landscape for a given RNA sequence. Given two metastable secondary structures A, B for a given RNA sequence, FFTbor2D computes the Boltzmann probability p(x, y) = Z(x,y)/Z that a secondary structure has base pair distance x from A and distance y from B. Using polynomial interpolationwith the fast Fourier transform,we compute p(x, y) in O(n(5)) time and O(n(2)) space, which is an improvement over an earlier method, which runs in O(n(7)) time and O(n(4)) space. FFTbor2D has potential applications in synthetic biology, where one might wish to design bistable switches having target metastable structures A, B with favorable pathway kinetics. By inverting the transition probability matrix determined from FFTbor2D output, we show that L. collosoma spliced leader RNA has larger mean first passage time from A to B on the 2D energy landscape, than 97.145% of 20,000 sequences, each having metastable structures A, B. Source code and binaries are freely available for download at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/FFTbor2D. The program FFTbor2D is implemented in C++, with optional OpenMP parallelization primitives.

  2. Image restoration based on the discrete fraction Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peimin; Mo, Yu L.; Liu, Hong

    2001-09-01

    The fractional Fourier transform is the powerful tool for time-variant signal analysis. For space-variant degradation and non-stationary processes the filtering in fractional Fourier domains permits reduction of the error compared with ordinary Fourier domain filtering. In this paper the concept of filtering in fractional Fourier domains is applied to the problem of estimating degraded images. Efficient digital implementation using discrete Hermite eigenvectors can provide similar results to match the continuous outputs. Expressions for the 2D optimal filter function in fractional domains will be given for transform domains characterized by the two rotation angle parameters of the 2D fractional Fourier transform. The proposed method is used to restore images that have several degradations in the experiments. The results show that the method presented in this paper is valid.

  3. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  4. Computational 2D Materials Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic structure of 51 semiconducting monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides and -oxides in the 2H and 1T hexagonal phases. The quasiparticle (QP) band structures with spin-orbit coupling are calculated in the G(0)W(0) approximation...... and used as input to a 2D hydrogenic model to estimate exciton binding energies. Throughout the paper we focus on trends and correlations in the electronic structure rather than detailed analysis of specific materials. All the computed data is available in an open database....

  5. CYP2D6 pharmacogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanan Geetha Gopisankar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes are proteins that catalyze electron transfer reactions of many metabolic pathways. They are involved in drug metabolism and thus determines the therapeutic safety and efficacy of drugs in patients. Cytochrome P450 in mitochondria accounts for 90% of the oxidative metabolism of clinically used drugs during phase 1 reaction. CYP2D6 is a major gene member of this superfamily as it carries out metabolism of 25% of drugs currently available in the market. Contrary to the concept of specificity of enzyme action these can metabolize substrates of different chemistry. Since its discovery, many have intensively studied this unique hemoprotein and contributed to the elucidation of its molecular properties and physiological functions and also the structure-activity relationships of its substrates and inhibitors. Its activity ranges considerably within a population due to genetic polymorphisms which lead to varied responses to drug intake. Studying such polymorphisms which cause a significant impact in the management of patients and helps to achieve the final target of personalizing medicine. This review briefs about history, structure, and function, molecular genetics, substrates, regulators and inhibitors of CYP2D6 and its clinical pharmacogenomics.

  6. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  7. Fourier transformation for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Tilman

    2006-01-01

    Meant to serve an "entertaining textbook," this book belongs to a rare genre. It is written for all students and practitioners who deal with Fourier transformation. Fourier series as well as continuous and discrete Fourier transformation are covered, and particular emphasis is placed on window functions. Many illustrations and easy-to-solve exercises make the book especially accessible, and its humorous style will add to the pleasure of learning from it.

  8. Fourier Series Operating Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnow, Milton L.

    1961-01-01

    This report presents a computer program for multiplying, adding, differentiating, integrating, "barring" and scalarly multiplying "literal" Fourier series as such, and for extracting the coefficients of specified terms.

  9. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  10. 2D SIMPLIFIED SERVO VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel pilot stage valve called simplified 2D valve, which utilizes both rotary and linear motions of a single spool, is presented.The rotary motion of the spool incorporating hydraulic resistance bridge, formed by a damper groove and a crescent overlap opening, is utilized as pilot to actuate linear motion of the spool.A criterion for stability is derived from the linear analysis of the valve.Special experiments are designed to acquire the mechanical stiffness, the pilot leakage and the step response.It is shown that the sectional size of the spiral groove affects the dynamic response and the stiffness contradictorily and is also very sensitive to the pilot leakage.Therefore, it is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless, it is possible to sustain the dynamic response at a fairly high level, while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.

  11. Room-Temperature Coherent Optical Phonon in 2D Electronic Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite as a Possible Cooling Bottleneck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Daniele M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Guo, Liang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lin, Jia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dou, Letian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Peidong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fleming, Graham R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-29

    A hot phonon bottleneck may be responsible for slow hot carrier cooling in methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite, creating the potential for more efficient hot carrier photovoltaics. In room-temperature 2D electronic spectra near the band edge, we observe in this paper amplitude oscillations due to a remarkably long lived 0.9 THz coherent phonon population at room temperature. This phonon (or set of phonons) is assigned to angular distortions of the Pb–I lattice, not coupled to cation rotations. The strong coupling between the electronic transition and the 0.9 THz mode(s), together with relative isolation from other phonon modes, makes it likely to cause a phonon bottleneck. Finally, the pump frequency resolution of the 2D spectra also enables independent observation of photoinduced absorptions and bleaches independently and confirms that features due to band gap renormalization are longer-lived than in transient absorption spectra.

  12. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-10

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  13. First Principles Calculations of Electronic Excitations in 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Anselm

    -thin electronics and high efficiency solar cells. Contrary to many other nano-materials, methods for large scale fabrication and patterning have already been demonstrated and the first real technological applications have already be showcased. Still the technology is very young and the number of well-studied 2D...... materials are few. However as the list of 2D materials is growing it is necessary to investigate their fundamental structural, electronic and optical properties. These are determined by the atomic and electronic structure of the materials that can quite accurately predicted by computational quantum...... as if it is being screened by the electrons in the material. This method has been very successful for calculating quasiparticle energies of bulk materials but results have been more varying for 2D materials. The reason is that the 2D confined electrons are less able to screen the added charge and some...

  14. Applying Quaternion Fourier Transforms for Enhancing Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khalil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fourier transforms play a critical role in a broad range of image processing applications, including enhancement, analysis, restoration, and compression. Until recently, it was common to use the conventional methods to deal with colored images. These methods are based on RGB decomposition of the colored image by separating it into three separate scalar images and computing the Fourier transforms of these images separately. The computing of the Hypercomplex 2D Fourier transform of a color image as a whole unit has only recently been realized. This paper is concerned with frequency domain noise reduction of color images using quaternion Fourier transforms. The approach is based on obtaining quaternion Fourier transform of the color image and applying the Gaussian filter to it in the frequency domain. The filtered image is then obtained by calculating the inverse quaternion Fourier transforms.

  15. Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.

    2003-03-01

    This paper gives a short account of some key elements in the life of Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830), specifically his relation to Napoleon Bonaparte. The mathematical approach to Fourier series and the original scepticism by French mathematicians are briefly illustrated.

  16. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  17. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  18. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Fourier-transform spectrometer provides approximately hundredfold increase in luminosity at detector plane over that achievable with older instruments of this type. Used to analyze such weak sources as pollutants and other low-concentration substances in atmosphere. Interferometer creates fringe patterns on two distinct arrays of light detectors, which observe different wavelength bands. Objective lens focuses scene on image plane, which contains optical chopper. To make instrument less susceptible to variations in scene under observation, field and detector lenses focus entrance aperture, rather that image, onto detector array.

  19. Novel 2D representation of vibration for local damage detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Żak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new 2D representation for local damage detection is presented. It is based on a vibration time series analysis. A raw vibration signal is decomposed via short-time Fourier transform and new time series for each frequency bin are differentiated to decorrelate them. For each time series, autocorrelation function is calculated. In the next step ACF maps are constructed. For healthy bearing ACF map should not have visible horizontal lines indicating damage. The method is illustrated by analysis of real data containing signals from damaged bearing and healthy for comparison.

  20. Optimizing sparse sampling for 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeding, Sebastian; Klimovich, Nikita; Brixner, Tobias

    2017-02-01

    We present a new data acquisition concept using optimized non-uniform sampling and compressed sensing reconstruction in order to substantially decrease the acquisition times in action-based multidimensional electronic spectroscopy. For this we acquire a regularly sampled reference data set at a fixed population time and use a genetic algorithm to optimize a reduced non-uniform sampling pattern. We then apply the optimal sampling for data acquisition at all other population times. Furthermore, we show how to transform two-dimensional (2D) spectra into a joint 4D time-frequency von Neumann representation. This leads to increased sparsity compared to the Fourier domain and to improved reconstruction. We demonstrate this approach by recovering transient dynamics in the 2D spectrum of a cresyl violet sample using just 25% of the originally sampled data points.

  1. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzeli, Sajedeh; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Pasquier, Diego; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras

    2017-08-01

    Graphene is very popular because of its many fascinating properties, but its lack of an electronic bandgap has stimulated the search for 2D materials with semiconducting character. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which are semiconductors of the type MX2, where M is a transition metal atom (such as Mo or W) and X is a chalcogen atom (such as S, Se or Te), provide a promising alternative. Because of its robustness, MoS2 is the most studied material in this family. TMDCs exhibit a unique combination of atomic-scale thickness, direct bandgap, strong spin-orbit coupling and favourable electronic and mechanical properties, which make them interesting for fundamental studies and for applications in high-end electronics, spintronics, optoelectronics, energy harvesting, flexible electronics, DNA sequencing and personalized medicine. In this Review, the methods used to synthesize TMDCs are examined and their properties are discussed, with particular attention to their charge density wave, superconductive and topological phases. The use of TMCDs in nanoelectronic devices is also explored, along with strategies to improve charge carrier mobility, high frequency operation and the use of strain engineering to tailor their properties.

  2. Feasibility study, software design, layout and simulation of a two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform machine for use in optical array interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriakoff, Valentin

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was the feasibility study of a particular architecture of a digital signal processing machine operating in real time which could do in a pipeline fashion the computation of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of a time-domain sampled complex digital data stream. The particular architecture makes use of simple identical processors (called inner product processors) in a linear organization called a systolic array. Through computer simulation the new architecture to compute the FFT with systolic arrays was proved to be viable, and computed the FFT correctly and with the predicted particulars of operation. Integrated circuits to compute the operations expected of the vital node of the systolic architecture were proven feasible, and even with a 2 micron VLSI technology can execute the required operations in the required time. Actual construction of the integrated circuits was successful in one variant (fixed point) and unsuccessful in the other (floating point).

  3. Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundiff, Steven T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-03

    This final report describes the activities undertaken under grant "Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots". The goal of this program was to implement optical 2-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy and apply it to electronic excitations, including excitons, in semiconductors. Specifically of interest are quantum wells that exhibit disorder due to well width fluctuations and quantum dots. In both cases, 2-D spectroscopy will provide information regarding coupling among excitonic localization sites.

  4. Fourier analysis an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2003-01-01

    This first volume, a three-part introduction to the subject, is intended for students with a beginning knowledge of mathematical analysis who are motivated to discover the ideas that shape Fourier analysis. It begins with the simple conviction that Fourier arrived at in the early nineteenth century when studying problems in the physical sciences--that an arbitrary function can be written as an infinite sum of the most basic trigonometric functions.The first part implements this idea in terms of notions of convergence and summability of Fourier series, while highlighting applications such as th

  5. Learn Unity for 2D game development

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity

  6. A Short Biography of Joseph Fourier and Historical Development of Fourier Series and Fourier Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with a brief biographical sketch of Joseph Fourier, his first celebrated work on analytical theory of heat, his first great discovery of Fourier series and Fourier transforms. Included is a historical development of Fourier series and Fourier transforms with their properties, importance and applications. Special emphasis is made…

  7. Fourier transformation for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to Fourier Transformation with a focus on signal analysis, based on the first edition. It is well suited for undergraduate students in physics, mathematics, electronic engineering as well as for scientists in research and development. It gives illustrations and recommendations when using existing Fourier programs and thus helps to avoid frustrations. Moreover, it is entertaining and you will learn a lot unconsciously. Fourier series as well as continuous and discrete Fourier transformation are discussed with particular emphasis on window functions. Filter effects of digital data processing are illustrated. Two new chapters are devoted to modern applications. The first deals with data streams and fractional delays and the second with the back-projection of filtered projections in tomography. There are many figures and mostly easy to solve exercises with solutions.

  8. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  9. Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook.

  10. Research progress on discretization of fractional Fourier transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Ran; ZHANG Feng; WANG Yue

    2008-01-01

    As the fractional Fourier transform has attracted a considerable amount of atten-tion in the area of optics and signal processing,the discretization of the fractional Fourier transform becomes vital for the application of the fractional Fourier trans-form.Since the discretization of the fractional Fourier transform cannot be obtained by directly sampling in time domain and the fractional Fourier domain,the discre-tization of the fractional Fourier transform has been investigated recently.A sum-mary of discretizations of the fractional Fourier transform developed in the last nearly two decades is presented in this paper.The discretizations include sampling in the fractional Fourier domain,discrete-time fractional Fourier transform,frac-tional Fourier series,discrete fractional Fourier transform (including 3 main types:linear combination-type;sampling-type;and eigen decomposition-type),and other discrete fractional signal transform.It is hoped to offer a doorstep for the readers who are interested in the fractional Fourier transform.

  11. On the Scaled Fractional Fourier Transformation Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; HU Li-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Based on our previous study [Chin.Phys.Lett.24(2007)2238]in which the Fresnel operator corresponding to classical Fresnel transform was introduced,we derive the fractional Fourier transformation operator,and the optical operator method is then enriched.

  12. Rapid, nondestructive estimation of surface polymer layer thickness using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy and synthetic spectra derived from optical principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, B André; Guiney, Linda M; Loose, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a rapid, nondestructive analytical method that estimates the thickness of a surface polymer layer with high precision but unknown accuracy using a single attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) measurement. Because the method is rapid, nondestructive, and requires no sample preparation, it is ideal as a process analytical technique. Prior to implementation, the ATR FT-IR spectrum of the substrate layer pure component and the ATR FT-IR and real refractive index spectra of the surface layer pure component must be known. From these three input spectra a synthetic mid-infrared spectral matrix of surface layers 0 nm to 10,000 nm thick on substrate is created de novo. A minimum statistical distance match between a process sample's ATR FT-IR spectrum and the synthetic spectral matrix provides the thickness of that sample. We show that this method can be used to successfully estimate the thickness of polysulfobetaine surface modification, a hydrated polymeric surface layer covalently bonded onto a polyetherurethane substrate. A database of 1850 sample spectra was examined. Spectrochemical matrix-effect unknowns, such as the nonuniform and molecularly novel polysulfobetaine-polyetherurethane interface, were found to be minimal. A partial least squares regression analysis of the database spectra versus their thicknesses as calculated by the method described yielded an estimate of precision of ±52 nm.

  13. Engineering an achromatic Bessel beam using a phase-only spatial light modulator and an iterative Fourier transformation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walde, Marie; Jost, Aurélie; Wicker, Kai; Heintzmann, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Bessel illumination is an established method in optical imaging and manipulation to achieve an extended depth of field without compromising the lateral resolution. When broadband or multicolour imaging is required, wavelength-dependent changes in the radial profile of the Bessel illumination can complicate further image processing and analysis. We present a solution for engineering a multicolour Bessel beam that is easy to implement and promises to be particularly useful for broadband imaging applications. A phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) in the image plane and an iterative Fourier Transformation algorithm (IFTA) are used to create an annular light distribution in the back focal plane of a lens. The 2D Fourier transformation of such a light ring yields a Bessel beam with a constant radial profile for different wavelength.

  14. Blind 2-D Angles of Arrival Estimation for Distributed Signals Using L-Shaped Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zheng; Xue-Gang Wang; Tie-Qi Xia; Qun Wan

    2008-01-01

    Most existing two dimensional (2-D) angles of arrival (AOAs) estimation methods are based on the assumption that the signal sources are point sources. However, in mobile communications, local scattering in the vicinity of the mobile results in angular spreading as seen from a base station antenna array. In this paper, we consider the problem of estimating the 2-D AOAs of spatially distributed sources. First we perform blind estimation of the steering vectors by exploiting joint diagonalization, then the 2-D AOAs are obtained through two fast Fourier transforming of the estimated steering vectors. Simulations are carried out to illustrate the performance of the method.

  15. Printable ink lenses, diffusers, and 2D gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Yetisen, Ali K; Khoury, Anthony El; Butt, Haider

    2017-01-07

    Advances in holography have led to applications including data storage, displays, security labels, and colorimetric sensors. However, existing top-down approaches for the fabrication of holographic devices are complex, expensive, and expertise dependent, limiting their use in practical applications. Here, ink-based holographic devices have been created for a wide range of applications in diffraction optics. A single pulse of a 3.5 ns Nd:YAG laser allowed selective ablation of ink to nanofabricate planar optical devices. The practicality of this method is demonstrated by fabricating ink-based diffraction gratings, 2D holographic patterns, optical diffusers, and Fresnel zone plate (FZP) lenses by using the ink. The fabrication processes were rationally designed using predictive computational modeling and the devices were fabricated within a few minutes demonstrating amenability for large scale printable optics through industrial manufacturing. It is anticipated that ink will be a promising diffraction optical material for the rapid printing of low-cost planar nanophotonic devices.

  16. Simultaneous 2D Strain Sensing Using Polymer Planar Bragg Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rosenberger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the application of polymer planar Bragg gratings for multi-axial strain sensing and particularly highlight simultaneous 2D strain measurement. A polymer planar Bragg grating (PPBG fabricated with a single writing step in bulk polymethylmethacrylate is used for measuring both tensile and compressive strain at various angles. It is shown that the sensitivity of the PPBG strongly depends on the angle between the optical waveguide into which the grating is inscribed and the direction along which the mechanical load is applied. Additionally, a 2D PPBG fabricated by writing two Bragg gratings angularly displaced from each other into a single polymer platelet is bonded to a stainless steel plate. The two reflected wavelengths exhibit different sensitivities while tested toward tensile and compressive strain. These characteristics make 2D PPBG suitable for measuring multi-axial tensile and compressive strain.

  17. Comparison of diagnostic capability of macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer among primary open angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and normal population using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and determining their functional correlation in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Barua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Analysis of diagnostic ability of macular ganglionic cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in glaucoma. Aim: To correlate functional and structural parameters and comparing predictive value of each of the structural parameters using Fourier-domain (FD optical coherence tomography (OCT among primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and ocular hypertension (OHT versus normal population. Setting and Design: Single centric, cross-sectional study done in 234 eyes. Materials and Methods: Patients were enrolled in three groups: POAG, ocular hypertensive and normal (40 patients in each group. After comprehensive ophthalmological examination, patients underwent standard automated perimetry and FD-OCT scan in optic nerve head and ganglion cell mode. The relationship was assessed by correlating ganglion cell complex (GCC parameters with mean deviation. Results were compared with RNFL parameters. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with SPSS, analysis of variance, t-test, Pearson′s coefficient, and receiver operating curve. Results: All parameters showed strong correlation with visual field (P 0.5 when compared with other parameters. None of the parameters showed significant diagnostic capability to detect OHT from normal population. In diagnosing early glaucoma from OHT and normal population, only inferior GCC had statistically significant AUC value (0.715. Conclusion: In this study, GCC and RNFL parameters showed equal predictive capability in perimetric versus normal group. In early stage, inferior GCC was the best parameter. In OHT population, single day cross-sectional imaging was not valuable.

  18. Efficient one-stationary bistatic synthetic aperture radar raw data generation based on Fourier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yulin; Wu, Junjie; Li, Zhongyu; Yang, Haiguang; Yang, Jianyu

    2016-01-01

    Raw data generation for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is very powerful for designing systems and testing imaging algorithms. In this paper, a raw data generation method based on Fourier analysis for one-stationary bistatic SAR is presented. In this mode, two-dimensional (2-D) spatial variation is the major problem faced by the fast Fourier transform-based raw data generation. To deal with this problem, a 2-D linearization followed by a 2-D frequency transformation is employed in this method. This frequency transformation can reflect the 2-D spatial variation. Residual phase compensation is also discussed. Numerical simulation verifies the method.

  19. Multivariate and 2D Extensions of Singular Spectrum Analysis with the Rssa Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Golyandina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of multivariate and 2D extensions of singular spectrum analysis (SSA by means of the R package Rssa is considered. The extensions include MSSA for simultaneous analysis and forecasting of several time series and 2D-SSA for analysis of digital images. A new extension of 2D-SSA analysis called shaped 2D-SSA is introduced for analysis of images of arbitrary shape, not necessary rectangular. It is shown that implementation of shaped 2D-SSA can serve as a basis for implementation of MSSA and other generalizations. Efficient implementation of operations with Hankel and Hankel-block-Hankel matrices through the fast Fourier transform is suggested. Examples with code fragments in R, which explain the methodology and demonstrate the proper use of Rssa, are presented.

  20. Weaving defect detection by Fourier imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciamberlini, Claudio; Francini, Franco; Longobardi, Giuseppe; Poggi, Pasquale; Sansoni, Paola; Tiribilli, Bruno

    1996-08-01

    An optical configuration for the detection of faults was developed and tested. The optical fourier transformation is the basic working principle of the system. When good fabric passes in front of the optical system the Fourier image, captured by the camera, shows well defined spots corresponding to the spatial frequencies of the tissue. If a defect occurs during production on the loom, the pattern changes significantly and a defect is easily detected in real time. A very simple electronic image processing based on thresholding and binary histograms allows to obtain very encouraging performance for its applicability to the looms. A compact device has been realized and tested in real working conditions on the loom.

  1. Imaging Analysis by Means of Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the diffraction imaging process,we have discussed the relationship between optical imaging system and fractional Fourier transform, and proposed a specific system which can form an inverse amplified image of input function.

  2. Cross-Correlating 2D and 3D Galaxy Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passaglia, Samuel [Chicago U., KICP; Manzotti, Alessandro [Chicago U., KICP; Dodelson, Scott [Fermilab

    2017-02-09

    Galaxy surveys probe both structure formation and the expansion rate, making them promising avenues for understanding the dark universe. Photometric surveys accurately map the 2D distribution of galaxy positions and shapes in a given redshift range, while spectroscopic surveys provide sparser 3D maps of the galaxy distribution. We present a way to analyse overlapping 2D and 3D maps jointly and without loss of information. We represent 3D maps using spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) modes, which preserve radial coverage while accounting for the spherical sky geometry, and we decompose 2D maps in a spherical harmonic basis. In these bases, a simple expression exists for the cross-correlation of the two fields. One very powerful application is the ability to simultaneously constrain the redshift distribution of the photometric sample, the sample biases, and cosmological parameters. We use our framework to show that combined analysis of DESI and LSST can improve cosmological constraints by factors of ${\\sim}1.2$ to ${\\sim}1.8$ on the region where they overlap relative to identically sized disjoint regions. We also show that in the overlap of DES and SDSS-III in Stripe 82, cross-correlating improves photo-$z$ parameter constraints by factors of ${\\sim}2$ to ${\\sim}12$ over internal photo-$z$ reconstructions.

  3. 2D DOST based local phase pattern for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Md.; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2017-05-01

    A new two dimensional (2-D) Discrete Orthogonal Stcokwell Transform (DOST) based Local Phase Pattern (LPP) technique has been proposed for efficient face recognition. The proposed technique uses 2-D DOST as preliminary preprocessing and local phase pattern to form robust feature signature which can effectively accommodate various 3D facial distortions and illumination variations. The S-transform, is an extension of the ideas of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT), is also known for its local spectral phase properties in time-frequency representation (TFR). It provides a frequency dependent resolution of the time-frequency space and absolutely referenced local phase information while maintaining a direct relationship with the Fourier spectrum which is unique in TFR. After utilizing 2-D Stransform as the preprocessing and build local phase pattern from extracted phase information yield fast and efficient technique for face recognition. The proposed technique shows better correlation discrimination compared to alternate pattern recognition techniques such as wavelet or Gabor based face recognition. The performance of the proposed method has been tested using the Yale and extended Yale facial database under different environments such as illumination variation and 3D changes in facial expressions. Test results show that the proposed technique yields better performance compared to alternate time-frequency representation (TFR) based face recognition techniques.

  4. On Fourier re-expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Liflyand, E.

    2012-01-01

    We study an extension to Fourier transforms of the old problem on absolute convergence of the re-expansion in the sine (cosine) Fourier series of an absolutely convergent cosine (sine) Fourier series. The results are obtained by revealing certain relations between the Fourier transforms and their Hilbert transforms.

  5. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  6. Spectroscopic ellipsometry thin film and first-principles calculations of electronic and linear optical properties of [(C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2] 2D perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, H.; Hlil, E. K.; Abid, Y.

    2017-03-01

    In this study we report results of first-principles density functional calculations using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method as implemented in the WIEN2K code. We employed the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation energy to calculate electronic and linear optical properties of the (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2 compound. The linear optical properties, namely, the real ε1 (ω) and imaginary ε2 (ω) parts of dielectric function, the refractive index n (ω) and the extinction coefficient k (ω) are calculated and compared with experimental spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra. The reflectivity R (ω) and electron energy loss function L (ω) are calculated too. Our calculations performed for band structure and density of states show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum are located at Γ point resulting in a direct band gap of about (Γv -Γc) of 2.42 eV in good agreement with the experimental data. The investigated compound has a large uniaxial anisotropy of the dielectric function of about 0.0739 and a negative birefringence at zero energy Δn (0) =-0.11.

  7. Fourier Analysis on Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Rudin, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1950s, many of the more refined aspects of Fourier analysis were transferred from their original settings (the unit circle, the integers, the real line) to arbitrary locally compact abelian (LCA) groups. Rudin's book, published in 1962, was the first to give a systematic account of these developments and has come to be regarded as a classic in the field. The basic facts concerning Fourier analysis and the structure of LCA groups are proved in the opening chapters, in order to make the treatment relatively self-contained.

  8. Bedform characterization through 2D spectral analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Winter, Christian

    2011-01-01

    characteristics using twodimensional (2D) spectral analysis is presented and tested on seabed elevation data from the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, where large compound bedforms are found. The bathymetric data were divided into 20x20 m areas on which a 2D spectral analysis was applied. The most...... energetic peak of the 2D spectrum was found and its energy, frequency and direction were calculated. A power-law was fitted to the average of slices taken through the 2D spectrum; its slope and y-intercept were calculated. Using these results the test area was morphologically classified into 4 distinct...

  9. Probabilistic models for 2D active shape recognition using Fourier descriptors and mutual information

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Université de Caen, CIMAP-ENSICAEN 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen, France 4Faculté de Physique, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumédiène, B.P. n° 32, El Alia, 16111 Algiers, Algeria *aforbes1@csir.co.za Abstract We outline a... simple laser cavity comprising an opaque ring and a circular aperture that is capable of producing spatially tuneable laser modes, from a Gaussian beam to a Flat-top beam. The tuneability is achieved by varying the diameter of the aperture and thus...

  10. A 2D finite element/1D Fourier solution to the Fokker-Planck equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Joseph Andrew

    Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is a gas in which a significant portion of the atoms are ionized. It is estimated that more than 99% of the material in the visible universe is in the plasma state. The process that stars, including our sun, combine atomic nuclei and produce large amounts of energy is called thermonuclear fusion. It is anticipated future energy demands will be met by large terrestrial devices harnessing the energy of nuclear fusion. A gas hot enough to produce the number of atomic collisions needed for fusion is necessarily in the plasma state. Therefore, plasmas are of great interest to researchers studying nuclear fusion. Stars are massive enough that the gravitational attraction heats and confines the plasma. Gravitational confinement cannot be used to confine fusion plasmas on Earth. Material containers cause cooling, which prevent a plasma from maintaining the high temperature needed for fusion. Fortunately plasmas have electrical properties, which allow them to be controlled by strong magnetic fields. Although serious research into controlled thermonuclear fusion began over 60 years ago, only a couple of man-made devices are even close to obtaining more energy from fusion than is put into them. One difficulty lies in understanding the physics of particle collisions. A relative few particle collisions result in the fusion of atomic nuclei, while the vast majority of collisions are understood in terms of the electrostatic force between particles. My work has been to create an a computer code, which can be executed in parallel on supercomputers, to quickly and accurately calculate the evolution of a plasma due to particle collisions. This work explains the physics and mathematics underlying our code, as well as several tests which demonstrate the code is working as expected.

  11. Fourier analysis and synthesis tomography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Kelvin H. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO); Sinclair, Michael B.; Feldkuhn, Daniel (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO)

    2010-05-01

    Most far-field optical imaging systems rely on a lens and spatially-resolved detection to probe distinct locations on the object. We describe and demonstrate a novel high-speed wide-field approach to imaging that instead measures the complex spatial Fourier transform of the object by detecting its spatially-integrated response to dynamic acousto-optically synthesized structured illumination. Tomographic filtered backprojection is applied to reconstruct the object in two or three dimensions. This technique decouples depth-of-field and working-distance from resolution, in contrast to conventional imaging, and can be used to image biological and synthetic structures in fluoresced or scattered light employing coherent or broadband illumination. We discuss the electronically programmable transfer function of the optical system and its implications for imaging dynamic processes. Finally, we present for the first time two-dimensional high-resolution image reconstructions demonstrating a three-orders-of-magnitude improvement in depth-of-field over conventional lens-based microscopy.

  12. MULTIVARIATE FOURIER SERIES OVER A CLASS OF NON TENSOR-PRODUCT PARTITION DOMAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiachang Sun

    2003-01-01

    This paper finds a way to extend the well-known Fourier methods, to so-called n+1directions partition domains in n-dimension. In particular, in 2-D and 3-D cases, westudy Fourier methods over 3-direction parallel hexagon partitions and 4-direction parallelparallelogram dodecahedron partitions, respectively. It has pointed that, the most conceptsand results of Fourier methods on tensor-product case, such as periodicity, orthogonality ofFourier basis system, partial sum of Fourier series and its approximation behavior, can bemoved on the new non tensor-product partition case.

  13. Fourier and Laplace Transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerends, R.J.; Morsche, ter H.G.; Berg, van den J.C.

    2003-01-01

    This textbook presents in a unified manner the fundamentals of both continuous and discrete versions of the Fourier and Laplace transforms. These transforms play an important role in the analysis of all kinds of physical phenomena. As a link between the various applications of these transforms the a

  14. Bilinear Fourier restriction theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Demeter, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    We provide a general scheme for proving $L^p$ estimates for certain bilinear Fourier restrictions outside the locally $L^2$ setting. As an application, we show how such estimates follow for the lacunary polygon. In contrast with prior approaches, our argument avoids any use of the Rubio de Francia Littlewood--Paley inequality.

  15. Fast Fourier Orthogonalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducas, L.; Prest, T.; Abramov, S.A.; Zima, E.V.; Gao, X-S.

    2016-01-01

    The classical fast Fourier transform (FFT) allows to compute in quasi-linear time the product of two polynomials, in the {\\em circular convolution ring} R[x]/(x^d−1) --- a task that naively requires quadratic time. Equivalently, it allows to accelerate matrix-vector products when the matrix is *circ

  16. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  17. Port Adriano, 2D-Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Jensen, Palle Meinert

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU).......This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU)....

  18. Structural Theory of 2-d Adinkras

    CERN Document Server

    Iga, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Adinkras are combinatorial objects developed to study 1-dimensional supersymmetry representations. Recently, 2-d Adinkras have been developed to study 2-dimensional supersymmetry. In this paper, we classify all 2-d Adinkras, confirming a conjecture of T. H\\"ubsch. Along the way, we obtain other structural results, including a simple characterization of H\\"ubsch's even-split doubly even code.

  19. Characterization of microwave plasma in a multicusp using 2D emission based tomography: Bessel modes and wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Kavita; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Munshi, Prabhat

    2017-06-01

    A tomographic method based on the Fourier transform is used for characterizing a microwave plasma in a multicusp (MC), in order to obtain 2D distribution of plasma emissions, plasma (electron) density (Ne) and temperature (Te). The microwave plasma in the MC is characterized as a function of microwave power, gas pressure, and axial distance. The experimentally obtained 2D emission profiles show that the plasma emissions are generated in a circular ring shape. There are usually two bright rings, one at the plasma core and another near the boundary. The experimental results are validated using a numerical code that solves Maxwell's equations inside a waveguide filled with a plasma in a magnetic field, with collisions included. It is inferred that the dark and bright circular ring patterns are a result of superposition of Bessel modes (TE11 and TE21) of the wave electric field inside the plasma filled MC, which are in reasonable agreement with the plasma emission profiles. The tomographically obtained Ne and Te profiles indicate higher densities in the plasma core (˜1010 cm-3) and enhanced electron temperature in the ECR region (˜13 eV), which are in agreement with earlier results using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostics.

  20. Grazing incidence angle based sensing approach integrated with fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for remote and label-free detection of medical device contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Moinuddin, E-mail: moinuddin.hassan@fda.hhs.gov; Ilev, Ilko [Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Division of Biomedical Physics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Contamination of medical devices has become a critical and prevalent public health safety concern since medical devices are being increasingly used in clinical practices for diagnostics, therapeutics and medical implants. The development of effective sensing methods for real-time detection of pathogenic contamination is needed to prevent and reduce the spread of infections to patients and the healthcare community. In this study, a hollow-core fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology employing a grazing incidence angle based sensing approach (FO-FTIR-GIA) was developed for detection of various biochemical contaminants on medical device surfaces. We demonstrated the sensitivity of FO-FTIR-GIA sensing approach for non-contact and label-free detection of contaminants such as lipopolysaccharide from various surface materials relevant to medical device. The proposed sensing system can detect at a minimum loading concentration of approximately 0.7 μg/cm{sup 2}. The FO-FTIR-GIA has the potential for the detection of unwanted pathogen in real time.

  1. Micropolar curved rods. 2-D, high order, Timoshenko’s and Euler-Bernoulli models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zozulya V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New models for micropolar plane curved rods have been developed. 2-D theory is developed from general 2-D equations of linear micropolar elasticity using a special curvilinear system of coordinates related to the middle line of the rod and special hypothesis based on assumptions that take into account the fact that the rod is thin.High order theory is based on the expansion of the equations of the theory of elasticity into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials. First stress and strain tensors,vectors of displacements and rotation and body force shave been expanded into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials with respect to a thickness coordinate.Thereby all equations of elasticity including Hooke’s law have been transformed to the corresponding equations for Fourier coefficients. Then in the same way as in the theory of elasticity, system of differential equations in term of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients have been obtained. The Timoshenko’s and Euler-Bernoulli theories are based on the classical hypothesis and 2-D equations of linear micropolar elasticity in a special curvilinear system. The obtained equations can be used to calculate stress-strain and to model thin walled structures in macro, micro and nano scale when taking in to account micropolar couple stress and rotation effects.

  2. 2D magnetic texture analysis of Co-Cu films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayirli, Mehmet; Karaagac, Oznur; Kockar, Hakan [Balikesir Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Alper, Mursel [Uludag Univ., Bursa (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2017-08-01

    The magnetic textures for the produced magnetic materials are important concepts in accordance with technical applications. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine 2D magnetic textures of electrodeposited Co-Cu films by the measurement of hysteresis loops at the incremented angles. For that, Co-Cu films were deposited with different Co{sup 2+} in the electrolyte. In addition, the easy-axis orientation in the films from the squareness values of the angles, M{sub p}(β) obtained by the hysteresis loops have been numerically studied using the Fourier series analysis. The differences observed in the magnetic easy-axis distributions were attributed to changes of the incorporation of Co in the films with the change of Co{sup 2+} in the electrolyte. The coefficients of Fourier series (A{sub 0} and A{sub 2n}) were also computed for 2D films. It is seen that a systematic and small decrease in A{sub 0} and an obvious decrease in A{sub 2n} (n=1) were observed with increasing incorporated Co in the films. Results imply that interactions cause slightly demagnetization effect accordance with higher incorporation of Co in the films. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the Co-Cu films analysed by X-ray diffraction revealed that the films have dominantly face-centred cubic structure. Film contents analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and film morphologies observed by scanning electron microscope also support the magnetic texture analysis results found by numerical computation.

  3. A Framework Based on 2-D Taylor Expansion for Quantifying the Impacts of Subpixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bispectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Werner, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The bispectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness (t) and cloud droplet effective radius (re) simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near-infrared (VIS/NIR) band and the other in a shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring subpixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved t and re. In the literature, the retrievals of t and re are often assumed to be independent and considered separately when investigating the impact of subpixel cloud reflectance variations on the bispectral method. As a result, the impact on t is contributed only by the subpixel variation of VIS/NIR band reflectance and the impact on re only by the subpixel variation of SWIR band reflectance. In our new framework, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of subpixel variances of VIS/NIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the t and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VIS/NIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how subpixel cloud reflectance variations impact the t and re retrievals based on the bispectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the subpixel variation in VIS/NIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval. We test our framework using synthetic cloud fields from a large-eddy simulation and real observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The predicted results based on our framework agree very well with the numerical simulations. Our

  4. A Framework Based on 2-D Taylor Expansion for Quantifying the Impacts of Subpixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bispectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Werner, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The bispectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness (t) and cloud droplet effective radius (re) simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near-infrared (VIS/NIR) band and the other in a shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring subpixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved t and re. In the literature, the retrievals of t and re are often assumed to be independent and considered separately when investigating the impact of subpixel cloud reflectance variations on the bispectral method. As a result, the impact on t is contributed only by the subpixel variation of VIS/NIR band reflectance and the impact on re only by the subpixel variation of SWIR band reflectance. In our new framework, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of subpixel variances of VIS/NIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the t and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VIS/NIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how subpixel cloud reflectance variations impact the t and re retrievals based on the bispectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the subpixel variation in VIS/NIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval. We test our framework using synthetic cloud fields from a large-eddy simulation and real observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The predicted results based on our framework agree very well with the numerical simulations. Our

  5. A Framework Based on 2-D Taylor Expansion for Quantifying the Impacts of Sub-Pixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bi-Spectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Werner, F.; Cho, H. -M.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    The bi-spectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness and cloud droplet effective radius simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near-infrared (VISNIR) band and the other in a shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring sub-pixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved and re. In the literature, the retrievals of and re are often assumed to be independent and considered separately when investigating the impact of sub-pixel cloud reflectance variations on the bi-spectral method. As a result, the impact on is contributed only by the sub-pixel variation of VISNIR band reflectance and the impact on re only by the sub-pixel variation of SWIR band reflectance. In our new framework, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of sub-pixel variances of VISNIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VISNIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how sub-pixel cloud reflectance variations impact the and re retrievals based on the bi-spectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the sub-pixel variation in VISNIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval. We test our framework using synthetic cloud fields from a large-eddy simulation and real observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The predicted results based on our framework agree very well with the numerical simulations. Our framework can be used

  6. Generic Quantum Fourier Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher; Russell, A; Moore, Cristopher; Rockmore, Daniel; Russell, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is the principal algorithmic tool underlying most efficient quantum algorithms. We present a generic framework for the construction of efficient quantum circuits for the QFT by ``quantizing'' the separation of variables technique that has been so successful in the study of classical Fourier transform computations. Specifically, this framework applies the existence of computable Bratteli diagrams, adapted factorizations, and Gel'fand-Tsetlin bases to offer efficient quantum circuits for the QFT over a wide variety a finite Abelian and non-Abelian groups, including all group families for which efficient QFTs are currently known and many new group families. Moreover, the method gives rise to the first subexponential-size quantum circuits for the QFT over the linear groups GL_k(q), SL_k(q), and the finite groups of Lie type, for any fixed prime power q.

  7. Fourier analysis: from cloaking to imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Cheng, Qiluan; Wang, Guo Ping

    2016-04-01

    Regarding invisibility cloaks as an optical imaging system, we present a Fourier approach to analytically unify both Pendry cloaks and complementary media-based invisibility cloaks into one kind of cloak. By synthesizing different transfer functions, we can construct different devices to realize a series of interesting functions such as hiding objects (events), creating illusions, and performing perfect imaging. In this article, we give a brief review on recent works of applying Fourier approach to analysis invisibility cloaks and optical imaging through scattering layers. We show that, to construct devices to conceal an object, no constructive materials with extreme properties are required, making most, if not all, of the above functions realizable by using naturally occurring materials. As instances, we experimentally verify a method of directionally hiding distant objects and create illusions by using all-dielectric materials, and further demonstrate a non-invasive method of imaging objects completely hidden by scattering layers.

  8. 2D Mueller matrix approach for tissue complete polarization characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J.-L.; Romanov, O. G.; Tolstik, A. L.; Ormachea, O.

    2007-06-01

    The use of optical techniques in medical praxis allows practitioners to improve their tools. This improvement is realized in two main aspects, treatment and characterization of biological tissue. The former deals with methods like Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) or Hyperthermia. Tissue characterization by optical means is more challenging. The idea is to obtain images from biological tissues with a non-contact, non-invasive and safe procedure. The drawbacks of conventional imaging techniques, like X-Ray with its ionising radiation or ultrasound with the needed contact, are then avoided. Some of these optical techniques are for instance Confocal Microscopy or Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The inclusion of the analysis of light polarization can increase the contrast in these images. In this work, polarization information via the Mueller matrix of the target tissue in 2D is proposed as an improved way of characterization. This matrix contains all the polarization properties of tissue, including depolarisation, so a more complete analysis can be carried out. A polarimeter, composed by linear polarizers and rotators, as long as a CCD camera, is proposed to measure 2D Mueller matrix in concrete points of a biological tissue. The importance of these diagnosis methods is crucial in preliminary detection of diseases, like cancer.

  9. Classical Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this text is to present the theoretical foundation of the field of Fourier analysis on Euclidean spaces. It covers classical topics such as interpolation, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, maximal functions, singular integrals, and Littlewood–Paley theory. The primary readership is intended to be graduate students in mathematics with the prerequisite including satisfactory completion of courses in real and complex variables. The coverage of topics and exposition style are designed to leave no gaps in understanding and stimulate further study. This third edition includes new Sections 3.5, 4.4, 4.5 as well as a new chapter on “Weighted Inequalities,” which has been moved from GTM 250, 2nd Edition. Appendices I and B.9 are also new to this edition.  Countless corrections and improvements have been made to the material from the second edition. Additions and improvements include: more examples and applications, new and more relevant hints for the existing exercises, new exercises, and...

  10. Fourier techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    The first systematic methods of Fourier analysis date from the early eighteenth century with the work of Joseph Fourier on the problem of the flow of heat. (A brief history is contained in the first paper.) Given the initial tempera­ ture at all points of a region, the problem was to determine the changes in the temperature distribution over time. Understanding and predicting these changes was important in such areas as the handling of metals and the determination of geological and atmospheric temperatures. Briefly, Fourier noticed that the solution of the heat diffusion problem was simple if the initial temperature dis­ tribution was sinusoidal. He then asserted that any distri­ bution can be decomposed into a sum of sinusoids, these being the harmonics of the original function. This meant that the general solution could now be obtained by summing the solu­ tions of the component sinusoidal problems. This remarkable ability of the series of sinusoids to describe all "reasonable" functions, the sine qua n...

  11. Band Alignment of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Chiu, Ming Hui

    2016-09-20

    It is critically important to characterize the band alignment in semiconductor heterojunctions (HJs) because it controls the electronic and optical properties. However, the well-known Anderson\\'s model usually fails to predict the band alignment in bulk HJ systems due to the presence of charge transfer at the interfacial bonding. Atomically thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenide materials have attracted much attention recently since the ultrathin HJs and devices can be easily built and they are promising for future electronics. The vertical HJs based on 2D materials can be constructed via van der Waals stacking regardless of the lattice mismatch between two materials. Despite the defect-free characteristics of the junction interface, experimental evidence is still lacking on whether the simple Anderson rule can predict the band alignment of HJs. Here, the validity of Anderson\\'s model is verified for the 2D heterojunction systems and the success of Anderson\\'s model is attributed to the absence of dangling bonds (i.e., interface dipoles) at the van der Waal interface. The results from the work set a foundation allowing the use of powerful Anderson\\'s rule to determine the band alignments of 2D HJs, which is beneficial to future electronic, photonic, and optoelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Hybridized Plasmons in 2D Nanoslits: From Graphene to Anisotropic 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Xiao, Sanshui; Peres, N. M. R.

    2017-01-01

    of arbitrary width, and remains valid irrespective of the 2D conductive material (e.g., doped graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, or phosphorene). We derive the dispersion relation of the hybrid modes of a 2D nanoslit along with the corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions...

  13. Local properties of Fourier series

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin Bor

    2000-01-01

    A theorem on local property of |N¯,pn|k summability of factored Fourier series, which generalizes some known results, and also a general theorem concerning the |N¯,pn|k summability factors of Fourier series have been proved.

  14. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  15. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  16. Similarities between 2D and 3D convection for large Prandtl number

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PANDEY AMBRISH; VERMA MAHENDRA K; CHATTERJEE ANANDO G; DUTTA BIPLAB

    2016-07-01

    Using direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh–Bénard convection (RBC), we perform a comparative study of the spectra and fluxes of energy and entropy, and the scaling of large-scale quantities for large and infinite Prandtl numbers in two (2D) and three (3D) dimensions. We observe close similarities between the 2D and 3D RBC, in particular, the kinetic energy spectrum $E^{u}(k) ∼ k^{−13/3}$, and the entropy spectrum exhibits a dual branch with a dominant $k^{−2}$ spectrum. We showed that the dominant Fourier modes in 2D and 3D flows are very close. Consequently, the 3D RBC is quasi-two-dimensional, which is the reason for the similarities between the 2D and 3D RBC for large and infinite Prandtl numbers.

  17. Fourier transforms principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Eric W

    2014-01-01

    Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods.  Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.

  18. Real Clifford Windowed Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mawardi BAHRI; Sriwulan ADJI; Ji Man ZHAO

    2011-01-01

    We study the windowed Fourier transform in the framework of Clifford analysis, which we call the Clifford windowed Fourier transform (CWFT). Based on the spectral representation of the Clifford Fourier transform (CFT), we derive several important properties such as shift, modulation,reconstruction formula, orthogonality relation, isometry, and reproducing kernel. We also present an example to show the differences between the classical windowed Fourier transform (WFT) and the CWFT. Finally, as an application we establish a Heisenberg type uncertainty principle for the CWFT.

  19. 2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Woodward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.

  20. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....

  1. 基于小波包变换的分数阶光学加密技术研究%Optical image encryption based on wavelet packet transform and fractional Fourier transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德照; 林超; 沈学举; 王昕; 周晗

    2013-01-01

    提出一种基于小波包变换(WPT)的分数阶光学图像加密方法.利用WPT能够对图像多层次分解的特性,结合分数傅里叶变换(FRFT)的灵活性,将双随机相位、小波函数的类型及尺度因子和分数阶次作为密钥,实现了图像的多重密钥加解密.同时,实现了图像小波域上的选择性加密,使加密样式变得更灵活多样,还增强了加密图像的抵抗恶意的攻击能力.数值模拟了加密和解密过程,分析了加密效果和解密图像质量,验证了本文方法的可行性.%A novel method for the optical image encryption is presented, which is based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT) and fractional Fourier transform (FRFT). The idea of combining WPT with FRFT comes from the study of properties of them. Images can be decomposed by wavelet packet transform. With the increase in the order of WPT,the image will be decomposed into more parts,of which each contains the essential information. Based on the good property of WPT and the flexibility of FRFT, the method implicates encryption and decryption of the image and produces many keys, consisting of double random phase masks,the order of WPT and the order of FRFT. Meanwhile,the selected-image-encryption in wavlet domain is realized in this paper,which varies the patterns of encryptioa The method improves the security,and the ability of resisting malicious attacks is also enhanced. The encryption and decryption are implicated by numerical simulation. The result of the simulation provides the requirement for analyzing the properties of encryption and decryptioa The feasibility and simplicity of the method are verified by numerical simulation,and a simple optical implication of the method is also proposed. Based on the numerical simulation and theroy analysis,it can be confluded that the method for the optical image encryption is novel and effective.

  2. Glitter in a 2D monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ming; Dornfeld, Matthew; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric

    2015-10-21

    We predict a highly stable and robust atomically thin gold monolayer with a hexagonal close packed lattice stabilized by metallic bonding with contributions from strong relativistic effects and aurophilic interactions. We have shown that the framework of the Au monolayer can survive 10 ps MD annealing simulations up to 1400 K. The framework is also able to survive large motions out of the plane. Due to the smaller number of bonds per atom in the 2D layer compared to the 3D bulk we observe significantly enhanced energy per bond (0.94 vs. 0.52 eV per bond). This is similar to the increase in bond strength going from 3D diamond to 2D graphene. It is a non-magnetic metal, and was found to be the global minima in the 2D space. Phonon dispersion calculations demonstrate high kinetic stability with no negative modes. This 2D gold monolayer corresponds to the top monolayer of the bulk Au(111) face-centered cubic lattice. The close-packed lattice maximizes the aurophilic interactions. We find that the electrons are completely delocalized in the plane and behave as 2D nearly free electron gas. We hope that the present work can inspire the experimental fabrication of novel free standing 2D metal systems.

  3. 2d index and surface operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in = 2 super-conformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d = 2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role.

  4. 2-D DOA Estimation Based on 2D-MUSIC%基于2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康亚芳; 王静; 张清泉; 行小帅

    2014-01-01

    This paper discussed the performance of classical two-dimensional DOA estimation with 2D-MUSIC, based on the mathematical model of planar array and 2D-MUSIC DOA estimation, Taking uniform planar array for example, comput-er simulation experiment was carried for the effect of three kinds of different parameters on 2-D DOA estimation, and the simulation results were analyzed. And also verification test about the corresponding algorithm performance under the differ-ent parameters was discussed.%利用经典的2D-MUSIC算法对二维阵列的DOA估计进行了研究,在平面阵列数学模型以及2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计模型基础上,以均匀平面阵列为例,对3种不同参数的DOA估计进行了计算机仿真,分析了仿真结果。得出了在不同参数变化趋势下DOA估计的相应变化情况。

  5. Two-Dimensional (2D) Polygonal Electromagnetic Cloaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YAO Kan; LI Fang

    2009-01-01

    Transformation optics offers remarkable control over electromagnetic fields and opens an exciting gateway to design 'invisible cloak devices' recently.We present an important class of two-dimensional (2D) cloaks with polygon geometries.Explicit expressions of transformed medium parameters are derived with their unique properties investigated.It is found that the elements of diagonalized permittivity tensors are always positive within an irregular polygon cloak besides one element diverges to plus infinity and the other two become zero at the inner boundary.At most positions,the principle axes of permittivity tensors do not align with position vectors.An irregular polygon cloak is designed and its invisibility to external electromagnetic waves is numerically verified.Since polygon cloaks can be tailored to resemble any objects,the transformation is finally generalized to the realization of 2D cloaks with arbitrary geometries.

  6. Hard and Soft Physics with 2D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEuen, Paul

    With their remarkable structural, thermal, mechanical, optical, chemical, and electronic properties, 2D materials are truly special. For example, a graphene sheet can be made into a high-performance transistor, but it is also the ultimate realization of a thin mechanical sheet. Such sheets, first studied in detail by August Föppl over a hundred years ago, are notoriously complex, since they can bend, buckle, and crumple in a variety of ways. In this talk, I will discuss a number of experiments to probe these unusual materials, from the effects of ripples on the mechanical properties of a graphene sheet, to folding with atomically thin bimorphs, to the electronic properties of bilayer graphene solitons. Finally, I discuss how the Japanese paper art of kirigami (kiru = `to cut', kami = `paper') applied to 2D materials offers a route to mechanical metamaterials and the construction of nanoscale machines.

  7. 3D homogeneity study in PMMA layers using a Fourier domain OCT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-R., Manuel de J.; Torre-Ibarra, Manuel H. De La; Tavera, Cesar G.; Luna H., Juan M.; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Micro-metallic particles embedded in polymers are now widely used in several industrial applications in order to modify the mechanical properties of the bulk. A uniform distribution of these particles inside the polymers is highly desired for instance, when a biological backscattering is simulated or a bio-framework is designed. A 3D Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system to detect the polymer's internal homogeneity is proposed. This optical system has a 2D camera sensor array that records a fringe pattern used to reconstruct with a single shot the tomographic image of the sample. The system gathers the full 3D tomographic and optical phase information during a controlled deformation by means of a motion linear stage. This stage avoids the use of expensive tilting stages, which in addition are commonly controlled by piezo drivers. As proof of principle, a series of different deformations were proposed to detect the uniform or non-uniform internal deposition of copper micro particles. The results are presented as images coming from the 3D tomographic micro reconstruction of the samples, and the 3D optical phase information that identifies the in-homogeneity regions within the Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) volume.

  8. Fourier Domain Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkhun, Daniel (Inventor); Wagner, Kelvin H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and systems are disclosed of sensing an object. A first radiation is spatially modulated to generate a structured second radiation. The object is illuminated with the structured second radiation such that the object produces a third radiation in response. Apart from any spatially dependent delay, a time variation of the third radiation is spatially independent. With a single-element detector, a portion of the third radiation is detected from locations on the object simultaneously. At least one characteristic of a sinusoidal spatial Fourier-transform component of the object is estimated from a time-varying signal from the detected portion of the third radiation.

  9. 2D Hilbert transform for phase retrieval of speckle fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, M. P.; Ryabyi, P. A.; Ivanskyi, D. I.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents principal approaches to diagnosing the structure forming skeleton of the complex optical field. An analysis of optical field singularity algorithms depending on intensity discretization and image resolution has been carried out. An optimal approach is chosen, which allows to bring much closer the solution of the phase problem of localization speckle-field special points. The use of a "window" 2D Hilbert transform for reconstruction of the phase distribution of the intensity of a speckle field is proposed. It is shown that the advantage of this approach consists in the invariance of a phase map to a change of the position of the kernel of transformation and in a possibility to reconstruct the structure-forming elements of the skeleton of an optical field, including singular points and saddle points. We demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the equi-phase lines within a narrow confidence interval, and introduce an additional algorithm for solving the phase problem for random 2D intensity distributions.

  10. 2d Index and Surface operators

    CERN Document Server

    Gadde, Abhijit

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools de...

  11. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-01

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore’s law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog⁡2N rather than N2) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  12. Fourier plane image amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  13. Fourier plane image amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  14. Differentiating Fragmentation Pathways of Cholesterol by Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Agthoven, Maria A.; Barrow, Mark P.; Chiron, Lionel; Coutouly, Marie-Aude; Kilgour, David; Wootton, Christopher A.; Wei, Juan; Soulby, Andrew; Delsuc, Marc-André; Rolando, Christian; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is a data-independent analytical method that records the fragmentation patterns of all the compounds in a sample. This study shows the implementation of atmospheric pressure photoionization with two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. In the resulting 2D mass spectrum, the fragmentation patterns of the radical and protonated species from cholesterol are differentiated. This study shows the use of fragment ion lines, precursor ion lines, and neutral loss lines in the 2D mass spectrum to determine fragmentation mechanisms of known compounds and to gain information on unknown ion species in the spectrum. In concert with high resolution mass spectrometry, 2D Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry can be a useful tool for the structural analysis of small molecules.

  15. Comparative analysis of imaging configurations and objectives for Fourier microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kurvits, Jonathan A; Zia, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Fourier microscopy is becoming an increasingly important tool for the analysis of optical nanostructures and quantum emitters. However, achieving quantitative Fourier space measurements requires a thorough understanding of the impact of aberrations introduced by optical microscopes, which have been optimized for conventional real-space imaging. Here, we present a detailed framework for analyzing the performance of microscope objectives for several common Fourier imaging configurations. To this end, we model objectives from Nikon, Olympus, and Zeiss using parameters that were inferred from patent literature and confirmed, where possible, by physical disassembly. We then examine the aberrations most relevant to Fourier microscopy, including the alignment tolerances of apodization factors for different objective classes, the effect of magnification on the modulation transfer function, and vignetting-induced reductions of the effective numerical aperture for wide-field measurements. Based on this analysis, we ide...

  16. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  17. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  18. Microscopy of 2D Fermi gases. Exploring excitations and thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgener, Kai Henning

    2014-12-08

    This thesis presents experiments on three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) ultracold fermionic {sup 6}Li gases providing local access to microscopic quantum many-body physics. A broad magnetic Feshbach resonance is used to tune the interparticle interaction strength freely to address the entire crossover between the Bose-Einstein-Condensate (BEC) and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime. We map out the critical velocity in the crossover from BEC to BCS superfluidity by moving a small attractive potential through the 3D cloud. We compare the results with theoretical predictions and achieve quantitative understanding in the BEC regime by performing numerical simulations. Of particular interest is the regime of strong correlations, where no theoretical predictions exist. In the BEC regime, the critical velocity should be closely related to the speed of sound, according to the Landau criterion and Bogolyubov theory. We measure the sound velocity by exciting a density wave and tracking its propagation. The focus of this thesis is on our first experiments on general properties of quasi-2D Fermi gases. We realize strong vertical confinement by generating a 1D optical lattice by intersecting two blue-detuned laser beams under a steep angle. The large resulting lattice spacing enables us to prepare a single planar quantum gas deeply in the 2D regime. The first measurements of the speed of sound in quasi-2D gases in the BEC-BCS crossover are presented. In addition, we present preliminary results on the pressure equation of state, which is extracted from in-situ density profiles. Since the sound velocity is directly connected to the equation of state, the results provide a crosscheck of the speed of sound. Moreover, we benchmark the derived sound from available equation of state predictions, find very good agreement with recent numerical calculations, and disprove a sophisticated mean field approach. These studies are carried out with a novel apparatus which has

  19. Novel optical technique for 2D graphene reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Christen; Swillam, Mohamed A.; Badr, Y.; Ahmed, Samah M.; Bishay, I. K.; Sadallah, F. A.; Elsaid, Enayat A.

    2017-02-01

    Engineering a low-cost graphene- based opto-electronic device is a challenging task to accomplish via a single-step fabrication process. Recently scientists have started focusing on the development and use of a laser-based method for efficient reduction of graphene oxide (GO) films at low-temperature. Our proposed technique utilizes a laser beam for non thermal reduction of solution processed GO layers onto film substrates. Compared to other reduction techniques, it is a single-step, facile, time consuming, non-contact operation, environment-friendly, patternable, low cost, and can be performed at room temperature in ambient atmosphere without affecting the integrity of either the physical properties or the lattice of graphene. Laser scribed reduced graphene (LSRG) is shown to be successfully produced and selectively patterned from the direct laser irradiation of graphite oxide films under ambient conditions. In addition, by varying the laser's intensity, power, and irradiation treatments, the electrical properties of LSRG can be accurately attune over five orders of magnitude of conductivity. Feature has proven difficulty with other methods. This credible, scalable approach is mask-free, does not require certain expensive chemical reduction agents, and can be performed at ambient conditions starting from aqueous graphene oxide flakes. The non thermal nature of this method combined with its scalability and simplicity, makes it very attractive for the manufacturing of future generation large-volume graphene-based opto/electronics.

  20. Assessing 2D electrophoretic mobility spectroscopy (2D MOSY) for analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István

    2016-12-08

    Electrophoretic displacement of charged entity phase modulates the spectrum acquired in electrophoretic NMR experiments, and this modulation can be presented via 2D FT as 2D mobility spectroscopy (MOSY) spectra. We compare in various mixed solutions the chemical selectivity provided by 2D MOSY spectra with that provided by 2D diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra and demonstrate, under the conditions explored, a superior performance of the former method. 2D MOSY compares also favourably with closely related LC-NMR methods. The shape of 2D MOSY spectra in complex mixtures is strongly modulated by the pH of the sample, a feature that has potential for areas such as in drug discovery and metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Thermal stabilization of static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, Michael; Schwaller, Christian; Tremmel, Anton J.; Koch, Alexander W.

    2017-05-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has become a standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. With this method, an interferogram is created by two beam interference which is subsequently Fourier-transformed. Most Fourier transform spectrometers used today provide the interferogram in the temporal domain. In contrast, static Fourier transform spectrometers generate interferograms in the spatial domain. One example of this type of spectrometer is the static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer which offers a high etendue in combination with a simple, miniaturized optics design. As no moving parts are required, it also features a high vibration resistance and high measurement rates. However, it is susceptible to temperature variations. In this paper, we therefore discuss the main sources for temperature-induced errors in static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers: changes in the refractive index of the optical components used, variations of the detector sensitivity, and thermal expansion of the housing. As these errors manifest themselves in temperature-dependent wavenumber shifts and intensity shifts, they prevent static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers from delivering long-term stable spectra. To eliminate these shifts, we additionally present a work concept for the thermal stabilization of the spectrometer. With this stabilization, static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers are made suitable for infrared process spectroscopy under harsh thermal environmental conditions. As the static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer uses the so-called source-doubling principle, many of the mentioned findings are transferable to other designs of static Fourier transform spectrometers based on the same principle.

  2. Interferometric Motion Detection in Atomic Layer 2D Nanostructures: Visualizing Signal Transduction Efficiency and Optimization Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2016-07-01

    Atomic layer crystals are emerging building blocks for enabling new two-dimensional (2D) nanomechanical systems, whose motions can be coupled to other attractive physical properties in such 2D systems. Optical interferometry has been very effective in reading out the infinitesimal motions of these 2D structures and spatially resolving different modes. To quantitatively understand the detection efficiency and its dependence on the device parameters and interferometric conditions, here we present a systematic study of the intrinsic motion responsivity in 2D nanomechanical systems using a Fresnel-law-based model. We find that in monolayer to 14-layer structures, MoS2 offers the highest responsivity among graphene, h-BN, and MoS2 devices and for the three commonly used visible laser wavelengths (633, 532, and 405 nm). We also find that the vacuum gap resulting from the widely used 300 nm-oxide substrate in making 2D devices, fortunately, leads to close-to-optimal responsivity for a wide range of 2D flakes. Our results elucidate and graphically visualize the dependence of motion transduction responsivity upon 2D material type and number of layers, vacuum gap, oxide thickness, and detecting wavelength, thus providing design guidelines for constructing 2D nanomechanical systems with optimal optical motion readout.

  3. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  4. Photonic crystals to enhance light extraction from 2D materials

    CERN Document Server

    Noori, Yasir J; Roberts, Jonathan; Woodhead, Christopher; Bernardo-Gavito, Ramon; Tovee, Peter; Young, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme for coupling 2D materials to an engineered cavity based on a defective rod type photonic crystal lattice. We show results from numerical modelling of the suggested cavity design, and propose using the height profile of a 2D material transferred on top of the cavity to maximise coupling between exciton recombination and the cavity mode. The photonic structure plays a key role in enhancing the launch efficiency, by improving the directionality of the emitted light to better couple it into an external optical system. When using the photonic structure, we measured an increase in the extraction ratio by a factor of 3.4. We investigated the variations in the flux spectrum when the radius of the rods is modified, and when the 2D material droops to a range of different heights within the cavity. We found an optimum enhancement when the rods have a radius equal to 0.165 times the lattice constant, this enhancement reduces when the radius is reduced or increased. Finally, we discuss the possible use...

  5. Rainbow Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

  6. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  7. Canonical structure of 2D black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro-Salas, J; Talavera, C F

    1994-01-01

    We determine the canonical structure of two-dimensional black-hole solutions arising in $2D$ dilaton gravity. By choosing the Cauchy surface appropriately we find that the canonically conjugate variable to the black hole mass is given by the difference of local (Schwarzschild) time translations at right and left spatial infinities. This can be regarded as a generalization of Birkhoff's theorem.

  8. Horns Rev II, 2-D Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), on behalf of Energy E2 A/S part of DONG Energy A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was: to investigate the combined influence of the pile...

  9. 2D PIM Simulation Based on COMSOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xinbo; Cui, Wanzhao; Wang, Jingyu;

    2011-01-01

    Passive intermodulation (PIM) is a problematic type of nonlinear distortion en- countered in many communication systems. To analyze the PIM distortion resulting from ma- terial nonlinearity, a 2D PIM simulation method based on COMSOL is proposed in this paper. As an example, a rectangular wavegui...

  10. κ-deformed Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfone, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    We present a new formulation of Fourier transform in the picture of the κ-algebra derived in the framework of the κ-generalized statistical mechanics. The κ-Fourier transform is obtained from a κ-Fourier series recently introduced by Scarfone (2013). The kernel of this transform, that reduces to the usual exponential phase in the κ → 0 limit, is composed by a κ-deformed phase and a damping factor that gives a wavelet-like behaviour. We show that the κ-Fourier transform is isomorph to the standard Fourier transform through a changing of time and frequency variables. Nevertheless, the new formalism is useful to study, according to Fourier analysis, those functions defined in the realm of the κ-algebra. As a relevant application, we discuss the central limit theorem for the κ-sum of n-iterate statistically independent random variables.

  11. 2D Static Light Scattering for Dairy Based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    Throughout this thesis we investigate a recently introduced optical technique denoted 2D static light scattering (2DSLS). The technique is remote sensing, non-invasive, highly flexible, and appears to be well suited for in-line process control. Moreover, the output signal contains contributions......, this specific process control can be highly beneficial. To provide suitable reference measures on the actual microstructure, we investigate how to quantify micrographs of yogurts objectively. We provide a comparative study, that includes a broad range of different image texture descriptors....... from several different optical phenomena, which can be utilised to provide information on chemical composition and underlying microstructure of an investigated sample. The main goal of this thesis is to provide an exploratory study of the 2DSLS technique in relation to dairy based applications...

  12. Laser Field Imaging Through Fourier Transform Heterodyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, B.J.; Laubscher, B.E.; Olivas, N.L.; Galbraith, A.E.; Strauss, C.E.; Grubler, A.C.

    1999-04-05

    The authors present a detection process capable of directly imaging the transverse amplitude, phase, and Doppler shift of coherent electromagnetic fields. Based on coherent detection principles governing conventional heterodyned RADAR/LADAR systems, Fourier Transform Heterodyne incorporates transverse spatial encoding of the reference local oscillator for image capture. Appropriate selection of spatial encoding functions allows image retrieval by way of classic Fourier manipulations. Of practical interest: (1) imaging may be accomplished with a single element detector/sensor requiring no additional scanning or moving components, (2) as detection is governed by heterodyne principles, near quantum limited performance is achievable, (3) a wide variety of appropriate spatial encoding functions exist that may be adaptively configured in real-time for applications requiring optimal detection, and (4) the concept is general with the applicable electromagnetic spectrum encompassing the RF through optical.

  13. Digital Backpropagation in the Nonlinear Fourier Domain

    CERN Document Server

    Wahls, Sander; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Poor, H Vincent; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear and dispersive transmission impairments in coherent fiber-optic communication systems are often compensated by reverting the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation, which describes the evolution of the signal in the link, numerically. This technique is known as digital backpropagation. Typical digital backpropagation algorithms are based on split-step Fourier methods in which the signal has to be discretized in time and space. The need to discretize in both time and space however makes the real-time implementation of digital backpropagation a challenging problem. In this paper, a new fast algorithm for digital backpropagation based on nonlinear Fourier transforms is presented. Aiming at a proof of concept, the main emphasis will be put on fibers with normal dispersion in order to avoid the issue of solitonic components in the signal. However, it is demonstrated that the algorithm also works for anomalous dispersion if the signal power is low enough. Since the spatial evolution of a signal governed by the ...

  14. Fourier Transform Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Hilary E.; Hays, Paul B.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing a compact, rugged, high-resolution remote sensing instrument with wide spectral scanning capabilities. This relatively new type of instrument, which we have chosen to call the Fourier-Transform Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FT-FPI), is accomplished by mechanically scanning the etalon plates of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) through a large optical distance while examining the concomitant signal with a Fourier-transform analysis technique similar to that employed by the Michelson interferometer. The FT-FPI will be used initially as a ground-based instrument to study near-infrared atmospheric absorption lines of trace gases using the techniques of solar absorption spectroscopy. Future plans include modifications to allow for measurements of trace gases in the stratosphere using spectral lines at terahertz frequencies.

  15. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Fourier U(2 Group and Separation of Discrete Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Bernardo Wolf

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The linear canonical transformations of geometric optics on two-dimensional screens form the group Sp(4,R, whose maximal compact subgroup is the Fourier group U(2_F; this includes isotropic and anisotropic Fourier transforms, screen rotations and gyrations in the phase space of ray positions and optical momenta. Deforming classical optics into a Hamiltonian system whose positions and momenta range over a finite set of values, leads us to the finite oscillator model, which is ruled by the Lie algebra so(4. Two distinct subalgebra chains are used to model arrays of N^2 points placed along Cartesian or polar (radius and angle coordinates, thus realizing one case of separation in two discrete coordinates. The N^2-vectors in this space are digital (pixellated images on either of these two grids, related by a unitary transformation. Here we examine the unitary action of the analogue Fourier group on such images, whose rotations are particularly visible.

  17. Electron-Phonon Scattering in Atomically Thin 2D Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi; Wu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Huang, Libai

    2016-11-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomically thin perovskites with strongly bound excitons are highly promising for optoelectronic applications. However, the nature of nonradiative processes that limit the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency remains elusive. Here, we present time-resolved and temperature-dependent PL studies to systematically address the intrinsic exciton relaxation pathways in layered (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)n-1PbnI3n+1 (n = 1, 2, 3) structures. Our results show that scatterings via deformation potential by acoustic and homopolar optical phonons are the main scattering mechanisms for excitons in ultrathin single exfoliated flakes, exhibiting a T(γ) (γ = 1.3 to 1.9) temperature dependence for scattering rates. We attribute the absence of polar optical phonon and defect scattering to efficient screening of Coulomb potential, similar to what has been observed in 3D perovskites. These results establish an understanding of the origins of nonradiative pathways and provide guidelines for optimizing PL efficiencies of atomically thin 2D perovskites.

  18. Spectroscopic properties of multilayered gold nanoparticle 2D sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihito; Imazu, Keisuke; Li, Xinheng; Okamoto, Koichi; Tamada, Kaoru

    2012-12-11

    We report the fabrication technique and optical properties of multilayered two-dimensional (2D) gold nanoparticle sheets ("Au nanosheet"). The 2D crystalline monolayer sheet composed of Au nanoparticles shows an absorption peak originating from a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). It was found that the absorption spectra dramatically change when the monolayers are assembled into the multilayers on different substrates (quartz or Au). In the case of the multilayers on Au thin film (d = 200 nm), the LSPR peak is shifted to longer wavelength at the near-IR region by increasing the number of layers. The absorbance also depends on the layer number and shows the nonlinear behavior. On the other hand, the multilayers on quartz substrate show neither such LSPR peak shift nor nonlinear response of absorbance. The layer number dependence on metal surfaces can be interpreted as the combined effects between the near-field coupling of the LSPR and the far-field optics of the stratified metamaterial films, as proposed in our previous study. We also report the spectroscopic properties of hybrid multilayers composed of two kinds of monolayers, i.e., Au nanosheet and Ag nanosheet. The combination of the different metal nanoparticle sheets realizes more flexible plasmonic color tuning.

  19. Fast Computation of Wideband Beam Pattern for Designing Large-Scale 2-D Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Cheng; Li, Zhaohui

    2016-06-01

    For real-time and high-resolution 3-D ultrasound imaging, the design of sparse distribution and weights of elements of a large-scale wideband 2-D array is needed to reduce hardware cost and achieve better directivity. However, due to the high time consumption of computing the wideband beam pattern, the design methods that need massive iterations have rarely been applied to design large-scale wideband 2-D arrays by directly computing the wideband beam pattern. In this paper, a fast method is proposed to realize the computation of a wideband beam pattern of arbitrary 2-D arrays in the far field in order to design large-scale wideband 2-D arrays. The proposed fast method exploits two important techniques: 1) nonuniform fast Fourier transform (FFT) and 2) short inverse FFT. Compared with the commonly used ultrasound simulator Field II, two orders of magnitude improvement in computation speed is achieved with comparable accuracy. The proposed fast method enables massive iterations of direct wideband beam pattern computation of arbitrary large-scale 2-D arrays. A design example in this paper demonstrates that the proposed fast method can help achieve better performance in designing large-scale wideband 2-D arrays.

  20. Twin image elimination in digital holography by combination of Fourier transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-01-01

    We present a new technique for removing twin image in in-line digital Fourier holography using a combination of Fourier transformations. Instead of recording only a Fourier transform hologram of the object, we propose to record a combined Fourier transform hologram by simultaneously recording the hologram of the Fourier transform and the inverse Fourier transform of the object with suitable weighting coefficients. Twin image is eliminated by appropriate inverse combined Fourier transformation and proper choice of the weighting coefficients. An optical configuration is presented for recording combined Fourier transform holograms. Simulations demonstrate the feasibility of twin image elimination. The hologram reconstruction is sensitive to phase aberrations of the object, thereby opening a way for holographic phase sensing.

  1. 基于二维微透镜阵列增大手术显微镜出瞳直径方法研究%2D microlens array-based surgical microscope in optical system′s exit pupil expander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于双双; 史宣; 杜吉; 孟军合

    2014-01-01

    医生使用传统含目镜系统的手术显微镜进行手术,当其头部移动时,该系统仅存在很小的出瞳直径,因而这就迫使医生在手术过程中长时间保持头部在特定位置。可见,传统手术显微镜存在显著弊端:长时间持续观察会增加医生的疲劳度。对使用二维微透镜阵列(microlens array,MLA)增大目视光学系统出瞳直径进行了理论探讨,并用傅里叶光学原理进行了理论分析。并且在此基础上,设计了增大手术显微镜光学系统出瞳直径的二维微透镜阵列器件,该二维微透镜阵列器件中两个折射面相对放置,且两者相距一个微透镜单元焦距的长度。经计算机模拟计算证明,使用该二维微透镜阵列器件可以有效增大目视光学系统出瞳直径,并可获得更加均匀的出射光束。%The conventional surgical microscope uses eyepiece lens systems which have very small exit pupil to occur when the observer moves his head during observation, thereby obliging the observer to keep his head at a constant position while he performs the operations described above. Therefore, the conventional surgical microscope has a defect that it gives a strong feeling of fatigue when he continues observation for a long time. Two dimensional microlens array(MLA) can be used in wearable applications as exit pupil expanders to increase the size of the optical system exit pupil. Fourier optics theory was used to derive the analytical formulas, and physical optics beam propagation was used for numerical computations. The MLA′s reflective surface was spaced from the other focal curve about a focal length. A dual-MLA is proved that can produces excellent exit-pupil, and it can often generate output beamlets that have a more uniform brightness.

  2. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  3. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  4. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  5. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Punetha, Vinay Deep [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Centre, Department of Chemistry, Kumaun University, Nainital, 263001 Uttarakhand (India); Esteves, Richard J; Arachchige, Indika U. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Pestov, Dmitry [Nanomaterials Core Characterization Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); McLeskey, James T., E-mail: JamesMcLeskey@rmc.edu [Department of Physics, Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2016-07-11

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe{sub 2} framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  6. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  7. 2dF mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Greg; Lankshear, Allan

    1998-07-01

    2dF is a multi-object instrument mounted at prime focus at the AAT capable of spectroscopic analysis of 400 objects in a single 2 degree field. It also prepares a second 2 degree 400 object field while the first field is being observed. At its heart is a high precision robotic positioner that places individual fiber end magnetic buttons on one of two field plates. The button gripper is carried on orthogonal gantries powered by linear synchronous motors and contains a TV camera which precisely locates backlit buttons to allow placement in user defined locations to 10 (mu) accuracy. Fiducial points on both plates can also be observed by the camera to allow repeated checks on positioning accuracy. Field plates rotate to follow apparent sky rotation. The spectrographs both analyze light from the 200 observing fibers each and back- illuminate the 400 fibers being re-positioned during the observing run. The 2dF fiber position and spectrograph system is a large and complex instrument located at the prime focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope. The mechanical design has departed somewhat from the earlier concepts of Gray et al, but still reflects the audacity of those first ideas. The positioner is capable of positioning 400 fibers on a field plate while another 400 fibers on another plate are observing at the focus of the telescope and feeding the twin spectrographs. When first proposed it must have seemed like ingenuity unfettered by caution. Yet now it works, and works wonderfully well. 2dF is a system which functions as the result of the combined and coordinated efforts of the astronomers, the mechanical designers and tradespeople, the electronic designers, the programmers, the support staff at the telescope, and the manufacturing subcontractors. The mechanical design of the 2dF positioner and spectrographs was carried out by the mechanical engineering staff of the AAO and the majority of the manufacture was carried out in the AAO workshops.

  8. 2D-Tasks for Cognitive Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Hernandez, Ruth; Martinez Moreno, Jose Maria; García Molina, A.; Ferrer Celma, S.; Solana Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Carrion, R.; Fernandez Casado, E.; Pérez Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Gomez Pulido, A.; Anglès Tafalla, C.; Cáceres Taladriz, César; Ferre Vergada, M.; Roig Rovira, Teresa; Garcia Lopez, P.; Tormos Muñoz, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological Rehabilitation is a complex clinic process which tries to restore or compensate cognitive and behavioral disorders in people suffering from a central nervous system injury. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Biomedical Engineering play an essential role in this field, allowing improvement and expansion of present rehabilitation programs. This paper presents a set of cognitive rehabilitation 2D-Tasks for patients with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). These t...

  9. Reconstruction in Fourier space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, A.; Percival, W. J.; Howlett, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a fast iterative fast Fourier transform (FFT) based reconstruction algorithm that allows for non-parallel redshift-space distortions (RSDs). We test our algorithm on both N-body dark matter simulations and mock distributions of galaxies designed to replicate galaxy survey conditions. We compare solenoidal and irrotational components of the redshift distortion and show that an approximation of this distortion leads to a better estimate of the real-space potential (and therefore faster convergence) than ignoring the RSD when estimating the displacement field. Our iterative reconstruction scheme converges in two iterations for the mock samples corresponding to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS Data Release 11 when we start with an approximation of the RSD. The scheme takes six iterations when the initial estimate, measured from the redshift-space overdensity, has no RSD correction. Slower convergence would be expected for surveys covering a larger angle on the sky. We show that this FFT based method provides a better estimate of the real-space displacement field than a configuration space method that uses finite difference routines to compute the potential for the same grid resolution. Finally, we show that a lognormal transform of the overdensity, used as a proxy for the linear overdensity, is beneficial in estimating the full displacement field from a dense sample of tracers. However, the lognormal transform of the overdensity does not perform well when estimating the displacements from sparser simulations with a more realistic galaxy density.

  10. Modern Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    This text is addressed to graduate students in mathematics and to interested researchers who wish to acquire an in depth understanding of Euclidean Harmonic analysis. The text covers modern topics and techniques in function spaces, atomic decompositions, singular integrals of nonconvolution type, and the boundedness and convergence of Fourier series and integrals. The exposition and style are designed to stimulate further study and promote research. Historical information and references are included at the end of each chapter. This third edition includes a new chapter entitled "Multilinear Harmonic Analysis" which focuses on topics related to multilinear operators and their applications. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 are also new in this edition. Numerous corrections have been made to the text from the previous editions and several improvements have been incorporated, such as the adoption of clear and elegant statements. A few more exercises have been added with relevant hints when necessary. Reviews fr...

  11. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Derhsien

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  12. Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.

  13. POINTWISE FOURIER INVERSION OF DISTRIBUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.J.González Vieli

    2008-01-01

    We show that,given a tempered distribution T whose Fourier transform is a function of polynomial growth and a point x in Rn at which T has the value τ(in the sense of Lojasiewicz),the Fourier integral of T at x is summable in Bochner-Riesz means to τ.

  14. Wavelet-fractional Fourier transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Lin

    2008-01-01

    This paper extends the definition of fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) proposed by Namias V by using other orthonormal bases for L2 (R) instead of Hermite-Ganssian functions.The new orthonormal basis is gained indirectly from multiresolution analysis and orthonormal wavelets. The so defined FRFT is called wavelets-fractional Fourier transform.

  15. Digital Fourier analysis advanced techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to advanced digital Fourier analysis for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Assuming knowledge of the Fast Fourier Transform, this book covers advanced topics including the Hilbert transform, cepstrum analysis, and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices. As a central feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations. These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. The applet source code in Visual Basic is provided online, enabling advanced students to tweak and change the programs for more sophisticated results. A complete, intuitive guide, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" is an essential reference for students in science and engineering.

  16. 2D superconductivity by ionic gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Yoshi

    2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially

  17. Face recognition based on the band fusion of generalized phase spectrum of 2D-FrFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Qi, Lin; Tie, Yun; Chen, Enqing; Sun, Huijing

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel feature extraction method for face recognition based on two dimensional fractional Fourier transform (2D-FrFT). First, we extract the phase information of facial image in 2D-FrFT, which is called the generalized phase spectra (GPS). Then, we present an improved two-dimensional separability judgment (I2DSJ) to select appropriate order parameters for discrete fractional Fourier transform. Finally, multiple orders' generalized phase spectrum bands (MGPSB) fusion is proposed. In order to make full use of the discriminative information from different orders for face recognition, the proposed approach merges different orders' generalized phase spectra (GPS) of 2D-FrFT. The proposed method is no need to construct the subspace through the feature extraction methods and has less computation cost. Experimental results on the public face databases demonstrate that our method outperforms the representative methods.

  18. Fourier coefficient description of left ventricular shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, W H; Bates, R H; Ikram, H

    1991-12-01

    A method of quantifying the shape of the left ventricle of the heart as seen in 2D echocardiograms was developed. It is based on describing the shape in terms of the coefficients a fifth-order trigonometric Fourier series. Such a series has eleven Fourier coefficients which is too large a number for clinical application so pairs of coefficients are combined to give six coefficients (alpha 0, alpha 1, ... , alpha 5). A trial was conducted to test the ability of the coefficient description to classify subjects as having normal right ventricles or ventricles with an apical abnormality. The tests showed that one of the coefficients (alpha 2) was higher for the subjects with an apical abnormality and that this difference increased with exercise. This is as was expected. However, it was found to be difficult to get a reliable estimate of alpha 2 from a single scan of a patient and that it is therefore probably necessary to average data from several scans to obtain a reliable alpha 2 value for a single patient.

  19. Efficient single pixel imaging in Fourier space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Hu, Xuemei; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-08-01

    Single pixel imaging (SPI) is a novel technique capturing 2D images using a bucket detector with a high signal-to-noise ratio, wide spectrum range and low cost. Conventional SPI projects random illumination patterns to randomly and uniformly sample the entire scene’s information. Determined by Nyquist sampling theory, SPI needs either numerous projections or high computation cost to reconstruct the target scene, especially for high-resolution cases. To address this issue, we propose an efficient single pixel imaging technique (eSPI), which instead projects sinusoidal patterns for importance sampling of the target scene’s spatial spectrum in Fourier space. Specifically, utilizing the centrosymmetric conjugation and sparsity priors of natural images’ spatial spectra, eSPI sequentially projects two \\tfrac{π }{2}-phase-shifted sinusoidal patterns to obtain each Fourier coefficient in the most informative spatial frequency bands. eSPI can reduce requisite patterns by two orders of magnitude compared to conventional SPI, which helps a lot for fast and high-resolution SPI.

  20. Scleral spur visibility of anterior chamber angle measured by Fourier optic coherence tomography%傅立叶光学相干断层扫描检测眼房角巩膜突可见性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 徐英英; 王保君; 朱红军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess visibility of scleral spur in images of anterior chamber angle measured by the CAM model of Fourier optic coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Subjects aged 40 years or older were selected from outpatients in our opthalmologic clinic. All participants underwent standard ocular examinations, and anterior chamber angle was measured by CAM-L model of RTVue-OCT (Optovue Inc,USA) and gonioscopy. Visibility of scleral spur in OCT images and its related factor were analyzed. Results 98 subjects (98 eyes) aged (63.3±10.5)y included 62 females (63.3%) were selected in this study. There were 286 in 392 quadrants (73.0%) with visualized scleral spur, which had significant difference among local bulbar conjunctiva thickened or not (P<0.01). Logistic multiple regression showed that the visibility of scleral spur was not associated with gender, age, gonioscope grades (P>0.05), but significant associated with local bulbar conjunctiva thickened (OR=0.113, P<0.01) and quadrants (OR of superior/temporal=0.210, OR of inferior/temporal=0.340, P<0.01), of which there were different scleral spur visibility in superior and inferior quadrants compared with temporal(OR=0.210, 0.340, P<0.01). Angle status was still identified in 80.2% quadrants on condition that scleral spur was not visualized. Conclusions Fourier optic coherence tomography has good feasibility to detect anterior chamber angle as an alternative method, and may supply helpful information to estimate the pathogenesis of angle closure glaucoma.%目的 探讨傅立叶光学相干断层扫描仪CAM模块房角测量图像中巩膜突可见性及其影响因素.方法 连续选择本院眼科门诊40岁及以上患者,所有受试者均接受眼科常规项目检查,房角均分别接受Rtvue OCT(Optovue Inc,USA)CAM模块和房角镜检查.分析OCT图像中巩膜突的可见性及其影响因素.结果 受试者共98例(98眼),年龄(63.3±10.5)岁,其中女性62例(63.3%).在392

  1. Transparent Conducting Electrodes based on 1D and 2D Ag Nanogratings for Organic Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Beibei; Bartoli, Filbert J

    2014-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of optically-thin one-dimensional (1D) Ag nanogratings and two-dimensional (2D) Ag nanogrids are studied, and their use as transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics are explored. A large broadband and polarization-insensitive optical absorption enhancement in the organic light-harvesting layers is theoretically and numerically demonstrated using either single-layer 2D Ag nanogrids or two perpendicular 1D Ag nanogratings, and is attributed to the excitation of surface plasmon resonances and plasmonic cavity modes. Total photon absorption enhancements of 150% and 200% are achieved for the optimized single-layer 2D Ag nanogrids and double (top and bottom) perpendicular 1D Ag nanogratings, respectively.

  2. Projection-slice theorem based 2D-3D registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bom, M. J.; Pluim, J. P. W.; Homan, R.; Timmer, J.; Bartels, L. W.

    2007-03-01

    In X-ray guided procedures, the surgeon or interventionalist is dependent on his or her knowledge of the patient's specific anatomy and the projection images acquired during the procedure by a rotational X-ray source. Unfortunately, these X-ray projections fail to give information on the patient's anatomy in the dimension along the projection axis. It would be very profitable to provide the surgeon or interventionalist with a 3D insight of the patient's anatomy that is directly linked to the X-ray images acquired during the procedure. In this paper we present a new robust 2D-3D registration method based on the Projection-Slice Theorem. This theorem gives us a relation between the pre-operative 3D data set and the interventional projection images. Registration is performed by minimizing a translation invariant similarity measure that is applied to the Fourier transforms of the images. The method was tested by performing multiple exhaustive searches on phantom data of the Circle of Willis and on a post-mortem human skull. Validation was performed visually by comparing the test projections to the ones that corresponded to the minimal value of the similarity measure. The Projection-Slice Theorem Based method was shown to be very effective and robust, and provides capture ranges up to 62 degrees. Experiments have shown that the method is capable of retrieving similar results when translations are applied to the projection images.

  3. The Asymmetric Pupil Fourier Wavefront Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Martinache, Frantz

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel wavefront sensing approach that relies on the Fourier analysis of a single conventional direct image. In the high Strehl ratio regime, the relation between the phase measured in the Fourier plane and the wavefront errors in the pupil can be linearized, as was shown in a previous work that introduced the notion of generalized closure-phase, or kernel-phase. The technique, to be usable as presented requires two conditions to be met: (1) the wavefront errors must be kept small (of the order of one radian or less) and (2) the pupil must include some asymmetry, that can be introduced with a mask, for the problem to become solvable. Simulations show that this asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensing or APF-WFS technique can improve the Strehl ratio from 50 to over 90 % in just a few iterations, with excellent photon noise sensitivity properties, suggesting that on-sky close loop APF-WFS is possible with an extreme adaptive optics system.

  4. Matrix isolation studies with Fourier transform IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David W.; Reedy, Gerald T.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with the matrix-isolation techniques has advantages compared with the use of more conventional grating spectroscopy. Furthermore, the recent commercial availability of Fourier transform spectrometers has made FT-IR a practical alternative. Some advantages of the FT-IR spectrometer over the grating spectrometer are the result of the computerized data system that is a necessary part of the FT-IR spectrometer; other advantages are a consequence of the difference in optical arrangements and these represent the inherent advantages of the FT-IR method. In most applications with the matrix-isolation technique, the use of FT-IR spectroscopy results in either an improved signal-to-noise ratio or a shorter time for data collection compared with grating infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used in the laboratory to study several molecular species in low-temperature matrices. Some species have been produced by high-temperature vaporization from Knudsen cells and others by sputtering. By sputtering, Ar and Kr matrices have been prepared which contain U atoms, UO, UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 3/, PuO, PuO/sub 2/, UN, or UN/sub 2/, depending upon the composition of the gas used to sputter as well as the identity of the metallic cathode. Infrared spectra of matrices containing these compounds are presented and discussed. (JRD)

  5. 2-D Prony-Huang Transform: A New Tool for 2-D Spectral Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Jérémy; Borgnat, Pierre; Flandrin, Patrick; Condat, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes an extension of the 1-D Hilbert Huang transform for the analysis of images. The proposed method consists in (i) adaptively decomposing an image into oscillating parts called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using a mode decomposition procedure, and (ii) providing a local spectral analysis of the obtained IMFs in order to get the local amplitudes, frequencies, and orientations. For the decomposition step, we propose two robust 2-D mode decompositions based on non-smooth convex optimization: a "Genuine 2-D" approach, that constrains the local extrema of the IMFs, and a "Pseudo 2-D" approach, which constrains separately the extrema of lines, columns, and diagonals. The spectral analysis step is based on Prony annihilation property that is applied on small square patches of the IMFs. The resulting 2-D Prony-Huang transform is validated on simulated and real data.

  6. Study of Laminar Flame 2-D Scalar Values at Various Fuel to Air Ratios Using an Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometer and 2-D CFD Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    IDRV(1;10) 0,0/IBDRG,ISDRG 0,10,5,0,02.000,1000.0,01.0,1.0/NOPT,IBINJ,ITINJ,IEINJ,PDIA,PDEN, PTHR ,PVEL 29a, 29b, 29c, 29d, 29e, 29f, 29e, 29f, 0...NOPT,IBINJ,ITINJ,IEINJ,PDIA,PDEN, PTHR ,PVEL 15000,100,1,00,0.0,0.084,0.0,0.025,0,2/IBANM,ISANM,KSYM,IPANM,X1,X2,Y1,Y2,NF,KORNT 15000,01/NBAVE,NEAVE...IBINJ,ITINJ,IEINJ,PDIA,PDEN, PTHR ,PVEL 15000,100,1,00,0.0,0.084,0.0,0.025,0,2/IBANM,ISANM,KSYM,IPANM,X1,X2,Y1,Y2,NF,KORNT 15000,01/NBAVE,NEAVE

  7. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  8. Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacava, C.; Carrol, L.; Bozzola, A.; Marchetti, R.; Minzioni, P.; Cristiani, I.; Fournier, M.; Bernabe, S.; Gerace, D.; Andreani, L. C.

    2016-03-01

    We present the characterization of Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic-crystal based 2D grating-couplers (2D-GCs) fabricated by CEA-Leti in the frame of the FP7 Fabulous project, which is dedicated to the realization of devices and systems for low-cost and high-performance passives-optical-networks. On the analyzed samples different test structures are present, including 2D-GC connected to another 2D-GC by different waveguides (in a Mach-Zehnder like configuration), and 2D-GC connected to two separate 2D-GCs, so as to allow a complete assessment of different parameters. Measurements were carried out using a tunable laser source operating in the extended telecom bandwidth and a fiber-based polarization controlling system at the input of device-under-test. The measured data yielded an overall fiber-to-fiber loss of 7.5 dB for the structure composed by an input 2D-GC connected to two identical 2D-GCs. This value was obtained at the peak wavelength of the grating, and the 3-dB bandwidth of the 2D-GC was assessed to be 43 nm. Assuming that the waveguide losses are negligible, so as to make a worst-case analysis, the coupling efficiency of the single 2D-GC results to be equal to -3.75 dB, constituting, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value ever reported for a fully CMOS compatible 2D-GC. It is worth noting that both the obtained values are in good agreement with those expected by the numerical simulations performed using full 3D analysis by Lumerical FDTD-solutions.

  9. Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination: Part I: Fourier Transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesick, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a brief introduction with some definitions and properties of Fourier transforms. Shows relations, ways of understanding the mathematics, and applications. Notes proofs are not included but references are given. First of three part series. (MVL)

  10. Extrinsic curvature induced 2-d gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanathan, K S

    1993-01-01

    Abtract: 2-dimensional fermions are coupled to extrinsic geometry of a conformally immersed surface in ${\\bf R}^3$ through gauge coupling. By integrating out the fermions, we obtain a WZNW action involving extrinsic curvature of the surface. Restricting the resulting effective action to surfaces of $h\\sqrt g=1$, an explicit form of the action invariant under Virasaro symmetry is obtained. This action is a sum of the geometric action for the Virasaro group and the light-cone action of 2-d gravity plus an interaction term. The central charges of the theory in both the left and right sectors are calculated.

  11. Instant HTMl5 2D platformer

    CERN Document Server

    Temple, Aidan

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. The step-by-step approach taken by this book will show you how to develop a 2D HTML5 platformer-based game that you will be able to publish to multiple devices.This book is great for anyone who has an interest in HTML5 games development, and who already has a basic to intermediate grasp on both the HTML markup and JavaScript programming languages. Therefore, due to this requirement, the book will not discuss the inner workings of either of these languages but will instead attempt to

  12. Robust and resistant 2D shape alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Eiriksson, Hrafnkell

    2001-01-01

    \\_\\$\\backslash\\$infty\\$ norm alignments are formulated as linear programming problems. The linear vector function formulation along with the different norms results in alignment methods that are both resistant from influence from outliers, robust wrt. errors in the annotation and capable of handling missing datapoints......We express the alignment of 2D shapes as the minimization of the norm of a linear vector function. The minimization is done in the \\$l\\_1\\$, \\$l\\_2\\$ and the \\$l\\_\\$\\backslash\\$infty\\$ norms using well known standard numerical methods. In particular, the \\$l\\_1\\$ and the \\$l...

  13. Another solution of 2D Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeles, S. N.

    2009-04-01

    The partition function of the Ising model on a two-dimensional regular lattice is calculated by using the matrix representation of a Clifford algebra (the Dirac algebra), with number of generators equal to the number of lattice sites. It is shown that the partition function over all loops in a 2D lattice including self-intersecting ones is the trace of a polynomial in terms of Dirac matrices. The polynomial is an element of the rotation group in the spinor representation. Thus, the partition function is a function of a character on an orthogonal group of a high degree in the spinor representation.

  14. Target tracking using a 2D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kriel, M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available is omitted. This can be an important consideration as aircraft altitude limits the attack pro�les a target can��y [1]. 33.2 HEIGHT ESTIMATION The current literature regarding height estimation restricts itself to computations involving two or more 2D... is instrumental in determining the aircraft altitude. The accuracy to which these speeds are known is directly pro- portional to the accuracy to which the altitude can be determined. Knowledge of aircraft speed can be obtained in a variety of ways. For example...

  15. Design and analysis of dual ring resonator based 2D-photonic crystal WDDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, K.; Robinson, S.; Kumar, D. Sriram

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, four channel 2D Photonic Crystal (PC) based Wavelength Division Demultiplexer (WDDM) using 2D-Photonic Crystal is proposed and designed. The important functional parameters of the proposed demultiplexer such as transmission efficiency, Q factor and resonant wavelength are analyzed. The Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method and Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method are employed to calculate the photonic band gap and normalized output spectrum of the proposed demultiplexer. The average transmission efficiency and Q factor of this proposed device is about 93% and 781, respectively. The overall size of the demultiplexer is around 681 µm2 which will be suitable for integrated optics for future all optical networks.

  16. Conformation of self-assembled porphyrin dimers in liposome vesicles by phase-modulation 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Geoffrey A; Utterback, James K; Widom, Julia R; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Marcus, Andrew H

    2011-01-01

    By applying a phase-modulation fluorescence approach to 2D electronic spectroscopy, we studied the conformation-dependent exciton-coupling of a porphyrin dimer embedded in a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Our measurements specify the relative angle and separation between interacting electronic transition dipole moments, and thus provide a detailed characterization of dimer conformation. Phase-modulation 2D fluorescence spectroscopy (PM-2D FS) produces 2D spectra with distinct optical features, similar to those obtained using 2D photon-echo spectroscopy (2D PE). Specifically, we studied magnesium meso tetraphenylporphyrin dimers, which form in the amphiphilic regions of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes. Comparison between experimental and simulated spectra show that while a wide range of dimer conformations can be inferred by either the linear absorption spectrum or the 2D spectrum alone, consideration of both types of spectra constrains the possible structures to a "T-shaped" geometry. The...

  17. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  18. Using vertical Fourier transforms to invert potential-field data to magnetization or density models in the presence of topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    A physical property inversion approach based on the use of 3D (or 2D) Fourier transforms to calculate the potentialfield within a 3D (or 2D) volume from a known physical property distribution within the volume is described. Topographic surfaces and observations at arbitrary locations are easily accommodated. The limitations of the approach and applications to real data are considered.

  19. Remarks on thermalization in 2D CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Engelhardt, Dalit

    2016-12-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D conformal field theory (CFT). In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering c <1 theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect on large-c conformal field theories.

  20. Gas sensing in 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengxue; Jiang, Chengbao; Wei, Su-huai

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered inorganic nanomaterials have attracted huge attention due to their unique electronic structures, as well as extraordinary physical and chemical properties for use in electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, catalysts, energy generation and storage, and chemical sensors. Graphene and related layered inorganic analogues have shown great potential for gas-sensing applications because of their large specific surface areas and strong surface activities. This review aims to discuss the latest advancements in the 2D layered inorganic materials for gas sensors. We first elaborate the gas-sensing mechanisms and introduce various types of gas-sensing devices. Then, we describe the basic parameters and influence factors of the gas sensors to further enhance their performance. Moreover, we systematically present the current gas-sensing applications based on graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), functionalized GO or rGO, transition metal dichalcogenides, layered III-VI semiconductors, layered metal oxides, phosphorene, hexagonal boron nitride, etc. Finally, we conclude the future prospects of these layered inorganic materials in gas-sensing applications.