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Sample records for optic nerve crush

  1. An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival

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    Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Shuihua; Lee, Chunsik; Kumar, Anil; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Fan; Li, Xuri

    2011-01-01

    Injury to the optic nerve can lead to axonal degeneration, followed by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in irreversible vision loss. Examples of such diseases in human include traumatic optic neuropathy and optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma. It is characterized by typical changes in the optic nerve head, progressive optic nerve degeneration, and loss of retinal ganglion cells, if uncontrolled, leading to vision loss and blindness. The optic nerve crush (ONC) injury mouse model is an important experimental disease model for traumatic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, etc. In this model, the crush injury to the optic nerve leads to gradual retinal ganglion cells apoptosis. This disease model can be used to study the general processes and mechanisms of neuronal death and survival, which is essential for the development of therapeutic measures. In addition, pharmacological and molecular approaches can be used in this model to identify and test potential therapeutic reagents to treat different types of optic neuropathy. Here, we provide a step by step demonstration of (I) Baseline retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at day 1, (II) Optic nerve crush injury at day 4, (III) Harvest the retinae and analyze RGC survival at day 11, and (IV) Representative result. PMID:21540827

  2. Dominant inheritance of retinal ganglion cell resistance to optic nerve crush in mice

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    Schlamp Cassandra L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by complex genetics that affect an individual's susceptibility, disease severity, and rate of progression. One such disease is glaucoma, a chronic neurodegenerative condition of the eye that targets and stimulates apoptosis of CNS neurons called retinal ganglion cells. Since ganglion cell death is intrinsic, it is reasonable that the genes that control this process may contribute to the complex genetics that affect ganglion cell susceptibility to disease. To determine if genetic background influences susceptibility to optic nerve damage, leading to ganglion cell death, we performed optic nerve crush on 15 different inbred lines of mice and measured ganglion cell loss. Resistant and susceptible strains were used in a reciprocal breeding strategy to examine the inheritance pattern of the resistance phenotype. Because earlier studies had implicated Bax as a susceptibility allele for ganglion cell death in the chronic neurodegenerative disease glaucoma, we conducted allelic segregation analysis and mRNA quantification to assess this gene as a candidate for the cell death phenotype. Results Inbred lines showed varying levels of susceptibility to optic nerve crush. DBA/2J mice were most resistant and BALB/cByJ mice were most susceptible. F1 mice from these lines inherited the DBA/2J phenotype, while N2 backcross mice exhibited the BALB/cByJ phenotype. F2 mice exhibited an intermediate phenotype. A Wright Formula calculation suggested as few as 2 dominant loci were linked to the resistance phenotype, which was corroborated by a Punnett Square analysis of the distribution of the mean phenotype in each cross. The levels of latent Bax mRNA were the same in both lines, and Bax alleles did not segregate with phenotype in N2 and F2 mice. Conclusion Inbred mice show different levels of resistance to optic nerve crush. The resistance phenotype is heritable in a dominant fashion involving

  3. [The neuroprotective effect of erigeron breviscapus (vant) hand-mazz on retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush injury].

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    Jiang, Bing; Jiang, You-qin

    2003-08-01

    To investigate whether a Chinese herbal medicine, erigeron breviscapus (vant) hand-mazz (EBHM), can protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) damaged by calibrated optic nerve crush injury. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. Calibrated optic nerve crush injury model was induced in the right eyes by a special designed optic nerve clip. The left eyes served as a control. All 42 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A consisted of the rats with calibrated optic nerve crush injury and group B consisted of rats with calibrated optic nerve crush injury treated with EBHM. In group B, EBHM solution was given once after the crush injury. According to the time interval between the optic nerve crush and the sacrifice, both groups A and B were further divided into three subgroups (day 4, day 14 and day 21). Therefore, there were 7 rats in each subgroup. Three days before sacrifice, 3% fast blue was injected into superior colliculi bilaterally. The eyes were enucleated after the rat was sacrificed, and flat mounts of the retina from both eyes were prepared on a slide and observed under a fluorescence microscope. Four photos with 400 x magnification were taken from each of the four quadrants of the retina 1 mm away from the optic disc. The labeled RGC were counted by a computerized image analyzer. The labeled RGC rate was used for statistical analysis (the labeled RGC rate = number of RGC in injured eye/control eye x 100%). In group A, the labeled RGC rate was (77.79 +/- 7.11)%, (63.76 +/- 3.79)% and (54.66 +/- 4.75)% on day 4, day 14 and day 21, respectively. In group B, the labeled RGC rate was (80.13 +/- 12.03)%, (78.17 +/- 9.19)% and (83.59 +/- 12.61)% on day 4, day 14 and day 21, respectively. In group B, which was treated with EBHM after injury, the labeled RGC rate was significantly higher than that of group A on day 14 and day 21. In the experimental optic nerve crush model in rats, EBHM therapy can increase the survival rate of

  4. Protection by an oral disubstituted hydroxylamine derivative against loss of retinal ganglion cell differentiation following optic nerve crush.

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    James D Lindsey

    Full Text Available Thy-1 is a cell surface protein that is expressed during the differentiation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Optic nerve injury induces progressive loss in the number of RGCs expressing Thy-1. The rate of this loss is fastest during the first week after optic nerve injury and slower in subsequent weeks. This study was undertaken to determine whether oral treatment with a water-soluble N-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine derivative (OT-440 protects against loss of Thy-1 promoter activation following optic nerve crush and whether this effect targets the earlier quick phase or the later slow phase. The retina of mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein under control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-CFP mice was imaged using a blue-light confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (bCSLO. These mice then received oral OT-440 prepared in cream cheese or dissolved in water, or plain vehicle, for two weeks and were imaged again prior to unilateral optic nerve crush. Treatments and weekly imaging continued for four more weeks. Fluorescent neurons were counted in the same defined retinal areas imaged at each time point in a masked fashion. When the counts at each time point were directly compared, the numbers of fluorescent cells at each time point were greater in the animals that received OT-440 in cream cheese by 8%, 27%, 52% and 60% than in corresponding control animals at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after optic nerve crush. Similar results were obtained when the vehicle was water. Rate analysis indicated the protective effect of OT-440 was greatest during the first two weeks and was maintained in the second two weeks after crush for both the cream cheese vehicle study and water vehicle study. Because most of the fluorescent cells detected by bCSLO are RGCs, these findings suggest that oral OT-440 can either protect against or delay early degenerative responses occurring in RGCs following optic nerve injury.

  5. Protection by an oral disubstituted hydroxylamine derivative against loss of retinal ganglion cell differentiation following optic nerve crush.

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    Lindsey, James D; Duong-Polk, Karen X; Dai, Yi; Nguyen, Duy H; Leung, Christopher K; Weinreb, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    Thy-1 is a cell surface protein that is expressed during the differentiation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Optic nerve injury induces progressive loss in the number of RGCs expressing Thy-1. The rate of this loss is fastest during the first week after optic nerve injury and slower in subsequent weeks. This study was undertaken to determine whether oral treatment with a water-soluble N-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine derivative (OT-440) protects against loss of Thy-1 promoter activation following optic nerve crush and whether this effect targets the earlier quick phase or the later slow phase. The retina of mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein under control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-CFP mice) was imaged using a blue-light confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (bCSLO). These mice then received oral OT-440 prepared in cream cheese or dissolved in water, or plain vehicle, for two weeks and were imaged again prior to unilateral optic nerve crush. Treatments and weekly imaging continued for four more weeks. Fluorescent neurons were counted in the same defined retinal areas imaged at each time point in a masked fashion. When the counts at each time point were directly compared, the numbers of fluorescent cells at each time point were greater in the animals that received OT-440 in cream cheese by 8%, 27%, 52% and 60% than in corresponding control animals at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after optic nerve crush. Similar results were obtained when the vehicle was water. Rate analysis indicated the protective effect of OT-440 was greatest during the first two weeks and was maintained in the second two weeks after crush for both the cream cheese vehicle study and water vehicle study. Because most of the fluorescent cells detected by bCSLO are RGCs, these findings suggest that oral OT-440 can either protect against or delay early degenerative responses occurring in RGCs following optic nerve injury.

  6. Time-Dependent Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Changes in the Rat Retina During Optic Nerve Crush-Induced Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells

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    Louise A. Mesentier-Louro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF is suggested to be neuroprotective after nerve injury; however, retinal ganglion cells (RGC degenerate following optic-nerve crush (ONC, even in the presence of increased levels of endogenous NGF. To further investigate this apparently paradoxical condition, a time-course study was performed to evaluate the effects of unilateral ONC on NGF expression and signaling in the adult retina. Visually evoked potential and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess axonal damage and RGC loss. The levels of NGF, proNGF, p75NTR, TrkA and GFAP and the activation of several intracellular pathways were analyzed at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after crush (dac by ELISA/Western Blot and PathScan intracellular signaling array. The progressive RGC loss and nerve impairment featured an early and sustained activation of apoptotic pathways; and GFAP and p75NTR enhancement. In contrast, ONC-induced reduction of TrkA, and increased proNGF were observed only at 7 and 14 dac. We propose that proNGF and p75NTR contribute to exacerbate retinal degeneration by further stimulating apoptosis during the second week after injury, and thus hamper the neuroprotective effect of the endogenous NGF. These findings might aid in identifying effective treatment windows for NGF-based strategies to counteract retinal and/or optic-nerve degeneration.

  7. Time-Dependent Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Changes in the Rat Retina During Optic Nerve Crush-Induced Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells.

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    Mesentier-Louro, Louise A; De Nicolò, Sara; Rosso, Pamela; De Vitis, Luigi A; Castoldi, Valerio; Leocani, Letizia; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F; Tirassa, Paola; Rama, Paolo; Lambiase, Alessandro

    2017-01-05

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is suggested to be neuroprotective after nerve injury; however, retinal ganglion cells (RGC) degenerate following optic-nerve crush (ONC), even in the presence of increased levels of endogenous NGF. To further investigate this apparently paradoxical condition, a time-course study was performed to evaluate the effects of unilateral ONC on NGF expression and signaling in the adult retina. Visually evoked potential and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess axonal damage and RGC loss. The levels of NGF, proNGF, p75 NTR , TrkA and GFAP and the activation of several intracellular pathways were analyzed at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after crush (dac) by ELISA/Western Blot and PathScan intracellular signaling array. The progressive RGC loss and nerve impairment featured an early and sustained activation of apoptotic pathways; and GFAP and p75 NTR enhancement. In contrast, ONC-induced reduction of TrkA, and increased proNGF were observed only at 7 and 14 dac. We propose that proNGF and p75 NTR contribute to exacerbate retinal degeneration by further stimulating apoptosis during the second week after injury, and thus hamper the neuroprotective effect of the endogenous NGF. These findings might aid in identifying effective treatment windows for NGF-based strategies to counteract retinal and/or optic-nerve degeneration.

  8. Engrafted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived anterior specified neural progenitors protect the rat crushed optic nerve.

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    Leila Satarian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs is a common occurrence in several eye diseases. This study examined the functional improvement and protection of host RGCs in addition to the survival, integration and neuronal differentiation capabilities of anterior specified neural progenitors (NPs following intravitreal transplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NPs were produced under defined conditions from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and transplanted into rats whose optic nerves have been crushed (ONC. hiPSCs were induced to differentiate into anterior specified NPs by the use of Noggin and retinoic acid. The hiPSC-NPs were labeled by green fluorescent protein or a fluorescent tracer 1,1' -dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI and injected two days after induction of ONC in hooded rats. Functional analysis according to visual evoked potential recordings showed significant amplitude recovery in animals transplanted with hiPSC-NPs. Retrograde labeling by an intra-collicular DiI injection showed significantly higher numbers of RGCs and spared axons in ONC rats treated with hiPSC-NPs or their conditioned medium (CM. The analysis of CM of hiPSC-NPs showed the secretion of ciliary neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor. Optic nerve of cell transplanted groups also had increased GAP43 immunoreactivity and myelin staining by FluoroMyelin™ which imply for protection of axons and myelin. At 60 days post-transplantation hiPSC-NPs were integrated into the ganglion cell layer of the retina and expressed neuronal markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transplantation of anterior specified NPs may improve optic nerve injury through neuroprotection and differentiation into neuronal lineages. These NPs possibly provide a promising new therapeutic approach for traumatic optic nerve injuries and loss of RGCs caused by other diseases.

  9. Study of the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of Tianma Gouteng Decoction on retinal ganglion cells in rat optic nerve crush model

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    Fan-Tao Lyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the mechanism of Tianma Gouteng Decoction on the protein molecular level in the optic nerve crush model rats. METHODS: Totally 36 participants 36 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups(6 in every group: normal control group, negative control group, Tianma Gouteng Decoction treatment groups(con-centrations were 0.6g/mL, 1.2g/mL, 2.4g/mL respictivelyand ginkgo biloba tablets positive control group(concentrations was 1.2mg/mL. Nothing was done in the normal control group. The optic nerve of right eye in the other groups was done with the optic nerve crush model. Normal control group and negative control group was treated only with water. The average grey scale values of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B(NMDA2Breceptor protein, beta - amyloid protein(Aβin the average grey scale values were detected. RESULTS: The average grey scale value of Tianma Gouteng Decoction in low, medium and high dose groups about NMDA2B receptor protein was significantly less than that of the negative control group(all PP=0.092, 0.411, 0.676, the difference between normal control group and negative control group was significant(PP=0.030, 0.001. The low dose group than the negative control group was not obviously(P=0.614. The high dose group was not significantly different from the positive control group(P=0.927, the difference between normal control group and negative control group was significant(PCONCLUSION: Tianma Gouteng Decoction can go through the decrease of the NMDA2B receptor protein expression and the control of beta-amyloid deposition to reduce the retinal ganglion cell injury and apoptosis.

  10. Effect of pigment epithelium derived factor on NO and the expression of caspase-3 in retinal tissues of model rats with optic nerve crush injury

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    Xiao-Xiao Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the effect of pigment epithelium derived factor(PEDFon nitrogen monoxide(NOand expression of cysteine-containing, aspartate-specific proteases-3(caspase-3in retinal tissues of model rats with optic nerve crush injury. METHODS: A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, model group and PEDF group, with 20 rats in each group. Except the blank control group, the optic nerve crush injury rat models were established in the other groups, and left eyeballs were taken as samples. After successfully modeling, the model group were treated with intravitreal injection of 5μL of balanced salt solution while PEDF group were treated with intravitreal injection of 5μL of PEDF(0.2μg/μL. Two weeks later, the retinal tissues were collected, and changes of shape were observed under microscope after HE staining. The changes of NO level were measured by colorimetry assay, the expression of caspase-3 mRNA and caspase-3 protein was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCRand Western-blot. RESULTS: HE staining showed that retinal tissues of the blank control group arranged neatly and clearly. Retinal ganglion cells(RGCsarranged in a monolayer, and cells were oval, uniform in size and distribution, the cell nuclei were clear, closely arranged, with clear boundaries. The retinal tissues of the model group were sparse in shape, RGCs showed vacuolar changes, the overall number of cells was reduced, and cell nuclei of residual RGCs showed pyknosis and uneven staining. RGCs in PEDF group were with slightly edema and arranged closely, and the degree of injury was significantly milder than that in the model group. Levels of Caspase-3 mRNA and protein and NO levels in the three groups showed the model group > PEDF group > blank control group(all P CONCLUSION: The application of PEDF can down regulate the expression of Caspase-3 and NO in rates with optic nerve injury and reduce RGCs injury.

  11. Optic Nerve Disorders

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    The optic nerve is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages. You have one connecting ... retina) to your brain. Damage to an optic nerve can cause vision loss. The type of vision ...

  12. Miconazole enhances nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

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    Lin, Tao; Qiu, Shuai; Yan, Liwei; Zhu, Shuang; Zheng, Canbin; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin

    2018-05-01

    Improving axonal outgrowth and remyelination is crucial for peripheral nerve regeneration. Miconazole appears to enhance remyelination in the central nervous system. In this study we assess the effect of miconazole on axonal regeneration using a sciatic nerve crush injury model in rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and miconazole groups. Nerve regeneration and myelination were determined using histological and electrophysiological assessment. Evaluation of sensory and motor recovery was performed using the pinprick assay and sciatic functional index. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Western blotting were used to assess the proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole promoted axonal regrowth, increased myelinated nerve fibers, improved sensory recovery and walking behavior, enhanced stimulated amplitude and nerve conduction velocity, and elevated proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole was beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Muscle Nerve 57: 821-828, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Optic Nerve Imaging

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    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Optic Nerve Imaging email Send this article to a friend ... measurements of nerve fiber damage (or loss). The Nerve Fiber Analyzer (GDx) uses laser light to measure ...

  14. Optic Nerve Pit

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    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  15. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  16. Curcumin promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetic rats.

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    Ma, Junxiong; Yu, Hailong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is capable of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration in normal condition. However, it is unclear whether its beneficial effect on nerve regeneration still exists under diabetic mellitus. The present study was designed to investigate such a possibility. Diabetes in rats was developed by a single dose of streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg. Immediately after nerve crush injury, the diabetic rats were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with curcumin (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by morphometric analysis and retrograde labeling. The functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies and behavioral analysis. Axonal regeneration and functional recovery was significantly enhanced by curcumin, which were significantly better than those in vehicle saline group. In addition, high doses of curcumin (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than low dose (50 mg/kg). In conclusion, curcumin is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetes mellitus, highlighting its therapeutic values as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve injury repair in diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

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    Liang Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S and medial gastrocnemius (MG motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy.

  18. Isolated optic nerve pseudotumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, T.; Prasad, S.; Krishnan, A.; Laxminarayan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Isolated optic nerve involvement by the idiopathic inflammatory process is a rare finding and very few reports are available. Here a case of an isolated optic nerve inflammatory pseudotumour presenting with gradually progressive unilateral loss of vision is described. It showed dramatic response to a trial of steroids and its differential diagnoses are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of acute crush injury of rabbit sciatic nerve: correlation with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Shen, J.; Chen, J.; Wang, X.; Liu, Q.; Liang, B.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relation between the quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the correlation with histology and functional recovery by using the rabbit sciatic nerve crush model. In New Zealand, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (group A and B); all rabbits underwent crushing injury of their left sciatic nerve. In group A (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed by using microvessel clamps with a strength of 3.61 kg. In group B (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed with a strength of 10.50 kg. Right sciatic nerves were served as controls. Serial MRI of both hind limbs in each rabbit was performed before and at the time point of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after crushed injury. The MRI protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo (T1WI), 3 dimension turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (3DT2WI), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (T2WI/SPIR), balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE) and short-time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The coronal image of the sciatic nerve was obtained. The nerve and muscle signal ratio (SIR) on each sequence was measured. The function recovery was observed and pathological examination was performed at each time point. A signal intensity increase of the distal segment of crushed sciatic nerves was found on 3DT2WI, T2WI/SP1R, B-FFE, and STIR, but not on T,WI images. Of 32 crushed nerves, 30 nerves showed high signal intensity. The correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% with false negative-positive of 6.25%. The SIR of the crushed sciatic nerve at distal portion was higher than those of the control nerves; there was a statistically significant difference (P 0.05). The SIR between group A and group B was not found statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). The SIR of crushed nerves at distal portion increased at one week after the crush injury, subsequently further increased, and reached a maximum at 2 weeks. The pathological examination revealed myelin

  20. Baseline effects of lysophosphatidylcholine and nerve growth factor in a rat model of sciatic nerve regeneration after crush injury

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    Ryan L Wood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells play a major role in helping heal injured nerves. They help clear debris, produce neurotrophins, upregulate neurotrophin receptors, and form bands of Büngner to guide the healing nerve. But nerves do not always produce enough neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors to repair themselves. Nerve growth factor (NGF is an important neurotrophin for promoting nerve healing and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC has been shown to stimulate NGF receptors (NGFR. This study tested the administration of a single intraneural injection of LPC (1 mg/mL for single LPC injection and 10 mg/mL for multiple LPC injections at day 0 and one (day 7, two (days 5 and 7, or three (days 5, 7, and 9 injections of NGF (160 ng/mL for single injections and 80 ng/mL for multiple injections to determine baseline effects on crushed sciatic nerves in rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, crush, crush-NGF, and crush-LPC-NGF. The healing of the nerves was measured weekly by monitoring gait; electrophysiological parameters: compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitudes; and morphological parameters: total fascicle areas, myelinated fiber counts, fiber densities, fiber packing, and mean g-ratio values at weeks 3 and 6. The crush, crush-NGF, and crush-LPC-NGF groups statistically differed from the control group for all six weeks for the electrophysiological parameters but only differed from the control group at week 3 for the morphological parameters. The crush, crush-NGF, and crush-LPC-NGF groups did not differ from each other over the course of the study. Single injections of LPC and NGF one week apart or multiple treatments of NGF at 5, 7 and 9 days post-injury did not alter the healing rate of the sciatic nerves during weeks 1-6 of the study. These findings are important to define the baseline effects of NGF and LPC injections, as part of a larger effort to determine the minimal dose regimen of NGF to regenerate peripheral nerves.

  1. Exercise training improves functional recovery and motor nerve conduction velocity after sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U.; Brakkee, J.H.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of exercise training on recuperation of sensorimotor function in the early phase of regeneration, and to monitor the long-term effects of exercise on electrophysiological aspects of the regenerating nerve. Design: After sciatic nerve crush in 20 male Wistar rats,

  2. Degeneration and regeneration of motor and sensory nerves: a stereological study of crush lesions in rat facial and mental nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barghash, Ziad; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Al-Bishri, Awad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration of a sensory nerve and a motor nerve at the histological level after a crush injury. Twenty-five female Wistar rats had their mental nerve and the buccal branch of their facial nerve compressed unilaterally against a glass rod...... for 30 s. Specimens of the compressed nerves and the corresponding control nerves were dissected at 3, 7, and 19 days after surgery. Nerve cross-sections were stained with osmium tetroxide and toluidine blue and analysed using two-dimensional stereology. We found differences between the two nerves both...... in the normal anatomy and in the regenerative pattern. The mental nerve had a larger cross-sectional area including all tissue components. The mental nerve had a larger volume fraction of myelinated axons and a correspondingly smaller volume fraction of endoneurium. No differences were observed...

  3. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  4. The percentage of macrophage numbers in rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury

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    Satrio Wicaksono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Excessive accumulation of macrophages in sciatic nerve fascicles inhibits regeneration of peripheral nerves. The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of the macrophages inside and outside of the fascicles at the proximal, at the site of injury and at the distal segment of rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Thirty male 3 months age Wistar rats of 200-230 g were divided into sham-operation group and crush injury group. Termination was performed on day 3, 7, and 14 after crush injury. Immunohistochemical examination was done using anti CD68 antibody. Counting of immunopositive and immunonegative cells was done on three representative fields for extrafascicular and intrafascicular area of proximal, injury and distal segments. The data was presented as percentage of immunopositive cells. The percentage of the macrophages was significantly increased in crush injury group compared to the sham-operated group in all segments of the peripheral nerves. While the percentage of macrophages outside fascicle in all segments of sciatic nerve and within the fascicle in the proximal segment reached its peak on day 3, the percentage of macrophages within the fascicles at the site of injury and distal segments reached the peak later at day 7. In conclusions, accumulation of macrophages outside the nerve fascicles occurs at the beginning of the injury, and then followed later by the accumulation of macrophages within nerve fascicles

  5. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

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    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  6. Celecoxib accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Garza Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5 received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5 received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5, where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  7. Degeneration and regeneration of motor and sensory nerves: a stereological study of crush lesions in rat facial and mental nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghash, Z; Larsen, J O; Al-Bishri, A; Kahnberg, K-E

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration of a sensory nerve and a motor nerve at the histological level after a crush injury. Twenty-five female Wistar rats had their mental nerve and the buccal branch of their facial nerve compressed unilaterally against a glass rod for 30s. Specimens of the compressed nerves and the corresponding control nerves were dissected at 3, 7, and 19 days after surgery. Nerve cross-sections were stained with osmium tetroxide and toluidine blue and analysed using two-dimensional stereology. We found differences between the two nerves both in the normal anatomy and in the regenerative pattern. The mental nerve had a larger cross-sectional area including all tissue components. The mental nerve had a larger volume fraction of myelinated axons and a correspondingly smaller volume fraction of endoneurium. No differences were observed in the degenerative pattern; however, at day 19 the buccal branch had regenerated to the normal number of axons, whereas the mental nerve had only regained 50% of the normal number of axons. We conclude that the regenerative process is faster and/or more complete in the facial nerve (motor function) than it is in the mental nerve (somatosensory function). Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  9. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A variety of lesions may involve the optic nerve. Mainly, these lesions are inflammatory or vascular lesions that rarely necessitate surgery but may induce significant visual morbidity. Orbital tumors may induce proptosis, visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, disc edema and optic...... atrophy, but less than one-tenth of these tumors are confined to the optic nerve or its sheaths. No signs or symptoms are pathognomonic for tumors of the optic nerve. The tumors of the optic nerve may originate from the optic nerve itself (primary tumors) as a proliferation of cells normally present...... in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  10. Acute sciatic nerve crush injuries in rabbits: MRI and pathological comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinchun; Chen Jianyu; Wang Xinlu; Shen Jun; Liu Qingyu; Liang Biling

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Simulating injury mechanism in human peripheral nerve, acute sciatic nerve crush injuries model was produced in rabbits to investigate the relationship between the manifestations of MRI and pathology in order to provide the information for clinical therapy and operative plan. Methods: Thirty-two adult rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n=16) and B (n=16). In group A, the left sciatic nerves were crushed with a stress of 3.61 kg; In group B, with a stress of 10.50 kg. 4 time intervals in each group were observed in 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks, respectively, and each time interval contained 4 rabbits. Left sciatic nerves were served as injured sides, right sciatic nerves were regarded as control sides. MRI was performed at different time interval after crush injury. Then the nerves were examined pathologically. Results: There were no obvious changes on T 1 WI in injured sides, but the injured distal segment of sciatic nerve thickened and twisted, showing high signal intensity on 3D T 2 WI, T 2 WI/SPIR, B-FFE, and T 2 WI/STIR. MRI could show abnormality of 30 sciatic nerves, the correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% and false negative rate was 6.25%. The distal sciatic nerve/muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR) of the injured sides was significantly higher than that of the control sides (P 0.05). SIR in injured side increased at 1 week, reached the peak at 2 weeks, at this time, nerve axons disappeared and lots of myelin degenerated, abduction function disappeared. SIR decreased during 4-8 weeks, the myelin sheath breakdown and Schwann cell proliferated obviously, and abduction functions were observed. The control sciatic nerves showed no abnormality in MRI and pathology. Conclusion: MRI can make the diagnosis of crush injury of sciatic nerve, and dynamic SIR measurement of nerve injury correlates well with the pathological and functional recovery process. MRI is an effective method to monitor degeneration, regeneration, and prognosis after

  11. Administration of Oxygen Ultra-Fine Bubbles Improves Nerve Dysfunction in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hozo Matsuoka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-fine bubbles (<200 nm in diameter have several unique properties and have been tested in various medical fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen ultra-fine bubbles (OUBs on a sciatic nerve crush injury (SNC model rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 1.5 mL saline, OUBs diluted in saline, or nitrogen ultra-fine bubbles (NUBs diluted in saline three times per week for 4 weeks in four groups: (1 control, (sham operation + saline; (2 SNC, (crush + saline; (3 SNC+OUB, (crush + OUB-saline; (4 SNC+NUB, (crush + NUB-saline. The effects of the OUBs on dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and Schwann cells (SCs were examined by serial dilution of OUB medium in vitro. Sciatic functional index, paw withdrawal thresholds, nerve conduction velocity, and myelinated axons were significantly decreased in the SNC group compared to the control group; these parameters were significantly improved in the SNC+OUB group, although NUB treatment did not affect these parameters. In vitro, OUBs significantly promoted neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons by activating AKT signaling and SC proliferation by activating ERK1/2 and JNK/c-JUN signaling. OUBs may improve nerve dysfunction in SNC rats by promoting neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons and SC proliferation.

  12. Early myelin breakdown following sural nerve crush: a freeze-fracture study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez A.M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the early changes of the myelin sheath following surgical nerve crush. We used the freeze-fracture technique to better evaluate myelin alterations during an early stage of Wallerian degeneration. Rat sural nerves were experimentally crushed and animals were sacrificed by transcardiac perfusion 30 h after surgery. Segments of the nerves were processed for routine transmission electron microscopy and freeze-fracture techniques. Our results show that 30 h after the lesion there was asynchrony in the pattern of Wallerian degeneration, with different nerve fibers exhibiting variable degrees of axon disruption. This was observed by both techniques. Careful examination of several replicas revealed early changes in myelin membranes represented by vacuolization and splitting of consecutive lamellae, rearrangement of intramembranous particles and disappearance of paranodal transverse bands associated or not with retraction of paranodal myelin terminal loops from the axolemma. These alterations are compatible with a direct injury to the myelin sheath following nerve crush. The results are discussed in terms of a similar mechanism underlying both axon and myelin breakdown.

  13. Optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savleen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65% than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED.

  14. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush

    KAUST Repository

    Morrison, Brett M.; Tsingalia, Akivaga; Vidensky, Svetlana; Lee, Youngjin; Jin, Lin; Farah, Mohamed H.; Lengacher, Sylvain; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Pellerin, Luc; Rothsteinb, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21. days in wild-type mice to greater than 38. days in MCT1 heterozygote mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42. days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42. days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote mice at 4. weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3. weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.

  15. Gallic acid and exercise training improve motor function, nerve conduction velocity but not pain sense reflex after experimental sciatic nerve crush in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hajimoradi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush. Materials and Methods: Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1 Control (Cont, 2 Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh, 3-5 Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally, 6 Crushed + exercise (Cr+Exe, and 7 Crushed + exercise + effective dose of gallic acid (Cr+Exe +GA200 for 21 days. In order to establish an animal model of sciatic nerve crush, equivalent to 7 kg of force pressed on 2-3 mm of sciatic nerve for 30 s, three times with 30 s intervals. Pain sense reflex in hot plate, motor coordination in rotarod, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV in all groups were tested. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test and pResults: Pain threshold was increased significantly in untreated crushed rats while motor function and SNCV were decreased in all groups with nerve crush (p

  16. The Effects of Phrenic Nerve Degeneration by Axotomy and Crush on the Electrical Activities of Diaphragm Muscles of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkiş, Mehmet Eşref; Kavak, Servet; Sayır, Fuat; Him, Aydin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of axotomy and crush-related degeneration on the electrical activities of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats. In the present study, twenty-one male Wistar-albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The animals in the first group were not crushed or axotomized and served as controls. Phrenic nerves of the rats in the second and third groups were crushed or axotomized in the diaphragm muscle. Resting membrane potential (RMP) was decreased significantly in both crush and axotomy of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats (p phrenic nerves may produce electrical activities in the diaphragm muscle of the rat by depolarization time and half-repolarization time prolonged in crush and axotomy rats.

  17. Gallic acid and exercise training improve motor function, nerve conduction velocity but not pain sense reflex after experimental sciatic nerve crush in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimoradi, Maryam; Fazilati, Mohammad; Gharib-Naseri, Mohammad Kazem; Sarkaki, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA) for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush. Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1) Control (Cont), 2) Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh), 3-5) Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA) (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally), 6) Crushed + exercise (Cr+Exe), and 7) Crushed + exercise + effective dose of gallic acid (Cr+Exe +GA200) for 21 days. In order to establish an animal model of sciatic nerve crush, equivalent to 7 kg of force pressed on 2-3 mm of sciatic nerve for 30 s, three times with 30 s intervals. Pain sense reflex in hot plate, motor coordination in rotarod, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) in all groups were tested. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test and preflex latency was not changed in treated groups. Motor coordination and SNCV were improved in groups Cr+GA200 and Cr+Exe + GA200 (p<0.05, p<0.01 vs. Cr+Veh). GA, dose-dependently, may have therapeutic potential to improve the peripheral nerve degeneration, which is most likely related, at least in part, to its antioxidant and therapeutic properties.

  18. Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat Model: A Comparative Review of Pharmacologic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Nora M; Nguyen, Hoang M T; Honda, Matthew; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2018-04-01

    It is common for men to develop erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. The anatomy of the rat allows the cavernous nerve (CN) to be identified, dissected, and injured in a controlled fashion. Therefore, bilateral CN injury (BCNI) in the rat model is routinely used to study post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. To compare and contrast the available literature on pharmacologic intervention after BCNI in the rat. A literature search was performed on PubMed for cavernous nerve and injury and erectile dysfunction and rat. Only articles with BCNI and pharmacologic intervention that could be grouped into categories of immune modulation, growth factor therapy, receptor kinase inhibition, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition, and anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic interventions were included. To assess outcomes of pharmaceutical intervention on erectile function recovery after BCNI in the rat model. The ratio of maximum intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure was the main outcome measure chosen for this analysis. All interventions improved erectile function recovery after BCNI based on the ratio of maximum intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure results. Additional end-point analysis examined the corpus cavernosa and/or the major pelvic ganglion and CN. There was extreme heterogeneity within the literature, making accurate comparisons between crush injury and therapeutic interventions difficult. BCNI in the rat is the accepted animal model used to study nerve-sparing post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. However, an important limitation is extreme variability. Efforts should be made to decrease this variability and increase the translational utility toward clinical trials in humans. Haney NM, Nguyen HMT, Honda M, et al. Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat Model: A Comparative Review of Pharmacologic Interventions. Sex Med Rev 2018;6:234-241. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  19. Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emril DR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril,1 Samekto Wibowo,2 Lucas Meliala,2 Rina Susilowati3 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaBackground: Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.Methods: Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT tests were used to assess motoric function.Results: The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17 compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005. The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001. However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35. The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18 and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.Conclusion: In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 μmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery

  20. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... juxtapapillary tumors invading the optic nerve because of simple proximity to the nerve. A neurotropic subtype invades the optic nerve and retina in a diffuse fashion unrelated to tumor size or location. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan...

  1. Resveratrol Promotes Nerve Regeneration via Activation of p300 Acetyltransferase-Mediated VEGF Signaling in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhuofeng; Cao, Jiawei; Shen, Yu; Zou, Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Wen; Guo, Qulian; Huang, Changsheng

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are generally associated with incomplete restoration of motor function. The slow rate of nerve regeneration after injury may account for this. Although many benefits of resveratrol have been shown in the nervous system, it is not clear whether resveratrol could promote fast nerve regeneration and motor repair after peripheral nerve injury. This study showed that the motor deficits caused by sciatic nerve crush injury were alleviated by daily systematic resveratrol treatment within 10 days. Resveratrol increased the number of axons in the distal part of the injured nerve, indicating enhanced nerve regeneration. In the affected ventral spinal cord, resveratrol enhanced the expression of several vascular endothelial growth factor family proteins (VEGFs) and increased the phosphorylation of p300 through Akt signaling, indicating activation of p300 acetyltransferase. Inactivation of p300 acetyltransferase reversed the resveratrol-induced expression of VEGFs and motor repair in rats that had undergone sciatic nerve crush injury. The above results indicated that daily systematic resveratrol treatment promoted nerve regeneration and led to rapid motor repair. Resveratrol activated p300 acetyltransferase-mediated VEGF signaling in the affected ventral spinal cord, which may have thus contributed to the acceleration of nerve regeneration and motor repair.

  2. Imaging of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Minerva [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)], E-mail: minerva.becker@hcuge.ch; Masterson, Karen [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Vargas, Maria-Isabel [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Becker, Christoph D. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  3. Imaging of the optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Minerva; Masterson, Karen; Delavelle, Jacqueline; Viallon, Magalie; Vargas, Maria-Isabel; Becker, Christoph D.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies

  5. Nerve crush but not displacement-induced stretch of the intra-arachnoidal facial nerve promotes facial palsy after cerebellopontine angle surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendella, Habib; Brackmann, Derald E; Goldbrunner, Roland; Angelov, Doychin N

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the reasons for occurrence of facial nerve palsy after removal of cerebellopontine angle tumors. Since the intra-arachnoidal portion of the facial nerve is considered to be so vulnerable that even the slightest tension or pinch may result in ruptured axons, we tested whether a graded stretch or controlled crush would affect the postoperative motor performance of the facial (vibrissal) muscle in rats. Thirty Wistar rats, divided into five groups (one with intact controls and four with facial nerve lesions), were used. Under inhalation anesthesia, the occipital squama was opened, the cerebellum gently retracted to the left, and the intra-arachnoidal segment of the right facial nerve exposed. A mechanical displacement of the brainstem with 1 or 3 mm toward the midline or an electromagnet-controlled crush of the facial nerve with a tweezers at a closure velocity of 50 and 100 mm/s was applied. On the next day, whisking motor performance was determined by video-based motion analysis. Even the larger (with 3 mm) mechanical displacement of the brainstem had no harmful effect: The amplitude of the vibrissal whisks was in the normal range of 50°-60°. On the other hand, even the light nerve crush (50 mm/s) injured the facial nerve and resulted in paralyzed vibrissal muscles (amplitude of 10°-15°). We conclude that, contrary to the generally acknowledged assumptions, it is the nerve crush but not the displacement-induced stretching of the intra-arachnoidal facial trunk that promotes facial palsy after cerebellopontine angle surgery in rats.

  6. Primary optic nerve sheath meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremic, Branislav [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pitz, Susanne (eds.) [University Eye Hospital, Mainz (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) is a rare tumour. Cases are usually separated into primary ONSM, which arises either intraorbitally or, less commonly, intracanalicularly, and secondary ONSM, which arises intracranially and subsequently invades the optic canal and orbit. This is the first book to cover all important aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of primary ONSM. After a general introduction, individual chapters discuss the clinical presentation, clinical examination and diagnosis, imaging, and histology. Treatment options are then addressed in detail, with special emphasis on external beam radiation therapy, and in particular stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy. The latter has recently produced consistently good results and is now considered the emerging treatment of choice for the vast majority of patients with primary ONSM. This well-illustrated book will prove invaluable to all practitioners who encounter primary ONSM in their clinical work. (orig.)

  7. Retrograde tracing and toe spreading after experimental autologous nerve transplantation and crush injury of the sciatic nerve: a descriptive methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Neerven Sabien GA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of functional and structural recovery after peripheral nerve injury is crucial to determine the therapeutic effect of a nerve repair strategy. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the structural evaluation of regeneration by means of retrograde tracing and the functional analysis of toe spreading. Two standardized rat sciatic nerve injury models were used to address this relationship. As such, animals received either a 2 cm sciatic nerve defect (neurotmesis followed by autologous nerve transplantation (ANT animals or a crush injury with spontaneous recovery (axonotmesis; CI animals. Functional recovery of toe spreading was observed over an observation period of 84 days. In contrast to CI animals, ANT animals did not reach pre-surgical levels of toe spreading. After the observation period, the lipophilic dye DiI was applied to label sensory and motor neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG; sensory neurons and spinal cord (motor neurons, respectively. No statistical difference in motor or sensory neuron counts could be detected between ANT and CI animals. In the present study we could indicate that there was no direct relationship between functional recovery (toe spreading measured by SSI and the number of labelled (motor and sensory neurons evaluated by retrograde tracing. The present findings demonstrate that a multimodal approach with a variety of independent evaluation tools is essential to understand and estimate the therapeutic benefit of a nerve repair strategy.

  8. Retrobulbar diameter of optic nerve in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The ultrasound diagnostics of the optic nerve includes the analysis of the optic nerve disc (PNO and measuring of its retrobulbar diameter. With B-scan, by Schraeder's method, it is possible to measure very precisely the optic nerve, the pial diameter, the normal values for the pial diameter being 2.8-4.1 mm. In glaucoma, the disease that is most frequently associated with higher intraocular pressure, there comes the destruction of nerve fibres, which can be visualized as the excavation of the optic nerve disc. Objective. In this paper, we were interested in finding whether in glaucoma, and in what phase of the disease, the optic nerve starts growing thinner. Aware of many forms of this very complex disease, we were interested in knowing if the visualization of excavation on the optic nerve disc is related to diminishing of the pial diameter of the retrobulbar nerve part. Methods. There were treated the patients who had already had the diagnosis of glaucoma and the visualized excavation of the optic disc of various dimensions. Echographically, there was measured the thickness of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve and the finding compared in relation to the excavation of the optic disc. Results. In all eyes with glaucoma, a normal size of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve was measured, ranging from 3.01 to 3.91 mm with the median of 3.36 mm. Also, by testing the correlation between the thickness of the optic nerve and the excavation of the PNO, by Pearson test, we found that there was no correlation between these two parameters (r=0.109; p>0.05. Conclusion. In the patients with glaucoma, the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve is not thinner (it has normal values, even not in the cases with a totally excavated optic disc. There is no connection between the size of the PNO excavation and the thickness of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve.

  9. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah-Hui Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. The aim was to investigate the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of injured nerve. Functional recovery was assessed in behavioral experiment by walking track analysis. Peroneal functional index (PFI was determined before surgery and after surgery as rats showed signs of recovery. Histological examinations were performed on peroneal nerve by immunofluorescence staining and neuromuscular junction by combined silver-cholinesterase stain. Analysis of PFI indicated that return of hind limb function occurred earlier in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin (positive control group compared to negative control group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates in extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin group developed better than in negative control group. These data suggest that daily oral administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery.

  10. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; David, Pamela; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2011-01-01

    Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. The aim was to investigate the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of injured nerve. Functional recovery was assessed in behavioral experiment by walking track analysis. Peroneal functional index (PFI) was determined before surgery and after surgery as rats showed signs of recovery. Histological examinations were performed on peroneal nerve by immunofluorescence staining and neuromuscular junction by combined silver-cholinesterase stain. Analysis of PFI indicated that return of hind limb function occurred earlier in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin (positive control) group compared to negative control group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates in extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin group developed better than in negative control group. These data suggest that daily oral administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery. PMID:21941586

  11. The Changes in Rats with Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Supplemented with Evening Primrose Oil: Behavioural, Morphologic, and Morphometric Analysis

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    Danial Ramli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injuries are commonly used models for axonotmesis to examine peripheral nerve regeneration. As evening primrose oil (EPO is rich in omega-6 essential fatty acid component and gamma-linolenic acid, studies have shown the potential role of EPO in myelination. Seventy-two healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into three groups: normal group, control group, and experimental group. The result indicates that there was significant difference in toe-spreading reflex between the normal and the control groups (1.9±0.031, p<0.05 and the normal and the EPO groups (0.4±0.031, p<0.05 and significant difference between EPO and the control groups (1.5±0.031, p<0.05. Regeneration of axons and myelin in nerve fibre in the EPO-treated group developed better and faster than in the control group. In the control group, the shape of the axon was irregular with a thinner myelin sheath. In the experimental group, the shape of the axons, the thickness of the myelin sheath, and the diameter of the axons were almost the same as in the normal group. In conclusion, EPO supplementation may be beneficial as a therapeutic option for disturbances of nerve interaction.

  12. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benowitz, L.I.; Shashoua, V.E.; Yoon, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with [3H]-, the other with [14C]proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain

  13. Optic Nerve Avulsion after Blunt Trauma

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    Hacı Halil Karabulut

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve avulsion is an uncommon presentation of ocular trauma with a poor prognosis. It can be seen as complete or partial form due to the form of trauma. We assessed the complete optic nerve avulsion in a 16-year-old female patient complaining of loss of vision in her left eye after a traffic accident. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 249-51

  14. A novel motion analysis approach reveals late recovery in C57BL/6 mice and deficits in NCAM-deficient mice after sciatic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Andreas; Schachner, Melitta; Irintchev, Andrey

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of motor abilities after sciatic nerve injury in rodents, in particular mice, relies exclusively on walking track (footprint) analysis despite known limitations of this method. Using principles employed recently for video-based motion analyses after femoral nerve and spinal cord injuries, we have designed and report here a novel approach for functional assessments after sciatic nerve lesions in mice. Functional deficits are estimated by angle and distance measurements on single video frames recorded during beam-walking and inclined ladder climbing. Analyses of adult C57BL/6J mice after crush of the sciatic, tibial, or peroneal nerve allowed the identification of six numerical parameters, detecting impairments of the plantar flexion of the foot and the toe spread. Some of these parameters, as well as footprint functional indices, revealed severe impairment after crush injury of the sciatic or tibial, but not the peroneal nerve, and complete recovery within 3 weeks after lesion. Other novel estimates, however, showed that complete recovery is reached as late as 2-3 months after sciatic nerve crush. These measures detected both tibial and peroneal dysfunction. In contrast to the complete restoration of function in wild-type mice (100%), our new parameters, in contrast to the sciatic functional index, showed incomplete recovery (85%) 90 days after sciatic nerve crush in mice deficient in the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). We conclude that the novel video-based approach is more precise, sensitive, and versatile than established tests, allowing objective numerical assessment of different motor functions in a sciatic nerve injury paradigm in mice.

  15. Perspectives of optic nerve prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Frank John; Nitsch, Kristian; Huyck, Margaret; Troyk, Philip; Schug, Ken

    2016-01-01

    A number of projects exist that are investigating the ability to restore visual percepts for individuals who are blind through a visual prosthesis. While many projects have reported the results from a technical basis, very little exists in the professional literature on the human experience of visual implant technology. The current study uses an ethnographic methodological approach to document the experiences of the research participants and study personnel of a optic nerve vision prosthesis project in Brussels, Belgium. The findings have implications for motivation for participating in clinical trials, ethical safeguards of participants and the role of the participant in a research study. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation practitioners are often solicited by prospective participants to assist in evaluating a clinical trial before making a decision about participation. Rehabilitation professionals should be aware that: The decision to participate in a clinical trial is ultimately up to the individual participant. However, participants should be aware that family members might experience stress from of a lack of knowledge about the research study. The more opportunities a participant has to share thoughts and feelings about the research study with investigators will likely result in a positive overall experience. Ethical safeguards put in place to protect the interests of an individual participant may have the opposite effect and create stress. Rehabilitation professionals can play an important role as participant advocates from recruitment through termination of the research study. Participant hope is an important component of participation in a research study. Information provided to participants by investigators during the consent process should be balanced carefully with potential benefits, so it does not destroy a participant's hope.

  16. Cholinergic Potentiation of Restoration of Visual Function after Optic Nerve Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Chamoun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cortical plasticity and brain connectivity may improve residual vision following a visual impairment. Since acetylcholine plays an important role in attention and neuronal plasticity, we explored whether potentiation of the cholinergic transmission has an effect on the visual function restoration. To this end, we evaluated for 4 weeks the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil on brightness discrimination, visually evoked potentials, and visual cortex reactivity after a bilateral and partial optic nerve crush in adult rats. Donepezil administration enhanced brightness discrimination capacity after optic nerve crush compared to nontreated animals. The visually evoked activation of the primary visual cortex was not restored, as measured by evoked potentials, but the cortical neuronal activity measured by thallium autometallography was not significantly affected four weeks after the optic nerve crush. Altogether, the results suggest a role of the cholinergic system in postlesion cortical plasticity. This finding agrees with the view that restoration of visual function may involve mechanisms beyond the area of primary damage and opens a new perspective for improving visual rehabilitation in humans.

  17. High-resolution CT of lesions of the optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyster, R.G.; Hoover, E.D.; Hershey, B.L.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The optic nerves are well demonstrated by high-resolution computed tomography. Involvement of the optic nerve by optic gliomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas is well known. However, nonneoplastic processes such as increased intracranial pressure, optic neuritis, Grave ophthalmopathy, and orbital pseudotumor may also alter the appearance of the optic nerve/sheath on computed tomography. Certain clinical and computed tomographic features permit distinction of these nonneoplastic tumefactions from tumors

  18. The optic nerve head in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert RA Bourne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ll types of glaucoma involve glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The key to detection and management of glaucoma is understanding how to examine the optic nerve head (ONH. This pictorial glossary addresses the following issues: how to examine the ONH; normal characteristics of the ONH; characteristics of a glaucomatous ONH; how to tell if the glaucomatous optic neuropathy is getting worse;‘pitfalls and pearls’.

  19. [Glaucoma and optic nerve drusen: Limitations of optic nerve head OCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, M; Colange, J; Goutagny, B; Sellem, E

    2017-09-01

    Optic nerve head drusen are congenital calcium deposits located in the prelaminar section of the optic nerve head. Their association with visual field defects has been classically described, but the diagnosis of glaucoma is not easy in these cases of altered optic nerve head anatomy. We describe the case of a 67-year-old man with optic nerve head drusen complicated by glaucoma, which was confirmed by visual field and OCT examination of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), but the measurement of the minimum distance between the Bruch membrane opening and the internal limiting membrane (minimum rim width, BMO-MRW) by OCT was normal. OCT of the BMO-MRW is a new diagnostic tool for glaucoma. Superficial optic nerve head drusen, which are found between the internal limiting membrane and the Bruch's membrane opening, overestimate the value of this parameter. BMO-MRW measurement is not adapted to cases of optic nerve head drusen and can cause false-negative results for this parameter, and the diagnosis of glaucoma in this case should be based on other parameters such as the presence of a fascicular defect in the retinal nerve fibers, RNFL or macular ganglion cell complex thinning, as well as visual field data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasound-guided plasma rich in growth factors injections and scaffolds hasten motor nerve functional recovery in an ovine model of nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Mikel; Anitua, E; Delgado, D; Prado, R; Sánchez, P; Fiz, N; Guadilla, J; Azofra, J; Pompei, O; Orive, G; Ortega, M; Yoshioka, T; Padilla, S

    2017-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the motor recovery process of peripheral nerve injury (PNI), based on electrophysiological and histomorphometric criteria, after treatment with plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) injections and scaffolds in an ovine model. Three groups of sheep underwent a nerve crush lesion: the first group (n = 3) was left to recover spontaneously (SR); the second group was administered saline injections (SI; n = 5) and a third group (n = 6) received PRGF injections and scaffolds immediately after the crush injury. At post-intervention week 8, 70% of sheep in the PRGF group were CMAP-positive, with no electrophysiological response in the rest of the groups. Histomorphometric analysis 12 weeks after the surgical intervention revealed that the average axonal density of the SR (1184 ± 864 axons/µm 2 ) and SI (3109 ± 2450 axons/µm 2 ) groups was significantly inferior to the control (8427 ± 2433 axons/µm 2 ) and also inferior to the PRGF group (5276 ± 4148 axons/µm 2 ), showing no significant differences between the control and PRGF groups. The axonal size of the SR and SI groups was significantly smaller compared with the control group (18 ± 4 µm 2 ), whereas the axonal size of the PRGF group (6 ± 5 µm 2 ) did not show statistical differences from the control. Morphometry of the target muscles indicated that the PRGF group had the lowest percentage volume reduction 12 weeks after the crush injury. The PRGF group had larger muscle fibre areas than the SI and SR groups, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. Overall, these data suggest that the PRGF injections and scaffolds hastened functional axon recovery and dampened atrophy of the target muscles in an ovine model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Transnasal Endoscopic Optic Nerve Decompression in Post Traumatic Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devang; Gadodia, Monica

    2018-03-01

    To quantify the successful outcome in patients following optic nerve decompression in post traumatic unilateral optic neuropathy in form of improvement in visual acuity. A prospective study was carried out over a period of 5 years (January 2011 to June 2016) at civil hospital Ahmedabad. Total 20 patients were selected with optic neuropathy including patients with direct and indirect trauma to unilateral optic nerve, not responding to conservative management, leading to optic neuropathy and subsequent impairment in vision and blindness. Decompression was done via Transnasal-Ethmo-sphenoidal route and outcome was assessed in form of post-operative visual acuity improvement at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year follow up. After surgical decompression complete recovery of visual acuity was achieved in 16 (80%) patients and partial recovery in 4 (20%). Endoscopic transnasal approach is beneficial in traumatic optic neuropathy not responding to steroid therapy and can prevent permanent disability if earlier intervention is done prior to irreversible damage to the nerve. Endoscopic optic nerve surgery can decompress the traumatic and oedematous optic nerve with proper exposure of orbital apex and optic canal without any major intracranial, intraorbital and transnasal complications.

  2. Optic Nerve Sheath Meningocele: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, E.; Wavreille, O.; Rosenberg, R.; Bouacha, I.; Lejeune, J.-P.; Defoort-Dhellemmes, S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Isolated optic nerve sheath meningocele is a rare affection defined as the cystic enlargement of the optic nerve sheath filled with cerebrospinal fluid. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman presenting with bilateral meningocele uncovered during a routine examination for headache complaints. A 5-year follow-up validated the lesion’s clinical and imaging stability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential tool in the diagnosis of this pathology, alongside characteristic symptoms indicating that the meningocele might have progressively expanded into the orbit. In this case we present a therapeutic approach based on pathophysiological hypotheses and review of the literature. PMID:28163760

  3. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weijie, E-mail: 459586768@qq.com; Liu, Yuxi, E-mail: 924013616@qq.com; Wang, Youhua, E-mail: wyouhua1516@163.com

    2016-05-13

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwann cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

  4. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I and platelet-rich plasma on sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel, Erhan; Ergün, Selma Sönmez; Kotan, Dilcan; Gürsoy, Esra Başar; Parman, Yeşim; Zengin, Asli; Nurten, Asiye

    2011-02-01

    Local administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase the rate of axon regeneration in crush-injured and freeze-injured rat sciatic nerves. Local administration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been also shown to have a measurable effect on facial nerve regeneration after transection in a rat model. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of locally administered IGF-I and PRP on the parameters of the Sciatic Function Index (SFI), sensory function (SF), axon count, and myelin thickness/axon diameter ratio (G-ratio) in a rat model of crush-injured sciatic nerves. The right sciatic nerve of Wistar albino rats (24 animals) was crushed using a Yasargil-Phynox aneurysm clip for 45 minutes. All animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (control group) was treated with saline, Group 2 was treated with IGF-I, and Group 3 was treated with PRP. Injections were performed using the tissue expander's injection port with a connecting tube directed at the crush-injured site. Functional recovery was assessed with improvement in the SFI. Recovery of sensory function was using the pinch test. Histopathological examination was performed 3 months after the injury. The SFI showed an improved functional recovery in the IGF-I-treated animals (Group 2) compared with the saline-treated animals (Group 1) 30 days after the injury. In IGF-I-treated rats, sensory function returned to the baseline level significantly faster than in saline-treated and PRP-treated rats as shown in values between SF-2 and SF-7. The G-ratios were found to be significantly higher in both experimental groups than in the control group. This study suggests that the application of IGF-I to the crush-injured site may expedite the functional recovery of paralyzed muscle by increasing the rate of axon regeneration.

  5. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Weijie; Liu, Yuxi; Wang, Youhua

    2016-01-01

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwann cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

  6. Optical stimulation of peripheral nerves in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathon D.

    This dissertation documents the emergence and validation of a new clinical tool that bridges the fields of biomedical optics and neuroscience. The research herein describes an innovative method for direct neurostimulation with pulsed infrared laser light. Safety and effectiveness of this technique are first demonstrated through functional stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve in vivo. The Holmium:YAG laser (lambda = 2.12 mum) is shown to operate at an optimal wavelength for peripheral nerve stimulation with advantages over standard electrical neural stimulation; including contact-free stimulation, high spatial selectivity, and lack of a stimulation artifact. The underlying biophysical mechanism responsible for transient optical nerve stimulation appears to be a small, absorption driven thermal gradient sustained at the axonal layer of nerve. Results explicitly prove that low frequency optical stimulation can reliably stimulate without resulting in tissue thermal damage. Based on the positive results from animal studies, these optimal laser parameters were utilized to move this research into the clinic with a combined safety and efficacy study in human subjects undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy. The clinical Holmium:YAG laser was used to effectively stimulate human dorsal spinal roots and elicit functional muscle responses recorded during surgery without evidence of nerve damage. Overall these results predict that this technology can be a valuable clinical tool in various neurosurgical applications.

  7. The effect of weight-bearing exercise and non-weight-bearing exercise on gait in rats with sciatic nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Hwangbo, Gak; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to access the effect of weight bearing exercise (treadmill exercise) and non-weight-bearing exercise (swimming exercise) on gait in the recovery process after a sciatic nerve crush injury. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were randomly divided into a swimming group (n=3) with non-weight-bearing exercise after a sciatic nerve crush and a treadmill group (n=3) with weight bearing exercise after a sciatic nerve crush. Dartfish is a program that can analyze and interpret motion through video images. The knee lateral epicondyle, lateral malleolus, and metatarsophalangeal joint of the fifth toe were marked by black dots before recording. [Results] There were significant differences in TOK (knee angle toe off) and ICK (knee angle at initial contact) in the swimming group and in TOK, ICA (ankle angle at initial contact), and ICK in the treadmill group. In comparison between groups, there were significant differences in TOA (ankle angle in toe off) and ICA at the 7th day. [Conclusion] There was no difference between weight bearing and non-weight-bearing exercise in sciatic nerve damage, and both exercises accelerated the recovery process in this study.

  8. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Yang, Dar-Yu; Ho, Shu-Peng; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Chung-Jung; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Chang, Ming-Hong; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2009-08-23

    Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto) was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS) was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days); Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits.

  9. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hung-Chuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days; Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits.

  10. Deficient functional recovery after facial nerve crush in rats is associated with restricted rearrangements of synaptic terminals in the facial nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundeshagen, G; Szameit, K; Thieme, H; Finkensieper, M; Angelov, D N; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Irintchev, A

    2013-09-17

    Crush injuries of peripheral nerves typically lead to axonotmesis, axonal damage without disruption of connective tissue sheaths. Generally, human patients and experimental animals recover well after axonotmesis and the favorable outcome has been attributed to precise axonal reinnervation of the original peripheral targets. Here we assessed functionally and morphologically the long-term consequences of facial nerve axonotmesis in rats. Expectedly, we found that 5 months after crush or cryogenic nerve lesion, the numbers of motoneurons with regenerated axons and their projection pattern into the main branches of the facial nerve were similar to those in control animals suggesting precise target reinnervation. Unexpectedly, however, we found that functional recovery, estimated by vibrissal motion analysis, was incomplete at 2 months after injury and did not improve thereafter. The maximum amplitude of whisking remained substantially, by more than 30% lower than control values even 5 months after axonotmesis. Morphological analyses showed that the facial motoneurons ipsilateral to injury were innervated by lower numbers of glutamatergic terminals (-15%) and cholinergic perisomatic boutons (-26%) compared with the contralateral non-injured motoneurons. The structural deficits were correlated with functional performance of individual animals and associated with microgliosis in the facial nucleus but not with polyinnervation of muscle fibers. These results support the idea that restricted CNS plasticity and insufficient afferent inputs to motoneurons may substantially contribute to functional deficits after facial nerve injuries, possibly including pathologic conditions in humans like axonotmesis in idiopathic facial nerve (Bell's) palsy. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ciliary body melanoma with optic nerve invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Haddab, S; Hidayat, A; Tabbara, K F

    1990-01-01

    A case of melanoma of the ciliary body is presented. Initially the patient was diagnosed and treated for uveitis, but following CT scanning and ultrasound a tumour was detected and the eye enucleated. Histopathologically it was found that the tumour had invaded the optic nerve head, apparently via Cloquet's canal. Images PMID:2310725

  12. Optic Nerve Sheath Mechanics in VIIP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykin, Julia; Forte, Taylor E.; Wang, Roy; Feola, Andrew; Samuels, Brian; Myers, Jerry; Nelson, Emily; Gleason, Rudy; Ethier, C. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a major concern in current space medicine research. While the exact pathology of VIIP is not yet known, it is hypothesized that the microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift increases intracranial pressure (ICP) and drives remodeling of the optic nerve sheath. To investigate this possibility, we are culturing optic nerve sheath dura mater samples under different pressures and investigating changes in tissue composition. To interpret results from this work, it is essential to first understand the biomechanical response of the optic nerve sheath dura mater to loading. Here, we investigated the effects of mechanical loading on the porcine optic nerve sheath.Porcine optic nerves (number: 6) were obtained immediately after death from a local abattoir. The optic nerve sheath (dura mater) was isolated from the optic nerve proper, leaving a hollow cylinder of connective tissue that was used for biomechanical characterization. We developed a custom mechanical testing system that allowed for unconfined lengthening, twisting, and circumferential distension of the dura mater during inflation and under fixed axial loading. To determine the effects of variations in ICP, the sample was inflated (0-60 millimeters Hg) and circumferential distension was simultaneously recorded. These tests were performed under variable axial loads (0.6 grams - 5.6 grams at increments of 1 gram) by attaching different weights to one end of the dura mater. Results and Conclusions: The samples demonstrated nonlinear behavior, similar to other soft connective tissue (Figure 1). Large increases in diameter were observed at lower transmural pressures (approximately 0 to 5 millimeters Hg), whereas only small diameter changes were observed at higher pressures. Particularly interesting was the existence of a cross-over point at a pressure of approximately 11 millimeters Hg. At this pressure, the same diameter is obtained for all axial loads applied

  13. Can preoperative MR imaging predict optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Eo, Hong; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, So-Young; Jeon, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of pre-operative MRI for the detection of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were waived for this retrospective study. A total of 41 patients were included. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven retinoblastoma, availability of diagnostic-quality preoperative MR images acquired during the 4 weeks before surgery, unilateral retinoblastoma, and normal-sized optic nerve. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images independently. Five imaging findings (diffuse mild optic nerve enhancement, focal strong optic nerve enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, tumor location, and tumor size) were evaluated against optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma. The predictive performance of all MR imaging findings for optic nerve invasion was also evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Optic nerve invasion was histopathologically confirmed in 24% of study population (10/41). The differences in diffuse mild enhancement, focal strong enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, and tumor location between patients with optic nerve invasion and patients without optic nerve invasion were not significant. Tumor sizes were 16.1 mm (SD: 2.2 mm) and 14.9 mm (SD: 3.6 mm) in patients with and without optic nerve involvement, respectively (P = 0.444). P-Values from binary logistic regression indicated that all five imaging findings were not significant predictors of tumor invasion of optic nerve. The AUC values of all MR imaging findings for the prediction of optic nerve invasion were 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.499–0.879) and 0.653 (95% confidence interval: 0.445–0.861) for observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of MRI in patients with normal-sized optic nerves have limited usefulness in preoperatively predicting the presence of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma.

  14. Can preoperative MR imaging predict optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyoung Doo, E-mail: kdsong0308@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Hong, E-mail: rtombow@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye, E-mail: jhkate.kim@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, So-Young, E-mail: sy1131.yoo@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Tae Yeon, E-mail: hathor97.jeon@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of pre-operative MRI for the detection of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were waived for this retrospective study. A total of 41 patients were included. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven retinoblastoma, availability of diagnostic-quality preoperative MR images acquired during the 4 weeks before surgery, unilateral retinoblastoma, and normal-sized optic nerve. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images independently. Five imaging findings (diffuse mild optic nerve enhancement, focal strong optic nerve enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, tumor location, and tumor size) were evaluated against optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma. The predictive performance of all MR imaging findings for optic nerve invasion was also evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Optic nerve invasion was histopathologically confirmed in 24% of study population (10/41). The differences in diffuse mild enhancement, focal strong enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, and tumor location between patients with optic nerve invasion and patients without optic nerve invasion were not significant. Tumor sizes were 16.1 mm (SD: 2.2 mm) and 14.9 mm (SD: 3.6 mm) in patients with and without optic nerve involvement, respectively (P = 0.444). P-Values from binary logistic regression indicated that all five imaging findings were not significant predictors of tumor invasion of optic nerve. The AUC values of all MR imaging findings for the prediction of optic nerve invasion were 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.499–0.879) and 0.653 (95% confidence interval: 0.445–0.861) for observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of MRI in patients with normal-sized optic nerves have limited usefulness in preoperatively predicting the presence of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma.

  15. Optic Nerve Hemangioblastoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Zywicke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioblastomas are World Health Organization (WHO grade I tumors of uncertain histologic origin. These central nervous system tumors are most often found in the posterior fossa, brainstem, and spinal cord. There are fewer than 20 reported cases of optic nerve hemangioblastomas in the literature. We present a patient with visual decline found to have a mass arising from within the posterior orbital canal that grossly involved the optic nerve sheath. Neuropathologic evaluation showed hemangioblastoma. Although not a common tumor in this location, consideration of hemangioblastoma in the differential diagnosis is important as they can have a more aggressive course than other tumors of this region and have a detrimental effect on visual prognosis.

  16. Quantitative assessment of optic nerve head pallor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilser, W; Seifert, B U; Riemer, T; Nagel, E; Weisensee, J; Hammer, M

    2008-01-01

    Ischaemia, loss of neural tissue, glial cell activation and tissue remodelling are symptoms of anterior ischaemic as well as glaucomatous optic neuropathy leading to pallor of the optic nerve head. Here, we describe a simple method for the pallor measurement using a fundus camera equipped with a colour CCD camera and a special dual bandpass filter. The reproducibility of the determined mean pallor value was 11.7% (coefficient of variation for repeated measurements in the same subject); the variation over six healthy subjects was 14.8%. A significant difference between the mean pallor of an atrophic disc and that of the contralateral eye of the same individual was found. However, even the clinically unaffected eye showed a significantly increased pallor compared to the mean of the healthy control group. Thus, optic disc pallor measurement, as described here, may be helpful in the early detection and follow-up of optic neuropathy

  17. Size of the optic nerve in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanagi, Kaoru; Shigemori, Hiroichi; Sunabori, Shozo; Nakamura, Yasuhisa.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, the measurement of optic nerve diameter from CT images has become of great interest. For measuring the optic nerve diameter, the method of Neuro-Ocular index is advocated by Magadure, 1978. But it is very difficult to support this method, because no relationship exists between the ocular diameter and the optic nerve diameter. In order to measure the optic nerve diameter directly by CT image, we examined several Window Level and Window Width settings and print out tables. Results are as follows, 1) Width 400 and all Level settings, all optic nerves appear thick. 2) Width 100, 75, 50 and Level 0 settings show optic nerves thin. 3) Optic nerve looks thick by Width of 100, 75, 50 and Level of -50 settings. 4) By the Level set of CT value of optic nerve in each case and Width set 75 or 50, optic images show nearly the correct diameter. 5) The midpoint of CT value of optic nerve obtained from print out tables are 8 to -22 and the the average is -10. (author)

  18. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The mammalian central nervous system (CNS is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP, as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes.

  19. Peri-optic nerve infiltration during leukaemic relapse: MRI diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madani, A.; Christophe, C. [Department of Imaging, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium); Ferster, A.; Dan, B. [Department of Paediatrics, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium)

    2000-01-01

    Background. A 10-year-old boy with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), but without previous evidence of central nervous system involvement, presented with seizures 3 years after complete remission. Materials and methods. MRI showed bilateral enlargement of the optic nerves despite normal ophthalmological examination. Results. Only the third cerebrospinal fluid examination showed 2 % blasts without concomitant bone-marrow infiltration. Enlargement of the optic nerves was consistent with bilateral leukaemic peri-optic nerve infiltration. The appearances returned to normal after chemotherapy. Conclusion. The optic nerves are a potential site of relapse in patients with systemic and meningeal ALL, even in the absence of ophthalmological signs. (orig.)

  20. MRI of the optic nerve in benign intracranial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, A.; Barker, G.J.; Riordan-Eva, P.; MacManus, D.; Sanders, M.; Tofts, P.S.; McDonald, W.I.; Moseley, I.F.; Miller, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the MRI appearance of the optic nerve and its cerebrospinal-fluid-containing sheath in 17 patients with benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) and 15 normal controls. Using phased-array local coils, 3-mm coronal T2-weighted fat-suppressed fast spin-echo images were obtained with an in-plane resolution of < 0.39 mm. The optic nerve and its sheath were clearly differentiated. An enlarged, elongated subarachnoid space around the optic nerve was demonstrated in patients with BIH. High-resolution MRI of the optic nerve offers additional information which may be of value for diagnosis and in planning and monitoring treatment. (orig.). With 5 figs

  1. Optic nerve head pit-associated maculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán Sainz, Raisa Ivis; Hernández Baguer, Raisa; Gonzales Díaz, Rafael Ernesto; Hernández Martínez, Rocío; Galindo Reimond, Kenia

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was made to expand knowledge on the optic nerve head pit-related maculopathy, its physiopathology and main manifestations, clinical and angiographic diagnosis, optical coherence tomography, and to describe some of the treatments recently used worldwide. The current therapeutic tendencies were taken into account. The fundamental sources of information were scientific articles from journals in PubMED and Cochrane databases as well as basic texts which dealt with this topic in the last five years through Google search engine. Despite the rare occurrence of the disease, its management may be difficult particularly in macular effect cases. This paper confirmed that most of the studies used small samples, were retrospective, non-comparative and non-randomized. However, some therapeutic modalities were found, which have been used for years and also descriptions of new techniques that require further research. There is no consensus on the ideal treatment protocol for this disease. (author)

  2. Optic nerve histopathology in a case of Wolfram Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Pan, Billy X; Silva, Ruwan A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in Wolfram Syndrome (WS) is controversial and optic neuropathy, a cardinal clinical manifestation, is poorly characterized. We here describe the histopathological features in postmortem retinas and optic nerves (ONs) from one patient with WS, testing the hypothesis...

  3. A rare case of bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somen Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old female presented with gradual, painless, progressive diminution of vision, and progressive proptosis of left eye since 7 years. Ophthalmological examination revealed mild proptosis and total optic atrophy in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT brain with orbit showed bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM involving the intracranial, intracanalicular, intraorbital part of the optic nerve extending up to optic chiasma and left cavernous sinus.

  4. Farris-Tang retractor in optic nerve sheath decompression surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Jennifer A; Sokol, Jason A; Whittaker, Thomas J; Bernard, Benjamin; Farris, Bradley K

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose is to introduce the use of the Farris-Tang retractor in optic nerve sheath decompression surgery. The procedure of optic nerve sheath fenestration was reviewed at our tertiary care teaching hospital, including the use of the Farris-Tang retractor. Pseudotumor cerebri is a syndrome of increased intracranial pressure without a clear cause. Surgical treatment can be effective in cases in which medical therapy has failed and disc swelling with visual field loss progresses. Optic nerve sheath decompression surgery (ONDS) involves cutting slits or windows in the optic nerve sheath to allow cerebrospinal fluid to escape, reducing the pressure around the optic nerve. We introduce the Farris-Tang retractor, a retractor that allows for excellent visualization of the optic nerve sheath during this surgery, facilitating the fenestration of the sheath and visualization of the subsequent cerebrospinal fluid egress. Utilizing a medial conjunctival approach, the Farris-Tang retractor allows for easy retraction of the medial orbital tissue and reduces the incidence of orbital fat protrusion through Tenon's capsule. The Farris-Tang retractor allows safe, easy, and effective access to the optic nerve with good visualization in optic nerve sheath decompression surgery. This, in turn, allows for greater surgical efficiency and positive patient outcomes.

  5. Optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitchian, Shahab

    Preservation of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery is critical in preserving a man's ability to have spontaneous erections following surgery. These microscopic nerves course along the surface of the prostate within a few millimeters of the prostate capsule, and they vary in size and location from one patient to another, making preservation of the nerves difficult during dissection and removal of a cancerous prostate gland. These observations may explain in part the wide variability in reported sexual potency rates (9--86%) following prostate cancer surgery. Any technology capable of providing improved identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery would be of great assistance in improving sexual function after surgery, and result in direct patient benefit. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique capable of performing high-resolution cross-sectional in vivo and in situ imaging of microstructures in biological tissues. OCT imaging of the cavernous nerves in the rat and human prostate has recently been demonstrated. However, improvements in the OCT system and the quality of the images for identification of the cavernous nerves is necessary before clinical use. The following chapters describe complementary approaches to improving identification and imaging of the cavernous nerves during OCT of the prostate gland. After the introduction to OCT imaging of the prostate gland, the optimal wavelength for deep imaging of the prostate is studied in Chapter 2. An oblique-incidence single point measurement technique using a normal-detector scanning system was implemented to determine the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, mua and m's , of fresh canine prostate tissue, ex vivo, from the diffuse reflectance profile of near-IR light as a function of source-detector distance. The effective attenuation coefficient, mueff, and the Optical Penetration Depth (OPD) were

  6. Effect of diabetic retinopathy and panretinal photocoagulation on retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Michele C; Tanimoto, Suzana A; Furlani, Bruno A; Lum, Brent; Pinto, Luciano M; Eliason, David; Prata, Tiago S; Brandt, James D; Morse, Lawrence S; Park, Susanna S; Melo, Luiz A S

    2009-07-01

    To determine if panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) alters retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve appearance. Patients with diabetes who did and did not undergo PRP and nondiabetic control subjects were enrolled in a prospective study. Participants underwent optical coherence tomography of the peripapillary retina and optic nerve. Stereoscopic optic nerve photographs were graded in a masked fashion. Ninety-four eyes of 48 healthy individuals, 89 eyes of 55 diabetic patients who did not undergo PRP, and 37 eyes of 24 subjects with diabetes who underwent PRP were included in this study. Eyes that had been treated with PRP had thinner peripapillary RNFL compared with the other groups; this was statistically significantly different in the inferior (P = .004) and nasal (P = .003) regions. Optic nerve cupping did not increase with severity of disease classification, but the proportion of optic nerves graded as suspicious for glaucoma or as having nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy did (P = .008). These grading categories were associated with thinner RNFL measurements. Diabetic eyes that have been treated with PRP have thinner RNFL than nondiabetic eyes. Optic nerves in eyes treated with PRP are more likely to be graded as abnormal, but their appearance is not necessarily glaucomatous and may be related to thinning of the RNFL.

  7. Neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring during an optic nerve schwannoma removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Daniel; Escanio Cortés, Manuel; Tena-Suck, Martha; Orozco Garduño, Adolfo Josué; López Pizano, Jesús Alejandro; Villanueva Domínguez, Jonathan; Fernández Gónzalez-Aragón, Maricarmen; Gómez-Amador, Juan Luis

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports the case of a patient with optic nerve schwannoma and the first use of neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potentials during the removal of such tumor with no postoperative visual damage. Schwannomas are benign neoplasms of the peripheral nervous system arising from the neural crest-derived Schwann cells, these tumors are rarely located in the optic nerve and the treatment consists on surgical removal leading to high risk of damage to the visual pathway. Case report of a thirty-year-old woman with an optic nerve schwannoma. The patient underwent surgery for tumor removal on the left optic nerve through a left orbitozygomatic approach with intraoperative monitoring of left II and III cranial nerves. We used Nicolet Endeavour CR IOM (Carefusion, Middleton WI, USA) to performed visual evoked potentials stimulating binocularly with LED flash goggles with the patient´s eyes closed and direct epidural optic nerve stimulation delivering rostral to the tumor a rectangular current pulse. At follow up examinations 7 months later, the left eye visual acuity was 20/60; Ishihara score was 8/8 in both eyes; the right eye photomotor reflex was normal and left eye was mydriatic and arreflectic; optokinetic reflex and ocular conjugate movements were normal. In this case, the epidural direct electrical stimulation of optic nerve provided stable waveforms during optic nerve schwannoma resection without visual loss.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in optic nerve lesions with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo; Kakisu, Yonetsugu; Adachi, Emiko

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the optic nerve was performed in 10 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) pulse sequences, and the results were compared with the visual evoked potentials (VEP). The 10 patients had optic neuritis in the chronic or remitting phase together with additional symptoms or signs allowing a diagnosis of clinically definite or probable MS. Sixteen optic nerves were clinically affected and 4 were unaffected. MRI was performed using a 0.5 tesla supeconducting unit, and multiple continuous 5 mm coronal and axial STIR images were obtained. A lesion was judged to be present if a focal or diffuse area of increased signal intensity was detectd in the optic nerve. In VEP, a delay in peak latency or no P 100 component was judged to be abnormal. With regard to the clinically affected optic nerves, MRI revealed a region of increased signal intensity in 14/16 (88%) and the VEP was abnormal in 16/16 (100%). In the clinically unaffected optic nerves, MRI revealed an increased signal intensity in 2/4 (50%). One of these nerves had an abnormal VEP and the other had a VEP latency at the upper limit of normal. The VEP was abnormal in 1/4 (25%). In the clinically affected optic nerves, the degree of loss of visual acuity was not associated with the longitudinal extent of the lesions shown by MRI. The mean length was 17.5 mm in optic nerves with a slight disturbance of visual acuity and 15.0 mm in nerves with severe visual loss. MRI using STIR pulse sequences was found to be almost as sensitive as VEP in detecting both clinically affected and unaffected optic nerve lesions in patients with MS, and was useful in visualizing the location or size of the lesions. (author)

  9. Optic Nerve Assessment Using 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun D; Platt, Sean M; Lystad, Lisa; Lowe, Mark; Oh, Sehong; Jones, Stephen E; Alzahrani, Yahya; Plesec, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histologic findings in a case of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma with clinical evidence of optic nerve invasion. With institutional review board approval, an enucleated globe with choroidal melanoma and optic nerve invasion was imaged using a 7-tesla MRI followed by histopathologic evaluation. Optical coherence tomography, B-scan ultrasonography, and 1.5-tesla MRI of the orbit (1-mm sections) could not detect optic disc invasion. Ex vivo, 7-tesla MRI detected optic nerve invasion, which correlated with histopathologic features. Our case demonstrates the potential to document the existence of optic nerve invasion in the presence of an intraocular tumor, a feature that has a major bearing on decision making, particularly for consideration of enucleation.

  10. Evolution of optic nerve photography for glaucoma screening: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jonathan S; Fudemberg, Scott J; Lee, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Visual evaluation of the optic nerve has been one of the earliest and most widely used methods to evaluate patients for glaucoma. Photography has proven very useful for documentation of the nerve's appearance at a given time, allowing more detailed scrutiny then, and later comparison for change. Photography serves as the basis for real-time or non-simultaneous review in telemedicine and screening events allowing fundus and optic nerve evaluation by experts elsewhere. Expert evaluation of disc photographs has shown diagnostic performance similar to other methods of optic nerve evaluation for glaucoma. Newer technology has made optic nerve photography simpler, cheaper and more portable creating opportunities for broader utilization in screening in underserved populations by non-physicians. Recent investigations suggest that non-physicians or software algorithms for disc photograph evaluation have promise to allow more screening to be done with fewer experts. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. Endoscopic optic nerve decompression for nontraumatic compressive optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-long REN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe the preliminary experience with endoscopic optic nerve decompression (EOND for nontraumatic compressive optic neuropathies (NCONs. Methods The clinical data of 10 patients, male 5 and female 5, with a mean age of 44.3±5.1 years, who underwent EOND for visual loss (n=5 or visual deterioration (n=5 due to tumor compression in General Hospital of Armed Police Forces of China in the period from April 2013 to April 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Preoperative and 6-month-postoperative clinical and imaging data of these patients were reviewed and analyzed. Results Among 5 patients who lost light perception (including 2 patients with bilateral optic nerve compression before operation, 4 of them showed visual improvement to different degrees on the 7th day after operation (with improvement of bilateral visual acuity. The other 5 patients with visual impairment before operation recovered their visual acuity to different extent after the operation. All of the patients had no obvious post-operative complications. Conclusion EOND is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive surgical technique affording recovery of visual function to NCON patients. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.12

  12. Trabeculectomy and optic nerve head topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paranhos Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in optic nerve head parameters, measured by confocal laser tomography, before and after trabeculectomy in order to identify outcome measures for the management of glaucoma. The optic nerve head of 22 eyes (22 patients was analyzed by confocal laser tomography with the Heidelberg retinal tomogram (HRT before and after trabeculectomy. The median time between the first HRT and surgery was 4.6 months (mean: 7.7 ± 8.3 and the median time between surgery and the second HRT was 10.8 months (mean: 12.0 ± 6.8. The patients were divided into two groups, i.e., those with the highest (group A and lowest (group B intraocular pressure (IOP change after surgery. Differences in the 12 standard topographic parameters before and after surgery for each group were evaluated by the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the differences in these parameters between the two groups were compared by the Mann-Whitney rank sum test. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of the change in IOP (deltaIOP and deltaIOP% and the changes in the other parameters. There were significant differences in the HRT measures before and after surgery in group A only for cup volume. In group B, no parameter was statistically different. The changes in group A were not significantly different than those in group B for any parameter (P > 0.004, Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. deltaIOP and deltaIOP% had a statistically significant effect on delta cup disk area, delta cup volume and delta mean cup depth. Changes in cup shape size were influenced significantly only by deltaIOP. Some optic disc parameters measured by HRT presented a significant improvement after filtering surgery, depending on the amount of IOP reduction. Long-term studies are needed to determine the usefulness of these findings as outcome measures in the management of glaucoma.

  13. Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field pretreated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the regeneration of crush-injured rat mental nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, NaRi; Lee, Sung-Ho; Ju, Kyung Won; Woo, JaeMan; Kim, BongJu; Kim, SoungMin; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments. In in vitro experiments, quantitative DNA analysis was performed to determine the proliferation of BMSCs, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect S100 (Schwann cell marker), glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor (neurotrophic factors) mRNA expression. In the in vivo experiments, rat models of crush-injured mental nerve established using clamp method were randomly injected with low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs, unpretreated BMSCs or PBS at the injury site (1 × 10 6 cells). DiI-labeled BMSCs injected at the injury site were counted under the fluorescence microscope to determine cell survival. One or two weeks after cell injection, functional recovery of the injured nerve was assessed using the sensory test with von Frey filaments. Two weeks after cell injection, axonal regeneration was evaluated using histomorphometric analysis and retrograde labeling of trigeminal ganglion neurons. In vitro experiment results revealed that low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs proliferated faster and had greater mRNA expression of growth factors than unpretreated BMSCs. In vivo experiment results revealed that compared with injection of unpretreated BMSCs, injection of low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs led to higher myelinated axon count and axon density and

  14. Balance and coordination training, but not endurance training, enhances synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Leandro Viçosa; Ilha, Jocemar; Schneider, Ana Paula Krauthein; Barbosa, Silvia; Faccioni-Heuser, Maria Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Numerous rehabilitation treatments have been shown to be useful for peripheral and central restoration after (PNI). After sciatic nerve crush, we investigated 4 weeks of endurance training (ET) and balance and coordination training (BCT) with sciatic function index, hind-paw stride length, and spinal cord dorsal horn synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity. Our results demonstrated no significant differences between the non-trained (NT), ET, and BCT groups in sciatic functional index, and in stride-length analysis, but the ET showed higher values compared with the NT group. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was higher in the BCT group compared with the NT group, and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the BCT group was greater compared with the other groups. BCT can positively affect spinal cord plasticity after a (PNI), and these modifications are important in the rehabilitation process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Relationship Between Optic Nerve Appearance and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness as Explored with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Tomas S.; Huang, Jiayan; Garrity, Sean T.; Carter, Stuart B.; Aleman, Wendy D.; Ying, Gui-shuang; Tamhankar, Madhura A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the relationship between the appearance of the optic nerve and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Records from patients with spectral domain-OCT imaging in a neuro-ophthalmology practice were reviewed. Eyes with glaucoma/glaucoma suspicion, macular/optic nerve edema, pseudophakia, and with refractive errors > 6D were excluded. Optic nerve appearance by slit lamp biomicroscopy was related to the RNFL thickness by spectral domain-OCT and to visual field results. Results Ninety-one patients (176 eyes; mean age: 49 ± 15 years) were included. Eighty-three eyes (47%) showed optic nerve pallor; 89 eyes (50.6%) showed RNFL thinning (sectoral or average peripapillary). Average peripapillary RNFL thickness in eyes with pallor (mean ± SD = 76 ± 17 μm) was thinner compared to eyes without pallor (91 ± 14 μm, P < 0.001). Optic nerve pallor predicted RNFL thinning with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 75%. Optic nerve appearance predicted RNFL thinning (with a sensitivity and specificity of 81%) when RNFL had thinned by ∼ 40%. Most patients with pallor had RNFL thinning with (66%) or without (25%) visual field loss; the remainder had normal RNFL and fields (5%) or with visual field abnormalities (4%). Conclusions Optic nerve pallor as a predictor of RNFL thinning showed fair sensitivity and specificity, although it is optimally sensitive/specific only when substantial RNFL loss has occurred. Translational Relevance Finding an acceptable relationship between the optic nerve appearance by ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain-OCT RNFL measures will help the clinician's interpretation of the information provided by this technology, which is gaining momentum in neuro-ophthalmic research. PMID:25374773

  16. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in optic nerve and brain integration centers of adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after optic nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushchina, Evgeniya V.; Shukla, Sachin; Varaksin, Anatoly A.; Obukhov, Dmitry K.

    2016-01-01

    Fishes have remarkable ability to effectively rebuild the structure of nerve cells and nerve fibers after central nervous system injury. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In order to address this issue, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis of cells in contralateral and ipsilateral optic nerves, after stab wound injury to the eye of an adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Heterogenous population of proliferating cells was investigated at 1 week after injury. TUNEL labeling gave a qualitative and quantitative assessment of apoptosis in the cells of optic nerve of trout 2 days after injury. After optic nerve injury, apoptotic response was investigated, and mass patterns of cell migration were found. The maximal concentration of apoptotic bodies was detected in the areas of mass clumps of cells. It is probably indicative of massive cell death in the area of high phagocytic activity of macrophages/microglia. At 1 week after optic nerve injury, we observed nerve cell proliferation in the trout brain integration centers: the cerebellum and the optic tectum. In the optic tectum, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunopositive radial glia-like cells were identified. Proliferative activity of nerve cells was detected in the dorsal proliferative (matrix) area of the cerebellum and in parenchymal cells of the molecular and granular layers whereas local clusters of undifferentiated cells which formed neurogenic niches were observed in both the optic tectum and cerebellum after optic nerve injury. In vitro analysis of brain cells of trout showed that suspension cells compared with monolayer cells retain higher proliferative activity, as evidenced by PCNA immunolabeling. Phase contrast observation showed mitosis in individual cells and the formation of neurospheres which gradually increased during 1–4 days of culture. The present findings suggest that trout can be used as a novel model for studying neuronal regeneration. PMID:27212918

  17. Proposed method of producing large optical mirrors Single-point diamond crushing followed by polishing with a small-area tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G.; Bryan, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Faster production of large optical mirrors may result from combining single-point diamond crushing of the glass with polishing using a small area tool to smooth the surface and remove the damaged layer. Diamond crushing allows a surface contour accurate to 0.5 microns to be generated, and the small area computer-controlled polishing tool allows the surface roughness to be removed without destroying the initial contour. Final contours with an accuracy of 0.04 microns have been achieved.

  18. Bilateral optical nerve atrophy secondary to lateral occipital lobe infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junfeng; Wei, Shihui

    2013-06-01

    To report a phenomenon of optical nerve atrophy secondary to lateral occipital lobe infarction. Two successive patients with unilateral occipital lobe infarction who experienced bilateral optical nerve atrophy during the follow-up underwent cranial imaging, fundus photography, and campimetry. Each patient was diagnosed with occipital lobe infarction by cranial MRI. During the follow-up, a bilateral optic atrophy was revealed, and campimetry showed a right homonymous hemianopia of both eyes with concomitant macular division. Bilateral optic atrophy was related to occipital lobe infarction, and a possible explanation for the atrophy was transneuronal degeneration caused by occipital lobe infarction.

  19. CT evaluation of optic nerve compression in thyroid eye disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, L.; Giatt, H.J.; Burde, R.M.; Gado, M.

    1986-01-01

    In thyroid eye disease, visual loss due to optic nerve compression by enlarged muscles near the orbital apex requires prompt surgical decompression and must be differentiated from visual loss due to other mechanisms. Seventy-two high-resolution orbital CT scans of patients with thyroid eye disease were analyzed. From a coronal reconstruction, an easily measured ''apical index'' was determined. Average apical indices for orbits without optic neuropathy (41.0%) and with optic neuropathy (70.2%) were significantly different (P < .001). With the aid of the apical index, CT findings can be used to predict which patients with thyroid eye disease have optic nerve compression

  20. Morphometric analysis of the fascicular organisation of the optic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radunović Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The optic nerve is anatomically observed in four segments: intrabulbar, orbital, canalicular, and cranial. According to the literature, the surface of the transversal cut of the nerve is different through it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fascicular organisation of the optic nerve, throughout its three segments from the eye. Methods. Five pairs of optic nerves, obtained from the autopsies were examined. Using Heidenhain's (azan staining, the cuts were prepared for microscopy. Morphometric analysis was performed using the stereological methods for morphometric cytology - the Weible’s testing system M42. The following measures were established: the surface of the transverse cut of the nerve, the entire surface of fasciculi, the entire surface of connective tissue and blood vessels, the number of fasciculi, the surface of a single fasciculus. Results. The surface of the transverse cut of the nerve was found to grow from the orbital to the cranial segment, as well as the entire surface of fasciculi. While their number is significantly lower in the cranial segment, the number of fasciculi varied slightly between the orbital and the canalicular segment. The surface of a single fasciculus grows from the bulb to the chiasma. There is probable a cause to believe that this may be due to fusion of the “small” fasciculi in the orbitocranial direction. Conclusion. There are significant differences among the examined parameters of the different parts of the optic nerve.

  1. Assessment of nerve ultrastructure by fibre-optic confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushway, T R; Lanzetta, M; Cox, G; Trickett, R; Owen, E R

    1996-01-01

    Fibre-optic technology combined with confocality produces a microscope capable of optical thin sectioning. In this original study, tibial nerves have been stained in a rat model with a vital dye, 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide, and analysed by fibre-optic confocal microscopy to produce detailed images of nerve ultrastructure. Schwann cells, nodes of Ranvier and longitudinal myelinated sheaths enclosing axons were clearly visible. Single axons appeared as brightly staining longitudinal structures. This allowed easy tracing of multiple signal axons within the nerve tissue. An accurate measurement of internodal lengths was easily accomplished. This technique is comparable to current histological techniques, but does not require biopsy, thin sectioning or tissue fixing. This study offers a standard for further in vivo microscopy, including the possibility of monitoring the progression of nerve regeneration following microsurgical neurorraphy.

  2. Supraorbital keyhole surgery for optic nerve decompression and dura repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Ju, Da-Tong; Liu, Ming-Ying; Chen, Guann-Juh

    2004-07-01

    Supraorbital keyhole surgery is a limited surgical procedure with reduced traumatic manipulation of tissue and entailing little time in the opening and closing of wounds. We utilized the approach to treat head injury patients complicated with optic nerve compression and cerebrospinal fluid leakage (CSF). Eleven cases of basal skull fracture complicated with either optic nerve compression and/or CSF leakage were surgically treated at our department from February 1995 to June 1999. Six cases had primary optic nerve compression, four had CSF leakage and one case involved both injuries. Supraorbital craniotomy was carried out using a keyhole-sized burr hole plus a small craniotomy. The size of craniotomy approximated 2 x 3 cm2. The optic nerve was decompressed via removal of the optic canal roof and anterior clinoid process with high-speed drills. The defect of dura was repaired with two pieces of tensa fascia lata that were attached on both sides of the torn dural defect with tissue glue. Seven cases with optic nerve injury included five cases of total blindness and two cases of light perception before operation. Vision improved in four cases. The CSF leakage was stopped successfully in all four cases without complication. As optic nerve compression and CSF leakage are skull base lesions, the supraorbital keyhole surgery constitutes a suitable approach. The supraorbital keyhole surgery allows for an anterior approach to the skull base. This approach also allows the treatment of both CSF leakage and optic nerve compression. Our results indicate that supraorbital keyhole operation is a safe and effective method for preserving or improving vision and attenuating CSF leakage following injury.

  3. Anatomical relationship between the optic nerve and posterior paranasal sinuses on ostiomeatal unit CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, June Il; Kim, Hong In; Seol, Hae Young; Lee, Nam Joon; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Cha, In Ho

    1997-01-01

    To determine the anatomic variations that can lead to optic nerve damage during the sugical treatment of posterior paranasal sinus lesions two hundred optic nerves of 100 persons were examined using ostiomeatal unit CT(OMU CT). The anatomical features of this nerve and posterior paranasal sinuses were classified into four types:the optic nerve adjacent to the sphenoid sinus without indentation of the sinus wall (type 1);the optic nerve adjacent to the sphenoid sinus, causing indentation of the sinus wall (type 2);the optic nerve passing through the sphenoid sinus (type 3);and the optic nerve adjacent to the sphenoid sinus and posterior ethmoid sinus (type 4). Bony dehiscence around the optic nerve and pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process were also evaluated. The anatomical classification of the optic nerve and posterior paranasal sinuses was as follows:type 1, 1326(66%); type 2, 60(30%); type 3, 6(3%), and type 4, 2(1%). Bony dehiscence around the optic nerve had developed in 58 cases (29%) and pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process in 13(6.5%). These conditions were most common in type 3 optic nerve, and second most common in type 2. The 2 and 3 optic nerves, bony dehiscence around the optic nerve and pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process are the anatomic variations that can lead to optic nerve damage during the surgical treatment of posterior paranasal sinus lesions. To prevent optic nerve damage, these factors should be carefully evaluated by OMU CT

  4. Congenital pits of the optic nerve head and retinochoroidal colobomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G C; Augsburger, J J

    1980-07-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with bilateral retinochoroidal colobomas associated with an inferonasal congenital pit of the optic nerve head in each eye. Different theories on the origin of such pits are discussed. This case supports the theory that some congenital optic pits occur as a result of failure of closure of the superior end of the embryonic fissure.

  5. Time course Analysis of Gene expression patterns in ZebrafIsh Eye during Optic Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy T. Mccurley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that neurons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS are terminally differentiated and, if injured, will be unable to regenerate their connections. In contrast to mammals, zebrafish and other teleosts display a robust neuroregenerative response. Following optic nerve crush (ONX, retinal ganglion cells (RGC regrow their axons to synapse with topographically correct targets in the optic tectum, such that vision is restored in ~21 days. What accounts for these differences between teleostean and mammalian responses to neural injury is not fully understood. A time course analysis of global gene expression patterns in the zebrafish eye after ONX can help to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to a successful neuroregeneration. To define different phases of regeneration after ONX, alpha tubulin 1 ( tuba1 and growth-associated protein 43 ( gap43 , markers previously shown to correspond to morphophological events, were measured by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR. Microarray analysis was then performed at defined intervals (6 hours, 1, 4, 12, and 21 days post-ONX and compared to SHAM. Results show that optic nerve damage induces multiple, phase-related transcriptional programs, with the maximum number of genes changed and highest fold-change occurring at 4 days. Several functional groups affected by optic nerve regeneration, including cell adhesion, apoptosis, cell cycle, energy metabolism, ion channel activity, and calcium signaling, were identified. Utilizing the whole eye allowed us to identify signaling contributions from the vitreous, immune and glial cells as well as the neural cells of the retina. Comparisons between our dataset and transcriptional profiles from other models of regeneration in zebrafish retina, heart and fin revealed a subset of commonly regulated transcripts, indicating shared mechanisms in different regenerating tissues. Knowledge of gene expression patterns in all

  6. Glaucoma severity affects diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the optic nerve and optic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidek, S. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Medical Imaging Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor (Malaysia); Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Ramli, N.M.; Abdulrahman, F. [Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tan, L.K. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate whether MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the optic nerve and optic radiation in glaucoma patients provides parameters to discriminate between mild and severe glaucoma and to determine whether DTI derived indices correlate with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness. Methods: 3-Tesla DTI was performed on 90 subjects (30 normal, 30 mild glaucoma and 30 severe glaucoma subjects) and the FA and MD of the optic nerve and optic radiation were measured. The categorisation into mild and severe glaucoma was done using the Hodapp–Parrish–Anderson (HPA) classification. RNFL thickness was also assessed on all subjects using OCT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient was carried out. Results: FA and MD values in the optic nerve and optic radiation decreased and increased respectively as the disease progressed. FA at the optic nerve had the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (80%). FA values displayed the strongest correlation with RNFL thickness in the optic nerve (r = 0.684, p ≤ 0.001) while MD at the optic radiation showed the weakest correlation with RNFL thickness (r = −0.360, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: The high sensitivity and specificity of DTI-derived FA values in the optic nerve and the strong correlation between DTI-FA and RNFL thickness suggest that these parameters could serve as indicators of disease severity.

  7. Glaucoma severity affects diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the optic nerve and optic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, S.; Ramli, N.; Rahmat, K.; Ramli, N.M.; Abdulrahman, F.; Tan, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the optic nerve and optic radiation in glaucoma patients provides parameters to discriminate between mild and severe glaucoma and to determine whether DTI derived indices correlate with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness. Methods: 3-Tesla DTI was performed on 90 subjects (30 normal, 30 mild glaucoma and 30 severe glaucoma subjects) and the FA and MD of the optic nerve and optic radiation were measured. The categorisation into mild and severe glaucoma was done using the Hodapp–Parrish–Anderson (HPA) classification. RNFL thickness was also assessed on all subjects using OCT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient was carried out. Results: FA and MD values in the optic nerve and optic radiation decreased and increased respectively as the disease progressed. FA at the optic nerve had the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (80%). FA values displayed the strongest correlation with RNFL thickness in the optic nerve (r = 0.684, p ≤ 0.001) while MD at the optic radiation showed the weakest correlation with RNFL thickness (r = −0.360, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: The high sensitivity and specificity of DTI-derived FA values in the optic nerve and the strong correlation between DTI-FA and RNFL thickness suggest that these parameters could serve as indicators of disease severity

  8. Optic Nerve Injury in a Patient with Chronic Allergic Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribhi Hazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of the optic nerve can lead to irreversible vision changes. We present a patient with a past medical history of skin allergy and allergic conjunctivitis (AC who presented with insidious unexplained unilateral vision loss. Physical exam revealed significant blepharospasm, mild lid edema, bulbar conjunctival hyperemia, afferent pupillary defect, and slight papillary hypertrophy. Slit lamp examination demonstrated superior and inferior conjunctival scarring as well as superior corneal scarring but no signs of external trauma or neurological damage were noted. Conjunctival cultures and cytologic evaluation demonstrated significant eosinophilic infiltration. Subsequent ophthalmoscopic examination revealed optic nerve atrophy. Upon further questioning, the patient admitted to vigorous itching of the affected eye for many months. Given the presenting symptoms, history, and negative ophthalmological workup, it was determined that the optic nerve atrophy was likely secondary to digital pressure from vigorous itching. Although AC can be a significant source of decreased vision via corneal ulceration, no reported cases have ever described AC-induced vision loss of this degree from vigorous itching and chronic pressure leading to optic nerve damage. Despite being self-limiting in nature, allergic conjunctivitis should be properly managed as extreme cases can result in mechanical compression of the optic nerve and compromise vision.

  9. Optic nerve injury demonstrated by MRI with STIR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehara, S.; Tanaka, T.; Uemura, K.; Shinohara, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokuyama, T.; Satoh, A.

    1994-01-01

    We studied nine patients with optic nerve injury associated with closed head trauma by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences on 11 occasions from 4 days to 14 years after the injury: three studies were within 17 days and eight over 4 months to 14 years. MRI revealed abnormal high signal in 10 of the 11 injured nerves. MRI 4 days after the injury showed no abnormality. (orig.)

  10. Blunt Facial Trauma Causing Isolated Optic Nerve Hematoma

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    R. Parab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic optic neuropathy is an uncommon, yet serious, result of facial trauma. The authors present a novel case of a 59-year-old gentleman who presented with an isolated blunt traumatic left optic nerve hematoma causing vision loss. There were no other injuries or fractures to report. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of this rare injury and reviews the current literature and management of traumatic optic neuropathy.

  11. Computed tomography in orbital fractures and optic nerve trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, U.; Sievers, K.; Feldges, A.; Nau, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ten patients with orbital fractures and optic nerve trauma are reported. Fractures of the optic canal could be demonstrated by computed tomography in six cases and fractures of the orbital apex in another three cases. Surgical decompression of the optic canal was performed in seven cases. Computed tomography enhanced decision for surgery in cases of intraorbital haematoma with exophthalmus and narrowing of the canal by bony fragments, especially in those patients presenting with incomplete or progressive visual disturbance. (orig.) [de

  12. Optic nerve pH and PO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Daniella B; Stefánsson, Einar; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2006-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) increase optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. We hypothesized that the mechanism of this effect was either a CO(2) increase or a pH decrease in tissue and blood. To test this hypothesis we investigated and compared...... how optic nerve pH (ONpH) and ONPO(2) are affected by: (1) carbonic anhydrase inhibition; (2) respiratory acidosis, and (3) metabolic acidosis. We measured ONpH with a glass pH electrode and ONPO(2) with a polarographic oxygen electrode. One of the electrodes was placed in the vitreous cavity 0.5 mm...... over the optic nerve in the eyes of domestic pigs....

  13. Crush Grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Crush Grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. In this process, a precise profile of the desired product is formed on a tungsten carbide roll. This roll slowly transfers a mirror image of the profile onto the grinding surface of a wheel. The transfer rate of the profile is between 0.001 and 0.010 inches per minute. Crush grinding is desirable since it provides consistent surface finishes and thin walls at a high production rate. In addition, it generates very sharp fillet radii. However, crush grinding is a complex process since many variables affect the final product. Therefore, the process requires more attention and knowledge beyond basic metal removal practices. While the Kansas City Plant began using these machines in 1995, a formal study regarding crush grinding has not been conducted there. In addition, very little literature is available in the grinding industry regarding this process. As a result, new engineers at the Kansas City Plant must learn the process through trial and error. The purpose of this document is to address this literature deficit while specifically promoting a better understanding of the stem crush grinding process at the Kansas City Plant.

  14. Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a surgical tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Teudt, Ingo Ulrik; Nevel, Adam E.; Izzo, Agnella D.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2008-02-01

    One sequela of skull base surgery is the iatrogenic damage to cranial nerves. Devices that stimulate nerves with electric current can assist in the nerve identification. Contemporary devices have two main limitations: (1) the physical contact of the stimulating electrode and (2) the spread of the current through the tissue. In contrast to electrical stimulation, pulsed infrared optical radiation can be used to safely and selectively stimulate neural tissue. Stimulation and screening of the nerve is possible without making physical contact. The gerbil facial nerve was irradiated with 250-μs-long pulses of 2.12 μm radiation delivered via a 600-μm-diameter optical fiber at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. Muscle action potentials were recorded with intradermal electrodes. Nerve samples were examined for possible tissue damage. Eight facial nerves were stimulated with radiant exposures between 0.71-1.77 J/cm2, resulting in compound muscle action potentials (CmAPs) that were simultaneously measured at the m. orbicularis oculi, m. levator nasolabialis, and m. orbicularis oris. Resulting CmAP amplitudes were 0.3-0.4 mV, 0.15-1.4 mV and 0.3-2.3 mV, respectively, depending on the radial location of the optical fiber and the radiant exposure. Individual nerve branches were also stimulated, resulting in CmAP amplitudes between 0.2 and 1.6 mV. Histology revealed tissue damage at radiant exposures of 2.2 J/cm2, but no apparent damage at radiant exposures of 2.0 J/cm2.

  15. Optic nerve pH and PO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Daniella B; Stefánsson, Einar; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2006-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) increase optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. We hypothesized that the mechanism of this effect was either a CO(2) increase or a pH decrease in tissue and blood. To test this hypothesis we investigated and compared...... how optic nerve pH (ONpH) and ONPO(2) are affected by: (1) carbonic anhydrase inhibition; (2) respiratory acidosis, and (3) metabolic acidosis. We measured ONpH with a glass pH electrode and ONPO(2) with a polarographic oxygen electrode. One of the electrodes was placed in the vitreous cavity 0.5 mm...

  16. Microgravity-Driven Optic Nerve/Sheath Biomechanics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, A.; Myers, J. G.; Nelson, E.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.

    2016-01-01

    Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a concern for long-duration space flight. Current thinking suggests that the ocular changes observed in VIIP syndrome are related to cephalad fluid shifts resulting in altered fluid pressures [1]. In particular, we hypothesize that increased intracranial pressure (ICP) drives connective tissue remodeling of the posterior eye and optic nerve sheath (ONS). We describe here finite element (FE) modeling designed to understand how altered pressures, particularly altered ICP, affect the tissues of the posterior eye and optic nerve sheath (ONS) in VIIP. METHODS: Additional description of the modeling methodology is provided in the companion IWS abstract by Feola et al. In brief, a geometric model of the posterior eye and optic nerve, including the ONS, was created and the effects of fluid pressures on tissue deformations were simulated. We considered three ICP scenarios: an elevated ICP assumed to occur in chronic microgravity, and ICP in the upright and supine positions on earth. Within each scenario we used Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to consider a range of ICPs, ONH tissue mechanical properties, intraocular pressures (IOPs) and mean arterial pressures (MAPs). The outcome measures were biomechanical strains in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve and retina; here we focus on peak values of these strains, since elevated strain alters cell phenotype and induce tissue remodeling. In 3D, the strain field can be decomposed into three orthogonal components, denoted as first, second and third principal strains. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: For baseline material properties, increasing ICP from 0 to 20 mmHg significantly changed strains within the posterior eye and ONS (Fig. 1), indicating that elevated ICP affects ocular tissue biomechanics. Notably, strains in the lamina cribrosa and retina became less extreme as ICP increased; however, within the optic nerve, the occurrence of such extreme strains greatly increased as

  17. Determining degree of optic nerve edema from color fundus photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Jason; Wang, Jui-Kai; Kardon, Randy H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2015-03-01

    Swelling of the optic nerve head (ONH) is subjectively assessed by clinicians using the Frisén scale. It is believed that a direct measurement of the ONH volume would serve as a better representation of the swelling. However, a direct measurement requires optic nerve imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and 3D segmentation of the resulting images, which is not always available during clinical evaluation. Furthermore, telemedical imaging of the eye at remote locations is more feasible with non-mydriatic fundus cameras which are less costly than OCT imagers. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop a more quantitative analysis of optic nerve swelling on a continuous scale, similar to SD-OCT. Here, we select features from more commonly available 2D fundus images and use them to predict ONH volume. Twenty-six features were extracted from each of 48 color fundus images. The features include attributes of the blood vessels, optic nerve head, and peripapillary retina areas. These features were used in a regression analysis to predict ONH volume, as computed by a segmentation of the SD-OCT image. The results of the regression analysis yielded a mean square error of 2.43 mm3 and a correlation coefficient between computed and predicted volumes of R = 0:771, which suggests that ONH volume may be predicted from fundus features alone.

  18. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Protrusion Associated with Tilted Optic Discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jaclyn; Yapp, Michael; Ly, Angelica; Hennessy, Michael P; Kalloniatis, Michael; Zangerl, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    This study resulted in the identification of an optic nerve head (ONH) feature associated with tilted optic discs, which might potentially contribute to ONH pathologies. Knowledge of such findings will enhance clinical insights and drive future opportunities to understand disease processes related to tilted optic discs. The aim of this study was to identify novel retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) anomalies by evaluating tilted optic discs using optical coherence tomography. An observed retinal nerve fiber protrusion was further investigated for association with other morphological or functional parameters. A retrospective review of 400 randomly selected adult patients with ONH examinations was conducted in a referral-only, diagnostic imaging center. After excluding other ONH pathologies, 215 patients were enrolled and evaluated for optic disc tilt and/or torsion. Gross anatomical ONH features, including size and rim or parapapillary region elevation, were assessed with stereoscopic fundus photography. Optical coherence tomography provided detailed morphological information of individual retinal layers. Statistical analysis was applied to identify significant changes between individual patient cohorts. A dome-shaped hyperreflective RNFL bulge, protruding into the neurosensory retina at the optic disc margins, was identified in 17 eyes with tilted optic discs. Available follow-up data were inconclusive regarding natural changes with this ONH feature. This RNFL herniation was significantly correlated with smaller than average optic disc size (P = .005), congenital disc tilt (P optic discs, which has not previously been assessed as an independent ONH structure. The feature is predominantly related to congenital crowded, small optic discs and variable between patients. This study is an important first step to elucidate diagnostic capabilities of tilted disc morphological changes and understanding associated functional deficits.

  19. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Converges More Convexly on Normal Smaller Optic Nerve Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung In; Shin, Jeong Ah; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-08-01

    To investigate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) configuration in the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area according to disc size and to determine whether it explains cup discrepancy among eyes with different disc sizes. Horizontal and vertical RNFL curvature and mean thickness were measured using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph) in 63 normal subjects grouped by disc size. Average and quadrant RNFL thickness, disc size, average cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and convergence angle at the optic disc were also measured using Cirrus HD-optical coherence tomography. The relationships between disc size and RNFL curvature, thickness, angle at optic disc, and CDR were evaluated. RNFL curvature and convergence angle reflects convexity "on" and "into" the optic disc, respectively. CDR was smaller for small discs and was positively correlated with disc size (Poptic disc were positively correlated with disc size (POptic disc area was negatively correlated with mean RNFL thickness at the optic disc margin measured by HRT (P=0.002), but not in the peripapillary area by optical coherence tomography. Using imaging techniques, we demonstrated that the shape of the RNFLs converging "on" and entering "into" the optic disc was more convex for small optic discs compared with large discs. A low CDR for small discs could be mediated by these RNFL profiles at the ONH, which may guide the clinical evaluation of glaucomatous ONH damage.

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography in Optic Nerve Hypoplasia: Correlation With Optic Disc Diameter, Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness, and Visual Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John P; Baran, Francine; Phillips, James O; Weiss, Avery H

    2017-12-15

    The correlation between optic disc diameters (DDs) with average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and visual function in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) having nystagmus is unknown. Data were obtained from a retrospective review of 28 children (mean age: 9.4 years; ±5.1). Optic DD was defined as the maximal horizontal opening of Bruch membrane with spectral optical coherence tomography combined with a confocal laser ophthalmoscope. Average RNFLT was obtained from circumpapillary b-scans. RNFLT was also remeasured at eccentricities that were proportionate with DD to rule out potential sampling artifacts. Visual function was assessed by visual acuity at last follow-up and by visual evoked potentials (VEP) in 11 patients. The eye with the larger DD, which had better visual acuity, was analyzed to exclude potential effects of amblyopia. DD was correlated with average RNFLT (r = 0.61), visual acuity (r = 0.32), and VEPs (r = 0.66). The relationship between RNFLT and DD was as follows: average RNFLT (μm) = 0.074 * DD (μm) - 18.8. RNFLT also correlated with the ratio of horizontal optic DD to macula-disc-margin distance (DD:DM; r = 0.59). RNFLT measured at eccentricities proportionate with DD showed progressive decrease in thickness only for DDs <1,100 μm. All patients with DD <1,000 μm had subnormal visual acuity, whereas those with DD <1,200 μm had subnormal VEPs. DD correlates with average RNFLT and with visual function in children with ONH. Using OCT imaging, DD can be obtained in children with nystagmus and provides objective information.

  1. Establishing a cat model of acute optic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to investigate the progress in optic nerve injury and the following regeneration and repair, many kinds of animal models of optic nerve injury have been established, such as models of acute and chronic ocular hypertension, compression, amputating wound, ischemia reperfusion or hypoxia,intravitreal injection of excitatory amino acids, etc. However, most of these models are established by squeezing intraorbital optic nerve, and suitable for ophthalmology, and there are fewer models suitable for the acute cranial contusion in neurosurgery.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of optic nerve after acute injury, and the characteristics of methods for establishing model of acute optic nerve injury in cats.DESIGN: A complete randomized grouping and controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ji'nan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Twenty-eight healthy adult cats, common degree, either sex, weighing 2.0 - 3.5 kg, were provided by the animal experimental center of Fudan University. The cats were randomly divided into control group (n =3) and model group (n =25), and 5 cats in the model group were observed at 6 hours and 1,3, 7 and 14 days after injury respectively. JX-2000 biological signal processing system (Department of Physiology, Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, Shanghai); Inverted phase contrast microscope (Olympus); Axioplan 2 imaging microgram analytical system (Labsystems).METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Jinan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from June 2004 to June 2005. The cats in the model groups were made into models of acute optic nerve injury: The cats were anesthetized, then the limbs were fixed in a lateral recumbent position. Pterion approach in human was imitated, the operative incision was made along the line between lateral canthus and tragus, and it could be seen deep along the skull base that white

  2. Case Report: Bilateral iris, choroid, optic nerve colobomas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Baraitser–Winter syndrome (BRWS) is a malformation syndrome, characterized by facial dysmorphism, ocular colobomata, pachygyria, and intellectual defects. Case report: A 3.5 year old female child with BRWS has bilateral congenital ptosis, microcornea, iris, choroid, and optic nerve coloboma, retinal ...

  3. CT diagnosis of optic nerve lesions in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlova, M.; Kvicala, V.; Nevsimalova, S.; Otradovec, J.

    1985-01-01

    Computer tomography (CT) was used to examine 17 children with lesions of the optic nerve. The procedure is described of the examination of the orbit and the sellar area. CT gave a very good image of expansive processes in both areas and of associated lesions of the CNS insofar as they were based on anatomical or pathological changes. (author)

  4. Radiotherapeutic management of optic nerve gliomas in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danoff, B.F.; Kramer, S.; Thompson, N.

    1980-01-01

    Optic nerve gliomas represent one to five percent of all intracranial tumors in children. The management of these tumors remains controversial. From 1956 to 1977, 18 children with optic nerve gliomas were treated at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital using external beam radiotherapy. All children presented with decreased visual acuity and five of eighteen were blind in one eye. No patient was found to have involvement of a single optic nerve. in eight patients, the chiasm was involved, in ten patients, tumor had extended to the frontal lobes and/or hypothalamus. Initial surgical management included biopsy only in seven patients, inspection of tumor in two patients and partial excision in seven patients. Two patients were treated with radiotherapy based on radiological findings. A tumor dose of 5000 to 6000 rad was given in 5.5 to 6.5 weeks. Stabilization of visual impairment or improvement in vision was noted in 78 percent of patients who were evaluable. The ten year survival was 73 percent. Radiological evidence of tumor regression will be presented. It is our impression that radiotherapy is indicated in the treatment of children with optic nerve gliomas who have poor prognostic signs

  5. [Effectiveness of magnetotherapy in optic nerve atrophy. A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobina, L V; Orlovskaia, L S; Sokov, S L; Sabaeva, G F; Kondé, L A; Iakovlev, A A

    1990-01-01

    Magnetotherapy effects on visual functions (vision acuity and field), on retinal bioelectric activity, on conductive vision system, and on intraocular circulation were studied in 88 patients (160 eyes) with optic nerve atrophy. A Soviet Polyus-1 low-frequency magnetotherapy apparatus was employed with magnetic induction of about 10 mT, exposure 7-10 min, 10-15 sessions per course. Vision acuity of patients with its low (below 0.04 diopters) values improved in 50 percent of cases. The number of patients with vision acuity of 0.2 diopters has increased from 46 before treatment to 75. Magnetotherapy improved ocular hemodynamics in patients with optic nerve atrophy, it reduced the time of stimulation conduction along the vision routes and stimulated the retinal ganglia cells. The maximal effect was achieved after 10 magnetotherapy sessions. A repeated course carried out in 6-8 months promoted a stabilization of the process.

  6. Probabilistic Modeling of Intracranial Pressure Effects on Optic Nerve Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, Andrew J.; Raykin, Julia; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Altered intracranial pressure (ICP) is involved/implicated in several ocular conditions: papilledema, glaucoma and Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The biomechanical effects of altered ICP on optic nerve head (ONH) tissues in these conditions are uncertain but likely important. We have quantified ICP-induced deformations of ONH tissues, using finite element (FE) and probabilistic modeling (Latin Hypercube Simulations (LHS)) to consider a range of tissue properties and relevant pressures.

  7. Optic nerve infiltration by acute lymphoblastic leukemia: MRI contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Maria de Fatima; Braga, Flavio Tulio [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Paulista School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, Antonio Jose da [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Division of Diagnostic Imaging in Pediatrics, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2005-08-01

    We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that was complicated by optic nerve infiltration. The clinical and diagnostic characteristics of this complication must be recognized so that optimal therapy can be started to prevent blindness. MR imaging is useful in early detection and should be performed in any leukemic patient with ocular complaints, even during remission. (orig.)

  8. Optic nerve infiltration by acute lymphoblastic leukemia: MRI contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Maria de Fatima; Braga, Flavio Tulio; Rocha, Antonio Jose da; Lederman, Henrique Manoel

    2005-01-01

    We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that was complicated by optic nerve infiltration. The clinical and diagnostic characteristics of this complication must be recognized so that optimal therapy can be started to prevent blindness. MR imaging is useful in early detection and should be performed in any leukemic patient with ocular complaints, even during remission. (orig.)

  9. Silicone oil migration along the optic nerve after intraocular tamponade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo Vaamonde, Á; Ibáñez Muñoz, D; Salceda Artola, J; Garatea Aznar, P; Zalazar, R; Yanguas Barea, N

    2016-11-01

    We present a case of silicone oil migration trough the optic nerve in a diabetic patient with retinal detachment and review the etiologic mechanism and clinical implications. Intracranial silicone oil migration is an uncommon complication associated with silicone oil tamponade. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Tok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results: Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion: Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia.

  11. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, Levent; Tok, Ozlem Yalcin; Argun, Tugba Cakmak; Yilmaz, Omer; Gunes, Alime; Unlu, Elif Nisa; Sezer, Sezgin; Ibisoglu, Seda; Argun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia. PMID:25606034

  12. Detection of optic nerve lesions in optic neuritis using frequency-selective fat-saturation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.H.; MacManus, D.G.; Bartlett, P.A.; Kapoor, R.; Morrissey, S.P.; Moseley, I.F.

    1993-01-01

    MRI was performed on seven patients with acute optic neuritis, using two sequences which suppress the signal from orbital fat: frequency-selective fat-saturation and inversion recovery with a short inversion time. Lesions were seen on both sequences in all the symptomatic optic nerves studied. (orig.)

  13. On the CT-diagnosis of optic nerve lesions. Differential diagnostic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsoeld, R.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomograms of 166 optic nerve lesions were analyzed: 97 were mainly orbital and 69 mainly intracranial. The criteria were clinical course, size, density and delineation of the optic nerve shadow, orbital and cerebral soft tissue abnormalities, and bony changes in the optic canal. Characteristic CT features are described of individual disease entities such as optic gliomas, optic nerve sheath meningiomas, neoplastic and inflammatory infiltrations. The differential diagnostic importance of individual CT criteria is evaluated and discussed. Simultaneous visualization of orbital and intracranial soft tissue changes as well as bony changes in the optic canal allow the location and identification of the majority of optic nerve lesions based on the criteria mentioned above, and optic nerve tumors can be differentiated. In 9 patients with optic neuritis due to clinically proven encephalitis and in 17 patients with total optic atrophy, no changes in the size of the optic nerve could be found. CT evaluation of the intraorbital portion of the optic nerve requires special examination techniques. Oblique computer reformations through the optic canal provide excellent visualization of bony changes in the optic canal. The exclusion of intracranial causes of optic nerve lesions requires intravenous injection of contrast material. (orig.) [de

  14. [Gradient-index (GRIN) endoscopic examinations from the inner structures of the optic nerve meninges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Frank Michael; Killer, Hanspeter Esriel; Meyer, Peter

    2003-03-01

    Due to the excellent image quality and the small outer diameter of the GRIN-(gradient index) endoscope tips we were able to examine the subdural and the subarachnoidal space of the optic nerve meninges by endoscopy. This examination was performed to obtain more information about the inner structure of the optic nerve meninges. In this post-mortem study 7 optic nerves were examined from the chiasm to the globe by GRIN endoscopy (Volpi, Schlieren, Switzerland), with an outer diameter of 0.89 mm, integrated optic of 0.5 mm diameter and an integrated fluid channel of 0.2 mm diameter. In all cases the endoscopic examination of the optic nerve meninges was technically easy to perform. It was possible to study the inner surface of the nerve sheaths and the nerve sheath spaces in close-up. We found horizontal and vertical cords on the inner surface of the dura mater, which could tighten by movements of the optic nerve. With a gradient-index (GRIN) endoscope we obtained new information about the inner structure of the optic nerve meninges. New theories about the changes of the optic nerve meninges during movements of the optic nerve may evolve from this study. Further studies with this new method should be encouraged.

  15. Isolated optic nerve gliomas: a multicenter historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofty, Ben; Ben-Sira, Liat; Kesler, Anat; Jallo, George; Groves, Mari L; Iyer, Rajiv R; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Tabori, Uri; Bouffet, Eric; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm; Hernáiz Driever, Pablo; Constantini, Shlomi

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Isolated optic nerve gliomas (IONGs) constitute a rare subgroup of optic pathway gliomas (OPGs). Due to the rarity of this condition and the difficulty in differentiating IONGs from other types of OPGs in most clinical series, little is known about these tumors. Currently, due to lack of evidence, they are managed the same as any other OPG. METHODS The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study aimed at determining the natural history of IONGs. Included were patients with clear-cut glioma of the optic nerve without posterior (chiasmatic/hypothalamic) involvement. At least 1 year of follow-up, 2 MRI studies, and 2 neuro-ophthalmological examinations were required for inclusion. RESULTS Thirty-six patients with 39 tumors were included in this study. Age at diagnosis ranged between 6 months and 16 years (average 6 years). The mean follow-up time was 5.6 years. Twenty-five patients had neurofibromatosis Type 1. During the follow-up period, 59% of the tumors progressed, 23% remained stable, and 18% (all with neurofibromatosis Type 1) displayed some degree of spontaneous regression. Fifty-one percent of the patients presented with visual decline, of whom 90% experienced further deterioration. Nine patients were treated with chemotherapy, 5 of whom improved visually. Ten patients underwent operation, and no local or distal recurrence was noted. CONCLUSIONS Isolated optic nerve gliomas are highly dynamic tumors. Radiological progression and visual deterioration occur in greater percentages than in the general population of patients with OPGs. Response to chemotherapy may be better in this group, and its use should be considered early in the course of the disease.

  16. Age-related ultrastructural and monoamine oxidase changes in the rat optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurone, S; Ripandelli, G; Minni, A; Lattanzi, R; Miglietta, S; Pepe, N; Fumagalli, L; Micera, A; Pastore, F S; Artico, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the morphology and the distribution of the monoamine oxidase enzymatic system in the optic nerve of 4 month-old Wistar (young) and 28 month-old Wistar (old) rats. The optic nerve was harvested from 20 young and old rats. The segment of optic nerve was divided longitudinally into two pieces, each 0.1 mm in length. The first piece was used for transmission electron microscopy. The second piece was stained with histochemical reaction for monoamine oxidase. The agerelated changes in the optic nerve of rats include micro-anatomical details, ultrastructure and monoamine oxidase histochemical staining. A strong decrease of the thin nerve fibers and a swelling of the thick ones can be observed in optic nerve fibers of old rats. Increased monoamine oxidase histochemical staining of the optic nerve of aged rats is well demonstrated. The increase of meningeal shealth and the decrease of thin nerve fibers of the optic nerve in old rats are well documented. Morphological, ultrastructural and histochemical changes observed in optic nerve fibers of the old rats show a close relation with aging.

  17. Computed tomography of the optic nerve with special reference to the attenuation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Osamu; Shimooku, Masashi; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Taeko

    1980-01-01

    The value of computed tomography (CT) for ophthalmology needs no longer to be emphasized. Everything, however, has its limitations. In this article, the limitations of CT for the diagnosis of the optic nerve diameter were studied in an orbit-optic nerve model. The difference of 15 Hounsfield units between two scans which demonstrated the optic nerve having almost the same diameter, as a result of the partial volume effect, was obtained. This suggested that the attenuation values of the optic nerve are markedly influenced by the partial volume effect, and that they require further investigation for clinical use. (author)

  18. ULTRASOUND AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF OPTIC NERVE TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Saakyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive examination was made in 93 patients, including 18 children, with tumors of the optic nerve (ON. Duplex ultrasound scanning was performed in 39 patients, of them there were 11 patients with ON gliomas and 28 with ON meningiomas. The specific computed tomographic and echographic signs of ON glioma and meningiomas were detected. The studies have shown that duplex ultrasound scanning and structural computed tomography of orbital sockets are highly informative complementary imaging procedures for ON tumors, which permits one to make their correct diagnosis, to specify surgical volume, and to plan adequate treatment.

  19. [Local involvement of the optic nerve by acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardczyk-Meller, Jadwiga; Stefańska, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    The leucemias quite commonly involve the eyes and adnexa. In some cases it causes visual complants. Both, the anterior chamber of the eye and the posterior portion of the globe may sites of acute or chronic leukemia and leucemic relapse. We report an unique case of a 14 years old leucemic patient who suffered visual loss and papilloedema, due to a unilateral local involvement within optic nerve, during second relapse of acute lymphocytic leuemia. In spite of typical treatment of main disease, the boy had died. The authors present typical ophthalmic features of the leucemia, too.

  20. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head characteristics in eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunah; Jin, Sunyoung; Roh, Kyu Hwa; Hwang, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) characteristics, as determined using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), in eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc. The peripapillary RNFL and the ONH were assessed in 12 eyes belonging to 6 subjects with situs inversus of the optic disc (situs inversus group) and 24 eyes in 12 age-matched, sex-matched, and refractive error-matched healthy subjects (control group) by using OCT. The average, quadrant, and clock-hour RNFL thicknesses (clock-hour 9 on the scan represented the temporal side of the optic disc in both eyes), the superior/inferior RNFL peak locations, and ONH characteristics such as disc area, rim area, cup-to-disc ratio, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and cup volume were obtained. The differences in RNFL and ONH characteristics between the 2 groups were analyzed. The situs inversus group had a thicker RNFL in the clock-hour sectors 3 and 4, a thinner RNFL in the clock-hour sectors 7, 8, and 11, and more nasally located superior and inferior RNFL peak locations than the control group (P≤0.001). The situs inversus group had a smaller cup-to-disc area ratio, smaller vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and a lesser cup volume than the control group (Poptic disc showed different peripapillary RNFL and ONH characteristics from those without this abnormality. These findings should be considered when assessing eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc.

  1. Parallel changes in structural and functional measures of optic nerve myelination after optic neuritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke van der Walt

    Full Text Available Visual evoked potential (VEP latency prolongation and optic nerve lesion length after acute optic neuritis (ON corresponds to the degree of demyelination, while subsequent recovery of latency may represent optic nerve remyelination. We aimed to investigate the relationship between multifocal VEP (mfVEP latency and optic nerve lesion length after acute ON.Thirty acute ON patients were studied at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months using mfVEP and at 1 and 12 months with optic nerve MRI. LogMAR and low contrast visual acuity were documented. By one month, the mfVEP amplitude had recovered sufficiently for latency to be measured in 23 (76.7% patients with seven patients having no recordable mfVEP in more than 66% of segments in at least one test. Only data from these 23 patients was analysed further.Both latency and lesion length showed significant recovery during the follow-up period. Lesion length and mfVEP latency were highly correlated at 1 (r = 0.94, p = <0.0001 and 12 months (r = 0.75, p < 0.001. Both measures demonstrated a similar trend of recovery. Speed of latency recovery was faster in the early follow-up period while lesion length shortening remained relatively constant. At 1 month, latency delay was worse by 1.76 ms for additional 1mm of lesion length while at 12 months, 1mm of lesion length accounted for 1.94 ms of latency delay.A strong association between two putative measures of demyelination in early and chronic ON was found. Parallel recovery of both measures could reflect optic nerve remyelination.

  2. Optic Nerve Sheath Mechanics and Permeability in VIIP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykin, Julia; Best, Lauren; Gleason, Rudy; Mulugeta, Lealem; Myers, Jerry; Nelson, Emily; Samuels, Brian C.; Ethier, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration space flight carries the risk of developing Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, a spectrum of ophthalmic changes including posterior globe flattening, choroidal folds, distension of the optic nerve sheath (ONS), optic nerve kinking and potentially permanent degradation of visual function. The slow onset of VIIP, its chronic nature, and certain clinical features strongly suggest that biomechanical factors acting on the ONS play a role in VIIP. Here we measure several relevant ONS properties needed to model VIIP biomechanics. The ONS (meninges) of fresh porcine eyes (n7) was reflected, the nerve proper was truncated near the sclera, and the meninges were repositioned to create a hollow cylinder of meningeal connective tissue attached to the posterior sclera. The distal end was cannulated, sealed, and pressure clamped (mimicking cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] pressure), while the eye was also cannulated for independent control of intraocular pressure (IOP). The meninges were inflated (CSF pressure cycling 7-50 mmHg) while ONS outer diameter was imaged. In another set of experiments (n4), fluid permeation rate across the meninges was recorded by observing the drainage of an elevated fluid reservoir (30 mmHg) connected to the meninges. The ONS showed behavior typical of soft tissues: viscoelasticity, with hysteresis in early preconditioning cycles and repeatable behavior after 4 cycles, and nonlinear stiffening, particularly at CSF pressures 15 mmHg (Figure). Tangent moduli measured from the loading curve were 372 101, 1199 358, and 2050 379 kPa (mean SEM) at CSF pressures of 7, 15 and 30 mmHg, respectively. Flow rate measurements through the intact meninges at 30mmHg gave a permeability of 1.34 0.46 lmincm2mmHg (mean SEM). The ONS is a tough, strain-stiffening connective tissue that is surprisingly permeable. The latter observation suggests that there could be significant CSF drainage through the ONS into the orbit, likely important

  3. Biomechanics of the Optic Nerve Sheath in VIIP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. Ross; Raykin, Julia; Gleason, Rudy; Mulugeta, Lealem; Myers, Jerry; Nelson, Emily; Samuels, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration space flight carries the risk of developing Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, a spectrum of ophthalmic changes including posterior globe flattening, choroidal folds, distension of the optic nerve sheath (ONS), optic nerve kinking and potentially permanent degradation of visual function. The slow onset of VIIP, its chronic nature, and certain clinical features strongly suggest that biomechanical factors acting on the ONS play a role in VIIP. Here we measure several relevant ONS properties needed to model VIIP biomechanics. The ONS (meninges) of fresh porcine eyes (n7) was reflected, the nerve proper was truncated near the sclera, and the meninges were repositioned to create a hollow cylinder of meningeal connective tissue attached to the posterior sclera. The distal end was cannulated, sealed, and pressure clamped (mimicking cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] pressure), while the eye was also cannulated for independent control of intraocular pressure (IOP). The meninges were inflated (CSF pressure cycling 7-50 mmHg) while ONS outer diameter was imaged. In another set of experiments (n4), fluid permeation rate across the meninges was recorded by observing the drainage of an elevated fluid reservoir (30 mmHg) connected to the meninges. The ONS showed behavior typical of soft tissues: viscoelasticity, with hysteresis in early preconditioning cycles and repeatable behavior after 4 cycles, and nonlinear stiffening, particularly at CSF pressures 15 mmHg (Figure). Tangent moduli measured from the loading curve were 372 101, 1199 358, and 2050 379 kPa (mean SEM) at CSF pressures of 7, 15 and 30 mmHg, respectively. Flow rate measurements through the intact meninges at 30mmHg gave a permeability of 1.34 0.46 lmincm2mmHg (mean SEM). The ONS is a tough, strain-stiffening connective tissue that is surprisingly permeable. The latter observation suggests that there could be significant CSF drainage through the ONS into the orbit, likely important

  4. Optic nerve head biomechanics in aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, J Crawford

    2015-04-01

    This nontechnical review is focused upon educating the reader on optic nerve head biomechanics in both aging and disease along two main themes: what is known about how mechanical forces and the resulting deformations are distributed in the posterior pole and ONH (biomechanics) and what is known about how the living system responds to those deformations (mechanobiology). We focus on how ONH responds to IOP elevations as a structural system, insofar as the acute mechanical response of the lamina cribrosa is confounded with the responses of the peripapillary sclera, prelaminar neural tissues, and retrolaminar optic nerve. We discuss the biomechanical basis for IOP-driven changes in connective tissues, blood flow, and cellular responses. We use glaucoma as the primary framework to present the important aspects of ONH biomechanics in aging and disease, as ONH biomechanics, aging, and the posterior pole extracellular matrix (ECM) are thought to be centrally involved in glaucoma susceptibility, onset and progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolution of optic nerve and retina alterations in a child with indirect traumatic neuropathy as assessed by optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dutra Rossetto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Herein, we describe the case of a 4-year-old child with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy and serial changes of the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL documented using optical coherence tomography (OCT. Visual acuity improved despite progressive RNFL thinning and optic disc pallor. We concluded that OCT may be useful for monitoring axonal loss but may not predict the final visual outcome.

  6. High Spatial Resolution Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Human Optic Nerve Lipids and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David M. G.; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Rose, Kristie L.; Schey, Kevin L.

    2015-06-01

    The human optic nerve carries signals from the retina to the visual cortex of the brain. Each optic nerve is comprised of approximately one million nerve fibers that are organized into bundles of 800-1200 fibers surrounded by connective tissue and supportive glial cells. Damage to the optic nerve contributes to a number of blinding diseases including: glaucoma, neuromyelitis optica, optic neuritis, and neurofibromatosis; however, the molecular mechanisms of optic nerve damage and death are incompletely understood. Herein we present high spatial resolution MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) analysis of lipids and proteins to define the molecular anatomy of the human optic nerve. The localization of a number of lipids was observed in discrete anatomical regions corresponding to myelinated and unmyelinated nerve regions as well as to supporting connective tissue, glial cells, and blood vessels. A protein fragment from vimentin, a known intermediate filament marker for astrocytes, was observed surrounding nerved fiber bundles in the lamina cribrosa region. S100B was also found in supporting glial cell regions in the prelaminar region, and the hemoglobin alpha subunit was observed in blood vessel areas. The molecular anatomy of the optic nerve defined by MALDI IMS provides a firm foundation to study biochemical changes in blinding human diseases.

  7. A comparison of optic nerve dosimetry in craniospinal radiotherapy planned and treated with conventional and intensity modulated techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rene, Nicholas J.; Brodeur, Marylene; Parker, William; Roberge, David; Freeman, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Some CNS tumours present leptomeningeal dissemination. Craniospinal radiotherapy is complex and recurrences may occur at sites of target volume underdosage. IMRT, being highly conformal to the target, could theoretically underdose the optic nerves if they are not specifically targeted leading to optic nerve recurrences. We analyzed optic nerve dosimetry when they are not specifically targeted. Materials and methods: We designed 3D-conformal and tomotherapy plans for our last five patients treated to the craniospinal axis, not including the optic nerves in the target volume. We analyzed the dose delivered to the optic nerves, to the anterior and posterior half of the optic nerves, and to a theoretical optic nerve-PTV. Results: The dose delivered to the optic nerves was similar for both plans in all patients (V95% close to 100%) except one in whom tomotherapy considerably underdosed the anterior optic nerves. The dose to the optic nerve-PTV was lower with tomotherapy in all patients. Conclusion: Despite not intentionally targeting the optic nerves, the dose to the optic nerves with IMRT was similar to 3D-conformal plans in most cases but left no margin for setup error. In individual cases the anterior half of the optic nerves could be significantly underdosed.

  8. Effect of Exosomes from Rat Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Neurite Outgrowth and Sciatic Nerve Regeneration After Crush Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucan, Vesna; Vaslaitis, Desiree; Peck, Claas-Tido; Strauß, Sarah; Vogt, Peter M; Radtke, Christine

    2018-06-21

    Peripheral nerve injury requires optimal conditions in both macro-environment and microenvironment for promotion of axonal regeneration. However, most repair strategies of traumatic peripheral nerve injury often lead to dissatisfying results in clinical outcome. Though various strategies have been carried out to improve the macro-environment, the underlying molecular mechanism of axon regeneration in the microenvironment provided by nerve conduit remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the effects of from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSCs) originating exosomes with respect to sciatic nerve regeneration and neurite growth. Molecular and immunohistochemical techniques were used to investigate the presence of characteristic exosome markers. A co-culture system was established to determine the effect of exosomes on neurite elongation in vitro. The in vivo walking behaviour of rats was evaluated by footprint analysis, and the nerve regeneration was assessed by immunocytochemistry. adMSCs secrete nano-vesicles known as exosomes, which increase neurite outgrowth in vitro and enhance regeneration after sciatic nerve injury in vivo. Furthermore, we showed the presence of neural growth factors transcripts in adMSC exosomes for the first time. Our results demonstrate that exosomes, constitutively produced by adMSCs, are involved in peripheral nerve regeneration and have the potential to be utilised as a therapeutic tool for effective tissue-engineered nerves.

  9. Nervus terminalis, olfactory nerve, and optic nerve representation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, J W

    1987-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) system was examined immunocytochemically in olfactory bulbs of adult monkeys, including two New World species (squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus and owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus) and one Old World species (cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fasciculata), and in the brain and nasal region of a fetal rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta. LHRH neurons and fibers were found sparsely distributed in the olfactory bulbs in all adult monkeys. There was more LHRH in the accessory olfactory bulb (which is absent in Old World monkeys). In the fetal macaque there was a rich distribution of LHRH neurons and fibers along the pathway of the nervus terminalis, anterior and ventral to the olfactory bulb, and in the nasal septum, with fibers branching into the olfactory epithelium. In addition, there were LHRH neurons and fibers in the optic nerve.

  10. High resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging of the optic nerve and the optic nerve sheath: anatomic correlation and clinical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinborn, M; Fiegler, J; Kraus, V; Denne, C; Hapfelmeier, A; Wurzinger, L; Hahn, H

    2011-12-01

    We performed a cadaver study to evaluate the accuracy of measurements of the optic nerve and the optic nerve sheath for high resolution US (HRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Five Thiel-fixated cadaver specimens of the optic nerve were examined with HRUS and MRI. Measurements of the optic nerve and the ONSD were performed before and after the filling of the optic nerve sheath with saline solution. Statistical analysis included the calculation of the agreement of measurements and the evaluation of the intraobserver and interobserver variation. Overall a good correlation of measurement values between HRUS and MRI can be found (mean difference: 0.02-0.97 mm). The repeatability coefficient (RC) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) values were good to excellent for most acquisitions (RC 0.2-1.11 mm; CCC 0.684-0.949). The highest variation of measurement values was found for transbulbar sonography (RC 0.58-1.83 mm; CCC 0.615/0.608). If decisive anatomic structures are clearly depicted and the measuring points are set correctly, there is a good correlation between HRUS and MRI measurements of the optic nerve and the ONSD even on transbulbar sonography. As most of the standard and cut-off values that have been published for ultrasound are significantly lower than the results obtained with MRI, a reevaluation of sonographic ONSD measurement with correlation to MRI is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Characterizing Intraorbital Optic Nerve Changes on Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Thyroid Eye Disease Before Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa; Lee, Young Hen; Suh, Sang-Il; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Baek, Sehyun; Seo, Hyung Suk

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the optic nerve is affected by thyroid eye disease (TED) before the development of dysthyroid optic neuropathy with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty TED patients and 20 controls were included. The mean, axial, and radial diffusivities and fractional anisotropy (FA) value were measured at the optic nerves in DTI. Extraocular muscle diameters were measured on computed tomography. The diffusivities and FA of the optic nerves were compared between TED and controls and between active and inactive stages of TED. The correlations between these DTI parameters and the clinical features were determined. The mean, axial, and radial diffusivities were lower in TED compared with the controls (P optic nerve before dysthyroid optic neuropathy in TED. The FA, in particular, reflected TED activity and severity.

  12. Watery and dark axons in Wallerian degeneration of the opossum's optic nerve: different patterns of cytoskeletal breakdown?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO S. NARCISO

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a qualitative morphological analysis of Wallerian degeneration in a marsupial. Right optic nerves of opossums Didelphis marsupialis were crushed with a fine forceps and after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 hours the animals were anaesthetized and perfused with fixative. The optic nerves were immersed in fixative and processed for routine transmission electron microscopy. Among the early alterations typical of axonal degeneration, we observed nerve fibers with focal degeneration of the axoplasmic cytoskeleton, watery degeneration and dark degeneration, the latter being prevalent at 168 hours after crush. Our results point to a gradual disintegration of the axoplasmic cytoskeleton, opposed to the previous view of an "all-or-nothing'' process (Griffin et al 1995. We also report that, due to an unknown mechanism, fibers show either a dark or watery pattern of axonal degeneration, as observed in axon profiles. We also observed fibers undergoing early myelin breakdown in the absence of axonal alterations.Neste trabalho, relatamos uma análise morfológica qualitativa da degeneração Walleriana em um marsupial. Os nervos ópticos direito de gambás da espécie Didelphis marsupialis foram esmagados com uma pinça fina. Após 24, 48, 72, 96 e 168 horas, os animais foram anestesiados e perfundidos com fixador. A seguir, os nervos foram imersos em fixador e processados para microscopia eletrônica de rotina. Entre as alterações precoces típicas da degeneração, observamos fibras nervosas com degeneração focal do citoesqueleto axoplasmático, degeneração aquosa e degeneração escura, com o último tipo prevalente às 168 horas após esmagamento. Nossos resultados indicam uma desintegração gradual do citoesqueleto axoplasmático, oposta à prévia visão de um processo "tudo-ou-nada''. Relatamos também que, devido a um mecanismo desconhecido, as fibras mostram ou um padrão aquoso ou um padrão escuro de degeneração axonal

  13. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Revisiting Factors Influencing Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yi; Voorhees, Andrew P.; Sigal, Ian A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To model the sensitivity of the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical environment to acute variations in IOP, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), and central retinal artery blood pressure (BP). Methods We extended a previously published numerical model of the ONH to include 24 factors representing tissue anatomy and mechanical properties, all three pressures, and constraints on the optic nerve (CON). A total of 8340 models were studied to predict factor influences on 98 responses in a two-step process: a fractional factorial screening analysis to identify the 16 most influential factors, followed by a response surface methodology to predict factor effects in detail. Results The six most influential factors were, in order: IOP, CON, moduli of the sclera, lamina cribrosa (LC) and dura, and CSFP. IOP and CSFP affected different aspects of ONH biomechanics. The strongest influence of CSFP, more than twice that of IOP, was on the rotation of the peripapillary sclera. CSFP had similar influence on LC stretch and compression to moduli of sclera and LC. On some ONHs, CSFP caused large retrolamina deformations and subarachnoid expansion. CON had a strong influence on LC displacement. BP overall influence was 633 times smaller than that of IOP. Conclusions Models predict that IOP and CSFP are the top and sixth most influential factors on ONH biomechanics. Different IOP and CSFP effects suggest that translaminar pressure difference may not be a good parameter to predict biomechanics-related glaucomatous neuropathy. CON may drastically affect the responses relating to gross ONH geometry and should be determined experimentally. PMID:29332130

  14. Optic pathway glioma associated with orbital rhabdomyosarcoma and bilateral optic nerve sheath dural ectasia in a child with neurofibromatosis-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikas, Ioannis; Theofanopoulou, Maria; Lampropoulou, Penelope; Hadjigeorgi, Christiana; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Kosmidis, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) is a multisystem disorder presenting with a variety of clinical and imaging manifestations. Neural and non-neural tumours, and unusual benign miscellaneous conditions, separately or combined, are encountered in variable locations. We present a 21/2-year-old boy with NF-1 who demonstrated coexisting optic pathway glioma with involvement of the chiasm and optic nerve, orbital alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and bilateral optic nerve sheath dural ectasia. (orig.)

  15. Optic nerve magnetisation transfer ratio after acute optic neuritis predicts axonal and visual outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yejun Wang

    Full Text Available Magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR can reveal the degree of proton exchange between free water and macromolecules and was suggested to be pathological informative. We aimed to investigate changes in optic nerve MTR over 12 months following acute optic neuritis (ON and to determine whether MTR measurements can predict clinical and paraclinical outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Thirty-seven patients with acute ON were studied within 2 weeks of presentation and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Assessments included optic nerve MTR, retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL thickness, multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP amplitude and latency and high (100% and low (2.5% contrast letter acuity. Eleven healthy controls were scanned twice four weeks apart for comparison with patients. Patient unaffected optic nerve MTR did not significantly differ from controls at any time-point. Compared to the unaffected nerve, affected optic nerve MTR was significantly reduced at 3 months (mean percentage interocular difference = -9.24%, p = 0.01, 6 months (mean = -12.48%, p<0.0001 and 12 months (mean = -7.61%, p = 0.003. Greater reduction in MTR at 3 months in patients was associated with subsequent loss of high contrast letter acuity at 6 (ρ = 0.60, p = 0.0003 and 12 (ρ = 0.44, p = 0.009 months, low contrast letter acuity at 6 (ρ = 0.35, p = 0.047 months, and RNFL thinning at 12 (ρ = 0.35, p = 0.044 months. Stratification of individual patient MTR time courses based on flux over 12 months (stable, putative remyelination and putative degeneration predicted RNFL thinning at 12 months (F(2,32 = 3.59, p = 0.02. In conclusion, these findings indicate that MTR flux after acute ON is predictive of axonal degeneration and visual disability outcomes.

  16. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic me...

  17. Structure-function relationships with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet-Villard, Frédéric; Chiquet, Christophe; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Noel, Christian; Aptel, Florent

    2014-05-02

    To evaluate the regional structure-function relationship between visual field sensitivity and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) measurements using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Prospective cross-sectional study conducted on patients with glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and healthy subjects. Eyes were tested on Cirrus OCT and standard achromatic perimetry. RNFL thickness of 12 peripapillary 30° sectors, neuroretinal rim thickness extracted from 36 neuroretinal rim scans, and Bruch membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW)-a recently defined parameter-extracted from 36 neuroretinal rim scans were obtained. Correlations between peripapillary RNFL thickness, neuroretinal rim thickness, all six sectors of BMO-MRW, and visual field sensitivity in the six corresponding areas were evaluated using logarithmic regression analysis. Receiver operating curve areas were calculated for each RNFL, ONH, and macular ganglion cell analysis parameter. We included 142 eyes of 142 subjects. The correlations (r(2)) between RNFL thickness, Cirrus-based neuroretinal rim thickness, BMO-MRW and visual field sensitivity ranged from 0.07 to 0.60, 0.15 to 0.49, and 0.24 to 0.66, respectively. The structure-function correlations were stronger with BMO-MRW than with Cirrus-based neuroretinal rim thickness. The largest areas under the receiver operating curve were seen for rim area (0.926 [95% confidence interval 0.875, 0.977]; P function relationship was significantly stronger with BMO-MRW than other ONH SD-OCT parameters. The best diagnostic capabilities were seen with rim area and average RNFL.

  18. Gene therapy for inherited retinal and optic nerve degenerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nicholas A; Morral, Nuria; Ciulla, Thomas A; Bracha, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The eye is a target for investigational gene therapy due to the monogenic nature of many inherited retinal and optic nerve degenerations (IRD), its accessibility, tight blood-ocular barrier, the ability to non-invasively monitor for functional and anatomic outcomes, as well as its relative immune privileged state.Vectors currently used in IRD clinical trials include adeno-associated virus (AAV), small single-stranded DNA viruses, and lentivirus, RNA viruses of the retrovirus family. Both can transduce non-dividing cells, but AAV are non-integrating, while lentivirus integrate into the host cell genome, and have a larger transgene capacity. Areas covered: This review covers Leber's congenital amaurosis, choroideremia, retinitis pigmentosa, Usher syndrome, Stargardt disease, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, Achromatopsia, and X-linked retinoschisis. Expert opinion: Despite great potential, gene therapy for IRD raises many questions, including the potential for less invasive intravitreal versus subretinal delivery, efficacy, safety, and longevity of response, as well as acceptance of novel study endpoints by regulatory bodies, patients, clinicians, and payers. Also, ultimate adoption of gene therapy for IRD will require widespread genetic screening to identify and diagnose patients based on genotype instead of phenotype.

  19. Schizencephaly with optic nerve hypoplasia simulating septo-optic dysplasia and other syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, R.E.; Byrd, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Three patients with fused-lip schizencephaly with optic nerve hypoplasia were evaluated radiographically. The computed tomographic and magnetic resonance findings demonstrated unilateral or bilateral gray matter lined clefts in the cerebral hemisphere which allowed differentiation from the clinical diagnosis of septo-optic dysplasia in each case. Schizencephaly has also been mistakenly labelled as part of a syndrome known as the syndrome of absence of the septum pellucidum with porencephalies and as heterotopias with absence of the septum pellucidum. 15 refs.; 3 figs

  20. Size of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age at magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Jun; Mori, Kouichi [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Imamura, Masatoshi [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Mizushima, Yukiko [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Tateishi, Ukihide [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    The expected MRI-based dimensions of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates are unknown. To evaluate the sizes of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age using MRI. We retrospectively analyzed brain MRI examinations in 62 infants (28 boys) without intracranial abnormalities. The images were obtained in infants at term-equivalent age with a 1.5-tesla MRI scanner. We measured the widths and heights of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract and calculated the cross-sectional areas using the formula for an ellipse. The means ± standard deviation of the width, height and cross-sectional area of the intracranial optic nerve were 2.7 ± 0.2 mm, 1.7 ± 0.2 mm and 3.5 ± 0.5 mm{sup 2}, respectively. The width, height and cross-sectional area of the optic tract were 1.5 ± 0.1 mm, 1.6 ± 0.1 mm and 2.0 ± 0.2 mm{sup 2}, respectively. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we found that postmenstrual age showed independent intermediate positive correlations with the width (r = 0.48, P < 0.01) and cross-sectional area (r = 0.40, P < 0.01) of the intracranial optic nerve. The lower bounds of the 95% prediction intervals for the width and cross-sectional area of the intracranial optic nerve were 0.07 x (postmenstrual age in weeks) - 0.46 mm, and 0.17 x (postmenstrual age in weeks) - 4.0 mm{sup 2}, respectively. We identified the sizes of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age. The postmenstrual age at MRI independently positively correlated with the sizes. (orig.)

  1. Improved automatic optic nerve radius estimation from high resolution MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Smith, Alex K.; Mawn, Louise A.; Smith, Seth A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-02-01

    The optic nerve (ON) is a vital structure in the human visual system and transports all visual information from the retina to the cortex for higher order processing. Due to the lack of redundancy in the visual pathway, measures of ON damage have been shown to correlate well with visual deficits. These measures are typically taken at an arbitrary anatomically defined point along the nerve and do not characterize changes along the length of the ON. We propose a fully automated, three-dimensionally consistent technique building upon a previous independent slice-wise technique to estimate the radius of the ON and surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on high-resolution heavily T2-weighted isotropic MRI. We show that by constraining results to be three-dimensionally consistent this technique produces more anatomically viable results. We compare this technique with the previously published slice-wise technique using a short-term reproducibility data set, 10 subjects, follow-up <1 month, and show that the new method is more reproducible in the center of the ON. The center of the ON contains the most accurate imaging because it lacks confounders such as motion and frontal lobe interference. Long-term reproducibility, 5 subjects, follow-up of approximately 11 months, is also investigated with this new technique and shown to be similar to short-term reproducibility, indicating that the ON does not change substantially within 11 months. The increased accuracy of this new technique provides increased power when searching for anatomical changes in ON size amongst patient populations.

  2. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is associated with lesion length in acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, K; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Sander, B

    2010-01-01

    included 41 patients with unilateral optic neuritis and 19 healthy volunteers. All patients were evaluated and examined within 28 days of onset of symptoms. The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), an objective quantitative measure of optic nerve head edema, was measured by optical...... coherence tomography and the length and location of the inflammatory optic nerve lesion were evaluated using MRI. RESULTS: Ophthalmoscopically, 34% of the patients had papillitis. The retinal nerve fiber layer in affected eyes (mean 123.1 microm) was higher during the acute phase than that of fellow eyes......BACKGROUND: Acute optic neuritis occurs with and without papillitis. The presence of papillitis has previously been thought to imply an anterior location of the neuritis, but imaging studies seeking to test this hypothesis have been inconclusive. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study...

  3. Assessment of Optic Nerve Impairment in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica by MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiye Chen

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI has been used for the evaluation of the white matter integrity. In this study, we evaluated optic nerve impairment in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO using DTI.Optic nerve DTI were performed on 28 NMO patients and 38 normal controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA values were measured in the anterior, middle, and posterior parts of the intraorbital optic nerve segment. For the posterior intraorbital optic nerve, FA values of BI (0.20±0.07, MI (0.24±0.16, and NA (0.25±0.14 decreased significantly compared with that of NC (0.43±0.07 (P<0.05, and ROC analysis demonstrated that the area under the curve (AUC measurements for BI vs. NC, MI vs. NC, NA vs. NC, and NMO (including BI, MI, and NA vs. NC were 0.99, 0.93, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively. The corresponding diagnostic sensitivities of ROC analysis were 100%, 80%, 80%, and 91%; and the specificities were 93%, 97%, 91%, and 93%.Decreased FA value in the intraorbital optic nerve, especially in the posterior part of the nerve, was demonstrated as a characteristic MR feature for NMO-related optic nerve impairment.

  4. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Differences Between Caribbean Black and African American Patients as Measured by Spectral Domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohini; Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Al-Aswad, Lama; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana M

    2015-01-01

    There are well-established differences in optic nerve morphology between patients of African and European descent. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning has demonstrated these differences with respect to optic disc area (DA), average cup-disc ratio, cup volume, and nerve fiber layer thickness. However, the term "African descent" describes a heterogenous group with considerable variability. This study evaluates differences in optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters as measured by Cirrus HD-OCT between Caribbean black and African American patients. A total of 25 African American subjects and 25 Caribbean black subjects with normal ocular examinations were consecutively recruited to this study. All patients received imaging of the optic nerve and nerve fiber layer with Cirrus HD-OCT. Optic nerve and RNFL parameters were evaluated for statistically significant differences using a t test. A mixed effect model for correlated data was then created to adjust outcome variables for (1) repeated measures and (2) optic nerve size. Two one-sided t tests were then utilized to determine equivalence. After adjustment for DA, RNFL thickness, cup volume, DA, inferior nerve fiber layer, and vertical cup-disc ratio demonstrated statistically significant equivalence between the 2 groups (P value fiber layer quadrant was significantly different between the 2 groups and may merit further investigation. Findings of this study suggest that optic nerve and RNFL morphology is markedly similar between Caribbean blacks and African Americans once adjusted for optic nerve size but cannot be considered equivalent in all measures, particularly in the superior nerve fiber layer.

  5. Extracting structural features of rat sciatic nerve using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, M.S.; Oliveira, M.C.; Wang, Y.; Henry, F.P.; Randolph, M.A.; Park, B. H.; de Boer, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (SD PS-OCT) imaging of peripheral nerves. Structural and polarization-sensitive OCT imaging of uninjured rat sciatic nerves was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. OCT and its functional extension, PS-OCT,

  6. The utility of three-dimensional optical projection tomography in nerve injection injury imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvetko, E.; Čapek, Martin; Damjanovska, M.; Reina, M. A.; Eržen, I.; Stopar-Pintarič, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 8 (2015), s. 939-947 ISSN 0003-2409 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-12412S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH13028 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : optical projection tomography * 3D nerve visualization * nerve disruption Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2015

  7. Diagnostic capability of optic nerve head rim width and retinal nerve fiber thickness in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Staso, Silvio; Agnifili, Luca; Di Staso, Federico; Climastone, Hilary; Ciancaglini, Marco; Scuderi, Gian Luca

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to test the diagnostic capability of the minimum rim width compared to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with glaucoma. A case control, observer masked study, was conducted. Minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were assessed using the patient-specific axis traced between fovea-to-Bruch's membrane opening center axis. For both minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, the regionalization in six sectors (nasal, superior-nasal, superior-temporal, temporal, inferior-temporal, and inferior-nasal) was analyzed. Eyes with at least one sector with value below the 5% or 1% normative limit of the optical coherence tomography normative database were classified as glaucomatous. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive positive and negative values were calculated for both minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. A total of 118 eyes of 118 Caucasian subjects (80 eyes with open-angle glaucoma and 38 control eyes) were enrolled in the study. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 79.7%, 77.5%, and 84.2%, respectively, for minimum rim width and 84.7%, 82.5%, and 89.5% for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. The positive predictive values were 0.91% and 0.94% for minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, respectively, whereas the negative predictive values were 0.64% and 0.70%. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.892 for minimum rim width and 0.938 for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Our results indicated that the sector analysis based on Bruch's membrane opening and fovea to disk alignment is able to detect glaucomatous defects, and that Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness showed equivalent diagnostic ability.

  8. Imaging of optic nerve head pore structure with motion corrected deeply penetrating OCT using tracking SLO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vienola, Kari V.; Braaf, Boy; Sheehy, Christy K.; Yang, Qiang; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; de Boer, Johannes F.; Roorda, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To remove the eye motion and stabilize the optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system for obtaining high quality images of the optic nerve head (ONH) and the pore structure of the lamina cribrosa. Methods An optical coherence tomography (OCT) instrument was combined with an active eye

  9. Controversy in the management of optic nerve glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, L.; Sagerman, R.H.; King, G.A.; Chung, C.T.; Dubowy, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The records of 16 patients with optic nerve glioma treated between 1961 and 1984 were reviewed. All patients except two had extension of tumor beyond the chiasm to the hypothalamus, adjacent brain and/or along the posterior optic tract. Eleven of 16 cases were biopsy-proven, two patients had craniotomy and visual inspection but no biopsy was performed, and in two cases the biopsy was not diagnostic. Fourteen patients received radiation therapy, usually consisting of 50 Gy in 5 weeks (range 40-56 Gy), one patient was treated surgically and one with chemotherapy. With a follow-up of 1 to 20 years, 7 of the 14 patients irradiated are alive, three patients are dead of disease at 3, 6 and 9 years post-treatment, three were lost to follow-up at 1, 8, and 8 years, and one is dead of intercurrent disease at 5.5 years. Overall vision was improved in five patients and stable in seven following treatment. In two patients, vision could not be evaluated because of young age at presentation. Four patients had recurrences. One was retreated with 30 Gy in 3 weeks and shows no evidence of disease at 20 years. The three other patients died of their disease. There is controversy over the best treatment for these patients. Based on these results and a review of the literature, the authors recommendation is to irradiate tumors with extension beyond the chiasm at the time of presentation rather than waiting for increasing symptoms because function that is lost may not always be recovered. Chemotherapy needs to be further investigated but holds promise, especially for the younger children

  10. Recurrent Vitreous Hemorrhage from an Optic Nerve Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica F. Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of recurrent vitreous hemorrhage from an optic nerve retinal arterial macroaneurysm (ONRAM successfully treated with intraoperative endolaser. Patient and Methods: A 92-year-old woman on oral aspirin and warfarin anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation developed three episodes of dense vitreous hemorrhage from an ONRAM. Due to failure of the vitreous hemorrhage to clear spontaneously, a total of three pars plana vitrectomy (PPV procedures were performed along with a 1.25-mg intravitreal bevacizumab injection after the third episode of hemorrhage. During the third PPV procedure, a 25-gauge 532-nm green diode laser endoprobe was used to deliver low-power (100 mW and long-duration (500 ms laser spots directly on the ONRAM to induce intraoperative shrinkage of the ONRAM. Results: After the endolaser treatment, the macroaneurysm showed involution due to fibrosis without any adverse effects on retinal circulation or visual field defect. No recurrence of vitreous hemorrhage was noted after 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: Oral anticoagulant use may have been responsible for the atypical clinical course in our patient. Laser photocoagulation, including intraoperative endolaser photocoagulation, may be considered in selected cases of symptomatic ONRAMs.

  11. Practical Considerations for Optic Nerve Estimation in Telemedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Aykac, Deniz [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [ORNL; Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The projected increase in diabetes in the United States and worldwide has created a need for broad-based, inexpensive screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR), an eye disease which can lead to vision impairment. A telemedicine network with retina cameras and automated quality control, physiological feature location, and lesion / anomaly detection is a low-cost way of achieving broad-based screening. In this work we report on the effect of quality estimation on an optic nerve (ON) detection method with a confidence metric. We report on an improvement of the fusion technique using a data set from an ophthalmologists practice then show the results of the method as a function of image quality on a set of images from an on-line telemedicine network collected in Spring 2009 and another broad-based screening program. We show that the fusion method, combined with quality estimation processing, can improve detection performance and also provide a method for utilizing a physician-in-the-loop for images that may exceed the capabilities of automated processing.

  12. Optic nerve oxygen tension in pigs and the effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, E; Jensen, P K; Eysteinsson, T

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate how the oxygen tension of the optic nerve (ONP(O)2) is affected by the administration of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors dorzolamide and acetazolamide and by alterations in oxygen and carbon dioxide in the breathing mixture.......To evaluate how the oxygen tension of the optic nerve (ONP(O)2) is affected by the administration of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors dorzolamide and acetazolamide and by alterations in oxygen and carbon dioxide in the breathing mixture....

  13. Peripapillary Choroidal Neovascularization Associated with Optic Nerve Head Drusen Treated with Anti-VEGF Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman A. Saffra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve head drusen can be associated with peripapillary choroidal neovascularization, in both the pediatric and adult population. These membranes can involve the macula, causing significant visual loss. Herein, we present a case that required treatment with an anti-VEGF agent. The patient failed to respond to the initial agent, but subsequently responded to a change of agent. Adult patients with macular degeneration involving peripapillary choroidal neovascularization associated with optic nerve head drusen may require individualized treatment plans.

  14. The MRI appearance of the optic nerve sheath following fenestration for benign intracranial hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallomi, D.; Taylor, H.; Hibbert, J.; Sanders, M.D.; Spalton, D.J.; Tonge, K. [Guys and St. Thomas` Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    Optic nerve fenestration is carried out in cases of severe benign intracranial hypertension. This study aimed to monitor the optic nerve sheath appearances and orbital changes that occur following this procedure. The eight patients were all female with an average age of 37.3 years and a range of 20-58 years. The duration of symptoms was 2-6 years. Symptoms included headaches, diplopia and visual obscurations. Examination revealed severe papilledema. All investigations, including MRI, biochemical and immunological tests, were negative. Patients had fenestration of a 2 mm x 3 mm segment of the medial aspect of the optic nerve sheath. Imaging was obtained with a 1 T MRI machine using a head coil. Coronal, axial and sagittal 3 mm contiguous sections using STIR sequences with TR 4900 ms, IT 150 ms and TE 60 ms were obtained. Five patients showed clinical improvement. The post-operative MRI findings in four of these included a decreased volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) around the optic nerve sheaths and a localized collection of fluid within the orbit. There were no MRI changes in the three patients with no clinical improvement. Decreased CSF volume around the optic nerve and a fluid collection within the orbit may indicate a favorable outcome in optic nerve fenestration. (orig.) With 3 figs., 12 refs.

  15. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Protects Retinal Ganglion Cell From Optic Nerve Injury Induced Apoptosis via Yes Associated Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xing Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been used in clinical studies. But little is known about its effects on the central nervous system (CNS, or its mechanism of action. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are CNS neuronal cells that can be utilized as a classic model system to evaluate outcomes of LIPUS protection from external trauma-induced retinal injury. In this study, we aim to: (1 determine the pulse energy and the capability of LIPUS in RGC viability, (2 ascertain the protective role of LIPUS in optic nerve (ON crush-induced retinal injury, and 3 explore the cellular mechanisms of RGC apoptosis prevention by LIPUS.Methods: An ON crush model was set up to induce RGC death. LIPUS was used to treat mice eyes daily, and the retina samples were dissected for immunostaining and Western blot. The expression of yes-associated protein (YAP and apoptosis-related proteins was detected by immunostaining and Western blot in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis of RGCs was evaluated by TUNEL staining, the survival of RGCs and retained axons were labeled by Fluoro-gold and Tuj1 antibody, respectively. Rotenone was used to set up an in vitro cellular degenerative model and siYAP was used to interfering the expression of YAP to detect the LIPUS protective function.Results: LIPUS protected RGC from loss and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. The ratio of cleaved/pro-caspase3 also decreased significantly under LIPUS treatment. As a cellular mechanical sensor, YAP expression increased and YAP translocated to nucleus in LIPUS stimulation group, however, phospho-YAP was found to be decreased. When YAP was inhibited, the LIPUS could not protect RGC from caspase3-dependent apoptosis.Conclusion: LIPUS prevented RGCs from apoptosis in an ON crush model and in vitro cellular degenerative model, which indicates a potential treatment for further traumatic ON injury. The mechanism of protection is dependent on YAP activation and correlated with caspase-3 signaling.

  16. Omental pedicle transposition and suture repair of peripheral nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abu wael

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of omental pedicle transposition and ... Assessment of the nerve regeneration was based on functional (motor and sensory), ..... peripheral nerve fibers regenerating after crush, multiple crush, and.

  17. Acute optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin-Hui; Casagrande, Vivien A.; Joos, Karen M.; Shetlar, Debra J.; Robinson, Richard D.; Head, William S.; Mavity-Hudson, Julia A.; Nunnally, Amy H.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: To determine if the free electron laser (FEL) energy can be delivered to a small space to perform optic nerve sheath fenestration with minimal acute nerve damage. Methods: A 530 mm hollow waveguide probe was designed. Optic nerve sheath fenestration (1.0 mm diameter) was performed in 8 rabbits using either the FEL (4 eyes, 6.45mm, 10 Hz, 2 mJ) or a knife (4 eyes). Within 2 hours following surgery, the animals were perfused with aldehyde fixative. The integrity of the optic nerve and glial response at the site of fenestration were evaluated on tissue selections with H&E, and antibodies to S100β or GFAP. Results: Surgery using the FEL probe was found to be technically superior to the knife. The glial reaction was limited to a zone adjacent to the fenestration and was similar in both the FEL and knife incisions. Conclusions: The FEL appears capable of efficiently performing an optic nerve sheath fenestration in a small space with minimal acute damage. Both the FEL and knife incisions result in a rapid glial response at the site of fenestration even when optic nerve integrity is not compromised.

  18. Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy in Patients With Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, Frank, E-mail: frank.paulsen@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Doerr, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Wilhelm, Helmut [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Becker, Gerd [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinik am Eichert, Goeppingen (Germany); Bamberg, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Classen, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Vincentius-Kliniken, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SFRT) in the treatment of optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM). Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2005, 109 patients (113 eyes) with primary (n = 37) or secondary (n = 76) ONSM were treated according to a prospective protocol with SFRT to a median dose of 54 Gy. All patients underwent radiographic, ophthalmologic, and endocrine analysis before and after SFRT. Radiographic response, visual control, and late side effects were endpoints of the analysis. Results: Median time to last clinical, radiographic, and ophthalmologic follow up was 30.2 months (n = 113), 42.7 months (n = 108), and 53.7 months (n = 91), respectively. Regression of the tumor was observed in 5 eyes and progression in 4 eyes, whereas 104 remained stable. Visual acuity improved in 12, deteriorated in 11, and remained stable in 68 eyes. Mean visual field defects reduced from 33.6% (n = 90) to 17.8% (n = 56) in ipsilateral and from 10% (n = 94) to 6.7% (n = 62) in contralateral eyes. Ocular motility improved in 23, remained stable in 65, and deteriorated in 3 eyes. Radiographic tumor control was 100% at 3 years and 98% at 5 years. Visual acuity was preserved in 94.8% after 3 years and in 90.9% after 5 years. Endocrine function was normal in 90.8% after 3 years and in 81.3% after 5 years. Conclusions: SFRT represents a highly effective treatment for ONSM. Interdisciplinary counseling of the patients is recommended. Because of the high rate of preservation of visual acuity we consider SFRT the standard approach for the treatment of ONSM. Prolonged observation is warranted to more accurately assess late visual impairment. Moderate de-escalation of the radiation dose might improve the preservation of visual acuity and pituitary gland function.

  19. Comparison of optic disc morphology of optic nerve atrophy between compressive optic neuropathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Hata

    Full Text Available To compare the optic nerve head (ONH structure between compressive optic neuropathy (CON and glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON, and to determine whether selected ONH quantitative parameters effectively discriminate between GON and CON, especially CON cases presenting with a glaucoma-like disc.We prospectively assessed 34 patients with CON, 34 age-matched patients with moderate or severe GON, and 34 age-matched healthy control subjects. The quantitative parameters of ONH structure were compared using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 (HRT2 and Spectralis optical coherence tomography with an enhanced depth imaging method.The mean and maximum cup depths of CON were significantly smaller than those with GON (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. The distance between Bruch's membrane opening and anterior surface of the lamina cribrosa (BMO-anterior LC of CON was also significantly smaller than that of glaucoma but was similar to that of the healthy group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.47, respectively. Based on Moorfields regression analysis of the glaucoma classification of HRT2, 15 eyes with CON were classified with a glaucoma-like disc. The cup/disc area ratio did not differ between cases of CON with a glaucoma-like disc and cases of GON (P = 0.16, but the BMO-anterior LC and mean and maximum cup depths of CON cases with a glaucoma-like disc were smaller than those in GON (P = 0.005, P = 0.003, and P = 0.001, respectively.Measurements of the cup depths and the LC depth had good ability to differentiate between CON with a glaucoma-like disc and glaucoma. There was no laminar remodeling detected by laminar surface position in the patients with CON compared to those with GON.

  20. Astrocytes as gate-keepers in optic nerve regeneration--a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Dana M; Koke, Joseph R

    2009-02-01

    Animals that develop without extra-embryonic membranes (anamniotes--fish, amphibians) have impressive regenerative capacity, even to the extent of replacing entire limbs. In contrast, animals that develop within extra-embryonic membranes (amniotes--reptiles, birds, mammals) have limited capacity for regeneration as adults, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). Much is known about the process of nerve development in fish and mammals and about regeneration after lesions in the CNS in fish and mammals. Because the retina of the eye and optic nerve are functionally part of the brain and are accessible in fish, frogs, and mice, optic nerve lesion and regeneration (ONR) has been extensively used as a model system for study of CNS nerve regeneration. When the optic nerve of a mouse is severed, the axons leading into the brain degenerate. Initially, the cut end of the axons on the proximal, eye-side of the injury sprout neurites which begin to grow into the lesion. Simultaneously, astrocytes of the optic nerve become activated to initiate wound repair as a first step in reestablishing the structural integrity of the optic nerve. This activation appears to initiate a cascade of molecular signals resulting in apoptotic cell death of the retinal ganglion cells axons of which make up the neural component of the optic nerve; regeneration fails and the injury is permanent. Evidence specifically implicating astrocytes comes from studies showing selective poisoning of astrocytes at the optic nerve lesion, along with activation of a gene whose product blocks apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells, creates conditions favorable to neurites sprouting from the cut proximal stump, growing through the lesion and into the distal portion of the injured nerve, eventually reaching appropriate targets in the brain. In anamniotes, astrocytes ostensibly present no such obstacle since optic nerve regeneration occurs without intervention; however, no systematic study of glial involvement

  1. Multifocal visual evoked potentials for quantifying optic nerve dysfunction in patients with optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; de Santiago, Luis; Boquete, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    and 22 control subjects were examined. Mean amplitude, mean inner ring (IR) amplitude (0.87-5.67° of visual field) and mean outer ring amplitude (5.68-24° of visual field) were calculated using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and peak-to-peak analysis. Monocular latency was calculated using second peak......PURPOSE: To explore the applicability of multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEPs) for research and clinical diagnosis in patients with optic disc drusen (ODD). This is the first assessment of mfVEP amplitude in patients with ODD. METHODS: MfVEP amplitude and latency from 33 patients with ODD......, full eye and IR. In the control group, SNR intersubject variability was 17.6% and second peak latency intersubject variability was 2.8%. CONCLUSION: Decreased mfVEP amplitude in patients with ODD suggests a direct mechanical compression of the optic nerve axons. Our results suggest that mfVEP amplitude...

  2. Characterization of Abnormal Optic Nerve Head Morphology in Albinism Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Sarim; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Pilat, Anastasia; Lee, Helena; Pollheimer, Ellen; Proudlock, Frank Anthony

    2015-07-01

    To characterize abnormalities in three-dimensional optic nerve head (ONH) morphology in people with albinism (PWA) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to determine whether ONH abnormalities relate to other retinal and clinical abnormalities. Spectral-domain OCT was used to obtain three-dimensional images from 56 PWA and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. B-scans were corrected for nystagmus-associated motion artefacts. Disc, cup, and rim ONH dimensions and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (ppRNFL) thickness were calculated using Copernicus and ImageJ software. Median disc areas were similar in PWA (median = 1.65 mm2) and controls (1.71 mm2, P = 0.128), although discs were significantly elongated horizontally in PWA (P < 0.001). In contrast, median optic cup area in PWA (0.088 mm2) was 23.7% of that in controls (0.373 mm2, P < 0.001), with 39.4% of eyes in PWA not demonstrating a measurable optic cup. This led to significantly smaller cup to disc ratios in PWA (P < 0.001). Median rim volume in PWA (0.273 mm3) was 136.6% of that in controls (0.200 mm3). The ppRNFL was significantly thinner in PWA compared with controls (P < 0.001), especially in the temporal quadrant. In PWA, ppRNFL thickness was correlated to ganglion cell thickness at the central fovea (P = 0.007). Several ONH abnormalities, such as cup to disc ratio, were related to higher refractive errors in PWA. In PWA, ocular maldevelopment is not just limited to the retina but also involves the ONH. Reduced ppRNFL thickness is consistent with previous reports of reduced ganglion cell numbers in PWA. The thicker rim volumes may be a result of incomplete maturation of the ONH.

  3. A Deep Learning Approach to Digitally Stain Optical Coherence Tomography Images of the Optic Nerve Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devalla, Sripad Krishna; Chin, Khai Sing; Mari, Jean-Martial; Tun, Tin A; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Aung, Tin; Thiéry, Alexandre H; Girard, Michaël J A

    2018-01-01

    To develop a deep learning approach to digitally stain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the optic nerve head (ONH). A horizontal B-scan was acquired through the center of the ONH using OCT (Spectralis) for one eye of each of 100 subjects (40 healthy and 60 glaucoma). All images were enhanced using adaptive compensation. A custom deep learning network was then designed and trained with the compensated images to digitally stain (i.e., highlight) six tissue layers of the ONH. The accuracy of our algorithm was assessed (against manual segmentations) using the dice coefficient, sensitivity, specificity, intersection over union (IU), and accuracy. We studied the effect of compensation, number of training images, and performance comparison between glaucoma and healthy subjects. For images it had not yet assessed, our algorithm was able to digitally stain the retinal nerve fiber layer + prelamina, the RPE, all other retinal layers, the choroid, and the peripapillary sclera and lamina cribrosa. For all tissues, the dice coefficient, sensitivity, specificity, IU, and accuracy (mean) were 0.84 ± 0.03, 0.92 ± 0.03, 0.99 ± 0.00, 0.89 ± 0.03, and 0.94 ± 0.02, respectively. Our algorithm performed significantly better when compensated images were used for training (P deep learning algorithm can simultaneously stain the neural and connective tissues of the ONH, offering a framework to automatically measure multiple key structural parameters of the ONH that may be critical to improve glaucoma management.

  4. Sodium channels in axons and glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C M; Strichartz, G R; Orkand, R K

    1979-11-01

    Experiments investigating both the binding of radioactively labelled saxitoxin (STX) and the electrophysiological response to drugs that increase the sodium permeability of excitable membranes were conducted in an effort to detect sodium channels in glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa, the mudpuppy. Glial cells in nerves from chronically enucleated animals, which lack optic nerve axons, show no saturable uptake of STX whereas a saturable uptake is clearly present in normal optic nerves. The normal nerve is depolarized by aconitine, batrachotoxin, and veratridine (10(-6)-10(-5) M), whereas the all-glial preparation is only depolarized by veratridine and at concentrations greater than 10(-3) M. Unlike the depolarization caused by veratridine in normal nerves, the response in the all-glial tissue is not blocked by tetrodotoxin nor enhanced by scorpion venom (Leiurus quinquestriatus). In glial cells of the normal nerve, where axons are also present, the addition of 10(-5) M veratridine does lead to a transient depolarization; however, it is much briefer than the axonal response to veratridine in this same tissue. This glial response to veratridine could be caused by the efflux of K+ from the drug-depolarized axons, and is similar to the glial response to extracellular K+ accumulation resulting from action potentials in the axon.

  5. Neuromyelitis optica IgG in the cerebrospinal fluid induces astrocytopathy in optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Kerstin; Lillevang, Søren Thue; Mørch, Marlene

    (anti-CD59a). A total of five mice received AQP4-IgG + C + anti-CD59a, four mice received normal-IgG + C + anti-CD59a, four mice received AQP4-IgG+ C and one normal-IgG + C. Mice were killed four days later. The optic nerves were isolated and fixed in paraformaldehyde. Paraffin embedded optic nerves...... was coincident with deposition of complement. Histopathological lesions were markedly enhanced with extensive/long-segment astrocytopathy of optic nerve and optic chiasm involvement in AQP4- IgG+ C + anti-CD59a treated mice. Such pathology was not seen in mice receiving normal human IgG, C and anti-CD59a...

  6. Optical signature of nerve tissue-Exploratory ex vivo study comparing optical, histological, and molecular characteristics of different adipose and nerve tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthasar, Andrea J R; Bydlon, Torre M; Ippel, Hans; van der Voort, Marjolein; Hendriks, Benno H W; Lucassen, Gerald W; van Geffen, Geert-Jan; van Kleef, Maarten; van Dijk, Paul; Lataster, Arno

    2018-05-14

    During several anesthesiological procedures, needles are inserted through the skin of a patient to target nerves. In most cases, the needle traverses several tissues-skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels-to reach the target nerve. A clear identification of the target nerve can improve the success of the nerve block and reduce the rate of complications. This may be accomplished with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) which can provide a quantitative measure of the tissue composition. The goal of the current study was to further explore the morphological, biological, chemical, and optical characteristics of the tissues encountered during needle insertion to improve future DRS classification algorithms. To compare characteristics of nerve tissue (sciatic nerve) and adipose tissues, the following techniques were used: histology, DRS, absorption spectrophotometry, high-resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and solution 2D 13 C- 1 H heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectroscopy. Tissues from five human freshly frozen cadavers were examined. Histology clearly highlights a higher density of cellular nuclei, collagen, and cytoplasm in fascicular nerve tissue (IFAS). IFAS showed lower absorption of light around 1200 nm and 1750 nm, higher absorption around 1500 nm and 2000 nm, and a shift in the peak observed around 1000 nm. DRS measurements showed a higher water percentage and collagen concentration in IFAS and a lower fat percentage compared to all other tissues. The scattering parameter (b) was highest in IFAS. The HR-MAS NMR data showed three extra chemical peak shifts in IFAS tissue. Collagen, water, and cellular nuclei concentration are clearly different between nerve fascicular tissue and other adipose tissue and explain some of the differences observed in the optical absorption, DRS, and HR-NMR spectra of these tissues. Some differences observed between fascicular

  7. Targeted Metabolomics Reveals Early Dominant Optic Atrophy Signature in Optic Nerves of Opa1delTTAG/+ Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao de la Barca, Juan Manuel; Simard, Gilles; Sarzi, Emmanuelle; Chaumette, Tanguy; Rousseau, Guillaume; Chupin, Stéphanie; Gadras, Cédric; Tessier, Lydie; Ferré, Marc; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Gueguen, Naïg; Leruez, Stéphanie; Verny, Christophe; Miléa, Dan; Bonneau, Dominique; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Procaccio, Vincent; Hamel, Christian; Lenaers, Guy; Reynier, Pascal; Prunier-Mirebeau, Delphine

    2017-02-01

    Dominant optic atrophy (MIM No. 165500) is a blinding condition related to mutations in OPA1, a gene encoding a large GTPase involved in mitochondrial inner membrane dynamics. Although several mouse models mimicking the disease have been developed, the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for retinal ganglion cell degeneration remain poorly understood. Using a targeted metabolomic approach, we measured the concentrations of 188 metabolites in nine tissues, that is, brain, three types of skeletal muscle, heart, liver, retina, optic nerve, and plasma in symptomatic 11-month-old Opa1delTTAG/+ mice. Significant metabolic signatures were found only in the optic nerve and plasma of female mice. The optic nerve signature was characterized by altered concentrations of phospholipids, amino acids, acylcarnitines, and carnosine, whereas the plasma signature showed decreased concentrations of amino acids and sarcosine associated with increased concentrations of several phospholipids. In contrast, the investigation of 3-month-old presymptomatic Opa1delTTAG/+ mice showed no specific plasma signature but revealed a significant optic nerve signature in both sexes, although with a sex effect. The Opa1delTTAG/+ versus wild-type optic nerve signature was characterized by the decreased concentrations of 10 sphingomyelins and 10 lysophosphatidylcholines, suggestive of myelin sheath alteration, and by alteration in the concentrations of metabolites involved in neuroprotection, such as dimethylarginine, carnitine, spermine, spermidine, carnosine, and glutamate, suggesting a concomitant axonal metabolic dysfunction. Our comprehensive metabolomic investigations revealed in symptomatic as well as in presymptomatic Opa1delTTAG/+ mice, a specific sensitiveness of the optic nerve to Opa1 insufficiency, opening new routes for protective therapeutic strategies.

  8. Quantitative relations between the eyeball, the optic nerve, and the optic canal important for intracranial pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Michael; Gottlieb, Paul; Bekerman, Inessa

    2014-08-17

    To find correlations between diameters of the optic nerve sheath (ONSD), the eyeball, and the optic canal that might be important for intracranial pressure monitoring. In a prospective cohort study, the CT data of consecutive 400 adults (18+) with healthy eyes and optic nerves and absence of neurological diseases were collected and analyzed. When the CT scans were obtained, the diameters of the optic nerve sheath, the eyeball, and the optic canal were measured and statistically analyzed. The data obtained from the left and from the right eyeballs and optic nerves were compared. The correlation analysis was performed within these variables, with the gender, and the age. In healthy persons, the ONSD varies from 3.65 mm to 5.17 mm in different locations within the intraorbital space with no significant difference between sexes and age groups. There is a strong correlation between the eyeball transverse diameter (ETD) and ONSD that can be presented as ONSD/ETD index. In healthy subjects, the ONSD/ETD index equals 0.19. The calculation of an index when ONSD is divided by the ETD of the eyeball presents precise normative database for ONSD intracranial pressure measurement technique. When the ONSD is measured for intracranial pressure monitoring, the most stable results can be obtained if the diameter is measured 10 mm from the globe. These data might serve as a normative database at emergency departments and in general neurological practice.

  9. Experience on treatment of acute head injury combined with optic nerve damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Heng; Feng Dongxia; Ma Yuanpin; Chen Jinqing

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic principle for the management of acute head injury combined with optic nerve damage. Method: the clinical data of treatment and prognosis from 24 patients, in which 15 received operative and 9 conservative measures were collected and analyzed. Results: In 15 operated cases, the vision of 10 cases including one with blindness before operation was improved obviously, while those of other 5 did not get any improvement. In 9 conservatively treated cases, the vision was improved in 4 cases, deteriorated in 4 case and no change in 1 case with blindness after injury. Conclusion: One the optic nerve damage has been manifested by clinical or radiological evidences in acute head injury patients, despite it was primary or secondary reason, surgical optic nerve bone canal decompression should be done as soon as possible

  10. Dural ectasia of the optic nerve sheath: is it always benign?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berker Bakbak

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Berker Bakbak1, Hava Dönmez2, Tülay Kansu3, Hayyam Kiratli41Hacettepe University Institute of Neurological Sciences and Psychiatry, Neuro-ophthalmology Unit, Ankara, Turkey; 2Diskapi Yildirim Beyazid Education and Research Hospital Neurology Clinic, Ankara, Turkey; 3Hacettepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Neurology, Neuro-Ophthalmology Unit, Ankara, Turkey; 4Hacettepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Ophthalmology, Ocular Oncology Unit, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: A 36-year-old woman with a 3-month history of progressive visual loss had papilledema, dilatation of the optic nerve sheaths and normal cerebrospinal fluid pressures. She was diagnosed as dural ectasia of the optic nerve sheaths and surgical decompression was performed. In this case report, severe visual loss is described as a serious complication of this rare disease and the importance of early surgical intervention is emphasized.Keywords: optic nerve, dural ectasia, meningocele

  11. Ultrastructure of the extracellular matrix of bovine dura mater, optic nerve sheath and sclera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspanti, M; Marchini, M; Della Pasqua, V; Strocchi, R; Ruggeri, A

    1992-10-01

    The sclera, the outermost sheath of the optic nerve and the dura mater have been investigated histologically and ultrastructurally. Although these tissues appear very similar under the light microscope, being dense connective tissues mainly composed of collagen bundles and a limited amount of cells and elastic fibres, they exhibit subtle differences on electron microscopy. In the dura and sclera collagen appears in the form of large, nonuniform fibrils, similar to those commonly found in tendons, while in the optic nerve sheath the fibrils appear smaller and uniform, similar to those commonly observed in reticular tissues, vessel walls and skin. Freeze-fracture also reveals these fibrils to have different subfibrillar architectures, straight or helical, which correspond to 2 distinct forms of collagen fibril previously described (Raspanti et al. 1989). The other extracellular matrix components also vary with the particular collagen fibril structure. Despite their common embryological derivation, the dura mater, optic nerve sheath and sclera exhibit diversification of their extracellular matrix consistent with the mechanical loads to which these tissues are subjected. Our observations indicate that the outermost sheath of the optic nerve resembles the epineurium of peripheral nerves rather than the dura to which it is commonly likened.

  12. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  13. Inflammatory Papillitis in Uveitis: Response to Treatment and Use of Optic Nerve Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heeyoon; Pillai, Parvathy; Nicholson, Laura; Sobrin, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    To describe the clinical course of uveitis-associated inflammatory papillitis and evaluate the utility and reproducibility of optic nerve spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Data on 22 eyes of 14 patients with uveitis-related papillitis and optic nerve imaging were reviewed. SD-OCT measure reproducibility was determined and parameters were compared in active vs. inactive uveitis. Papillitis resolution lagged behind uveitis resolution in three patients. For SD-OCT measures, the intraclass correlation coefficients were 99.1-100% and 86.9-100% for intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility, respectively. All SD-OCT optic nerve measures except inferior and nasal peripapillary retinal thicknesses were significantly higher in active vs. inactive uveitis after correction for multiple hypotheses testing. Mean optic nerve central thickness decreased from 545.1 to 362.9 µm (p = 0.01). Resolution of inflammatory papillitis can lag behind resolution of uveitis. SD-OCT assessment of papillitis is reproducible and correlates with presence vs. resolution of uveitis.

  14. Classic crush and DK crush stenting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data have supported the advantages of the double kissing (DK) crush technique, which consists of stenting the side branch (SB), balloon crush, first kissing, stenting the main vessel (MV) and final kissing balloon inflation, for complex coronary bifurcation lesions compared to other stenting techniques. Careful rewiring from the proximal cell of the MV stent to make sure the wire is in the true lumen of the SB stent is key to acquiring optimal angiographic results. Balloon anchoring from the MV, alternative inflation and each kissing inflation using large enough non-compliant balloons at high pressure, and the proximal optimisation technique are mandatory to improve both angiographic and clinical outcomes. Stratification of a given bifurcation lesion is recommended before decision making.

  15. Optic nerve sheath diameter: A novel way to monitor the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seelora Sahu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and monitoring of intracranial pressure is pivotal in management of brain injured patients. As a rapid and easily done bed side measurement, ultrasonography of the optic nerve sheath diameter presents itself as a possible replacement of the conventional invasive methods of intracranial pressure management. In this review we go through the evolution of optic nerve sheath diameter measurement as a novel marker of predicting raised intracranial pressure, the modalities by which it can be measured as well as its correlation with the invasive methods of intracranial pressure monitoring.

  16. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  17. Retinal nerve fiber and optic disc morphology using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin-Atik, Sevinc; Koc, Feray; Akin-Sari, Sirin; Ozmen, Mustafa

    2017-05-11

    To evaluate the optic nerve head parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohort and age-matched controls to determine whether SSc patients have an increased risk of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). We examined 30 patients (3 male, 27 female) with SSc and 28 age- and sex-matched controls. Retinal nerve fiber and optic disc morphology were evaluated using Cirrus SD-OCT. Optic disc morphology measurements including disc area, rim area, average and vertical cup/disc (C/D) ratio, and cup volume were not significantly different between the study groups. The average and 4-quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements of the C/D >0.3 subgroups were not significantly different in the patients and controls. These values were also similar for the C/D >0.5 subgroups except that the average inferior quadrant RNFL thickness of the right eyes in the patient subgroup was significantly thinner than in the control subgroup (p<0.05). Our SSc cohort had relatively shorter disease duration but increased prevalence of early glaucomatous damage signs. Our findings indicate that SSc is a risk factor for developing normal-tension glaucoma. Further studies combined with visual field evaluation are necessary to identify the long-term glaucomatous effects of SSc.

  18. Is the term "fasciculus opticus cerebralis" more justifiable than the term "optic nerve"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojniković, Bojo; Bajek, Snjezana; Bajek, Goran; Strenja-Linić, Ines; Grubesić, Aron

    2013-04-01

    The terminology of the optic nerve had already been changed three times, since 1895 until 1955 when the term "nervus opticus" was introduced in the "Terminologia Anatomica". Following our study we claim that, from the aspect of phylogenetic evolution of binocular vision development as well as optical embryogenesis where opticus is evidently presented as a product of diencephalic structures, the addition of the term "nervus" to opticus is not adequate and justified. From the clinical aspect the term "nervus opticus" is also inadequate, both as a "nerve" that has no functional regenerative properties, unlike other cranial nerves, as well as from a pedagogical and didactical aspect of educating future physicians. We suggest that the term "Fasciculus Opticus Cerebralis" should be used as it much better explains the origin as well as its affiliation to the central nervous system.

  19. Quantitative comparison of disc rim color in optic nerve atrophy of compressive optic neuropathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Eri; Hata, Masayuki; Oishi, Akio; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Uji, Akihito; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Miyata, Manabu; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose was to investigate an objective and quantitative method to estimate the redness of the optic disc neuroretinal rim, and to determine the usefulness of this method to differentiate compressive optic neuropathy (CON) from glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). In our study there were 126 eyes: 40 with CON, 40 with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), and 46 normal eyes (NOR). Digital color fundus photographs were assessed for the redness of disc rim color using ImageJ software. We separately measured the intensity of red, green, and blue pixels from RGB images. Three disc color indices (DCIs), which indicate the redness intensity, were calculated through existing formulas. All three DCIs of CON were significantly smaller than those of NOR (P  -6 dB), in which the extent of retinal nerve fiber layer thinning is comparable, the DCIs of mild CON were significantly smaller than those of mild NTG (P optic disc color was useful in differentiating early-stage CON from GON and NOR.

  20. Atypical clinical presentation and long-term survival in a patient with optic nerve medulloepithelioma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastora-Salvador Natalia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medulloepithelioma is a rare congenital tumor of the primitive medullary neuroepithelium. A significant proportion of patients with medulloepithelioma arising from the optic nerve die from intracranial spread or cerebral metastasis. Because it has no known distinct clinical features and because of its low frequency, this tumor presents within the first two to six years of life and is usually misdiagnosed clinically as a different type of optic nerve tumor. Here, we describe a new and atypical case of medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve in a 12-year-old boy. To the best of our knowledge, he is the oldest reported patient to present with this disease and, now as an adult, has the longest documented period of disease-free survival. Case presentation A 12-year-old Caucasian boy with headache and unilateral amaurosis was referred for a presumed optic nerve glioma to our hospital. A computed tomography scan showed optic nerve enlargement, and fundoscopy showed a whitish mass at the optic disc. Our patient had been followed at his local hospital for four years for an 'optic disc cyst' with no change or progression. He experienced mild progressive visual impairment during that period. He was admitted for resection, and a histopathological analysis revealed a medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve. Supplemental orbital radiotherapy was performed. He remained disease-free for 25 years. Conclusions Medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve can clinically mimic more common pediatric tumors, such as optic glioma, meningioma, or retinoblastoma. Thus, medulloepithelioma should be included in the differential diagnoses of pediatric optic nerve lesions. Fundoscopy in these patients may provide relevant information for diagnosis. Anterior optic nerve medulloepitheliomas may behave differently from and have a better prognosis than medulloepitheliomas that have a more posterior location. Our case report illustrates that long-term survival can be

  1. Primary radiotherapy in progressive optic nerve sheath meningiomas: a long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, P.; Blank, L.; Selva, D.; Wolbers, J.G.; Nowak, P.J.C.M.; Geskus, R.B.; Weis, E.; Mourits, M.P.; Rootman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background/aims To report the outcome of primary radiotherapy in patients with progressive optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM). Methods The clinical records of all patients were reviewed in a retrospective, observational, multicentre study. Results Thirty-four consecutive patients were included.

  2. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujat, M.; Chan, R. C.; Cense, B.; Park, B.H.; Joo, C.; Akkin, T.; Chen, TC; de Boer, JF

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a method to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in OCT images based on anisotropic noise suppression and deformable splines. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SDOCT) data was acquired at 29 kHz A-line rate with a depth resolution of 2.6 mum and a depth

  3. Recessive Mutations in SLC38A8 Cause Foveal Hypoplasia and Optic Nerve Misrouting without Albinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulter, James A.; Al-Araimi, Musallam; Conte, Ivan; van Genderen, Maria M.; Sheridan, Eamonn; Carr, Ian M.; Parry, David A.; Shires, Mike; Carrella, Sabrina; Bradbury, John; Khan, Kamron; Lakeman, Phillis; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I.; Webster, Andrew R.; Moore, Anthony T.; Pal, Bishwanath; Mohamed, Moin D.; Venkataramana, Anandula; Ramprasad, Vedam; Shetty, Rohit; Saktivel, Murugan; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; Tan, Alex; Mackey, David A.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Banfi, Sandro; Ali, Manir; Inglehearn, Chris F.; Toomes, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    Foveal hypoplasia and optic nerve misrouting are developmental defects of the visual pathway and only co-occur in connection with albinism; to date, they have only been associated with defects in the melanin-biosynthesis pathway. Here, we report that these defects can occur independently of albinism

  4. Retinal glutamate transporter changes in experimental glaucoma and after optic nerve transection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith R G; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Valenta, Danielle; Baumrind, Lisa; Pease, Mary Ellen; Quigley, Harry A

    2002-07-01

    High levels of glutamate can be toxic to retinal ganglion cells. Effective buffering of extracellular glutamate by retinal glutamate transporters is therefore important. This study was conducted to investigate whether glutamate transporter changes occur with two models of optic nerve injury in the rat. Glaucoma was induced in one eye of 35 adult Wistar rats by translimbal diode laser treatment to the trabecular meshwork. Twenty-five more rats underwent unilateral optic nerve transection. Two glutamate transporters, GLAST (EAAT-1) and GLT-1 (EAAT-2), were studied by immunohistochemistry and quantitative Western blot analysis. Treated and control eyes were compared 3 days and 1, 4, and 6 weeks after injury. Optic nerve damage was assessed semiquantitatively in epoxy-embedded optic nerve cross sections. Trabecular laser treatment resulted in moderate intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in all animals. After 1 to 6 weeks of experimental glaucoma, all treated eyes had significant optic nerve damage. Glutamate transporter changes were not detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis demonstrated significantly reduced GLT-1 in glaucomatous eyes compared with control eyes at 3 days (29.3% +/- 6.7%, P = 0.01), 1 week (55.5% +/- 13.6%, P = 0.02), 4 weeks (27.2% +/- 10.1%, P = 0.05), and 6 weeks (38.1% +/- 7.9%, P = 0.01; mean reduction +/- SEM, paired t-tests, n = 5 animals per group, four duplicate Western blot analyses per eye). The magnitude of the reduction in GLT-1 correlated significantly with mean IOP in the glaucomatous eye (r(2) = 0.31, P = 0.01, linear regression). GLAST was significantly reduced (33.8% +/- 8.1%, mean +/- SEM) after 4 weeks of elevated IOP (P = 0.01, paired t-test, n = 5 animals per group). In contrast to glaucoma, optic nerve transection resulted in an increase in GLT-1 compared with the control eye (P = 0.01, paired t-test, n = 15 animals). There was no significant change in GLAST after transection. GLT-1 and GLAST were significantly

  5. Anatomic relationship of the optic nerve channel with sphenoid al sinus: a computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Paulo Cesar J.; Albernaz, Pedro Luiz M.; Yamashida, Helio K.

    2004-01-01

    The sphenoid sinus, out of the facial sinuses, is certainly the most neglected as far as diagnosis is concerned. The surgical approach requires a detailed anatomical knowledge, considering the serious complications resulting from injuries of vital structures adjacent to this region. Aim: the objective of our research is to evaluate the anatomic relationship of the optic nerve with the sphenoid sinus making use of the computed tomography. Study design: series report. Material and method: the authors present a retrospective analysis of 203 computed tomographies of facial sinus belonging to individuals of both sexes aged 14 and over. The examinations were evaluated observing the course of the optic nerve, obtained through the degree of its projection on the wall of the sphenoid sinus. The method used was the modified classification of Delano, evaluating the absence of bone reduction (dehiscence) of the optic nerve in the sphenoid sinus. We analysed the degree of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus, using Hammer's classification adapted by Guerrero, apart from the pneumatization of the anterior clinoidal process and pterigoid and the presence of the Onodi cell. Results: most of the patients (78.96%) presented their optic nerve with a type 1 course. Type 2 was observed in 16.83% of the patients, type 3 in 3.47% and type 4 in 0.74%. The presence of dehiscence of the optic nerve in the wall of the sphenoid sinus was evidenced in 21.29% of the cases. Related to pneumatization, we noticed that the pre-selar type was observed in 6.44%, the post-selar type appeared in 39.11%, the selar type appeared in 54.45%, and the apneumatized type was not observed in any of the cases. The pneumatization of the anterior clinoidal process was verified in 10.64% of the cases, while the pterigoid process was apparent in 21.29% of the cases. The Onodi cell (sphenoetmoidal) was found in 7.92% of the cases. Conclusion: the presence of dehiscence of the optic nerve is related with the degree of

  6. Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Omer P; Cense, Barry; Jonnal, Ravi S; Wang, Qiang; Lee, Sangyeol; Gao, Weihua; Miller, Donald T

    2011-08-15

    Early detection of axonal tissue loss in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) is critical for effective treatment and management of diseases such as glaucoma. This study aims to evaluate the capability of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics (UHR-AO-OCT) for imaging the RNFL axonal bundles (RNFBs) with 3×3×3μm(3) resolution in the eye. We used a research-grade UHR-AO-OCT system to acquire 3°×3° volumes in four normal subjects and one subject with an arcuate retinal nerve fiber layer defect (n=5; 29-62years). Cross section (B-scans) and en face (C-scan) slices extracted from the volumes were used to assess visibility and size distribution of individual RNFBs. In one subject, we reimaged the same RNFBs twice over a 7month interval and compared bundle width and thickness between the two imaging sessions. Lastly we compared images of an arcuate RNFL defect acquired with UHR-AO-OCT and commercial OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis). Individual RNFBs were distinguishable in all subjects at 3° retinal eccentricity in both cross-sectional and en face views (width: 30-50μm, thickness: 10-15μm). At 6° retinal eccentricity, RNFBs were distinguishable in three of the five subjects in both views (width: 30-45μm, thickness: 20-40μm). Width and thickness RNFB measurements taken 7months apart were strongly correlated (p<0.0005). Mean difference and standard deviation of the differences between the two measurement sessions were -0.1±4.0μm (width) and 0.3±1.5μm (thickness). UHR-AO-OCT outperformed commercial OCT in terms of clarity of the microscopic retina. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of RNFB cross section reported in the living human eye. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  8. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-man Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 µg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.

  9. Nerve Fiber Flux Analysis Using Wide-Field Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ou; Liu, Liang; Liu, Li; Huang, David

    2018-02-01

    To devise a method to quantify nerve fibers over their arcuate courses over an extended peripapillary area using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Participants were imaged with 8 × 8-mm volumetric OCT scans centered at the optic disc. A new quantity, nerve fiber flux (NFF), represents the cross-sectional area transected perpendicular to the nerve fibers. The peripapillary area was divided into 64 tracks with equal flux. An iterative algorithm traced the trajectory of the tracks assuming that the relative distribution of the NFF was conserved with compensation for fiber connections to ganglion cells on the macular side. Average trajectory was averaged from normal eyes and use to calculate the NFF maps for glaucomatous eyes. The NFF maps were divided into eight sectors that correspond to visual field regions. There were 24 healthy and 10 glaucomatous eyes enrolled. The algorithm converged on similar patterns of NFL tracks for all healthy eyes. In glaucomatous eyes, NFF correlated with visual field sensitivity in the arcuate sectors (Spearman ρ = 0.53-0.62). Focal nerve fiber loss in glaucomatous eyes appeared as uniform tracks of NFF defects that followed the expected arcuate fiber trajectory. Using an algorithm based on the conservation of flux, we derived nerve fiber trajectories in the peripapillary area. The NFF map is useful for the visualization of focal defects and quantification of sector nerve fiber loss from wide-area volumetric OCT scans. NFF provides a cumulative measure of volumetric loss along nerve fiber tracks and could improve the detection of focal glaucoma damage.

  10. Bilateral optic nerve swelling after thyroidectomy followed by a course of radioiodine therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioyleva E.E.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common cancer of the endocrine system is thyroid cancer, representing 1.0–1.5 % all newly diagnosed cases of cancer. According to the cancer society of Russia, the thyroid cancer in children is much rarer than in adults. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents is characterized by an adverse clinical course and a high risk of developing metastases in the lymph nodes. The main method of treatment for pediatric thyroid cancer is total thyroidectomy with central neck lymph node dissection followed by radioactive iodine therapy. In foreign and domestic literature, complications of the organ of vision, namely, changes of the optic disc, after surgical treatment for thyroid cancer are poorly understood. The risk of transient hypocalcemia and hypothyroidism increases after thyroidectomy. In the literature, there are two reported cases of the optic nerve swelling combined with hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia. While hypocalcemia intracranial hypertension and swelling of the optic nerves are often recorded. In this article, the authors present their own clinical observation of a 13-year-old patient after thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy with detailed analysis of the clinical data and study results. According to the survey of the patient, bilateral swelling of the optic disc was revealed, which could occur due to hypothyroid state. Objective: to identify the cause of the development of bilateral optic nerve swelling in a patient after thyroidectomy and treatment course with radioactive iodine.

  11. [Measuring contrast sensitivity using visual acuity tests in retinal and optic nerve diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, E; Marré, E; Mierdel, P

    1990-01-01

    The luminance contrast needed to discern various test types was measured with monochromatic and achromatic light to detect discrete functional deficiencies of the retina and optic nerve in cases of normal visual acuity. Landolt rings corresponding to visual acuity levels from 0.04 to 1.0 were used as test types. A significant increase in the necessary minimum contrast was detectable with blue test light on large Landolt rings in patients with diabetic retinopathy, ocular hypertension and glaucoma and with green or yellow test light on medium-sized and small Landolt rings in patients with central serous chorioidopathy and optic atrophy. The additional contrast needed to reach the maximum visual acuity amounts to 14-100% compared with normal visual acuity, depending on the color of the test light and the diagnosis. The amount of contrast needed is greatest in retinal diseases, and it is therefore possible to a certain extent to distinguish these from diseases of the optic nerve.

  12. In vivo phosphorylation of axonal proteins in goldfish optic nerve during regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrivee, D.C.; Grafstein, B.

    1987-01-01

    In vivo phosphorylation of axonal proteins was investigated in normal and regenerating optic nerves of goldfish by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. By 6-24 h after intraocular injection of H/sub 3/(32)PO/sub 4/, approximately 20 optic nerve proteins ranging in size from 19 to 180 kilodaltons and in pI from 4.4 to 6.8 were seen to have incorporated radiolabel. Five of these proteins showed a robust increase in incorporation of phosphate during regeneration. Among the latter was an acidic (pI 4.5) 45-kilodalton protein, which has previously been shown to be conveyed by fast axonal transport and to increase dramatically in its rate of synthesis during regeneration of goldfish optic axons.

  13. Malnutrition and myelin structure: an X-ray scattering study of rat sciatic and optic nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, V.; Vargas, R.; Marquez, G.; Vonasek, E.; Mateu, L.; Luzzati, V.; Borges, J.

    2000-01-01

    Taking advantage of the fast and accurate X-ray scattering techniques recently developed in our laboratory, we tackled the study of the structural alterations induced in myelin by malnutrition. Our work was performed on sciatic and optic nerves dissected from rats fed with either a normal or a low-protein caloric diet, as a function of age (from birth to 60 days). By way of electrophysiological controls we also measured (on the sciatic nerves) the height and velocity of the compound action potential. Malnutrition was found to decrease the amount of myelin and to impair the packing order of the membranes in the sheaths. (orig.)

  14. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with optic nerve melanocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey-García, A; Méndez-Hernández, C D; Santos-Bueso, E; García-Feijoo, J

    2015-10-01

    A 60-year old patient was referred for cataract surgery. The examination showed retrokeratic pigment in the left eye, which had an intraocular pressure of 24 mm Hg. The funduscopy showed a brown lesion on the left optic disk, with adjacent vitreous seeding of pigment. The patient was thus diagnosed with secondary pigment dispersion syndrome due to optic disk melanocytoma. Although melanocytoma is most commonly a benign, stationary tumor, it may present with major complications leading to significant visual loss. A patient with melanocytoma of the optic disk should be examined periodically. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Difficulties of diagnosis in a case of optic nerve drusen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, M; Munteanu, G

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a particullary case of optic nervue drusen. Ophthalmoscopic features (superficial drusen in one eye and deep drusen in another), clinical association with anisometropia and ambliopia, wrong interpretation of PEV and tomodensitometry mod to diagnostic confusion, supplementary investigations, prolonged and expensive treatment.

  16. Integrated Model of the Eye/Optic Nerve Head Biomechanical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, A.; Myers, J. G.; Nelson, E.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.

    2017-01-01

    Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a concern for long-duration space flight. Previously, it has been suggested that ocular changes observed in VIIP syndrome are related to the cephalad fluid shift that results in altered fluid pressures [1]. We are investigating the impact of changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) using a combination of numerical models, which simulate the effects of various environment conditions, including finite element (FE) models of the posterior eye. The specific interest is to understand how altered pressures due to gravitational changes affect the biomechanical environment of tissues of the posterior eye and optic nerve sheath. METHODS: Additional description of the numerical modeling is provided in the IWS abstract by Nelson et al. In brief, to simulate the effects of a cephalad fluid shift on the cardiovascular and ocular systems, we utilized a lumped-parameter compartment model of these systems. The outputs of this lumped-parameter model then inform boundary conditions (pressures) for a finite element model of the optic nerve head (Figure 1). As an example, we show here a simulation of postural change from supine to 15 degree head-down tilt (HDT), with primary outcomes being the predicted change in strains at the optic nerve head (ONH) region, specifically in the lamina cribrosa (LC), retrolaminar optic nerve, and prelaminar neural tissue (PLNT). The strain field can be decomposed into three orthogonal components, denoted as the first, second and third principal strains. We compare the peak tensile (first principal) and compressive (third principal) strains, since elevated strain alters cell phenotype and induces tissue remodeling. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our lumped-parameter model predicted an IOP increase of c. 7 mmHg after 21 minutes of 15 degree HDT, which agreed with previous reports of IOP in HDT [1]. The corresponding FEM simulations predicted a relative increase in the magnitudes of the peak tensile

  17. Retinal, optic nerve and chiasmal function following radiation therapy demonstrated by visual evoked response testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, A.B.; Constine, L.S.; Smith, D.; Palisca, M.; Ojomo, K.; Muhs, A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of the retina, optic nerve, and optic chiasm to radiation doses conventionally used to treat patients with primary brain or pituitary tumors and to explore the character of detectable radiation effects. Visual evoked response (VER) testing is a noninvasive and sensitive method for identifying radiation injury to the visual system due to alterations in small vessel or myelin integrity. Such evaluations may increase our understanding of the threshold for and the pathogenesis of radiation injury. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients irradiated for brain or pituitary tumors between 1972 and 1996 had VER testing. Patients were included in study if the retina, optic nerves or chiasm were in the radiation (RT) field. At the time of RT patients ranged in age from 1.5 to 55 years (median 33). Mean doses were as follows: right retina, 29 Gy (range 10 - 60 Gy); left retina, 29.5 Gy (range 10 - 60 Gy); right optic nerve, 42.9 Gy (range 10 - 60 Gy); left optic nerve, 42.6 Gy (range 10 - 60 Gy); and optic chiasm, 48.2 Gy (range 10 - 65 Gy). Daily fractionation ranged from 1.5 to 1.8 Gy. Pattern VER testing distinguishes compressive or ischemic effects of tumor on the visual system from radiation retinopathy or optic neuropathy on the basis of the conduction amplitude and delay pattern. Prechiasm, chiasm, and postchiasm injuries are distinguishable by analyzing VER changes. Four evoked responses were obtained for each eye, each representing the average of 100 stimulus reversals. Results: VER was normal in 11 patients and abnormal in 13 patients. Only 2 patients (8%) had VER evidence of radiation injury to the visual system, one of whom had visual compromise. The other 11 abnormal patients had characteristic VER changes attributable to tumor or surgical damage. There was no significant difference in the radiation doses given to any subgroup. The one patient with radiation retinopathy had received 55-60 Gy to the posterior globe. Ten years

  18. Optic Nerve Atrophy Due to Long-Standing Compression by Planum Sphenoidale Meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Somma, Alberto; Kaen, Ariel Matias; Cárdenas Ruiz-Valdepeñas, Eugenio; Cavallo, Luigi Maria

    2018-05-01

    In this study we report an uncommon endoscopic endonasal image of an atrophic optic nerve as seen after surgical removal of a suprasellar meningioma. The peculiarity of this case is the long-lasting underestimated ocular symptomatology of the patient who reported a 15-year history of impairment of vision on her left eye. A 51-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of a 15-year history of impairment of vision on her left eye. After making serendipitously the diagnosis of a suprasellar mass, we performed endoscopic endonasal surgery. The tumor was reached from below and removed safely, without manipulation of the optic pathways. At the end of tumor removal, the impressive left optic nerve atrophy due to enduring local tumor compression was visualized. To the best of our knowledge, no endoscopic endonasal image with such features has been provided in the pertinent literature. Possibly, this contribution will help identify damaged optic nerves during endoscopic endonasal surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence of enhancement of the optic nerve/sheath complex in fat-suppression orbit MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Kyu; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-15

    To elucidate the incidence of Gd-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve/sheath complex (ONC) in patients with various ophthalmopathies using fat-suppression MRI. Orbit MRI with fat-suppression technique (ChemSat) was performed in 58 patients with normal and various orbital lesions. The fat-suppression MR was done with and without Gd-DTPA injection in all cases. MR findings were reviewed retrospectively in a blind fashion with respect to presence or absence of contrast enhancement of the ONC. Contrast enhancement of the ONC was seen in 86% (6/7) of cavernous sinus lesions, 80% (8/10) of intraconal lesions excluding the ONC, 57% (16/28) of ONC lesions, 38% (3/8) of ocular lesions, and 2% (1/55) of normal orbits. The ONC enhancement was the most common in optic nerve/sheath tumors (10/10), and pseudotumors (6/6), cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous malformations (3/3) and cavernous sinus thrombosis (2/2), and less frequently seen in optic neuritis (3/14). Enhancement of the ONC may be seen in lesions of the cavernous sinus and orbit other than optic nerve/sheath lesion.

  20. Retinal and Optic Nerve Degeneration in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Followed up for 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Elena; Ara, Jose R; Martin, Jesus; Almarcegui, Carmen; Dolz, Isabel; Vilades, Elisa; Gil-Arribas, Laura; Fernandez, Francisco J; Polo, Vicente; Larrosa, Jose M; Pablo, Luis E; Satue, Maria

    2017-05-01

    To quantify retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) changes in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls with a 5-year follow-up and to analyze correlations between disability progression and RNFL degeneration. Observational and longitudinal study. One hundred patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 50 healthy controls. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmic and electrophysiologic exploration and were re-evaluated annually for 5 years. Visual acuity (Snellen chart), color vision (Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates), visual field examination, optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser polarimetry (SLP), and visual evoked potentials. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, disease duration, treatments, prior optic neuritis episodes, and quality of life (QOL; based on the 54-item Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Scale score). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed changes in all RNFL thicknesses in both groups. In the MS group, changes were detected in average thickness and in the mean deviation using the GDx-VCC nerve fiber analyzer (Laser Diagnostic Technologies, San Diego, CA) and in the P100 latency of visual evoked potentials; no changes were detected in visual acuity, color vision, or visual fields. Optical coherence tomography showed greater differences in the inferior and temporal RNFL thicknesses in both groups. In MS patients only, OCT revealed a moderate correlation between the increase in EDSS and temporal and superior RNFL thinning. Temporal RNFL thinning based on OCT results was correlated moderately with decreased QOL. Multiple sclerosis patients exhibit a progressive axonal loss in the optic nerve fiber layer. Retinal nerve fiber layer thinning based on OCT results is a useful marker for assessing MS progression and correlates with increased disability and reduced QOL. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Optic disc and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer characteristics associated with glaucomatous optic disc in young myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Eun; Sung, Kyung Rim; Park, Ji Min; Yoon, Joo Young; Kang, Sung Yong; Park, Sung Bae; Koo, Hyung Jin

    2017-03-01

    To explore optic disc and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) features associated with glaucomatous optic disc (GOD) in young myopia. Presence of GOD, optic disc tilt, and disc torsion were determined using fundus photographs. If the measured disc tilt ratio was >1.3, the optic disc was classified as tilted. Optic disc torsion was defined as a >15° deviation in the long axis of the optic disc from the vertical meridian. The average and four quadrants RNFL thicknesses were assessed using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the presence of GOD. Nine hundred and sixty myopic subjects were recruited from four refractive surgery clinic databases. The mean age was 26.6 ± 5.7 years and spherical equivalent (SE) was -5.5 ± 2.5 diopters. Among 960 eyes, 26 (2.7%) received GOD group classification. Among 934 normal eyes, 290 (31.0%) had titled optic discs. Eighteen eyes (69.2%) in the GOD group had tilted optic discs. When compared to normal eyes, the GOD group had significantly higher tilt ratios (1.4 ± 0.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.1, p Optic disc tilt was found in approximately one-third of young myopic eyes and was independently associated with the presence of GOD.

  2. Expansions of the neurovascular scleral canal and contained optic nerve occur early in the hypertonic saline rat experimental glaucoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K; Cepurna, William O; Johnson, Elaine C; Morrison, John C; Burgoyne, Claude F

    2016-04-01

    To characterize early optic nerve head (ONH) structural change in rat experimental glaucoma (EG). Unilateral intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was induced in Brown Norway rats by hypertonic saline injection into the episcleral veins and animals were sacrificed 4 weeks later by perfusion fixation. Optic nerve cross-sections were graded from 1 (normal) to 5 (extensive injury) by 5 masked observers. ONHs with peripapillary retina and sclera were embedded, serial sectioned, 3-D reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall and animal-specific EG versus Control eye ONH parameter differences were assessed globally and regionally by linear mixed effect models with significance criteria adjusted for multiple comparisons. Expansions of the optic nerve and surrounding anterior scleral canal opening achieved statistical significance overall (p < 0.0022), and in 7 of 8 EG eyes (p < 0.005). In at least 5 EG eyes, significant expansions (p < 0.005) in Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) (range 3-10%), the anterior and posterior scleral canal openings (8-21% and 5-21%, respectively), and the optic nerve at the anterior and posterior scleral canal openings (11-30% and 8-41%, respectively) were detected. Optic nerve expansion was greatest within the superior and inferior quadrants. Optic nerve expansion at the posterior scleral canal opening was significantly correlated to optic nerve damage (R = 0.768, p = 0.042). In the rat ONH, the optic nerve and surrounding BMO and neurovascular scleral canal expand early in their response to chronic experimental IOP elevation. These findings provide phenotypic landmarks and imaging targets for detecting the development of experimental glaucomatous optic neuropathy in the rat eye. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Patulous Subarachnoid Space of the Optic Nerve Associated with X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Chaudhry, Imtiaz

    2013-01-01

    Although the deficiency forms are the most common manifestations of rickets, there are other forms of rickets that are resistant to vitamin D. Of these, the most common is X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. Rickets represents a group of multiple cranial bone disorders-craniosynostosis and the presence of Chari I malformation being the most notable-that explain the increase in intracranial pressure. We present a 4-year-old patient with an unusual association of X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets, bilateral proptosis, and prominent bilateral widening of the optic nerve sheaths. Although the association between intracranial hypertension and rickets is known, to the best of our knowledge, such a prominent distention of the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve without papilloedema has not been previously described.

  4. MR images of optic nerve compression by the intracranial carotid artery. Including the patients with normal tension glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hiroaki; Kin, Kiyonori; Arichi, Miwa; Ogata, Nahoko; Shimizu, Ken; Akai, Mikio; Ikeda, Koshi; Sawada, Satoshi; Matsumura, Miyo

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-one eyes of 12 patients with MRI-defined optic nerve compression by the intracranial carotid artery were examined to investigate whether the visual field defects result from optic nerve compression or other causes. In 4 affected eyes with 2 patients, we could not distinguish whether the visual field defects were due to optic nerve compression or normal-tension glaucoma. These patients had evidence of glaucoma-like cupping of the optic disc and visual field defects. Nine affected eyes with 7 patients were diagnosed as having compressive optic neuropathy due to unilateral optic nerve compression associated with visual field defects or non-glaucomatous visual field defects. Four of 9 affected eyes were associated with optic disc cupping of various degrees. We suggest that the glaucoma-like visual field defects and optic disc cupping may result from a compressive lesion of the anterior visual pathway. Frequently, this feature caused confusion in the differential diagnosis between optic nerve compression by carotid artery and normal-tension glaucoma. (author)

  5. Ultrastructure of the extracellular matrix of bovine dura mater, optic nerve sheath and sclera.

    OpenAIRE

    Raspanti, M; Marchini, M; Della Pasqua, V; Strocchi, R; Ruggeri, A

    1992-01-01

    The sclera, the outermost sheath of the optic nerve and the dura mater have been investigated histologically and ultrastructurally. Although these tissues appear very similar under the light microscope, being dense connective tissues mainly composed of collagen bundles and a limited amount of cells and elastic fibres, they exhibit subtle differences on electron microscopy. In the dura and sclera collagen appears in the form of large, nonuniform fibrils, similar to those commonly found in tend...

  6. Simultaneous central retinal artery occlusion and optic nerve vasculitis in Crohn disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razek Georges Coussa

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions and importance: To our knowledge, this is the first case of unilateral CRAO and bilateral optic nerve occlusive vasculitis in Crohn disease, which should be considered as an etiology of retinal vascular occlusive disorders especially in young patients. It is important for ophthalmologists to be aware of the ophthalmic risks associated with Crohn disease as aggressive treatment with systemic steroids and immunosuppressive agents is often needed.

  7. Novel Combinatory Approaches to Repair Visual System after Optic Nerve Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Novel Combinatory Approaches to Repair Visual System After Optic Nerve Damage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...biological functions such as metabolism, growth, cell cycle, and survival ( Cardone et al., 1998; Diehl, Cheng, Roussel, & Sherr, 1998; Hers, Vincent...of injured adult sensory neurons. The Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 7161–7170. Cardone , M. H., Roy, N., Stennicke, H. R., Salvesen, G. S., Franke, T. F

  8. Radioinduced optic nerve neuropathy after treatment for nasopharynx cancer. About two cases and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnejja, W.; Siala, W.; Daoud, J.; Fki, J.; Ghorbel, M.; Frikha, M.

    2007-01-01

    The radioinduced neuropathy of the optic nerve is a rare and delayed complication. Its incidence is difficult to evaluate in the literature. It depends on the whole irradiation dose, fractionation and irradiated volume. Currently, it does not exist any efficient treatment, only the prevention play an important part on avoiding the high doses, and the broad irradiation volumes. The innovating techniques using conformal radiotherapy with or without modulated intensity could contribute to reduce this toxicity incidence. (N.C.)

  9. Optic nerve pilomyxoid astrocytoma in a patient with Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sushmita; Fort, John A; Yachnis, Anthony T; Williams, Charles A

    2015-06-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS; MIM 163950) is an autosomal dominant syndrome which is clinically diagnosed by the distinct facial features, short stature, cardiac anomalies and developmental delay. About 50% of cases are associated with gain of function mutations in PTPN11 gene which leads to activation of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. This is known to have a role in tumorigenesis. Despite this, only limited reports of solid tumors (Fryssira H, Leventopoulos G, Psoni S, et al. Tumor development in three patients with Noonan syndrome. Eur J Pediatr 2008;167:1025-1031; Schuettpelz LG, McDonald S, Whitesell K et al. Pilocytic astrocytoma in a child with Noonan syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;53:1147-1149; Sherman CB, Ali-Nazir A, Gonzales-Gomez I, et al. Primary mixed glioneuronal tumor of the central nervous system in a patient with Noonan syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2009;31:61-64; Sanford RA, Bowman R, Tomita T, et al. A 16 year old male with Noonan's syndrome develops progressive scoliosis and deteriorating gait. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999;30:47-52) and no prior reports of optic gliomas have been described in patients with NS. We present here a patient with NS with a PTPN11 mutation and an optic pathway pilomyxoid astrocytoma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Surgical decompression in endocrine orbitopathy. Visual evoked potential evaluation and effect on the optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Luigi C; Tieghi, Riccardo; Galie', Manlio; Franco, Filippo; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    Endocrine orbitopathy (EO) represents the most frequent and important extrathyroidal stigma of Graves disease. This chronic autoimmune condition involves the orbital contents, including extraocular muscles, periorbital connective-fatty tissue and lacrimal gland. The increase of fat tissue and the enlargement of extraocular muscles within the bony confines of the orbit leads to proptosis, and in the most severe cases optic neuropathy, caused by compression and stretching of the optic nerve. The congestion and the pressure of the enlarged muscles, constrict the nerve and can lead to reduced sight or loss of vision with the so called "orbital apex syndrome". Generally surgical treatment of EO, based on fat and/or orbital wall expansion, is possible and effective in improving exophthalmos and diplopia. Since there are limited reports focussing on optic neuropathy recovery after fat and/or orbital walls decompression the Authors decided to perform a retrospective analysis on a series of patients affected by EO. The study population was composed of 10 patients affected by EO and presenting to the Unit of Cranio Maxillofacial Surgery, Center for Craniofacial Deformities & Orbital Surgery St. Anna Hospital and University, Ferrara, Italy, for evaluation and treatment. A complete Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP) evaluation was performed. There were seven women and three men with a median age of 55 years. Optic nerve VEP amplitude and latency were recorded as normal or pathological. Abnormal results were scored as moderate, mild and severe. Differences in VEP pre and post-operatively were recorded as present or absent (i.e. VEP Delta). Pearson chi square test was applied. There were 20 operated orbits. The first VEP evaluation was performed 3.2 months before surgery and post-operative VEP control was done after a mean of 18.7 months. Fat decompression was performed in all cases and eight patients had also bony decompression. VEP amplitude and latency were affected in 10 and 15

  11. The effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head analysis in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Munire Erman; Taskin, Omur; Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Yusuf

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head topographic analysis in normally menstruating, healthy women. The study included single eyes selected randomly from each of 52 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination. Optic nerve head topographic analyses were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II (HRT II, software version 1.6). The analyses were repeated three times during the menstrual cycle: in the follicular phase (days 7-10 of the cycle), at ovulation, and in the late luteal phase (days 1-3 before menstrual bleeding). Serum oestradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone levels were measured at each menstrual phase. Fourteen subjects were excluded from the study. The mean age of the subjects (n = 38) was 25.6 +/- 3.7 years (range 21-34 years). Blood oestradiol levels were significantly lower in the late luteal phase (35.8 pg/ml) (p cup : disc ratio, cup : disc area ratio and the cup area were significantly higher during the luteal phase (p menstrual cycle in healthy women significantly alter neuroretinal rim area and cup variables of the optic nerve head. These findings should be taken into consideration in the clinical follow-up of young women with glaucoma.

  12. Optic nerve sheath meningioma treated with radiation conformal therapy. Clinical case report with long follow up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zomosa R, Gustavo; Cruz T, Sebastian; Miranda G, Gonzalo; Harbst S, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM) are rare tumors of the anterior visual pathway. Without treatment, tumor growth leads to progressive loss of visual acuity and blindness due to optic nerve compression. Case report: Patient, female, 42 years without other morbility , begins in 1992 with decreased visual acuity of the left eye, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed enlargement of the left optic nerve sheath, suggestive of ONSM. On that occasion, orbit exploration failed, so it was decided to follow up with annual clinical and imaging controls. About ten years later, begins with progressive deterioration of visual acuity and visual field , with ptosis and ocular motor palsy of the left eye, confirmed with neuro-ophthalmological examinations. MRI shows tumor progression. A new surgical approach was discarded by the risk of visual worsening. A conformal radiotherapy was performed with a fractionated 54 Gy dose. Today, at age 65, after 24 years of follow up,13 post radiation therapy. clinical and radiological stability of ONSM is confirmed. Discussion: Conformal radiotherapy has been shown as an effective therapy, with fewer complications and better outcomes in the preservation of visual function in the long term follow up Radio-fluoro guided surgery in high grade gliomas

  13. Improvement of visual acuity and VEP after optic nerve contusion by NGF and its safety analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of neuropathic factor(NGFon visual acuity and visual evoked potential(VEPin patients with optic nerve contusion. METHODS:Totally 78 patients(78 eyeswith optic nerve contusion were selected. From January 2013 to June 2016, 39 cases(39 eyeswere divided into observation group and control group respectively according to the random number table method. Prednisone, vitamins and mecobalamin tablets treatment were given to both groups, based on that, the observation group was given NGF treatment, continuous treatment of 2 courses(21d for a course of treatment. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in visual field defect and visual field sensitivity between the observation group and the control group before treatment(P>0.05. After treatment, the visual field defect degree of the observation group was smaller, the visual field sensitivity was better than that of the control group(PP>0.05. After treatment, the P100 wave latency of the observation group was significantly shorter than that of the control group(PPPCONCLUSION: NGF treatment for optic nerve contusion can significantly improve the patient's visual acuity, VEP indicators, reduce visual field defects, improve visual field sensitivity.

  14. [Traumatic lesion of the optic nerve head by flying fish: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Orgül, S; Robertson, A; Flammer, J

    2004-05-01

    Traumatic lesion to the optic nerve often leads to severe and persistent functional loss. A male patient was transferred to our hospital from the University Eye Clinic of Guadeloupe 5 days after ocular injury caused by a flying fish. Visual function was light perception. The anterior part of the eye and retina were unremarkable. A computer tomography disclosed a fracture of the sphenoid sinus, with a little bone fragment (DD: foreign body) located close to the optic nerve. Therapy had been started with Aminopenicillin combined with clavulan acid (Augmentin) i. v., 500 ml methylprednisolone (Solumedrol) i. v., lysine-acetyl salicylate (Aspegic) and topical application of dexamethasone combined with neomycin/polymyxin B (Maxitrol). We continued this therapy and intensified it by adding nimodipine (Nimotop) 30 1-1-1 and acetazolamide retard (Diamox sustet) 1-0-1. Unfortunately visual function did not recover under therapy. Traumatic lesions of the optic nerve head, especially when due to axial or tangential forces, can lead to severe and irreversible functional loss. Severe traumatic lesions, even bone fractures induced by flying fish are not a seldom encounter in the Caribbean Sea.

  15. P3-7: On Prototyping a Visual Prosthesis System with Artificial Retina and Optic Nerve Based on Arrayed Microfibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hong Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditional visual prosthesis system combines both a camera and a microelectrode array implanted on the visual neural network including retina, optic nerve, and visual cortex. Here, we introduce a new visual prosthesis system in which an artificial retina and optic nerve are demonstrated. The prototype of optic nerve for image transmission is comprised of arrayed PMMA microfibers with both ends connected with two planes, one functioned as retina for light reception and another attached to visual cortex. The microfibers are drawn from the thin film prepared by PMMA/chlorobenzene solution. Each micro fiber serves as an optical waveguide for the delivery of a single image pixel. It is demonstrated that with proper imaging optics, arrayed micro fibers could be lit as discrete light spots in accordance with the input image. Each micro fiber is expected to function as a stimulation unit for optical neural modulation in a visual prosthesis system.

  16. Indomethacin lowers optic nerve oxygen tension and reduces the effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition and carbon dioxide breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T; Stefánsson, E

    2004-01-01

    Prostaglandins are important in blood flow regulation. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) breathing and carbonic anhydrase inhibition increase the oxygen tension in the retina and optic nerve. To study the mechanism of this effect and the role of cyclo-oxygenase in the regulation of optic nerve oxygen tension...... (ONPO(2)), the authors investigated how indomethacin affects ONPO(2) and the ONPO(2) increases caused by CO(2) breathing and carbonic anhydrase inhibition in the pig....

  17. Optical coherence tomography evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer in longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico C. Moura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT measurements on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL of healthy controls and patients with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM without previous optic neuritis. METHOD: Twenty-six eyes from 26 patients with LETM and 26 control eyes were subjected to automated perimetry and OCT for comparison of RNFL measurements. RESULTS: The mean deviation values from perimetry were significantly lower in patients with LETM than in controls (p<0.0001. RNFL measurements in the nasal quadrant and in the 3-o'clock segment were significantly smaller in LETM eyes than in controls. (p=0.04 and p=0.006, respectively. No significantly differences in other RNFL measurements were found. CONCLUSION: Patients with LETM may present localized RNFL loss, particularly on the nasal side of the optic disc, associated with slight visual field defects, even in the absence of previous episodes of optic neuritis. These findings emphasize the fact that patients with LETM may experience attacks of subclinical optic nerve damage.

  18. Immune mapping of the peripheral part of the visual analyzer and optic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform immune mapping of the peripheral part of visual analyzer and optic nerve in order to identify potential antigenic targets of autoimmune attack. Methods. Eyes enucleated for terminal painful glaucoma (n = 30 were studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of isolated retina and optic nerve using a broad panel of antibodies, i.e., monoclonal murine anti-MBP (myelin basic protein antibodies, polyclonal rabbit anti-alpha fodrin antibodies, monoclonal murine anti-NSE2 (neuron-specific enolase antibodies, monoclonal murine anti-GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, and polyclonal rabbit anti-S100 antibodies. IHC reaction was visualized using Mouse and Rabbit Specific HRP / AEC Detection IHC Kit. IHC reaction without primary antibodies included was a negative control. IHC reaction was considered as follows: negative — no specific cellular staining or less than 10 % of cells are stained; mild — 10‑30 % of cells are stained (+; moderate — 30‑75 % of cells are stained (++; marked — more than 75 % of cells are stained (+++; overexpression — 100 % of cells intensively express markers. Additionally, staining intensity was considered as mild (+1, moderate (+2, strong (+3 and intense (+4.Results. Immune mapping with a broad panel of monoclonal antibodies identified ocular structures which were stained with IHC markers. Retina was stained with almost all markers of neural differentiation (i.e., antibodies against NSE, GFAP, S100, and α-fodrin excepting anti-MBP autoantibodies. IHC reaction intensity in retinal layers and structures varied and depended on markers. Moderate (2+ staining with antibodies against MBP, NSE, GFAP, and S100 and marked (3+ staining with antibodies against alpha-fodrin was detected in the cytoplasm of optic nerve glia.Conclusion. Complete labelling of retina structures was performed. As a result, IHC profiles of retinal neurons, optic nerve axons

  19. Immune mapping of the peripheral part of the visual analyzer and optic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform immune mapping of the peripheral part of visual analyzer and optic nerve in order to identify potential antigenic targets of autoimmune attack. Methods. Eyes enucleated for terminal painful glaucoma (n = 30 were studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of isolated retina and optic nerve using a broad panel of antibodies, i.e., monoclonal murine anti-MBP (myelin basic protein antibodies, polyclonal rabbit anti-alpha fodrin antibodies, monoclonal murine anti-NSE2 (neuron-specific enolase antibodies, monoclonal murine anti-GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, and polyclonal rabbit anti-S100 antibodies. IHC reaction was visualized using Mouse and Rabbit Specific HRP / AEC Detection IHC Kit. IHC reaction without primary antibodies included was a negative control. IHC reaction was considered as follows: negative — no specific cellular staining or less than 10 % of cells are stained; mild — 10‑30 % of cells are stained (+; moderate — 30‑75 % of cells are stained (++; marked — more than 75 % of cells are stained (+++; overexpression — 100 % of cells intensively express markers. Additionally, staining intensity was considered as mild (+1, moderate (+2, strong (+3 and intense (+4.Results. Immune mapping with a broad panel of monoclonal antibodies identified ocular structures which were stained with IHC markers. Retina was stained with almost all markers of neural differentiation (i.e., antibodies against NSE, GFAP, S100, and α-fodrin excepting anti-MBP autoantibodies. IHC reaction intensity in retinal layers and structures varied and depended on markers. Moderate (2+ staining with antibodies against MBP, NSE, GFAP, and S100 and marked (3+ staining with antibodies against alpha-fodrin was detected in the cytoplasm of optic nerve glia.Conclusion. Complete labelling of retina structures was performed. As a result, IHC profiles of retinal neurons, optic nerve axons

  20. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head in mouse fetuses caused by simultaneous irradiation of x-rays and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Shoichiro; Yuguchi, Shuji; Majima, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Eye abnormalities in mouse fetuses caused by irradiation of X-rays alone, or simultaneous irradiation of X-rays and ultrasound on day 7 of gestation were histologically studied on day 18 of gestation. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head were examined in the present experiment, and the following results were obtained: 1. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head associated with developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were detected in 4 fetuses (5 eyes). In all cases, excessive mesenchymal tissue of components of the primary vitreous was found from the optic nerve head to the vitreous cavity. It was impossible to distinguish between the neuroectodermal tissue of Bergmeister's papilla and the mesodermal tissue of components of the primary vitreous. 2. In 3 fetuses (4 eyes), the fetal fissure involving the optic nerve head was open. At the peripapillary region, the inner layer of the optic cup was everted and hyperplastic. The inner neuroblastic layer of the everted portion contacted the outer coat of the eyeball, directly. In these cases, the optic nerve entrance was very wide. 3. The relation between the congenital optic nerve head anomalies encountered clinically and those observed experimentally in the mouse fetuses was discussed. It was considered that the pathogenesis of congenital optic nerve head anomalies consists of the malformation of the primitive epithelial papilla, the faulty closure of the proximal end of the fetal fissure, the anomalies of Bergmeister's papilla, the anomalies of the hyaloid system, or the abnormal differentiation and growth of the neuroectodermal cells of the optic cup. (author)

  1. A joint estimation detection of Glaucoma progression in 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve head images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Akram; Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2014-03-01

    Glaucoma is an ocular disease characterized by distinctive changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and visual field. Glaucoma can strike without symptoms and causes blindness if it remains without treatment. Therefore, early disease detection is important so that treatment can be initiated and blindness prevented. In this context, important advances in technology for non-invasive imaging of the eye have been made providing quantitative tools to measure structural changes in ONH topography, an essential element for glaucoma detection and monitoring. 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), an optical imaging technique, has been commonly used to discriminate glaucomatous from healthy subjects. In this paper, we present a new framework for detection of glaucoma progression using 3D SD-OCT images. In contrast to previous works that the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement provided by commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomograph, we consider the whole 3D volume for change detection. To integrate a priori knowledge and in particular the spatial voxel dependency in the change detection map, we propose the use of the Markov Random Field to handle a such dependency. To accommodate the presence of false positive detection, the estimated change detection map is then used to classify a 3D SDOCT image into the "non-progressing" and "progressing" glaucoma classes, based on a fuzzy logic classifier. We compared the diagnostic performance of the proposed framework to existing methods of progression detection.

  2. Comparison of the Deep Optic Nerve Head Structure between Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ji; Choi, Yun Jeong; Kim, Tae-Woo; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2016-01-01

    To compare the deep optic nerve head (ONH) structure between normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and also in healthy subjects as a control using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This prospective cross-sectional study included 21 NAION patients who had been diagnosed as NAION at least 6 months prior to study entry, and 42 NTG patients and 42 healthy controls who were matched with NAION patients in terms of age, intraocular pressure (IOP), and optic disc area. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in the affected sector was also matched between NAION and NTG patients. The ONH was imaged using SD-OCT with the EDI technique. The anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (LCD) and average prelaminar tissue (PT) thickness were measured in a sector of interest in each eye and compared among the three groups. In the sector-matched comparison, LCD was largest in NTG patients, followed by NAION patients, while PT was thinner in NTG patients than in NAION patients (all P < 0.001). NAION patients had a comparable LCD and a thinner PT relative to normal controls (P = 0.170 and < 0.001, respectively). The deep ONH configuration is strikingly different between NTG and NAION. The differing features provide comparative insight into the pathophysiology of the two diseases, and may be useful for differential diagnosis.

  3. Comparison of the Deep Optic Nerve Head Structure between Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ji Lee

    Full Text Available To compare the deep optic nerve head (ONH structure between normal-tension glaucoma (NTG and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and also in healthy subjects as a control using enhanced depth imaging (EDI spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.This prospective cross-sectional study included 21 NAION patients who had been diagnosed as NAION at least 6 months prior to study entry, and 42 NTG patients and 42 healthy controls who were matched with NAION patients in terms of age, intraocular pressure (IOP, and optic disc area. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in the affected sector was also matched between NAION and NTG patients. The ONH was imaged using SD-OCT with the EDI technique. The anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (LCD and average prelaminar tissue (PT thickness were measured in a sector of interest in each eye and compared among the three groups.In the sector-matched comparison, LCD was largest in NTG patients, followed by NAION patients, while PT was thinner in NTG patients than in NAION patients (all P < 0.001. NAION patients had a comparable LCD and a thinner PT relative to normal controls (P = 0.170 and < 0.001, respectively.The deep ONH configuration is strikingly different between NTG and NAION. The differing features provide comparative insight into the pathophysiology of the two diseases, and may be useful for differential diagnosis.

  4. Study of optic nerve in patients with neuromyelitis optica using diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiye; Zhu Lijun; Lou Xin; Li Jinfeng; Yang Yang; Ma Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of optic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in detecting the impairment of optic nerve in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients. Methods: Conventional MRI and optic DTI were performed in 28 NMO patients and 38 normal controls (NC). Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured in the anterior part, middle part and posterior part of intraorbital segment of optic nerve. The patients were classified into 3 groups based on the impairment of vision and visual evoked potential (VEP): monocular impairment (MI) group, 10 eyes; biocular impairment (BI) group, 36 eyes; and normal-appearing (NA) group, 10 eyes. All patients were performed with the evaluation of expanded disability status scale (EDSS). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and Spearman correlation analysis were performed among the subgroups of NMO and normal controls. Results: There was significantly statistical difference between the four groups (F=43.54, P<0.01). Decreased FA values were demonstrated in the MI group (0.29 ±0.08), BI group (0.27 ±0.08), and NA group (0.35 ±0.13) compared with NC (0.45 ±0.07) (P<0.01). FA value in BI group was significantly lower than that of NA group (P<0.01). Area under curve by ROC analysis in NC vs MI, NC vs BI, NC vs NA, and NC vs NMO was 0.92, 0.95, 0.74, and 0.91, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity of ROC was 80%, 86%, 50%, and 79%, respectively. The diagnostic specificity of ROC was 95% for the each compared groups. FA value showed no correlation with EDSS for each NMO groups, and showed negative correlation with disease duration for BI group (r=-0.371, P<0.05). Conclusions: Various degrees of optic nerve injuries, indicated by decreased FA value,are present in NMO patients, and optic DTI may be a simple and effective tool for the quantitative evaluation of optic nerve in NMO patients. (authors)

  5. High-resolution imaging of retinal nerve fiber bundles in glaucoma using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kohei; Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Ueda-Arakawa, Naoko; Yoshida, Sachiko; Akagi, Tadamichi; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Nonaka, Atsushi; Hanebuchi, Masaaki; Inoue, Takashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2013-05-01

    To detect pathologic changes in retinal nerve fiber bundles in glaucomatous eyes seen on images obtained by adaptive optics (AO) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO SLO). Prospective cross-sectional study. Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients with open-angle glaucoma and 21 normal eyes of 21 volunteer subjects underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, visual field testing using a Humphrey Field Analyzer, fundus photography, red-free SLO imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and imaging with an original prototype AO SLO system. The AO SLO images showed many hyperreflective bundles suggesting nerve fiber bundles. In glaucomatous eyes, the nerve fiber bundles were narrower than in normal eyes, and the nerve fiber layer thickness was correlated with the nerve fiber bundle widths on AO SLO (P fiber layer defect area on fundus photography, the nerve fiber bundles on AO SLO were narrower compared with those in normal eyes (P optic disc, the nerve fiber bundle width was significantly lower, even in areas without nerve fiber layer defect, in eyes with glaucomatous eyes compared with normal eyes (P = .026). The mean deviations of each cluster in visual field testing were correlated with the corresponding nerve fiber bundle widths (P = .017). AO SLO images showed reduced nerve fiber bundle widths both in clinically normal and abnormal areas of glaucomatous eyes, and these abnormalities were associated with visual field defects, suggesting that AO SLO may be useful for detecting early nerve fiber bundle abnormalities associated with loss of visual function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Significant correlations between optic nerve head microcirculation and visual field defects and nerve fiber layer loss in glaucoma patients with myopic glaucomatous disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu Yokoyama, Naoko Aizawa, Naoki Chiba, Kazuko Omodaka, Masahiko Nakamura, Takaaki Otomo, Shunji Yokokura, Nobuo Fuse, Toru NakazawaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanBackground: Eyes with glaucoma are characterized by optic neuropathy with visual field defects in the areas corresponding to the optic disk damage. The exact cause for the glaucomatous optic neuropathy has not been determined. Myopia has been shown to be a risk factor for glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a significant correlation existed between the microcirculation of the optic disk and the visual field defects and the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in glaucoma patients with myopic optic disks.Methods: Sixty eyes of 60 patients with myopic disks were studied; 36 eyes with glaucoma (men:women = 19:17 and 24 eyes with no ocular diseases (men:women = 14:10. The mean deviation (MD determined by the Humphrey field analyzer, and the peripapillary RNFLT determined by the Stratus-OCT were compared between the two groups. The ocular circulation was determined by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, and the mean blur rate (MBR was compared between the two groups. The correlations between the RNFLT and MBR of the corresponding areas of the optic disk and between MD and MBR of the optic disk in the glaucoma group were determined by simple regression analyses.Results: The average MBR for the entire optic disk was significantly lower in the glaucoma group than that in the control group. The differences of the MBR for the tissue in the superior, inferior, and temporal quadrants of the optic disk between the two groups were significant. The MBR for the entire optic disk was significantly correlated with the MD (r = 0.58, P = 0.0002 and the average RNFLT (r = 0.53, P = 0.0008. The tissue MBR of the optic disk was significantly correlated with the RNFLT in the superior, inferior, and temporal quadrants

  7. Detection of optic nerve atrophy following a single episode of unilateral optic neuritis by MRI using a fat-saturated short-echo fast FLAIR sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, S.J.; Brex, P.A.; Silver, N.C.; Barker, G.J.; Miller, D.H.; Brierley, C.M.H.; Compston, D.A.S.; Scolding, N.J.; Moseley, I.F.; Plant, G.T.

    2001-01-01

    We describe an MRI technique for quantifying optic nerve atrophy resulting from a single episode of unilateral optic neuritis. We imaged 17 patients, with a median time since onset of optic neuritis of 21 months (range 3-81 months), using a coronal-oblique fat-saturated short-echo fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (sTE fFLAIR) sequence. The mean cross-sectional area of the intraorbital portion of the optic nerves was calculated by a blinded observer from five consecutive 3 mm slices from the orbital apex forwards using a semiautomated contouring technique and compared with data from 16 controls. The mean optic nerve area was 11.2mm 2 in the affected eye of the patients, 12.9mm 2 in the contralateral eye (P = 0.006 compared to the affected eye) and 12.8mm 2 in controls (P = 0.03 compared to the affected eyes). There was a significant negative correlation between disease duration and the size of the affected optic nerve (r = -0.59, P = 0.012). The measurement coefficient of variation was 4.8 %. The sTE fFLAIR sequence enables measurement of optic nerve area with sufficient reproducibility to show optic nerve atrophy following a single episode of unilateral optic neuritis. The correlation of increasing optic nerve atrophy with disease duration would be consistent with ongoing axonal loss in a persistently demyelinated lesion, or Wallerian degeneration following axonal damage during the acute inflammatory phase. (orig.)

  8. [Progression of nerve fiber layer defects in retrobulbar optic neuritis by the macular ganglion cell complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, D; Bosc, C; Chiambaretta, F

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies with SD OCT had shown early axonal damage to the macular ganglion cell complex (which consists of the three innermost layers of the retina: Inner Plexiform Layer [IPL], Ganglion Cell Layer [GCL], Retinal Nerve Fibre layer [RNFL]) in optic nerve pathology. Retrobulbar optic neuritis (RBON), occurring frequently in demyelinating diseases, leads to atrophy of the optic nerve fibers at the level of the ganglion cell axons, previously described in the literature. The goal of this study is to evaluate the progression of optic nerve fiber defects and macular ganglion cell complex defects with the SPECTRALIS OCT via a reproducible method by calculating a mean thickness in each quadrant after an episode of retrobulbar optic neuritis. This is a prospective monocentric observational study including 8 patients at the Clermont-Ferrand university medical center. All patients underwent ocular examination with macular and disc OCT analysis and a Goldmann visual field at the time of inclusion (onset or recurrence of RBON), at 3 months and at 6 months. Patients were 40-years-old on average at the time of inclusion. After 6 months of follow-up, there was progression of the atrophy of the macular ganglion cell complex in the affected eye on (11.5% or 11μm) predominantly inferonasally (13.9% or 16μm) and superonasally (12.9% or 14μm) while the other eye remained stable. The decrease in thickness occurred mainly in the most internal 3 layers of the retina. On average, the loss in thickness of the peripapillary RNFL was predominantly inferotemporal (24.9% or 39μm) and superotemporal (21.8% or 28μm). In 3 months of progression, the loss of optic nerve fibers is already seen on macular and disc OCT after an episode of RBON, especially in inferior quadrants in spite of the improvement in the Goldmann visual field and visual acuity. Segmentation by quadrant was used here to compare the progression of the defect by region compared to the fovea in a global and reproducible

  9. Intracranial pressure-induced optic nerve sheath response as a predictive biomarker for optic disc edema in astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wostyn, Peter; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2017-11-01

    A significant proportion of the astronauts who spend extended periods in microgravity develop ophthalmic abnormalities. Understanding this syndrome, called visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP), has become a high priority for National Aeronautics and Space Administration, especially in view of future long-duration missions (e.g., Mars missions). Moreover, to ensure selection of astronaut candidates who will be able to complete long-duration missions with low risk of the VIIP syndrome, it is imperative to identify biomarkers for VIIP risk prediction. Here, we hypothesize that the optic nerve sheath response to alterations in intracranial pressure may be a potential predictive biomarker for optic disc edema in astronauts. If confirmed, this biomarker could be used for preflight identification of astronauts at risk for developing VIIP-associated optic disc edema.

  10. Premise and Prediction – How Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics Underlies the Susceptibility and Clinical Behavior of the Aged Optic Nerve Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Claude F.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2009-01-01

    We propose that age-related alterations in optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanics underlie the clinical behavior and increased susceptibility of the aged ONH to glaucomatous damage. The literature which suggests that the aged ONH is more susceptible to glaucomatous damage at all levels of intraocular pressure is reviewed. The relevant biomechanics of the aged ONH are discussed and a biomechanical explanation for why, on average, the stiffened peripapillary scleral and lamina cribrosa connective tissues of the aged eye should lead to a shallow (senile sclerotic) form of cupping is proposed. A logic for why age-related axon loss and the optic neuropathy of glaucoma in the aged eye may overlap is discussed. Finally, we argue for a need to characterize all forms of clinical cupping into prelaminar and laminar components so as to add precision to the discussion of clinical cupping which does not currently exist. Such characterization may lead to the early detection of ONH axonal and connective tissue pathology in ocular hypertension and eventually aid in the assessment of etiology in all forms of optic neuropathy including those that may be purely age-related. PMID:18552618

  11. Proteomics analyses of human optic nerve head astrocytes following biomechanical strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ronan S; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M; Flanagan, John G

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic methods included nano-liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ labeling. Using controls for both stretch and time, a six-plex iTRAQ liquid chromatography- tandem MS (LC/MS/MS) experiment yielded 573 proteins discovered at a 95% confidence limit. The pathways included transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor, caspase 3, and tumor protein p53, which have all been implicated in the activation of astrocytes and are believed to play a role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Confirmation of the iTRAQ analysis was performed by Western blotting of various proteins of interest including ANXA 4, GOLGA2, and αB-Crystallin.

  12. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic methods included nano-liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ labeling. Using controls for both stretch and time, a six-plex iTRAQ liquid chromatography- tandem MS (LC/MS/MS) experiment yielded 573 proteins discovered at a 95% confidence limit. The pathways included transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor, caspase 3, and tumor protein p53, which have all been implicated in the activation of astrocytes and are believed to play a role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Confirmation of the iTRAQ analysis was performed by Western blotting of various proteins of interest including ANXA 4, GOLGA2, and αB-Crystallin. PMID:22126795

  13. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (An AOS Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teresa C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that video-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) can qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) glaucomatous structural changes. To correlate quantitative SDOCT parameters with disc photography and visual fields. Methods: SDOCT images from 4 glaucoma eyes (4 patients) with varying stages of open-angle glaucoma (ie, early, moderate, late) were qualitatively contrasted with 2 age-matched normal eyes (2 patients). Of 61 other consecutive patients recruited in an institutional setting, 53 eyes (33 patients) met inclusion/exclusion criteria for quantitative studies. Images were obtained using two experimental SDOCT systems, one utilizing a superluminescent diode and the other a titanium:sapphire laser source, with axial resolutions of about 6 μm and 3 μm, respectively. Results: Classic glaucomatous ONH and RNFL structural changes were seen in SDOCT images. An SDOCT reference plane 139 μm above the retinal pigment epithelium yielded cup-disc ratios that best correlated with masked physician disc photography cup-disc ratio assessments. The minimum distance band, a novel SDOCT neuroretinal rim parameter, showed good correlation with physician cup-disc ratio assessments, visual field mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation (P values range, .0003–.024). RNFL and retinal thickness maps correlated well with disc photography and visual field testing. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this thesis presents the first comprehensive qualitative and quantitative evaluation of SDOCT images of the ONH and RNFL in glaucoma. This pilot study provides basis for developing more automated quantitative SDOCT-specific glaucoma algorithms needed for future prospective multicenter national trials. PMID:20126502

  14. Influence of corneal power on circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head measurements by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the influence of corneal power on circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL and optic nerve head (ONH measurements by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. METHODS: Twenty-five eyes of 25 healthy participants (mean age 23.6±3.6y were imaged by SD-OCT using horizontal raster scans. Disposable soft contact lenses of different powers (from −11 to +5 diopters including 0 diopter were worn to induce 2-diopter changes in corneal power. Differences in the cpRNFL and ONH measurements per diopter of change in corneal power were analyzed. RESULTS: As corneal power increased by 1 diopter, total and quadrant cpRNFL thicknesses, except for the nasal sector, decreased by −0.19 to −0.32 μm (P<0.01. Furthermore, the disc, cup, and rim areas decreased by −0.017, −0.007, and −0.015 mm2, respectively (P<0.001; the cup and rim volumes decreased by −0.0013 and −0.006 mm3, respectively (P<0.01; and the vertical and horizontal disc diameters decreased by −0.006 and −0.007 mm, respectively (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: For more precise OCT imaging, the ocular magnification should be corrected by considering both the axial length and corneal power. However, the effect of corneal power changes on cpRNFL thickness and ONH topography are small when compare with those of the axial length.

  15. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis in Ocular Hypertension and Early-Stage Glucoma Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Copernicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Solmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluation of structural alterations of the optic nerve head (ONH and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT and early-stage glaucoma and assessment of the discriminatory diagnostic performance of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT Copernicus (Optopol Technology S.A.. Materials and Methods: This study included 59 eyes of a total of 59 patients, 29 of whom were diagnosed with OHT (Group 1 and 30 with early-stage glaucoma (Group 2. The differentiation of early-stage glaucoma and OHT was carried out on the basis of standard achromatic visual field test results. Analysis of the ONH and RNFL thickness of all cases was made using SD-OCT. Group 1 and Group 2 were compared with respect to the ONH parameters and RNFL thickness. The diagnostic sensitivity of the OCT parameters was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC. Results: The average, superior, inferior, and nasal RNFL thicknesses in early-stage glaucoma cases were approximately 10% (12-14 µm less compared to the OHT eyes, with differences being highly significant (p≤0.001. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the temporal RNFL thicknesses. The most sensitive parameter in the early diagnosis of glaucoma was average RNFL thickness corresponding to AUC: 0.852, followed by AUC: 0.816 and AUC: 0.773 values in superior and inferior RNFL thickness, respectively. In localized RNFL defects, the highest sensitivity corresponded to superior and superonasal quadrants (ACU: 0.805 and ACU: 0.781, respectively. There were not any statistically significant differences between the ONH morphological parameters of the two groups. Conclusion: RNFL analysis obtained using SD-OCT Copernicus is able to discriminate early-stage glaucoma eyes from those with OHT. However, ONH morphological parameters do not have the same diagnostic sensitivity. Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 35-41

  16. Radiation therapy in and about the retina, optic nerve, and anterior visual pathway: psychophysical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, C.R.; Enoch, J.M.; Temme, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Visual changes may develop in patients receiving radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms in and about the optic nerve and anterior visual pathway. Cases have been studied using a series of psychophysical tests, including kinetic perimetry, increment threshold determinations, Flashing Repeat Static Test, and sustained- and transient-like functions. A characteristic time-dependent reduction in sensitivity has been identified in these patients. This finding, in addition to the presence of nerve fiber bundle defects, appears to place the pathologic changes in the axon of the ganglion cell posterior to the lamina cribrosa. Any change in the sustained- and transient-like functions, the organization of which appears to be in the neural retina, was seen only if a concomitant radiation retinopathy was identified

  17. Radiation therapy in and about the retina, optic nerve, and anterior visual pathway. Psychophysical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, C.R.; Enoch, J.M.; Temme, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Visual changes may develop in patients receiving radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms in and about the optic nerve and anterior visual pathway. Cases have been studied using a series of psychophysical tests, including kinetic perimetry, increment threshold determinations, Flashing Repeat Static Test, and sustained- and transient-like functions. A characteristic time-dependent reduction in sensitivity has been identified in these patients. This finding, in addition to the presence of nerve fiber bundle defects, appears to place the pathologic changes in the axon of the ganglion cell posterior to the lamina cribrosa. Any change in the sustained- and transient-like functions, the organization of which appears to be in the neural retina, was seen only if a concomitant radiation retinopathy was identified

  18. Changes of Radial Diffusivity and Fractional Anisotopy in the Optic Nerve and Optic Radiation of Glaucoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Engelhorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study was to evaluate with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI changes of radial diffusivity (RD and fractional anisotropy (FA in the optic nerve (ON and optic radiation (OR in glaucoma and to determine whether changes in RD and FA correlate with disease severity. Therefore, glaucoma patients and controls were examined using 3T. Regions of interest were positioned on RD and FA maps, and mean values were calculated for ON and OR and correlated with optic nerve atrophy and reduced spatial-temporal contrast sensitivity (STCS of the retina. We found, that RD in glaucoma patients was significantly higher in the ON (0.74 ± 0.21 versus 0.58 ± 0.17⋅10−3 mm2 s−1; P0.77. In conclusion, DTI at 3 Tesla allows robust RD and FA measurements in the ON and OR. Hereby, the extent of RD increase and FA decrease in glaucoma correlate with established ophthalmological examinations.

  19. Transsynaptic neuronal degeneration of optic nerves associated with bilateral occipital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdev Mahipal

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A case is reported of a 9-year old male who presented with abnormal behaviour and progressive diminution of vision. Pupils were middilated in both eyes but the pupillary reflexes were preserved. Fundus examination revealed a bilateral optic atrophy and radiological investigations showed a bilateral occipital calcification. We hereby document a case of retrograde transsynaptic neuronal degeneration of the visual system secondary to bilateral occipital lesions. Transsynapptic neuronal degeneration of optic nerves consequent to occipital lobe lesions is a rare phenomenon. Experimentally occipital lobe ablation in non-human primates has been shown to result in optic atrophy. Herein, we document a case of retrograde transsynaptic neuronal degeneration of the visual system secondary to bilateral occipital lesions.

  20. Three-dimensional imaging of the optic nerve using magnetic resonance angiography. Application to anterior communicating artery aneurysm and craniopharingioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Tohru; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Fukuyama, Koichi; Ikeno, Kunihiro; Araki, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kinya; Sohma, Noriko

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze three-dimensional images of the optic nerve obtained by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in cases of anterior communicating artery aneurysm and craniopharingioma. Four ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms, five non-ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms and two craniopharingiomas were examined. The images were taken using MR/i Hispeed Plus 1.5 T Infinity version, and analyzed by Advantage Work station AW4.1. The routine MR imaging parameters are shown in Table. The imaging time was about 10 minutes. Analysis was made by reformation of images parallel to the optic nerve obtained from the original MRA images. The optic nerve and brain tumor were traced with paintbrush from one sheet to another of the reformed images after subtraction of the blood vessels around the anterior communicating artery in these reformed images, and then three-dimensional images were constructed. Three-dimensional images of the blood vessels were reconstructed from MIP (maximum intensity projection) images using the threshold method. The optic nerve and anterior communicating arterial aneurysm or brain tumor were both observed in the overlapped 3D-SSD (shaded surface display) images. The analysis time was about 15 minutes. Three-dimensional images of the optic nerve and anterior communicating artery aneurysm or brain tumor were able to be made in all cases. As a preoperative investigation for anterior communicating artery aneurysm or suprasellar brain tumor, we considered that three-dimensional imaging of the optic nerve is useful in the operative approach because the optic nerve acts as a merkmal for the anterior communicating aneurysm or brain tumor. (author)

  1. Long-term retinal nerve fiber layer changes following nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotan G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gad Dotan,1 Michaella Goldstein,1 Anat Kesler,1 Barry Skarf21Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 2Eye Care Services, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USABackground: In cases of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness changes have been described during the first 12 months following the acute event. The purpose of this study was to report on the long-term RNFL changes in these eyes beyond the first year following onset of NAION.Methods: Fourteen eyes of 13 patients with NAION were analyzed in this retrospective observational case series study. Uninvolved eyes served as controls. All patients underwent a complete neuro-ophthalmological examination and repeat measurements of peripapillary RNFL thickness using Stratus optical coherence tomography.Results: On optical coherence tomography scan performed on average 6 months following onset of NAION, the mean global RNFL thickness (59.8 ± 11.8 μm was significantly thinner (P < 0.001 compared with uninvolved eyes (95.1 ± 13.9 μm. In a second optical coherence tomography scan performed on average 13 (range 12–23 months later, the mean global RNFL thickness (58.9 ± 6.5 μm was not significantly different (P = 0.702 from the first scan.Conclusion: There appears to be no further RNFL loss beyond the first 6 months following an acute event of NAION.Keywords: optical coherence tomography, retinal nerve fiber layer, nonartertic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

  2. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  3. Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning in Myopic Glaucoma: Impact of Optic Disc Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyeong Ik; Lee, Won June; Kim, Young Kook; Park, Ki Ho; Jeoung, Jin Wook

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of optic disc torsion on the rate of progressive retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning in patients with myopic open-angle glaucoma. We included 102 patients with myopic open-angle glaucoma accompanied by glaucomatous damage confined to a single hemiretina who were followed up over a 5-year period. We divided the subjects into three groups according to the presence or absence of optic disc torsion and the correspondence between the direction of optic disc torsion and the location of glaucomatous damage: torsion with reverse correspondence group (eyes showing inferior optic disc torsion with glaucomatous damage in the superior quadrant or eyes showing superior torsion with damage in the inferior quadrant), no torsion group, and torsion with correspondence group (eyes showing inferior optic disc torsion with glaucomatous damage in the inferior quadrant or eyes showing superior torsion with damage in the superior quadrant). Changes in the peripapillary RNFL thickness (pRNFLT), evaluated using linear mixed model analysis, were compared among the three groups to determine the relationship between optic disc torsion and pRNFLT changes. Among the total of 102 subjects, 13 eyes (12.7%) exhibited optic disc torsion with reverse correspondence, 59 (57.8%) did not exhibit optic disc torsion, and 30 (29.4%) exhibited optic disc torsion with correspondence. pRNFL thinning in the quadrant with glaucomatous damage was significantly faster in the torsion with correspondence group (-1.66 μm/y) than those in the no torsion (-1.14 μm/y; P = 0.032) and torsion with reverse correspondence (-0.50 μm/y; P optic disc torsion-glaucomatous damage correspondence is an important prognostic factor for patients with myopic open-angle glaucoma.

  4. The effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head analysis of migrainous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Munire; Durukan, A; Akar, Yusuf; Taskin, Omur; Dora, Babur; Yilmaz, Nurgul

    2005-03-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head topographic analysis of normally menstruating migrainous women. Randomly selected one eye of 44 migrainous and 49 healthy control women with regular menstrual cycles were included in the study. All subjects underwent complete ocular examination. Optic nervehead topographic analysis were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, HRT II (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II, software version 1.6;Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). They were repeated for two times during the menstrual cycle: in follicular phase (7th to 10th day of the cycle) and in the luteal phase (days 3 to 4 before the menstrual bleeding). Serum estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone measurements were repeated at each menstrual phase. The mean age of migrainous and control subjects were 31.5 + 5.1 years and 33.4 +/- 3.7 years, respectively (P > 0.05). Their mean disc areas were 2.26 +/- 0.46 mm(2) and 1.95 +/- 0.39 mm(2), respectively(P 0.05). The parameter rim volume decreased, while the parameters cup volume and cup shape measure increased significantly in the luteal phase of the migrainous women (all P values cup parameters during the menstrual cycle of the migrainous women. Further clinical trials on ocular blood flow changes during the menstrual cycle of the migrainous women may highlight the role of sex steroids in the optic nerve head of the migrainous women.

  5. [Gene Therapy for Inherited RETINAL AND OPTIC NERVE Disorders: Current Knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďuďáková, Ľ; Kousal, B; Kolářová, H; Hlavatá, L; Lišková, P

    The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of current gene therapy clinical trials for monogenic and optic nerve disorders.The number of genes for which gene-based therapies are being developed is growing. At the time of writing this review gene-based clinical trials have been registered for Leber congenital amaurosis 2 (LCA2), retinitis pigmentosa 38, Usher syndrome 1B, Stargardt disease, choroideremia, achromatopsia, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and X-linked retinoschisis. Apart from RPE65 gene therapy for LCA2 and MT-ND4 for LHON which has reached phase III, all other trials are in investigation phase I and II, i.e. testing the efficacy and safety.Because of the relatively easy accessibility of the retina and its ease of visualization which allows monitoring of efficacy, gene-based therapies for inherited retinal disorders represent a very promising treatment option. With the development of novel therapeutic approaches, the importance of establishing not only clinical but also molecular genetic diagnosis is obvious.Key words: gene therapy, monogenic retinal diseases, optic nerve atrophy, mitochondrial disease.

  6. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 2. Impacts of optic nerve head parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Neda; Wang, Mengyu; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qingying; Elze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Clinicians use retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an adjunct to glaucoma diagnosis. Ametropia is accompanied by changes to the optic nerve head (ONH), which may affect how OCT machines mark RNFLT measurements as abnormal. These changes in abnormality patterns may bias glaucoma diagnosis. Here, we investigate the relationship between OCT abnormality patterns and the following ONH-related and ametropia-associated parameters on 421 eyes of glaucoma patients: optic disc tilt and torsion, central retinal vessel trunk location (CRVTL), and nasal and temporal retinal curvature adjacent to ONH, quantified as nasal/temporal slopes of the inner limiting membrane. We applied multivariate logistic regression with abnormality marks as regressands to 40,401 locations of the peripapillary region and generated spatial maps of locations of false positive/negative abnormality marks independent of glaucoma severity. Effects of torsion and temporal slope were negligible. The effect of tilt could be explained by covariation with ametropia. For CRVTL/nasal slope, abnormality pattern shifts at 7.2%/23.5% of the peripapillary region were detected, respectively, independent of glaucoma severity and ametropia. Therefore, CRVTL and nasal curvature should be included in OCT RNFLT norms. Our spatial location maps may aid clinicians to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  7. Developmental impairment of compound action potential in the optic nerve of myelin mutant taiep rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncagliolo, Manuel; Schlageter, Carol; León, Claudia; Couve, Eduardo; Bonansco, Christian; Eguibar, José R

    2006-01-05

    The taiep rat is a myelin mutant with an initial hypomyelination, followed by a progressive demyelination of the CNS. The neurological correlates start with tremor, followed by ataxia, immobility episodes, epilepsy and paralysis. The optic nerve, an easily-isolable central tract fully myelinated by oligodendrocytes, is a suitable preparation to evaluate the developmental impairment of central myelin. We examined the ontogenic development of optic nerve compound action potentials (CAP) throughout the first 6 months of life of control and taiep rats. Control optic nerves (ON) develop CAPs characterized by three waves. Along the first month, the CAPs of taiep rats showed a delayed maturation, with lower amplitudes and longer latencies than controls; at P30, the conduction velocity has only a third of the normal value. Later, as demyelination proceeds, the conduction velocity of taiep ONs begins to decrease and CAPs undergo a gradual temporal dispersion. CAPs of control and taiep showed differences in their pharmacological sensitivity to TEA and 4-AP, two voltage dependent K+ channel-blockers. As compared with TEA, 4-AP induced a significant increase of the amplitudes and a remarkable broadening of CAPs. After P20, unlike controls, the greater sensitivity to 4-AP exhibited by taiep ONs correlates with the detachment and retraction of paranodal loops suggesting that potassium conductances could regulate the excitability as demyelination of CNS axons progresses. It is concluded that the taiep rat, a long-lived mutant, provides a useful model to study the consequences of partial demyelination and the mechanisms by which glial cells regulate the molecular organization and excitability of axonal membranes during development and disease.

  8. Hydrostatic Pressure–Induced Release of Stored Calcium in Cultured Rat Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Amritlal; Delamere, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Elevated intraocular pressure is associated with glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Other investigators have shown functional changes in optic nerve head astrocytes subjected to elevated hydrostatic pressure (HP) for 1 to 5 days. Recently, the authors reported ERK1/2, p90RSK and NHE1 phosphorylation after 2 hours. Here they examine calcium responses at the onset of HP to determine what precedes ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Methods. Cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cultured rat optic nerve astrocytes loaded with fura-2. The cells were placed in a closed imaging chamber and subjected to an HP increase of 15 mm Hg. Protein phosphorylation was detected by Western blot analysis. Results. The increase of HP caused an immediate slow increase in [Ca2+]i. The response persisted in calcium-free solution and when nickel chloride (4 mM) was added to suppress channel-mediated calcium entry. Previous depletion of the ER calcium stores by cyclopiazonic acid abolished the HP-induced calcium level increase. The HP-induced increase persisted in cells exposed to xestospongin C, an inhibitor of IP3R-mediated calcium release. In contrast, ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonist ruthenium red (10 μM) or dantrolene (25 μM) inhibited the HP-induced calcium increase. The HP-induced calcium increase was abolished when ryanodine-sensitive calcium stores were pre-depleted with caffeine (3 mM). HP caused ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The magnitude of the ERK1/2 phosphorylation response was reduced by ruthenium red and dantrolene. Conclusions. Increasing HP causes calcium release from a ryanodine-sensitive cytoplasmic store and subsequent ERK1/2 activation. Calcium store release appears to be a required early step in the initial astrocyte response to an HP increase. PMID:20071675

  9. Human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor for optic nerve injury: a biomechanical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-jun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for optic nerve injury by brain-derived neurotrophic factor or the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood stem cells has gained progress, but analysis by biomechanical indicators is rare. Rabbit models of optic nerve injury were established by a clamp. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body received a one-time injection of 50 μg brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 10 6 human umbilical cord blood stem cells. After 30 days, the maximum load, maximum stress, maximum strain, elastic limit load, elastic limit stress, and elastic limit strain had clearly improved in rabbit models of optical nerve injury after treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor or human umbilical cord blood stem cells. The damage to the ultrastructure of the optic nerve had also been reduced. These findings suggest that human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor effectively repair the injured optical nerve, improve biomechanical properties, and contribute to the recovery after injury.

  10. Cranial nerve threshold for thermal injury induced by MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU): preliminary results on an optic nerve model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnof, Sagi; Zibly, Zion; Cohen, Zvi; Shaw, Andrew; Schlaff, Cody; Kassel, Neal F

    2013-04-01

    Future clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) are moving toward the management of different intracranial pathologies. We sought to validate the production, safety, and efficacy of thermal injury to cranial nerves generated by MRgHIFU. In this study, five female domestic pigs underwent a standard bifrontal craniectomy under general anesthesia. Treatment was then given using an MRgHIFU system to induce hyperthermic ablative sonication (6 to 10 s; 50 to 2000 J.) Histological analyses were done to confirm nerve damage; temperature measured on the optic nerve was approximately 53.4°C (range: 39°C to 70°C.) Histology demonstrated a clear definition between a necrotic, transitional zone, and normal tissue. MRgHIFU induces targeted thermal injury to nervous tissue within a specific threshold of 50°C to 60°C with the tissue near the sonication center yielding the greatest effect; adjacent tissue showed minimal changes. Additional studies utilizing this technology are required to further establish accurate threshold parameters for optic nerve thermo-ablation.

  11. Optic nerve compression as a late complication of a hydrogel explant with silicone encircling band

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    Niels Crama

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a complication of compressive optic neuropathy caused by a swollen hydrogel explant and posteriorly displaced silicone encircling band. Observations: A 72-year-old female patient presented with progressive visual loss and a tilted optic disc. Her medical history included a retinal detachment in 1993 that was treated with a hydrogel explant under a solid silicone encircling band. Visual acuity had decreased from 6/10 to 6/20 and perimetry showed a scotoma in the temporal superior quadrant. On Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, compression of the optic nerve by a displaced silicone encircling band inferior nasally in combination with a swollen episcleral hydrogel explant was observed. Surgical removal of the hydrogel explant and silicone encircling band was uneventful and resulted in improvement of visual acuity and visual field loss. Conclusions and importance: This is the first report on compressive optic neuropathy caused by swelling of a hydrogel explant resulting in a dislocated silicone encircling band. The loss of visual function resolved upon removal of the explant and encircling band. Keywords: Retinal detachment, Tilted disc, Optic neuropathy, Miragel, Explant, Encircling band

  12. Optic nerve histopathology in a case of Wolfram Syndrome: a mitochondrial pattern of axonal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Pan, Billy X; Silva, Ruwan A; Miller, Neil R; Albini, Thomas A; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Rendtorff, Nanna D; Lodahl, Marianne; Moraes-Filho, Milton N; Moraes, Milton N; Salomao, Solange R; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Carelli, Valerio; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in Wolfram Syndrome (WS) is controversial and optic neuropathy, a cardinal clinical manifestation, is poorly characterized. We here describe the histopathological features in postmortem retinas and optic nerves (ONs) from one patient with WS, testing the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies the pathology. Eyes and retrobulbar ONs were obtained at autopsy from a WS patient, and compared with those of a Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patient and one healthy control. Retinas were stained with hematoxylin & eosin for general morphology and ONs were immunostained for myelin basic protein (MBP). Immunostained ONs were examined in four "quadrants": superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal. The WS retinas displayed a severe loss of retinal ganglion cells in the macular region similar to the LHON retina, but not in the control. The WS ONs, immunostained for MBP, revealed a zone of degeneration in the temporal and inferior quadrants. This pattern was similar to that seen in the LHON ONs but not in the control. Thus, the WS patient displayed a distinct pattern of optic atrophy observed bilaterally in the temporal and inferior quadrants of the ONs. This arrangement of axonal degeneration, involving primarily the papillomacular bundle, closely resembled LHON and other mitochondrial optic neuropathies, supporting that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Edaravone Prevents Retinal Degeneration in Adult Mice Following Optic Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Goichi; Azuchi, Yuriko; Guo, Xiaoli; Noro, Takahiko; Kimura, Atsuko; Harada, Chikako; Namekata, Kazuhiko; Harada, Takayuki

    2017-09-01

    To assess the therapeutic potential of edaravone, a free radical scavenger that is used for the treatment of acute brain infarction and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in a mouse model of optic nerve injury (ONI). Two microliters of edaravone (7.2 mM) or vehicle were injected intraocularly 3 minutes after ONI. Optical coherence tomography, retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), histopathology, and immunohistochemical analyses of phosphorylated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the retina were performed after ONI. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were assessed with a CellROX Green Reagent. Edaravone ameliorated ONI-induced ROS production, RGC death, and inner retinal degeneration. Also, activation of the ASK1-p38 MAPK pathway that induces RGC death following ONI was suppressed with edaravone treatment. The results of this study suggest that intraocular administration of edaravone may be a useful treatment for posttraumatic complications.

  14. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells as a Therapeutic Approach to Optic Nerve Diseases

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    Louise A. Mesentier-Louro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following optic nerve injury associated with acute or progressive diseases, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs of adult mammals degenerate and undergo apoptosis. These diseases have limited therapeutic options, due to the low inherent capacity of RGCs to regenerate and due to the inhibitory milieu of the central nervous system. Among the numerous treatment approaches investigated to stimulate neuronal survival and axonal extension, cell transplantation emerges as a promising option. This review focuses on cell therapies with bone marrow mononuclear cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown positive therapeutic effects in animal models of optic neuropathies. Different aspects of available preclinical studies are analyzed, including cell distribution, potential doses, routes of administration, and mechanisms of action. Finally, published and ongoing clinical trials are summarized.

  15. Anatomical Variations of Carotid Artery and Optic Nerve in Sphenoid Sinus Using Computerized Tomographic Imaging

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    Nikakhlagh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Sphenoid sinus is surrounded by many vital vascular and nervous structures. In more than 20% of patients with chronic sinusitis, involvement of sphenoid sinus has been observed. Besides, sphenoid sinus is an appropriate route to access anterior and middle cranial fossa in surgery. Therefore, it is important to have an adequate knowledge about the contents of sphenoid sinus and its proximity for nasal endoscopy, sinus surgeries and neurosurgeries. Objectives The aim of this study was to study sphenoid sinus proximity with carotid artery and the optic nerve using computerized tomographic imaging. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, computerized tomographic images of sphenoid sinus of patients referred to Imam Khomeini and Apadana hospitals were studied. The images were studied regarding any bulging, as well as not having a bone covering in sphenoid sinus regarding internal carotid artery and optic nerve. Furthermore, unilateralness or bilateralness of their relationships was studied. Results Among 468 coronal and axial CT scan images of sphenoid sinus, 365 (78% showed post-sellar pneumatization and 103 (22% pre-sellar pneumatization. Regarding existence of internal septa, 346 (74% cases showed multiple septation, and the remaining images were reported to have a single septum. According to the reports of CT scan images, the existence of bulging as a result of internal carotid artery and uncovered artery were 4.22% and 5.8% in the right sinus, 4.9% and 5.4% in the left sinus, and 4.34% and 4.6% in both sinuses, respectively. According to the reports of CT scan images, existence of bulging as a result of optic nerve and uncovered nerve were 5.7% and 4.3% in the right sinus, 6% and 5.4% in the left sinus, and 12% and 3.2% in both sinuses, respectively. Conclusions Due to variability of sphenoid sinus pneumatization and the separator blade of the two sinus cavities, careful attention is required during sinus surgery to avoid

  16. Interocular symmetry of retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head parameters measured by Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography in a normal pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Neelam; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Ramakrishnan, Renagappa

    2017-10-01

    To determine interocular differences in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in a pediatric population using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). Seventy normal Indian children aged 5-17 years presenting to the Pediatric Clinic were included in this observational cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and an evaluation of the RNFL and ONH by Cirrus HD-OCT. Differences between the right and left eyes were calculated and values were compared by means of a paired t-test. Subjects were also divided into two groups based on age (under or over 10 years of age). Interocular differences in RNFL and ONH parameters together with sex and age variations for these differences were determined. The mean age of studied pediatric population was 11.83 ± 3.3 years (range 5-17). Average RNFL thickness was 94.46 ± 8.7 μm (± SD) (range 77-111). Differences in the average RNFL between right and left eyes were not statistically significant (P = 0.060). Superior quadrant RNFL was thicker in the left eye and temporal quadrant was thicker in the right eye. Among ONH parameters, there were no statistically significant differences in any parameters, except vertical cup-disc (CD) ratio which was significant (P = 0.007). The 2.5%-97.5% limits of asymmetry were 9 μm for average RNFL, 0.14 for average CD ratio, and 0.22 for vertical CD ratio. Mean interocular RNFL thickness differences in superior, superior nasal, and temporal superior quadrants were 10.61 (P sex, while only significant differences with age were observed in 12 clock hour sector analysis, mainly in nasal inferior and inferior quadrant. We report the degree of interocular symmetry of RNFL and ONH parameters measured by Cirrus HD-OCT in a healthy pediatric population. The normal interocular RNFL asymmetry should not exceed 9 μm and vertical CD ratio beyond 0.22 should be considered for further investigations. The

  17. Bilateral optic nerve head drusen with chorioretinal coloboma in the right eye

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    Ali Reza Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorioretinal coloboma is a congenital defect of the eye caused by improper closure of the embryonic fissure. Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD are white calcareous deposits that are generally asymptomatic. We report a very rare association of both in a healthy patient with no any systemic syndrome. A 16-year-old man was referred to our clinic from suffering blurred vision. Best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 6/10 and 10/10 in the left one. External ocular and slit lamp examination were normal. Dilated ophthalmoscopy showed marked swelling in both optic nerves and chorioretinal coloboma in the right eye inferiorly. Ultrasonography showed an echodense structure with acoustic shadowing in both eyes consistent with buried ONHD. Visual field testing showed normal field in the left eye and moderate superior field depression in the right eye corresponding to inferior coloboma in funduscopy. Results of general medical and neurologic, cardiologic, and other examinations were normal. To the best our knowledge combination of bilateral ONHD and unilateral chorioretinal coloboma in a healthy patient with no any systemic syndrome has not been published in the literature. We reported this very rare association and recommended examine eyes and other body organs. In such cases that coloboma is associated with ONHD, we should keep in mind Noonan syndrome. The diagnosis of Noonan syndrome is clinical and confirm by the consultant pediatricians and clinical geneticists.

  18. Spatial organization of lipids in the human retina and optic nerve by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemski Berry, Karin A; Gordon, William C; Murphy, Robert C; Bazan, Nicolas G

    2014-03-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) was used to characterize lipid species within sections of human eyes. Common phospholipids that are abundant in most tissues were not highly localized and observed throughout the accessory tissue, optic nerve, and retina. Triacylglycerols were highly localized in accessory tissue, whereas sulfatide and plasmalogen glycerophosphoethanolamine (PE) lipids with a monounsaturated fatty acid were found enriched in the optic nerve. Additionally, several lipids were associated solely with the inner retina, photoreceptors, or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE); a plasmalogen PE lipid containing DHA (22:6), PE(P-18:0/22:6), was present exclusively in the inner retina, and DHA-containing glycerophosphatidylcholine (PC) and PE lipids were found solely in photoreceptors. PC lipids containing very long chain (VLC)-PUFAs were detected in photoreceptors despite their low abundance in the retina. Ceramide lipids and the bis-retinoid, N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine, was tentatively identified and found only in the RPE. This MALDI IMS study readily revealed the location of many lipids that have been associated with degenerative retinal diseases. Complex lipid localization within retinal tissue provides a global view of lipid organization and initial evidence for specific functions in localized regions, offering opportunities to assess their significance in retinal diseases, such as macular degeneration, where lipids have been implicated in the disease process.

  19. Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats.

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    Park, Kevin K; Luo, Xueting; Mooney, Skyler J; Yungher, Benjamin J; Belin, Stephane; Wang, Chen; Holmes, Melissa M; He, Zhigang

    2017-02-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), axonal damage often triggers neuronal cell death and glial activation, with very limited spontaneous axon regeneration. In this study, we performed optic nerve injury in adult naked mole-rats, the longest living rodent, with a maximum life span exceeding 30 years, and found that injury responses in this species are quite distinct from those in other mammalian species. In contrast to what is seen in other mammals, the majority of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive with relatively high spontaneous axon regeneration. Furthermore, injured RGCs display activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), whereas astrocytes in the optic nerve robustly occupy and fill the lesion area days after injury. These neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic injury responses are reminiscent of those in "cold-blooded" animals, such as fish and amphibians, suggesting that the naked mole-rat is a powerful model for exploring the mechanisms of neuronal injury responses and axon regeneration in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:380-388, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Impact of Ocular Pressures, Material Properties and Geometry on Optic Nerve Head Deformation

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    Feola, Andrew J.; Myers, Jerry G.; Raykin, Julia; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian C.; Ethier C. Ross

    2017-01-01

    Alteration in intracranial pressure (ICP) has been associated with various diseases that cause visual impairment, including glaucoma, idiopathic intracranial hypertension and Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. However, how changes in ICP lead to vision loss is unclear, although it is hypothesized to involve deformations of the tissues in the optic nerve head (ONH). Recently, understanding the effect of ICP alterations on ocular tissues has become a major concern for NASA, where 42 of astronauts that partake in long duration space missions suffer from VIIP syndrome. Astronauts with VIIP syndrome suffer from visual impairment and changes in ocular anatomy that persist after returning to earth (1). It is hypothesized that the cephalad fluid shift that occurs upon entering microgravity increases ICP, which leads to an altered biomechanical environment in the posterior globe and optic nerve sheath, and subsequently VIIP syndrome. Our goal was to develop a finite element (FE) model to simulate the acute effects of elevated ICP on the posterior eye. Here, we simulated how inter-individual differences affect the deformation of ONH tissues. Further, we examined how several different geometries influenced deformations when exposed to elevated ICP.

  1. Trans-eyebrow supraorbital approach in large suprasellar craniopharyngioma surgery in adults: analysis of optic nerve length and extent of tumor resection. Original article.

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    Prat, Ricardo; Galeano, Inma; Evangelista, Rocío; Pancucci, Giovanni; Guarín, Juliana; Ayuso, Angel; Misra, Mukesh

    2017-05-01

    One of the main drawbacks in the surgery of large craniopharyngiomas is the presence of a prefixed optic chiasm. Our main objective in this study is to compare the predictive value of the optic nerve length and optic chiasm location on large craniopharyngiomas' extent of resection. We retrospectively studied 21 consecutive patients with large craniopharyngiomas who underwent tumor resection through the trans-eyebrow supraorbital approach. Clinical and radiological findings on preoperative MRI were recorded, including the optic chiasm location classified as prefixed, postfixed or normal. We registered the optic nerve length measured intraoperatively prior to tumor removal and confirmed the measurements on preoperative MRI. Using a linear regression model, we calculated a prediction formula of the percentage of the extent of resection as a function of optic nerve length. On preoperative MRI, 15 patients were considered to have an optic chiasm in a normal location, 3 cases had a prefixed chiasm, and the remaining 3 had a postfixed chiasm. In the group with normal optic chiasm location, a wide range of percentage of extent of resection was observed (75-100%). The percentage of extent of resection of large craniopharyngiomas was observed to be dependent on the optic nerve length in a linear regression model (p < 0.0001). According to this model in the normal optic chiasm location group, we obtained an 87% resection in 9-mm optic nerve length patients, a 90.5% resection in 10-mm optic nerve length patients and 100% resection in 11-mm optic nerve length patients. Optic chiasm location provides useful information to predict the percentage of resection in both prefixed and postfixed chiasm patients but not in the normal optic chiasm location group. Optic nerve length was proven to provide a more accurate way to predict the percentage of resection than the optic chiasm location in the normal optic chiasm location group.

  2. Optical coherence tomography detection of characteristic retinal nerve fiber layer thinning in nasal hypoplasia of the optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, M; Kodama, R; Yamakawa, R

    2017-12-01

    PurposeTo determine the clinical usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detecting thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in eyes with nasal hypoplasia of the optic discs (NHOD).Patients and methodsThe medical records of five patients (eight eyes) with NHOD were reviewed. The ratio of the disc-macula distance to the disc diameter (DM/DD) and the disc ovality ratio of the minimal to maximal DD were assessed using fundus photographs. The RNFL thicknesses of the temporal, superior, nasal, and inferior quadrants were evaluated using OCT quadrant maps.ResultsAll eight eyes had temporal visual field defects that respected the vertical meridians that needed to be differentiated from those related to chiasmal compression. The mean DM/DD ratio was 3.1 and the mean disc ovality ratio was 0.81. The mean RNFL thicknesses of the temporal, superior, nasal, and inferior quadrants were 90.3, 103.1, 34.8, and 112.8 microns, respectively.ConclusionSmall optic discs and tilted discs might be associated with NHOD. Measurement of the RNFL thickness around the optic disc using OCT scans clearly visualized the characteristic RNFL thinning of the nasal quadrants corresponding to the temporal sector visual field defects in eyes with NHOD. OCT confirmed the presence of NHOD and might differentiate eyes with NHOD from those with chiasmal compression.

  3. Fast axonal transport of 3H-leucin-labelled proteins in the unhurt and isolated optical nerve of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of radioactivity of amino acid molecules incorporated in protein after injection of 3 H-Leucin into the right bulb was investigated and determined along optical nerve after 1, 2, and 4 h. A slightly increased radioactivity at the point of entrance of the optical nerves into the optical duct was found. A slightly reduced axon diameter was discussed as a possible cause. The radioactivity brought into the optical nerve via the vascular system was determined by measuring the contralateral optical nerve. In relation to the axonally transported activity, it was low. The speed of the fast axonal transport is 168 mm/d. If the processes ruling the amino acids in the perikaryon are taken into consideration, the transport speed is 240 mm/d. The application of the protein synthesis prohibitor, Cycloheximide, 5 minutes after the injection of Leucinin completely prevented the appearance of axonally transported labelled proteins. When cycloheximide was administered 2 h after Leucin, a significantly loner radioactivity than in the nerve could be determined after another 2 h; i.e. the incorporation of Leucin was not completed yet after 2 h. The profile of active compounds was the same as in the control group. In other experiments, the axonal transport of labelled proteins in isolated optical nerve fibres was tested. If the separation was carried out 2 h after the injection of Leucin an extreme reduction in activity could be determined after 1 or 2 h. The continued distribution of activity after cycloheximide treatment and removal of perikarya in comparison with the control indicate the continuation of the transport, also after separation of the axon from the perikaryon. This means that, during the time of the experiment, the mechanism of the fast axonal transport functions independently of the perikaryon. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Are All Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects on Optic Coherence Tomography Glaucomatous?

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    Gür Güngör, Sirel; Ahmet, Akman

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the patients who were referred to our clinic with a prediagnosis of glaucoma based on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects on optic coherence tomography (OCT) but were determined to have nonglaucomatous RNLF defects upon detailed examination. The ophthalmic examination notes, OCT images, Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT) II and fundus photographs of 357 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Final diagnoses of these patients were investigated. Of the 357 patients, 216 (60.5%) were diagnosed as open angle glaucoma, 33 (9.2%) as low-tension glaucoma, 39 (10.9%) as pre-perimetric glaucoma. The ophthalmic examinations of 14 patients (3.9%) were normal and there were no RNFL defects in OCT examinations after dilatation. In 39 patients (10.9%), the ophthalmic and optic disc examinations were completely normal and no etiologic factor explaining RNFL defects was found. Twenty-two eyes of 16 patients (4.5%) were included in this study (the mean age was 53.8±11.5 years; 9 men and 7 women). After detailed questioning of the medical history and systemic and neurologic examinations, a diagnosis of ischemic optic neuropathy was made in 11 eyes (10 patients) (2.8%), optic neuritis in 3 eyes (2 patients) (0.6%), optic disc drusen in 4 eyes (2 patients) (0.6%), pseudotumor cerebri in 2 eyes (1 patient) (0.3%), and cerebral palsy in 2 eyes (1 patient) (0.3%). Decrease in RNFL thickness on OCT images alone may be misleading in glaucoma examination. In cases where optic disc cupping is not evident, diagnosis should not be based on OCT RNFL examinations alone, and the patient's medical history, detailed ophthalmic examination, OCT optic disc parameters, HRT, and visual field tests should all be carefully evaluated together.

  5. [Effectiveness of sub-Tenon's capsule implantation of collage sponge in the treatment of glaucomatous atrophy of the optic nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirin, A V; Khou Sian'zhu; Eliseeva, T O

    2003-01-01

    The surgery of "subtenon implantation of collagen sponge" is offered; its essence is in implanting a fragment of hemostatic collagen sponge for the purpose of revasculizing and improving the trophism of the retina and optic nerve. A total of 96 patients (105 eyes) with glaucomatous atrophy of the optic nerve were operated on. The reliable results of visometry as well as of kinetic and static perimetry and of rheography were obtained. The efficiency of the surgery (without any additional conservative therapy) ranged from 63.4 to 78.6% according to various examination methods. The visual functions improved within 6 to 12 months after surgery.

  6. Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study: findings at 3 months

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    Reddy RK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rahul K Reddy,1 Maziar Lalezary,1 Stephen J Kim,1 Jeffrey A Kammer,1 Rachel W Kuchtey,1 Edward F Cherney,1 Franco M Recchia,2 Karen M Joos,1 Anita Agarwal,1 Janice C Law11Department of Ophthalmology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Tennessee Retina, PC, Nashville, TN, USABackground: The purpose of this paper is to report the 3-month findings of the Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study.Methods: Eighty eyes of 40 participants undergoing vitrectomy were enrolled. Participants underwent baseline evaluation of the study (surgical and fellow (control eye that included: intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, gonioscopy, cup-to-disc ratio measurement, color fundus and optic disc photography, automated perimetry, and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve. Evaluation was repeated at 3 months. Main outcome measures were changes in macula and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and intraocular pressure.Results: All participants completed follow-up. Mean cup-to-disc ratio of study and fellow eyes at baseline was 0.43 ± 0.2 and 0.46 ± 0.2, respectively, and 13% of participants had undiagnosed narrow angles. There was no significant change in intraocular pressure, cup-to-disc ratio, or pattern standard deviation in study eyes compared with baseline or fellow eyes at 3 months. Vision improved in all study eyes at 3 months compared with baseline (P = 0.013, but remained significantly worse than fellow eyes (P < 0.001. Central subfield and temporal peripapillary RNFL thickness were significantly greater in eyes with epiretinal membrane (P < 0.05, and resolution after surgery correlated with visual improvement (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The 3-month results do not indicate any increased risk for open-angle glaucoma but suggest that a relatively high percentage of eyes may be at risk of angle closure glaucoma. Temporal RNFL thickness and central subfield were increased

  7. Equating spatial summation in visual field testing reveals greater loss in optic nerve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloniatis, Michael; Khuu, Sieu K

    2016-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that visual field assessment in ocular disease measured with target stimuli within or close to complete spatial summation results in larger threshold elevation compared to when measured with the standard Goldmann III target size. The hypothesis predicts a greater loss will be identified in ocular disease. Additionally, we sought to develop a theoretical framework that would allow comparisons of thresholds with disease progression when using different Goldmann targets. The Humphrey Field Analyser (HFA) 30-2 grid was used in 13 patients with early/established optic nerve disease using the current Goldmann III target size or a combination of the three smallest stimuli (target size I, II and III). We used data from control subjects at each of the visual field locations for the different target sizes to establish the number of failed points (events) for the patients with optic nerve disease, as well as global indices for mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD). The 30-2 visual field testing using alternate target size stimuli showed that all 13 patients displayed more defects (events) compared to the standard Goldmann III target size. The median increase for events was seven additional failed points: (range 1-26). The global indices also increased when the new testing approach was used (MD -3.47 to -6.25 dB and PSD 4.32 to 6.63 dB). Spatial summation mapping showed an increase in critical area (Ac) in disease and overall increase in thresholds when smaller target stimuli were used. When compared to the current Goldmann III paradigm, the use of alternate sized targets within the 30-2 testing protocol revealed a greater loss in patients with optic nerve disease for both event analysis and global indices (MD and PSD). We therefore provide evidence in a clinical setting that target size is important in visual field testing. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  8. Evaluation of a combined index of optic nerve structure and function for glaucoma diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The definitive diagnosis of glaucoma is currently based on congruent damage to both optic nerve structure and function. Given widespread quantitative assessment of both structure (imaging) and function (automated perimetry) in glaucoma, it should be possible to combine these quantitative data to diagnose disease. We have therefore defined and tested a new approach to glaucoma diagnosis by combining imaging and visual field data, using the anatomical organization of retinal ganglion cells. Methods Data from 1499 eyes of glaucoma suspects and 895 eyes with glaucoma were identified at a single glaucoma center. Each underwent Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) imaging and standard automated perimetry. A new measure combining these two tests, the structure function index (SFI), was defined in 3 steps: 1) calculate the probability that each visual field point is abnormal, 2) calculate the probability of abnormality for each of the six HRT optic disc sectors, and 3) combine those probabilities with the probability that a field point and disc sector are linked by ganglion cell anatomy. The SFI was compared to the HRT and visual field using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results The SFI produced an area under the ROC curve (0.78) that was similar to that for both visual field mean deviation (0.78) and pattern standard deviation (0.80) and larger than that for a normalized measure of HRT rim area (0.66). The cases classified as glaucoma by the various tests were significantly non-overlapping. Based on the distribution of test values in the population with mild disease, the SFI may be better able to stratify this group while still clearly identifying those with severe disease. Conclusions The SFI reflects the traditional clinical diagnosis of glaucoma by combining optic nerve structure and function. In doing so, it identifies a different subset of patients than either visual field testing or optic nerve head imaging alone. Analysis of prospective

  9. Optic nerve size evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in children with optic nerve hypoplasia, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, isolated growth hormone deficiency, and idiopathic short stature.

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    Birkebaek, Niels Holtum; Patel, Leena; Wright, Neville Bryce; Grigg, John Russell; Sinha, Smeeta; Hall, Catherine Margaret; Price, David Anthony; Lloyd, Ian Christopher; Clayton, Peter Ellis

    2004-10-01

    To objectively define criteria for intracranial optic nerve (ON) size in ON hypoplasia (ONH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Intracranial ON sizes from MRI were compared between 46 children with ONH diagnosed by ophthalmoscopy (group 1, isolated ONH, 8 children; and group 2, ONH associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and septum pellucidum, 38 children) and children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (group 3, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, 14 children), isolated growth hormone deficiency (group 4, isolated growth hormone deficiency, 15 children), and idiopathic short stature (group 5, idiopathic short stature, 10 children). Intracranial ON size was determined by the cross-sectional area, calculated as [pi x (1/2) height x (1/2) width]. Groups 1 and 2 had lower intracranial ON size than did groups 3, 4, and 5 (P imaging of the ONs with cross-sectional area short child more than 12 months of age, with or without hypothalamic-pituitary axis abnormalities, confirms the clinical diagnosis of ONH.

  10. Comparative study of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness performed with optical coherence tomography and GDx scanning laser polarimetry in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

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    Wasyluk, Jaromir T; Jankowska-Lech, Irmina; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona

    2012-03-01

    We compared the parameters of retinal nerve fibre layer in patients with advanced glaucoma with the use of different OCT (Optical Coherence Tomograph) devices in relation to analogical measurements performed with GDx VCC (Nerve Fiber Analyzer with Variable Corneal Compensation) scanning laser polarimetry. Study subjects had advanced primary open-angle glaucoma, previously treated conservatively, diagnosed and confirmed by additional examinations (visual field, ophthalmoscopy of optic nerve, gonioscopy), A total of 10 patients were enrolled (9 women and 1 man), aged 18-70 years of age. Nineteen eyes with advanced glaucomatous neuropathy were examined. 1) Performing a threshold perimetry Octopus, G2 strategy and ophthalmoscopy of optic nerve to confirm the presence of advanced primary open-angle glaucoma; 2) performing a GDx VCC scanning laser polarimetry of retinal nerve fibre layer; 3) measuring the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness with 3 different optical coherence tomographs. The parameters of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness are highly correlated between the GDx and OCT Stratus and 3D OCT-1000 devices in mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in the upper sector, and correlation of NFI (GDx) with mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in OCT examinations. Absolute values of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (measured in µm) differ significantly between GDx and all OCT devices. Examination with OCT devices is a sensitive diagnostic method of glaucoma, with good correlation with the results of GDx scanning laser polarimetry of the patients.

  11. Optic nerve compression as a late complication of a hydrogel explant with silicone encircling band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crama, Niels; Kluijtmans, Leo; Klevering, B Jeroen

    2018-06-01

    To present a complication of compressive optic neuropathy caused by a swollen hydrogel explant and posteriorly displaced silicone encircling band. A 72-year-old female patient presented with progressive visual loss and a tilted optic disc. Her medical history included a retinal detachment in 1993 that was treated with a hydrogel explant under a solid silicone encircling band. Visual acuity had decreased from 6/10 to 6/20 and perimetry showed a scotoma in the temporal superior quadrant. On Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), compression of the optic nerve by a displaced silicone encircling band inferior nasally in combination with a swollen episcleral hydrogel explant was observed. Surgical removal of the hydrogel explant and silicone encircling band was uneventful and resulted in improvement of visual acuity and visual field loss. This is the first report on compressive optic neuropathy caused by swelling of a hydrogel explant resulting in a dislocated silicone encircling band. The loss of visual function resolved upon removal of the explant and encircling band.

  12. Prospective Study on Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness Changes in Isolated Unilateral Retrobulbar Optic Neuritis

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    Gordon S. K. Yau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL thickness after unilateral acute optic neuritis using optical coherence tomography (OCT. Patients and Methods. This prospective cohort study recruited consecutive patients with a first episode of isolated, unilateral acute optic neuritis. RNFL thickness and visual acuity (VA of the attack and normal fellow eye were measured at presentation and 3 months in both the treatment and nontreatment groups. Results. 11 subjects received systemic steroids and 9 were treated conservatively. The baseline RNFL thickness was similar in the attack and fellow eye (P≥0.4. At 3 months, the attack eye had a thinner temporal (P=0.02 and average (P=0.05 RNFL compared to the fellow eye. At 3 months, the attack eye had significant RNFL thinning in the 4 quadrants and average thickness (P≤0.0002 compared to baseline. The RNFL thickness between the treatment and nontreatment groups was similar at baseline and 3 months (P≥0.1. Treatment offered better VA at 3 months (0.1 ± 0.2 versus 0.3 ± 0.2 LogMAR, P=0.04. Conclusion. Generalized RNFL thinning occurred at 3 months after a first episode of acute optic neuritis most significantly in the temporal quadrant and average thickness. Visual improvement with treatment was independent of RNFL thickness.

  13. Rat optic nerve head anatomy within 3D histomorphometric reconstructions of normal control eyes.

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    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K; Cepurna, William O; Johnson, Elaine C; Morrison, John C; Burgoyne, Claude F

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to three-dimensionally (3D) characterize the principal macroscopic and microscopic relationships within the rat optic nerve head (ONH) and quantify them in normal control eyes. Perfusion-fixed, trephinated ONH from 8 normal control eyes of 8 Brown Norway Rats were 3D histomorphometrically reconstructed, visualized, delineated and parameterized. The rat ONH consists of 2 scleral openings, (a superior neurovascular and inferior arterial) separated by a thin connective tissue strip we have termed the "scleral sling". Within the superior opening, the nerve abuts a prominent extension of Bruch's Membrane (BM) superiorly and is surrounded by a vascular plexus, as it passes through the sclera, that is a continuous from the choroid into and through the dural sheath and contains the central retinal vein (CRV), (inferiorly). The inferior scleral opening contains the central retinal artery and three long posterior ciliary arteries which obliquely pass through the sclera to obtain the choroid. Bruch's Membrane Opening (BMO) is irregular and vertically elongated, enclosing the nerve (superiorly) and CRV and CRA (inferiorly). Overall mean BMO Depth, BMO Area, Choroidal Thickness and peripapillary Scleral Thickness were 29 μm, 56.5 × 10(3) μm(2), 57 μm and 104 μm respectively. Mean anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO) radii were 201 ± 15 μm and 204 ± 16 μm, respectively. Mean optic nerve area at the ASCO and PSCO were 46.3 × 10(3)±4.4 × 10(3) μm(2) and 44.1 × 10(3)±4.5 × 10(3) μm(2) respectively. In conclusion, the 3D complexity of the rat ONH and the extent to which it differs from the primate have been under-appreciated within previous 2D studies. Properly understood, these anatomic differences may provide new insights into the relative susceptibilities of the rat and primate ONH to elevated intraocular pressure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Usefulness of optic nerve ultrasound to predict clinical progression in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Sánchez, S; Eichau Madueño, S; Rus Hidalgo, M; Domínguez Mayoral, A M; Vilches-Arenas, A; Navarro Mascarell, G; Izquierdo, G

    2018-03-21

    Progressive neuronal and axonal loss are considered the main causes of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The disease frequently involves the visual system; the accessibility of the system for several functional and structural tests has made it a model for the in vivo study of MS pathogenesis. Orbital ultrasound is a non-invasive technique that enables various structures of the orbit, including the optic nerve, to be evaluated in real time. We conducted an observational, ambispective study of MS patients. Disease progression data were collected. Orbital ultrasound was performed on all patients, with power set according to the 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) data were also collected for those patients who underwent the procedure. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS version 22.0. Disease progression was significantly correlated with ultrasound findings (P=.041 for the right eye and P=.037 for the left eye) and with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score at the end of the follow-up period (P=.07 for the right eye and P=.043 for the left eye). No statistically significant differences were found with relation to relapses or other clinical variables. Ultrasound measurement of optic nerve diameter constitutes a useful, predictive factor for the evaluation of patients with MS. Smaller diameters are associated with poor clinical progression and greater disability (measured by EDSS). Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. In Vivo Changes in Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture and Optic Nerve Head Structure in Early Experimental Glaucoma.

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    Kevin M Ivers

    Full Text Available The lamina cribrosa likely plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. We sought to (1 better understand optic nerve head (ONH structure and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS microarchitecture between fellow eyes of living, normal non-human primates and (2 characterize the time-course of in vivo structural changes in the ONH, ALCS microarchitecture, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in non-human primate eyes with early experimental glaucoma (EG. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images of the ONH were acquired cross-sectionally in six bilaterally normal rhesus monkeys, and before and approximately every two weeks after inducing unilateral EG in seven rhesus monkeys. ONH parameters and RNFLT were quantified from segmented SDOCT images. Mean ALCS pore area, elongation and nearest neighbor distance (NND were quantified globally, in sectors and regionally from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope images. In bilaterally normal monkeys, ONH parameters were similar between fellow eyes with few inter-eye differences in ALCS pore parameters. In EG monkeys, an increase in mean ALCS Depth (ALCSD was the first structural change measured in 6 of 7 EG eyes. A decrease in mean minimum rim width (MRW simultaneously accompanied this early change in 4 of 6 EG eyes and was the first structural change in the 7th EG eye. Mean ALCS pore parameters were among the first or second changes measured in 4 EG eyes. Mean ALCS pore area and NND increased in superotemporal and temporal sectors and in central and peripheral regions at the first time-point of change in ALCS pore geometry. RNFLT and/or mean ALCS radius of curvature were typically the last parameters to initially change. Survival analyses found mean ALCSD was the only parameter to significantly show an initial change prior to the first measured loss in RNFLT across EG eyes.

  16. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical nerve identification. Preliminary ex vivo results for feedback controlled oral and maxillofacial laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Zam, Azhar; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael

    Objective: Laser surgery has many advantages. However, due to a lack of haptic feedback it is accompanied by the risk of iatrogenic nerve damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of optical nerve identification by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Materials and Methods: Diffuse reflectance spectra of nerve tissue, skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone (15120 spectra) of ex vivo pig heads were acquired in the wavelength range of 350-650 nm. Tissue differentiation was performed by principal components analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Results: Nerve tissue could correctly be identified and differed from skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone in more than 90% of the cases (AUC results) with a specificity of over 78% and a sensitivity of more than 86%. Conclusion: Nerve tissue can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with high precision and reliability. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent iatrogenic nerve damage performing oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.

  17. Microsurgical training model for residents to approach to the orbit and the optic nerve in fresh cadaveric sheep cranium

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    M Emre Altunrende

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurosurgery and ophthalmology residents need many years to improve microsurgical skills. Laboratory training models are very important for developing surgical skills before clinical application of microsurgery. A simple simulation model is needed for residents to learn how to handle microsurgical instruments and to perform safe dissection of intracranial or intraorbital nerves, vessels, and other structures. Materials and Methods: The simulation material consists of a one-year-old fresh cadaveric sheep cranium. Two parts (Part 1 and Part 2 were designed to approach structures of the orbit. Part 1 consisted of a 2-step approach to dissect intraorbital structures, and Part 2 consisted of a 3-step approach to dissect the optic nerve intracranially. Results: The model simulates standard microsurgical techniques using a variety of approaches to structures in and around the orbit and the optic nerve. Conclusions: This laboratory training model enables trainees to gain experience with an operating microscope, microsurgical instruments and orbital structures.

  18. Positive effects of bFGF modified rat amniotic epithelial cells transplantation on transected rat optic nerve.

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    Jia-Xin Xie

    Full Text Available Effective therapy for visual loss caused by optic nerve injury or diseases has not been achieved even though the optic nerve has the regeneration potential after injury. This study was designed to modify amniotic epithelial cells (AECs with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF gene, preliminarily investigating its effect on transected optic nerve.A human bFGF gene segment was delivered into rat AECs (AECs/hbFGF by lentiviral vector, and the gene expression was examined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The AECs/hbFGF and untransfected rat AECs were transplanted into the transected site of the rat optic nerve. At 28 days post transplantation, the survival and migration of the transplanted cells was observed by tracking labeled cells; meanwhile retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were observed and counted by employing biotin dextran amine (BDA and Nissl staining. Furthermore, the expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43 within the injury site was examined with immunohistochemical staining.The AECs/hbFGF was proven to express bFGF gene and secrete bFGF peptide. Both AECs/hbFGF and AECs could survive and migrate after transplantation. RGCs counting implicated that RGCs numbers of the cell transplantation groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, and the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group. Moreover GAP-43 integral optical density value in the control group was significantly lower than that of the cell transplantation groups, and the value in the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group.AECs modified with bFGF could reduce RGCs loss and promote expression of GAP-43 in the rat optic nerve transected model, facilitating the process of neural restoration following injury.

  19. Monoamine oxidase enzymes and oxidative stress in the rat optic nerve: age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbioso, Marcella; Pascarella, Antonia; Cavallotti, Carlo; Pescosolido, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    In this study, age-related changes in the monoamine oxidases (MAO) were studied in the optic nerve (ON) of both young and aged male rats. The aim of the study was to assess the role of MAO in age-related changes in the rat ON and explain the mechanisms of neuroprotection mediated by MAO-B-specific inhibitors. Fifteen three month old and fifteen 26 month old Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The animals were killed by terminal anaesthesia. Staining of MAO, quantitative analysis of images, biochemical assays and statistical analysis of data were carried out. Samples of the ON were washed in water, fixed in Bowen fluid, dehydrated and embedded in Entellan. Histological sections were stained for MAO-enzymatic activities. The specificity of the reaction was evaluated by incubating control sections in a medium either without substrate or without dye. The quantitative analysis of images was carried out at the same magnification and the same lighting using a Zeiss photomicroscope. The histochemical findings were compared with the biochemical results. After enzymatic staining, MAO could be demonstrated in the ON fibres of both young and aged animals; however, MAO were increased in the nerve fibres of the elderly rats. These morphological findings were confirmed biochemically. The possibility that age-related changes in MAO levels may be attributed to impaired energy production mechanisms and/or represent the consequence of reduced energy needs is discussed. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2012 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  20. Correlation of Optic Nerve Microcirculation with Papillomacular Bundle Structure in Treatment Naive Normal Tension Glaucoma

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    Wataru Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the association between optic nerve head (ONH microcirculation, central papillomacular bundle (CPB structure, and visual function in eyes with treatment naive normal tension glaucoma (NTG. Methods. This study included 40 eyes of 40 patients with NTG and 20 eyes of 20 normal patients. We used laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG to measure mean blur rate (MBR in all eyes and calculated the ratio of MBR in the horizontal quadrants of tissue area ONH (temporal/nasal ratio of MBR in the tissue area: T/N MT. Clinical findings also included retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT and ganglion cell complex thickness (GCCT in the CPB and macular areas, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, mean deviation (MD, and refractive error. Results. T/N MT was correlated with both BCVA and MD. The OCT parameters most highly correlated with T/N MT were macular RNFLT and mid-CPB RNFLT. Furthermore, T/N MT, mid-CPB RNFLT, and macular RNFLT were higher in NTG than in normal eyes. A discrimination analysis revealed that T/N MT and refractive error were independent factors indicating NTG. Conclusions. Our results suggest that T/N MT is a candidate biomarker of NTG. Furthermore, T/N MT reflects visual function, including acuity and sensitivity, and CPB structure.

  1. Scanning laser topography and scanning laser polarimetry: comparing both imaging methods at same distances from the optic nerve head.

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    Kremmer, Stephan; Keienburg, Marcus; Anastassiou, Gerasimos; Schallenberg, Maurice; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Selbach, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    To compare the performance of scanning laser topography (SLT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) on the rim of the optic nerve head and its surrounding area and thereby to evaluate whether these imaging technologies are influenced by other factors beyond the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). A total of 154 eyes from 5 different groups were examined: young healthy subjects (YNorm), old healthy subjects (ONorm), patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), patients with open-angle glaucoma and early glaucomatous damage (OAGE) and patients with open-angle glaucoma and advanced glaucomatous damage (OAGA). SLT and SLP measurements were taken. Four concentric circles were superimposed on each of the images: the first one measuring at the rim of the optic nerve head (1.0 ONHD), the next measuring at 1.25 optic nerve head diameters (ONHD), at 1.5 ONHD and at 1.75 ONHD. The aligned images were analyzed using GDx/NFA software. Both methods showed peaks of RNFL thickness in the superior and inferior segments of the ONH. The maximum thickness, registered by the SLT device was at the ONH rim where the SLP device tended to measure the lowest values. SLT measurements at the ONH were influenced by other tissues besides the RNFL like blood vessels and glial tissues. SLT and SLP were most strongly correlated at distances of 1.25 and 1.5 ONHD. While both imaging technologies are valuable tools in detecting glaucoma, measurements at the ONH rim should be interpreted critically since both methods might provide misleading results. For the assessment of the retinal nerve fiber layer we would like to recommend for both imaging technologies, SLT and SLP, measurements in 1.25 and 1.5 ONHD distance of the rim of the optic nerve head.

  2. Visual loss and optic nerve head swelling in thiamine deficiency without prolonged dietary deficiency

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    Gratton SM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sean M Gratton, Byron L LamBascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Visual loss due to optic neuropathy is a rare manifestation of thiamine deficiency. We report a case of a 39-year-old woman with a body mass index (BMI of 29 kg/m2 who developed visual loss and bilateral optic nerve head swelling after a short, self-limited gastrointestinal illness. She was disoriented and inattentive and had absent ankle jerk reflexes, diminished sensation in both legs below the knees, and marked truncal ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed increased T2-signal in the medial thalami and mammillary bodies. The serum thiamine level was 8 nmol/L (normal 8–30. The diagnosis of thiamine deficiency was made, and the patient’s vision and neurologic symptoms improved significantly with intramuscular thiamine treatment. Thiamine deficiency can occur in the absence of an obvious predisposing factor such as alcoholism or low body weight. The clinician must be aware of the factors that govern vitamin availability and maintain a high index of suspicion to make the diagnosis in such cases.Keywords: optic neuropathy, nutritional deficiency

  3. A case of atypical McCune-Albright syndrome requiring optic nerve decompression.

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    Yavuzer, R; Khilnani, R; Jackson, I T; Audet, B

    1999-10-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a disease of noninheritable, genetic origin defined by the triad of café-au-lait pigmentation of the skin, precocious puberty, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. This syndrome, which affects young girls primarily, has also been reported with other endocrinopathies, and rarely with acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia. The fibrous dysplasia in MAS is of the polyostotic type and, apart from the characteristic sites such as the proximal aspects of the femur and the pelvis, the craniofacial region is frequently involved. A male patient with MAS presented with juvenile gigantism, precocious puberty, pituitary adenoma-secreting growth hormone and prolactin, hypothalamic pituitary gonadal and thyroid dysfunction, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia causing optic nerve compression. Visual deterioration and its surgical management are presented.

  4. Transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-κB protects from optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell loss in experimental optic neuritis

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    Brambilla Roberta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optic neuritis is an acute, demyelinating neuropathy of the optic nerve often representing the first appreciable symptom of multiple sclerosis. Wallerian degeneration of irreversibly damaged optic nerve axons leads to death of retinal ganglion cells, which is the cause of permanent visual impairment. Although the specific mechanisms responsible for triggering these events are unknown, it has been suggested that a key pathological factor is the activation of immune-inflammatory processes secondary to leukocyte infiltration. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence to support such a causal role for infiltrating peripheral immune cells in the etiopathology of optic neuritis. Methods To dissect the contribution of the peripheral immune-inflammatory response versus the CNS-specific inflammatory response in the development of optic neuritis, we analyzed optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells pathology in wild-type and GFAP-IκBα-dn transgenic mice, where NF-κB is selectively inactivated in astrocytes, following induction of EAE. Results We found that, in wild-type mice, axonal demyelination in the optic nerve occurred as early as 8 days post induction of EAE, prior to the earliest signs of leukocyte infiltration (20 days post induction. On the contrary, GFAP-IκBα-dn mice were significantly protected and showed a nearly complete prevention of axonal demyelination, as well as a drastic attenuation in retinal ganglion cell death. This correlated with a decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, as well as a prevention of NAD(PH oxidase subunit upregulation. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that astrocytes, not infiltrating immune cells, play a key role in the development of optic neuritis and that astrocyte-mediated neurotoxicity is dependent on activation of a transcriptional program regulated by NF-κB. Hence, interventions targeting the NF-κB transcription

  5. Visual Outcome and Tumor Control After Conformal Radiotherapy for Patients With Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvold, Nils D.; Lessell, Simmons; Bussiere, Marc; Beaudette, Kevin; Rizzo, Joseph F.; Loeffler, Jay S.; Shih, Helen A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) is a rare tumor that almost uniformly leads to visual dysfunction and even blindness without intervention. Because surgical extirpation carries a high risk of postoperative blindness, vision-sparing treatment strategies are desirable. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 25 patients (25 optic nerves) with ONSM, treated at a single institution with conformal fractionated radiotherapy by either stereotactic photon or proton radiation. Primary endpoints were local control and visual acuity. Results: The patients presented with symptoms of visual loss (21) or orbital pain (3) or were incidentally diagnosed by imaging (3). The mean age was 44 years, and 64% were female patients. The indication for treatment was the development or progression of symptoms. Of the patients, 13 were treated with photons, 9 were treated with protons, and 3 received a combination of photons and protons. The median dose delivered was 50.4 gray equivalents (range, 45-59.4 gray equivalents). Median follow-up after radiotherapy was 30 months (range, 3-168 months), with 3 patients lost to follow-up. At most recent follow-up, 21 of 22 patients (95%) had improved (14) or stable (7) visual acuity. One patient had worsened visual acuity after initial postirradiation improvement. Of the 22 patients, 20 (95%) had no radiographic progression. Three patients had evidence of asymptomatic, limited retinopathy on ophthalmologic examination, and one had recurrent ONSM 11 years after treatment. Conclusions: Highly conformal, fractionated radiation therapy for symptomatic primary ONSM provides tumor control and improvement in visual function in most cases, with minimal treatment-induced morbidity. Longer follow-up is needed to assess the durability of tumor control and treatment-related late effects.

  6. Reliability of magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of hypopituitarism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia.

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    Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Shelton, Julie B; Glasier, Charles M; Phillips, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to identify hypopituitarism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) because they are at risk for developmental delay, seizures, or death. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of neurohypophyseal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of hypopituitarism in children with ONH. Cross-sectional study. One hundred one children with clinical ONH who underwent MRI of the brain and orbits and a detailed pediatric endocrinologic evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed on 1.5-Tesla scanners. The imaging protocol included sagittal T1-weighted images, axial fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery/T2-weighted images, and diffusion-weighted images of the brain. Orbital imaging included fat-saturated axial and coronal images and high-resolution axial T2-weighted images. The MRI studies were reviewed by 2 pediatric neuroradiologists for optic nerve hypoplasia, absent or ectopic posterior pituitary, absent pituitary infundibulum, absent septum pellucidum, migration anomalies, and hemispheric injury. Medical records were reviewed for clinical examination findings and endocrinologic status. All patients underwent a clinical evaluation by a pediatric endocrinologist and a standardized panel of serologic testing that included serum insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and free thyroxine levels. Radiologists were masked to patients' endocrinologic status and funduscopic findings. Sensitivity and specificity of MRI findings for the detection of hypopituitarism. Neurohypophyseal abnormalities, including absent pituitary infundibulum, ectopic posterior pituitary bright spot, and absent posterior pituitary bright spot, occurred in 33 children. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed neurohypophyseal abnormalities in 27 of the 28 children with hypopituitarism (sensitivity, 96%). A

  7. Characterization of Pax2 expression in the goldfish optic nerve head during retina regeneration.

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    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The Pax2 transcription factor plays a crucial role in axon-guidance and astrocyte differentiation in the optic nerve head (ONH during vertebrate visual system development. However, little is known about its function during regeneration. The fish visual system is in continuous growth and can regenerate. Müller cells and astrocytes of the retina and ONH play an important role in these processes. We demonstrate that pax2a in goldfish is highly conserved and at least two pax2a transcripts are expressed in the optic nerve. Moreover, we show two different astrocyte populations in goldfish: Pax2(+ astrocytes located in the ONH and S100(+ astrocytes distributed throughout the retina and the ONH. After peripheral growth zone (PGZ cryolesion, both Pax2(+ and S100(+ astrocytes have different responses. At 7 days after injury the number of Pax2(+ cells is reduced and coincides with the absence of young axons. In contrast, there is an increase of S100(+ astrocytes in the retina surrounding the ONH and S100(+ processes in the ONH. At 15 days post injury, the PGZ starts to regenerate and the number of S100(+ astrocytes increases in this region. Moreover, the regenerating axons reach the ONH and the pax2a gene expression levels and the number of Pax2(+ cells increase. At the same time, S100(+/GFAP(+/GS(+ astrocytes located in the posterior ONH react strongly. In the course of the regeneration, Müller cell vitreal processes surrounding the ONH are primarily disorganized and later increase in number. During the whole regenerative process we detect a source of Pax2(+/PCNA(+ astrocytes surrounding the posterior ONH. We demonstrate that pax2a expression and the Pax2(+ astrocyte population in the ONH are modified during the PGZ regeneration, suggesting that they could play an important role in this process.

  8. Optic Disc and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Evaluation of the Fellow Eyes in Non-Arteritic Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

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    Medine Yılmaz Dağ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the fellow eyes in unilateral non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and to compare their optic disc parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness with age-and refraction-matched normal controll subjects, using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 2 (HRT II. Materials and Methods: The fellow eyes of 40 patients with typical unilateral NAION (study group and one randomly chosen eye of 42 age-, sex-, and refraction-matched normal control subjects were enrolled in the study. Optic disc morphologic features (average disc area, cup area, rim area, disc volume, rim volume, cup/disc area ratio, cup depth and peripapillary RNFL thickness were evaluated using HRT II, a confoal scanning ophtalmoscopy. Results: In the study group, there were 26 (65% men and 14 (35% women, whereas there were 27 (64% men and 15 (36% women in the control group (Chi square test, p=0.89. Mean age of the patients in the study and control groups was 59.4±10.3 and 57.7±9.1 years, respectively (T test, p=0.72. There was not any statistically significant difference regarding mean spheric equivalent between the two groups (Mann-Whitney U-test, p=0.203. The NAION unaffected fellow eyes had significantly smaller disc areas, cup areas, cup volumes, cup-disc area ratios (vertical and lineer, and cup depths than the control eyes (Mann-Whitney U-test; p<0.05, whereas there was no significant difference in the RNFL thickness between the two. Conclusion: A comparison of the fellow eyes in patients with unilateral NAION and the control eyes showed a significant difference in optic disc parameters and the morphology of RNFL. These differences could be important in the pathogenesis of NAION and needs to have further investigated. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 111-114

  9. Neuronal apoptosis and neurofilament protein expression in the lateral geniculate body of cats following acute optic nerve injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The visual pathway have 6 parts, involving optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate body, optic radiation and cortical striatum area. Corresponding changes may be found in these 6 parts following optic nerve injury. At present, studies mainly focus on optic nerve and retina, but studies on lateral geniculate body are few.OBJECTIVE: To prepare models of acute optic nerve injury for observing the changes of neurons in lateral geniculate body, expression of neurofilament protein at different time after injury and cell apoptosis under the optical microscope, and for investigating the changes of neurons in lateral geniculate body following acute optic nerve injury.DESIGN: Completely randomized grouping design, controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ji'nan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Twenty-eight adult healthy cats of either gender and common grade, weighing from 2.0 to 3.5 kg, were provided by the Animal Experimental Center of Fudan University. The involved cats were divided into 2 groups according to table of random digit: normal control group (n =3) and model group (n =25). Injury 6 hours, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days five time points were set in model group for later observation, 5 cats at each time point. TUNEL kit (Bohringer-Mannheim company)and NF200& Mr 68 000 mouse monoclonal antibody (NeoMarkers Company) were used in this experiment.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ji'nan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA between June 2004 and June 2005. ① The cats of model group were developed into cat models of acute intracranial optic nerve injury as follows: The anesthetized cats were placed in lateral position. By imitating operation to human, pterion approach was used. An incision was made at the joint line between outer canthus and tragus, and deepened along cranial base until white optic nerve via optic nerve pore

  10. The Quantitative Measurements of Vascular Density and Flow Area of Optic Nerve Head Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

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    Bazvand, Fatemeh; Mirshahi, Reza; Fadakar, Kaveh; Faghihi, Houshangh; Sabour, Siamak; Ghassemi, Fariba

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vascular density (VD) and the flow area on optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area, and the impact of age and sex using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in healthy human subjects. Both eyes of each volunteer were scanned by an RTVue XR Avanti; Optovue with OCTA using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm technique. Masked graders evaluated enface angiodisc OCTA data. The flow area of ONH and the VD were automatically calculated. A total of 79 eyes of patients with a mean age of 37.03±11.27 were examined. The total ONH (papillary and peripapillary) area VD was 56.03%±4.55%. The flow area of the ONH was 1.74±0.10 mm/1.34 mm. The temporal and inferotemporal peripapillary VD was different between male and female patients. Increasing age causes some changes in the flow area of the ONH and the papillary VD from the third to the fourth decade (analysis of variance test; P<0.05). A normal quantitative database of the flow area and VD of the papillary and peripapillary area, obtained by RTVue XR with OCT angiography technique, is presented here.

  11. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross-sectional image of optic nerve head during intraocular pressure elevation

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    Ji Young Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze changes of the optic nerve head (ONH and peripapillary region during intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.METHODS: Both an optic disc 200×200 cube scan and a high-definition 5-line raster scan were obtained from open angle glaucoma patients presented with monocular elevation of IOP (≥30 mm Hg using SD-OCT. Additional baseline characteristics included age, gender, diagnosis, best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, findings of slit lamp biomicroscopy, findings of dilated stereoscopic examination of the ONH and fundus, IOP, pachymetry findings, and the results of visual field.RESULTS: The 24 patients were selected and divided into two groups:group 1 patients had no history of IOP elevation or glaucoma (n=14, and group 2 patients did have history of IOP elevation or glaucoma (n=10. In each patient, the study eye with elevated IOP was classified into group H (high, and the fellow eye was classified into group L (low. The mean deviation (MD differed significantly between groups H and L when all eyes were considered (P=0.047 and in group 2 (P=0.042, not in group 1 (P=0.893. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL average thickness (P=0.050, rim area (P=0.015, vertical cup/disc ratio (P=0.011, cup volume (P=0.028, inferior quadrant RNFL thickness (P=0.017, and clock-hour (1, 5, and 6 RNFL thicknesses (P=0.050, 0.012, and 0.018, respectively, cup depth (P=0.008, central prelaminar layer thickness (P=0.023, mid-inferior prelaminar layer thickness (P=0.023, and nasal retinal slope (P=0.034 were significantly different between the eyes with groups H and L.CONCLUSION:RNFL average thickness, rim area, vertical cup/disc ratio, cup volume, inferior quadrant RNFL thickness, and clock-hour (1, 5, and 6 RNFL thicknesses significantly changed during acute IOP elevation.

  12. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  13. Prevalence of Split Nerve Fiber Layer Bundles in Healthy People Imaged with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Sirel Gür Güngör

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The presence of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL split bundles was recently described in normal eyes scanned using scanning laser polarimetry and by histologic studies. Split bundles may resemble RNFL loss in healthy eyes. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of nerve fiber layer split bundles in healthy people. Materials and Methods: We imaged 718 eyes of 359 healthy persons with the spectral domain optical coherence tomography in this cross-sectional study. All eyes had intraocular pressure of 21 mmHg or less, normal appearance of the optic nerve head, and normal visual fields (Humphrey Field Analyzer 24-2 full threshold program. In our study, a bundle was defined as ‘split’ when there is localized defect not resembling a wedge defect in the RNFL deviation map with a symmetrically divided RNFL appearance on the RNFL thickness map. The classification was performed by two independent observers who used an identical set of reference examples to standardize the classification. Results: Inter-observer consensus was reached in all cases. Bilateral superior split bundles were seen in 19 cases (5.29% and unilateral superior split was observed in 15 cases (4.16%. In 325 cases (90.52% there was no split bundle. Conclusion: Split nerve fiber layer bundles, in contrast to single nerve fiber layer bundles, are not common findings in healthy eyes. In eyes with normal optic disc appearance, especially when a superior RNFL defect is observed in RNFL deviation map, the RNLF thickness map and graphs should also be examined for split nerve fiber layer bundles.

  14. Dural Ectasia of the Optic Nerve and Unilateral Proptosis-Two Rare Comorbidities Associated with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

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    Serkan Dağdelen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman with a recent history of visual abnormality (obscurations had bilateral optic disc swellings, dilatation of the optic nerve sheaths, monocular proptosis, and increased cerebrospinal fluid pressures. She was diagnosed as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH. IIH can present with both papilledema and dural ectasia although the latter is usually seen as an isolated entity. Various conditions also have been implicated in IIH. However, apart from female sex, recent weight gain and obesity, there are no proven associations. In this case report, we present a case of IHH associated with two different pathologies: dural ectasia of the optic nerve sheaths and monocular proptosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 297-300

  15. The Connective Tissue Components of Optic Nerve Head Cupping in Monkey Experimental Glaucoma Part 1: Global Change

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    Yang, Hongli; Ren, Ruojin; Lockwood, Howard; Williams, Galen; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, Crawford; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize optic nerve head (ONH) connective tissue change within 21 monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes, so as to identify its principal components. Methods Animals were imaged three to five times at baseline then every 2 weeks following chronic unilateral IOP elevation, and euthanized early through end-stage confocal scanning laser tomographic change. Optic nerve heads were serial-sectioned, three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall EG versus control eye differences were assessed by general estimating equations (GEE). Significant, animal-specific, EG eye change was required to exceed the maximum physiologic intereye differences in six healthy animals. Results Overall EG eye change was significant (P connective tissue components of ONH “cupping” in monkey EG which serve as targets for longitudinally staging and phenotyping ONH connective tissue alteration within all forms of monkey and human optic neuropathy. PMID:26641545

  16. Measurement of amino acid levels in the vitreous humor of rats after chronic intraocular pressure elevation or optic nerve transection.

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    Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Baumrind, Lisa A; Pease, Mary Ellen; Valenta, Danielle

    2002-10-01

    To investigate whether the levels of free amino acids and protein in the vitreous of rat eyes are altered with chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation or after optic nerve transection. The concentrations of 20 amino acids in the vitreous humor were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in both eyes of 41 rats with unilateral IOP elevation induced by translimbal photocoagulation. Eyes were studied 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 9 weeks after initial IOP elevation. The same amino acids were measured in 41 rats 1 day and 2, 4, and 9 weeks after unilateral transection of the orbital optic nerve. The intravitreal protein level was assayed in additional 22 rats with IOP elevation and 12 rats after nerve transection. Two masked observers evaluated the amount of optic nerve damage with a semiquantitative, light-microscopic technique. In rats with experimental glaucoma, amino acid concentrations were unchanged 1 day after treatment. At 1 week, 4 of 20 amino acids (aspartate, proline, alanine, and lysine) were higher than in control eyes ( 0.05). Vitreous protein level was significantly higher in glaucomatous eyes than their paired controls at 1 day ( 0.01).

  17. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a preliminary report

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    Jeffrey N Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present the results of a single patient with optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS. SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and is the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date- www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867. SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. Pre- and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams were independently performed at the Wilmer Eye Institute at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA. A 27 year old female patient had lost vision approximately 5 years prior to enrollment in SCOTS. Pre-treatment best-corrected visual acuity at the Wilmer Eye Institute was 20/800 Right Eye (OD and 20/4,000 Left Eye (OS. Four months following treatment in SCOTS, the central visual acuity had improved to 20/100 OD and 20/40 OS.

  18. Scanning Laser Polarimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography for Detection of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects

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    Oh, Jong-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare the ability of scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx-VCC) and Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect photographic retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study included 45 eyes of 45 consecutive glaucoma patients with RNFL defects in red-free fundus photographs. The superior and inferior temporal quadrants in each eye were included for data analysis separately. The location and presence of RNFL defects seen in red-free fundus photographs were compared with those seen in GDx-VCC deviation maps and OCT RNFL analysis maps for each quadrant. Results Of the 90 quadrants (45 eyes), 31 (34%) had no apparent RNFL defects, 29 (32%) had focal RNFL defects, and 30 (33%) had diffuse RNFL defects in red-free fundus photographs. The highest agreement between GDx-VCC and red-free photography was 73% when we defined GDx-VCC RNFL defects as a cluster of three or more color-coded squares (p<5%) along the traveling line of the retinal nerve fiber in the GDx-VCC deviation map (kappa value, 0.388; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.195 to 0.582). The highest agreement between OCT and red-free photography was 85% (kappa value, 0.666; 95% CI, 0.506 to 0.825) when a value of 5% outside the normal limit for the OCT analysis map was used as a cut-off value for OCT RNFL defects. Conclusions According to the kappa values, the agreement between GDx-VCC deviation maps and red-free photography was poor, whereas the agreement between OCT analysis maps and red-free photography was good. PMID:19794943

  19. Effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head in diabetes: analysis by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

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    Akar, Munire Erman; Yucel, Iclal; Erdem, Uzeyir; Taskin, Omur; Ozel, Alper; Akar, Yusuf

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare menstrual-cycle-dependent topographic changes in the optic nerve head of normally menstruating women with different grades of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the right eyes of 123 normally menstruating women (36 with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy [NPDR], 42 with mild NPDR and 45 healthy subjects). All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination at baseline. At 4 hormonally distinct phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular, late follicular, mid-luteal and late luteal), we analysed the topography of the optic nerve head, using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, and measured the serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone. We excluded from analysis the data for 8 patients with severe NPDR, 10 patients with mild NPDR and 15 control subjects who were lost to follow-up examinations during the menstrual cycle. The mean age and optic disc area did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. The duration of diabetes was significantly longer in the patients with severe NPDR than in those with mild NPDR (p cup-shape measure, linear cup/disc ratio, cup/disc area ratio and cup area in the late luteal phase compared with the other phases of the menstrual cycle (p menstrual cycle. Severe NPDR is associated with significant topographic changes in the rim and cup of the optic nerve head during the menstrual cycle. This must be considered in the evaluation of women with both diabetes and glaucoma. The normal fluctuations in serum sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle of diabetic women seem to affect the optic nerve head more when the disease is advanced.

  20. Optical coherence tomography in retinitis pigmentosa: reproducibility and capacity to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness alterations.

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    Garcia-Martin, Elena; Pinilla, Isabel; Sancho, Eva; Almarcegui, Carmen; Dolz, Isabel; Rodriguez-Mena, Diego; Fuertes, Isabel; Cuenca, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the ability of time-domain and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomographies (OCTs) to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer atrophies in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). To test the intrasession reproducibility using three OCT instruments (Stratus, Cirrus, and Spectralis). Eighty eyes of 80 subjects (40 RP patients and 40 healthy subjects) underwent a visual field examination, together with 3 macular scans and 3 optic disk evaluations by the same experienced examiner using 3 OCT instruments. Differences between healthy and RP eyes were compared. The relationship between measurements with each OCT instrument was evaluated. Repeatability was studied by intraclass correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation. Macular and retinal nerve fiber layer atrophies were detected in RP patients for all OCT parameters. Macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses, as determined by the different OCTs, were correlated but significantly different (P < 0.05). Reproducibility was moderately high using Stratus, good using Cirrus and Spectralis, and excellent using the Tru-track technology of Spectralis. In RP eyes, measurements showed higher variability compared with healthy eyes. Differences in thickness measurements existed between OCT instruments, despite there being a high degree of correlation. Fourier-domain OCT can be considered a valid and repeatability technique to detect retinal nerve fiber layer atrophy in RP patients.

  1. Association between optic nerve blood flow and objective examinations in glaucoma patients with generalized enlargement disc type

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    Nakazawa T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Chiba, Kazuko Omodaka, Yu Yokoyama, Naoko Aizawa, Satoru Tsuda, Masayuki Yasuda, Takaaki Otomo, Shunji Yokokura, Nobuo Fuse, Toru Nakazawa Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between microcirculation in the optic disc, average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness cupping parameters, and visual field defects in glaucoma patients with the generalized enlargement disc type. Methods: A total of 38 eyes from 38 glaucoma patients with the generalized enlargement disc type were included. The microcirculation of the optic nerve head was examined with laser speckle flow graphy, and the mean blur rate in all areas, in vessel area, and in tissue area were calculated using the laser speckle flow graphy analyzer software. Average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was measured using Stratus optical coherence tomography, and cupping parameters were accessed using the Heidelberg retina tomograph. The mean deviation in the Humphrey field analyzer (30-2 SITA standard was analyzed. The correlation between these parameters was evaluated using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results: The correlation coefficient of mean blur rate in all optic disc area to the average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, vertical C/D, and mean deviation were r = 0.7546 (P < 0.0001, r = –0.6208 (P < 0.0001, and r = 0.6010 (P = 0.0001, respectively. The mean blur rate in tissue area of the optic disc showed r = 0.7305 (P < 0.0001, r = –0.6438 (P < 0.0001, and r = 0.6338 (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: We found that the mean blur rate in the optic disc was significantly correlated with the average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, vertical C/D, and mean deviation in patients with the generalized enlargement disc type of glaucoma. In particular, the mean blur rate in tissue area was more

  2. Quantification of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in normal Indian population

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    Tarannum Mansoori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT in normal Indian eyes, for which, 210 normal volunteers were recruited. One eye of each subject underwent RNFL scanning at 3.4 mm circle diameter around optic nerve using SD OCT. The data were analyzed to determine RNFLT in the sample population and its variation with age and gender. The average peripapillary RNFLT was 114.03 ± 9.59 μm. There was no effect of gender on RNFLT parameters. Age had significant negative correlation with average (P = 0.005, superior (P = 0.04, temporal (P = 0.049, and nasal quadrants (P = 0.01 RNFLT. Inferior quadrant RNFLT also had a negative correlation with age, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.15.

  3. Structural changes of the macula and optic nerve head in the remaining eyes after enucleation for retinoblastoma: an optical coherence tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Azza Mohamed Ahmed; Elbayomi, Ahmed Mohamed; Shaat, Ashraf Abdelsalam Kandeel

    2017-12-16

    To describe objectively the possible structural changes of the macula and optic nerve head in the free eyes of unilateral cured retinoblastoma patients and, also after enucleation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. A cross sectional study involving 60 patients subdivided into three groups; 15 unilateral RB patients in whom enucleation was indicated as a sole treatment performed earlier in life [(study group (I)], 15 unilateral RB patients who had completely regressed disease with a preserved eye [(study group (II)] and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. The remaining and free eyes in study groups and right eyes of control group had full ophthalmological examination, static automated perimetry and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve head. In study group (II); a significant thinning of total macula, central fovea, ganglion cell layer (GCL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and some sectors of outer nuclear layer (P- values ≤0.05) was found with no significant difference in peripapillary nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and optic nerve head parameters compared to the control group and the study group (I). A significantly thickened total macula, GCL, GCC, and pRNFL in study group (I) compared to study group (II). Thickened pRNFL was significantly correlated to standard automated perimetry pattern deviations. No significant difference was found between study group (I) and control group. Retinoblastoma eyes characterized by thinning of central fovea, GCL, GCC compared to the control group. After unilateral enucleation, increased GCC and pRNFL thicknesses were detected compared to retinoblastoma group.

  4. Phenotype analysis of early risk factors from electronic medical records improves image-derived diagnostic classifiers for optic nerve pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nabar, Kunal P.; Nelson, Katrina M.; Mawn, Louise A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-03-01

    We examine imaging and electronic medical records (EMR) of 588 subjects over five major disease groups that affect optic nerve function. An objective evaluation of the role of imaging and EMR data in diagnosis of these conditions would improve understanding of these diseases and help in early intervention. We developed an automated image processing pipeline that identifies the orbital structures within the human eyes from computed tomography (CT) scans, calculates structural size, and performs volume measurements. We customized the EMR-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to derive diagnostic EMR phenotypes that occur at least two years prior to the onset of the conditions of interest from a separate cohort of 28,411 ophthalmology patients. We used random forest classifiers to evaluate the predictive power of image-derived markers, EMR phenotypes, and clinical visual assessments in identifying disease cohorts from a control group of 763 patients without optic nerve disease. Image-derived markers showed more predictive power than clinical visual assessments or EMR phenotypes. However, the addition of EMR phenotypes to the imaging markers improves the classification accuracy against controls: the AUC improved from 0.67 to 0.88 for glaucoma, 0.73 to 0.78 for intrinsic optic nerve disease, 0.72 to 0.76 for optic nerve edema, 0.72 to 0.77 for orbital inflammation, and 0.81 to 0.85 for thyroid eye disease. This study illustrates the importance of diagnostic context for interpretation of image-derived markers and the proposed PheWAS technique provides a flexible approach for learning salient features of patient history and incorporating these data into traditional machine learning analyses.

  5. Agreement of Two Different Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Instruments for Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements

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    Hooshang Faghihi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the agreement between Spectralis and Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT measurements of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness. Methods: Suspected or confirmed cases of glaucoma who met the inclusion criteria underwent peripapillary RNFL thickness measurement using both the Spectralis and Cirrus on the same day within a few minutes. Results: Measurements were performed on 103 eyes of 103 patients with mean age of 50.4±17.7 years. Mean RNFL thickness was 89.22±15.87 versus 84.54±13.68 μm using Spectralis and Cirrus, respectively. The difference between measurements and the average of paired measurements with the two devices showed a significant linear relationship. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that Spectralis thickness values were systematically larger than that of Cirrus. Conclusion: Spectralis OCT generates higher peripapillary RNFL thickness readings as compared to Cirrus OCT; this should be kept in mind when values obtained with different instruments are compared during follow-up.

  6. Recessive mutations in SLC38A8 cause foveal hypoplasia and optic nerve misrouting without albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, James A; Al-Araimi, Musallam; Conte, Ivan; van Genderen, Maria M; Sheridan, Eamonn; Carr, Ian M; Parry, David A; Shires, Mike; Carrella, Sabrina; Bradbury, John; Khan, Kamron; Lakeman, Phillis; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I; Webster, Andrew R; Moore, Anthony T; Pal, Bishwanath; Mohamed, Moin D; Venkataramana, Anandula; Ramprasad, Vedam; Shetty, Rohit; Saktivel, Murugan; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; Tan, Alex; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Banfi, Sandro; Ali, Manir; Inglehearn, Chris F; Toomes, Carmel

    2013-12-05

    Foveal hypoplasia and optic nerve misrouting are developmental defects of the visual pathway and only co-occur in connection with albinism; to date, they have only been associated with defects in the melanin-biosynthesis pathway. Here, we report that these defects can occur independently of albinism in people with recessive mutations in the putative glutamine transporter gene SLC38A8. Nine different mutations were identified in seven Asian and European families. Using morpholino-mediated ablation of Slc38a8 in medaka fish, we confirmed that pigmentation is unaffected by loss of SLC38A8. Furthermore, by undertaking an association study with SNPs at the SLC38A8 locus, we showed that common variants within this gene modestly affect foveal thickness in the general population. This study reveals a melanin-independent component underpinning the development of the visual pathway that requires a functional role for SLC38A8. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Children with optic nerve hypoplasia face a high risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Sara; Wickström, Ronny; Ek, Ulla; Teär Fahnehjelm, Kristina

    2018-03-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital ocular malformation that has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, but the prevalence in unilateral disease and less severe visual impairment is unknown. We studied intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in patients with ONH. This was a population-based cross-sectional cohort study of 65 patients (33 female) with ONH below 20 years of age, living in Stockholm in December 2009, with data analysed in January 2016. Of these 35 were bilateral and 30 were unilateral. Neurodevelopmental disorders were diagnosed or confirmed by neurological assessments, the Five to Fifteen parent questionnaire and reviewing previous neuropsychological investigations or conducting neuropsychological tests. Bilateral ONH patients had lower mean full scale intelligence quotient scores than unilateral patients (84.4 and 99.4, respectively, p = 0.049). We assessed intellectual disability in 55 eligible patients, and it was more common in patients with bilateral ONH (18 of 32, 56%) than unilateral ONH (two of 23, 9%, p neurodevelopmental disorders, especially intellectual disability. The risk was lower in unilateral ONH, but the levels of neurodevelopmental disorders warrant screening of both groups. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessment of intra-interobserver reliability of the sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter measurement

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    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and measuring the level of increase in intracranial pressure (ICP is critical, especially for the management of trauma patients in the emergency department and intensive care unit. However, measurements are operator-dependent as in all of the sonographic diagnoses. The aim of this study is to assess the operator variations in the measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD. There were four emergency medicine specialists involved in the study. Each had at least 1 year of experience of ultrasound scans and performed at least 25 prior ocular scans examining the ONSD. Two measurements were made 1 week apart from both axial and longitudinal planes. Sixty healthy adults were involved in the study and every investigator obtained four measurements from each. Intra-interobserver reliabilities were tested. The investigators performed 60 ocular ultrasounds on individual healthy adults and obtained two measurements in axial and longitudinal planes 1 week apart. Therefore, 960 measurements were analyzed. The levels of compatibilities for most of the measurements were found at acceptable levels statistically. However, it is not possible to say that there was a perfect compatibility among the sonographers according to the previously conducted reliability studies of ultrasound measurements. According to our results, it is hard to say that sonographic measurement of the ONSD is a highly reliable method both in longitudinal and transverse planes.

  9. Impacts of Simulated Weightlessness by Dry Immersion on Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter and Cerebral Autoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Kermorgant

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dry immersion (DI is used to simulate weightlessness. We investigated in healthy volunteers if DI induces changes in ONSD, as a surrogate marker of intracranial pressure (ICP and how these changes could affect cerebral autoregulation (CA. Changes in ICP were indirectly measured by changes in optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD. 12 healthy male volunteers underwent 3 days of DI. ONSD was indirectly assessed by ocular ultrasonography. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV of the middle cerebral artery was gauged using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. CA was evaluated by two methods: (1 transfer function analysis was calculated to determine the relationship between mean CBFV and mean arterial blood pressure (ABP and (2 correlation index Mxa between mean CBFV and mean ABP.ONSD increased significantly during the first day, the third day and the first day of recovery of DI (P < 0.001.DI induced a reduction in Mxa index (P < 0.001 and an elevation in phase shift in low frequency bandwidth (P < 0.05. After DI, Mxa and coherence were strongly correlated with ONSD (P < 0.05 but not before DI. These results indicate that 3 days of DI induces significant changes in ONSD most likely reflecting an increase in ICP. CA was improved but also negatively correlated with ONSD suggesting that a persistent elevation ICP favors poor CA recovery after simulated microgravity.

  10. Controversies: Optic nerve sheath fenestration versus shunt placement for the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Spitze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH has been increasing in prevalence in the past decade, following the obesity epidemic. When medical treatment fails, surgical treatment options must be considered. However, controversy remains as to which surgical procedure is the preferred surgical option - optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF shunting - for the long-term treatment of this syndrome. Purpose: To provide a clinical update of the pros and cons of ONSF versus shunt placement for the treatment of IIH. Design: This was a retrospective review of the current literature in the English language indexed in PubMed. Methods: The authors conducted a PubMed search using the following terms: Idiopathic IIH, pseudotumor cerebri, ONSF, CSF shunts, vetriculo-peritoneal shunting, and lumbo-peritoneal shunting. The authors included pertinent and significant original articles, review articles, and case reports, which revealed the new aspects and updates in these topics. Results: The treatment of IIH remains controversial and lacks randomized controlled clinical trial data. Treatment of IIH rests with the determination of the severity of IIH-related visual loss and headache. Conclusion: The decision for ONSF versus shunting is somewhat institution and surgeon dependent. ONSF is preferred for patients with visual symptoms whereas shunting is reserved for patients with headache. There are positive and negative aspects of both procedures, and a prospective, randomized, controlled trial is needed (currently underway. This article will hopefully be helpful in allowing the reader to make a more informed decision until that time.

  11. Serum prolactin concentrations in relation to hypopituitarism and obesity in children with optic nerve hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedin, Amy M; Garcia-Filion, Pamela; Fink, Cassandra; Borchert, Mark; Geffner, Mitchell E

    2012-01-01

    The majority of children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) develop hypopituitarism and many also become obese. These associated conditions are a major cause of morbidity and are possibly due to hypothalamic dysfunction. Because mild hyperprolactinemia often occurs in subjects with disorders of the hypothalamus, we examined whether hyperprolactinemia was present in children with ONH during the first 3 years of life and whether it was a marker for hypopituitarism and/or obesity. Data were retrospectively analyzed from a registry study of children with ONH. The initial serum prolactin was obtained prior to age 36 months (n = 125) and compared with pituitary function and body mass index at age 5. 72% of subjects had an elevated initial serum prolactin and 60% had hypopituitarism. An elevated initial prolactin was associated with hypopituitarism (OR 2.58; 95% CI 1.16, 5.73), specifically with growth hormone deficiency (OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.21, 6.34). 31% of subjects had a body mass index ≥ 85th percentile, but this did not correlate with initial hyperprolactinemia. Early hyperprolactinemia correlates with the presence of hypopituitarism in children with ONH, but it is not a reliable prognosticator of hypopituitarism. Additionally, hyperprolactinemia does not predict future weight excess. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  13. Surgical Management of Pilocytic Astrocytoma of the Optic Nerve: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoluwa Apanisile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve astrocytomas (ONAs are frequent types of optic nerve gliomas (ONGs, which can affect the visual pathway. An 18-year-old male patient was admitted to our department with right-sided intraorbital/retrobulbar swelling, which progressively grew over several months. Clinical examination showed right-sided diplopia, mydriasis, low visual acuity (0.4, exophthalmus (3 cm, epiphora, and severe retrobulbar pain. There was a family history of high-grade (IV astrocytomas in which two of the family members died due to the disease. Preoperative MRI scan revealed a soft tissue mass around the retrobulbar area of the right eye with intact orbital bony walls. Surgery was performed whereby it was dissected freely from the muscles and was separated from the optic nerve and the globe. Histopathologic analysis confirmed a benign astrocytoma. The follow-up examination revealed no recurrent or residual tumor. A systemic review of the literature indicates that early diagnosis and experienced multidisciplinary management are required in case of unilateral, resectable forms of ONAs with no distant metastasis, in order to provide a long-time survival of patients. Surgical intervention of unilateral ONAs is a relatively safe procedure, allowing complete or partial tumor removal with minimal morbidity and low recurrence rate.

  14. Analysis of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis patients according to severity level and optic neuritis episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler García, A; Padilla Parrado, F; Figueroa-Ortiz, L C; González Gómez, A; García-Ben, A; García-Ben, E; García-Campos, J M

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of macular and nerve fibre layer thickness in multiple sclerosis patients with regard to expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and presence or absence of previous optic neuritis episodes. We recruited 62 patients with multiple sclerosis (53 relapsing-remitting and 9 secondary progressive) and 12 disease-free controls. All patients underwent an ophthalmological examination, including quantitative analysis of the nerve fibre layer and macular thickness using optical coherence tomography. Patients were classified according to EDSS as A (lower than 1.5), B (between 1.5 and 3.5), and C (above 3.5). Mean nerve fibre layer thickness in control, A, B, and C groups was 103.35±12.62, 99.04±14.35, 93.59±15.41, and 87.36±18.75μm respectively, with statistically significant differences (P<.05). In patients with no history of optic neuritis, history of episodes in the last 3 to 6 months, or history longer than 6 months, mean nerve fibre layer thickness was 99.25±13.71, 93.92±13.30 and 80.07±15.91μm respectively; differences were significant (P<.05). Mean macular thickness in control, A, B, and C groups was 220.01±12.07, 217.78±20.02, 217.68±20.77, and 219.04±24.26μm respectively. Differences were not statistically significant. The mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in multiple sclerosis patients is related to the EDSS level. Patients with previous optic neuritis episodes have a thinner retinal nerve fibre layer than patients with no history of these episodes. Mean macular thickness is not correlated to EDSS level. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Optic nerve head and intraocular pressure in the guinea pig eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2016-05-01

    The guinea pig is becoming an increasingly popular model for studying human myopia, which carries an increased risk of glaucoma. As a step towards understanding this association, this study sought to characterize the normal, developmental intraocular pressure (IOP) profiles, as well as the anatomy of the optic nerve head (ONH) and adjacent sclera of young guinea pigs. IOP was tracked in pigmented guinea pigs up to 3 months of age. One guinea pig was imaged in vivo with OCT and one with a fundus camera. The eyes of pigmented and albino guinea pigs (ages 2 months) were enucleated and sections from the posterior segment, including the ONH and surrounding sclera, processed for histological analyses - either hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of paraffin embedded, sectioned tissue (n = 1), or cryostat sectioned tissue, processed for immunohistochemistry (n = 3), using primary antibodies against collagen types I-V, elastin, fibronectin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) studies of ONHs were also undertaken (n = 2 & 5 respectively). Mean IOPs ranged from 17.33 to 22.7 mmHg, increasing slightly across the age range studied, and the IOPs of individual animals also exhibited diurnal variations, peaking in the early morning (mean of 25.8, mmHg, ∼9 am), and decreasing across the day. H&E-stained sections showed retinal ganglion cell axons organized into fascicles in the prelaminar and laminar region of the ONHs, with immunostained sections revealing collagen types I, III, IV and V, as well as elastin, GFAP and fibronectin in the ONHs. SEM revealed a well-defined lamina cribrosa (LC), with radially-oriented collagen beams. TEM revealed collagen fibrils surrounding non-myelinated nerve fiber bundles in the LC region, with myelination and decreased collagen posterior to the LC. The adjacent sclera comprised mainly crimped collagen fibers in a crisscross arrangement. Both the sclera and LC were

  16. Optic nerve tolerance to single and fractionated radiation simulating radiosurgery: a rabbit model using visual evoked potentials, fundoscopy and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, Kenneth; Mehta, Minesh

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To develop a rabbit model enabling single or fractionated optic nerve irradiation, measure post-irradiation visual evoked potentials (VEP), fundoscopic and histopathologic changes, and relate different radiation dosing fractions to these measurable physiologic changes. Materials and Methods: Forty male New Zealand white rabbits underwent surgical right orbital prolapse with template-guided optic nerve irradiation using an iridium-192 high dose rate afterloader. Rabbits were randomized into single fraction groups (0 (control), 10, 12.5, 15, 20, and 30 Gy (3 per group); or two fraction groups of 0 (control) 5, 7.5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy (3 per group); or three fractions groups of 10 and 15 Gy (2 per group). Bilateral fundoscopy and pattern-reversal VEPs (0.5 and 1 c/deg, 1 hertz) were performed at 6 and 12 months (mos) following scheduled irradiation. VEP peaks (P1) were measured. Sacrifice and necropsy followed 12 month evaluation, allowing for histological changes. Results: Excluding deaths from anesthesia (2), CNS mite infection (2), sepsis, pyothorax, 'undetermined' and technically non-analyzable VEP recordings, 24 complete rabbit data sets were evaluated. Fundoscopy demonstrated no gross changes at any dose. Histopathology demonstrated generalized optic nerve atrophy without radiation dose correlation. Among single fraction groups, VEP showed a 6 mos post-irradiation P1 prolongation only in the 20 and 30 Gy groups (maximum 67%). At 12 mos lower dose single fraction groups had a prolonged P1 peak. All fractionated groups above 5 Gy x 2 had P1 prolongation times at 6 mos (maximum 46% in the 15 Gy x 3 data set) but by 12 mos these groups had non-measurable, deteriorated VEPs. Correlating VEP P1 latency with the calculated linear quadratic formula (LQM) biologically equivalent dose (BED,α/β=3) for each group demonstrated a general correlation (t-Test P<.001) as shown: Conclusion: Using a rabbit model for selective optic nerve irradiation we conclude

  17. High-resolution imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kohei; Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Arakawa, Naoko; Oshima, Susumu; Shibata, Naohisa; Hanebuchi, Masaaki; Inoue, Takashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2012-01-01

    To conduct high-resolution imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in normal eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). AO-SLO images were obtained in 20 normal eyes at multiple locations in the posterior polar area and a circular path with a 3-4-mm diameter around the optic disc. For each eye, images focused on the RNFL were recorded and a montage of AO-SLO images was created. AO-SLO images for all eyes showed many hyperreflective bundles in the RNFL. Hyperreflective bundles above or below the fovea were seen in an arch from the temporal periphery on either side of a horizontal dividing line to the optic disc. The dark lines among the hyperreflective bundles were narrower around the optic disc compared with those in the temporal raphe. The hyperreflective bundles corresponded with the direction of the striations on SLO red-free images. The resolution and contrast of the bundles were much higher in AO-SLO images than in red-free fundus photography or SLO red-free images. The mean hyperreflective bundle width around the optic disc had a double-humped shape; the bundles at the temporal and nasal sides of the optic disc were narrower than those above and below the optic disc (Poptical coherence tomography correlated with the hyperreflective bundle widths on AO-SLO (Pfiber bundles and Müller cell septa. The widths of the nerve fiber bundles appear to be proportional to the RNFL thickness at equivalent distances from the optic disc.

  18. Change of Retinal Nerve Layer Thickness in Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Revealed by Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei; Zhao, Chen; Han, Quan-Hong; Xie, Shiyong; Li, Yan

    2016-08-01

    To examine the changes of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) by serial morphometry using Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Retrospective study in patients with newly diagnosed NAION (n=33, all unilateral) and controls (n=75 unilateral NAION patients with full contralateral eye vision) who underwent FD-OCT of the optic disk, optic nerve head (ONH), and macula within 1 week of onset and again 1, 3, 6, and 12 months later. The patients showed no improvement in vision during follow-up. Within 1 week of onset, all NAION eyes exhibited severe ONH fiber crowding and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) edema. Four had subretinal fluid accumulation and 12 had posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) at the optic disc surface. Ganglion cell complex (GCC) and RNFL thicknesses were reduced at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.05), with no deterioration thereafter. Initial RNFL/GCC contraction magnitude in the superior hemisphere correlated with the severity of inferior visual field deficits. NAION progression is characterized by an initial phase of accelerated RNFL and GCC deterioration. These results reveal that the kinetic change of neural retina in NAION and may have implication on the time window for treatment of NAION. FD-OCT is useful in the evaluation of NAION.

  19. Reduced ventral cingulum integrity and increased behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emma A; O'Reilly, Michelle A; Clayden, Jonathan D; Seunarine, Kiran K; Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison; Clark, Chris A; Dattani, Mehul T

    2013-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia, mild to moderate or no visual impairment, and no developmental delay. To identify white matter abnormalities that may provide neural correlates for any behavioral abnormalities identified. Eleven children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia (mean age 5.9 years) underwent behavioral assessment and brain diffusion tensor imaging, Twenty four controls with isolated short stature (mean age 6.4 years) underwent MRI, 11 of whom also completed behavioral assessments. Fractional anisotropy images were processed using tract-based spatial statistics. Partial correlation between ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy, and child behavioral checklist scores (controlled for age at scan and sex) was performed. Children with optic nerve hypoplasia had significantly higher scores on the child behavioral checklist (pchildren with optic nerve hypoplasia. Right ventral cingulum fractional anisotropy correlated with total and externalising child behavioral checklist scores (r = -0.52, pchildren with optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment require behavioral assessment to determine the presence of clinically significant behavioral problems. Reduced structural integrity of the ventral cingulum correlated with behavioral scores, suggesting that these white matter abnormalities may be clinically significant. The presence of reduced fractional anisotropy in the optic radiations of children with mild to moderate or no visual impairment raises questions as to the pathogenesis of these changes which will need to be addressed by future studies.

  20. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in patients with tobacco-alcohol-induced toxic optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Frederico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three patients with progressive visual loss, chronic alcoholism and tabagism were submitted to a complete neuro-ophthalmic examination and to retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT scanning. Two patients showed marked RNFL loss in the temporal sector of the optic disc. However, a third patient presented RNFL measurements within or above normal limits, based on the Stratus-OCT normative database. Such findings may be due to possible RNFL edema similar to the one that may occur in the acute phase of toxic optic neuropathies. Stratus-OCT was able to detect RNFL loss in the papillomacular bundle of patients with tobacco-alcohol-induced toxic optic neuropathy. However, interpretation must be careful when OCT does not show abnormality in order to prevent diagnostic confusion, since overestimation of RNFL thickness measurements is possible in such cases.

  1. Additive diagnostic role of imaging in glaucoma: optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ko Eun; Kim, Seok Hwan; Oh, Sohee; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Suh, Min Hee; Seo, Je Hyun; Kim, Martha; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung

    2014-11-20

    To investigate the additive diagnostic role of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and red-free retinal nerve fiber layer photography (RNFLP) in making clinical glaucoma diagnosis. Four diagnostic combination sets, including the most recent image from each measurement of 196 glaucoma eyes (including the 44 preperimetric glaucoma eyes) and 101 healthy eyes, were prepared: (1) stereo disc photography and Humphrey visual field (SH), (2) SH and SD-OCT (SHO), (3) SH and RNFLP (SHR), and (4) SHR and SD-OCT (SHRO). Each randomly sorted set was serially presented at 1-month intervals to five glaucoma specialists who were asked to evaluate them in a subjective and independent manner. The specialists' glaucoma-diagnostic performances based on the sets were then compared. For each specialist, adding SD-OCT to SH or SHR increased the glaucoma-diagnostic sensitivity but not to a level of statistical significance. For one specialist, adding RNFLP to SH significantly increased the sensitivity. Each specialist showed a high level of specificity regardless of the diagnostic set. The overall sensitivity of all specialists' assessments was significantly increased by adding RNFLP or the combination of SD-OCT and RNFLP to SH (P < 0.001); however, adding SD-OCT to SH or SHR did not significantly increase the sensitivity. A similar relationship was noted also for the preperimetric glaucoma subgroup. In contrast to RNFLP, SD-OCT did not significantly enhance the diagnostic accuracy of detecting glaucoma or even of preperimetric glaucoma. Our results suggest that, at least for glaucoma specialists, the additive diagnostic role of OCT is limited. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  2. Optic nerve sheath diameter remains constant during robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Verdonck

    Full Text Available During robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP, a CO2 pneumoperitoneum (CO2PP is applied and the patient is placed in a head-down position. Intracranial pressure (ICP is expected to acutely increase under these conditions. A non-invasive method, the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD measurement, may warn us that the mechanism of protective cerebrospinal fluid (CSF shifts becomes exhausted.After obtaining IRB approval and written informed consent, ONSD was measured by ocular ultrasound in 20 ASA I-II patients at various stages of the RALRP procedure: baseline awake, after induction, after applying the CO2PP, during head-down position, after resuming the supine position, in the postoperative anaesthesia care unit, and on day one postoperatively. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP was calculated as the mean arterial (MAP minus central venous pressure (CVP.The ONSD did not change during head-down position, although the CVP increased from 4.2(2.5 mm Hg to 27.6(3.8 mm Hg. The CPP was decreased 70 min after assuming the head-down position until 15 min after resuming the supine position, but remained above 60 mm Hg at all times.Even though ICP has been documented to increase during CO2PP and head-down positioning, we did not find any changes in ONSD during head-down position. These results indicate that intracranial blood volume does not increase up to a point that CSF migration as a compensation mechanism becomes exhausted, suggesting any increases in ICP are likely to be small.

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of monochromatic photography of the ocular fundus in differentiating optic nerve head drusen and optic disc oedema: optic disc drusen and oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gili, Pablo; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Yangüela, Julio; Orduña-Azcona, Javier; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores

    2013-03-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of monochromatic photography of the ocular fundus in differentiating optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and optic disc oedema (ODE). Sixty-six patients with ONHD, 31 patients with ODE and 70 healthy subjects were studied. Colour and monochromatic fundus photography with different filters (green, red and autofluorescence) were performed. The results were analysed blindly by two observers. The sensitivity, specificity and interobserver agreement (k) of each test were assessed. Colour photography offers 65.5 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for the diagnosis of ONHD. Monochromatic photography improves sensitivity and specificity and provides similar results: green filter (71.20 % sensitivity, 96.70 % specificity), red filter (80.30 % sensitivity, 96.80 % specificity), and autofluorescence technique (87.8 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity). The interobserver agreement was good with all techniques used: autofluorescence (k = 0.957), green filter (k = 0.897), red filter (k = 0.818) and colour (k = 0.809). Monochromatic fundus photography permits ONHD and ODE to be differentiated, with good sensitivity and very high specificity. The best results were obtained with autofluorescence and red filter study.

  4. Prenatal ethanol exposure in mice phenocopies Cdon mutation by impeding Shh function in the etiology of optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Kahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD is a congenital disorder characterized by optic nerve, pituitary and midline brain malformations. The clinical presentation of SOD is highly variable with a poorly understood etiology. The majority of SOD cases are sporadic, but in rare instances inherited mutations have been identified in a small number of transcription factors, some of which regulate the expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh during mouse forebrain development. SOD is also associated with young maternal age, suggesting that environmental factors, including alcohol consumption at early stages of pregnancy, might increase the risk of developing this condition. Here, we address the hypothesis that SOD is a multifactorial disorder stemming from interactions between mutations in Shh pathway genes and prenatal ethanol exposure. Mouse embryos with mutations in the Shh co-receptor, Cdon, were treated in utero with ethanol or saline at embryonic day 8 (E8.0 and evaluated for optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH, a prominent feature of SOD. We show that both Cdon−/− mutation and prenatal ethanol exposure independently cause ONH through a similar pathogenic mechanism that involves selective inhibition of Shh signaling in retinal progenitor cells, resulting in their premature cell-cycle arrest, precocious differentiation and failure to properly extend axons to the optic nerve. The ONH phenotype was not exacerbated in Cdon−/− embryos treated with ethanol, suggesting that an intact Shh signaling pathway is required for ethanol to exert its teratogenic effects. These results support a model whereby mutations in Cdon and prenatal ethanol exposure increase SOD risk through spatiotemporal perturbations in Shh signaling activity.

  5. Crush Testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic crush test is required in the certification testing of some small Type B transportation packages. International Atomic Energy Agency regulations state that the test article must be 'subjected to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage.' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Transportation Technologies Group performs testing of Type B transportation packages, including the crush test, at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee (United States). This paper documents ORNL's experiences performing crush tests on several different Type B packages. ORNL has crush tested five different drum-type package designs, continuing its 60 year history of RAM package testing. A total of 26 crush tests have been performed in a wide variety of package orientations and crush plate CG alignments. In all cases, the deformation of the outer drum created by the crush test was significantly greater than the deformation damage caused by the 9 m drop test. The crush test is a highly effective means for testing structural soundness of smaller nondense Type B shipping package designs. Further regulatory guidance could alleviate the need to perform the crush test in a wide range of orientations and crush plate CG alignments.

  6. Variations in retinal nerve fiber layer measurements on optical coherence tomography after implantation of trifocal intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bella, Javier; Martínez de la Casa, José M; Talavero González, Paula; Fernández-Vigo, José I; Valcarce Rial, Laura; García-Feijóo, Julián

    2018-01-01

    To establish the changes produced after implantation of a trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) on retinal nerve fiber layer measurements performed with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). This prospective study included 100 eyes of 50 patients with bilateral cataract in surgical range, no other associated ocular involvement, refractive errors between +5 and -5 spherical diopters, and less than 1.5 D of corneal astigmatism. The eyes were operated by phacoemulsification with implantation of 2 different trifocal IOLs (FineVision and AT LISA tri 839MP) in randomized equal groups. Cirrus OCT and Spectralis OCT were performed before surgery and 3 months later. Both analyzed the thickness of the nerve fiber layer and thickness divided by quadrants (6 in case of Spectralis and 4 in case of Cirrus HD). The mean age of patients was 67.5 ± 5.8 years. The global nerve fiber layer thickness measured with Spectralis OCT was 96.77 μm before surgery and 99.55 μm after. With Cirrus OCT, the global thickness was 85.29 μm before surgery and 89.77 μm after. Statistically significant differences in global thickness measurements between preimplantation and postimplantation of the IOL were found with both OCT in the 2 groups. Statistically significant differences were also found in temporal and superior quadrants. The implantation of a diffractive trifocal IOL alters the results of the optic nerve fiber layer on Fourier-domain OCT in these patients, which should be taken into account in the posterior study of these patients.

  7. Effect of chronic administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on the histology of the retina and optic nerve of adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltony, Sohair A; Abdelhameed, Sally Y

    2017-04-01

    Abnormal vision has been reported by 3% of patients treated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra). Although many men use Viagra for an extended period for treatment of erectile dysfunction, the implications of the long term-daily use of it on the retina and optic nerve are unclear. To investigate the effect of chronic daily use of sildenafil citrate in a dose equivalent to men preferred therapeutic dose on the histology of the retina and optic nerve of adult male rat. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into three groups. Group I: control. Group II: treated with sildenafil citrate orally (10mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Group III (withdrawal): treated as group II and then left for 4 weeks without treatment. Specimens from the retina and optic nerve were processed for light and electron microscopy. In sildenafil citrate treated group, the retina and optic nerve revealed vacuolations and congested blood capillaries with apoptotic endothelial and pericytic cells, and thickened basal lamina. Caspase-3 (apoptotic marker) and CD31 (endothelial marker) expression increased. Glial cells revealed morphological changes: Müller cells lost their processes, activated microglia, astrocytic clasmatodendrosis, degenerated oligodendrocytes surrounded by disintegrated myelin sheathes of the optic nerve fibers. The retina and optic nerve of the withdrawal group revealed less vacuolations and congestion, and partial recovery of the glial cells. Chronic treatment with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) caused toxic effect on the structure of the retina and optic nerve of the rat. Partial recovery was observed after drug withdrawal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of an Astrocytic Hamartoma of the Optic Nerve Head in a Patient with Retinitis Pigmentosa – Photographic Documentation over 2 Years of Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukianou, Eleni; Kisma, Nacima; Pal, Bishwanathan

    2011-01-01

    Aim To report photographically the evolution of an astrocytic hamartoma of the left optic nerve head over a 2-year follow-up in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa. Methods A 14-year-old boy was seen in the medical retina clinic with a 3-year history of night blindness. Best corrected visual acuity was 6/18 in both eyes. Colour vision was normal in both eyes and confrontation fields showed peripheral constriction. Fundus examination revealed bone spicule pigmentary changes at the retinal mid periphery typical of retinitis pigmentosa and superficial globules at the margins of both optic nerve heads. Electrodiagnostic tests confirmed moderately severe rod cone dystrophy with macular involvement bilaterally. Results Two years later, the ocular examination was unchanged except for the appearance of the optic nerve head lesion in the left eye. There was an increase in the size of the lesion which was diagnosed as an astrocytic hamartoma. Further investigations were recommended to exclude neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis. Conclusion Astrocytic hamartomas of the optic nerve head and optic nerve head drusen have both been described in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. They can be a diagnostic dilemma although drusen are more common (10%). To differentiate these two entities it is very important to document any growth during the follow-up period which is suggestive of astrocytic hamartoma rather than optic disc drusen. PMID:21347192

  9. Evolution of an Astrocytic Hamartoma of the Optic Nerve Head in a Patient with Retinitis Pigmentosa - Photographic Documentation over 2 Years of Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukianou, Eleni; Kisma, Nacima; Pal, Bishwanathan

    2011-02-02

    To report photographically the evolution of an astrocytic hamartoma of the left optic nerve head over a 2-year follow-up in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa. A 14-year-old boy was seen in the medical retina clinic with a 3-year history of night blindness. Best corrected visual acuity was 6/18 in both eyes. Colour vision was normal in both eyes and confrontation fields showed peripheral constriction. Fundus examination revealed bone spicule pigmentary changes at the retinal mid periphery typical of retinitis pigmentosa and superficial globules at the margins of both optic nerve heads. Electrodiagnostic tests confirmed moderately severe rod cone dystrophy with macular involvement bilaterally. Two years later, the ocular examination was unchanged except for the appearance of the optic nerve head lesion in the left eye. There was an increase in the size of the lesion which was diagnosed as an astrocytic hamartoma. Further investigations were recommended to exclude neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis. Astrocytic hamartomas of the optic nerve head and optic nerve head drusen have both been described in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. They can be a diagnostic dilemma although drusen are more common (10%). To differentiate these two entities it is very important to document any growth during the follow-up period which is suggestive of astrocytic hamartoma rather than optic disc drusen.

  10. Evolution of an Astrocytic Hamartoma of the Optic Nerve Head in a Patient with Retinitis Pigmentosa – Photographic Documentation over 2 Years of Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Loukianou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report photographically the evolution of an astrocytic hamartoma of the left optic nerve head over a 2-year follow-up in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa. Methods: A 14-year-old boy was seen in the medical retina clinic with a 3-year history of night blindness. Best corrected visual acuity was 6/18 in both eyes. Colour vision was normal in both eyes and confrontation fields showed peripheral constriction. Fundus examination revealed bone spicule pigmentary changes at the retinal mid periphery typical of retinitis pigmentosa and superficial globules at the margins of both optic nerve heads. Electrodiagnostic tests confirmed moderately severe rod cone dystrophy with macular involvement bilaterally. Results: Two years later, the ocular examination was unchanged except for the appearance of the optic nerve head lesion in the left eye. There was an increase in the size of the lesion which was diagnosed as an astrocytic hamartoma. Further investigations were recommended to exclude neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis. Conclusion: Astrocytic hamartomas of the optic nerve head and optic nerve head drusen have both been described in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. They can be a diagnostic dilemma although drusen are more common (10%. To differentiate these two entities it is very important to document any growth during the follow-up period which is suggestive of astrocytic hamartoma rather than optic disc drusen.

  11. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a case report of improvement in relapsing auto-immune optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey N; Levy, Steven; Benes, Susan C

    2015-09-01

    We present the results from a patient with relapsing optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS). SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and has become the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date (www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) for treatment of retinal and optic nerve diseases. Pre-treatment and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams of a 54 year old female patient were performed both at the Florida Study Center, USA and at The Eye Center of Columbus, USA. As a consequence of a relapsing optic neuritis, the patient's previously normal visual acuity decreased to between 20/350 and 20/400 in the right eye and to 20/70 in the left eye. Significant visual field loss developed bilaterally. The patient underwent a right eye vitrectomy with injection of BMSCs into the optic nerve of the right eyeand retrobulbar, subtenon and intravitreal injection of BMSCs in the left eye. At 15 months after SCOTS treatment, the patient's visual acuity had improved to 20/150 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Bilateral visual fields improved markedly. Both macular thickness and fast retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were maximally improved at 3 and 6 months after SCOTS treatment. The patient also reduced her mycophenylate dose from 1,500 mg per day to 500 mg per day and required no steroid pulse therapy during the 15-month follow up.

  12. Does optic nerve head surface topography change prior to loss of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness: a test of the site of injury hypothesis in experimental glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Fortune

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that optic nerve head (ONH deformation manifesting as changes in its mean surface height precedes thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in experimental glaucoma (EG.68 rhesus macaque monkeys each had three or more baseline imaging sessions under manometric intraocular pressure (IOP control to obtain average RNFL thickness (RNFLT and the ONH surface topography parameter mean position of the disc (MPD. Laser photocoagulation was then applied to the trabecular meshwork of one eye to induce chronic, mild-to-moderate IOP elevation and bi-weekly imaging continued. Event analysis was applied to determine for each parameter when an 'endpoint' occurred (signficant change from baseline for eight different endpoint criteria. Specificity was assessed in the group of 68 fellow control eyes. Classical signal detection theory and survival analysis were used to compare MPD with RNFLT.Regardless of the endpoint criterion, endpoints were always more frequent for MPD than for RNFLT. The discriminability index (d' was 2.7 ± 0.2 for MPD and 1.9 ± 0.2 for RNFLT (p<0.0001. Endpoints were reached by MPD an average of 1-2 months earlier than by RNFLT (p<0.01. At the onset of the first specific, detectable MPD change in EG eyes, there was still no significant change in RNFLT on average (p=0.29 and only 25% of individual eyes exhibited signficant reduction. In contrast, at onset of signficant RNFLT change, MPD had already changed an average of 101 µm from baseline (p<0.0001 and 71% of the individual eyes had exhibited significant change. The magnitude of MPD change was more than could be explained on the basis of axon loss alone.This study demonstrates that the average surface height of the ONH changes prior to any detectable loss of average peripapillary RNFL thickness in non-human primate eyes with experimental glaucoma.

  13. Wfs1- deficient rats develop primary symptoms of Wolfram syndrome: insulin-dependent diabetes, optic nerve atrophy and medullary degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaas, Mario; Seppa, Kadri; Reimets, Riin; Jagomäe, Toomas; Toots, Maarja; Koppel, Tuuliki; Vallisoo, Tuuli; Nigul, Mait; Heinla, Indrek; Meier, Riho; Kaasik, Allen; Piirsoo, Andres; Hickey, Miriam A; Terasmaa, Anton; Vasar, Eero

    2017-08-31

    Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene and is characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes, optic atrophy, hearing loss and a number of other complications. Here, we describe the creation and phenotype of Wfs1 mutant rats, in which exon 5 of the Wfs1 gene is deleted, resulting in a loss of 27 amino acids from the WFS1 protein sequence. These Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats show progressive glucose intolerance, which culminates in the development of diabetes mellitus, glycosuria, hyperglycaemia and severe body weight loss by 12 months of age. Beta cell mass is reduced in older mutant rats, which is accompanied by decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from 3 months of age. Medullary volume is decreased in older Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats, with the largest decreases at the level of the inferior olive. Finally, older Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats show retinal gliosis and optic nerve atrophy at 15 months of age. Electron microscopy revealed axonal degeneration and disorganization of the myelin in the optic nerves of older Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats. The phenotype of Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats indicates that they have the core symptoms of WS. Therefore, we present a novel rat model of WS.

  14. Short term reproducibility of a high contrast 3-D isotropic optic nerve imaging sequence in healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Smith, Alex K.; Mawn, Louise A.; Smith, Seth A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The optic nerve (ON) plays a crucial role in human vision transporting all visual information from the retina to the brain for higher order processing. There are many diseases that affect the ON structure such as optic neuritis, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Because the ON is the sole pathway for visual information from the retina to areas of higher level processing, measures of ON damage have been shown to correlate well with visual deficits. Increased intracranial pressure has been shown to correlate with the size of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the ON. These measures are generally taken at an arbitrary point along the nerve and do not account for changes along the length of the ON. We propose a high contrast and high-resolution 3-D acquired isotropic imaging sequence optimized for ON imaging. We have acquired scan-rescan data using the optimized sequence and a current standard of care protocol for 10 subjects. We show that this sequence has superior contrast-to-noise ratio to the current standard of care while achieving a factor of 11 higher resolution. We apply a previously published automatic pipeline to segment the ON and CSF sheath and measure the size of each individually. We show that these measures of ON size have lower short- term reproducibility than the population variance and the variability along the length of the nerve. We find that the proposed imaging protocol is (1) useful in detecting population differences and local changes and (2) a promising tool for investigating biomarkers related to structural changes of the ON.

  15. Findings of Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Two Common Types of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Yousefipour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most prevalent disease caused by the inflammatory demyelinating process that causes progressive nervous system degeneration over the time. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT is a non-invasive optical imaging technology, which can measure the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer as well as the diameter of the macula. The purpose of the study is evaluation OCT findings in two common types of multiple sclerosis. For doing the cross-sectional study, 63 patients with two prevalent types of multiple sclerosis (35 patients with Relapse Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS and 28 patients with Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS were evaluated for 6 months. Exclusion criteria of the study were a history of optic neuritis, suffering from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ocular disease, and the presence of other neurologic degenerative diseases. Then, the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL, as well as thickness and volume of the macula, were measured in the patients using OCT technology. The disability rate of patients was evaluated according to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. Finally, data was analyzed by means of SPSS software. Overall, 35 patients with RRMS (with mean age of 32.37+10.01, average disease period of 3.81+3.42 and mean EDSS of 1.84+0.45 and 28 patients with SPMS (with mean age of 39.21+9.33, average disease period of 11.32+5.87 and mean EDSS of 5.12+1.46 were assessed and compared in terms of retinal nerve fiber layer and size and thickness of macula. In all of these sections, the thicknesses were smaller in SPMS patients than patients with RRMS. But, there was a significant difference in total thickness (81.82µm versus 96.03µm with P=0.04 and thickness of temporal sector (54.5 µm versus 69.34 µm with P=0.04 of retinal nerve fiber layer and macular size at the superior sector of external ring (1.48 mm³ versus 1.58 mm³ with P=0.03, and nasal sector of external ring surrounding

  16. Digital versus film stereo-photography for assessment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanreisoglu, Murat; Priel, Ethan; Naveh, Lili; Lusky, Moshe; Weinberger, Dov; Benjamini, Yoav; Gaton, Dan D

    2013-03-01

    One of the leading methods for optic nerve head assessment in glaucoma remains stereoscopic photography. This study compared conventional film and digital stereoscopy in the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients. Fifty patients with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma underwent stereoscopic photography of the optic nerve head with a 35-mm color slide film and a digital camera. Photographs/images were presented in random order to 3 glaucoma specialists for independent analysis using a standardized assessment form. Findings for the following parameters were compared among assessors and between techniques: cup/disc (C/D) ratio, state of the optic rim, presence of peripapillary atrophy and appearance of the retinal nerve fiber layer, blood vessels, and lamina cribrosa. The film-based and image-based diagnoses (glaucoma yes/no) were compared as well. Despite high level of agreement across graders using the same method for the horizontal and vertical C/D ratio, (intraclass correlations 0.80 to 0.83), the agreement across graders was much lower for the other parameters using the same method. Similarly the agreement between the findings of the same grader using either method was high for horizontal and vertical C/D ratio, but low for the other parameters. The latter differences were reflected in the disagreement regarding the final diagnosis: The diagnoses differed by technique for each grader in 18% to 46% of eyes, resulting in 38.5% of eyes diagnosed with glaucoma by film photography that "lost" their diagnosis on the digital images, whereas 18.7% of eyes diagnosed as nonglaucomatous by film photography were considered to have glaucoma on the digital images. Although there is consistency between 35-mm film stereoscopy and digital stereoscopy in determining the cup/disc (C/D) ratio, in all other parameters large differences exist, leading to differences in diagnosis. Differences in capturing images between

  17. Heritability of the morphology of optic nerve head and surrounding structures: The Healthy Twin Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Chul Han

    Full Text Available Optic nerve head (ONH and surrounding structures such as β-zone peripapillary atrophy (PPA are important structures in glaucomatous pathogenesis. Thus, for understanding genetic components in glaucoma pathogenesis, it is necessary to evaluate the heritability of ONH and surrounding structures. The present study investigated the genetic influences on ONH and surrounding structures such as β-zone PPA and retinal vessels.A total of 1,205 adult twins and their family members (362 monozygotic (MZ twin subjects (181 pairs, 64 dizygotic (DZ twin subjects (32 pairs, and 779 singletons from 261 families, were part of the Korean Healthy Twin Study. ONH parameters including the vertical cup-to-disc ratio, the presence, the area and the location of β-zone PPA and the angular location of retinal vein were measured. The genetic influences on the structures were evaluated using variance-component methods.The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC values of axial length were highest among the parameters. The ICCs of the area and location of PPA were similar to those of vertical cup-to-disc ratio. However, retinal vessel angular locations showed low ICC values even in MZ twins. After age and sex adjustment, for axial length, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, the presence, area and location of PPA, the estimated narrow-sense heritability was 0.85, 0.48, 0.76, 0.50 and 0.65 in the right eye and 0.84, 0.47, 0.72, 0.46 and 0.72 in the left eye, respectively. The estimated narrow-sense heritability of angular location of the superior and inferior vein was 0.17 and 0.12 in the right eye and 0.13 and 0.05 in the left eye, respectively.ONH and surrounding structures such as vertical cup-to-disc ratio and the presence, the area and the location of β-zone PPA seemed to be determined by the substantial genetic influence, whereas the venous angular location did not.

  18. Reduced ventral cingulum integrity and increased behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma A Webb

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia, mild to moderate or no visual impairment, and no developmental delay. To identify white matter abnormalities that may provide neural correlates for any behavioral abnormalities identified. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia (mean age 5.9 years underwent behavioral assessment and brain diffusion tensor imaging, Twenty four controls with isolated short stature (mean age 6.4 years underwent MRI, 11 of whom also completed behavioral assessments. Fractional anisotropy images were processed using tract-based spatial statistics. Partial correlation between ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy, and child behavioral checklist scores (controlled for age at scan and sex was performed. RESULTS: Children with optic nerve hypoplasia had significantly higher scores on the child behavioral checklist (p<0.05 than controls (4 had scores in the clinically significant range. Ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy were significantly reduced in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Right ventral cingulum fractional anisotropy correlated with total and externalising child behavioral checklist scores (r = -0.52, p<0.02, r = -0.46, p<0.049 respectively. There were no significant correlations between left ventral cingulum, corpus callosum or optic radiation fractional anisotropy and behavioral scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that children with optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment require behavioral assessment to determine the presence of clinically significant behavioral problems. Reduced structural integrity of the ventral cingulum correlated with behavioral scores, suggesting that these white matter abnormalities may be clinically significant. The presence of reduced fractional anisotropy in the optic

  19. Nonthermal ablation with microbubble-enhanced focused ultrasound close to the optic tract without affecting nerve function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannold, Nathan; Zhang, Yong-Zhi; Power, Chanikarn; Jolesz, Ferenc; Vykhodtseva, Natalia

    2013-11-01

    Tumors at the skull base are challenging for both resection and radiosurgery given the presence of critical adjacent structures, such as cranial nerves, blood vessels, and brainstem. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided thermal ablation via laser or other methods has been evaluated as a minimally invasive alternative to these techniques in the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS) offers a noninvasive method of thermal ablation; however, skull heating limits currently available technology to ablation at regions distant from the skull bone. Here, the authors evaluated a method that circumvents this problem by combining the FUS exposures with injected microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agent. These microbubbles concentrate the ultrasound-induced effects on the vasculature, enabling an ablation method that does not cause significant heating of the brain or skull. In 29 rats, a 525-kHz FUS transducer was used to ablate tissue structures at the skull base that were centered on or adjacent to the optic tract or chiasm. Low-intensity, low-duty-cycle ultrasound exposures (sonications) were applied for 5 minutes after intravenous injection of an ultrasound contrast agent (Definity, Lantheus Medical Imaging Inc.). Using histological analysis and visual evoked potential (VEP) measurements, the authors determined whether structural or functional damage was induced in the optic tract or chiasm. Overall, while the sonications produced a well-defined lesion in the gray matter targets, the adjacent tract and chiasm had comparatively little or no damage. No significant changes (p > 0.05) were found in the magnitude or latency of the VEP recordings, either immediately after sonication or at later times up to 4 weeks after sonication, and no delayed effects were evident in the histological features of the optic nerve and retina. This technique, which selectively targets the intravascular microbubbles, appears to be a promising method of noninvasively producing sharply demarcated lesions in

  20. Thermal conductivity of crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    Heat transfer through an annular space filled with crushed salt depends primarily on the thermal conductivity, lambda, of the material. This report gives a formula with which lambda can be computed. The formula includes two quantities that can be influenced through screening of the salt smalls: the porosity, psi, and the fraction, alpha, of the more highly resistive heat-flow paths. The report computes and presents graphically the thermal conductivities for various values of psi and alpha. Heat-transfer properties are computed and compared for an annular space filled with crushed salt and for an air gap. The comparison shows that the properties of the annular space are larger only up to a certain temperature, because the properties of the air gap increase exponentially while those f the annular space increase only in an approximately linear way. Experimental results from Project Salt Vault in the U.S. are in good agreement with the calculations performed. Trials in Temperature Experimental Field 2 at the Asse II salt mine will provide an additional check on the calculations. 3 figures, 3 tables

  1. Relevance of CT and MRI in retinoblastoma for the diagnosis of postlaminar invasion with normal-size optic nerve: a retrospective study of 150 patients with histological comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, Herve J.; Guesmi, Myriam; Neuenschwander, Sylvia; Aerts, Isabelle; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Savignoni, Alexia; Asselain, Bernard; Bours, Daniele; Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Livia; Desjardins, Laurence; Doz, Francois

    2007-01-01

    Detection of optic nerve invasion is mandatory in children primarily enucleated for retinoblastoma to ensure a free resection margin. To assess the accuracy of CT and MRI for the detection of postlaminar invasion in normal-size nerves. A total of 150 patients enucleated for retinoblastoma were included. Imaging data (119 CT and 46 MRI) were retrospectively reviewed and compared with histological findings. Abnormal contrast enhancement of the optic nerve was used as diagnostic criterion for invasion. The associations between postlaminar invasion and several indirect signs were also assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher exact tests. Postlaminar invasion on histology was observed in 8% (12/150). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and negative and positive predictive values were 60%, 95%, 91%, 95% and 60% for MRI, and 0%, 100%, 94% and 94% (PPV not assessable) for CT, respectively. Tumour diameter was the only indirect radiological sign significantly associated with postlaminar optic nerve invasion (P=0.002). Our results suggest that MRI is more relevant than CT for preoperative detection of optic nerve invasion in patients with retinoblastoma. Tumour diameter is the only indirect sign significantly associated with postlaminar invasion. (orig.)

  2. Relevance of CT and MRI in retinoblastoma for the diagnosis of postlaminar invasion with normal-size optic nerve: a retrospective study of 150 patients with histological comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, Herve J.; Guesmi, Myriam; Neuenschwander, Sylvia [Institute Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Aerts, Isabelle [Institute Curie, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Paris (France); Sastre-Garau, Xavier [Institute Curie, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Savignoni, Alexia; Asselain, Bernard; Bours, Daniele [Institute Curie, Department of Biostatistics, Paris (France); Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Livia; Desjardins, Laurence [Institute Curie, Department of Ocular Oncology, Paris (France); Doz, Francois [Institute Curie, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Paris (France); Faculty of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Paris (France)

    2007-07-15

    Detection of optic nerve invasion is mandatory in children primarily enucleated for retinoblastoma to ensure a free resection margin. To assess the accuracy of CT and MRI for the detection of postlaminar invasion in normal-size nerves. A total of 150 patients enucleated for retinoblastoma were included. Imaging data (119 CT and 46 MRI) were retrospectively reviewed and compared with histological findings. Abnormal contrast enhancement of the optic nerve was used as diagnostic criterion for invasion. The associations between postlaminar invasion and several indirect signs were also assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher exact tests. Postlaminar invasion on histology was observed in 8% (12/150). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and negative and positive predictive values were 60%, 95%, 91%, 95% and 60% for MRI, and 0%, 100%, 94% and 94% (PPV not assessable) for CT, respectively. Tumour diameter was the only indirect radiological sign significantly associated with postlaminar optic nerve invasion (P=0.002). Our results suggest that MRI is more relevant than CT for preoperative detection of optic nerve invasion in patients with retinoblastoma. Tumour diameter is the only indirect sign significantly associated with postlaminar invasion. (orig.)

  3. Indomethacin decreases optic nerve oxygen tension by a mechanism other than cyclo-oxygenase inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, M Hove; Pedersen, D Bach; Bang, K

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of several Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), on the preoptic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO2), as indomethacin previously has demonstrated a strong decreasing effect on ONPO2. We tested whether these NSAIDs, like indomethacin, also reduce the increasing effect...

  4. FIBER-OPTIC BIOSENSOR FOR DIRECT DETERMINATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS. (R823663)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fiber-optic enzyme biosensor for the direct measurement of organophosphate nerveagents was developed. The basic element of this biosensor is organophosphorus hydrolaseimmobilized on a nylon membrane and attached to the common end of a bifurcated optical fiberbundle....

  5. Effects of high-intensity interval training on optic nerve head and macular perfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Nelis, Pieter; Rolfes, Florian; Alnawaiseh, Maged; Klose, Andreas; Krüger, Michael; Eter, Nicole; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Alten, Florian

    2018-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been identified to be efficient for increasing health-related fitness in general and in lifestyle-induced chronic diseases such as hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate HIIT effects on optic nerve head (ONH) and macular perfusion in healthy adults using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Fifty-eight healthy participants (22.0 ± 2.02 years, 40 females (69.0%)) performed a 4-week HIIT with two exercise sessions/week: Group 1, 4 × 30 HIIT, running at maximal speed (all-out) for 4 × 30 s with 30 s active recovery, Group 2, 8 × 15 HIIT, running at maximal speed (all-out) for 8 × 15 s with 15 s active recovery. OCTA of the ONH and the macula was performed at baseline and follow-up to detect changes of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Flow density was evaluated in the superficial and deep plexus of the central macula, in the radial peripapillary capillary layer, the nerve head layer of the disc region and of the peripapillary region. The mean deep FAZ area and flow density of the superficial layer decreased by 14.00 ± 13.02% and 1.26 ± 3.20%, respectively, in response to overall HIIT (pre vs. post p HIIT may be performed to induce changes in ophthalmic measures such as FAZ and nerve head perfusion. OCTA imaging of the central retina and the ONH could represent a sensitive tool for the early detection of systemic vascular changes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Automatic computer-aided diagnosis of retinal nerve fiber layer defects using fundus photographs in optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Eun; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Kwang Gi; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the validity of an automatic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for detection of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects on fundus photographs of glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy. We have proposed an automatic detection method for RNFL defects on fundus photographs in various cases of glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy. In order to detect the vertical dark bands as candidate RNFL defects, the nonuniform illumination of the fundus image was corrected, the blood vessels were removed, and the images were converted to polar coordinates with the center of the optic disc. False positives (FPs) were reduced by using knowledge-based rules. The sensitivity and FP rates for all images were calculated. We tested 98 fundus photographs with 140 RNFL defects and 100 fundus photographs of healthy normal subjects. The proposed method achieved a sensitivity of 90% and a 0.67 FP rate per image and worked well with RNFL defects with variable depths and widths, with uniformly high detection rates regardless of the angular widths of the RNFL defects. The average detection accuracy was approximately 0.94. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the proposed algorithm for detecting RNFL defects among 98 patients and 100 healthy individuals was 86% sensitivity and 75% specificity. The proposed CAD system successfully detected RNFL defects in optic neuropathies. Thus, the proposed algorithm is useful for the detection of RNFL defects.

  7. ImagePAD, a novel counting application for the Apple iPad, used to quantify axons in the mouse optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Justin P; Struebing, Felix L; Lemmon, Andrew; Geisert, Eldon E

    2014-11-01

    The present article introduces a new and easy to use counting application for the Apple iPad. The application "ImagePAD" takes advantage of the advanced user interface features offered by the Apple iOS platform, simplifying the rather tedious task of quantifying features in anatomical studies. For example, the image under analysis can be easily panned and zoomed using iOS-supported multi-touch gestures without losing the spatial context of the counting task, which is extremely important for ensuring count accuracy. This application allows one to quantify up to 5 different types of objects in a single field and output the data in a tab-delimited format for subsequent analysis. We describe two examples of the use of the application: quantifying axons in the optic nerve of the C57BL/6J mouse and determining the percentage of cells labeled with NeuN or ChAT in the retinal ganglion cell layer. For the optic nerve, contiguous images at 60× magnification were taken and transferred onto an Apple iPad. Axons were counted by tapping on the touch-sensitive screen using ImagePAD. Nine optic nerves were sampled and the number of axons in the nerves ranged from 38,872 axons to 50,196 axons with an average of 44,846 axons per nerve (SD = 3980 axons). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ImagePAD, a Novel Counting Application for the Apple iPad®, Used to Quantify Axons in the Mouse Optic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Justin P.; Struebing, Felix L.; Lemmon, Andrew; Geisert, Eldon E.

    2014-01-01

    The present article introduces a new and easy to use counting application for the Apple iPad. The application “ImagePAD” takes advantage of the advanced user interface features offered by the Apple iOS® platform, simplifying the rather tedious task of quantifying features in anatomical studies. For example, the image under analysis can be easily panned and zoomed using iOS-supported multi-touch gestures without losing the spatial context of the counting task, which is extremely important for ensuring count accuracy. This application allows one to quantify up to 5 different types of objects in a single field and output the data in a tab-delimited format for subsequent analysis. We describe two examples of the use of the application: quantifying axons in the optic nerve of the C57BL/6J mouse and determining the percentage of cells labeled with NeuN or ChAT in the retinal ganglion cell layer. For the optic nerve, contiguous images at 60× magnification were taken and transferred onto an Apple iPad®. Axons were counted by tapping on the touch-sensitive screen using ImagePAD. Nine optic nerves were sampled and the number of axons in the nerves ranged from 38872 axons to 50196 axons with an average of 44846 axons per nerve (SD = 3980 axons). PMID:25281829

  9. Crushed stone production plant for NPP building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obolenskij, V.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    The project of the granite-crushed stone quarry - the large modern plant producing building materials, is presented. The quarry is designated for providing NPP and other power objects building with high-strength crushed stone. The plant consists of: quarry; crushing-sorting plant with maintenance objects arranged on its ground; basis and service stores of explosive materials; tail facility and purifying systems; water supply purifying stations; water storage basin. The plant is reserved for 2335 thousand m 3 yearly utoput of crushed stone; the staff consists of 535 persons, the budgeted cost of building is 26.6 million rubles. Physicochemical characteristics of granosyenites of the ''Granitnoye'' deposit - the raw material resource base of the plant and technological scheme of the crushing-sorting plant are given. Planned measures on building organization and recultivation of disturbed grounds are presented

  10. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  11. Early Methylprednisolone Treatment Can Stabilize the Blood-Optic Nerve Barrier in a Rat Model of Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (rAION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Lun; Wen, Yao-Tseng; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Shu-Wen; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether methylprednisolone (MP) treatment halting retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and having anti-inflammatory effect over a narrow therapeutic window affects the integrity of the blood-optic nerve barrier (BOB) in a rat model of ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION). The optic nerve (ON) vascular permeability was determined by Evans blue extravasation. Changes in the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) from day 1 to day 5 post-rAION. Rats were treated with MP starting on days 0, 1, 2, and 7 post-rAION. The survival and apoptosis of the RGCs were determined by fluoroGold labeling and TUNEL assay, and the visual function was assessed with flash visual-evoked potentials (FVEPs) 4 weeks postinfarct. Inflammation of the ON was detected by immunohistochemical staining of ED1. Macrophage recruitment in the ON was significantly reduced, which was compatible with the reduction in ON vascular permeability, after MP treatment starting on days 0 and 1 postinsult compared to PBS treatment (both, P < 0.05). There was significant reduction in TNF-α and IL-1β expression in MP-treated rats (all, P < 0.05). The survival number and antiapoptotic effect on RGCs, and the P1-N2 FVEP amplitude significantly improved with MP treatment starting on days 0 and 1 (all, P < 0.05). Early treatment with MP halts RGC death and mitigates macrophage infiltration with decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines in acute rAION. The very narrow therapeutic window is related to the quick stabilization of the disrupted BOB by early application of MP.

  12. Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) of keratinocytes, blood vessels and nerves in hairless mouse skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUSSAU, L. J.; VO, L. T.; DELANEY, P. M.; PAPWORTH, G. D.; BARKLA, D. H.; KING, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) enabled subsurface fluorescence microscopy of the skin of hairless mice in vivo. Application of acridine orange enabled imaging of the layers of the epidermis. The corneocytes of the stratum corneum, the keratinocytes in the basal layers and redundant hair follicles were visualised at depths greater than 100 μm. Cellular and nuclear membranes of keratinocytes of the skin were visualised by the use of acridine orange and DIOC5(3). Imaging of the skin after injection of FITC-dextran revealed an extensive network of blood vessels with a size range up to 20 μm. Blood cells could be seen moving through dermal vessels and the blood circulation through the dermal vascular bed was video-taped. The fluorescent dye 4-di-2-ASP showed the presence of nerves fibres around the hair follicles and subsurface blood vessels. Comparison was made between images obtained in vivo using FOCI and in vitro scanning electron microscopy and conventional histology. FOCI offers the potential to study dynamic events in vivo, such as blood flow, skin growth, nerve regeneration and many pathological processes, in ways which have not previously been possible. PMID:9643419

  13. Paranode Abnormalities and Oxidative Stress in Optic Nerve Vulnerable to Secondary Degeneration: Modulation by 670 nm Light Treatment.

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    Charis R Szymanski

    Full Text Available Secondary degeneration of nerve tissue adjacent to a traumatic injury results in further loss of neurons, glia and function, via mechanisms that may involve oxidative stress. However, changes in indicators of oxidative stress have not yet been demonstrated in oligodendrocytes vulnerable to secondary degeneration in vivo. We show increases in the oxidative stress indicator carboxymethyl lysine at days 1 and 3 after injury in oligodendrocytes vulnerable to secondary degeneration. Dihydroethidium staining for superoxide is reduced, indicating endogenous control of this particular reactive species after injury. Concurrently, node of Ranvier/paranode complexes are altered, with significant lengthening of the paranodal gap and paranode as well as paranode disorganisation. Therapeutic administration of 670 nm light is thought to improve oxidative metabolism via mechanisms that may include increased activity of cytochrome c oxidase. Here, we show that light at 670 nm, delivered for 30 minutes per day, results in in vivo increases in cytochrome c oxidase activity co-localised with oligodendrocytes. Short term (1 day 670 nm light treatment is associated with reductions in reactive species at the injury site. In optic nerve vulnerable to secondary degeneration superoxide in oligodendrocytes is reduced relative to handling controls, and is associated with reduced paranode abnormalities. Long term (3 month administration of 670 nm light preserves retinal ganglion cells vulnerable to secondary degeneration and maintains visual function, as assessed by the optokinetic nystagmus visual reflex. Light at a wavelength of 670 nm may serve as a therapeutic intervention for treatment of secondary degeneration following neurotrauma.

  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome and the "double crush" hypothesis: a review and implications for chiropractic

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    Russell Brent S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Upton and McComas claimed that most patients with carpal tunnel syndrome not only have compressive lesions at the wrist, but also show evidence of damage to cervical nerve roots. This "double crush" hypothesis has gained some popularity among chiropractors because it seems to provide a rationale for adjusting the cervical spine in treating carpal tunnel syndrome. Here I examine use of the concept by chiropractors, summarize findings from the literature, and critique several studies aimed at supporting or refuting the hypothesis. Although the hypothesis also has been applied to nerve compressions other than those leading to carpal tunnel syndrome, this discussion mainly examines the original application – "double crush" involving both cervical spinal nerve roots and the carpal tunnel. I consider several categories: experiments to create double crush syndrome in animals, case reports, literature reviews, and alternatives to the original hypothesis. A significant percentage of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome also have neck pain or cervical nerve root compression, but the relationship has not been definitively explained. The original hypothesis remains controversial and is probably not valid, at least for sensory disturbances, in carpal tunnel syndrome. However, even if the original hypothesis is importantly flawed, evaluation of multiple sites still may be valuable. The chiropractic profession should develop theoretical models to relate cervical dysfunction to carpal tunnel syndrome, and might incorporate some alternatives to the original hypothesis. I intend this review as a starting point for practitioners, educators, and students wishing to advance chiropractic concepts in this area.

  15. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional fibrillar collagen microstructure within the normal, aged and glaucomatous human optic nerve head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H J; Girard, M J; White, N; Fautsch, M P; Morgan, J E; Ethier, C R; Albon, J

    2015-05-06

    The aim of this study was to quantify connective tissue fibre orientation and alignment in young, old and glaucomatous human optic nerve heads (ONH) to understand ONH microstructure and predisposition to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Transverse (seven healthy, three glaucomatous) and longitudinal (14 healthy) human ONH cryosections were imaged by both second harmonic generation microscopy and small angle light scattering (SALS) in order to quantify preferred fibre orientation (PFO) and degree of fibre alignment (DOFA). DOFA was highest within the peripapillary sclera (ppsclera), with relatively low values in the lamina cribrosa (LC). Elderly ppsclera DOFA was higher than that in young ppsclera (p < 0.00007), and generally higher than in glaucoma ppsclera. In all LCs, a majority of fibres had preferential orientation horizontally across the nasal-temporal axis. In all glaucomatous LCs, PFO was significantly different from controls in a minimum of seven out of 12 LC regions (p < 0.05). Additionally, higher fibre alignment was observed in the glaucomatous inferior-temporal LC (p < 0.017). The differences between young and elderly ONH fibre alignment within regions suggest that age-related microstructural changes occur within the structure. The additional differences in fibre alignment observed within the glaucomatous LC may reflect an inherent susceptibility to glaucomatous optic neuropathy, or may be a consequence of ONH remodelling and/or collapse.

  16. Asymmetric optic nerve sheath diameter as an outcome factor following cranioplasty in patients harboring the 'syndrome of the trephined'

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    Antonio Santos de Araujo Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Decompressive craniectomy (DC is gaining an increasing role in the neurosurgical treatment of intractable intracranial hypertension, but not without complications. A rare complication is the “syndrome of the trephined” (ST. It occurs when the forces of gravity overwhelm intracranial pressures, leading the brain to become sunken. Objective To determine the usefulness of asymmetric optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD as an outcome factor after cranioplasty. Method We followed-up 5 patients submitted to DC and diagnosed with ST. All were submitted to brain MRI to calculate the ONSD. Results Only two patients presented an asymmetric ONSD, being ONSD larger at the site of craniectomy. Surprisingly these patients had a marked neurological improvement after cranioplasty. They became independent a week after and statistically earlier than others. Conclusion It is presumed that the presence of an asymmetric ONSD in trephined patients is an independent factor of good outcome after cranioplasty.

  17. Role of apoptosis in the рathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve damage during primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Frolov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of the molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death or apoptosis in primary open-angleglaucoma. As one of the main factors in the pathogenesis of this disease appears the loss of retinal ganglion cells. Their death occursby apoptosis — programmed suicide mechanism. We consider two major apoptotic pathways, which are described in the literature —Fas-mediated and Bcl-2-dependent or mitochondrial. The existence of these paths and their regulators in many organs and tissues isdescribed, including the retina and optic nerve. Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign literature is presented modern view ofthe stages of this process in glaucoma. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms of apoptosis and their regulation may contribute to the development of new pharmacological methods of prevention and treatment of eye diseases

  18. Axonal electrovisiogram as an electrophysiological test to evaluate optic nerve and inner retina electrical potentials: findings in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wener Passarinho Cella

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To standardize and validate the technique of axonal electrovisiogram (AxEvg, defining its normative values and parameters and characterizing its findings in normal individuals. METHODS: We enrolled 140 normal individuals (280 eyes divided into seven groups according to age, each one with 10 males and 10 females. The technique was based on monocular visual stimulation by a 0 dB intensity bright flash on Ganzfeld bowl at a presentation rate of 1.4 Hz. Golden cup electrodes were used and electrical waves were acquired after artifact rejection. For each amplitude and implicit time peak we calculated the mean, median, pattern deviation, minimum and maximum values and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Monocular visual stimulation with bright flash under mesopic conditions was the standard technical procedure established. The normal AxEvg waveform consists of an initial positive wave (named P1, with mean amplitude of 2.0 mV and mean implicit time peak of 23.1 ms followed by a negative wave (named N1, with mean amplitude of -3.9 mV and mean implicit time peak of 41.4 ms. No significant differences were observed between males and females or between right and left eyes, but there was an increased P1 and N1 implicit time peaks according to age. Implicit time characteristics suggest that P1 wave represents an optic nerve electrical potential and N1 wave represents an inner retinal layers potential. CONCLUSIONS: AxEvg can be considered a pre-chiasmatic visual evoked potential capable to reliably record the electrical activity of optic nerve and inner retina. The findings suggest that AxEvg may be useful as an electrophysiological test in the diagnosis of neuroretinal diseases.

  19. Estimating the accuracy of optic nerve sheath diameter measurement using a pocket-sized, handheld ultrasound on a simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Garrett G R J; Zeiler, Frederick A; Unger, Bertram; Hansen, Gregory; Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Gillman, Lawrence M

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasound measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) appears to be a promising, rapid, non-invasive bedside tool for identification of elevated intra-cranial pressure. With improvements in ultrasound technology, machines are becoming smaller; however, it is unclear if these ultra-portable handheld units have the resolution to make these measurements precisely. In this study, we estimate the accuracy of ONSD measurement in a pocket-sized ultrasound unit. Utilizing a locally developed, previously validated model of the eye, ONSD was measured by two expert observers, three times with two machines and on five models with different optic nerve sheath sizes. A pocket ultrasound (Vscan, GE Healthcare) and a standard portable ultrasound (M-Turbo, SonoSite) were used to measure the models. Data was analyzed by Bland-Altman plot and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The ICC between raters for the SonoSite was 0.878, and for the Vscan was 0.826. The between-machine agreement ICC was 0.752. Bland-Altman agreement analysis between the two ultrasound methods showed an even spread across the range of sheath sizes, and that the Vscan tended to read on average 0.33 mm higher than the SonoSite for each measurement, with a standard deviation of 0.65 mm. Accurate ONSD measurement may be possible utilizing pocket-sized, handheld ultrasound devices despite their small screen size, lower resolution, and lower probe frequencies. Further study in human subjects is warranted for all newer handheld ultrasound models as they become available on the market.

  20. Activation of muscarinic receptors protects against retinal neurons damage and optic nerve degeneration in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pan-Pan; Yuan, Hai-Hong; Zhu, Xu; Cui, Yong-Yao; Li, Hui; Feng, Xue-Mei; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Zhou, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist pilocarpine reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) of glaucoma mainly by stimulating ciliary muscle contraction and then increasing aqueous outflow. It is of our great interest to know whether pilocarpine has the additional properties of retinal neuroprotection independent of IOP lowering in vitro and in vivo models. In rat primary retinal cultures, cell viability was measured using an MTT assay and the trypan blue exclusion method, respectively. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were identified by immunofluorescence and quantified by flow cytometry. For the in vivo study, the retinal damage after retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats was evaluated by histopathological study using hematoxylin and eosin staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical study on cleaved caspase-3, caspase-3, and ChAT. Pretreatment of pilocarpine attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity of primary retinal neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Protection of pilocarpine in both retinal neurons and RGCs was largely abolished by the nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and the M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine. After ischemia/reperfusion injury in retina, the inner retinal degeneration occurred including ganglion cell layer thinning and neuron lost, and the optic nerve underwent vacuolar changes. These degenerative changes were significantly lessened by topical application of 2% pilocarpine. In addition, the protective effect of pilocarpine on the ischemic rat retina was favorably reflected by downregulating the expression of activated apoptosis marker cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-3 and upregulating the expression of cholinergic cell marker ChAT. Taken together, this highlights pilocarpine through the activation of muscarinic receptors appear to afford significant protection against retinal neurons damage and optic nerve degeneration at clinically relevant concentrations. These data also

  1. Lycium barbarum (wolfberry reduces secondary degeneration and oxidative stress, and inhibits JNK pathway in retina after partial optic nerve transection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Li

    Full Text Available Our group has shown that the polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP are neuroprotective for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in different animal models. Protecting RGCs from secondary degeneration is a promising direction for therapy in glaucoma management. The complete optic nerve transection (CONT model can be used to study primary degeneration of RGCs, while the partial optic nerve transection (PONT model can be used to study secondary degeneration of RGCs because primary degeneration of RGCs and secondary degeneration can be separated in location in the same retina in this model; in other situations, these types of degeneration can be difficult to distinguish. In order to examine which kind of degeneration LBP could delay, both CONT and PONT models were used in this study. Rats were fed with LBP or vehicle daily from 7 days before surgery until sacrifice at different time-points and the surviving numbers of RGCs were evaluated. The expression of several proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathways were detected with Western-blot analysis. LBP did not delay primary degeneration of RGCs after either CONT or PONT, but it did delay secondary degeneration of RGCs after PONT. We found that LBP appeared to exert these protective effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway and by transiently increasing production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. This study suggests that LBP can delay secondary degeneration of RGCs and this effect may be linked to inhibition of oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway in the retina.

  2. Retinal genes are differentially expressed in areas of primary versus secondary degeneration following partial optic nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Chiha

    Full Text Available Partial transection (PT of the optic nerve is an established experimental model of secondary degeneration in the central nervous system. After a dorsal transection, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs with axons in ventral optic nerve are intact but vulnerable to secondary degeneration, whereas RGCs in dorsal retina with dorsal axons are affected by primary and secondary injuries. Using microarray, we quantified gene expression changes in dorsal and ventral retina at 1 and 7 days post PT, to characterize pathogenic pathways linked to primary and secondary degeneration.In comparison to uninjured retina Cryba1, Cryba2 and Crygs, were significantly downregulated in injured dorsal retina at days 1 and 7. While Ecel1, Timp1, Mt2A and CD74, which are associated with reducing excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation, were significantly upregulated. Genes associated with oxygen binding pathways, immune responses, cytokine receptor activity and apoptosis were enriched in dorsal retina at day 1 after PT. Oxygen binding and apoptosis remained enriched at day 7, as were pathways involved in extracellular matrix modification. Fewer changes were observed in ventral retina at day 1 after PT, most associated with the regulation of protein homodimerization activity. By day 7, apoptosis, matrix organization and signal transduction pathways were enriched. Discriminant analysis was also performed for specific functional gene groups to compare expression intensities at each time point. Altered expression of selected genes (ATF3, GFAP, Ecel1, TIMP1, Tp53 and proteins (GFAP, ECEL1 and ATF3 were semi-quantitatively assessed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively.There was an acute and complex primary injury response in dorsal retina indicative of a dynamic interaction between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative events; ventral retina vulnerable to secondary degeneration showed a delayed injury response. Both primary and secondary injury resulted in the

  3. Lycium Barbarum (Wolfberry) Reduces Secondary Degeneration and Oxidative Stress, and Inhibits JNK Pathway in Retina after Partial Optic Nerve Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Liang, Yuxiang; Chiu, Kin; Yuan, Qiuju; Lin, Bin; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai

    2013-01-01

    Our group has shown that the polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP) are neuroprotective for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in different animal models. Protecting RGCs from secondary degeneration is a promising direction for therapy in glaucoma management. The complete optic nerve transection (CONT) model can be used to study primary degeneration of RGCs, while the partial optic nerve transection (PONT) model can be used to study secondary degeneration of RGCs because primary degeneration of RGCs and secondary degeneration can be separated in location in the same retina in this model; in other situations, these types of degeneration can be difficult to distinguish. In order to examine which kind of degeneration LBP could delay, both CONT and PONT models were used in this study. Rats were fed with LBP or vehicle daily from 7 days before surgery until sacrifice at different time-points and the surviving numbers of RGCs were evaluated. The expression of several proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways were detected with Western-blot analysis. LBP did not delay primary degeneration of RGCs after either CONT or PONT, but it did delay secondary degeneration of RGCs after PONT. We found that LBP appeared to exert these protective effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway and by transiently increasing production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). This study suggests that LBP can delay secondary degeneration of RGCs and this effect may be linked to inhibition of oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway in the retina. PMID:23894366

  4. Anatomic relationship of the optic nerve channel with sphenoid al sinus: a computed tomography study; Relacao anatomica do nervo optico com o seio esfenoidal: estudo por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Paulo Cesar J. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil); Albernaz, Pedro Luiz M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Otorrinolaringologia e Disturbios da Comunicacao Humana; Yamashida, Helio K. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2004-09-15

    The sphenoid sinus, out of the facial sinuses, is certainly the most neglected as far as diagnosis is concerned. The surgical approach requires a detailed anatomical knowledge, considering the serious complications resulting from injuries of vital structures adjacent to this region. Aim: the objective of our research is to evaluate the anatomic relationship of the optic nerve with the sphenoid sinus making use of the computed tomography. Study design: series report. Material and method: the authors present a retrospective analysis of 203 computed tomographies of facial sinus belonging to individuals of both sexes aged 14 and over. The examinations were evaluated observing the course of the optic nerve, obtained through the degree of its projection on the wall of the sphenoid sinus. The method used was the modified classification of Delano, evaluating the absence of bone reduction (dehiscence) of the optic nerve in the sphenoid sinus. We analysed the degree of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus, using Hammer's classification adapted by Guerrero, apart from the pneumatization of the anterior clinoidal process and pterigoid and the presence of the Onodi cell. Results: most of the patients (78.96%) presented their optic nerve with a type 1 course. Type 2 was observed in 16.83% of the patients, type 3 in 3.47% and type 4 in 0.74%. The presence of dehiscence of the optic nerve in the wall of the sphenoid sinus was evidenced in 21.29% of the cases. Related to pneumatization, we noticed that the pre-selar type was observed in 6.44%, the post-selar type appeared in 39.11%, the selar type appeared in 54.45%, and the apneumatized type was not observed in any of the cases. The pneumatization of the anterior clinoidal process was verified in 10.64% of the cases, while the pterigoid process was apparent in 21.29% of the cases. The Onodi cell (sphenoetmoidal) was found in 7.92% of the cases. Conclusion: the presence of dehiscence of the optic nerve is related with the

  5. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  6. Optical coherence tomography, scanning laser polarimetry and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in retinal nerve fiber layer measurements of glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanihagh, Farsad; Kremmer, Stephan; Anastassiou, Gerasimos; Schallenberg, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    To determine the correlations and strength of association between different imaging systems in analyzing the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) of glaucoma patients: optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO). 114 eyes of patients with moderate open angle glaucoma underwent spectral domain OCT (Topcon SD-OCT 2000 and Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT), SLP (GDx VCC and GDx Pro) and CSLO (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT 3). Correlation coefficients were calculated between the structural parameters yielded by these examinations. The quantitative relationship between the measured RNFL thickness globally and for the four regions (superior, inferior, nasal, temporal) were evaluated with different regression models for all used imaging systems. The strongest correlation of RNFL measurements was found between devices using the same technology like GDx VCC and GDx Pro as well as Topcon OCT and Cirrus OCT. In glaucoma patients, the strongest associations (R²) were found between RNFL measurements of the two optical coherence tomography devices Topcon OCT and Cirrus OCT (R² = 0.513) and between GDx VCC and GDx Pro (R² = 0.451). The results of the OCTs and GDX Pro also had a strong quantitative relationship (Topcon OCT R² = 0.339 and Cirrus OCT R² = 0.347). GDx VCC and the OCTs showed a mild to moderate association (Topcon OCT R² = 0.207 and Cirrus OCT R² = 0.258). The confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (HRT 3) had the lowest association to all other devices (Topcon OCT R² = 0.254, Cirrus OCT R² = 0.158, GDx Pro R² = 0.086 and GDx VCC R² = 0.1). The measurements of the RNFL in glaucoma patients reveal a high correlation of OCT and GDx devices because OCTs can measure all major retinal layers and SLP can detect nerve fibers allowing a comparison between the results of this devices. However, CSLO by means of HRT topography can only measure height values of the retinal surface but it cannot distinguish

  7. Exposure to As, Cd and Pb-mixture impairs myelin and axon development in rat brain, optic nerve and retina

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    Rai, Nagendra Kumar; Ashok, Anushruti [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (India); Developmental Toxicology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR) (India); Rai, Asit; Tripathi, Sachin [Developmental Toxicology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR) (India); Nagar, Geet Kumar [Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI) (India); Mitra, Kalyan [Electron Microscopy Unit, CSIR-CDRI, Lucknow 226001 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra, E-mail: sanghmitra@iitr.res.in [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (India); Developmental Toxicology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR) (India)

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the major metal contaminants of ground water in India. We have reported the toxic effect of their mixture (metal mixture, MM), at human relevant doses, on developing rat astrocytes. Astrocyte damage has been shown to be associated with myelin disintegration in CNS. We, therefore, hypothesized that the MM would perturb myelinating white matter in cerebral cortex, optic nerve (O.N.) and retina. We observed modulation in the levels of myelin and axon proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein, 2′-, 3′-cyclic-nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase, myelin-associated glycoprotein and neurofilament (NF) in the brain of developing rats. Dose and time-dependent synergistic toxic effect was noted. The MBP- and NF-immunolabeling, as well as luxol-fast blue (LFB) staining demonstrated a reduction in the area of intact myelin-fiber, and an increase in vacuolated axons, especially in the corpus-callosum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of O.N. revealed a reduction in myelin thickness and axon-density. The immunolabeling with MBP, NF, and LFB staining in O.N. supported the TEM data. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of retina displayed a decrease in the thickness of nerve-fiber, plexiform-layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count. Investigating the mechanism revealed a loss in glutamine synthetase activity in the cerebral cortex and O.N., and a fall in the brain derived neurotrophic factor in retina. An enhanced apoptosis in MBP, NF and Brn3b-containing cells justified the diminution in myelinating axons in CNS. Our findings for the first time indicate white matter damage by MM, which may have significance in neurodevelopmental-pediatrics, neurotoxicology and retinal-cell biology. - Highlights: • As, Cd and Pb-mixture, at human relevant dose, demyelinate developing rat CNS. • The attenuation in myelin and axon is synergistic. • The optic nerve and brain demonstrate reduced glutamine synthetase.

  8. Exposure to As, Cd and Pb-mixture impairs myelin and axon development in rat brain, optic nerve and retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Nagendra Kumar; Ashok, Anushruti; Rai, Asit; Tripathi, Sachin; Nagar, Geet Kumar; Mitra, Kalyan; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the major metal contaminants of ground water in India. We have reported the toxic effect of their mixture (metal mixture, MM), at human relevant doses, on developing rat astrocytes. Astrocyte damage has been shown to be associated with myelin disintegration in CNS. We, therefore, hypothesized that the MM would perturb myelinating white matter in cerebral cortex, optic nerve (O.N.) and retina. We observed modulation in the levels of myelin and axon proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein, 2′-, 3′-cyclic-nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase, myelin-associated glycoprotein and neurofilament (NF) in the brain of developing rats. Dose and time-dependent synergistic toxic effect was noted. The MBP- and NF-immunolabeling, as well as luxol-fast blue (LFB) staining demonstrated a reduction in the area of intact myelin-fiber, and an increase in vacuolated axons, especially in the corpus-callosum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of O.N. revealed a reduction in myelin thickness and axon-density. The immunolabeling with MBP, NF, and LFB staining in O.N. supported the TEM data. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of retina displayed a decrease in the thickness of nerve-fiber, plexiform-layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count. Investigating the mechanism revealed a loss in glutamine synthetase activity in the cerebral cortex and O.N., and a fall in the brain derived neurotrophic factor in retina. An enhanced apoptosis in MBP, NF and Brn3b-containing cells justified the diminution in myelinating axons in CNS. Our findings for the first time indicate white matter damage by MM, which may have significance in neurodevelopmental-pediatrics, neurotoxicology and retinal-cell biology. - Highlights: • As, Cd and Pb-mixture, at human relevant dose, demyelinate developing rat CNS. • The attenuation in myelin and axon is synergistic. • The optic nerve and brain demonstrate reduced glutamine synthetase.

  9. Measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in eyes with optic disc swelling by using scanning laser polarimetry and optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Oishi, Akio; Kimura, Yugo; Nakagawa, Satoko; Horii, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-01

    The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in patients with optic disc swelling of different etiologies was compared using scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Forty-seven patients with optic disc swelling participated in the cross-sectional study. Both GDx SLP (enhanced corneal compensation) and Spectralis spectral-domain OCT measurements of RNFLT were made in 19 eyes with papilledema (PE), ten eyes with optic neuritis (ON), and 18 eyes with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic at Kyoto University Hospital. Differences in SLP (SLP-RNFLT) and OCT (OCT-RNFLT) measurements among different etiologies were investigated. No statistical differences in average OCT-RNFLT among PE, ON, and NAION patients were noted. Average SLP-RNFLT in NAION patients was smaller than in PE (P<0.01) or ON (P=0.02) patients. When RNFLT in each retinal quadrant was compared, no difference among etiologies was noted on OCT, but on SLP, the superior quadrant was thinner in NAION than in PE (P<0.001) or ON (P=0.001) patients. Compared with age-adjusted normative data of SLP-RNFLT, average SLP-RNFLT in PE (P<0.01) and ON (P<0.01) patients was greater. Superior SLP-RNFLT in NAION patients was smaller (P=0.026). The ratio of average SLP-RNFLT to average OCT-RNFLT was smaller in NAION than in PE (P=0.001) patients. In the setting of RNFL thickening, despite increased light retardance in PE and ON eyes, SLP revealed that NAION eyes have less retardance, possibly associated with ischemic axonal loss.

  10. Comparasion of Optic Nerve Head with Stereophotometric and Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Tekin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare theevaluation results of two experienced clinicians about examination of optic discs in glaucoma patients and healthy inidividuals by stereophotometry and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Material and Method: We studied 116 individuals (217 eyes who were divided as normal, glaucoma and suspected glaucoma in numbers of 54, 42 and 20 respectively. Stereophotometric photographs of optic disc were examined with fundus camera (Zeiss, FF 450 plus. Optic disc was also evaluated with HRT-3 in the same visit. Two experienced clinicians evaluated the cup/disc ratios and whether the optic discs were glaucomatous or not. Evaluation results were analysed and compared with HRT-3 examinations. Results:There were no significant age and gende rdifferences between the groups(p>0.05.Stereophotographic C/D ratio correlations between the clinicians were 0.79 (p

  11. Adaptive optics imaging of healthy and abnormal regions of retinal nerve fiber bundles of patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Monica F; Chui, Toco Y P; Alhadeff, Paula; Rosen, Richard B; Ritch, Robert; Dubra, Alfredo; Hood, Donald C

    2015-01-08

    To better understand the nature of glaucomatous damage of the macula, especially the structural changes seen between relatively healthy and clearly abnormal (AB) retinal regions, using an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO). Adaptive optics SLO images and optical coherence tomography (OCT) vertical line scans were obtained on one eye of seven glaucoma patients, with relatively deep local arcuate defects on the 10-2 visual field test in one (six eyes) or both hemifields (one eye). Based on the OCT images, the retinal nerve fiber (RNF) layer was divided into two regions: (1) within normal limits (WNL), relative RNF layer thickness within mean control values ±2 SD; and (2) AB, relative thickness less than -2 SD value. As seen on AO-SLO, the pattern of AB RNF bundles near the border of the WNL and AB regions differed across eyes. There were normal-appearing bundles in the WNL region of all eyes and AB-appearing bundles near the border with the AB region. This region with AB bundles ranged in extent from a few bundles to the entire AB region in the case of one eye. All other eyes had a large AB region without bundles. However, in two of these eyes, a few bundles were seen within this region of otherwise missing bundles. The AO-SLO images revealed details of glaucomatous damage that are difficult, if not impossible, to see with current OCT technology. Adaptive optics SLO may prove useful in following progression in clinical trials, or in disease management, if AO-SLO becomes widely available and easy to use. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. Automation for Crushing and Screening Equipment to Produce Graded Paving Crushed Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Anatoly; Velichkin, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    This paper offers analysis of factors related to production and storage of graded crushed stone, which adversely impact the service life and wear resistance of asphalt-concrete motor road pavements. The paper describes external and technology-related parameters that may cause changes of the preset ratio in graded crushed stone. Control factors are described that ensure the formulated fraction ratio in crushed stone by controlling the operation mode of the crushing and screening equipment. The paper also contains an ACS flow chart for crushing and screening equipment engaged in continuous closed-cycle two-stage technology. Performance of the ACS to maintain the preset fractionated crushed stone ratio has been confirmed with a mathematical model.

  13. Determination of dispersity of crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Fan Xianhua; Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Zhou Duo; Wang Yong

    2004-01-01

    The experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99 Tc as spike tracer and 3 H as invariant tracer, are analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and retardation factor of 99 TcO 4 - on the crushed granite are determined simultaneously by one linear regression technique. Dispersity of crushed granite is also obtained with 3 H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression technique. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. The experimental results show that the dispersity found by spike source method is close to that found by invariant source method. It indicates that dispersity is only the characteristic of dispersion medium

  14. Determination of dispersity of crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99 Tc as spike tracer and 3 H as invariant tracer, were analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and the retardation factor of 99 TcO 4 - on the crushed granite were determined simultaneously by one linear regression. Dispersity of crushed granite was also obtained with 3 H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. Experimental results show that the dispersity found by the spike source method is close to that found by the invariant source method. This indicates that dispersity is only a characteristic of the dispersion medium. (author)

  15. Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measures using eye tracking in children with nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajjoub, Raneem D; Trimboli-Heidler, Carmelina; Packer, Roger J; Avery, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the intra- and intervisit reproducibility of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measures using eye tracking-assisted spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) in children with nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy. Prospective longitudinal study. Circumpapillary RNFL thickness measures were acquired with SD OCT using the eye-tracking feature at 2 separate study visits. Children with normal and abnormal vision (visual acuity ≥ 0.2 logMAR above normal and/or visual field loss) who demonstrated clinical and radiographic stability were enrolled. Intra- and intervisit reproducibility was calculated for the global average and 9 anatomic sectors by calculating the coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient. Forty-two subjects (median age 8.6 years, range 3.9-18.2 years) met inclusion criteria and contributed 62 study eyes. Both the abnormal and normal vision cohort demonstrated the lowest intravisit coefficient of variation for the global RNFL thickness. Intervisit reproducibility remained good for those with normal and abnormal vision, although small but statistically significant increases in the coefficient of variation were observed for multiple anatomic sectors in both cohorts. The magnitude of visual acuity loss was significantly associated with the global (ß = 0.026, P < .01) and temporal sector coefficient of variation (ß = 0.099, P < .01). SD OCT with eye tracking demonstrates highly reproducible RNFL thickness measures. Subjects with vision loss demonstrate greater intra- and intervisit variability than those with normal vision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between Asymptomatic Unilateral Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis and Electrophysiological Function of the Retina and Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Machalińska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was designed to assess retinal and optic nerve bioelectrical function in patients with unilateral asymptomatic but hemodynamically significant internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS. Methods. Forty-two subjects with a diagnosis of unilateral ICAS and 34 controls were analyzed. Full-field electroretinogram (ERG, pattern electroretinogram (PERG, and pattern visual-evoked potentials, as well as optical coherence tomography and ophthalmological examination, were performed. Data analysis included eyes ipsilateral to ICAS (EIS and eyes contralateral to ICAS (ECS. Results. Intraocular pressure was significantly decreased in EIS and ECS compared to that in the controls. In the macula, both the cube average thickness and cube volume values were significantly reduced both in EIS and ECS compared to those in the controls. Similarly, PERG P50 and N95 wave amplitudes were significantly smaller in EIS and ECS compared to those in the controls. The ERG rod b-wave and rod-cone a-wave amplitudes were decreased, and implicit times were significantly prolonged, whereas the OP wave index was reduced in EIS compared to that in the controls. No differences in IOP, OCT, or ERG and PERG parameters were identified between EIS and ECS. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that retinal bioelectrical function is negatively affected by ICAS despite the absence of objective clinical signs and symptoms of ocular ischemia.

  17. Optic nerve sheath diameter on fat-saturated T2-weighted orbital MR imaging reflects intracranial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Arata; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Horikoshi, Toru; Uchida, Mikito; Sakatsume, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Although dilated optic nerve sheath (ONS) is observed in the setting of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension or hydrocephalus, the relationship between ONS diameter and ICP is unclear. We analyzed the relationship between subdural pressure measured during surgery in patients with chronic subdural fluid collections and ONS diameter measured on MR images. Orbital thin slice fat-saturated MR images were obtained within 24 hours before surgery and ONS diameters were measured just behind the optic globe. Subdural pressure was measured using a manometer before opening the dura mater during surgery. Significant correlation was found between the ONS diameter and subdural pressure (y=0.0618x+4.8219. y: ONS diameter (mm), x: subdural pressure (cmH 2 O), correlation coefficient: 0.505). The ONS diameter before surgery (6.1±0.7 mm) was significantly reduced after surgery (4.8±0.9 mm, p=0.003). Increased ONS diameter on MR images is a strong indicator of increased ICP we propose 6 mm as the normal limit of diameter just behind the eyeball because this value corresponds to the upper normal limit of ICP of around 20 cmH 2 O with above mentioned approximate curve. (author)

  18. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  19. Flowability in crushed sand mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study explored the relationship between mortar flowability and the voids content in crushed sand to determine the effect of grain shape and surface texture as well as dust content on the behaviour of fresh mortar. The findings revealed a close correlation between voids content and the volume of paste needed for mortar to begin to flow as a continuous material, mortar flowability and the water content needed to attain a given flowability. The comparison of the empirical findings to the results obtained with the Larrard (1, 2 model provided further information on the effect of sand grain morphology on fresh mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental de la fluidez de morteros basado en el contenido de vacíos de arenas machacadas, para comprender la influencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos de arena y del contenido de polvo de las mismas sobre el estado fresco de morteros. Los resultados muestran la estrecha relación entre el contenido de vacíos entre granos y los volúmenes de pasta necesarios para iniciar el escurrimiento como un material continuo, la fluidez de los morteros, el contenido de agua para alcanzar una determinada fluidez, etc. El comportamiento evaluado se compara con resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo de F. de Larrard (1, 2, permitiendo de este modo obtener mayor información de la influencia de la morfología de los granos de la arena sobre el estado fresco de los morteros.

  20. Comparison of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph with disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in diagnosing optic nerve hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yi; Frantz, Kelly A

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate whether Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) is a valid test for diagnosing congenital optic nerve hypoplasia (CONH) compared to the ratio of the distance between the centre of the optic disc and the centre of the macula and the mean optic disc diameter (DM:DD ratio). Furthermore, to determine the optimal cut-off value of HRT disc area to differentiate a hypoplastic disc from a normal optic disc. A total of 33 subjects with CONH (4-67 years old) and 160 normal subjects (5-65 years old) were recruited and underwent comprehensive eye examinations, fundus photography and HRT. Receiver operating characteristic curves for DM:DD ratio and HRT disc area were constructed based on data from the 46 CONH eyes and 160 control eyes. Mean (±S.D.) HRT disc area was 1.94 (±0.54) mm(2) for the control eyes and 0.84 (±0.35) mm(2) for the CONH eyes (p < 0.0001). The area under the curve (AUC) for DM:DD ratio was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.90). The AUC for HRT disc area was 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.94-0.99). A statistically significant difference was found between AUC for HRT disc area and that for DM:DD ratio (p = 0.0004). The optimal cut-off value for HRT disc area was 1.42 mm(2) with 95% sensitivity and 85% specificity. The optimal cut-off value for DM:DD ratio was 3.20 with 78% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Both HRT and the DM:DD ratio are valid tests to aid diagnosis of CONH. HRT is superior to DM:DD ratio in diagnosing CONH with higher sensitivity and specificity. We suggest the optimal cut-off value for HRT disc area as 1.42 mm(2) in order to discriminate a hypoplastic disc from a normal optic disc. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  1. Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-strain theory for redwood; and to review the literature on strain-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70 degrees F), 150 degrees F, and -20 degrees F conditions were measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-strain relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that strain-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain

  2. Exogenous Modulation of Retinoic Acid Signaling Affects Adult RGC Survival in the Frog Visual System after Optic Nerve Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred V Duprey-Díaz

    Full Text Available After lesions to the mammalian optic nerve, the great majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs die before their axons have even had a chance to regenerate. Frog RGCs, on the other hand, suffer only an approximately 50% cell loss, and we have previously investigated the mechanisms by which the application of growth factors can increase their survival rate. Retinoic acid (RA is a vitamin A-derived lipophilic molecule that plays major roles during development of the nervous system. The RA signaling pathway is also present in parts of the adult nervous system, and components of it are upregulated after injury in peripheral nerves but not in the CNS. Here we investigate whether RA signaling affects long-term RGC survival at 6 weeks after axotomy. Intraocular injection of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, the retinoic acid receptor (RAR type-α agonist AM80, the RARβ agonist CD2314, or the RARγ agonist CD1530, returned axotomized RGC numbers to almost normal levels. On the other hand, inhibition of RA synthesis with disulfiram, or of RAR receptors with the pan-RAR antagonist Ro-41-5253, or the RARβ antagonist LE135E, greatly reduced the survival of the axotomized neurons. Axotomy elicited a strong activation of the MAPK, STAT3 and AKT pathways; this activation was prevented by disulfiram or by RAR antagonists. Finally, addition of exogenous ATRA stimulated the activation of the first two of these pathways. Future experiments will investigate whether these strong survival-promoting effects of RA are mediated via the upregulation of neurotrophins.

  3. Radiotherapy in the management of primary gliomas involving the intracranial optic nerves and chiasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harter, D.J.; Caderao, J.B.; Leavens, M.E.; Young, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    Surgeons traditionally do not resect optic chiasm gliomas, but megavoltage radiotherapy can be effective treatment. Vision often improves during and after irradiation. Follow-up examination should include an evaluation of endocrine status. In the series reported recurrences became manifest within one year of the treatment

  4. ALDH1A3 loss of function causes bilateral anophthalmia/microphthalmia and hypoplasia of the optic nerve and optic chiasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyavi, Mani; Abouzeid, Hana; Gawdat, Ghada; de Preux, Anne-Sophie; Xiao, Tong; Bardakjian, Tanya; Schneider, Adele; Choi, Alex; Jorgenson, Eric; Baier, Herwig; El Sada, Mohamad; Schorderet, Daniel F; Slavotinek, Anne M

    2013-08-15

    The major active retinoid, all-trans retinoic acid, has long been recognized as critical for the development of several organs, including the eye. Mutations in STRA6, the gene encoding the cellular receptor for vitamin A, in patients with Matthew-Wood syndrome and anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M), have previously demonstrated the importance of retinol metabolism in human eye disease. We used homozygosity mapping combined with next-generation sequencing to interrogate patients with anophthalmia and microphthalmia for new causative genes. We used whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing to study a family with two affected brothers with bilateral A/M and a simplex case with bilateral anophthalmia and hypoplasia of the optic nerve and optic chiasm. Analysis of novel sequence variants revealed homozygosity for two nonsense mutations in ALDH1A3, c.568A>G, predicting p.Lys190*, in the familial cases, and c.1165A>T, predicting p.Lys389*, in the simplex case. Both mutations predict nonsense-mediated decay and complete loss of function. We performed antisense morpholino (MO) studies in Danio rerio to characterize the developmental effects of loss of Aldh1a3 function. MO-injected larvae showed a significant reduction in eye size, and aberrant axonal projections to the tectum were noted. We conclude that ALDH1A3 loss of function causes anophthalmia and aberrant eye development in humans and in animal model systems.

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Aggressive or Protective Factor for the Retina? Evaluation of Macular Thickness and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layers Using High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edvan de Souza-Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare macular thickness (MT and retinal nerve fiber layers (RNFL between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and healthy women. Materials and Methods. The study included 45 women with PCOS and 47 ovulatory women undergoing clinical-gynecological and ophthalmic evaluations, including measurement of MT, RNFL, and optic disc parameters using optical coherence tomography. Results. The superior RNFL around the optic nerve was significantly thicker in PCOS than in healthy volunteers (P=0.036. After stratification according to insulin resistance, the temporal inner macula (TIM, the inferior inner macula (IIM, the nasal inner macula (NIM, and the nasal outer macula (NOM were significantly thicker in PCOS group than in control group (P<0.05. Both the presence of obesity associated with insulin resistance (P=0.037 and glucose intolerance (P=0.001 were associated with significant increase in the PC1 mean score, relative to MT. A significant increase in the PC2 mean score occurred when considering the presence of metabolic syndrome (P<0.0001. There was a significant interaction between obesity and inflammation in a decreasing mean PC2 score relative to macular RNFL thickness (P=0.034. Conclusion. Decreased macular RNFL thickness and increased total MT are associated with metabolic abnormalities, while increased RNFL thickness around the optic nerve is associated with hormonal changes inherent in PCOS.

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration in the acute healing phase using tissue clearing and optical microscopy in a rodent model.

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    Yookyung Jung

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury (PNI, a common injury in both the civilian and military arenas, is usually associated with high healthcare costs and with patients enduring slow recovery times, diminished quality of life, and potential long-term disability. Patients with PNI typically undergo complex interventions but the factors that govern optimal response are not fully characterized. A fundamental understanding of the cellular and tissue-level events in the immediate postoperative period is essential for improving treatment and optimizing repair. Here, we demonstrate a comprehensive imaging approach to evaluate peripheral nerve axonal regeneration in a rodent PNI model using a tissue clearing method to improve depth penetration while preserving neural architecture. Sciatic nerve transaction and end-to-end repair were performed in both wild type and thy-1 GFP rats. The nerves were harvested at time points after repair before undergoing whole mount immunofluorescence staining and tissue clearing. By increasing the optic depth penetration, tissue clearing allowed the visualization and evaluation of Wallerian degeneration and nerve regrowth throughout entire sciatic nerves with subcellular resolution. The tissue clearing protocol did not affect immunofluorescence labeling and no observable decrease in the fluorescence signal was observed. Large-area, high-resolution tissue volumes could be quantified to provide structural and connectivity information not available from current gold-standard approaches for evaluating axonal regeneration following PNI. The results are suggestive of observed behavioral recovery in vivo after neurorrhaphy, providing a method of evaluating axonal regeneration following repair that can serve as an adjunct to current standard outcomes measurements. This study demonstrates that tissue clearing following whole mount immunofluorescence staining enables the complete visualization and quantitative evaluation of axons throughout

  7. Retinal and Optic Nerve Hemorrhages in the Newborn Infant: One-Year Results of the Newborn Eye Screen Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Natalia F; Ludwig, Cassie A; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Jones, Jennifer Michelle; Fredrick, Douglas R; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2016-05-01

    To report the birth prevalence, risk factors, characteristics, and location of fundus hemorrhages (FHs) of the retina and optic nerve present in newborns at birth. Prospective cohort study at Stanford University School of Medicine. All infants who were 37 weeks postmenstrual age or older and stable were eligible for screening. Infants with known or suspected infectious conjunctivitis were excluded. Infants born at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (LPCH) from July 25, 2013, through July 25, 2014, were offered universal newborn screening via wide-angle digital retinal photography in the Newborn Eye Screen Test study. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal factors were obtained from hospital records. The location, retinal layer, and laterality of FH were recorded by 1 pediatric vitreoretinal specialist. Birth prevalence of FH. Secondary outcomes included rate of adverse events, risk factors for FH, hemorrhage characteristics, and adverse events. The birth prevalence of FH in this study was 20.3% (41/202 infants). Ninety-five percent of FHs involved the periphery, 83% involved the macula, and 71% involved multiple layers of the retina. The fovea was involved in 15% of FH cases (birth prevalence, 3.0%). No cases of bilateral foveal hemorrhage were found. Fundus hemorrhages were more common in the left eye than the right. Fundus hemorrhages were most commonly optic nerve flame hemorrhages (48%) and white-centered retinal hemorrhages (30%). Retinal hemorrhages were found most frequently in all 4 quadrants (35%) and more often were multiple than solitary. Macular hemorrhages most often were intraretinal (40%). Among the risk factors examined in this study, vaginal delivery compared with cesarean section (odds ratio [OR], 9.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-33.97) showed the greatest level of association with FH. Self-identified ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino showed a protective effect (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.94). Other study factors were not significant. Fundus

  8. Expressed sequence tag analysis of adult human optic nerve for NEIBank: Identification of cell type and tissue markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Katherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optic nerve is a pure white matter central nervous system (CNS tract with an isolated blood supply, and is widely used in physiological studies of white matter response to various insults. We examined the gene expression profile of human optic nerve (ON and, through the NEIBANK online resource, to provide a resource of sequenced verified cDNA clones. An un-normalized cDNA library was constructed from pooled human ON tissues and was used in expressed sequence tag (EST analysis. Location of an abundant oligodendrocyte marker was examined by immunofluorescence. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and Western analysis were used to compare levels of expression for key calcium channel protein genes and protein product in primate and rodent ON. Results Our analyses revealed a profile similar in many respects to other white matter related tissues, but significantly different from previously available ON cDNA libraries. The previous libraries were found to include specific markers for other eye tissues, suggesting contamination. Immune/inflammatory markers were abundant in the new ON library. The oligodendrocyte marker QKI was abundant at the EST level. Immunofluorescence revealed that this protein is a useful oligodendrocyte cell-type marker in rodent and primate ONs. L-type calcium channel EST abundance was found to be particularly low. A qRT-PCR-based comparative mammalian species analysis reveals that L-type calcium channel expression levels are significantly lower in primate than in rodent ON, which may help account for the class-specific difference in responsiveness to calcium channel blocking agents. Several known eye disease genes are abundantly expressed in ON. Many genes associated with normal axonal function, mRNAs associated with axonal transport, inflammation and neuroprotection are observed. Conclusion We conclude that the new cDNA library is a faithful representation of human ON and EST data

  9. Variations of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness according to the torsion direction of optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Chan Yun; Kim, Na Rae

    2014-02-20

    To examine the relationship between the optic disc torsion and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness through a comparison with the macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer complex (GCIPL) thickness measured by Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ninety-four eyes of 94 subjects with optic disc torsion and 114 eyes of 114 subjects without optic disc torsion were enrolled prospectively. The participants underwent fundus photography and OCT imaging in peripapillary RNFL mode and macular GCIPL mode. The participants were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of optic disc torsion. The eyes with optic disc torsion were further divided into supranasal torsion and inferotemporal torsion groups according to the direction of optic disc torsion. The mean RNFL and GCIPL thicknesses for the quadrants and subsectors were compared. The superior and inferior peak locations of the RNFL were also measured according to the torsion direction. The temporal RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in inferotemporal torsion, whereas the GCIPL thickness at all segments was unaffected. The inferotemporal optic torsion had more temporally positioned superior peak locations of the RNFL than the nontorsion and supranasal-torted optic disc. Thickening of the temporal RNFL with a temporal shift in the superior peak within the eyes with inferotemporal optic disc torsion can lead to interpretation errors. The ganglion cell analysis algorithm can assist in differentiating eyes with optic disc torsion.

  10. Combined use of high-definition and volumetric optical coherence tomography for the segmentation of neural canal opening in cases of optic nerve edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Kai; Kardon, Randy H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2015-03-01

    In cases of optic-nerve-head edema, the presence of the swelling reduces the visibility of the underlying neural canal opening (NCO) within spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes. Consequently, traditional SD-OCT-based NCO segmentation methods often overestimate the size of the NCO. The visibility of the NCO can be improved using high-definition 2D raster scans, but such scans do not provide 3D contextual image information. In this work, we present a semi-automated approach for the segmentation of the NCO in cases of optic disc edema by combining image information from volumetric and high-definition raster SD-OCT image sequences. In particular, for each subject, five high-definition OCT B-scans and the OCT volume are first separately segmented, and then the five high-definition B-scans are automatically registered to the OCT volume. Next, six NCO points are placed (manually, in this work) in the central three high-definition OCT B-scans (two points for each central B-scans) and are automatically transferred into the OCT volume. Utilizing a combination of these mapped points and the 3D image information from the volumetric scans, a graph-based approach is used to identify the complete NCO on the OCT en-face image. The segmented NCO points using the new approach were significantly closer to expert-marked points than the segmented NCO points using a traditional approach (root mean square differences in pixels: 5.34 vs. 21.71, p < 0.001).

  11. A novel PLP1 mutation associated with optic nerve enlargement in two siblings with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease: A new MRI finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, Efterpi; Ramachandran, Vijaya; Govender, Veronica; Wilson, Clare; Das, Rini; Vlachou, Victoria; Pavlou, Evangelos; Saggar, Anand; Mankad, Kshitij; Kinali, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a rare, X-linked disorder characterized by hypomyelination of the Central Nervous System due to mutations in the PLP1 gene. Certain mutations of the PLP1 gene correlate with specific clinical phenotypes and neuroimaging findings. We herein report a novel mutation of the PLP1 gene in two siblings with PMD associated with a rare and protean neuroimaging finding of optic nerve enlargement. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that this novel mutation H133P of PLP1 gene is identified and clinically associated with optic nerve enlargement in PMD patients. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. All rights reserved.

  12. Somatostatin Receptor SPECT/CT using 99mTc Labeled HYNIC-TOC Aids in Diagnosis of Primary Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Piyush; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    Primary optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM) are rare, benign and slow growing tumor involving the intra-orbital/intra-canalicular segment of the optic nerve. Untreated, they can potentially lead to visual deterioration. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the gold standard imaging modality for diagnosing the entity. Often, a clinical dilemma exists to narrow the differential diagnosis of an enhancing intra-orbital mass on MR. Molecular imaging provides a high degree of precision in diagnosing meningioma in view of relatively high levels of somatostatin receptor expression by these tumors. The following case demonstrates the potential clinical utility of somatostatin receptor SPECT using 99m Tc- labeled HYNIC-TOC in clinical diagnosis of ONSM.

  13. Bilateral blindness secondary to optic nerve ischemia from severe amlodipine overdose: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Raymond; Landry, Yves; Chick, Genevieve; Leung, Andrew

    2017-08-03

    Calcium channel blockers are commonly prescribed medications; calcium channel blocker overdose is becoming increasingly prevalent. The typical presentation of a calcium channel blocker overdose is hypotension and decreased level of consciousness. We describe a case of a calcium channel blocker overdose that led to bilateral cortical blindness, a presentation that has not previously been reported. A 49-year-old white woman with known bilateral early optic atrophy presented to our hospital with hypotension and obtundation following a known ingestion of 150 mg of amlodipine. She was transferred to our intensive care unit where she was intubated, mechanically ventilated, and required maximal vasopressor support (norepinephrine 40 mcg/minute, epinephrine 40 mcg/minute, and vasopressin 2.4 units/hour) along with intravenously administered crystalloid boluses. Despite these measures, she continued to deteriorate with persistent hypotension and tachycardia, as well as anuria. Intralipid emulsion therapy was subsequently administered to which no initial response was observed. A chest X-ray revealed diffuse pulmonary edema; intravenous diuresis as well as continuous renal replacement therapy was initiated. Following the initiation of continuous renal replacement therapy, her oxygen requirements as well as urine output began to improve, and 3 days later she was liberated from mechanical ventilation. Following extubation, she complained of new onset visual impairment, specifically seeing only red-green colors, but no objects. An ophthalmologic examination revealed that this was due to bilateral optic atrophy from prolonged hypotension during the first 24 hours after the overdose. Persistent hypotension in the setting of a calcium channel blocker overdose can lead to worsening optic atrophy resulting in bilateral cortical blindness.

  14. Crushing method for nuclear fuel powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Tsuchiya, Haruo.

    1997-01-01

    A crushing medium is contained in mill pots disposed at the circumferential periphery of a main axis. The diameter of each mill pot is determined such that powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders and ground and mixed powders do not reach criticality. A plurality of mill pots are revolved in the direction of the main axis while each pots rotating on its axis. Powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders are conveyed to a supply portion of the moll pot, and an inert gas is supplied to the supply portion. The powdery nuclear fuels are supplied from the supply portion to the inside of the mill pots, and the powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders are crushed by centrifugal force caused by the rotation and the revolving of the mill pots by means of the crushing medium. UO 2 powder in uranium oxide fuels can be crushed continuously. PuO 2 powder and UO 2 powder in MOX fuels can be crushed and mixed continuously. (I.N.)

  15. Confocal Adaptive Optics Imaging of Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Bundles: Implications for Glaucomatous Damage Seen on Circumpapillary OCT Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Donald C; Chen, Monica F; Lee, Dongwon; Epstein, Benjamin; Alhadeff, Paula; Rosen, Richard B; Ritch, Robert; Dubra, Alfredo; Chui, Toco Y P

    2015-04-01

    To improve our understanding of glaucomatous damage as seen on circumpapillary disc scans obtained with frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT), fdOCT scans were compared to images of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber (RNF) bundles obtained with an adaptive optics-scanning light ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO). The AO-SLO images and fdOCT scans were obtained on 6 eyes of 6 patients with deep arcuate defects (5 points ≤-15 db) on 10-2 visual fields. The AO-SLO images were montaged and aligned with the fdOCT images to compare the RNF bundles seen with AO-SLO to the RNF layer thickness measured with fdOCT. All 6 eyes had an abnormally thin (1% confidence limit) RNF layer (RNFL) on fdOCT and abnormal (hyporeflective) regions of RNF bundles on AO-SLO in corresponding regions. However, regions of abnormal, but equal, RNFL thickness on fdOCT scans varied in appearance on AO-SLO images. These regions could be largely devoid of RNF bundles (5 eyes), have abnormal-appearing bundles of lower contrast (6 eyes), or have isolated areas with a few relatively normal-appearing bundles (2 eyes). There also were local variations in reflectivity of the fdOCT RNFL that corresponded to the variations in AO-SLO RNF bundle appearance. Relatively similar 10-2 defects with similar fdOCT RNFL thickness profiles can have very different degrees of RNF bundle damage as seen on fdOCT and AO-SLO. While the results point to limitations of fdOCT RNFL thickness as typically analyzed, they also illustrate the potential for improving fdOCT by attending to variations in local intensity.

  16. Can sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter be used to detect raised intracranial pressure in patients with tuberculous meningitis? A prospective observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangani, Shruti V; Parikh, Samira

    2015-01-01

    CNS Tuberculosis can manifest as meningitis, arachnoiditis and a tuberculoma. The rupture of a tubercle into the subarachnoid space leads to Tuberculosis Meningitis (TBME); the resulting hypersensitivity reaction can lead to an elevation of the intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus. While bedside optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) ultrasonography (USG) can be a sensitive screening test for elevated intracranial pressure in adult head injury, little is known regarding ONSD measurements in Tuberculosis Meningitis. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with TBME had dilation of the optic nerve sheath, as detected by ocular USG performed in the emergency department (ED). We conducted a prospective, observational study on adult ED patients with suspected TBME. Patients underwent USG measurements of the optic nerve followed by MRI. The ONSD was measured 3 mm behind the globe in each eye. MRI evidence of basilar meningeal enhancement and any degree of hydrocephalus was suggestive of TBME. Those patients without evidence of hydrocephalus subsequently underwent a lumbar puncture to confirm the diagnosis. Exclusion criteria were age less than 18 and obvious ocular pathology. In total, the optic nerve sheath diameters of 25 adults with confirmed TBME were measured. These measurements were compared with 120 control patients. The upper limit of normal ONSD was 4.37 mm in control group. Those patients with TBME had a mean ONSD of 5.81 mm (SD 0.42). These results confirm that patients with tuberculosis meningitis have an ONSD in excess of the control data (P < 0.001). The evaluation of the ONSD is a simple non-invasive and potentially useful tool in the assessment of adults suspected of having TBME

  17. Ultrasonographic Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter as a Surrogate Measure of Raised Intracranial Pressure in Severe Pregnancy-induced Hypertension Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Bhatia, Kiran

    2018-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that severe pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) can be disastrous at times as it can cause a lot of complications to both pregnant women and her baby. Hence, it is always desirable to know the extent of severity by a real-time and easily accessible modality like ultrasound. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in severe preeclampsia and eclampsia patients using ocular ultrasonography with optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurement. This study design was a prospective and clinically controlled blinded observational study. After taking necessary permissions from the Institution Ethical Committee, 75 patients were enrolled for the study. However, finally, 25 patients in severe preeclampsia and 24 in eclampsia group were compared with 25 normal term antenatal women. Demographic profiles, hemodynamic parameters, laboratory markers for severity of PIH, and ultrasonographic OSND were measured. They were statistically analyzed and compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Value of P surrogate marker for raised ICP in severe PIH patients. It is a rapid, bedside, noninvasive, and readily accessible tool and could be a part of a holistic approach for managing such patients.

  18. Ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements to identify early glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarannum Mansoori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT parameters to distinguish normal eyes from those with early glaucoma in Asian Indian eyes. Design : Observational cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : One hundred and seventy eight eyes (83 glaucoma patients and 95 age matched healthy subjects of subjects more than 40 years of age were included in the study. All subjects underwent RNFLT measurement with spectral OCT/ scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO after dilatation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AROC were calculated for various OCT peripapillary RNFL parameters. Results: The mean RNFLT in healthy subjects and patients with early glaucoma were 105.7 ± 5.1 μm and 90.7 ± 7.5 μm, respectively. The largest AROC was found for 12 o′clock- hour (0.98, average (0.96 and superior quadrant RNFLT (0.9. When target specificity was set at ≥ 90% and ≥ 80%, the parameters with highest sensitivity were 12 o′clock -hour (91.6%, average RNFLT (85.3% and 12 o′ clock- hour (96.8 %, average RNFLT (94.7% respectively. Conclusion : Our study showed good ability of spectral OCT/ SLO to differentiate normal eyes from patients with early glaucoma and hence it may serve as an useful adjunct for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

  19. Standard-Fractionated Radiotherapy for Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma: Visual Outcome Is Predicted by Mean Eye Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouaf, Lucie [Neuro-Ophthalmology Unit, Pierre-Wertheimer Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Girard, Nicolas [Radiotherapy-Oncology Department, Lyon Sud Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Claude Bernard University, Lyon (France); Lefort, Thibaud [Neuro-Radiology Department, Pierre-Wertheimer Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); D' hombres, Anne [Claude Bernard University, Lyon (France); Tilikete, Caroline; Vighetto, Alain [Neuro-Ophthalmology Unit, Pierre-Wertheimer Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Claude Bernard University, Lyon (France); Mornex, Francoise, E-mail: francoise.mornex@chu-lyon.fr [Claude Bernard University, Lyon (France)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has shown its efficacy in controlling optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM) tumor growth while allowing visual acuity to improve or stabilize. However, radiation-induced toxicity may ultimately jeopardize the functional benefit. The purpose of this study was to identify predictive factors of poor visual outcome in patients receiving radiotherapy for ONSM. Methods and Materials: We conducted an extensive analysis of 10 patients with ONSM with regard to clinical, radiologic, and dosimetric aspects. All patients were treated with conformal radiotherapy and subsequently underwent biannual neuroophthalmologic and imaging assessments. Pretreatment and posttreatment values of visual acuity and visual field were compared with Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results: Visual acuity values significantly improved after radiotherapy. After a median follow-up time of 51 months, 6 patients had improved visual acuity, 4 patients had improved visual field, 1 patient was in stable condition, and 1 patient had deteriorated visual acuity and visual field. Tumor control rate was 100% at magnetic resonance imaging assessment. Visual acuity deterioration after radiotherapy was related to radiation-induced retinopathy in 2 patients and radiation-induced mature cataract in 1 patient. Study of radiotherapy parameters showed that the mean eye dose was significantly higher in those 3 patients who had deteriorated vision. Conclusions: Our study confirms that radiotherapy is efficient in treating ONSM. Long-term visual outcome may be compromised by radiation-induced side effects. Mean eye dose has to be considered as a limiting constraint in treatment planning.

  20. Gene expression and functional studies of the optic nerve head astrocyte transcriptome from normal African Americans and Caucasian Americans donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixi Miao

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether optic nerve head (ONH astrocytes, a key cellular component of glaucomatous neuropathy, exhibit differential gene expression in primary cultures of astrocytes from normal African American (AA donors compared to astrocytes from normal Caucasian American (CA donors.We used oligonucleotide Affymetrix microarray (HG U133A & HG U133A 2.0 chips to compare gene expression levels in cultured ONH astrocytes from twelve CA and twelve AA normal age matched donor eyes. Chips were normalized with Robust Microarray Analysis (RMA in R using Bioconductor. Significant differential gene expression levels were detected using mixed effects modeling and Statistical Analysis of Microarray (SAM. Functional analysis and Gene Ontology were used to classify differentially expressed genes. Differential gene expression was validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Protein levels were detected by Western blots and ELISA. Cell adhesion and migration assays tested physiological responses. Glutathione (GSH assay detected levels of intracellular GSH.Multiple analyses selected 87 genes differentially expressed between normal AA and CA (P<0.01. The most relevant genes expressed in AA were categorized by function, including: signal transduction, response to stress, ECM genes, migration and cell adhesion.These data show that normal astrocytes from AA and CA normal donors display distinct expression profiles that impact astrocyte functions in the ONH. Our data suggests that differences in gene expression in ONH astrocytes may be specific to the development and/or progression of glaucoma in AA.

  1. Comparison of Optic Nerve Head Blood Flow Autoregulation among Quadrants Induced by Decreased Ocular Perfusion Pressure during Vitrectomy

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    Ryuya Hashimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to examine changes in optic nerve head (ONH blood flow autoregulation in 4 quadrants (superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal with decreased ocular perfusion pressure (OPP during vitrectomy in order to determine whether there is a significant difference of autoregulatory capacity in response to OPP decrease at each ONH quadrant. Methods. This study included 24 eyes with an epiretinal membrane or macular hole that underwent vitrectomy at Toho University Sakura Medical Center. Following vitrectomy, the tissue mean blur rate (MBR, which reflects ONH blood flow, was measured. Mean tissue MBRs in the four quadrants were generated automatically in the software analysis report. Measurements were conducted before and 5 and 10 min after intraocular pressure (IOP elevation of approximately 15 mmHg in the subjects without systemic disorders. Results. The baseline tissue MBR of the temporal quadrant was significantly lower than that of the other 3 quadrants (all P<0.05. However, the time courses of tissue MBR in response to OPP decrease were not significantly different among the four quadrants during vitrectomy (P=0.23. Conclusions. There is no significant difference in the autoregulatory capacity of the four ONH quadrants in patients without systemic disorders during vitrectomy.

  2. Subperiosteal hematoma from peribulbar block during cataract surgery leading to optic nerve compression in a patient with parahemophilia

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    Khokhar S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudarshan Khokhar,1 Bhagabat Nayak,1 Bharat Patil,1 Milind Devidas Changole,1 Gautam Sinha,1 Reetika Sharma,1 Lipika Nayak2 1Dr RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Pediatrics, Loknayak Hospital, Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi, India Abstract: A 17-year-old male presented with gradual painless diminution of vision since childhood. Slit lamp examination revealed both eyes having congenital cataract. Right eye lens aspiration was performed but was uneventful, and he prepared for left eye surgery after 7 days. Immediately after giving a peribulbar block, a complete akinesia, tight eyelids, and stony hard eyeball was noted. An abaxial proptosis of 7 mm was noted. Lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis were done and proptosis reduced to 5 mm. Bleeding time–clotting time was normal. Proptosis worsened to 8 mm the next day. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed inferolateral subperiosteal hematoma, but drainage could not be performed due to prolonged prothrombin time and activated prothrombin time. Fresh frozen plasma was transfused. Tarsorrhaphy was performed for exposure keratopathy after his coagulation profile became normal. Hematology evaluation after 2 weeks detected factor V deficiency, and was diagnosed as Owren's disease or parahemophilia. Keywords: peribulbar block, hematoma, subperiosteal, parahemophilia, optic nerve compression

  3. Sensory stimulation for lowering intraocular pressure, improving blood flow to the optic nerve and neuroprotection in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Edith

    2013-12-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is a group of optic neuropathies that can lead to irreversible blindness. Sensory stimulation in the form of acupuncture or ear acupressure may contribute to protecting patients from blindness when used as a complementary method to orthodox treatment in the form of drops, laser or surgery. The objective of this article is to provide a narrative overview of the available literature up to July 2012. It summarises reported evidence on the potential beneficial effects of sensory stimulation for glaucoma. Sensory stimulation appears to significantly enhance the pressure-lowering effect of orthodox treatments. Studies suggest that it may also improve blood flow to the eye and optic nerve head. Furthermore, it may play a role in neuroprotection through regulating nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and their receptors, thereby encouraging the survival pathway in contrast to the pathway to apoptosis. Blood flow and neuroprotection are areas that are not directly influenced by orthodox treatment modalities. Numerous different treatment protocols were used to investigate the effect of sensory stimulation on intraocular pressure, blood flow or neuroprotection of the retina and optic nerve in the animal model and human pilot studies. Objective outcomes were reported to have been evaluated with Goldmann tonometry, Doppler ultrasound techniques and electrophysiology (pattern electroretinography, visually evoked potentials), and supported with histological studies in the animal model. Taken together, reported evidence from these studies strongly suggests that sensory stimulation is worthy of further research.

  4. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  5. Clinical study of electrophysiological changes of optic nerves in early period of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Liang Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the value of pattern visual evoked potential(PVEPand flash electroretinogram(FERGin early diagnosis and prevention of diabetic retinopathy(DR, analyzing the correlation of early stage DR with PVEP and FERG.METHODS:Sixty patients, 30 males and 30 females, participated in observation group. Their average age was 19.42±7.78years. The duration of DM was RESULTS:In observation group, P100 amplitude decreased and P100 latency increased, compared to those of control group(PPCONCLUSION: PVEP are sensitive to optic neuron damage; FERG is desirable to detect the lesion of Müller cells and bipolar cells. P100 amplitude by PVEP, b-wave amplitude by FERG may be the most sensitive parameter for DR at early stage.

  6. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions

  7. Analysis of Vision Loss Caused by Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy After Particle Therapy for Head-and-Neck and Skull-Base Tumors Adjacent to Optic Nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demizu, Yusuke; Murakami, Masao; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Niwa, Yasue; Akagi, Takashi; Sasaki, Ryohei; Terashima, Kazuki; Suga, Daisaku; Kamae, Isao; Hishikawa, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the incident rates of vision loss (VL; based on counting fingers or more severe) caused by radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) after particle therapy for tumors adjacent to optic nerves (ONs), and to evaluate factors that may contribute to VL. Methods and Materials: From August 2001 to August 2006, 104 patients with head-and-neck or skull-base tumors adjacent to ONs were treated with carbon ion or proton radiotherapy. Among them, 145 ONs of 75 patients were irradiated and followed for greater than 12 months. The incident rate of VL and the prognostic factors for occurrence of VL were evaluated. The late effects of carbon ion and proton beams were compared on the basis of a biologically effective dose at α/β = 3 gray equivalent (GyE 3 ). Results: Eight patients (11%) experienced VL resulting from RION. The onset of VL ranged from 17 to 58 months. The median follow-up was 25 months. No significant difference was observed between the carbon ion and proton beam treatment groups. On univariate analysis, age (>60 years), diabetes mellitus, and maximum dose to the ON (>110 GyE 3 ) were significant, whereas on multivariate analysis only diabetes mellitus was found to be significant for VL. Conclusions: The time to the onset of VL was highly variable. There was no statistically significant difference between carbon ion and proton beam treatments over the follow-up period. Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus correlated with the occurrence of VL. A larger study with longer follow-up is warranted.

  8. Evaluation of optic nerve head blood flow in normal rats and a rodent model of non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy using laser speckle flowgraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takako, Hidaka; Hideki, Chuman; Nobuhisa, Nao-I

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow in normal rats and a rodent model of non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (rNAION) in vivo using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG). Rats were under general anesthesia; to induce NAION, Rose Bengal (RB) was injected into the tail vein. After the administration of RB, the left ONH was photoactivated using an argon green laser. We measured ONH blood flow in the normal rats and the rNAION group (at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the induction of NAION) using an LSFG-Micro. We used the mean blur rate (MBR) of the vessel region (MV) and MBR of the tissue region (MT) as indicators of blood flow. We compared the MBR of the right and left eyes in both the normal rats and the rNAION group. In the normal rats, there were no significant differences in MV or MT between the right and left eyes. In the rNAION group, the MV and MT of the affected eyes were significantly lower than those of the unaffected eyes at all time points. There were significant differences between the left/right MV and MT ratios seen before the induction of NAION and those observed at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the induction of NAION. However, there were no significant differences in these parameters among any of post-NAION induction time points. Our results indicated that the ONH blood flow of the rNAION rats fell in the acute and chronic phases.

  9. Rapid diagnosis of retina and optic nerve abnormalities in canine patients with and without cataracts using chromatic pupil light reflex testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanic, Sinisa D; Kecova, Helga; Lazic, Tatjana

    2013-09-01

    To develop fast and reliable testing routines for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine cataract patients based on chromatic properties of the pupillary light reflex response. Seventy-seven canine patients with a history of cataract and decreased vision (43 patients with cataracts and no evidence of retina or optic nerve disease, 21 patients with cataracts and retinal degeneration [RD], 13 patients with cataracts and retinal detachment [RDT]), 11 canine patients with optic neuritis (ON) and 23 healthy dogs were examined using chromatic pupillary light reflex (cPLR) analysis with red and blue light and electroretinography. Electroretinography analysis showed statistically significant deficits in a- and b-wave amplitudes in dogs with cataracts and RD, or cataracts and RDT, when compared to dogs with cataracts without evidence of retinal abnormalities. Evaluation of b-wave amplitudes showed that presence of 78.5-μV (or lower) amplitudes had high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 87.2-100%) and high specificity of 96.7% (95% CI: 88.4-100%) in RD and RDT. Evaluation of cPLR responses using red light showed that presence of the pupil end constriction diameter of 5.5 mm (or higher) had moderately high sensitivity of 76.5% (95% CI: 50.1-93.2%) and high specificity of 100% (95% CI: 91.2-100%) in detecting RD and RDT. Optic neuritis patients had absent cPLR responses, regardless of the visual status. Chromatic evaluation of the pupillary light reflex is a rapid and accurate test for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine patients. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Hepatocyte growth factor promotes long-term survival and axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury: comparison with CNTF and BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Kai; Cheung, Anny Wan-Suen; Yu, Sau-Wai; Sha, Ou; Cho, Eric Yu Pang

    2014-10-01

    Different trophic factors are known to promote retinal ganglion cell survival and regeneration, but each had their own limitations. We report that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) confers distinct advantages in supporting ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration, when compared to two well-established trophic factors ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Ganglion cells in adult hamster were injured by cutting the optic nerve. HGF, CNTF, or BDNF was injected at different dosages intravitreally after injury. Ganglion cell survival was quantified at 7, 14, or 28 days postinjury. Peripheral nerve (PN) grafting to the cut optic nerve of the growth factor-injected eye was performed either immediately after injury or delayed until 7 days post-injury. Expression of heat-shock protein 27 and changes in microglia numbers were quantified in different growth factor groups. The cellular distribution of c-Met in the retina was examined by anti-c-Met immunostaining. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) was equally potent as BDNF in promoting short-term survival (up to 14 days post-injury) and also supported survival at 28 days post-injury when ganglion cells treated by CNTF or BDNF failed to be sustained. When grafting was performed without delay, HGF stimulated twice the number of axons to regenerate compared with control but was less potent than CNTF. However, in PN grafting delayed for 7 days after optic nerve injury, HGF maintained a better propensity of ganglion cells to regenerate than CNTF. Unlike CNTF, HGF application did not increase HSP27 expression in ganglion cells. Microglia proliferation was prolonged in HGF-treated retinas compared with CNTF or BDNF. C-Met was localized to both ganglion cells and Muller cells, suggesting HGF could be neuroprotective via interacting with both neurons and glia. Compared with CNTF or BDNF, HGF is advantageous in sustaining long-term ganglion cell survival and their propensity to respond to

  11. ATF3 upregulation in glia during Wallerian degeneration: differential expression in peripheral nerves and CNS white matter

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    Coffin Robert S

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many changes in gene expression occur in distal stumps of injured nerves but the transcriptional control of these events is poorly understood. We have examined the expression of the transcription factors ATF3 and c-Jun by non-neuronal cells during Wallerian degeneration following injury to sciatic nerves, dorsal roots and optic nerves of rats and mice, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Following sciatic nerve injury – transection or transection and reanastomosis – ATF3 was strongly upregulated by endoneurial, but not perineurial cells, of the distal stumps of the nerves by 1 day post operation (dpo and remained strongly expressed in the endoneurium at 30 dpo when axonal regeneration was prevented. Most ATF3+ cells were immunoreactive for the Schwann cell marker, S100. When the nerve was transected and reanastomosed, allowing regeneration of axons, most ATF3 expression had been downregulated by 30 dpo. ATF3 expression was weaker in the proximal stumps of the injured nerves than in the distal stumps and present in fewer cells at all times after injury. ATF3 was upregulated by endoneurial cells in the distal stumps of injured neonatal rat sciatic nerves, but more weakly than in adult animals. ATF3 expression in transected sciatic nerves of mice was similar to that in rats. Following dorsal root injury in adult rats, ATF3 was upregulated in the part of the root between the lesion and the spinal cord (containing Schwann cells, beginning at 1 dpo, but not in the dorsal root entry zone or in the degenerating dorsal column of the spinal cord. Following optic nerve crush in adult rats, ATF3 was found in some cells at the injury site and small numbers of cells within the optic nerve displayed weak immunoreactivity. The pattern of expression of c-Jun in all types of nerve injury was similar to that of ATF3. Conclusion These findings raise the possibility that ATF3/c-Jun heterodimers may play a role in

  12. Does Laser Surgery Interfere with Optical Nerve Identification in Maxillofacial Hard and Soft Tissue?—An Experimental Ex Vivo Study

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    Bastian Bergauer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The protection of sensitive structures (e.g., nerves from iatrogenic damage is of major importance when performing laser surgical procedures. Especially in the head and neck area both function and esthetics can be affected to a great extent. Despite its many benefits, the surgical utilization of a laser is therefore still limited to superficial tissue ablation. A remote feedback system which guides the laser in a tissue-specific way would provide a remedy. In this context, it has been shown that nerval structures can be specifically recognized by their optical diffuse reflectance spectra both before and after laser ablation. However, for a translation of these findings to the actual laser ablation process, a nerve protection within the laser pulse is of utmost significance. Thus, it was the aim of the study to evaluate, if the process of Er:YAG laser surgery—which comes with spray water cooling, angulation of the probe (60° and optical process emissions—interferes with optical tissue differentiation. For the first time, no stable conditions but the ongoing process of laser tissue ablation was examined. Therefore, six different tissue types (nerve, skin, muscle, fat, cortical and cancellous bone were acquired from 15 pig heads. Measurements were performed during Er:YAG laser ablation. Diffuse reflectance spectra (4500, wavelength range: 350–650 nm where acquired. Principal component analysis (PCA and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA were calculated for classification purposes. The clinical highly relevant differentiation between nerve and bone was performed correctly with an AUC of 95.3% (cortial bone respectively 92.4% (cancellous bone. The identification of nerve tissue against the biological very similar fat tissue yielded good results with an AUC value of 83.4% (sensitivity: 72.3%, specificity: of 82.3%. This clearly demonstrates that nerve identification by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy works reliably in the ongoing process of

  13. Size of the Optic Nerve Head and Its Relationship with the Thickness of the Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

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    Nobuko Enomoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the relationships among the optic nerve head (ONH area, macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC thickness, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL thickness, and visual field defects in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. This retrospective study included 90 eyes of 90 patients with POAG. The ONH area, rim area, mGCC thickness, and cpRNFL thickness were measured using optical coherence tomography. Mean deviation (MD was measured using standard automated perimetry. The relationships among clinical factors including age, refraction, the ONH area, the rim area, the mGCC thickness, the cpRNFL thickness, and MD were evaluated using correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Results. The significant correlation of the ONH area with refraction (r=0.362, P<0.001, the mGCC thickness (r=0.225, P=0.033, and the cpRNFL thickness (r=0.253, P=0.016 was found. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ONH area, rim area, and MD were selected as significant contributing factors to explain the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness. No factor was selected to explain MD. Conclusions. The ONH area, in other words, the disc size itself may affect the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness in POAG patients.

  14. Pinched Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Pinched Nerve Information Page Pinched Nerve Information Page What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, pinched nerves are addressed primarily through studies associated with pain ...

  15. WE-F-304-03: Optic Nerve/Chiasm Hypofractionated SRS/SRT Dose Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milano, M. [University of Rochester Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    in explaining the results of hypofractionated RT Describe the dose/volume metrics that are considered safe in SBRT treatment of tumors near the optic structures. Discuss the efficacy of hypofractionation and dosing schedules used in treating vestibular schwannomas Identify some difficulties in modeling TCP and NTCP for cranial tumors treated with hypofractionation. One moderator, Dr. Grimm, designed and holds intellectual property rights to the DVH Evaluator software tool which is an FDA-cleared product in commercial use, and can analyze some of this data. No others have relevant conflicts of interest.

  16. WE-F-304-03: Optic Nerve/Chiasm Hypofractionated SRS/SRT Dose Tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milano, M.

    2015-01-01

    in explaining the results of hypofractionated RT Describe the dose/volume metrics that are considered safe in SBRT treatment of tumors near the optic structures. Discuss the efficacy of hypofractionation and dosing schedules used in treating vestibular schwannomas Identify some difficulties in modeling TCP and NTCP for cranial tumors treated with hypofractionation. One moderator, Dr. Grimm, designed and holds intellectual property rights to the DVH Evaluator software tool which is an FDA-cleared product in commercial use, and can analyze some of this data. No others have relevant conflicts of interest

  17. Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects in Red-free Photographs Versus En Face Structural Optical Coherence Tomography Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hoon; Park, Ji-Hye; Yoo, Chungkwon; Kim, Yong Yeon

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the locations of localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in red-free fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography (OCT) en face images. We performed a retrospective, comparative study on 46 eyes from 46 glaucoma patients with localized RNFL defects observed in red-free fundus photographs. En face structural images were obtained in the superficial and whole retinal layers using OCT and were overlaid on the corresponding red-free fundus photographs. The proximal/distal angular locations and angular width of each RNFL defect in red-free photos (red-free defects) and in en face structural images (en face defects) were compared. In the superficial retinal layer, there were no significant differences between red-free and en face defects on the proximal/distal angular location and angular width. In the whole retinal layer, the degree of the distal angular location of the en face defects was significantly larger than that of the red-free defects (71.85±18.26 vs. 70.87±17.90 degrees, P=0.003). The correlations of clinical variables with the differences in angular parameters between red-free and en face defects were not significant in the superficial retinal layer. The average RNFL thickness was negatively correlated with the difference in the distal angular location in the whole retinal layer (Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.401, P=0.006). Localized RNFL defects detected in OCT en face structural images of the superficial retinal layer showed high topographic correlation with defects detected in red-free photographs. OCT en face structural images in the superficial layer may be an alternative to red-free fundus photography for the identification of localized RNFL defects in glaucomatous eyes.

  18. Radiosensitivity of glial progenitor cells of the perinatal and adult rat optic nerve studied by an in vitro clonogenic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Verhagen, I.; Kleiboer, B.J.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1991-01-01

    The cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS), is poorly understood. Glial cells responsible for myelination in the CNS might be the target cells of this type of damage. Glial cells with stem cell properties derived from the perinatal and adult rat CNS can be cultured in vitro. These cells are able to differentiate into oligodendrocytes or type-2 astrocytes (O-2A) depending on the culture conditions. Growth factors produced by monolayers of type-1 astrocytes inhibit premature differentiation of O-2A progenitor cells and allow colony formation. A method which employs these monolayers of type-1 astrocytes to culture O-2A progenitor cells has been adapted to allow the analysis of colonies of surviving cells after X-irradiation. In vitro survival curves were obtained for glial progenitor cells derived from perinatal and adult optic nerves. The intrinsic radiosensitivity of perinatal and adult O-2A progenitor cells showed a large difference. Perinatal O-2A progenitor cells are quite radiosensitive, in contrast to adult O-2A progenitor cells. For both cell types an inverse relationship was found between the dose and the size of colonies derived from surviving cells. Surviving O-2A progenitor cells maintain their ability to differentiate into oligo-dendrocytes or type-2 astrocytes. This system to assess radiation-induced damage to glial progenitor cells in vitro systems to have a great potential in unraveling the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelinating syndromes of the CNS. (author). 28 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Measurement with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon K. Law

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL measurements with Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT and Age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Methods: Patients >60 years of age without glaucoma or record of intraocular pressure >21 mmHg and no systemic or intraocular diseases or treatment or surgical intervention that affected the RNFL underwent OCT measurement of the RNFL. The severity of AMD was staged with the Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging System. The relationship between RNFL measurements and AMD stages of one eye per patient was analyzed. Results: Eighty-six eyes (46 patients with AMD and no glaucoma or other exclusion criteria received OCT RNFL measurements. Nine eyes (10.5% were excluded because of distorted peripapillary anatomy from exudative AMD (7 eyes or failure of the RNFL segmentation algorithm (2 eyes. Mean age ± S.D. of the 43 patients analyzed was 81.2 ± 7.3 years. The mean stage ± S.D. of AMD of the 77 eyes was 3.77 ± 1.05. Higher stages of AMD were statistically significantly associated with lower average RNFL and inferior sector RNFL (p = 0.049, 0 0015, respectively. The association of inferior sector RNFL and AMD stage remained statistically significant after adjusting for age. Conclusions: Spectral domain OCT is generally useful in measuring the peripapillary RNFL in eyes with different stages of AMD. Higher stage of AMD is associated with thinner peripapillary RNFL, which may masquerade as early glaucomatous damage.

  20. Differential astroglial responses in the spinal cord of rats submitted to a sciatic nerve double crush treated with local injection of cultured Schwann cell suspension or lesioned spinal cord extract: implications on cell therapy for nerve repair Respostas astrocitárias na medula espinal do rato submetido ao esmagamento duplo do nervo ciático e tratado com injeção local de suspensão de células de Schwann cultivadas ou de extrato de medula espinal lesada: implicações na terapia celular para o reparo do nervo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Martins Dallo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Reactive astrocytes are implicated in several mechanisms after central or peripheral nervous system lesion, including neuroprotection, neuronal sprouting, neurotransmission and neuropathic pain. Schwann cells (SC, a peripheral glia, also react after nerve lesion favoring wound/repair, fiber outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. We investigated herein whether cell therapy for repair of lesioned sciatic nerve may change the pattern of astroglial activation in the spinal cord ventral or dorsal horn of the rat. METHODS: Injections of a cultured SC suspension or a lesioned spinal cord homogenized extract were made in a reservoir promoted by a contiguous double crush of the rat sciatic nerve. Local injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS served as control. One week later, rats were euthanized and spinal cord astrocytes were labeled by immunohistochemistry and quantified by means of quantitative image analysis. RESULTS: In the ipsilateral ventral horn, slight astroglial activations were seen after PBS or SC injections, however, a substantial activation was achieved after cord extract injection in the sciatic nerve reservoir. Moreover, SC suspension and cord extract injections were able to promote astroglial reaction in the spinal cord dorsal horn bilaterally. Conclusion: Spinal cord astrocytes react according to repair processes of axotomized nerve, which may influence the functional outcome. The event should be considered during the neurosurgery strategies.OBJETIVO: Astrócitos reativos participam de vários mecanismos após lesões do sistema nervoso central e periférico, os quais incluem neuroproteção, brotamento neuronal, neurotransmissão e dor neuropática. As células de Schwann (CS, um tipo de glia periférica, também reagem com a lesão do nervo, podendo interferir com o reparo e cicatrização, crescimento de fibras e regeneração neuronais. Investigamos aqui a possibilidade da terapia celular para o reparo do nervo ci

  1. Movement of retinal vessels toward the optic nerve head after increasing intraocular pressure in monkey eyes with experimental glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Atsumi; Enomoto, Nobuko; Ishida, Kyoko; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Horai, Naoto; Onoe, Hirotaka; Hara, Hideaki; Tomita, Goji

    2017-09-01

    A shift or displacement of the retinal blood vessels (RBVs) with neuroretinal rim thinning indicates the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In chronic open angle glaucoma, individuals with RBV positional shifts exhibit more rapid visual field loss than those without RBV shifts. The retinal vessels reportedly move onto the optic nerve head (ONH) in response to glaucoma damage, suggesting that RBVs are pulled toward the ONH in response to increased cupping. Whether this phenomenon only applies to RVBs located in the vicinity or inside the ONH or, more generally, to RBVs also located far from the ONH, however, is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement of RBVs located relatively far from the ONH edge after increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) in an experimental monkey model of glaucoma. Fundus photographs were obtained in 17 monkeys. High IOP was induced in the monkeys by laser photocoagulation burns applied uniformly with 360° irradiation around the trabecular meshwork of the left eye. The right eye was left intact and used as a non-treated control. Considering the circadian rhythm of IOP, it was measured in both eyes of each animal at around the same time-points. Then, fundus photographs were obtained. Using Image J image analysis software, an examiner (N.E.) measured the fundus photographs at two time-points, i.e. before laser treatment (time 1) and the last fundus photography after IOP elevation (time 2). The following parameters were measured (in pixels): 1) vertical diameter of the ONH (DD), 2) distance from the ONH edge to the first bifurcation point of the superior branch of the central retinal vein (UV), 3) distance from the ONH edge to the first bifurcation point of the inferior branch of the central retinal vein (LV), 4) ONH area, and 5) surface area of the cup of the ONH. We calculated the ratios of UV to DD (UV/DD), LV to DD (LV/DD), and the cup area to disc area ratio (C/D). The mean UV/DD at time 1 (0.656 ± 0.233) was

  2. Studies on various characteristics of concrete structures using crushed sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimatsu, Makoto; Sugita, Hideaki; Yonemura, Masataka.

    1985-01-01

    With the recent advances of construction industry, the demands for concrete, hence for aggregate, are rising. The sand as such is in extreme shortage due to the exhaustion of river sand. Under the situation, the recent trends are for the use of crushed sand, i.e. the artificial sand obtained by crushing rocks, which have advantages of stabilized quality and adequate supplies. In building of nuclear power plants requiring large amounts of concrete, the usage of crushed sand is now unavoidable. The following are described : the situation of aggregate in Kyushu. production method of crushed sand and the quality standards, rocks used for crushed stone and sand and the properties, quality survey on crushed sand and the basic tests, characteristic tests of crushed-stone and -sand mixed concrete, the application of crushed sand in structures of the Sendai Nuclear Power Station. (Mori, K.)

  3. Evaluation of Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Primary Craniopharyngioma by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Qu, Yuanzhen; Lu, Wen; Liu, Fengjun

    2016-07-03

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the differences in macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) in child and adult patients with primary craniopharyngioma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and to evaluate their significance in the diagnosis of primary craniopharyngioma. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety-six participants were divided into 3 groups: 32 in the child craniopharyngioma group (CCG) and 32 in the adult craniopharyngioma group (ACG) who were treated in Beijing Tiantan Hospital between November 2013 and October 2014, and 32 in the normal group (NG). All subjects were scanned by FD-OCT to map GCC and pRNFL thicknesses. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between GCC and pRNFL thickness, and pRNFL thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters, including horizontal cup-disc ratio (HCDR), vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR), optic disc area (ODA), and cup area (CA), respectively. RESULTS The correlation between GCC and pRNFL thickness in the CCG was slightly stronger compared with the ACG. A significant difference in GCC thickness was observed among the CCG, ACG, and NG. Although the pRNFL thickness in both the CCG and ACG was significantly higher than that in NG, no significant difference in pRNFL thickness was detected between the 2 craniopharyngioma groups. The average, superior, and inferior pRNFL thicknesses were negatively correlated with VCDR in the CCG (in double eyes) and ACG (only in left eyes). CONCLUSIONS GCC was more sensitive than pRNFL in detecting optic nerve damage in the eyes of craniopharyngioma patients. A thinner pRNFL was especially correlated with VCDR in child craniopharyngioma patients.

  4. Comparison of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer loss and visual outcome in fellow eyes following sequential bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Gad; Kesler, Anat; Naftaliev, Elvira; Skarf, Barry

    2015-05-01

    To report on the correlation of structural damage to the axons of the optic nerve and visual outcome following bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. A retrospective review of the medical records of 25 patients with bilateral sequential non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy was performed. Outcome measures were peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with the Stratus optical coherence tomography scanner, visual acuity and visual field loss. Median peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, mean deviation (MD) of visual field, and visual acuity of initially involved NAION eyes (54.00 µm, -17.77 decibels (dB), 0.4, respectively) were comparable to the same parameters measured following development of second NAION event in the other eye (53.70 µm, p = 0.740; -16.83 dB, p = 0.692; 0.4, p = 0.942, respectively). In patients with bilateral NAION, there was a significant correlation of peripapillary RNFL thickness (r = 0.583, p = 0.002) and MD of the visual field (r = 0.457, p = 0.042) for the pairs of affected eyes, whereas a poor correlation was found in visual acuity of these eyes (r = 0.279, p = 0.176). Peripapillary RNFL thickness following NAION was positively correlated with MD of visual field (r = 0.312, p = 0.043) and negatively correlated with logMAR visual acuity (r = -0.365, p = 0.009). In patients who experience bilateral NAION, the magnitude of RNFL loss is similar in each eye. There is a greater similarity in visual field loss than in visual acuity between the two affected eyes with NAION of the same individual.

  5. Ocular Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and NGF Eye Drop Application as Paradigms to Investigate NGF Neuroprotective and Reparative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirassa