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Sample records for optic disc cupping

  1. Optic Disc and Optic Cup Segmentation Methodologies for Glaucoma Image Detection: A Survey

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    Almazroa, Ahmed; Burman, Ritambhar; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Examining the head of optic nerve (cup-to-disc ratio) is very important for diagnosing glaucoma and for patient monitoring after diagnosis. Images of optic disc and optic cup are acquired by fundus camera as well as Optical Coherence Tomography. The optic disc and optic cup segmentation techniques are used to isolate the relevant parts of the retinal image and to calculate the cup-to-disc ratio. The main objective of this paper is to review segmentation methodologies and techniques for the disc and cup boundaries which are utilized to calculate the disc and cup geometrical parameters automatically and accurately to help the professionals in the glaucoma to have a wide view and more details about the optic nerve head structure using retinal fundus images. We provide a brief description of each technique, highlighting its classification and performance metrics. The current and future research directions are summarized and discussed. PMID:26688751

  2. Optic Disc and Optic Cup Segmentation Methodologies for Glaucoma Image Detection: A Survey

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    Ahmed Almazroa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Examining the head of optic nerve (cup-to-disc ratio is very important for diagnosing glaucoma and for patient monitoring after diagnosis. Images of optic disc and optic cup are acquired by fundus camera as well as Optical Coherence Tomography. The optic disc and optic cup segmentation techniques are used to isolate the relevant parts of the retinal image and to calculate the cup-to-disc ratio. The main objective of this paper is to review segmentation methodologies and techniques for the disc and cup boundaries which are utilized to calculate the disc and cup geometrical parameters automatically and accurately to help the professionals in the glaucoma to have a wide view and more details about the optic nerve head structure using retinal fundus images. We provide a brief description of each technique, highlighting its classification and performance metrics. The current and future research directions are summarized and discussed.

  3. Measurement of Optic Disc Cup Surface Depth Using Cirrus HD-OCT.

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    Kim, Young Kook; Ha, Ahnul; Lee, Won June; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-12-01

    To introduce the measurement method of optic disc cup surface depth using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and then evaluate the rates of cup surface depression at 3 different stages of glaucoma. We retrospectively identified 52 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma, 56 with mild-or-moderate glaucoma and 50 with severe glaucoma and followed them for at least 48 months. Eyes were imaged using SD-OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT) at 12-month intervals. The mean cup surface depth was calculated using the following formula: Cup volume/(disc area×average cup-to-disc ratio)-200 μm. The rates of mean cup surface depression (μm/y) were significantly greater in mild-or-moderate glaucoma (-7.96±1.03) than in preperimetric (-3.11±0.61) and severe glaucoma (-0.70±0.12; all Pcup surface depression (%/y) were significantly greater than those of average of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning (%/y) in preperimetric glaucoma (-1.64±0.12 vs. -1.11±0.07; Pcup surface depth changed slower than did average RNFL thickness (-0.64±0.06 vs. -0.75±0.08%/y; Pcup surface depth changed faster than did the RNFL thickness. These results signify the possibility that SD-OCT-based estimation of cup surface depth might be useful for monitoring of glaucoma development and progression.

  4. Joint optic disc and cup boundary extraction from monocular fundus images.

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    Chakravarty, Arunava; Sivaswamy, Jayanthi

    2017-08-01

    Accurate segmentation of optic disc and cup from monocular color fundus images plays a significant role in the screening and diagnosis of glaucoma. Though optic cup is characterized by the drop in depth from the disc boundary, most existing methods segment the two structures separately and rely only on color and vessel kink based cues due to the lack of explicit depth information in color fundus images. We propose a novel boundary-based Conditional Random Field formulation that extracts both the optic disc and cup boundaries in a single optimization step. In addition to the color gradients, the proposed method explicitly models the depth which is estimated from the fundus image itself using a coupled, sparse dictionary trained on a set of image-depth map (derived from Optical Coherence Tomography) pairs. The estimated depth achieved a correlation coefficient of 0.80 with respect to the ground truth. The proposed segmentation method outperformed several state-of-the-art methods on five public datasets. The average dice coefficient was in the range of 0.87-0.97 for disc segmentation across three datasets and 0.83 for cup segmentation on the DRISHTI-GS1 test set. The method achieved a good glaucoma classification performance with an average AUC of 0.85 for five fold cross-validation on RIM-ONE v2. We propose a method to jointly segment the optic disc and cup boundaries by modeling the drop in depth between the two structures. Since our method requires a single fundus image per eye during testing it can be employed in the large-scale screening of glaucoma where expensive 3D imaging is unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images

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    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kwon, Young H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2013-03-01

    Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One important structural parameter for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma is the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), which tends to become larger as glaucoma progresses. While approaches exist for segmenting the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs, and more recently, within spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes, no approaches have been reported for the simultaneous segmentation of these structures within both modalities combined. In this work, a multimodal pixel-classification approach for the segmentation of the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs and SD-OCT volumes is presented. In particular, after segmentation of other important structures (such as the retinal layers and retinal blood vessels) and fundus-to-SD-OCT image registration, features are extracted from both modalities and a k-nearest-neighbor classification approach is used to classify each pixel as cup, rim, or background. The approach is evaluated on 70 multimodal image pairs from 35 subjects in a leave-10%-out fashion (by subject). A significant improvement in classification accuracy is obtained using the multimodal approach over that obtained from the corresponding unimodal approach (97.8% versus 95.2%; p < 0:05; paired t-test).

  6. Dense Fully Convolutional Segmentation of the Optic Disc and Cup in Colour Fundus for Glaucoma Diagnosis

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    Baidaa Al-Bander

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which can cause vision loss by damaging the optic nerve. Early glaucoma detection is key to preventing vision loss yet there is a lack of noticeable early symptoms. Colour fundus photography allows the optic disc (OD to be examined to diagnose glaucoma. Typically, this is done by measuring the vertical cup-to-disc ratio (CDR; however, glaucoma is characterised by thinning of the rim asymmetrically in the inferior-superior-temporal-nasal regions in increasing order. Automatic delineation of the OD features has potential to improve glaucoma management by allowing for this asymmetry to be considered in the measurements. Here, we propose a new deep-learning-based method to segment the OD and optic cup (OC. The core of the proposed method is DenseNet with a fully-convolutional network, whose symmetric U-shaped architecture allows pixel-wise classification. The predicted OD and OC boundaries are then used to estimate the CDR on two axes for glaucoma diagnosis. We assess the proposed method’s performance using a large retinal colour fundus dataset, outperforming state-of-the-art segmentation methods. Furthermore, we generalise our method to segment four fundus datasets from different devices without further training, outperforming the state-of-the-art on two and achieving comparable results on the remaining two.

  7. A Case Report of Unilateral Severe Visual Loss Along with Bilateral Optic Disc Cupping Secondary to Metastatic Brain Tumor

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    M Mahdavi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of unilateral severe visual loss and bilateral optic disc cupping secondary to brain metastasis of bronchogenic carcinoma Patient and findings: A 48 year-old woman presented with severe visual loss of left eye without redness or pain or any systemic findings .Clinical findings included decreased visual acuity of left eye to 4 m CF and (+3 positive Marcus-Gunn reflex .There was asymmetric optic disc cupping associated with visual field defect in left eye The neurologic investigations showed a secondary metastatic tumor in the brain from bronchogenic carcinoma. Conclusion: Before making a diagnosis of normal -tension glaucoma in asymmetric optic disc cupping and normal intraocular pressure, ophthalmologists should rule out neurologic defects and brain tumors.

  8. Optic Disc Change during Childhood Myopic Shift: Comparison between Eyes with an Enlarged Cup-To-Disc Ratio and Childhood Glaucoma Compared to Normal Myopic Eyes.

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    Hae-Young Lopilly Park

    Full Text Available Progressive disc tilting and the development or enlargement of peripapillary atrophy (PPA are observed during a myopic shift in children. This could be related to the changes around the optic nerve head during eyeball elongation. If the biomechanical properties at or around the optic nerve head are changed after exposure to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in glaucoma eyes, different response of the disc tilting and PPA changes could take place during eyeball elongation by myopic shift. On the basis of this background, the aim of this study was to compare the morphological changes in the optic disc induced by a myopic shift during childhood between normal control eyes, eyes from disc suspects with an enlarged cup-to-disc ratio (CDR, and eyes with childhood glaucoma.Total of 82 eyes from 82 subjects younger than 14 years of age were included in the study. Serial disc photographs were classified into one of two groups: eyes with an optic nerve head (ONH or peripapillary atrophy (PPA change or without an ONH/PPA change. Using ImageJ software, the outlines of the optic disc and PPA were plotted, and the vertical disc diameter (VDD, horizontal disc diameter (HDD, and maximum PPA width (PPW were measured. The changes in the ratios of these parameters and the relationships between the degree of myopic shift or the ONH/PPA change were analyzed.Twenty-five eyes with normal optic disc appearance, 36 eyes with enlarged cup-to-disc ratio, and 21 eyes of glaucoma patients were analyzed. The initial intraocular pressure (IOP at diagnosis was significantly different among the groups (P<0.001. The degree of myopic shift during follow-up period was not significantly different among the groups (P=0.612. However, the changes in the HDD/VDD and PPW/VDD ratios were significantly greater in the disc suspect group and significantly smaller in the glaucoma group. Among the 42 eyes with an ONH/PPA change, 16 (38.1% were from the normal control group, 24 (57.1% were

  9. A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio estimates by fundus biomicroscopy and stereoscopic optic disc photography in the Tema Eye Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, J C; Grover, D S; Budenz, D L; Herndon, L W; Nolan, W; Whiteside-de Vos, J; Hay-Smith, G; Bandi, J R; Bhansali, K A; Forbes, L A; Feuer, W J; Barton, K

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo determine if there are systematic differences in cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) grading using fundus biomicroscopy compared to stereoscopic disc photograph reading.MethodsThe vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and horizontal cup-to-disc ratio (HCDR) of 2200 eyes (testing set) were graded by glaucoma subspecialists through fundus biomicroscopy and by a reading center using stereoscopic disc photos. For validation, the glaucoma experts also estimated VCDR and HCDR using stereoscopic disc photos in a subset of 505 eyes that they had assessed biomicroscopically. Agreement between grading methods was assessed with Bland-Altman plots.ResultsIn both sets, photo reading tended to yield small CDRs marginally larger, but read large CDRs marginally smaller than fundus biomicroscopy. The mean differences in VCDR and HCDR were 0.006±0.18 and 0.05±0.18 (testing set), and -0.053±0.23 and -0.028±0.21 (validation set), respectively. The limits of agreement were ~0.4, which is twice as large as the cutoff of clinically significant CDR difference between methods. CDR estimates differed by 0.2 or more in 33.8-48.7% between methods.ConclusionsThe differences in CDR estimates between fundus biomicroscopy and stereoscopic optic disc photo reading showed a wide variation, and reached clinically significance threshold in a large proportion of patients, suggesting a poor agreement. Thus, glaucoma should be monitored by comparing baseline and subsequent CDR estimates using the same method rather than comparing photographs to fundus biomicroscopy.

  10. Prevalence of disc cupping in non-glaucomatous eyes

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    José Pablo Chiappe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed optic disc size and cupping, using a commercially available ophthalmoscope, in order to show norms of these values for clinical practice. Subjects were office-workers referred from their respective workplaces for a routine medical examination, which included eye examination. The optic disc size was classified as small, medium or large, for having a diameter 1.5 times (respectively the diameter of the ophthalmoscope's selected light spot on the posterior pole. The cupping was classified as the ratio of the vertical cupping diameter and the vertical disc diameter on a relative decimal scale from 0.0 to 1.0.This study included 184 subjects with a mean age of 40.5 ± 9.5 years; 149 (81% were males. Their mean ocular pressure was 12.4 ± 1.5 mmHg (range 10-17 mmHg. There was a high correlation between optic disc sizes and cupping in the right and left eyes (Pearson Correlation r = 0.866, p < 0.001; therefore, for simplicity only the data for right eyes are presented. According to our definition, the optic discs in these eyes comprised 27 (14.7% small, 141 (76.6% medium and 16 (8.7% large. The small optic discs were rarely cupped, and the large optic discs were always cupped. Optic disc cupping greater than 0.7 was rarely found and should be suspect of glaucoma. Clinical doctors should be aware of this and refer those subjects with abnormal cupping to the specialist.

  11. Correlation between cup-to-disc ratio and cup/retrobulbar optic nerve diameter proportion assessed by high-resolution ultrasound in glaucomatous eyes

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    Wilian Silva Queiroz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between the measurements of the cup/retrobulbar optic nerve diameter (C/OND proportion obtained by high-resolution 20-MHz B-mode ultrasound (US and those of the cup/disc ratio (C/D obtained by fundus biomicroscopy (BIO and optical coherence tomography (OCT. METHODS: Thirty eyes of 15 glaucomatous patients with any C/D proportion were studied. All patients underwent examination of the vertical C/D by BIO with a 78D lens and time-domain OCT analysis, as well as the vertical C/OND proportion using 20-MHz US measurements. All data were analyzed by correlation and agreement tests. RESULTS: The Spearman test showed a strong correlation between C/D results obtained by BIO and the measurements of C/OND (US (r=0.788, p<0.0001, and with C/D obtained by OCT (r=0.8529, p<0.0001. However, comparison of C/D results obtained with OCT to those obtained by with C/OND (US showed only a moderate correlation (r=0.6727, p<0.0001. Bland-Altman analysis did not show good agreement between C/D (BIO and C/OND (US. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that B-mode ultrasound examination with a 20 MHz probe can be a good additional method for the evaluation of the C/D ratio in glaucomatous patients, and may be considered as an alternative gross tool in glaucomatous patients with optic media opacities.

  12. Differences in Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Bruch Membrane Opening Compared to Stereoscopic Photography for Estimating Cup-to-Disc Ratio.

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    Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Huang, Linda Y; Budenz, Donald L; Shi, Wei; Huang, Gintien; Lee, Richard K

    2017-12-01

    To compare the vertical and horizontal cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR, HCDR) by an updated optical coherence tomography (OCT) Bruch membrane opening (BMO) algorithm and stereoscopic optic disc photograph readings by glaucoma specialists. Reliability analysis. A total of 195 eyes (116 glaucoma and 79 glaucoma suspect) of 99 patients with stereoscopic photographs and OCT scans of the optic discs taken during the same visit were compared. Optic disc photographs were read by 2 masked glaucoma specialists for VCDR and HCDR estimation. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between photograph reading and OCT in estimating CDR. OCT images computed significantly larger VCDR and HCDR than photograph reading before and after stratifying eyes based on disc size (P < .001). The difference in CDR estimates between the 2 methods was equal to or greater than 0.2 in 29% and 35% of the eyes for VCDR and HCDR, respectively, with a mean difference of 0.3 in each case. The ICCs between the readers and OCT ranged between 0.50 and 0.63. The size of disagreement in VCDR correlated weakly with cup area in eyes with medium (r 2  = 0.10, P = .008) and large (r 2  = 0.09, P = .007) discs. OCT and photograph reading by clinicians agree poorly in CDR assessment. The difference in VCDR between the 2 methods was depended on cup area in medium and large discs. These differences should be considered when making conclusions regarding CDRs in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Disc defect classification for optical disc drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helvoirt, van J.; Leenknegt, G.A.L.; Steinbuch, M.; Goossens, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Optical disc drives are subject to various disturbances and faults. A special type of fault is the so-called disc defect. In this paper we present an approach for disc defect classification. It is based on hierarchical clustering of measured signals that are affected by disc defects. The

  14. Optic disc oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Kromann; Hamann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Optic disc oedema describes the nonspecific, localized swelling of the optic nerve head regardless of aetiology. Therefore, differentiating among the various aetiologies depends on a thorough history and knowledge of the clinical characteristics of the underlying conditions. Papilloedema strictly...... refers to optic disc oedema as a consequence of elevated intracranial pressure. It is usually a bilateral condition and visual function is preserved until late. Optic disc oedema caused by an anterior optic neuropathy is usually unilateral and accompanied by the loss of visual function....

  15. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

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    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Tabbarah, Zuhair

    2015-01-01

    We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation. PMID:26483675

  16. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

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    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation.

  17. Comparison of optic disc topography in non-glaucomatous eyes of children with juvenile diabetes mellitus and normal children.

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    Elgin, Ufuk; Cankaya, Bülent; Simsek, Tulay; Batman, Aygen

    2010-01-01

    To compare the optic disc topography parameters of children with juvenile diabetes mellitus and normal children using the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT III) (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The topographic optic disc parameters (cup volume, cup area, rim volume, rim area, disc area, mean cup-to-disc ratio, and mean cup depth) of 28 non-glaucomatous eyes of 28 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 28 eyes of 28 age-matched healthy children were compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. No statistically significant differences were found between cup volume (P = .782), cup area (P = .878), rim volume (P = .853), disc area (P = .452), mean cup-to-disc ratio (P = .852), and mean cup depth (P = .711) of eyes of cases with diabetes mellitus and normal subjects. This result suggests that non-glaucomatous eyes of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects have similar topographic optic disc characteristics. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. A geometric morphometric assessment of the optic cup in glaucoma.

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    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Cardini, Andrea; Sigal, Ian A; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Chua, Brian E; Hewitt, Alex W; Mackey, David A

    2010-09-01

    The morphologic appearance of the optic disc is of interest in glaucoma. In contrast to descriptive classification systems that are currently used, a quantitative approach to the analysis of optic disc morphology is required. Our goal was to determine the optimal method for quantifying optic cup shape by comparing traditional (ovality, form-factor and neuroretinal rim (NRR) width ratio) and geometric morphometric approaches. Left optic disc stereophotographs of 160 (80 normal and 80 glaucomatous (stratified by severity)) subjects were examined. The optic cup margins were stereoscopically delineated with a custom tracing system and saved as a series of discrete points. The geometric morphometric methods of elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA) and sliding semi-landmark analysis (SSLA) were used to eliminate variation unrelated to shape (e.g. size) and yield a series of shape variables. Differences in optic cup shape between normal and glaucoma groups were investigated. Discriminant functions were computed and the sensitivity and specificity of each technique determined. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for all methods and evaluated in their potential to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the shape variables. All geometric morphometric methods revealed differences between normal and glaucomatous eyes in optic cup shape, in addition to the traditional parameters of ovality, form-factor and NRR width ratio (pgeometric morphometric approach for discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes in optic cup shape is superior to that provided by traditional single parameter shape measures. Such analytical techniques could be incorporated into future automated optic disc screening modalities. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Agreement in Measurement of Optic Cup-to-Disc Ratio with Stereo Biomicroscope Funduscopy and Digital Image Analysis: Results from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

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    Kyari, Fatima; Gilbert, Clare

    2017-02-01

    To determine agreement in estimations of vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) between clinical stereo-biomicroscopic funduscopy and digital fundus image analysis. Systematic sampling of 1-in-7 from a sample of 13,591 participants aged ≥40 years gave a subsample who were examined in detail. VCDR was estimated clinically by 60 diopter aspheric lens biomicroscopic funduscopy (c-VCDR) and by digital fundus images (i-VCDR) graded at the Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre. Spearman's correlation coefficient, paired t-test and the Bland-Altman method to assess limits of agreement (LOA) between the two methods were applied. Of 1759 participants in the subsample, 848 participants (48%) with normal frequency doubling technology (FDT) visual fields and data for i-VCDR and c-VCDR in both eyes (n = 1696 eyes) were included in the analysis. By absolute difference of VCDR values for each eye between the two methods, 1585 eyes (94%) differed by ≤0.2. Mean i-VCDR was 0.381 (standard deviation, SD 0.156), and mean c-VCDR 0.321 (SD 0.145). i-VCDRs were significantly larger by a mean difference of 0.061 (SD 0.121; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.055-0.066; p method were lower limit -0.182 (95% CI -0.192 to -0.172) and upper limit 0.303 (95% CI 0.293-0.313). The 95% LOA intervals narrowed with higher VCDR. Digital image analysis and clinical assessment are two distinct methods to measure VCDR; with larger i-VCDRs in this survey. Applying i-VCDR cut-off values to c-VCDR measurements in the Nigeria Blindness Survey might have underestimated glaucoma prevalence. It is recommended that all participants in glaucoma surveys have VCDR by digital image measurement.

  20. Automated detection of kinks from blood vessels for optic cup segmentation in retinal images

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    Wong, D. W. K.; Liu, J.; Lim, J. H.; Li, H.; Wong, T. Y.

    2009-02-01

    The accurate localization of the optic cup in retinal images is important to assess the cup to disc ratio (CDR) for glaucoma screening and management. Glaucoma is physiologically assessed by the increased excavation of the optic cup within the optic nerve head, also known as the optic disc. The CDR is thus an important indicator of risk and severity of glaucoma. In this paper, we propose a method of determining the cup boundary using non-stereographic retinal images by the automatic detection of a morphological feature within the optic disc known as kinks. Kinks are defined as the bendings of small vessels as they traverse from the disc to the cup, providing physiological validation for the cup boundary. To detect kinks, localized patches are first generated from a preliminary cup boundary obtained via level set. Features obtained using edge detection and wavelet transform are combined using a statistical approach rule to identify likely vessel edges. The kinks are then obtained automatically by analyzing the detected vessel edges for angular changes, and these kinks are subsequently used to obtain the cup boundary. A set of retinal images from the Singapore Eye Research Institute was obtained to assess the performance of the method, with each image being clinically graded for the CDR. From experiments, when kinks were used, the error on the CDR was reduced to less than 0.1 CDR units relative to the clinical CDR, which is within the intra-observer variability of 0.2 CDR units.

  1. Utility of Digital Stereo Images for Optic Disc Evaluation

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    Ying, Gui-shuang; Pearson, Denise J.; Bansal, Mayank; Puri, Manika; Miller, Eydie; Alexander, Judith; Piltz-Seymour, Jody; Nyberg, William; Maguire, Maureen G.; Eledath, Jayan; Sawhney, Harpreet

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the suitability of digital stereo images for optic disc evaluations in glaucoma. Methods. Stereo color optic disc images in both digital and 35-mm slide film formats were acquired contemporaneously from 29 subjects with various cup-to-disc ratios (range, 0.26–0.76; median, 0.475). Using a grading scale designed to assess image quality, the ease of visualizing optic disc features important for glaucoma diagnosis, and the comparative diameters of the optic disc cup, experienced observers separately compared the primary digital stereo images to each subject's 35-mm slides, to scanned images of the same 35-mm slides, and to grayscale conversions of the digital images. Statistical analysis accounted for multiple gradings and comparisons and also assessed image formats under monoscopic viewing. Results. Overall, the quality of primary digital color images was judged superior to that of 35-mm slides (P digital color images were mostly equivalent to the scanned digitized images of the same slides. Color seemingly added little to grayscale optic disc images, except that peripapillary atrophy was best seen in color (P digital over film images was maintained under monoscopic viewing conditions. Conclusions. Digital stereo optic disc images are useful for evaluating the optic disc in glaucoma and allow the application of advanced image processing applications. Grayscale images, by providing luminance distinct from color, may be informative for assessing certain features. PMID:20505199

  2. Are galaxy discs optically thick?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, Michael; Davies, Jonathan; Phillipps, Steven

    1989-01-01

    We re-examine the classical optical evidence for the low optical depths traditionally assigned to spiral discs and argue that it is highly model-dependent and unconvincing. In particular, layered models with a physically thin but optically thick dust layer behave like optically thin discs. The opposite hypotheses, that such discs are optically thick is then examined in the light of modern evidence. We find it to be consistent with the near-infrared and IRAS observations, with the surface brightnesses, with the HI and CO column densities and with the Hα measurements. (author)

  3. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head characteristics in eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc.

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    Kang, Sunah; Jin, Sunyoung; Roh, Kyu Hwa; Hwang, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) characteristics, as determined using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), in eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc. The peripapillary RNFL and the ONH were assessed in 12 eyes belonging to 6 subjects with situs inversus of the optic disc (situs inversus group) and 24 eyes in 12 age-matched, sex-matched, and refractive error-matched healthy subjects (control group) by using OCT. The average, quadrant, and clock-hour RNFL thicknesses (clock-hour 9 on the scan represented the temporal side of the optic disc in both eyes), the superior/inferior RNFL peak locations, and ONH characteristics such as disc area, rim area, cup-to-disc ratio, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and cup volume were obtained. The differences in RNFL and ONH characteristics between the 2 groups were analyzed. The situs inversus group had a thicker RNFL in the clock-hour sectors 3 and 4, a thinner RNFL in the clock-hour sectors 7, 8, and 11, and more nasally located superior and inferior RNFL peak locations than the control group (P≤0.001). The situs inversus group had a smaller cup-to-disc area ratio, smaller vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and a lesser cup volume than the control group (Poptic disc showed different peripapillary RNFL and ONH characteristics from those without this abnormality. These findings should be considered when assessing eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc.

  4. Retina image–based optic disc segmentation

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    Ching-Lin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The change of optic disc can be used to diagnose many eye diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Moreover, retinal blood vessel pattern is unique for human beings even for identical twins. It is a highly stable pattern in biometric identification. Since optic disc is the beginning of the optic nerve and main blood vessels in retina, it can be used as a reference point of identification. Therefore, optic disc segmentation is an important technique for developing a human identity recognition system and eye disease diagnostic system. This article hence presents an optic disc segmentation method to extract the optic disc from a retina image. The experimental results show that the optic disc segmentation method can give impressive results in segmenting the optic disc from a retina image.

  5. The effect of parental factors in children with large cup-to-disc ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Young Lopilly Park

    Full Text Available To investigate large cup-to-disc ratios (CDR in children and to determine the relationship between parental CDR and clinical characteristics associated with glaucoma.Two hundred thirty six children aged 6 to 12 years with CDR ≥ 0.6 were enrolled in this study. Subjects were classified into two groups based on parental CDR: disc suspect children with disc suspect (CDR ≥0.6 parents and disc suspect children without disc suspect parents. Ocular variables were compared between the two groups.Of the 236 disc suspect children, 100 (42.4% had at least one disc suspect parent. Intraocular pressure (IOP was higher in disc suspect children with disc suspect parents (16.52±2.66 mmHg than in disc suspect children without disc suspect parents (14.38±2.30 mmHg, p = 0.023. In the group with disc suspect parents, vertical CDR significantly correlated with IOP (R = -0.325, p = 0.001, average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness (R = -0.319, p = 0.001, rim area (R = -0.740, p = 0.001, and cup volume (R = 0.499, p = 0.001. However, spherical equivalent (R = 0.333, p = 0.001, AL (R = -0.223, p = 0.009, and disc area (R = 0.325, p = 0.001 significantly correlated with vertical CDR in disc suspect children without disc suspect parents, in contrast to those with disc suspect parents. Larger vertical CDR was associated with the presence of disc suspect parents (p = 0.001, larger disc area (p = 0.001, thinner rim area (p = 0.001, larger average CDR (p = 0.001, and larger cup volume (p = 0.021.Family history of large CDR was a significant factor associated with large vertical CDR in children. In children with disc suspect parents, there were significant correlations between IOP and average RNFL thickness and vertical CDR.

  6. The effect of parental factors in children with large cup-to-disc ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Ha, Min Ji; Shin, Sun Young

    2017-01-01

    To investigate large cup-to-disc ratios (CDR) in children and to determine the relationship between parental CDR and clinical characteristics associated with glaucoma. Two hundred thirty six children aged 6 to 12 years with CDR ≥ 0.6 were enrolled in this study. Subjects were classified into two groups based on parental CDR: disc suspect children with disc suspect (CDR ≥0.6) parents and disc suspect children without disc suspect parents. Ocular variables were compared between the two groups. Of the 236 disc suspect children, 100 (42.4%) had at least one disc suspect parent. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was higher in disc suspect children with disc suspect parents (16.52±2.66 mmHg) than in disc suspect children without disc suspect parents (14.38±2.30 mmHg, p = 0.023). In the group with disc suspect parents, vertical CDR significantly correlated with IOP (R = -0.325, p = 0.001), average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (R = -0.319, p = 0.001), rim area (R = -0.740, p = 0.001), and cup volume (R = 0.499, p = 0.001). However, spherical equivalent (R = 0.333, p = 0.001), AL (R = -0.223, p = 0.009), and disc area (R = 0.325, p = 0.001) significantly correlated with vertical CDR in disc suspect children without disc suspect parents, in contrast to those with disc suspect parents. Larger vertical CDR was associated with the presence of disc suspect parents (p = 0.001), larger disc area (p = 0.001), thinner rim area (p = 0.001), larger average CDR (p = 0.001), and larger cup volume (p = 0.021). Family history of large CDR was a significant factor associated with large vertical CDR in children. In children with disc suspect parents, there were significant correlations between IOP and average RNFL thickness and vertical CDR.

  7. Optic Disc and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Evaluation of the Fellow Eyes in Non-Arteritic Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

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    Medine Yılmaz Dağ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the fellow eyes in unilateral non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and to compare their optic disc parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness with age-and refraction-matched normal controll subjects, using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 2 (HRT II. Materials and Methods: The fellow eyes of 40 patients with typical unilateral NAION (study group and one randomly chosen eye of 42 age-, sex-, and refraction-matched normal control subjects were enrolled in the study. Optic disc morphologic features (average disc area, cup area, rim area, disc volume, rim volume, cup/disc area ratio, cup depth and peripapillary RNFL thickness were evaluated using HRT II, a confoal scanning ophtalmoscopy. Results: In the study group, there were 26 (65% men and 14 (35% women, whereas there were 27 (64% men and 15 (36% women in the control group (Chi square test, p=0.89. Mean age of the patients in the study and control groups was 59.4±10.3 and 57.7±9.1 years, respectively (T test, p=0.72. There was not any statistically significant difference regarding mean spheric equivalent between the two groups (Mann-Whitney U-test, p=0.203. The NAION unaffected fellow eyes had significantly smaller disc areas, cup areas, cup volumes, cup-disc area ratios (vertical and lineer, and cup depths than the control eyes (Mann-Whitney U-test; p<0.05, whereas there was no significant difference in the RNFL thickness between the two. Conclusion: A comparison of the fellow eyes in patients with unilateral NAION and the control eyes showed a significant difference in optic disc parameters and the morphology of RNFL. These differences could be important in the pathogenesis of NAION and needs to have further investigated. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 111-114

  8. Assessment of stereoscopic optic disc images using an autostereoscopic screen – experimental study

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    Vaideanu Daniella

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereoscopic assessment of the optic disc morphology is an important part of the care of patients with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess stereoviewing of stereoscopic optic disc images using an example of the new technology of autostereoscopic screens compared to the liquid shutter goggles. Methods Independent assessment of glaucomatous disc characteristics and measurement of optic disc and cup parameters whilst using either an autostereoscopic screen or liquid crystal shutter goggles synchronized with a view switching display. The main outcome measures were inter-modality agreements between the two used modalities as evaluated by the weighted kappa test and Bland Altman plots. Results Inter-modality agreement for measuring optic disc parameters was good [Average kappa coefficient for vertical Cup/Disc ratio was 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–0.91 and 0.81 (95% CI 0.6–0.92 for observer 1 and 2 respectively]. Agreement between modalities for assessing optic disc characteristics for glaucoma on a five-point scale was very good with a kappa value of 0.97. Conclusion This study compared two different methods of stereo viewing. The results of assessment of the different optic disc and cup parameters were comparable using an example of the newly developing autostereoscopic display technologies as compared to the shutter goggles system used. The Inter-modality agreement was high. This new technology carries potential clinical usability benefits in different areas of ophthalmic practice.

  9. Comparison of optic disc morphology of optic nerve atrophy between compressive optic neuropathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

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    Masayuki Hata

    Full Text Available To compare the optic nerve head (ONH structure between compressive optic neuropathy (CON and glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON, and to determine whether selected ONH quantitative parameters effectively discriminate between GON and CON, especially CON cases presenting with a glaucoma-like disc.We prospectively assessed 34 patients with CON, 34 age-matched patients with moderate or severe GON, and 34 age-matched healthy control subjects. The quantitative parameters of ONH structure were compared using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 (HRT2 and Spectralis optical coherence tomography with an enhanced depth imaging method.The mean and maximum cup depths of CON were significantly smaller than those with GON (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. The distance between Bruch's membrane opening and anterior surface of the lamina cribrosa (BMO-anterior LC of CON was also significantly smaller than that of glaucoma but was similar to that of the healthy group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.47, respectively. Based on Moorfields regression analysis of the glaucoma classification of HRT2, 15 eyes with CON were classified with a glaucoma-like disc. The cup/disc area ratio did not differ between cases of CON with a glaucoma-like disc and cases of GON (P = 0.16, but the BMO-anterior LC and mean and maximum cup depths of CON cases with a glaucoma-like disc were smaller than those in GON (P = 0.005, P = 0.003, and P = 0.001, respectively.Measurements of the cup depths and the LC depth had good ability to differentiate between CON with a glaucoma-like disc and glaucoma. There was no laminar remodeling detected by laminar surface position in the patients with CON compared to those with GON.

  10. Enhancement of optic cup detection through an improved vessel kink detection framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Damon W. K.; Liu, Jiang; Tan, Ngan Meng; Zhang, Zhuo; Lu, Shijian; Lim, Joo Hwee; Li, Huiqi; Wong, Tien Yin

    2010-03-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. The presence and extent of progression of glaucoma can be determined if the optic cup can be accurately segmented from retinal images. In this paper, we present a framework which improves the detection of the optic cup. First, a region of interest is obtained from the retinal fundus image, and a pallor-based preliminary cup contour estimate is determined. Patches are then extracted from the ROI along this contour. To improve the usability of the patches, adaptive methods are introduced to ensure the patches are within the optic disc and to minimize redundant information. The patches are then analyzed for vessels by an edge transform which generates pixel segments of likely vessel candidates. Wavelet, color and gradient information are used as input features for a SVM model to classify the candidates as vessel or non-vessel. Subsequently, a rigourous non-parametric method is adopted in which a bi-stage multi-resolution approach is used to probe and localize the location of kinks along the vessels. Finally, contenxtual information is used to fuse pallor and kink information to obtain an enhanced optic cup segmentation. Using a batch of 21 images obtained from the Singapore Eye Research Institute, the new method results in a 12.64% reduction in the average overlap error against a pallor only cup, indicating viable improvements in the segmentation and supporting the use of kinks for optic cup detection.

  11. Optic Disc Drusen in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Li, Xiao Qiang; Eckmann, Christina L

    2017-01-01

    diameter and fetal birth and pubertal parameters are associated with the presence of ODD. METHODS: This observational, longitudinal population-based birth cohort study, with a nested case-control, included 1,406 children. Eye examinations were performed when the children were between 11 and 12 years of age....... Assessment was performed of optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans from 1,304 children with gradable enhanced depth imaging scans of the optic disc. RESULTS: ODD in one or both eyes were found in 13 (1.0%) of all children. All but one of the cases were found in children with scleral canal diameter...... in the lowest quartile (1,182-1,399 μm) in the nested case-control study. Children with ODD had a mean disc diameter of 1,339 μm (interquartile range, 30 μm), whereas it was 1,508 μm (interquartile range, 196 μm) in the 130 controls without ODD (P

  12. Optic Disc Pit with Sectorial Retinitis Pigmentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Taskapili, Muhittin; Yilmaz, Tolga; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Sectorial retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and optic disc pit (ODP) are rare clinical conditions. We present a 40-year-old woman with a history of mild night blindness and decreased vision in the right eye for about 5 years. Fundus examination revealed retinal pigmentary changes in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula and reduced arterial calibre and ODP at the temporal edge of the optic disc. In addition, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, ...

  13. Spontaneous Resolution of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Koushik

    2017-01-01

    I read with interest the article reporting spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy in a boy.1 Though the presence of an optic disc pit and associated macular involvement is undoubted in the presented case, the provided optical coherence tomography (OCT) does not clearly show typical intraretinal schisis (Figure 1B)1 at multiple retinal levels which may communicate with the pit. Instead, it shows a sub-internal limiting membrane (sub-ILM) cavity. Such cavities are known to occur f...

  14. OCT-Based Quantification and Classification of Optic Disc Structure in Glaucoma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Takada

    Full Text Available To objectively classify the optic discs of open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients into Nicolela's four disc types, i.e., focal ischemic (FI, myopic (MY, senile sclerotic (SS, and generalized enlargement (GE, with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT.This study enrolled 113 eyes of 113 OAG patients (mean age: 62.5 ± 12.6; Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation: -9.4 ± 7.3 dB. Newly developed software was used to quantify a total of 20 optic disc parameters in SS-OCT (DRI OCT-1, TOPCON images of the optic disc. The most suitable reference plane (RP above the plane of Bruch's membrane opening was determined by comparing, at various RP heights, the SS-OCT-measured rim parameters and spectral-domain OCT-measured circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT, with Pearson's correlation analysis. To obtain a discriminant formula for disc type classification, a training group of 72 eyes of 72 OAG patients and a validation group of 60 eyes of 60 OAG patients were set up.Correlation with cpRNFLT differed with disc type and RP height, but overall, a height of 120 μm minimized the influence of disc type. Six parameters were most significant for disc type discrimination: disc angle (horizontal, average cup depth, cup/disc ratio, rim-decentering ratio, average rim/disc ratio (upper and lower nasal. Classifying the validation group with these parameters returned an identification rate of 80.0% and a Cohen's Kappa of 0.73.Our new, objective SS-OCT-based method enabled us to classify glaucomatous optic discs with high reproducibility and accuracy.

  15. Differences of optic disc appearance between normal tension and high tension glaucoma patients

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    Stojčić Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term glaucoma is used to cover a wide range of diseases, whose main feature is optic neuropathy. According to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP, the open angle glaucoma is arbitrarily divided into high tension glaucoma (HTG and normal tension glaucoma (NTG. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of optic disc cup appearance between patients with NTG and HTG. Methods. Prospective study included 30 patients (60 eyes with NTG and 30 patients (60 eyes with HTG. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Examination of optic disc head was performed by indirect ophthalmoscopy with Volk 90 D superfield lens through a dilated pupil to observe qualitative and quantitative parameters. Visual fields were examined in all patients with the Octopus program G1, full threshold strategy (Octopus 500 EZ, Interzeag, Switzerland. Results. Vertical form of optic disc cup was present in 11 eyes with NTG (18.3% and three eyes with HTG (5% (p<0.05. A disc with localized tissue loss (polar notching on the inferior pole was observed in eight eyes with NTG (13.3% and in one eye with HTG (1.7% (p<0.01. Uniformly enlarged, round cup was more frequent in patients with HTG than NTG: 93.3% and 68.3% respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion. The perceived differences indicate a complex multifactorial nature of glaucoma disease and a possible existence of two pathophysiological ways of optic disc changes within the same basic disease.

  16. Wear analysis by applying a pin-disc configuration to phemoral head and acetabular cup

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    Guillermo Urriolagoitia-Calderón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work determines a prosthetic hip system’s life-span, focusing on a Mexican phenotype. The total sliding equivalent distance for the system was determined, as well as the loading regime under which the femoral component and the acetabular cup were subjected in normal operating conditions. An experimental tribology essay was then performed to simulate the wearing of the components in a Pin over Disc machine. This assay (for which the test specimens were manufactured in medical grade stainless steel AISI-ASTM 316L for the femoral component and high density polyethylene for the acetabular cup was aimed at simulating wear conditions involved in 10 years of continuous operation. A numerical simulation of operational conditions (using the finite element method was performedIn for establishing assay loading conditions to accurately determine where the loads should be applied. The tribology assay led to quantifying the volumetric loss of materials for the system being analysed. It can be concluded that the methodology proposed in this work for estimating the life-span of a prosthetic hip system was valid and accurate by comparing the results with those found in the literature. A statistical validation of the proposed method is plaaned for the future. Key words: Design life; femoral component; acetabular cup; Mexican phenotype; pin-disc configuration.

  17. Similarity regularized sparse group lasso for cup to disc ratio computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Tao, Dacheng; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Liu, Jiang; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-08-01

    Automatic cup to disc ratio (CDR) computation from color fundus images has shown to be promising for glaucoma detection. Over the past decade, many algorithms have been proposed. In this paper, we first review the recent work in the area and then present a novel similarity-regularized sparse group lasso method for automated CDR estimation. The proposed method reconstructs the testing disc image based on a set of reference disc images by integrating the similarity between testing and the reference disc images with the sparse group lasso constraints. The reconstruction coefficients are then used to estimate the CDR of the testing image. The proposed method has been validated using 650 images with manually annotated CDRs. Experimental results show an average CDR error of 0.0616 and a correlation coefficient of 0.7, outperforming other methods. The areas under curve in the diagnostic test reach 0.843 and 0.837 when manual and automatically segmented discs are used respectively, better than other methods as well.

  18. Optic disc pit with sectorial retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Taskapili, Muhittin; Yilmaz, Tolga; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Sectorial retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and optic disc pit (ODP) are rare clinical conditions. We present a 40-year-old woman with a history of mild night blindness and decreased vision in the right eye for about 5 years. Fundus examination revealed retinal pigmentary changes in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula and reduced arterial calibre and ODP at the temporal edge of the optic disc. In addition, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and multifocal electroretinogram scans confirmed these clinical findings. Visual acuity was decreased due to an atrophic-appearing foveal lesion. No intervention was suggested because of the poor visual potential. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to describe coexistent optic disc pit and sectorial RP in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula in the same eye with figures.

  19. Optic Disc Pit with Sectorial Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sectorial retinitis pigmentosa (RP and optic disc pit (ODP are rare clinical conditions. We present a 40-year-old woman with a history of mild night blindness and decreased vision in the right eye for about 5 years. Fundus examination revealed retinal pigmentary changes in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula and reduced arterial calibre and ODP at the temporal edge of the optic disc. In addition, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and multifocal electroretinogram scans confirmed these clinical findings. Visual acuity was decreased due to an atrophic-appearing foveal lesion. No intervention was suggested because of the poor visual potential. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to describe coexistent optic disc pit and sectorial RP in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula in the same eye with figures.

  20. Spontaneous Resolution of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Tripathy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available I read with interest the article reporting spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy in a boy.1 Though the presence of an optic disc pit and associated macular involvement is undoubted in the presented case, the provided optical coherence tomography (OCT does not clearly show typical intraretinal schisis (Figure 1B1 at multiple retinal levels which may communicate with the pit. Instead, it shows a sub-internal limiting membrane (sub-ILM cavity. Such cavities are known to occur following the resolution of sub-ILM bleed due to various cause including Valsalva retinopathy,2 Terson syndrome, and also in some retinitis3 cases.4 In fact, some of these cavities may simulate a neurosensory retinal detachment or central serous chorioretinopathy on cursory clinical examination.5 To confirm that the features of the current patient1 are indeed related to the optic disc pit, it is necessary for the authors to provide an OCT scan which shows a connection of the presented cavity with the optic disc pit. Also, clear OCT scans of the fovea, both at presentation and at final follow-up would help our understanding of the visual recovery of the patient. The interval between the presenting (28 June 2012 OCT and final OCT (30 Nov 2012 is 5 months and not 6 months as described in the manuscript. For an effective comparison, both the presenting and final OCT scans should have been taken using either horizontal or vertical orientation over the macula. Though the spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy is possible, visual recovery in usually unlikely and in such cases an alternate diagnosis needs to be excluded.

  1. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  2. Retinal nerve fiber and optic disc morphology using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin-Atik, Sevinc; Koc, Feray; Akin-Sari, Sirin; Ozmen, Mustafa

    2017-05-11

    To evaluate the optic nerve head parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohort and age-matched controls to determine whether SSc patients have an increased risk of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). We examined 30 patients (3 male, 27 female) with SSc and 28 age- and sex-matched controls. Retinal nerve fiber and optic disc morphology were evaluated using Cirrus SD-OCT. Optic disc morphology measurements including disc area, rim area, average and vertical cup/disc (C/D) ratio, and cup volume were not significantly different between the study groups. The average and 4-quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements of the C/D >0.3 subgroups were not significantly different in the patients and controls. These values were also similar for the C/D >0.5 subgroups except that the average inferior quadrant RNFL thickness of the right eyes in the patient subgroup was significantly thinner than in the control subgroup (p<0.05). Our SSc cohort had relatively shorter disease duration but increased prevalence of early glaucomatous damage signs. Our findings indicate that SSc is a risk factor for developing normal-tension glaucoma. Further studies combined with visual field evaluation are necessary to identify the long-term glaucomatous effects of SSc.

  3. Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Novel Loci Associated With Optic Disc Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Mishra, Aniket; Hysi, Pirro G.; Gharahkhani, Puya; Höhn, René; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N.; Luo, Xiaoyan; Ramdas, Wishal D.; Vithana, Eranga; Koh, Victor; Yazar, Seyhan; Xu, Liang; Forward, Hannah; Kearns, Lisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy and an important cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The optic nerve head or optic disc is divided in two parts: a central cup (without nerve fibers) surrounded by the neuroretinal rim (containing axons of the retinal ganglion cells). The International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies consisting of 17,248 individuals of European ancestry and 6,841 individuals of Asia...

  4. Combined Therapies of Modified Taiyi Miraculous Moxa Roll and Cupping for Patients with Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation

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    Chunyue Cai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is a kind of syndrome caused by stimulation or pressure of nerve root and cauda equina due to intervertebral disc disorder, fibrous ring rupture, and pulpiform nucleus protrusion. Application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM including acupuncture therapy and cupping therapy is unique and effective treatment for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation in China. Hence, we try to investigate the combined clinical efficacy of modified Taiyi miraculous moxa roll and cupping therapy on patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Seventy patients were randomly assigned into combined treatment group (n=35 and control group (n=35. The treatment group received combined therapy of modified Taiyi miraculous moxa roll and cupping therapy, while control group received acupuncture therapy alone. Diagnostic criteria of TCM syndrome, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA score, and simplified McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ were used to evaluate the therapy. 11 and 13 out of 35 subjects in the combined treatment group had improvement > 75% and between 50% and 75%, respectively. The corresponding number was 2 and 22 of 35 subjects in the acupuncture group. There was significant difference in the clinical efficacy between the treatment group and control group (P=0.036. The scores of JOA and MPQ detected in the patients of the two groups (P<0.05 also showed statistically significant differences. Moreover, no serious adverse events occurred in the patients, who received cupping therapy or acupuncture. The combined or alone therapies can effectively improve the treatment efficacy in the patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, while the combined therapies show more comparative effectiveness. Furthermore, the combined therapies are potentially safe and cost-effective and also benefit the improvement of short-term pain. Therefore, the combined therapies of the two ancient TCM deserve further clinical

  5. Combined Therapies of Modified Taiyi Miraculous Moxa Roll and Cupping for Patients with Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunyue; Gong, Yuefeng; Dong, Dayong; Xue, Jinbiao; Zheng, Xiaoting; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Shao, Jialong; Mi, Daguo

    2018-01-01

    Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is a kind of syndrome caused by stimulation or pressure of nerve root and cauda equina due to intervertebral disc disorder, fibrous ring rupture, and pulpiform nucleus protrusion. Application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including acupuncture therapy and cupping therapy is unique and effective treatment for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation in China. Hence, we try to investigate the combined clinical efficacy of modified Taiyi miraculous moxa roll and cupping therapy on patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Seventy patients were randomly assigned into combined treatment group ( n = 35) and control group ( n = 35). The treatment group received combined therapy of modified Taiyi miraculous moxa roll and cupping therapy, while control group received acupuncture therapy alone. Diagnostic criteria of TCM syndrome, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, and simplified McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ) were used to evaluate the therapy. 11 and 13 out of 35 subjects in the combined treatment group had improvement > 75% and between 50% and 75%, respectively. The corresponding number was 2 and 22 of 35 subjects in the acupuncture group. There was significant difference in the clinical efficacy between the treatment group and control group ( P = 0.036). The scores of JOA and MPQ detected in the patients of the two groups ( P cupping therapy or acupuncture. The combined or alone therapies can effectively improve the treatment efficacy in the patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, while the combined therapies show more comparative effectiveness. Furthermore, the combined therapies are potentially safe and cost-effective and also benefit the improvement of short-term pain. Therefore, the combined therapies of the two ancient TCM deserve further clinical applications.

  6. Optic disc and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer characteristics associated with glaucomatous optic disc in young myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Eun; Sung, Kyung Rim; Park, Ji Min; Yoon, Joo Young; Kang, Sung Yong; Park, Sung Bae; Koo, Hyung Jin

    2017-03-01

    To explore optic disc and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) features associated with glaucomatous optic disc (GOD) in young myopia. Presence of GOD, optic disc tilt, and disc torsion were determined using fundus photographs. If the measured disc tilt ratio was >1.3, the optic disc was classified as tilted. Optic disc torsion was defined as a >15° deviation in the long axis of the optic disc from the vertical meridian. The average and four quadrants RNFL thicknesses were assessed using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the presence of GOD. Nine hundred and sixty myopic subjects were recruited from four refractive surgery clinic databases. The mean age was 26.6 ± 5.7 years and spherical equivalent (SE) was -5.5 ± 2.5 diopters. Among 960 eyes, 26 (2.7%) received GOD group classification. Among 934 normal eyes, 290 (31.0%) had titled optic discs. Eighteen eyes (69.2%) in the GOD group had tilted optic discs. When compared to normal eyes, the GOD group had significantly higher tilt ratios (1.4 ± 0.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.1, p Optic disc tilt was found in approximately one-third of young myopic eyes and was independently associated with the presence of GOD.

  7. Heritability of optic disc diameters: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobnjak, Dragana; Taarnhøj, Nina Charlotte; Mitchell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    , additive genetic factors (i.e. heritability) explained 77% (95% CI: 65-85%) of variation of vertical disc diameters, whereas estimated unshared environmental effect was 23% (95% CI: 15-35%). For vertical cup diameters, heritability accounted for 70% (95% CI: 55-80%) and environmental factors 30% (95% CI...

  8. Retinal and anterior eye compartments derive from a common progenitor pool in the avian optic cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Sara J.; Cuenca, Paulina D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The optic cup is created through invagination of the optic vesicle. The morphogenetic rearrangement creates a double-layered cup, with a hinge (the Optic Cup Lip) where the epithelium bends back upon itself. Shortly after the optic cup forms, it is thought to be sub-divided into separate lineages: i) pigmented epithelium in the outer layer; ii) presumptive iris and ciliary body at the most anterior aspect of the inner layer; and iii) presumptive neural retina in the remainder of the inner layer. We test the native developmental potential of the anterior cup to determine if it normally contributes to the retina. Methods Vital dye and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing replication-incompetent retroviral vectors were used to label cells in the nascent optic cup and follow their direct progeny throughout development. Label was applied to either the optic cup lip (n=40), or to the domain just posterior to the lip (n=20). Retroviral labeling is a permanent lineage marker and enabled the analysis of advanced stages of development. Results Labeling within the optic cup gave rise to labeled progeny in the posterior optic cup that differentiated as neural retina (20 of 20). In contrast, labeling cells in the optic cup lip gave rise to progeny of labeled cells arrayed in a linear progression, from the lip into the neural retina (36 of 40). Label was retained in cells at the optic cup lip, regardless of age at examination. In older embryos, labeled progeny delaminated from the optic cup lip to differentiate as muscle of the pupillary margin. Conclusions The data show that the cells at the optic cup lip are a common progenitor population for pigmented epithelium, anterior eye tissues (ciliary body, iris, and pupillary muscle) and retinal neurons. The findings are supportive of an interpretation where the optic cup lip is a specialized niche containing a multipotent progenitor population. PMID:22219630

  9. Comparison of automated analysis of Cirrus HD OCT spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with stereo photographs of the optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Oakley, Jonathan D; Schiffman, Joyce C; Budenz, Donald L; Anderson, Douglas R

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate a new automated analysis of optic disc images obtained by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Areas of the optic disc, cup, and neural rim in SD OCT images were compared with these areas from stereoscopic photographs to represent the current traditional optic nerve evaluation. The repeatability of measurements by each method was determined and compared. Evaluation of diagnostic technology. One hundred nineteen healthy eyes, 23 eyes with glaucoma, and 7 glaucoma suspect eyes. Optic disc and cup margins were traced from stereoscopic photographs by 3 individuals independently. Optic disc margins and rim widths were determined automatically in SD OCT. A subset of photographs was examined and traced a second time, and duplicate SD OCT images also were analyzed. Agreement among photograph readers, between duplicate readings, and between SD OCT and photographs were quantified by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), by the root mean square, and by the standard deviation of the differences. Optic disc areas tended to be slightly larger when judged in photographs than by SD OCT, whereas cup areas were similar. Cup and optic disc areas showed good correlation (0.8) between the average photographic reading and SD OCT, but only fair correlation of rim areas (0.4). The SD OCT was highly reproducible (ICC, 0.96-0.99). Each reader also was consistent with himself on duplicate readings of 21 photographs (ICC, 0.80-0.88 for rim area and 0.95-0.98 for all other measurements), but reproducibility was not as good as SD OCT. Measurements derived from SD OCT did not differ from photographic readings more than the readings of photographs by different readers differed from each other. Designation of the cup and optic disc boundaries by an automated analysis of SD OCT was within the range of variable designations by different readers from color stereoscopic photographs, but use of different landmarks typically made the designation of the optic disc

  10. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Protrusion Associated with Tilted Optic Discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jaclyn; Yapp, Michael; Ly, Angelica; Hennessy, Michael P; Kalloniatis, Michael; Zangerl, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    This study resulted in the identification of an optic nerve head (ONH) feature associated with tilted optic discs, which might potentially contribute to ONH pathologies. Knowledge of such findings will enhance clinical insights and drive future opportunities to understand disease processes related to tilted optic discs. The aim of this study was to identify novel retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) anomalies by evaluating tilted optic discs using optical coherence tomography. An observed retinal nerve fiber protrusion was further investigated for association with other morphological or functional parameters. A retrospective review of 400 randomly selected adult patients with ONH examinations was conducted in a referral-only, diagnostic imaging center. After excluding other ONH pathologies, 215 patients were enrolled and evaluated for optic disc tilt and/or torsion. Gross anatomical ONH features, including size and rim or parapapillary region elevation, were assessed with stereoscopic fundus photography. Optical coherence tomography provided detailed morphological information of individual retinal layers. Statistical analysis was applied to identify significant changes between individual patient cohorts. A dome-shaped hyperreflective RNFL bulge, protruding into the neurosensory retina at the optic disc margins, was identified in 17 eyes with tilted optic discs. Available follow-up data were inconclusive regarding natural changes with this ONH feature. This RNFL herniation was significantly correlated with smaller than average optic disc size (P = .005), congenital disc tilt (P optic discs, which has not previously been assessed as an independent ONH structure. The feature is predominantly related to congenital crowded, small optic discs and variable between patients. This study is an important first step to elucidate diagnostic capabilities of tilted disc morphological changes and understanding associated functional deficits.

  11. Optic disc detection using ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcy A.; Monteiro, Fernando C.

    2012-09-01

    The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.

  12. PATHOGENESIS OF OPTIC DISC EDEMA IN RAISED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the following issues pertinent to the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure: the anatomy and blood supply of the optic nerve, the roles of the sheath of the optic nerve, of the centripetal flow of fluids along the optic nerve, of compression of the central retinal vein, and of acute intracranial hypertension and its associated effects. I found that, contrary to some previous claims, an acute rise of intracranial pressure was not quickly followed by production of optic disc edema. Then, in rhesus monkeys, I produced experimentally chronic intracranial hypertension by slowly increasing in size space-occupying lesions, in different parts of the brain. Those produced raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and optic disc edema, identical to those seen in patients with elevated CSFP. Having achieved that, I investigated various aspects of optic disc edema by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography, and light microscopic, electron microscopic, horseradish peroxidase and axoplasmic transport studies, and evaluated the effect of opening the sheath of the optic nerve on the optic disc edema. This latter study showed that opening the sheath resulted in resolution of optic disc edema on the side of the sheath fenestration, in spite of high intracranial CSFP, proving that a rise of CSFP in the sheath was the essential pre-requisite for the development of optic disc edema. I also investigated optic disc edema with

  13. Association between optic nerve blood flow and objective examinations in glaucoma patients with generalized enlargement disc type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakazawa T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Chiba, Kazuko Omodaka, Yu Yokoyama, Naoko Aizawa, Satoru Tsuda, Masayuki Yasuda, Takaaki Otomo, Shunji Yokokura, Nobuo Fuse, Toru Nakazawa Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between microcirculation in the optic disc, average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness cupping parameters, and visual field defects in glaucoma patients with the generalized enlargement disc type. Methods: A total of 38 eyes from 38 glaucoma patients with the generalized enlargement disc type were included. The microcirculation of the optic nerve head was examined with laser speckle flow graphy, and the mean blur rate in all areas, in vessel area, and in tissue area were calculated using the laser speckle flow graphy analyzer software. Average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was measured using Stratus optical coherence tomography, and cupping parameters were accessed using the Heidelberg retina tomograph. The mean deviation in the Humphrey field analyzer (30-2 SITA standard was analyzed. The correlation between these parameters was evaluated using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results: The correlation coefficient of mean blur rate in all optic disc area to the average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, vertical C/D, and mean deviation were r = 0.7546 (P < 0.0001, r = –0.6208 (P < 0.0001, and r = 0.6010 (P = 0.0001, respectively. The mean blur rate in tissue area of the optic disc showed r = 0.7305 (P < 0.0001, r = –0.6438 (P < 0.0001, and r = 0.6338 (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: We found that the mean blur rate in the optic disc was significantly correlated with the average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, vertical C/D, and mean deviation in patients with the generalized enlargement disc type of glaucoma. In particular, the mean blur rate in tissue area was more

  14. Prominent Optic Disc Featured in Inherited Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, M G; Bojinova, R I; Valmaggia, C; Schorderet, D F

    2017-04-01

    Background We investigated the relationship between prominent optic disc (POD) and inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD). Patients and Methods A cross-sectional consecutive study was performed in 10 children and 11 adults of 7 non-related families. We performed clinical phenotyping, including a detailed examination, fundus autofluorescence, and colour fundus and OCT imaging. Genetic testing was subsequently performed for all family members presenting retinal pathology. Results In 4 members of a 3-generation family, hyperfluorescent deposits on the surface of POD were related to a p.(L224M) heterozygous mutation in BEST1 . In the second family, one member presented deposits located on the surface on hyperaemic OD and a compound p.(R141H);(A195V) mutation in BEST1 . In the third family, POD was observed in father and child with early onset cone-rod dystrophy and a novel autosomal recessive p.(W31*) homozygous mutation in ABCA4 . In the fourth family, POD with "mulberry-like" deposits and attenuated vessels were observed in a 7-year old girl, with a mutation in USH1A , and with early onset rod-cone dystrophy, associated with hearing loss. In the fifth family, blurry OD with tortuous vessels was observed in 4 consanguineous female carriers and a hemizygous boy with a p.(R200H) mutation in the X-linked retinoschisis RS1 . In the sixth family, a mother and her son were both affected with POD and attenuated peripapillary vessels, and presented with a p.(Y836C) heterozygous mutation in TOPORS , thus confirming autosomal dominant RP. In the seventh family, in 3 family members with POD, compound p.(L541P;A1038 V);(G1961E) mutations in ABCA4 confirmed the diagnosis of Stargardt disease. Conclusions A variety of OD findings are found in a genetically heterogeneous group of IRDs. In the presence of POD, an inherited progressive photoreceptor disease should be ruled out. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Long-term evolution of superficial optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Malmqvist; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Hamann, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    with hereditary ODD were included. Results: Mean age at initial and follow-up examination was, respectively, 16.8 and 73.3 years. The median follow-up time was 56 years. A minimal or non-existing change in superficial ODD anatomy (size and number) was seen in 10 of 12 eyes. There was a tendency towards more......Purpose: Optic disc drusen (ODD) is hyaline deposits in the optic nerve head seen in 1-2% of the population. Long-term evolution of ODD anatomy and visual field defects in ODD patients is a key factor for learning more about pathophysiology and prognosis of the condition. With a median follow......-up period of 56 years, this is the first study that evaluates superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in patients with ODD over a life span. Methods: Observational case series investigating progression of superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in ODD patients. Eight patients...

  16. Optic disc detection and boundary extraction in retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, A; Fraz, Muhammad Moazam

    2015-04-10

    With the development of digital image processing, analysis and modeling techniques, automatic retinal image analysis is emerging as an important screening tool for early detection of ophthalmologic disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. In this paper, a robust method for optic disc detection and extraction of the optic disc boundary is proposed to help in the development of computer-assisted diagnosis and treatment of such ophthalmic disease. The proposed method is based on morphological operations, smoothing filters, and the marker controlled watershed transform. Internal and external markers are used to first modify the gradient magnitude image and then the watershed transformation is applied on this modified gradient magnitude image for boundary extraction. This method has shown significant improvement over existing methods in terms of detection and boundary extraction of the optic disc. The proposed method has optic disc detection success rate of 100%, 100%, 100% and 98.9% for the DRIVE, Shifa, CHASE_DB1, and DIARETDB1 databases, respectively. The optic disc boundary detection achieved an average spatial overlap of 61.88%, 70.96%, 45.61%, and 54.69% for these databases, respectively, which are higher than currents methods.

  17. Noonan's syndrome with keratoconus and optic disc coloboma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaso, F J; Del Buey, M A; Huerva, V; Latre, B; Palomar, A

    1993-01-01

    We report the case of a 14-year-old girl with multiple findings characteristic of Noonan's syndrome, including short stature, mild mental retardation, facial, skeletal and renal abnormalities. In addition, ophthalmic examination revealed a keratoconus in the left eye and a right optic disc coloboma. To date, only two cases of Noonan's syndrome with keratoconus have been reported, and this is the second case of this syndrome with optic disc coloboma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Noonan's syndrome associated with unilateral keratoconus and contralateral optic disc coloboma. In view of the large number of patients with Noonan's syndrome reported to date and the rarity of these ocular abnormalities, it is most likely that this association is fortuitous. Ocular findings reported in patients with Noonan's syndrome are reviewed.

  18. dlx and sp6-9 Control optic cup regeneration in a prototypic eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain W Lapan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Optic cups are a structural feature of diverse eyes, from simple pit eyes to camera eyes of vertebrates and cephalopods. We used the planarian prototypic eye as a model to study the genetic control of optic cup formation and regeneration. We identified two genes encoding transcription factors, sp6-9 and dlx, that were expressed in the eye specifically in the optic cup and not the photoreceptor neurons. RNAi of these genes prevented formation of visible optic cups during regeneration. Planarian regeneration requires an adult proliferative cell population with stem cell-like properties called the neoblasts. We found that optic cup formation occurred only after migration of progressively differentiating progenitor cells from the neoblast population. The eye regeneration defect caused by dlx and sp6-9 RNAi can be explained by a failure to generate these early optic cup progenitors. Dlx and Sp6-9 genes function as a module during the development of diverse animal appendages, including vertebrate and insect limbs. Our work reveals a novel function for this gene pair in the development of a fundamental eye component, and it utilizes these genes to demonstrate a mechanism for total organ regeneration in which extensive cell movement separates new cell specification from organ morphogenesis.

  19. Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy Associated with Optic Disc Coloboma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Nakano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with optic disc coloboma. Methods: Case report. Results: A 50-year-old woman presented with optic disc coloboma and retinochoroidal coloboma associated with subretinal hemorrhage and serous retinal detachment (SRD in her left eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT confirmed SRD at the macula and showed a sharply elevated retinal epithelial detachment at the choroidal excavation. OCT also revealed choroidal cavitation along the temporal side of the optic coloboma. Fluorescein angiography showed hyperfluorescent dye leakage and indocyanine green angiography revealed polypoidal lesions. We diagnosed polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. PCV was located at the end of the choroidal cavitation. Her left eye was treated with an intraocular injection of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor aflibercept (2 mg. Photodynamic therapy was performed using the standard protocol 1 week after the intravitreal application of aflibercept. One month after the combined treatment, OCT showed completely resolved SRD and her symptoms disappeared. Her best-corrected visual acuity remained stable and no recurrence was found during a 12-month follow-up period. Conclusion: PCV associated with optic disc coloboma has not been previously reported. The morphological abnormality of choroidal cavitation and choroidal excavation connecting with optic disc coloboma may contribute to the development of PCV in this case.

  20. Accretion disc boundary layers - geometrically and optically thin case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regev, Oded; Hougerat, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to an optically and geometrically thin boundary layer between an accretion disc and the accreting star. Analytical solutions are presented for a particular viscosity prescription in the boundary layer. For a typical example we find that the disc closely resembles standard steady-disc theory. It is identical to it everywhere save a narrow boundary layer, where the temperature increases rapidly inward (by an order of magnitude), the angular velocity achieves maximum and decreases to its surface value and other variables also undergo rapid changes. This and previous work can now be used to calculate the emission from accretion discs including the boundary layers for a wide range of parameters. (author)

  1. Optic disc size and other parameters from optical coherence tomography in Vietnamese-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pai-Huei; Fu, Sheena; Nguyen, Ngoc; Porco, Travis; Lin, Shan C

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the optic disc parameters by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in Vietnamese with various types of glaucoma. Medical charts of Vietnamese and White patients within a single practice were reviewed. Disc and rim areas by OCT were compared among nonglaucoma controls, different types of glaucoma, and glaucoma suspect. The association of these parameters with demographic and ocular features was evaluated. Data from 1416 Vietnamese and 57 White patients were included. A larger mean disc area was observed in eyes with primary angle-closure glaucoma than in eyes with primary angle-closure and primary angle-closure suspect (both PVietnamese patients with glaucoma and glaucoma suspicion had larger discs than diagnosis-matched Whites (P=0.043 and 0.021, respectively). Vietnamese patients with glaucoma seem to have larger optic discs than White patients. Central corneal thickness had no association with disc area in this study population.

  2. Eyes with Suspicious Appearance of the Optic Disc and Normal Intraocular Pressure: Using Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics to Differentiate Those with and without Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego T Dias

    Full Text Available Among all glaucoma suspects, eyes with optic nerve head features suspicious or suggestive of early glaucoma are probably those that offer the greatest challenge for clinicians. In contrast with the robust longitudinal data published on ocular hypertension, there is no specific management guideline for these patients. Therefore, evaluating eyes with suspicious optic disc appearance and normal intraocular pressure (IOP, we sought to investigate potential differences in clinical and epidemiological characteristics to differentiate those with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG from those with presumed large physiological optic disc cups (pLPC. In this observational case-control study, we consecutively enrolled individuals with pLPC and NTG. All eyes had vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR≥0.6 and untreated IOP<21 mmHg. Glaucomatous eyes had reproducible visual field defects. Eyes with pLPC required normal visual fields and ≥30 months of follow-up with no evidence of glaucomatous neuropathy. Clinical and epidemiological parameters were compared between groups. Eighty-four individuals with pLPC and 40 NTG patients were included. Regarding our main results, NTG patients were significantly older and with a higher prevalence of Japanese descendants (p<0.01. Not only did pLPC eyes have smaller mean VCDR, but also larger optic discs (p≤0.04. There were no significant differences for gender, central corneal thickness, and spherical equivalent (p≥0.38. Significant odds ratios (OR were found for race (OR = 2.42; for Japanese ancestry, age (OR = 1.05, VCDR (OR = 5.03, and disc size (OR = 0.04; p≤0.04. In conclusion, in patients with suspicious optic disc and normal IOP, those with older age, Japanese ancestry, smaller optic discs, and larger VCDR are more likely to have NTG, and therefore, deserve deeper investigation and closer monitoring.

  3. Reversal of retinal and optic disc ischemia in a patient with sickle cell trait and glaucoma secondary to traumatic hyphema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, M B; Ridley, M E; Magargal, L E

    1982-07-01

    A 14-year-old black boy with sickle cell trait, who sustained a traumatic hyphema, developed moderately elevated intraocular pressure that failed to respond to carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and osmotic agents. On the tenth postinjury day, a sudden increased cupping of the optic disc and partial central retinal artery obstruction caused painless loss of vision. Reversal of the cupping, the retinal ischemia, and the intraocular pressure was documented following anterior chamber paracentesis, and visual acuity returned to 6/6. Pathophysiology of the posterior ischemia is discussed. This case documents the potentially debilitating course of traumatic hyphema in "benign" sickle cell trait and its avoidance with proper management. The authors endorse recent suggestions for careful observation of any sickle cell patient with traumatic hyphema, and recommend anterior chamber paracentesis, supplemental oxygen, and avoidance of osmotic agents, if secondary glaucoma develops following the initial trauma.

  4. High-Density Near-Field Optical Disc Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Ide, Naoki; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Shimouma, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2005-05-01

    We developed a high-density near-field optical recording disc system using a solid immersion lens. The near-field optical pick-up consists of a solid immersion lens with a numerical aperture of 1.84. The laser wavelength for recording is 405 nm. In order to realize the near-field optical recording disc, we used a phase-change recording media and a molded polycarbonate substrate. A clear eye pattern of 112 GB capacity with 160 nm track pitch and 50 nm bit length was observed. The equivalent areal density is 80.6 Gbit/in2. The bottom bit error rate of 3 tracks-write was 4.5× 10-5. The readout power margin and the recording power margin were ± 30.4% and ± 11.2%, respectively.

  5. The Optic Disc Drusen Studies Consortium Recommendations for Diagnosis of Optic Disc Drusen Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Bursztyn, Lulu; Costello, Fiona

    2018-01-01

    imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) has improved the visualization of more deeply buried ODD. There is, however, no consensus regarding the diagnosis of ODD using OCT. The purpose of this study was to develop a consensus recommendation for diagnosing ODD using OCT. METHODS: The members...... of the Optic Disc Drusen Studies (ODDS) Consortium are either fellowship trained neuro-ophthalmologists with an interest in ODD, or researchers with an interest in ODD. Four standardization steps were performed by the consortium members with a focus on both image acquisition and diagnosis of ODD. RESULTS......: Based on prior knowledge and experiences from the standardization steps, the ODDS Consortium reached a consensus regarding OCT acquisition and diagnosis of ODD. The recommendations from the ODDS Consortium include scanning protocol, data selection, data analysis, and nomenclature. CONCLUSIONS: The ODDS...

  6. Progression of asymptomatic optic disc swelling to non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Prem S; Gordon, Lynn K; Bonelli, Laura; Arnold, Anthony C

    2017-05-01

    The time of onset of optic disc swelling in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is not known, and it is commonly assumed to arise simultaneously with vision loss. Our goal is to report the presence and persistence of optic disc swelling without initial vision loss and its subsequent evolution to typical, symptomatic NAION. Clinical case series of patients with optic disc swelling and normal visual acuity and visual fields at initial presentation who progressed to have vision loss typical of NAION. All subjects underwent automated perimetry, disc photography and optic coherence tomography and/or fluorescein angiography to evaluate optic nerve function and perfusion. Four patients were found to have sectoral or diffuse optic disc swelling without visual acuity or visual field loss; the fellow eye of all four had either current or prior NAION or a 'disc at risk' configuration. Over several weeks of clinical surveillance, each patient experienced sudden onset of visual field and/or visual acuity loss typical for NAION. Current treatment options for NAION once vision loss occurs are limited and may not alter the natural history of the disorder. Subjects with NAION may have disc swelling for 2-10 weeks prior to the occurrence of visual loss, and with the development of new therapeutic agents, treatment at the time of observed disc swelling could prevent vision loss from NAION. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Comparison of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph with disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in diagnosing optic nerve hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yi; Frantz, Kelly A

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate whether Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) is a valid test for diagnosing congenital optic nerve hypoplasia (CONH) compared to the ratio of the distance between the centre of the optic disc and the centre of the macula and the mean optic disc diameter (DM:DD ratio). Furthermore, to determine the optimal cut-off value of HRT disc area to differentiate a hypoplastic disc from a normal optic disc. A total of 33 subjects with CONH (4-67 years old) and 160 normal subjects (5-65 years old) were recruited and underwent comprehensive eye examinations, fundus photography and HRT. Receiver operating characteristic curves for DM:DD ratio and HRT disc area were constructed based on data from the 46 CONH eyes and 160 control eyes. Mean (±S.D.) HRT disc area was 1.94 (±0.54) mm(2) for the control eyes and 0.84 (±0.35) mm(2) for the CONH eyes (p < 0.0001). The area under the curve (AUC) for DM:DD ratio was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.90). The AUC for HRT disc area was 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.94-0.99). A statistically significant difference was found between AUC for HRT disc area and that for DM:DD ratio (p = 0.0004). The optimal cut-off value for HRT disc area was 1.42 mm(2) with 95% sensitivity and 85% specificity. The optimal cut-off value for DM:DD ratio was 3.20 with 78% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Both HRT and the DM:DD ratio are valid tests to aid diagnosis of CONH. HRT is superior to DM:DD ratio in diagnosing CONH with higher sensitivity and specificity. We suggest the optimal cut-off value for HRT disc area as 1.42 mm(2) in order to discriminate a hypoplastic disc from a normal optic disc. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  8. [The Autocad system for planimetric study of the optic disc in glaucoma: technique and reproducibility study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pérez, A; Honrubia López, F M; Larrosa Poves, J M; Polo Llorens, V; Melcon Sánchez-Frieras, B

    2001-09-01

    To develop a lens planimetry technique for the optic disc using AutoCAD. To determine variability magnitude of the optic disc morphological measurements. We employed AutoCAD R.14.0 Autodesk: image acquisition, contour delimitation by multiple lines fitting or ellipse adjustment, image sectorialization and measurements quantification (optic disc and excavation, vertical diameters, optic disc area, excavation area, neuroretinal sector area and Beta atrophy area). Intraimage or operator and interimage o total reproducibility was studied by coefficient of variability (CV) (n=10) in normal and myopic optic discs. This technique allows to obtain optic disc measurement in 5 to 10 minutes time. Total or interimage variability of measurements introduced by one observer presents CV range from 1.18-4.42. Operator or intraimage measurement presents CV range from 0.30-4.21. Optic disc contour delimitation by ellipse adjustment achieved better reproducibility results than multiple lines adjustment in all measurements. Computer assisted AutoCAD planimetry is an interactive method to analyse the optic disc, feasible to incorporate to clinical practice. Reproducibility results are comparable to other analyzers in quantification optic disc morphology. Ellipse adjustment improves results in optic disc contours delimitation.

  9. Comparison of optical coherence tomography and fundus photography for measuring the optic disc size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Krieglstein, Tina R; Chryssafis, Christos; Thiel, Martin; Kampik, Anselm

    2006-01-01

    To assess the agreement and repeatability of optic nerve head (ONH) size measurements by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as compared to conventional planimetry of fundus photographs in normal eyes. For comparison with planimetry the absolute size of the ONH of 25 eyes from 25 normal subjects were measured by both OCT and digital fundus photography (Zeiss FF camera 450). Repeatability of automated Stratus OCT measurements were investigated by repeatedly measuring the optic disc in five normal subjects. Mean disc size was 1763 +/- 186 vertically and 1632 +/- 160 microm horizontally on planimetry. On OCT, values of 1772 +/- 317 microm vertically (p = 0.82) and a significantly smaller horizontal diameter of 1492 +/- 302 microm (p = 0.04) were obtained. The 95% limits of agreement were (-546 microm; +527 microm) for vertical and (-502 microm; +782 microm) for horizontal planimetric compared to OCT measurements. In some cases large discrepancies existed. Repeatability of automatic measurements of the optic disc by OCT was moderately good with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of 0.78 horizontally and 0.83 vertically. The coefficient of repeatability indicating instrument precision was 80 microm for horizontal and 168 microm for vertical measurements. OCT can be used to determine optic disc margins in moderate agreement with planimetry in normal subjects. However, in some cases significant disagreement with photographic assessment may occur making manual inspection advisable. Automatic disc detection by OCT is moderately repeatable.

  10. Reproducibility of disc and macula optical coherence tomography using the Canon OCT-HS100 as compared with the Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautaset, Rune; Birkeldh, Ulrika; Rosén, Rebecka; Ramsay, Marika Wahlberg; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In a clinical setting, the usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT) is strongly dependent on reproducibility of the measurement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate macula and optic disc measurement reproducibility with the new spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) from Canon (Canon OCT-HS100) and to compare reproducibility and obtained measurements with the Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT. Macula and optic disc parameters from the right eyes of 31 subjects were obtained twice with both instruments. Interoperator reproducibility was evaluated by use of the coefficient of repeatability (CR), and the obtained measurements were compared between the instruments. No difference in interoperator reproducibility could be found when comparing the 2 instruments and reproducibility ranged from 3.94% to 12.77% for optic disc parameters and from 1.19% to 3.54% for macula parameters. The lowest reproducibility was found for cup volume and vertical cup/disc ratio with both instruments. For all macula and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements, there was a statistical difference when comparing the 2 instruments, except for RFNL measurements of the superior quadrant, with the Canon OCT-HS100 always evaluating the thickness to be thicker; however, the 2 instruments correlated well. The Canon OCT-HS100 is a reproducible instrument that matches the Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT well. It remains to be evaluated how sensitive the Canon OCT-HS100 is to detect small subtle changes in optic disc parameters and macular nerve fiber layer thickness. Furthermore, due to the differences in thickness estimation, it is important to emphasize that SD-OCTs are not interchangeable.

  11. Correlation between central corneal thickness and visual field defects, cup to disc ratio and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in primary open angle glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Muhammad Haroon; Mehboob, Mohammad Asim; Haq, Rana Intisar Ul

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between Central Corneal Thickness (CCT) and Visual Field (VF) defect parameters like Mean Deviation (MD) and Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD), Cup-to-Disc Ratio (CDR) and Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness (RNFL-T) in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG) patients. This cross sectional study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO), Rawalpindi from September 2015 to September 2016. Sixty eyes of 30 patients with diagnosed POAG were analysed. Correlation of CCT with other variables was studied. Mean age of study population was 43.13±7.54 years. Out of 30 patients, 19 (63.33%) were males and 11 (36.67%) were females. Mean CCT, MD, PSD, CDR and RNFL-T of study population was 528.57±25.47µm, -9.11±3.07, 6.93±2.73, 0.63±0.13 and 77.79±10.44µm respectively. There was significant correlation of CCT with MD, PSD and CDR (r=-0.52, pfield parameters like mean deviation and pattern standard deviation, as well as with cup-to-disc ratio. However, central corneal thickness had no significant relationship with retinal nerve fibre layer thickness.

  12. Optical coherence tomography findings and retinal changes after vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sanghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the optical coherence tomography (OCT patterns in optic disc pit maculopathy and retinal changes after vitreous surgery. Materials and Methods : Retrospective review of consecutive cases with optic disc pit maculopathy seen at two tertiary eye institutes from January 2005 to June 2009. Results : Twenty-four eyes of 23 patients are included. The presenting visual acuity ranged from 20/400 to 20/20 (median:20/80. The median age at presentation was 24 years (range, 6-57 years. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated a combination of retinoschisis and outer layer detachment (OLD in 19 (79.17% eyes, OLD only in 3 (12.5% eyes and retinoschisis only in 2 (8.33% eyes. An obvious communication (outer layer hole between the schisis and OLD was seen in 14 (73.68% of the 19 eyes with both features. Of the 21 eyes with retinoschisis, schisis was present in multiple layers in 15 (71.43% and single layer in 6 (28.57% eyes. Eleven eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy including creation of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD, fluid-air exchange, low intensity laser photocoagulation at the temporal edge of the optic disc pit and non-expansile perfluoropropane gas (14% injection. Five (45.45% of 11 eyes undergoing vitrectomy had complete resolution and 4 (36.36% eyes had partial resolution of maculopathy. Visual acuity improved in 8 (72.72% of 11 eyes. Conclusion : Optical coherence tomography demonstrates multiple layer schisis and outer layer detachment as main features of optic disc pit maculopathy. Vitrectomy with PVD induction, laser photocoagulation and gas tamponade results in anatomical and visual improvement in most cases with optic disc pit maculopathy.

  13. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling is essential for optic cup formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Carin Hägglund

    Full Text Available A multitude of signalling pathways are involved in the process of forming an eye. Here we demonstrate that β-catenin is essential for eye development as inactivation of β-catenin prior to cellular specification in the optic vesicle caused anophthalmia in mice. By achieving this early and tissue-specific β-catenin inactivation we find that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE commitment was blocked and eye development was arrested prior to optic cup formation due to a loss of canonical Wnt signalling in the dorsal optic vesicle. Thus, these results show that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is required earlier and play a more central role in eye development than previous studies have indicated. In our genetic model system a few RPE cells could escape β-catenin inactivation leading to the formation of a small optic rudiment. The optic rudiment contained several neural retinal cell classes surrounded by an RPE. Unlike the RPE cells, the neural retinal cells could be β-catenin-negative revealing that differentiation of the neural retinal cell classes is β-catenin-independent. Moreover, although dorsoventral patterning is initiated in the mutant optic vesicle, the neural retinal cells in the optic rudiment displayed almost exclusively ventral identity. Thus, β-catenin is required for optic cup formation, commitment to RPE cells and maintenance of dorsal identity of the retina.

  14. The Location of the Deepest Point of the Eyeball Determines the Optic Disc Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Chan; Jung, Younhea; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Chan Kee

    2017-07-19

    Tilted and rotated appearances are hallmarks of the myopic optic disc. As the eyeball grows axially, the posterior pole elongates not only globally but in a localized manner as well. In this process, the optic disc is pulled towards the deepest point of the elongated eyeball, which might result in a change in optic disc configuration. Thus, we hypothesized that analyzing the variation of posterior pole contour can play a major role in understanding optic disc configuration in myopic subjects. By analyzing consecutive images of swept source OCT coronal sections at the posterior pole, the deepest interface between Bruch's membrane and the choroid could be identified as the deepest point of the eyeball (DPE). The location and the properties of the DPE differed significantly between the 125 eyes of non-glaucomatous myopic group and the 40 eyes of non-glaucomatous emmetropic group classified based on 24 mm axial length. The results suggested that the larger disc to DPE angle and the larger disc to DPE depth strongly predicts the optic disc torsion degree and the optic disc tilt. Our findings suggest that identifying the posterior pole profile plays a major role in understanding the optic disc alterations found in myopic subjects.

  15. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography morphology in optic disc pit associated maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Michalewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our purpose was to study the clinical manifestation and course of optic pit maculopathy using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD- OCT images. Materials and Methods: We used SD-OCT to examine 20 eyes of 19 patients with a macular detachment in combination with an optic. Results: We observed five different fovea appearances in regard to fluid localization. In five eyes, we recorded changes in the fluid distribution with SD-OCT. In 17/20 eyes, we noted a communication between the perineural and subretinal and/or intraretinal space at the margin of the optic disc. Conclusion: 3-dimensional SD-OCT (3D-SDOCT scans revealed a three-fold connection, between subretinal and intraretinal space, perineural space, and the vitreous cavity. Therefore, we suppose that intraretinal or subretinal fluid in optic pit maculopathy may have both a vitreous and cerebrospinal origin. A membrane, covering the optic nerve was noted in 14 cases. Even if it seems intact in some B-scans, it is not complete in others several micrometers apart. Additionally, we observed fluid accumulation below the margin of the optic disc and hyperreflective porous tissue in the optic disc excavation. Those findings do not influence the course of maculopathy.

  16. Study of the Radial Peripapillary Capillary Network in Congenital Optic Disc Anomalies With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Gilda; Rossi, Claudia; Ruggiero, Pasquale; de Crecchio, Giuseppe; Cennamo, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the radial peripapillary capillary network with optical coherence tomography angiography (angio-OCT) in morning glory syndrome (MGS), optic disc colobomas, and optic disc pits, and to explore possible correlations between the neural vascular structure and the pathogenesis of congenital optic disc anomalies. Prospective observational comparative case series. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with congenital optic disc anomalies were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent angio-OCT. The scans were centered on optic discs. The mean age at presentation was 33 years (range: 19-50 years). Congenital optic disc anomalies were identified in all 15 eyes. Three eyes had the characteristic funduscopic signs of MGS, and angio-OCT scans of the peripapillary retina revealed a dense microvascular network. Optic disc colobomas were found in 5 eyes, and the characteristic funduscopic signs of optic pits were found in 7 eyes. Angio-OCT showed the absence of a radial peripapillary microvascular network in these 12 eyes. The finding that angio-OCT scans confirmed the presence of a peripapillary microvascular network only in MGS cases supports the hypothesis that a primary neuroectodermal abnormality and a secondary mesenchymal abnormality leads to MGS. Angio-OCT is a safe, rapid imaging technique that could shed light on the pathogenesis of rare diseases of the optic disc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast localization of optic disc and fovea in retinal images for eye disease screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Barriga, S.; Agurto, C.; Echegaray, S.; Pattichis, M.; Zamora, G.; Bauman, W.; Soliz, P.

    2011-03-01

    Optic disc (OD) and fovea locations are two important anatomical landmarks in automated analysis of retinal disease in color fundus photographs. This paper presents a new, fast, fully automatic optic disc and fovea localization algorithm developed for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening. The optic disc localization methodology comprises of two steps. First, the OD location is identified using template matching and directional matched filter. To reduce false positives due to bright areas of pathology, we exploit vessel characteristics inside the optic disc. The location of the fovea is estimated as the point of lowest matched filter response within a search area determined by the optic disc location. Second, optic disc segmentation is performed. Based on the detected optic disc location, a fast hybrid level-set algorithm which combines the region information and edge gradient to drive the curve evolution is used to segment the optic disc boundary. Extensive evaluation was performed on 1200 images (Messidor) composed of 540 images of healthy retinas, 431 images with DR but no risk of macular edema (ME), and 229 images with DR and risk of ME. The OD location methodology obtained 98.3% success rate, while fovea location achieved 95% success rate. The average mean absolute distance (MAD) between the OD segmentation algorithm and "gold standard" is 10.5% of estimated OD radius. Qualitatively, 97% of the images achieved Excellent to Fair performance for OD segmentation. The segmentation algorithm performs well even on blurred images.

  18. Modelling of the Optical Detector System in a Compact Disc Player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2003-01-01

    The cross-couplings between focus and radial tracking servos in compact disc players are important, but the optical cross couplings are not well described in the literature. In this paper an optical model of a compact disc player based on the three beam single foucault detector principle is found...

  19. Unilateral Acute Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy in a Patient with an Already Established Diagnosis of Bilateral Optic Disc Drusen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic disc drusen (ODD are calcific deposits that form in the optic nerve head secondary to abnormalities in axonal metabolism and degeneration. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, central retinal artery, and vein occlusion are among the rare vascular complications of disc drusen. We reported the clinical course of a 51-year-old patient with a unilateral acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION who received the diagnosis of bilateral optic disc drusen five years earlier and thereby reiterated the association of ODD and acute NAION.

  20. Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning in Myopic Glaucoma: Impact of Optic Disc Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyeong Ik; Lee, Won June; Kim, Young Kook; Park, Ki Ho; Jeoung, Jin Wook

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of optic disc torsion on the rate of progressive retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning in patients with myopic open-angle glaucoma. We included 102 patients with myopic open-angle glaucoma accompanied by glaucomatous damage confined to a single hemiretina who were followed up over a 5-year period. We divided the subjects into three groups according to the presence or absence of optic disc torsion and the correspondence between the direction of optic disc torsion and the location of glaucomatous damage: torsion with reverse correspondence group (eyes showing inferior optic disc torsion with glaucomatous damage in the superior quadrant or eyes showing superior torsion with damage in the inferior quadrant), no torsion group, and torsion with correspondence group (eyes showing inferior optic disc torsion with glaucomatous damage in the inferior quadrant or eyes showing superior torsion with damage in the superior quadrant). Changes in the peripapillary RNFL thickness (pRNFLT), evaluated using linear mixed model analysis, were compared among the three groups to determine the relationship between optic disc torsion and pRNFLT changes. Among the total of 102 subjects, 13 eyes (12.7%) exhibited optic disc torsion with reverse correspondence, 59 (57.8%) did not exhibit optic disc torsion, and 30 (29.4%) exhibited optic disc torsion with correspondence. pRNFL thinning in the quadrant with glaucomatous damage was significantly faster in the torsion with correspondence group (-1.66 μm/y) than those in the no torsion (-1.14 μm/y; P = 0.032) and torsion with reverse correspondence (-0.50 μm/y; P optic disc torsion-glaucomatous damage correspondence is an important prognostic factor for patients with myopic open-angle glaucoma.

  1. Time Localisation of Surface Defects on Optical Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, M.V.

    Many have experienced problems with their Compact Disc player when a disc with a scratch or a finger print is tried played. One way to improve the playability of discs with such a defect, is to locate the defect in time and then handle it in a special way. As a consequence this time localisation...

  2. Time Localisation of Surface Defects on Optical Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    Many have experienced problems with their Compact Disc Player when a disc with a scratch or a fingerprint is tried played. One way to improve the playability of discs with such a defect, is to locate the defect in time and then handle it in a special way. As a consequence this time localization...

  3. Loss of laminin alpha 1 results in multiple structural defects and divergent effects on adhesion during vertebrate optic cup morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Chase D.; Chien, Chi-Bin; Kwan, Kristen M.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate eye forms via a complex set of morphogenetic events. The optic vesicle evaginates and undergoes transformative shape changes to form the optic cup, in which neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium enwrap the lens. It has long been known that a complex, glycoprotein-rich extracellular matrix layer surrounds the developing optic cup throughout the process, yet the functions of the matrix and its specific molecular components have remained unclear. Previous work established a role for laminin extracellular matrix in particular steps of eye development, including optic vesicle evagination, lens differentiation, and retinal ganglion cell polarization, yet it is unknown what role laminin might play in the early process of optic cup formation subsequent to the initial step of optic vesicle evagination. Here, we use the zebrafish lama1 mutant (lama1UW1) to determine the function of laminin during optic cup morphogenesis. Using live imaging, we find, surprisingly, that loss of laminin leads to divergent effects on focal adhesion assembly in a spatiotemporally-specific manner, and that laminin is required for multiple steps of optic cup morphogenesis, including optic stalk constriction, invagination, and formation of a spherical lens. Laminin is not required for single cell behaviors and changes in cell shape. Rather, in lama1UW1 mutants, loss of epithelial polarity and altered adhesion lead to defective tissue architecture and formation of a disorganized retina. These results demonstrate that the laminin extracellular matrix plays multiple critical roles regulating adhesion and polarity to establish and maintain tissue structure during optic cup morphogenesis. PMID:27339294

  4. Investigation of detection limits for diffuse optical tomography systems: II. Analysis of slab and cup geometry for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ronny; Brendel, Bernhard; Rinneberg, Herbert; Nielsen, Tim

    2009-01-21

    Using a statistical (chi-square) test on simulated data and a realistic noise model derived from the system's hardware we study the performance of diffuse optical tomography systems for fluorescence imaging. We compare the predicted smallest size of detectable lesions at various positions in slab and cup geometry and model how detection sensitivity depends on breast compression and lesion fluorescence contrast. Our investigation shows that lesion detection is limited by relative noise in slab geometry and by absolute noise in cup geometry.

  5. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Converges More Convexly on Normal Smaller Optic Nerve Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung In; Shin, Jeong Ah; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-08-01

    To investigate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) configuration in the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area according to disc size and to determine whether it explains cup discrepancy among eyes with different disc sizes. Horizontal and vertical RNFL curvature and mean thickness were measured using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph) in 63 normal subjects grouped by disc size. Average and quadrant RNFL thickness, disc size, average cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and convergence angle at the optic disc were also measured using Cirrus HD-optical coherence tomography. The relationships between disc size and RNFL curvature, thickness, angle at optic disc, and CDR were evaluated. RNFL curvature and convergence angle reflects convexity "on" and "into" the optic disc, respectively. CDR was smaller for small discs and was positively correlated with disc size (Poptic disc were positively correlated with disc size (POptic disc area was negatively correlated with mean RNFL thickness at the optic disc margin measured by HRT (P=0.002), but not in the peripapillary area by optical coherence tomography. Using imaging techniques, we demonstrated that the shape of the RNFLs converging "on" and entering "into" the optic disc was more convex for small optic discs compared with large discs. A low CDR for small discs could be mediated by these RNFL profiles at the ONH, which may guide the clinical evaluation of glaucomatous ONH damage.

  6. Optical coherence tomography detection of characteristic retinal nerve fiber layer thinning in nasal hypoplasia of the optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, M; Kodama, R; Yamakawa, R

    2017-12-01

    PurposeTo determine the clinical usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detecting thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in eyes with nasal hypoplasia of the optic discs (NHOD).Patients and methodsThe medical records of five patients (eight eyes) with NHOD were reviewed. The ratio of the disc-macula distance to the disc diameter (DM/DD) and the disc ovality ratio of the minimal to maximal DD were assessed using fundus photographs. The RNFL thicknesses of the temporal, superior, nasal, and inferior quadrants were evaluated using OCT quadrant maps.ResultsAll eight eyes had temporal visual field defects that respected the vertical meridians that needed to be differentiated from those related to chiasmal compression. The mean DM/DD ratio was 3.1 and the mean disc ovality ratio was 0.81. The mean RNFL thicknesses of the temporal, superior, nasal, and inferior quadrants were 90.3, 103.1, 34.8, and 112.8 microns, respectively.ConclusionSmall optic discs and tilted discs might be associated with NHOD. Measurement of the RNFL thickness around the optic disc using OCT scans clearly visualized the characteristic RNFL thinning of the nasal quadrants corresponding to the temporal sector visual field defects in eyes with NHOD. OCT confirmed the presence of NHOD and might differentiate eyes with NHOD from those with chiasmal compression.

  7. Developing a trend prediction model of subsurface damage for fixed-abrasive grinding of optics by cup wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo

    2016-11-10

    Fixed-abrasive grinding by cup wheels plays an important role in the production of precision optics. During cup wheel grinding, we strive for a large removal rate while maintaining fine integrity on the surface and subsurface layers (academically recognized as surface roughness and subsurface damage, respectively). This study develops a theoretical model used to predict the trend of subsurface damage of optics (with respect to various grinding parameters) in fixed-abrasive grinding by cup wheels. It is derived from the maximum undeformed chip thickness model, and it successfully correlates the pivotal parameters of cup wheel grinding with the subsurface damage depth. The efficiency of this model is then demonstrated by a set of experiments performed on a cup wheel grinding machine. In these experiments, the characteristics of subsurface damage are inspected by a wedge-polishing plus microscopic inspection method, revealing that the subsurface damage induced in cup wheel grinding is composed of craterlike morphologies and slender cracks, with depth ranging from ∼6.2 to ∼13.2  μm under the specified grinding parameters. With the help of the proposed model, an optimized grinding strategy is suggested for realizing fine subsurface integrity as well as high removal rate, which can alleviate the workload of subsequent lapping and polishing.

  8. Quantitative comparison of disc rim color in optic nerve atrophy of compressive optic neuropathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Eri; Hata, Masayuki; Oishi, Akio; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Uji, Akihito; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Miyata, Manabu; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose was to investigate an objective and quantitative method to estimate the redness of the optic disc neuroretinal rim, and to determine the usefulness of this method to differentiate compressive optic neuropathy (CON) from glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). In our study there were 126 eyes: 40 with CON, 40 with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), and 46 normal eyes (NOR). Digital color fundus photographs were assessed for the redness of disc rim color using ImageJ software. We separately measured the intensity of red, green, and blue pixels from RGB images. Three disc color indices (DCIs), which indicate the redness intensity, were calculated through existing formulas. All three DCIs of CON were significantly smaller than those of NOR (P  -6 dB), in which the extent of retinal nerve fiber layer thinning is comparable, the DCIs of mild CON were significantly smaller than those of mild NTG (P optic disc color was useful in differentiating early-stage CON from GON and NOR.

  9. Mean curvature and texture constrained composite weighted random walk algorithm for optic disc segmentation towards glaucoma screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rashmi; Puhan, N B; Panda, Ganapati

    2018-02-01

    Accurate optic disc (OD) segmentation is an important step in obtaining cup-to-disc ratio-based glaucoma screening using fundus imaging. It is a challenging task because of the subtle OD boundary, blood vessel occlusion and intensity inhomogeneity. In this Letter, the authors propose an improved version of the random walk algorithm for OD segmentation to tackle such challenges. The algorithm incorporates the mean curvature and Gabor texture energy features to define the new composite weight function to compute the edge weights. Unlike the deformable model-based OD segmentation techniques, the proposed algorithm remains unaffected by curve initialisation and local energy minima problem. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified with DRIVE, DIARETDB1, DRISHTI-GS and MESSIDOR database images using the performance measures such as mean absolute distance, overlapping ratio, dice coefficient, sensitivity, specificity and precision. The obtained OD segmentation results and quantitative performance measures show robustness and superiority of the proposed algorithm in handling the complex challenges in OD segmentation.

  10. Agreement of glaucoma specialists and experienced optometrists in gonioscopy and optic disc evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Addepalli U. Kumar; Ganesh B. Jonnadula; Chandrasekhar Garudadri; Harsha L. Rao; Sirisha Senthil; Eric B. Papas; Padmaja Sankaridurg; Rohit C. Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of glaucoma specialists and experienced optometrists in gonioscopy and optic disc assessment. Methods: This study was done to validate the diagnostic performance of two experienced optometrists for using their skills of detecting glaucoma using gonioscopy and optic disc assessment in a major epidemiological study, the L V Prasad Eye Institute Glaucoma Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (LVPEI-GLEAMS). Gonioscopic findings for 150 eyes w...

  11. Automatic Segmentation of Optic Disc in Eye Fundus Images: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Allam, Ali; Youssif, Aliaa; Ghalwash, Atef

    2015-01-01

    Optic disc detection and segmentation is one of the key elements for automatic retinal disease screening systems. The aim of this survey paper is to review, categorize and compare the optic disc detection algorithms and methodologies, giving a description of each of them, highlighting their key points and performance measures. Accordingly, this survey firstly overviews the anatomy of the eye fundus showing its main structural components along with their properties and functions. Consequently,...

  12. Bilateral macular colobomata: Temporal dragging of optic disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old male presented with decreased vision and squint from childhood. He had bilateral large colobomata at the macula in each eye, the one on the right being larger than the left. The disc was dragged temporally with straightening of the temporal retinal vessels. This is a case report of bilateral large macular coloboma and serves to report its association with a temporally dragged disc and straightened temporal retinal vessels. A dragged disc if present with a colobomatous defect at the macula may strengthen the case for diagnosis of macular coloboma and help exclude other differentials.

  13. A novel method for retinal optic disc detection using bat meta-heuristic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ahmad S; Özok, Yasa Ekşioğlu; Rahebi, Javad

    2018-05-09

    Normally, the optic disc detection of retinal images is useful during the treatment of glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, the novel preprocessing of a retinal image with a bat algorithm (BA) optimization is proposed to detect the optic disc of the retinal image. As the optic disk is a bright area and the vessels that emerge from it are dark, these facts lead to the selected segments being regions with a great diversity of intensity, which does not usually happen in pathological regions. First, in the preprocessing stage, the image is fully converted into a gray image using a gray scale conversion, and then morphological operations are implemented in order to remove dark elements such as blood vessels, from the images. In the next stage, a bat algorithm (BA) is used to find the optimum threshold value for the optic disc location. In order to improve the accuracy and to obtain the best result for the segmented optic disc, the ellipse fitting approach was used in the last stage to enhance and smooth the segmented optic disc boundary region. The ellipse fitting is carried out using the least square distance approach. The efficiency of the proposed method was tested on six publicly available datasets, MESSIDOR, DRIVE, DIARETDB1, DIARETDB0, STARE, and DRIONS-DB. The optic disc segmentation average overlaps and accuracy was in the range of 78.5-88.2% and 96.6-99.91% in these six databases. The optic disk of the retinal images was segmented in less than 2.1 s per image. The use of the proposed method improved the optic disc segmentation results for healthy and pathological retinal images in a low computation time. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  14. Preliminary optical coherence tomography investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărcăuteanu, Corina; Demjan, Enikö; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Motoc, Adrian; Lighezan, Rodica; Vasile, Liliana; Hughes, Mike; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2010-02-01

    Aim and objectives. The morphology and position of the temporo-mandibular disc are key issues in the diagnosis and treatment of arthrogenous temporo-mandibular disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy are used today to identify: flattening of the pars posterior of the disc, perforation and/or adhesions in the pars intermedia of the disc and disc displacements. The present study proposes the investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Material and methods. 8 human temporo-mandibular joint discs were harvested from dead subjects, under 40 year of age, and conserved in formalin. They had a normal morphology, with a thicker pars posterior (2,6 mm on the average) and a thinner pars intermedia (1mm on the average). We investigated the disc samples using two different OCT systems: an en-face OCT (time domain (TD)-OCT) system, working at 1300 nm (C-scan and B-scan mode) and a spectral OCT system (a Fourier domain (FD)-OCT) system , working at 840 nm (B-scan mode). Results. The OCT investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint discs revealed a homogeneous microstructure. The longer wavelength of the TD-OCT offers a higher penetration depth (2,5 mm in air), which is important for the analysis of the pars posterior, while the FD-OCT is much faster. Conclusions: OCT is a promising imaging method for the microstructural characterization of the temporo-mandibular disc.

  15. High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Shimouma, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2004-09-01

    We developed a high density near field optical recording disc system with a solid immersion lens and two laser sources. In order to realize the near field optical recording, we used a phase change recording media and a molded polycarbonate substrate. The near field optical pick-up consists of a solid immersion lens with numerical aperture of 1.84. The clear eye pattern of 90.2 GB capacity (160nm track pitch and 62 nm per bit) was observed. The jitter using a limit equalizer was 10.0 % without cross-talk. The bit error rate using an adaptive PRML with 8 taps was 3.7e-6 without cross-talk. We confirmed that the near field optical disc system is a promising technology for a next generation high density optical disc system.

  16. Donor disc attachment assessment with intraoperative spectral optical coherence tomography during descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wylegala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography has already been proven to be useful for pre- and post-surgical anterior eye segment assessment, especially in lamellar keratoplasty procedures. There is no evidence for intraoperative usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT. We present a case report of the intraoperative donor disc attachment assessment with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in case of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK surgery combined with corneal incisions. The effectiveness of the performed corneal stab incisions was visualized directly by OCT scan analysis. OCT assisted DSAEK allows the assessment of the accuracy of the Descemet stripping and donor disc attachment.

  17. Agreement of glaucoma specialists and experienced optometrists in gonioscopy and optic disc evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Addepalli U.; Jonnadula, Ganesh B.; Garudadri, Chandrasekhar; Rao, Harsha L.; Senthil, Sirisha; Papas, Eric B.; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Khanna, Rohit C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of glaucoma specialists and experienced optometrists in gonioscopy and optic disc assessment. Methods This study was done to validate the diagnostic performance of two experienced optometrists for using their skills of detecting glaucoma using gonioscopy and optic disc assessment in a major epidemiological study, the L V Prasad Eye Institute Glaucoma Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (LVPEI-GLEAMS). Gonioscopic findings for 150 eyes were categorized as 0, 1 and 2 for open angle, primary angle closure suspect (PACS) and primary angle closure (PAC) respectively. Optic disc findings for 200 eyes were categorized as 0, 1 and 2 for normal, suspects and glaucomatous respectively. Weighted kappa (κ) and diagnostic accuracy parameters were calculated. Two optometrists (#1 and #2) participated in the study. Results Agreement between glaucoma specialists and optometrist for interpretation of gonioscopy to discriminate PACS and PAC from open angles and for interpretation of optic disc to discriminate glaucomatous and suspicious discs from normal, the kappa (κ) was 0.92 and 0.84 and 0.90 and 0.89 for optometrists #1 and #2 respectively. Sensitivities and specificities were above 90% for gonioscopy. Optic disc evaluation had specificities greater than 95% to discriminate normal from glaucomatous discs while the sensitivities were 83% and 93% for optometrists #1 and #2 respectively. Conclusion Agreement between optometrists and glaucoma specialists, in diagnostic performance of gonioscopy and optic assessment was excellent with high sensitivity and specificity. Hence, we conclude that the experienced optometrists can detect glaucoma accurately in the LVPEI-GLEAMS.

  18. Displacement of foveal area toward optic disc after macular hole surgery with internal limiting membrane peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, K; Ito, Y; Kondo, M; Ishikawa, K; Kachi, S; Ueno, S; Iguchi, Y; Terasaki, H

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether there is a displacement of the fovea toward the optic disc after successful macular hole (MH) surgery with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. The medical records of 54 eyes of 53 patients that had undergone pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling and gas or air tamponade for an idiopathic MH were evaluated. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) had been performed before and >6 months after the surgery. The preoperative distances between the center of the MH and the optic disc (MH-OD), center of the MH and the bifurcation or crossing of retinal vessels (MH-RV) were measured in the OCT images. In addition, the postoperative distance between the center of the fovea and optic disc (F-OD) and the center of the fovea and the same bifurcation or crossing of retinal vessels (F-RV) were measured in the OCT images. The F-OD was 2.67±0.33 disc diameters (DD), which was significantly shorter than that of the MH-OD of 2.77±0.33 DD (Pdisplacement of the center of the macula toward the optic disc.

  19. Multifocal visual evoked potentials for quantifying optic nerve dysfunction in patients with optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; de Santiago, Luis; Boquete, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    and 22 control subjects were examined. Mean amplitude, mean inner ring (IR) amplitude (0.87-5.67° of visual field) and mean outer ring amplitude (5.68-24° of visual field) were calculated using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and peak-to-peak analysis. Monocular latency was calculated using second peak......PURPOSE: To explore the applicability of multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEPs) for research and clinical diagnosis in patients with optic disc drusen (ODD). This is the first assessment of mfVEP amplitude in patients with ODD. METHODS: MfVEP amplitude and latency from 33 patients with ODD......, full eye and IR. In the control group, SNR intersubject variability was 17.6% and second peak latency intersubject variability was 2.8%. CONCLUSION: Decreased mfVEP amplitude in patients with ODD suggests a direct mechanical compression of the optic nerve axons. Our results suggest that mfVEP amplitude...

  20. Risk factors and long-term changes of non-arteritis anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Xin Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the risk factors and long-term changes of non-arteritis anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy(NAION. METHODS:Three hundred and sixty cases of patients with NAION in our hospital from January 2010 to Juny 2015 were used as patients group and another 400 people undergoing health examination were used as control group. The clinical data was collected. Optical coherence tomography(OCTwas performed. RESULTS:There were significant difference on gender, history of diabetes or hypertension, arteriosclerosis history, disc area, cup area, rim area, cup/disc area ratio, horizontal cup-disc ratio, vertical cup-disc ratio, FBG and TG of two groups(PPP>0.05. CONCLUSION:Male, with diabetes, history of hypertension, arteriosclerosis history, disc area, cup area, rim area, cup/disc area ratio, horizontal cup-disc ratio, vertical cup-disc ratio, FBG and TG are independent risk factors of NAION. Long-term damage of RNFL may not aggravate.

  1. A new approach to optic disc detection in human retinal images using the firefly algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahebi, Javad; Hardalaç, Fırat

    2016-03-01

    There are various methods and algorithms to detect the optic discs in retinal images. In recent years, much attention has been given to the utilization of the intelligent algorithms. In this paper, we present a new automated method of optic disc detection in human retinal images using the firefly algorithm. The firefly intelligent algorithm is an emerging intelligent algorithm that was inspired by the social behavior of fireflies. The population in this algorithm includes the fireflies, each of which has a specific rate of lighting or fitness. In this method, the insects are compared two by two, and the less attractive insects can be observed to move toward the more attractive insects. Finally, one of the insects is selected as the most attractive, and this insect presents the optimum response to the problem in question. Here, we used the light intensity of the pixels of the retinal image pixels instead of firefly lightings. The movement of these insects due to local fluctuations produces different light intensity values in the images. Because the optic disc is the brightest area in the retinal images, all of the insects move toward brightest area and thus specify the location of the optic disc in the image. The results of implementation show that proposed algorithm could acquire an accuracy rate of 100 % in DRIVE dataset, 95 % in STARE dataset, and 94.38 % in DiaRetDB1 dataset. The results of implementation reveal high capability and accuracy of proposed algorithm in the detection of the optic disc from retinal images. Also, recorded required time for the detection of the optic disc in these images is 2.13 s for DRIVE dataset, 2.81 s for STARE dataset, and 3.52 s for DiaRetDB1 dataset accordingly. These time values are average value.

  2. Retinitis pigmentosa inversa with unilateral high myopia with fellow eye optic disc pitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Saumil; Rush, Ryan; Narayanan, Raja

    2011-01-01

    To report a possible rare association of bilateral retinitis pigmentosa inversa (RPI) with unilateral high myopia with fellow eye optic disc pitting. A 55-year-old man with a history of reduced vision in the right eye since childhood presented with gradually decreasing vision in the left eye. On examination, a -23.00 diopter refractive error and diffuse chorioretinal atrophy consistent with pathologic myopia was found in the right eye. An optic disc pit with posterior pole pigmentary alterations thought to be consequent to a previous neurosensory detachment was found in the left eye. Though the retinal arteriolar attenuation seen in both eyes with an inconsistent history of night blindness since childhood pointed towards the possibility of a concurrently existing rod or rod-cone dystrophy, the posterior pole pigmentary alterations characteristic of RPI were clearly masked by the above pathologies. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated prominent foveal atrophy and an optic disc pit in the left eye. Electroretinography (ERG) demonstrated moderately attenuated amplitudes with prolonged implicit times of rod and cone responses bilaterally. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral RPI and anisometropic amblyopia in the right eye. This report documents a unique constellation of findings which include bilateral RPI and unilateral high myopia with an optic disc pit in the fellow eye. An ERG confirmation of a dystrophic etiology should be sought in suspicious cases, especially when findings are masked by the concurrent presence of other pathologies.

  3. Optical effects related to Keplerian discs orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate possible optical signatures of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) naked singularity spacetimes representing a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the modified Hořava gravity. In such spacetimes, accretion structures significantly different from those present in standard black hole spacetimes occur due to the ‘antigravity’ effect, which causes an internal static sphere surrounded by Keplerian discs. We focus our attention on the optical effects related to the Keplerian accretion discs, constructing the optical appearance of the Keplerian discs, the spectral continuum due to their thermal radiation, and the spectral profiled lines generated in the innermost parts of such discs. The KS naked singularity signature is strongly encoded in the characteristics of predicted optical effects, especially in cases where the spectral continuum and spectral lines are profiled by the strong gravity of the spacetimes due to the vanishing region of the angular velocity gradient influencing the effectiveness of the viscosity mechanism. We can conclude that optical signatures of KS naked singularities can be well distinguished from the signatures of standard black holes.

  4. Optical effects related to Keplerian discs orbiting Kehagias–Sfetsos naked singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate possible optical signatures of the Kehagias–Sfetsos (KS) naked singularity spacetimes representing a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the modified Hořava gravity. In such spacetimes, accretion structures significantly different from those present in standard black hole spacetimes occur due to the ‘antigravity’ effect, which causes an internal static sphere surrounded by Keplerian discs. We focus our attention on the optical effects related to the Keplerian accretion discs, constructing the optical appearance of the Keplerian discs, the spectral continuum due to their thermal radiation, and the spectral profiled lines generated in the innermost parts of such discs. The KS naked singularity signature is strongly encoded in the characteristics of predicted optical effects, especially in cases where the spectral continuum and spectral lines are profiled by the strong gravity of the spacetimes due to the vanishing region of the angular velocity gradient influencing the effectiveness of the viscosity mechanism. We can conclude that optical signatures of KS naked singularities can be well distinguished from the signatures of standard black holes. (paper)

  5. Combined in-depth, 3D, en face imaging of the optic disc, optic disc pits and optic disc pit maculopathy using swept-source megahertz OCT at 1050 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Josef; Kolb, Jan Philip; Klein, Thomas; Mohler, Kathrin J; Eibl, Matthias; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Priglinger, Siegfried; Wolf, Armin

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate papillary imaging of eyes with optic disc pits (ODP) or optic disc pit associated maculopathy (ODP-M) with ultrahigh-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.68 million A-scans/s. To generate 3D-renderings of the papillary area with 3D volume-reconstructions of the ODP and highly resolved en face images from a single densely-sampled megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset for investigation of ODP-characteristics. A 1.68 MHz-prototype SS-MHz-OCT system at 1050 nm based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser was employed to acquire high-definition, 3D datasets with a dense sampling of 1600 × 1600 A-scans over a 45° field of view. Six eyes with ODPs, and two further eyes with glaucomatous alteration or without ocular pathology are presented. 3D-rendering of the deep papillary structures, virtual 3D-reconstructions of the ODPs and depth resolved isotropic en face images were generated using semiautomatic segmentation. 3D-rendering and en face imaging of the optic disc, ODPs and ODP associated pathologies showed a broad spectrum regarding ODP characteristics. Between individuals the shape of the ODP and the appending pathologies varied considerably. MHz-OCT en face imaging generates distinct top-view images of ODPs and ODP-M. MHz-OCT generates high resolution images of retinal pathologies associated with ODP-M and allows visualizing ODPs with depths of up to 2.7 mm. Different patterns of ODPs can be visualized in patients for the first time using 3D-reconstructions and co-registered high-definition en face images extracted from a single densely sampled 1050 nm megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset. As the immediate vicinity to the SAS and the site of intrapapillary proliferation is located at the bottom of the ODP it is crucial to image the complete structure and the whole depth of ODPs. Especially in very deep pits, where non-swept-source OCT fails to reach the bottom, conventional swept-source devices and the MHz-OCT alike are feasible

  6. Reproducibility of Perfusion Parameters of Optic Disc and Macula in Rhesus Monkeys by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yang, Yi-Quan; Yang, Di-Ya; Liu, Xiang-Xiang; Sun, Yun-Xiao; Wei, Shi-Fei; Wang, Ning-Li

    2016-05-05

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography is a novel technique by which we can detect the local perfusion of fundus directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of optic disc and macular flow perfusion parameters in rhesus monkeys using OCT angiography. Eighteen healthy monkeys (18 eyes) were subjected to optic disc and macula flow index measurements via a high-speed and high-resolution spectral-domain OCT XR Avanti with a split-spectrum amplitude de-correlation angiography algorithm. Right eye was imaged 3 times during the first examination and once during each of the two following examinations. The intra-visit and inter-visit intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were both determined. The average flow indices of the four optic disc area layers were 0.171 ± 0.009 (optic nerve head), 0.015 ± 0.004 (vitreous), 0.052 ± 0.009 (radial peripapillary capillary), and 0.167 ± 0.011 (choroid). Average flow indices of the four macula area layers were 0.044 ± 0.011 (superficial retina), 0.036 ± 0.011 (deep retina), 0.016 ± 0.009 (outer retina), and 0.155 ± 0.013 (choroid). Intra-visit (ICC value: 0.821-0.954) and inter-visit (ICC value: 0.844-0.899) repeatability were both high. The study is about the reproducibility of optic disc and macular perfusion parameters as measured by OCT angiography in healthy rhesus monkeys. Flow index measurement reproducibility is high for both the optic disc and macula of normal monkey eyes. OCT angiography might be a useful technique to assess changes when examining monkeys with experimental ocular diseases.

  7. Case Report of Optic Disc Drusen with Simultaneous Peripapillary Subretinal Hemorrhage and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zhiwei Law

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old Chinese gentleman presented with right eye floaters and photopsia over one week. His visual acuities were 20/20 bilaterally. Posterior segment examination showed a right eye swollen optic disc and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO associated with an area of subretinal hemorrhage adjacent to the optic disc. Fundus fluorescein (FA and indocyanine green angiographies (ICGA of the right eye did not demonstrate choroidal neovascularization (CNV, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, or retinal ischemia. Ultrasound B-scan revealed optic disc drusen (ODD. In view of good vision and absence of CNV, he was managed conservatively with spontaneous resolution after two months. Commonly, ODD may directly compress and mechanically rupture subretinal vessels at the optic disc, resulting in peripapillary subretinal hemorrhage, as was likely the case in our patient. Mechanical impairment of peripapillary circulation also results in retinal ischemia and may trigger the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV and/or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, leading to subretinal haemorrhage. Compromise in central venous outflow with increased retinal central venous pressure from the direct mechanical effects of enlarging ODD results in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Patients with subretinal hemorrhage and CRVO from ODD should be monitored closely for the development of potentially sight-threatening complications.

  8. Wnt ligands from the embryonic surface ectoderm regulate ‘bimetallic strip’ optic cup morphogenesis in mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, April C.; Smith, April N.; Wagner, Heidi; Cohen-Tayar, Yamit; Rao, Sujata; Wallace, Valerie; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Lang, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin response pathway is central to many developmental processes. Here, we assessed the role of Wnt signaling in early eye development using the mouse as a model system. We showed that the surface ectoderm region that includes the lens placode expressed 12 out of 19 possible Wnt ligands. When these activities were suppressed by conditional deletion of wntless (Le-cre; Wlsfl/fl) there were dramatic consequences that included a saucer-shaped optic cup, ventral coloboma, and a deficiency of periocular mesenchyme. This phenotype shared features with that produced when the Wnt/β-catenin pathway co-receptor Lrp6 is mutated or when retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the eye is compromised. Consistent with this, microarray and cell fate marker analysis identified a series of expression changes in genes known to be regulated by RA or by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Using pathway reporters, we showed that Wnt ligands from the surface ectoderm directly or indirectly elicit a Wnt/β-catenin response in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) progenitors near the optic cup rim. In Le-cre; Wlsfl/fl mice, the numbers of RPE cells are reduced and this can explain, using the principle of the bimetallic strip, the curvature of the optic cup. These data thus establish a novel hypothesis to explain how differential cell numbers in a bilayered epithelium can lead to shape change. PMID:25715397

  9. Sensitivity and specificity of monochromatic photography of the ocular fundus in differentiating optic nerve head drusen and optic disc oedema: optic disc drusen and oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gili, Pablo; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Yangüela, Julio; Orduña-Azcona, Javier; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores

    2013-03-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of monochromatic photography of the ocular fundus in differentiating optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and optic disc oedema (ODE). Sixty-six patients with ONHD, 31 patients with ODE and 70 healthy subjects were studied. Colour and monochromatic fundus photography with different filters (green, red and autofluorescence) were performed. The results were analysed blindly by two observers. The sensitivity, specificity and interobserver agreement (k) of each test were assessed. Colour photography offers 65.5 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for the diagnosis of ONHD. Monochromatic photography improves sensitivity and specificity and provides similar results: green filter (71.20 % sensitivity, 96.70 % specificity), red filter (80.30 % sensitivity, 96.80 % specificity), and autofluorescence technique (87.8 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity). The interobserver agreement was good with all techniques used: autofluorescence (k = 0.957), green filter (k = 0.897), red filter (k = 0.818) and colour (k = 0.809). Monochromatic fundus photography permits ONHD and ODE to be differentiated, with good sensitivity and very high specificity. The best results were obtained with autofluorescence and red filter study.

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography in Optic Nerve Hypoplasia: Correlation With Optic Disc Diameter, Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness, and Visual Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John P; Baran, Francine; Phillips, James O; Weiss, Avery H

    2017-12-15

    The correlation between optic disc diameters (DDs) with average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and visual function in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) having nystagmus is unknown. Data were obtained from a retrospective review of 28 children (mean age: 9.4 years; ±5.1). Optic DD was defined as the maximal horizontal opening of Bruch membrane with spectral optical coherence tomography combined with a confocal laser ophthalmoscope. Average RNFLT was obtained from circumpapillary b-scans. RNFLT was also remeasured at eccentricities that were proportionate with DD to rule out potential sampling artifacts. Visual function was assessed by visual acuity at last follow-up and by visual evoked potentials (VEP) in 11 patients. The eye with the larger DD, which had better visual acuity, was analyzed to exclude potential effects of amblyopia. DD was correlated with average RNFLT (r = 0.61), visual acuity (r = 0.32), and VEPs (r = 0.66). The relationship between RNFLT and DD was as follows: average RNFLT (μm) = 0.074 * DD (μm) - 18.8. RNFLT also correlated with the ratio of horizontal optic DD to macula-disc-margin distance (DD:DM; r = 0.59). RNFLT measured at eccentricities proportionate with DD showed progressive decrease in thickness only for DDs <1,100 μm. All patients with DD <1,000 μm had subnormal visual acuity, whereas those with DD <1,200 μm had subnormal VEPs. DD correlates with average RNFLT and with visual function in children with ONH. Using OCT imaging, DD can be obtained in children with nystagmus and provides objective information.

  11. Presumed Optic Disc Melanocytoma in a Young Nigerian: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homogenous soft tissue mass with broad base arising from the choroid in the optic nerve area and projecting into the vitreous cavity. No retinal detachment or sub-retinal fluid was seen. An assessment of right presumed ODM was made. She was refracted with visual acuity improvement to 6/5 in either eye and spectacles ...

  12. Intracranial pressure-induced optic nerve sheath response as a predictive biomarker for optic disc edema in astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wostyn, Peter; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2017-11-01

    A significant proportion of the astronauts who spend extended periods in microgravity develop ophthalmic abnormalities. Understanding this syndrome, called visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP), has become a high priority for National Aeronautics and Space Administration, especially in view of future long-duration missions (e.g., Mars missions). Moreover, to ensure selection of astronaut candidates who will be able to complete long-duration missions with low risk of the VIIP syndrome, it is imperative to identify biomarkers for VIIP risk prediction. Here, we hypothesize that the optic nerve sheath response to alterations in intracranial pressure may be a potential predictive biomarker for optic disc edema in astronauts. If confirmed, this biomarker could be used for preflight identification of astronauts at risk for developing VIIP-associated optic disc edema.

  13. The collagen structure of bovine intervertebral disc studied using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matcher, Stephen J; Winlove, C Peter; Gangnus, Sergei V [Present address: JSC ' Saratovneftegeophysics' , Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2004-04-07

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is used to measure the birefringence properties of bovine intervertebral disc and equine flexor tendon. For equine tendon the birefringence {delta}n is (6.0 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -3} at a wavelength of 1.3 {mu}m. This is somewhat larger than the values reported for bovine tendon. The surface region of the annulus fibrosus of a freshly excised intact bovine intervertebral disc displays an identical value of birefringence, {delta}n = (6.0 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -3} at 1.3 {mu}m. The nucleus pulposus does not display birefringence, the measured apparent value of {delta}n = (0.39 {+-} 0.01) x 10{sup -3} being indistinguishable from the effects of depolarization due to multiple scattering. A clear difference is found between the depth-resolved retardance of equine tendon and that of bovine intervertebral disc. This apparently relates to the lamellar structure of the latter tissue, in which the collagen fibre orientation alternates between successive lamellae. A semi-empirical model based on Jones calculus shows that the measurements are in reasonable agreement with previous optical and x-ray data. These results imply that PS-OCT could be a useful tool to study collagen organization within the intervertebral disc in vitro and possibly in vivo and its variation with applied load and disease.

  14. The collagen structure of bovine intervertebral disc studied using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matcher, Stephen J; Winlove, C Peter; Gangnus, Sergei V

    2004-01-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is used to measure the birefringence properties of bovine intervertebral disc and equine flexor tendon. For equine tendon the birefringence Δn is (6.0 ± 0.2) x 10 -3 at a wavelength of 1.3 μm. This is somewhat larger than the values reported for bovine tendon. The surface region of the annulus fibrosus of a freshly excised intact bovine intervertebral disc displays an identical value of birefringence, Δn = (6.0 ± 0.6) x 10 -3 at 1.3 μm. The nucleus pulposus does not display birefringence, the measured apparent value of Δn = (0.39 ± 0.01) x 10 -3 being indistinguishable from the effects of depolarization due to multiple scattering. A clear difference is found between the depth-resolved retardance of equine tendon and that of bovine intervertebral disc. This apparently relates to the lamellar structure of the latter tissue, in which the collagen fibre orientation alternates between successive lamellae. A semi-empirical model based on Jones calculus shows that the measurements are in reasonable agreement with previous optical and x-ray data. These results imply that PS-OCT could be a useful tool to study collagen organization within the intervertebral disc in vitro and possibly in vivo and its variation with applied load and disease

  15. Retinal displacement toward optic disc after internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Yoshikazu; Higashida, Rieko; Tsutsumi, Yorihisa; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Imamura, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    To examine the retinal displacement following successful macular hole (MH) surgery with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and gas tamponade, and to determine the correlation between the extent of displacement and the basal MH size. Retrospective, interventional, observational case series. The medical records of consecutive patients with an idiopathic MH that had undergone vitrectomy with ILM peeling and gas tamponade were studied. The distances between the optic disc and the intersection of 2 retinal vessels located nasal or temporal to the fovea were measured manually preoperatively (A), and 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively (B), on the fundus autofluorescence or near-infrared images. The basal and minimum diameters of the MHs were measured in the spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic images. The correlations between the ratio of the retinal displacement (A - B/A) and basal diameters of the MHs were determined. Twenty-one eyes of 21 patients (9 men, mean age: 64.6 ± 8.4 years) were studied. Ten eyes (47.6%) had stage 2 MH, 9 eyes (42.9%) had stage 3 MH, and 2 eyes (9.5%) had stage 4 MH. The temporal retinal vessels were displaced 260.8 ± 145.8 μm toward the optic disc at 2 weeks postoperatively, which was significantly greater than the 91.1 ± 89.7 μm of the nasal retinal vessels (paired t test, P displacement in the temporal field at 2 weeks was significantly correlated with the basal diameter of the MH (Spearman's rank correlation coeffieient = -0.476, P = .033. The greater displacement of the temporal retina than the nasal retina toward the optic disc postoperatively suggests that the temporal retina is more flexible and can be retracted toward the optic disc during the MH closure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of integrated damage detection system for international America's Cup class yacht structures using a fiber optic distributed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyoshi, Shimada; Naruse, Hiroshi; Uzawa, Kyoshi; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro

    2000-06-01

    We constructed a new health monitoring system to detect damage using a fiber optic distributed sensor, namely a Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR), and installed it in International America's Cup Class (IACC) yachts, the Japanese entry in America's Cup 2000. IACC yachts are designed to be as fast as possible, so it is essential that they are lightweight and encounter minimum water resistance. Advanced composite sandwich structures, made with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) skins and a honeycomb core, are used to achieve the lightweight structure. Yacht structure designs push the strength of the materials to their limit and so it is important to detect highly stressed or damaged regions that might cause a catastrophic fracture. The BOTDR measures changes in the Brillouin frequency shift caused by distributed strain along one optical fiber. We undertook two experiments: a pulling test and a four point bending test on a composite beam. The former showed that no slippage occurred between the optical fiber glass and its coating. The latter confirmed that a debonding between the skin and the core of 300 mm length could be found with the BOTDR. Next we examined the effectiveness with which this system can assess the structural integrity of IACC yachts. The results show that our system has the potential for use as a damage detection system for smart structures.

  17. Method and system for assigning a confidence metric for automated determination of optic disc location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnowski, Thomas P [Knoxville, TN; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Muthusamy Govindasamy, Vijaya Priya [Knoxville, TN; Chaum, Edward [Memphis, TN

    2012-07-10

    A method for assigning a confidence metric for automated determination of optic disc location that includes analyzing a retinal image and determining at least two sets of coordinates locating an optic disc in the retinal image. The sets of coordinates can be determined using first and second image analysis techniques that are different from one another. An accuracy parameter can be calculated and compared to a primary risk cut-off value. A high confidence level can be assigned to the retinal image if the accuracy parameter is less than the primary risk cut-off value and a low confidence level can be assigned to the retinal image if the accuracy parameter is greater than the primary risk cut-off value. The primary risk cut-off value being selected to represent an acceptable risk of misdiagnosis of a disease having retinal manifestations by the automated technique.

  18. A multiscale decomposition approach to detect abnormal vasculature in the optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, Carla; Yu, Honggang; Murray, Victor; Pattichis, Marios S; Nemeth, Sheila; Barriga, Simon; Soliz, Peter

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a multiscale method to detect neovascularization in the optic disc (NVD) using fundus images. Our method is applied to a manually selected region of interest (ROI) containing the optic disc. All the vessels in the ROI are segmented by adaptively combining contrast enhancement methods with a vessel segmentation technique. Textural features extracted using multiscale amplitude-modulation frequency-modulation, morphological granulometry, and fractal dimension are used. A linear SVM is used to perform the classification, which is tested by means of 10-fold cross-validation. The performance is evaluated using 300 images achieving an AUC of 0.93 with maximum accuracy of 88%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical, Nanomechanical and Electrochemical Sensing on a DVD Disc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    platform in order to study and count larger objects such as cells. In this way it will be possible to analyze a given sample for several parameters simultaneously. Electrodes can also be integrated on the spinning platform [4] and hereby it is possible to perform electrochemical measurements at the same...... combined with sensitive and compact read-out possibilities from optical pick-up heads makes it possible to realize full sample pretreatment and read-out in a both fast and compact manner. References: 1. M. Madou et al., Lab on a CD, Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 8: 601-628, 2016 2. F...

  20. Automatic detection of optic disc based on PCA and mathematical morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Sandra; Naranjo, Valery; Angulo, Us; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2013-04-01

    The algorithm proposed in this paper allows to automatically segment the optic disc from a fundus image. The goal is to facilitate the early detection of certain pathologies and to fully automate the process so as to avoid specialist intervention. The method proposed for the extraction of the optic disc contour is mainly based on mathematical morphology along with principal component analysis (PCA). It makes use of different operations such as generalized distance function (GDF), a variant of the watershed transformation, the stochastic watershed, and geodesic transformations. The input of the segmentation method is obtained through PCA. The purpose of using PCA is to achieve the grey-scale image that better represents the original RGB image. The implemented algorithm has been validated on five public databases obtaining promising results. The average values obtained (a Jaccard's and Dice's coefficients of 0.8200 and 0.8932, respectively, an accuracy of 0.9947, and a true positive and false positive fractions of 0.9275 and 0.0036) demonstrate that this method is a robust tool for the automatic segmentation of the optic disc. Moreover, it is fairly reliable since it works properly on databases with a large degree of variability and improves the results of other state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Effects of three months treatment with sertraline on intraocular pressure and cup-to-disc ratio in patients with anxiety disorders/mixed anxiety and depressive disorder/major depressive disorder and without underlying eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Hendouei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors causes pupillary dilator muscle stimulation, active mydriasis, rapid rise in the level of the intraocular pressure (IOP, damage to the optic nerve at the back of the eye, and ultimately leads to acute angle closure glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of sertraline on the levels of IOP and cup-to-disc ratio (CDR in patients with anxiety disorders or mixed anxiety and depressive disorder or major depressive under daily treatment with sertraline and without underlying eye disease for three months. In this study,30 eligible patients in the sertraline group and 30 healthy volunteers in the control group include the study and were referred to an ophthalmologist. Ophthalmologic examinations were assessed at the baseline and on the first and third months of the study. The average daily dose of sertraline was 95±2.5 mg.During the study, the IOP changes in the sertraline and control groups were 0.26±0.43 and 0.00±0.00 mmHg (p<0.001, p=NS respectively and the CDR changes in sertraline and control groups were 0.03±0.05 and -0.01±0.05 (p=0.002, p=0.03 respectively. There was a significant difference in the IOP and CDR increasement between two groups ([F (1.7, 104.2 = 3.7, p = 0.03] and [F (2, 116 = 8.3, p < 0.001] respectively. In the present study, although changes in the IOP and CDR  levels in the sertraline group were significant and was equal the daily change in the persons without glaucoma or patients with normal-tension glaucoma, but the slight and continuous increase in the IOP level associated with changes in pupil size and CDR, especially in patients at risk of glaucoma in the long term, can cause a disruption in hydrodynamic homeostasis. More studies with longer duration and different dosage of sertraline need to confirm our results.     

  2. Design of a fibre-optic disc accelerometer: theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Xiao, Hao; Zhang, Songwei; Li, Fang; Liu, Yuliang

    2007-06-01

    Mechanical principles of fibre-optic disc accelerometers (FODA) different from those assumed in previous calculation methods are presented. An FODA with a high sensitivity of 82 rad/g and a resonance frequency of 360 Hz is designed and tested. In this system, the minimum measurable demodulation phase of the phase-generated carrier (PGC) is 10-5 rad, and the minimum acceleration reaches 120 ng theoretically. This kind of FODA, with its high responsivity, all-optic-fibre configuration, small size, light weight and stiff shell housing, ensures effective performance in practice.

  3. Bilateral optic disc pit with maculopathy in a patient with cleft lip and cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Seth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic disc pit (ODP is small, gray-white, oval depression found at the optic nerve head. It is a congenital defect that occurs due to imperfect closure of superior edge of the embryonic fissure. Cleft lip and palate are also congenital midline abnormalities occurring due to defect in the fusion of frontonasal prominence, maxillary prominence and mandibular prominence. There is only one case report describing the occurrence of ODP in a young patient with cleft lip and palate who also had basal encephalocele. We describe a 52-year-old patient with congenital cleft lip and palate with bilateral ODP with maculopathy but without any other midline abnormality.

  4. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies novel loci that influence cupping and the glaucomatous process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Höhn, René; Mishra, Aniket; Hysi, Pirro G; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Loomis, Stephanie J; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Gibson, Jane; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Janssen, Sarah F; Luo, Xiaoyan; Ramdas, Wishal D; Vithana, Eranga; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Montgomery, Grant W; Xu, Liang; Mountain, Jenny E; Gharahkhani, Puya; Lu, Yi; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart C; Sim, Kar-Seng; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Iglesias, Adriana I; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Hauser, Michael A; Loon, Seng-Chee; Despriet, Dominiek D G; Nag, Abhishek; Venturini, Cristina; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Schillert, Arne; Kang, Jae H; Landers, John; Jonasson, Fridbert; Cree, Angela J; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Jonsson, Vesteinn; Menon, Geeta; Weinreb, Robert N; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Ennis, Sarah; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Burdon, Kathryn P; Spector, Timothy D; Mirshahi, Alireza; Saw, Seang-Mei; Vingerling, Johannes R; Teo, Yik-Ying; Haines, Jonathan L; Wolfs, Roger C W; Lemij, Hans G; Tai, E-Shyong; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Jonas, Jost B; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Aung, Tin; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Klaver, Caroline C W; Craig, Jamie E; Macgregor, Stuart; Mackey, David A; Lotery, Andrew J; Stefansson, Kari; Bergen, Arthur A B; Young, Terri L; Wiggs, Janey L; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wong, Tien-Yin; Pasquale, Louis R; Hewitt, Alex W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hammond, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is characterized by irreversible optic nerve degeneration and is the most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Here, the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium conducts a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR), an important

  5. Effect of systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition on optic disc oxygen partial pressure in normoxia and in hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Ioannis K; Pournaras, Jean-Antoine C; Stangos, Alexandros N; Pournaras, Constantin J

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of systemic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on optic disc oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) in normoxia and hypercapnia. Intervascular optic disc PO(2) was measured in 12 anesthetized minipigs by using oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes placed 0.1), despite a 21% increase of mean arterial pressure. Optic disc PO(2) increase under hypercapnia was blunted after L-NAME injection (DeltaPO(2) = 0.6 +/- 1.1 mm Hg; 3%; P > 0.1), and this effect was reversible by L-arginine. Moreover, L-NAME reduced the response to carbogen by 29% (DeltaPO(2) = 9.1 +/- 4.4 mm Hg; 49%; P = 0.01 versus before L-NAME). The response to hyperoxia was not affected. Whereas systemic NOS inhibition did not affect optic disc PO(2) in normoxia, a blunting effect was noted on the CO(2)-induced optic disc PO(2) increase. Nitric oxide appears to mediate the hypercapnic optic disc PO(2) increase.

  6. Automated Registration of Multimodal Optic Disc Images: Clinical Assessment of Alignment Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Siene; Legg, Phil; Avadhanam, Venkat; Aye, Kyaw; Evans, Steffan H P; North, Rachel V; Marshall, Andrew D; Rosin, Paul; Morgan, James E

    2016-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of automated alignment algorithms for the registration of optic disc images obtained by 2 different modalities: fundus photography and scanning laser tomography. Images obtained with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II and paired photographic optic disc images of 135 eyes were analyzed. Three state-of-the-art automated registration techniques Regional Mutual Information, rigid Feature Neighbourhood Mutual Information (FNMI), and nonrigid FNMI (NRFNMI) were used to align these image pairs. Alignment of each composite picture was assessed on a 5-point grading scale: "Fail" (no alignment of vessels with no vessel contact), "Weak" (vessels have slight contact), "Good" (vessels with 50% contact), and "Excellent" (complete alignment). Custom software generated an image mosaic in which the modalities were interleaved as a series of alternate 5×5-pixel blocks. These were graded independently by 3 clinically experienced observers. A total of 810 image pairs were assessed. All 3 registration techniques achieved a score of "Good" or better in >95% of the image sets. NRFNMI had the highest percentage of "Excellent" (mean: 99.6%; range, 95.2% to 99.6%), followed by Regional Mutual Information (mean: 81.6%; range, 86.3% to 78.5%) and FNMI (mean: 73.1%; range, 85.2% to 54.4%). Automated registration of optic disc images by different modalities is a feasible option for clinical application. All 3 methods provided useful levels of alignment, but the NRFNMI technique consistently outperformed the others and is recommended as a practical approach to the automated registration of multimodal disc images.

  7. Noninvasive optical diagnosis of low back pain with the aid of Chinese cupping procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nanxi; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a complex disease that can be cause by a variety of reasons. Now LBP has become a very common and severe disease among kinds of occupational groups with showing a younger trend. The traditional diagnosis relies on complicated imaging modalities and other dangerous and invasive methods. Noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is noninvasive and convenient, and has been successful used in point-of-care diagnosis. Here, we attempt to explore NIRS's application in in low back pain diagnosis and the effect of aid-use of Chinese cupping procedure. 13 LBP patients and 13 healthy subjects participated in NIRS measurements of concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobins (Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]) at the middle of the lumbar spine. It was showed that there was significant differences (p < 0.001) between healthy subjects and LBP patients after cupping procedure, while insignificant before cupping. Moreover, it was found that healthy subjects showed stronger responses to cupping procedure than LBP patients, with prominently higher concentration of Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]. It indicates the potential of NIRS in noninvasive, measurable and straightforward monitoring/therapeutic effect evaluation of LBP with bedside and point-of-care monitoring capability.

  8. Microstructure of the optic disc pit in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Bo Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the structural and clinical characteristics of the optic disc pit (ODP) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) via enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Prospective, observational case series. Seventy POAG eyes clinically diagnosed with an ODP via stereo disc photography. Optic discs were scanned using EDI SD-OCT. Serial horizontal and vertical B-scan images covering the optic discs were obtained from each eye. The structural characteristics of the ODP were investigated via 3-dimensional images constructed from the serial B-scans, focusing on the presence of alterations in the contour of the lamina cribrosa (LC) or prelaminar tissue (PLT), in conjunction with associated clinical characteristics. The structural characteristics of the ODP and associated clinical characteristics. In the EDI SD-OCT images, the ODP was viewed as an isolated alteration of the LC (n = 14, 20.0%) or PLT (n = 16, 22.9%) or an alteration of both the LC and PLT (n = 40, 57.1%). Alterations of the LC were located at the mid-periphery near the LC insertion (n = 17) or far periphery adjacent to the LC insertion (n = 37), and the depth of alteration was deep (n = 23), involving nearly full-thickness LC, or shallow (n = 31), with partially visible LC at the base. Fifty-four eyes (77.1%) exhibited parafoveal visual field (VF) defect within 10 degrees of fixation, and in 98.1% of these eyes (53/54) it was spatially associated with the location of ODP. The parafoveal VF defect was more prevalent in eyes with LC alteration than those without (83.3% vs. 56.2%, P = 0.023) and in eyes with deep LC defect than those with shallow defect (95.7% vs. 74.2%, P = 0.036). Disc hemorrhage (32.4% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.008) and peripapillary retinoschisis (18.9 vs. 0.0%, P = 0.055) were more strongly associated with LC alterations located at the far periphery than at the mid-periphery. Enhanced depth imaging SD-OCT facilitated visualization of the varied

  9. [Tripolar cups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B

    2015-04-01

    Tripolar cups can be separated into constrained and unconstrained dual-mobility cups. The latter show better survival and revision rates. The main problem is the polyethylene wear. Therefore modern types of polyethylene are used in these cups. The indications for dual-mobility cups are recurrent dislocation and situations where the risk of dislocation is increased. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The relationship between vertical cup‑disc ratio and body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-16

    Feb 16, 2013 ... Varma R, Tielsch JM, Quigley HA, Hilton SC, Katz J, Spaeth GL, et al. Race, age, gender, and refractive error‑related differences in the normal disc. Arch. Ophthalmol 1994;112:1068‑78. 10. Healey PR, Mitchell P, Smith W, Wang JJ. The influence of age and intraocular pressure on the optic cup in a normal ...

  11. Optic disc drusen: understanding an old problem from a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Steffen; Malmqvist, Lasse; Costello, Fiona

    2018-04-16

    Optic disc drusen (ODD) are acellular deposits located in the optic nerve head of up to 2.4% of the population. They may develop as by-products of impaired axonal metabolism in genetically predisposed individuals, in whom a narrow scleral canal is hypothesized to play a role. Although ODD are often considered as benign innocent bystanders, recognized as part of a routine ophthalmological examination, the vast majority of patients with ODD have visual field defects. Optic disc drusen (ODD)-associated complications with severe visual loss, most often due to anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, are also known to occur. There are no treatments available to prevent or ameliorate the vision loss caused by ODD. In children, the ODD are usually uncalcified and buried within the optic nerve head tissue. In these cases, the condition can be difficult to diagnose, as it often resembles a papilloedema with optic nerve head swelling caused by raised intracranial pressure. During the teenage years, the ODD progressively become more calcified and probably also larger, which allow them to be visible on ophthalmoscopy. With the advent and proper utilization of high-resolution modalities of optical coherence tomography (OCT), it has now become possible to detect even the smallest and most deeply located ODD. This allows for ODD detection at a much earlier developmental stage than has previously been possible and enhances the possibilities of research in underlying mechanisms. A review of the literature on ODD was conducted using the PUBMED database. The review focuses on the current knowledge regarding pathogenesis, diagnostics, clinical disease-tracking methodologies, structure-function relationships and treatment strategies of ODD. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Variations of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness according to the torsion direction of optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Chan Yun; Kim, Na Rae

    2014-02-20

    To examine the relationship between the optic disc torsion and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness through a comparison with the macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer complex (GCIPL) thickness measured by Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ninety-four eyes of 94 subjects with optic disc torsion and 114 eyes of 114 subjects without optic disc torsion were enrolled prospectively. The participants underwent fundus photography and OCT imaging in peripapillary RNFL mode and macular GCIPL mode. The participants were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of optic disc torsion. The eyes with optic disc torsion were further divided into supranasal torsion and inferotemporal torsion groups according to the direction of optic disc torsion. The mean RNFL and GCIPL thicknesses for the quadrants and subsectors were compared. The superior and inferior peak locations of the RNFL were also measured according to the torsion direction. The temporal RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in inferotemporal torsion, whereas the GCIPL thickness at all segments was unaffected. The inferotemporal optic torsion had more temporally positioned superior peak locations of the RNFL than the nontorsion and supranasal-torted optic disc. Thickening of the temporal RNFL with a temporal shift in the superior peak within the eyes with inferotemporal optic disc torsion can lead to interpretation errors. The ganglion cell analysis algorithm can assist in differentiating eyes with optic disc torsion.

  13. The Influence of Volume and Anatomic Location of Optic Disc Drusen on the Sensitivity of Autofluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Frederik Cornelius; Malmqvist, Lasse; Lindberg, Anne-Sofie Wessel

    2018-01-01

    Optic disc drusen (ODD) are acellular deposits in the optic nerve head. ODD can be diagnosed using different imaging modalities, including enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and autofluorescence (AF). It is unknown which factors determine the sensitivity of AF. The aim...... of this study was to investigate the effect of volume and anatomic location of ODD on the sensitivity of AF. Cross-sectional study. A total of 38 patients (75 eyes) with ODD were included. In 12 of 75 eyes (16%) and in 11 of 38 patients (29%), EDI-OCT detected ODD that were not detected by AF. In 24 distinctly...... solitary ODD, both increase in ODD volume (P = 0.0388) and a more superficial ODD location (P EDI-OCT is superior to AF in the diagnosis of ODD. Volume and anatomic location of ODD have a significant impact...

  14. Optically thin core accretion: how planets get their gas in nearly gas-free discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene; Ferguson, Jason W.

    2018-05-01

    Models of core accretion assume that in the radiative zones of accreting gas envelopes, radiation diffuses. But super-Earths/sub-Neptunes (1-4 R⊕, 2-20 M⊕) point to formation conditions that are optically thin: their modest gas masses are accreted from short-lived and gas-poor nebulae reminiscent of the transparent cavities of transitional discs. Planetary atmospheres born in such environments can be optically thin to both incident starlight and internally generated thermal radiation. We construct time-dependent models of such atmospheres, showing that super-Earths/sub-Neptunes can accrete their ˜1 per cent-by-mass gas envelopes, and super-puffs/sub-Saturns their ˜20 per cent-by-mass envelopes, over a wide range of nebular depletion histories requiring no fine tuning. Although nascent atmospheres can exhibit stratospheric temperature inversions affected by atomic Fe and various oxides that absorb strongly at visible wavelengths, the rate of gas accretion remains controlled by the radiative-convective boundary (rcb) at much greater pressures. For dusty envelopes, the temperature at the rcb Trcb ≃ 2500 K is still set by H2 dissociation; for dust-depleted envelopes, Trcb tracks the temperature of the visible or thermal photosphere, whichever is deeper, out to at least ˜5 au. The rate of envelope growth remains largely unchanged between the old radiative diffusion models and the new optically thin models, reinforcing how robustly super-Earths form as part of the endgame chapter in disc evolution.

  15. Production of optically thin free-standing oil films from the edge of a rotating disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.G.; Burch, D.F.; Rodenberg, R.; Cramer, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for forming thin free-standing oil films which are spun from the edge of a sharp-edged rotating disc. The films can be made thin enough to show strong optical interference colors when viewed in white light. The thinnest films have areal densities down to about 10 to 20 μgm/cm 2 . A stable roughly triangular film with an area of about 10 cm 2 and fairly uniform thickness can be readily produced. Much larger films having either greater thickness or less stability are also possible. Films have been produced both in air and in vacuum

  16. Automatic Glaucoma Detection Based on Optic Disc Segmentation and Texture Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíla de Lima Claro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital image processing techniques is prominent in medical settings for the automatic diagnosis of diseases. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the world and it has no cure. Currently, there are treatments to prevent vision loss, but the disease must be detected in the early stages. Thus, the objective of this work is to develop an automatic detection method of Glaucoma in retinal images. The methodology used in the study were: acquisition of image database, Optic Disc segmentation, texture feature extraction in different color models and classiffication of images in glaucomatous or not. We obtained results of 93% accuracy.

  17. Design and fabrication of substrates with microstructures for bio-applications through the modified optical disc process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Kuo-Chi; Chang, Sheng-Li; Huang, Chu-Yu; Guan, Hann-Wen

    2011-05-01

    The modified optical disc process has been investigated and demonstrated to enable fast prototyping in fabricating molds and replicating substrates with various microstructures including micro-chambers and micro-channels. A disc-like microfluidic device was created and the testing results showed good performance in bonding and packaging. The switching of the nozzle-like micro-valve was also validated to work well. Furthermore, the relevant procedures of liquid samples loading, separating and mixing were also accomplished through food experiments.

  18. Automatic Detection of Optic Disc in Retinal Image by Using Keypoint Detection, Texture Analysis, and Visual Dictionary Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Akyol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in the computer field, methods and techniques in automatic image processing and analysis provide the opportunity to detect automatically the change and degeneration in retinal images. Localization of the optic disc is extremely important for determining the hard exudate lesions or neovascularization, which is the later phase of diabetic retinopathy, in computer aided eye disease diagnosis systems. Whereas optic disc detection is fairly an easy process in normal retinal images, detecting this region in the retinal image which is diabetic retinopathy disease may be difficult. Sometimes information related to optic disc and hard exudate information may be the same in terms of machine learning. We presented a novel approach for efficient and accurate localization of optic disc in retinal images having noise and other lesions. This approach is comprised of five main steps which are image processing, keypoint extraction, texture analysis, visual dictionary, and classifier techniques. We tested our proposed technique on 3 public datasets and obtained quantitative results. Experimental results show that an average optic disc detection accuracy of 94.38%, 95.00%, and 90.00% is achieved, respectively, on the following public datasets: DIARETDB1, DRIVE, and ROC.

  19. Surgical approach and optic coherence tomographic evaluation of optic disc anomaly in association with serous macular detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Dilek; Balcıoğlu, Nihal; Türker, Cağrı; Baydar, Yasemin; Sendül, Yekta

    2013-12-01

    Serous macular detachment (SMD) may accompany optic disc pit (ODP) and cause visual loss if untreated. We want to present different therapeutic approaches and interesting optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in three consecutive cases. In this case series, two patients with SMD and one patient with partial macular detachment and inferior retinal detachment accompanying ODP were evaluated before and after surgical intervention clinically and by spectral-domain OCT. The patients were 44 (case 1), 22 (case 2) and 24 (case 3) years old. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) + silicone oil + laser, PPV + sulfur hexafluoride gas (SF6) + laser and pneumatic retinopexy were applied, respectively. The patients were followed for 18, 15 and 14 months. Preoperative best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs) were 5/100, 7/10 and counting fingers at 1 m. Vision improved in all cases with resolution of subretinal fluid. Final BCVAs were 3/10, 10/10 and 1/10, respectively. OCT images revealed optic disc anomaly details and changes after surgical intervention, photoreceptor outer segment alterations at the detached area and macular surface changes. Surgical intervention should be tailored individually in cases with SMD. OCT is efficient for in vivo evaluation of this pathological condition and anatomical outcomes of surgery.

  20. A mathematical model for describing the retinal nerve fiber bundle trajectories in the human eye: average course, variability, and influence of refraction, optic disc size and optic disc position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M; Schiefer, Julia; Nevalainen, Jukka; Paetzold, Jens; Schiefer, Ulrich

    2012-12-01

    Previously we developed a mathematical model for describing the retinal nerve fiber bundle trajectories in the superior-temporal and inferior-temporal regions of the human retina, based on traced trajectories extracted from fundus photographs. Aims of the current study were to (i) validate the existing model, (ii) expand the model to the entire retina and (iii) determine the influence of refraction, optic disc size and optic disc position on the trajectories. A new set of fundus photographs was collected comprising 28 eyes of 28 subjects. From these 28 photographs, 625 trajectories were extracted. Trajectories in the temporal region of the retina were compared to the existing model. In this region, 347 of 399 trajectories (87%) were within the 95% central range of the existing model. The model was extended to the nasal region. With this extension, the model can now be applied to the entire retina that corresponds to the visual field as tested with standard automated perimetry (up to approximately 30° eccentricity). There was an asymmetry between the superior and inferior hemifields and a considerable location-specific inter-subject variability. In the nasal region, we found two "singularities", located roughly at the one and five o'clock positions for the right optic disc. Here, trajectories from relatively widespread areas of the retina converge. Associations between individual deviations from the model and refraction, optic disc size and optic disc position were studied with multiple linear regression. Refraction (P = 0.021) and possibly optic disc inclination (P = 0.09) influenced the trajectories in the superior-temporal region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Opportunistic detection of glaucomatous optic discs within a diabetic retinopathy screening service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Maxwell P; O'Neill, Evelyn C; Murphy, Melissa; O'Toole, Louise; Delaney, Yvonne; O'Brien, Colm; Connell, Paul P

    2016-06-10

    To determine the prevalence of glaucoma among patients referred to a glaucoma service with suspicious disc photographs from the diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening program. A clinical audit of all patients attending a single-center DR screening program in the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, between July 2010 and October 2011 was conducted with a minimum follow-up of 30 months. The DR screening service uses trained technician graders to assess 2-field color retinal photographs for the features of DR. Recently, the service was enhanced so that optic discs are also assessed for signs of glaucoma. In the 16-month study period, 3,697 diabetic patients were photographed. Following photograph grading, 91 (2.46%) were judged to require referral for assessment at the glaucoma clinic. Of these, 63 (69.23%) presented for assessment. Thirteen patients (20.63%) were diagnosed with glaucoma, comprising 7 cases of low-tension glaucoma and 6 cases of primary open-angle glaucoma. Thirty-six patients (57.14%) were classified as glaucoma suspects and 14 patients (22.22%) were discharged back to the DR screening program following normal ocular examination. Only 6 (9.52%) of the 63 patients examined had an intraocular pressure greater than 21 mm Hg. The assessment of DR screening photographs for signs of glaucomatous optic nerve damage should be considered as part of a strategy to improve glaucoma case detection and to reduce the burden of this disease on society.

  2. Long-term outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy without internal limiting membrane peeling for optic disc pit maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, R; Yilmaz, S; Inan, U U; Kaderli, B; Kurt, M; Yalcinbayir, O; Yildiz, M; Yucel, A

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the results of surgical treatment of maculopathy secondary to congenital optic pit anomaly with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), endolaser to the temporal edge of the optic disc and C3F8 tamponade without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Thirteen eyes of 12 patients with serous macular detachment and/or macular retinoschisis secondary to congenital optic disc pit (ODP) were included in the study. All eyes underwent PPV, posterior hyaloid removal, endolaser photocoagulation on the temporal margin of the optic disc and 12% C3F8 gas tamponade. Anatomic success and functional outcome determined retrospectively by optical coherence tomography and measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), respectively were the main outcome parameters. Two lines or more improvement in BCVA was obtained in 11 eyes and 6 of these eyes had 20/40 or better BCVA at the final visit. Subretinal or intraretinal fluid was completely resorbed postoperatively in 12 eyes but a little intraretinal fluid persisted in one eye at the 16-month follow-up. Better visual improvement was observed in patients treated by earlier surgical intervention. PPV, C3F8 gas tamponade and endolaser to the optic disc margin without ILM peeling may yield favourable results in the treatment of ODP maculopathy.

  3. Refraction and the axial length of the eyeball in patients with the optic disc drusen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the relationship between the optic disc drusen (ODD) and the axial length of the eyeball as well as refractive error. We examined prospectively 40 patients with ODD, 18 men and 22 women, age range from 34 to 69 years. All subjects underwent full ophthalmic examination, visual field testing and color-coded duplex sonography of the ocular vessels. Refraction was determined with an autorefractometer (Topcon RM-8000B) and further refined subjectively. Spherical equivalent refraction was calculated as the spherical dioptre plus one half of the cylindrical dioptre. Axial lengths were measured with a Sonomed ultrasound scanner model E-Z Scan AB5500. Clinical signs were observed in 65% of the eyes with drusen, among them, 38% had symptoms of visual acuity loss and all had visual fields defects. There were 21 eyes (18 eyes with and 3 without drusen), with a recorded refractive error. Significant differences in hyperopia were observed between the eyes with and without drusen (p = 0.048). The rate of occurrence of myopia did not differ significantly between affected and unaffected eyes (p = 0.06). The mean spherical equivalent refraction and axial dimensions of the eye differed significantly among the groups of eyes with and without drusen (p < 0.05). Significant differences in mean values of peak-systolic and end-diastolic velocities (p < 0.001) as well as in the resistivity index (p = 0.047) were observed between eyes with and without drusen. The optic disc drusen are often associated with shorter and hyperopic eyes. This anatomical conditions and vascular factors may contribute to pathogenesis of drusen.

  4. Optic disc boundary segmentation from diffeomorphic demons registration of monocular fundus image sequences versus 3D visualization of stereo fundus image pairs for automated early stage glaucoma assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Vijay; Hill, Jason; Mitra, Sunanda; Nutter, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Despite the current availability in resource-rich regions of advanced technologies in scanning and 3-D imaging in current ophthalmology practice, world-wide screening tests for early detection and progression of glaucoma still consist of a variety of simple tools, including fundus image-based parameters such as CDR (cup to disc diameter ratio) and CAR (cup to disc area ratio), especially in resource -poor regions. Reliable automated computation of the relevant parameters from fundus image sequences requires robust non-rigid registration and segmentation techniques. Recent research work demonstrated that proper non-rigid registration of multi-view monocular fundus image sequences could result in acceptable segmentation of cup boundaries for automated computation of CAR and CDR. This research work introduces a composite diffeomorphic demons registration algorithm for segmentation of cup boundaries from a sequence of monocular images and compares the resulting CAR and CDR values with those computed manually by experts and from 3-D visualization of stereo pairs. Our preliminary results show that the automated computation of CDR and CAR from composite diffeomorphic segmentation of monocular image sequences yield values comparable with those from the other two techniques and thus may provide global healthcare with a cost-effective yet accurate tool for management of glaucoma in its early stage.

  5. Incidence and evolution of subretinal precipitates in optic disc pit maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziralli, Irini; Theodossiadis, George; Brouzas, Dimitrios; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis

    2017-06-26

    To study the evolution of subretinal precipitates coexistent with optic disc pit (ODP) maculopathy from their appearance at baseline examination until their absorption after successful treatment. Participants in this retrospective, multicenter study were 42 patients with ODP maculopathy, in whom complete ocular examination was performed, including visual acuity (VA) measurement, slit-lamp examination, color or red-free fundus photography, and optical coherence tomography at baseline after surgical treatment. Out of 42 cases, 17 (40.5%) cases of ODP maculopathy, which were examined between 2002 and 2015, were found to have subretinal precipitates associated with multilayer fluid accumulation at baseline. Precipitates were located at the outer part of the photoreceptor layer and remained for 3-6 months after successful treatment and absorption of subretinal fluid. The mean VA was 0.99 ± 0.21 logMAR at baseline and improved to 0.54 ± 0.25 logMAR at the final examination. Macular precipitates in association with signs of disease chronicity, such as multilayer fluid accumulation, became evident at baseline examination. Precipitates' disappearance in 15 out of 17 cases coincided with the absorption of subretinal fluid. The relative low VA at baseline probably could be attributed to the chronicity of the disease.

  6. Optical methods for diagnostics and feedback control in laser-induced regeneration of spine disc and joint cartilages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Emil; Sviridov, Alexander; Omeltchenko, Alexander; Baum, Olga; Baskov, Andrey; Borchshenko, Igor; Golubev, Vladimir; Baskov, Vladimir

    2011-03-01

    In 1999 we have introduced a new approach for treatment of spine diseases based on the mechanical effect of nondestructive laser radiation on the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. Laser reconstruction of spine discs (LRD) involves puncture of the disc and non-destructive laser irradiation of the nucleus pulposus to activate reparative processes in the disc tissues. In vivo animal study has shown that LRD allows activate the growth of hyaline type cartilage in laser affected zone. The paper considers physical processes and mechanisms of laser regeneration, presents results of investigations aimed to optimize laser settings and to develop feedback control system for laser reparation in cartilages of spine and joints. The results of laser reconstruction of intervertebral discs for 510 patients have shown substantial relief of back pain for 90% of patients. Laser technology has been experimentally tested for reparation of traumatic and degenerative diseases in joint cartilage of 20 minipigs. It is shown that laser regeneration of cartilage allows feeling large (more than 5 mm) defects which usually never repair on one's own. Optical techniques have been used to promote safety and efficacy of the laser procedures.

  7. Integration of agglutination assay for protein detection in microfluidic disc using Blu-ray optical pickup unit and optical fluid scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for thrombin detection by combining a magnetic bead based agglutination assay and low-cost microfluidic disc. The detection method is based on an optomagnetic readout system implemented using a Blu-ray optical pickup unit (OPU) as main optoelectronic component. The ass...

  8. Optical-to-virial velocity ratios of local disc galaxies from combined kinematics and galaxy-galaxy lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R.; Mandelbaum, R.; Gunn, J. E.; Nakajima, R.; Seljak, U.; Hirata, C. M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we measure the optical-to-virial velocity ratios Vopt/V200c of disc galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) at a mean redshift of = 0.07 and with stellar masses 109 < M* < 1011 M⊙. Vopt/V200c, the ratio of the circular velocity measured at the optical radius of the disc (˜10 kpc) to that at the virial radius of the dark matter halo (˜150 kpc), is a powerful observational constraint on disc galaxy formation. It links galaxies to their dark matter haloes dynamically and constrains the total mass profile of disc galaxies over an order of magnitude in length scale. For this measurement, we combine Vopt derived from the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) from Reyes et al. with V200c derived from halo masses measured with galaxy-galaxy lensing. In anticipation of this combination, we use similarly selected galaxy samples for both the TFR and lensing analysis. For three M* bins with lensing-weighted mean stellar masses of 0.6, 2.7 and 6.5 × 1010 M⊙, we find halo-to-stellar mass ratios M200c/M* = 41, 23 and 26, with 1σ statistical uncertainties of around 0.1 dex, and Vopt/V200c = 1.27 ± 0.08, 1.39 ± 0.06 and 1.27 ± 0.08 (1σ), respectively. Our results suggest that the dark matter and baryonic contributions to the mass within the optical radius are comparable, if the dark matter halo profile has not been significantly modified by baryons. The results obtained in this work will serve as inputs to and constraints on disc galaxy formation models, which will be explored in future work. Finally, we note that this paper presents a new and improved galaxy shape catalogue for weak lensing that covers the full SDSS Data Release 7 footprint.

  9. Spontaneous Resolution of Long-Standing Macular Detachment due to Optic Disc Pit with Significant Visual Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikakis, Efstratios A; Chatziralli, Irini P; Peponis, Vasileios G; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Stratos, Aimilianos; Tsiotra, Vasileia A; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis G

    2014-01-01

    To report a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing serous macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, leading to significant visual improvement. A 63-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of blurred vision and micropsia in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 6/24 in the left eye, and fundoscopy revealed serous macular detachment associated with optic disc pit, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The patient was offered vitrectomy as a treatment alternative, but she preferred to be reviewed conservatively. Three years after initial presentation, neither macular detachment nor subretinal fluid was evident in OCT, while the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction line was intact. Her visual acuity was improved from 6/24 to 6/12 in her left eye, remaining stable at the 6-month follow-up after resolution. We present a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit with significant visual improvement, postulating that the integrity of the IS/OS junction line may be a prognostic factor for final visual acuity and suggesting OCT as an indicator of visual prognosis and the probable necessity of a surgical management.

  10. Spontaneous Resolution ofLong-Standing Macular Detachment due to Optic Disc Pit with Significant Visual Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstratios A. Parikakis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing serous macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, leading to significant visual improvement. Case Presentation: A 63-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of blurred vision and micropsia in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 6/24 in the left eye, and fundoscopy revealed serous macular detachment associated with optic disc pit, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT. The patient was offered vitrectomy as a treatment alternative, but she preferred to be reviewed conservatively. Three years after initial presentation, neither macular detachment nor subretinal fluid was evident in OCT, while the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS junction line was intact. Her visual acuity was improved from 6/24 to 6/12 in her left eye, remaining stable at the 6-month follow-up after resolution. Conclusion: We present a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit with significant visual improvement, postulating that the integrity of the IS/OS junction line may be a prognostic factor for final visual acuity and suggesting OCT as an indicator of visual prognosis and the probable necessity of a surgical management.

  11. A tool to separate optical/infrared disc and jet emission in X-ray transient outbursts: the colour-magnitude diagrams of XTE J1550-564

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, D.M.; Maitra, D.; Dunn, R.J.H.; Fender, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    It is now established that thermal disc emission and non-thermal jet emission can both play a role at optical/infrared (OIR) wavelengths in X-ray transients. The spectra of the jet and disc components differ, as do their dependence on mass accretion properties. Here we demonstrate that the OIR

  12. Compact Optical Discs and the World Wide Web: Two Mediums in Digitized Information Delivery Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyu Lin

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:40-52

    Compact optical discs (CDs and the World Wide Web (the Web are two mechanisms that contemporary libraries extensively use for digitized information storage, dissemination, and retrieval. The Web features an unparalleled global accessibility free from many previously known temporal and spatial restrictions. Its real-time update capability is impossible for CDs. Web-based information delivery can reduce the cost in hardware and software ownership and management of a local library, and provide one-to-one zcustomization to better serve library's clients. The current limitations of the Web include inadequate speed in data transmission, particularly for multimedia applications, and its insufficient reliability, search capabilities, and security. In comparison, speed, quality, portability, and reliability are the current advantages of CDs over the Web. These features, together with the trend in the PC industry and market, suggest that CDs will exist and continue to develop. CD/Web hybrids can combine the best of both developing mechanisms and offer optimal results. Through a comparison of CDs and the Web, it is argued that the functionality and unique features of a technology determine its future.

  13. Optic Disc Detection from Fundus Photography via Best-Buddies Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangning Hou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Robust and effective optic disc (OD detection is a necessary processing step in the research work of the automatic analysis of fundus images. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust method for the automated detection of ODs from fundus photographs. It is essentially carried out by performing template matching using the Best-Buddies Similarity (BBS measure between the hand-marked OD region and the small parts of target images. For well characterizing the local spatial information of fundus images, a gradient constraint term was introduced for computing the BBS measurement. The performance of the proposed method is validated with Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction (DRIVE and Standard Diabetic Retinopathy Database Calibration Level 1 (DIARETDB1 databases, and quantitative results were obtained. Success rates/error distances of 100%/10.4 pixel and of 97.7%/12.9 pixel, respectively, were achieved. The algorithm has been tested and compared with other commonly used methods, and the results show that the proposed method shows superior performance.

  14. Optic Disc Drusen and Family History of Glaucoma-Results of a Patient-directed Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Gramer, Eugen; Weisschuh, Nicole

    2017-10-01

    Prospective evaluation of family history (FH) of glaucoma and FH of optic disc drusen (ODD) in patients with sonographically confirmed ODD. A total of 87 patients with ODD interviewed all their first-degree and second-degree relatives using a detailed questionnaire on whether an ophthalmologist had diagnosed or excluded glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OH). Using a second questionnaire, 62 of these patients also provided information about ODD in their FH. Control groups for FH of glaucoma consisted of 2170 patients with glaucoma or OH evaluated with the same methods and identical questions for FH of glaucoma in a previous study, and of 176 healthy individuals without glaucoma or ODD who were interviewed on family history of glaucoma. Glaucoma in FH was significantly more frequent in patients with ODD with an incidence of 20.7% compared with healthy controls with an incidence of 2.8%, and half as frequent as in glaucoma patients with an incidence of 40%. ODD in FH were found in 9.7% of patients with ODD. As there is a high frequency of family history of glaucoma in patients with ODD, evaluation of FH of ODD and FH of glaucoma is essential in patients with ODD. Glaucoma in FH of ODD patients requires intraocular pressure monitoring and whenever deemed beneficial timely initiation of intraocular pressure-lowering therapy.

  15. Multicenter study of pars plana vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy: MACPIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, R; Kapran, Z; Ozdek, Ş; Teke, M Y; Oz, O; Guven, D; Yilmaz, S; Kaderli, B; Durukan, A H; Sobaci, G; Unver, Y B; Akduman, L; Kaynak, S; Dogan, I; Inan, U U

    2017-09-01

    PurposeTo evaluate surgical intervention with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for correction of optic disc pit maculopathy (ODP-M).Patients and methodsRetrospective chart review from 13 centres of 51 eyes of 50 patients with ODP-M who underwent PPV between 2002-2014. Anatomic and final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) outcomes were evaluated for all cases with different adjuvant techniques.ResultsThere were 23 males and 27 females with median age 25.5 (6-68) years. Preoperative median foveal thickness was 694.5 (331-1384) μm and improved to 252.5 (153-1405) μm. Median BCVA improved from 20/200 (20/20000 to 20/40) to 20/40 (20/2000 to 20/20) with 20/40 or better in 31 eyes. Complete retinal reattachment was achieved in 44 eyes (86.3%) at 7.1 (5.9) months. The good surgical outcomes were achieved in different adjuvant groups. Median follow-up was 24 (6 to 120) months.ConclusionsThese results confirm the long-term effectiveness of PPV for ODP-M. Prospective studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of any adjuvant technique in improving the success of PPV for ODP-M.

  16. Nailfold capillaroscopy assessment in patients with glaucoma with a current optic disc hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hussain Y; Buys, Yvonne M; Trope, Graham E

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether there is an increased prevalence of nailfold hemorrhages in patients with glaucoma with a current optic disc hemorrhage (ODH) compared with those without a history of ODH. Prospective observational study. Group 1 (n = 40) consisted of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or normal tension glaucoma (POAG/NTG) with a current ODH who met the specified inclusion/exclusion criteria. Group 2 (n = 20) consisted of age- and sex-matched patients with glaucoma without a history of ODH who met specified criteria (control group). This study was performed in a clinical practice setting. Nailfold capillaroscopy was performed in each participant to determine the presence of nailfold hemorrhages and other capillary morphologic changes. There was no significant difference in mean age (68 ± 10 years for Group 1 vs 71 ± 12 years for Group 2; p = 0.20) or sex (62% female in Group 1 vs 59% female in Group 2; p = 0.80) between the groups. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with nailfold hemorrhage(s) between Group 1 (23%, 10/42) and Group 2 (26%, 11/42; p = 0.8). Subanalysis of Group 1 identified no significant difference in the prevalence of nailfold hemorrhages between patients with POAG (23%, 6/26) and NTG (25%, 4/16; p = 0.9). We report no increase in nailfold haemorrhages in patients with glaucoma with a current ODH compared with patients with glaucoma without a history of ODH. However, the prevalence of nailfold hemorrhages in patients with glaucoma either with or without an ODH is significantly greater than that identified in normal (nonglaucoma) control subjects in other studies. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous macula detection and optic disc boundary segmentation in retinal fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Fantin; Kavalec, Conrad; Grenier, Sébastien; Ben Tahar, Houssem; Cheriet, Farida

    2016-03-01

    The optic disc (OD) and the macula are important structures in automatic diagnosis of most retinal diseases inducing vision defects such as glaucoma, diabetic or hypertensive retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. We propose a new method to detect simultaneously the macula and the OD boundary. First, the color fundus images are processed to compute several maps highlighting the different anatomical structures such as vessels, the macula and the OD. Then, macula candidates and OD candidates are found simultaneously and independently using seed detectors identified on the corresponding maps. After selecting a set of macula/OD pairs, the top candidates are sent to the OD segmentation method. The segmentation method is based on local K-means applied to color coordinates in polar space followed by a polynomial fitting regularization step. Pair scores are updated, resulting in the final best macula/OD pair. The method was evaluated on two public image databases: ONHSD and MESSIDOR. The results show an overlapping area of 0.84 on ONHSD and 0.90 on MESSIDOR, which is better than recent state of the art methods. Our segmentation method is robust to contrast and illumination problems and outputs the exact boundary of the OD, not just a circular or elliptical model. The macula detection has an accuracy of 94%, which again outperforms other macula detection methods. This shows that combining the OD and macula detections improves the overall accuracy. The computation time for the whole process is 6.4 seconds, which is faster than other methods in the literature.

  18. Minimal invasive localization of the germinal disc in ovo for subsequent chicken sexing using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Anke; Geissler, Stefan; Cimalla, Peter; Walther, Julia; Koch, Edmund

    2010-02-01

    Reason for using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to locate the germinal disc is the questionable and ethically alarming killing of male layer chickens because for the layer line only the females are necessary. To avoid this and to protect the animal rights, the sex of the fertilized chicken egg has to be determined as early as possible in the unincubated state. Because the information whether the chick becomes male or female can be found in the germinal disc an accurate localization for sexing is essential. The germinal disc is located somewhere on top of the yolk and has a diameter of approximately 4 - 5 mm. Different imaging methods like ultrasonography, 3D-X-ray micro computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used for localization until now, but found to be impractical. The goal of this study is to prove if OCT can be a moderate approach for the precise in ovo localization. Because the eggshell is an impenetrable barrier for OCT and to minimize the penetration of germs a very small hole is placed in the eggshell and a fan-shaped optical scanning pattern is used.

  19. An updated review of the efficacy of cupping therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. METHOD: Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for various diseases were included. Studies on cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments versus non-TCM therapies were excluded. RESULTS: 135 RCTs published from 1992 through 2010 were identified. The studies were generally of low methodological quality. Diseases for which cupping therapy was commonly applied were herpes zoster, facial paralysis (Bell palsy, cough and dyspnea, acne, lumbar disc herniation, and cervical spondylosis. Wet cupping was used in most trials, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, and flash cupping. Meta-analysis showed cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments was significantly superior to other treatments alone in increasing the number of cured patients with herpes zoster, facial paralysis, acne, and cervical spondylosis. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trials. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous RCTs on cupping therapy have been conducted and published during the past decades. This review showed that cupping has potential effect in the treatment of herpes zoster and other specific conditions. However, further rigorously designed trials on its use for other conditions are warranted.

  20. An Updated Review of the Efficacy of Cupping Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Li, Xun; Liu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. Method Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for various diseases were included. Studies on cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments versus non-TCM therapies were excluded. Results 135 RCTs published from 1992 through 2010 were identified. The studies were generally of low methodological quality. Diseases for which cupping therapy was commonly applied were herpes zoster, facial paralysis (Bell palsy), cough and dyspnea, acne, lumbar disc herniation, and cervical spondylosis. Wet cupping was used in most trials, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, and flash cupping. Meta-analysis showed cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments was significantly superior to other treatments alone in increasing the number of cured patients with herpes zoster, facial paralysis, acne, and cervical spondylosis. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trials. Conclusions Numerous RCTs on cupping therapy have been conducted and published during the past decades. This review showed that cupping has potential effect in the treatment of herpes zoster and other specific conditions. However, further rigorously designed trials on its use for other conditions are warranted. PMID:22389674

  1. An updated review of the efficacy of cupping therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Li, Xun; Liu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for various diseases were included. Studies on cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments versus non-TCM therapies were excluded. 135 RCTs published from 1992 through 2010 were identified. The studies were generally of low methodological quality. Diseases for which cupping therapy was commonly applied were herpes zoster, facial paralysis (Bell palsy), cough and dyspnea, acne, lumbar disc herniation, and cervical spondylosis. Wet cupping was used in most trials, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, and flash cupping. Meta-analysis showed cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments was significantly superior to other treatments alone in increasing the number of cured patients with herpes zoster, facial paralysis, acne, and cervical spondylosis. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trials. Numerous RCTs on cupping therapy have been conducted and published during the past decades. This review showed that cupping has potential effect in the treatment of herpes zoster and other specific conditions. However, further rigorously designed trials on its use for other conditions are warranted.

  2. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 10. Variability among academic glaucoma subspecialists in assessing optic disc notching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaasterland, D E; Blackwell, B; Dally, L G; Caprioli, J; Katz, L J; Ederer, F

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of data from the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) has found eyes reported to have partial optic disc rim notching (not to the edge) at baseline to have less risk of subsequent visual field loss than eyes with no notching. Because this is counterintuitive and because classification of notching had not been defined in the AGIS protocol, we have assessed AGIS ophthalmologists interobserver and intraobserver agreement on notching. Fourteen glaucoma subspecialists classified notching in 26 pairs of stereoscopic disc photographs of eyes with mild to severe glaucomatous optic neuropathy. They classified images as showing either no notching, notching not to the edge, or notching to the edge. Several hours later, 10 of them classified the same images a second time. In an analysis of interobserver agreement, of 26 stereoscopic images, a plurality of ophthalmologists classified notching as absent in 9 (35%), as present but not to the edge in 7 (27%), and as present and not to the edge in 10 (38%). All 14 ophthalmologists (100%) agreed on the classification of 7 (27%) of the images, and 13 of the 14 ophthalmologists (93%) agreed on the classification of 4 additional images (15%). Of these 11 images with at least 93% agreement, notching was reported as absent in 3 (27%) and to the edge in 8 (73%). In the remaining 15 images, there was substantial disagreement about whether notching was present and, if so, whether it was to the edge. In an analysis of intraobserver agreement, none of the 10 ophthalmologists who completed the viewing a second time classified all eyes exactly the same as the first time, though 5 ophthalmologists made 4 or fewer reclassifications. Overall, 80% of the original classifications were reproduced on second reading. Of the initial classifications that were not reproduced, slightly more than half were first classified as having notching not to the edge. Without definitions or examples of optic disc rim notching, the glaucoma

  3. Characterization of Abnormal Optic Nerve Head Morphology in Albinism Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Sarim; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Pilat, Anastasia; Lee, Helena; Pollheimer, Ellen; Proudlock, Frank Anthony

    2015-07-01

    To characterize abnormalities in three-dimensional optic nerve head (ONH) morphology in people with albinism (PWA) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to determine whether ONH abnormalities relate to other retinal and clinical abnormalities. Spectral-domain OCT was used to obtain three-dimensional images from 56 PWA and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. B-scans were corrected for nystagmus-associated motion artefacts. Disc, cup, and rim ONH dimensions and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (ppRNFL) thickness were calculated using Copernicus and ImageJ software. Median disc areas were similar in PWA (median = 1.65 mm2) and controls (1.71 mm2, P = 0.128), although discs were significantly elongated horizontally in PWA (P < 0.001). In contrast, median optic cup area in PWA (0.088 mm2) was 23.7% of that in controls (0.373 mm2, P < 0.001), with 39.4% of eyes in PWA not demonstrating a measurable optic cup. This led to significantly smaller cup to disc ratios in PWA (P < 0.001). Median rim volume in PWA (0.273 mm3) was 136.6% of that in controls (0.200 mm3). The ppRNFL was significantly thinner in PWA compared with controls (P < 0.001), especially in the temporal quadrant. In PWA, ppRNFL thickness was correlated to ganglion cell thickness at the central fovea (P = 0.007). Several ONH abnormalities, such as cup to disc ratio, were related to higher refractive errors in PWA. In PWA, ocular maldevelopment is not just limited to the retina but also involves the ONH. Reduced ppRNFL thickness is consistent with previous reports of reduced ganglion cell numbers in PWA. The thicker rim volumes may be a result of incomplete maturation of the ONH.

  4. Comparasion of Optic Nerve Head with Stereophotometric and Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Tekin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare theevaluation results of two experienced clinicians about examination of optic discs in glaucoma patients and healthy inidividuals by stereophotometry and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Material and Method: We studied 116 individuals (217 eyes who were divided as normal, glaucoma and suspected glaucoma in numbers of 54, 42 and 20 respectively. Stereophotometric photographs of optic disc were examined with fundus camera (Zeiss, FF 450 plus. Optic disc was also evaluated with HRT-3 in the same visit. Two experienced clinicians evaluated the cup/disc ratios and whether the optic discs were glaucomatous or not. Evaluation results were analysed and compared with HRT-3 examinations. Results:There were no significant age and gende rdifferences between the groups(p>0.05.Stereophotographic C/D ratio correlations between the clinicians were 0.79 (p

  5. Good visual outcome in a longstanding macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit treated with vitrectomy, laser, and gas tamponade: case report. doi: 10.20513/2447-6595.2016v56n1p68-70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optic disc pit is a congenital anomaly of the optic nerve frequently associated with macula detachment. It has a poor visual prognosis if left untreated. The treatment of the optic disc remains controversial and includes the use of laser along the edge of the optic nerve, vitrectomy with gas tamponade with or without removal of posterior hyaloid. We report a case of a 19-year-old female with a longstanding macula detachment due to optic disc pit who was treated with vitrectomy with removal of posterior hyaloid, gas tamponade, and laser. Despite longstanding macular detachment the final visual acuity was 20/25.

  6. Measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in eyes with optic disc swelling by using scanning laser polarimetry and optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Oishi, Akio; Kimura, Yugo; Nakagawa, Satoko; Horii, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-01

    The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in patients with optic disc swelling of different etiologies was compared using scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Forty-seven patients with optic disc swelling participated in the cross-sectional study. Both GDx SLP (enhanced corneal compensation) and Spectralis spectral-domain OCT measurements of RNFLT were made in 19 eyes with papilledema (PE), ten eyes with optic neuritis (ON), and 18 eyes with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic at Kyoto University Hospital. Differences in SLP (SLP-RNFLT) and OCT (OCT-RNFLT) measurements among different etiologies were investigated. No statistical differences in average OCT-RNFLT among PE, ON, and NAION patients were noted. Average SLP-RNFLT in NAION patients was smaller than in PE (P<0.01) or ON (P=0.02) patients. When RNFLT in each retinal quadrant was compared, no difference among etiologies was noted on OCT, but on SLP, the superior quadrant was thinner in NAION than in PE (P<0.001) or ON (P=0.001) patients. Compared with age-adjusted normative data of SLP-RNFLT, average SLP-RNFLT in PE (P<0.01) and ON (P<0.01) patients was greater. Superior SLP-RNFLT in NAION patients was smaller (P=0.026). The ratio of average SLP-RNFLT to average OCT-RNFLT was smaller in NAION than in PE (P=0.001) patients. In the setting of RNFL thickening, despite increased light retardance in PE and ON eyes, SLP revealed that NAION eyes have less retardance, possibly associated with ischemic axonal loss.

  7. Menses cup evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, M; Kung, R; Hannah, M; Wilansky, D; Shime, J

    1995-09-01

    To determine whether the menses cup is well tolerated by menstruating women. Prospective descriptive clinical study. Normal human volunteers in an academic research environment. Fifty-one menstruating women recruited between June to December 1991. Each participant was provided with two menses cups and an instruction sheet. Baseline information, including age, occupation, martial status, parity, description of menstrual flow, and current method used to cope with menstrual flow was collected. Subjects were asked to describe their experience with the cup at 1-, 2-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. The proportion of women who found the cup acceptable. The cup was used by 51 subjects for a total of 159 cycles. Overall, 23 women (45%) found the cup an acceptable method for coping with menses. Among 29 (57%) women who used the cup for two or more cycles, 62% found it acceptable. The menses cup may be an acceptable method for some women for coping with menstrual flow.

  8. Agreement of glaucoma specialists and experienced optometrists in gonioscopy and optic disc evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addepalli U. Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: Agreement between optometrists and glaucoma specialists, in diagnostic performance of gonioscopy and optic assessment was excellent with high sensitivity and specificity. Hence, we conclude that the experienced optometrists can detect glaucoma accurately in the LVPEI-GLEAMS.

  9. Retrobulbar blood flow and visual organ function disturbance in the course of giant cell arteritis coexisting with optic disc drusen – a case repor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Modrzejewska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The review presented ophthalmologic syndrome connected with visual organ function disorder in giant cell arteritis patient concomitant with optic nerve disc drusen. Diagnostic difficulties were shown in relation to incidence of both similar ophthalmic symptoms as well as interpretation of specialists examinations results (pattern visual evoked potential test, scanning laser polarimetry, and perimetric tests – kinetic and static. Apart from ophthalmic investigations, significant role of radiological examinations was considered, especially color Doppler ultrasonography of retrobulbar circulation – optic artery, central retinal artery, long posterior ciliary arteries. Adequate interpretation of results seems to be crucial to establish scheme and timing of treatment in case of co-occurrence of the abovementioned disorders. In the presented case early implementation of steroid therapy resulted in improvement of blood flow parameters and the regression of ophthalmological complaints. Visual field deficiency in kinetic perimetry, reduced wave amplitude p100 in visual evoked potential test as well as decrease in number of optic nerve fibers in optic nerve disc region in scanning laser polarimetry exam can be diagnostic features in diagnosis of visual impairment in the course of giant cell arteritis and optic nerve disc drusen. Evaluation of blood flow velocity parameters in retrobulbar arteries in color Doppler ultrasonography is the most valuable screening in monitoring ophthalmic dysregulation in presented disorders.

  10. A Small Disc Area Is a Risk Factor for Visual Field Loss Progression in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Yasushi; Tanito, Masaki; Yokoyama, Yu; Nitta, Koji; Katai, Maki; Omodaka, Kazuko; Nakazawa, Toru

    2018-01-01

    The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study, a cross-sectional multicenter collaborative study, used a stereo fundus camera (nonmyd WX) to assess various morphological parameters of the optic nerve head (ONH) in glaucoma patients. We compared the associations of each parameter between the visual field loss progression group and no-progression group. The study included 187 eyes of 187 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or normal-tension glaucoma. We divided the mean deviation (MD) slope values of all patients into the progression group (field progression and patient characteristics or each ONH parameter were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The MD slope averages in the progression group and no-progression group were -0.58 ± 0.28 dB/year and 0.05 ± 0.26 dB/year, respectively. Among disc parameters, vertical disc width (diameter), disc area, cup area, and cup volume in the progression group were significantly less than those in the no-progression group. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the visual field progression and disc area (odds ratio 0.49/mm 2 disc area). A smaller disc area may be associated with more rapid glaucomatous visual field progression.

  11. Association Between Optic Disc Hemorrhage and Renal Function in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeun; Kim, Joon Mo; Shim, Seong Hee; Lee, Jin Young; Yoo, Chungkwon; Won, Yu Sam; Hyun, Young Youl; Park, Ki Ho

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between renal function and disc hemorrhage (DH). This retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Health Screening Center between August 2012 and July 2013, and a total of 168,044 participants at least 20 years of age who voluntarily visited the health screening center for systemic and ophthalmologic examinations, including fundus photography, were enrolled. All subjects underwent a physical examination and provided samples for laboratory analysis. Digital fundus photographs of both eyes were taken and reviewed. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated from serum creatinine concentration using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula and Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formula. Subjects were stratified by eGFR into quartiles. Among participants, 220 (0.1%) showed DH, and 2376 (1.6%) showed glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer defects. The DH group showed higher creatinine and lower eGFR than the non-DH group. A significant trend was observed among higher creatinine, decreased eGFR as obtained by the MDRD and CG formulas, and the prevalence of DH (P for trend ≤0.003, logistic regression analysis). A multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia showed that the lowest eGFR quartiles estimated by MDRD and CG were significantly associated with DH compared with the highest eGFR quartile (adjusted odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.14 by CG, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.96 by MDRD). Renal function impairment was independently associated with a higher prevalence of DH in a South Korean population.

  12. Acetabular Cup Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ho

    2017-09-01

    The use of acetabular cup revision arthroplasty is on the rise as demands for total hip arthroplasty, improved life expectancies, and the need for individual activity increase. For an acetabular cup revision to be successful, the cup should gain stable fixation within the remaining supportive bone of the acetabulum. Since the patient's remaining supportive acetabular bone stock plays an important role in the success of revision, accurate classification of the degree of acetabular bone defect is necessary. The Paprosky classification system is most commonly used when determining the location and degree of acetabular bone loss. Common treatment options include: acetabular liner exchange, high hip center, oblong cup, trabecular metal cup with augment, bipolar cup, bulk structural graft, cemented cup, uncemented cup including jumbo cup, acetabular reinforcement device (cage), trabecular metal cup cage. The optimal treatment option is dependent upon the degree of the discontinuity, the amount of available bone stock and the likelihood of achieving stable fixation upon supportive host bone. To achieve successful acetabular cup revision, accurate evaluation of bone defect preoperatively and intraoperatively, proper choice of method of acetabular revision according to the evaluation of acetabular bone deficiency, proper technique to get primary stability of implant such as precise grafting technique, and stable fixation of implant are mandatory.

  13. CT-guided percutaneous laser disc decompression with Ceralas D, a diode laser with 980-nm wavelength and 200-μm fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevargez, A.; Groenemeyer, D.W.H.; Czerwinski, F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compact, portable Ceralas-D diode laser (CeramOptec; 980+30 nm wavelength, 200-μm optical fiber) concerning clinical usefulness, handling, and clinical results in the CT-guided treatment of herniated lumbar discs. The positioning of the canula in intradiscal space, the placement of the laser fiber into the disc through the lying canula, and the vaporization itself were carried out under CT-guidance. Due to the thin fiber optic, it was possible to use a thin 23-gauge canula. The laser procedure was performed in 0.1- to 1-s shots with 1-s pulse pause and 4-W power output. A total of 1650-2300 J was applied on each percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD). Results in 26 patients were established with a visual-analogue scale (VAS). On the follow-up examinations, 46% of the patients were absolutely pain free (>85% VAS) and fully active in everyday life after 4 postoperative weeks. Thirty-one percent of patients were relieved of the leg pain but had occasional back pain without sensorimotor impairment. Fifteen percent sensed a slight alleviation (>50% VAS) of the radiate pain. Eight percent did not experience radicular or pseudo-radicular pain alleviation (<25% VAS). Cerales-D proves to be an efficient tool for CT-guided PLDD on non-sequestered herniated lumbar discs. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of the optic disc in retinal imagery using a probabilistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kenneth W., Jr.; Chaum, Edward; Govindasamy, V. P.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Sezer, Omer

    2006-03-01

    The application of computer based image analysis to the diagnosis of retinal disease is rapidly becoming a reality due to the broad-based acceptance of electronic imaging devices throughout the medical community and through the collection and accumulation of large patient histories in picture archiving and communications systems. Advances in the imaging of ocular anatomy and pathology can now provide data to diagnose and quantify specific diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). Visual disability and blindness have a profound socioeconomic impact upon the diabetic population and DR is the leading cause of new blindness in working-age adults in the industrialized world. To reduce the impact of diabetes on vision loss, robust automation is required to achieve productive computer-based screening of large at-risk populations at lower cost. Through this research we are developing automation methods for locating and characterizing important structures in the human retina such as the vascular arcades, optic nerve, macula, and lesions. In this paper we present results for the automatic detection of the optic nerve using digital red-free fundus photography. Our method relies on the accurate segmentation of the vasculature of the retina along with spatial probability distributions describing the luminance across the retina and the density, average thickness, and average orientation of the vasculature in relation to the position of the optic nerve. With these features and other prior knowledge, we predict the location of the optic nerve in the retina using a two-class, Bayesian classifier. We report 81% detection performance on a broad range of red-free fundus images representing a population of over 345 patients with 19 different pathologies associated with DR.

  15. The Connective Tissue Components of Optic Nerve Head Cupping in Monkey Experimental Glaucoma Part 1: Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Ren, Ruojin; Lockwood, Howard; Williams, Galen; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, Crawford; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize optic nerve head (ONH) connective tissue change within 21 monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes, so as to identify its principal components. Methods Animals were imaged three to five times at baseline then every 2 weeks following chronic unilateral IOP elevation, and euthanized early through end-stage confocal scanning laser tomographic change. Optic nerve heads were serial-sectioned, three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall EG versus control eye differences were assessed by general estimating equations (GEE). Significant, animal-specific, EG eye change was required to exceed the maximum physiologic intereye differences in six healthy animals. Results Overall EG eye change was significant (P connective tissue components of ONH “cupping” in monkey EG which serve as targets for longitudinally staging and phenotyping ONH connective tissue alteration within all forms of monkey and human optic neuropathy. PMID:26641545

  16. Alterações topográficas do disco óptico provocadas pela ingestão oral de glicerina Effects of ingestion of glycerol on optic disc topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Teixeira Nicolela

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos na topografia do disco óptico após a ingestão de glicerina, uma droga que pode atuar significativamente tanto na pressão intra-ocular (Po como na pressão do líquido cérebro-raquidiano (PLCR. Métodos: Foram estudados 14 pacientes glaucomatosos recentemente diagnosticados com pressão intra-ocular acima de 25 mmHg, sem uso prévio de terapia hipotensora. Foram analisados parâmetros topográficos com o "Heildelberg Retina Tomograph" antes e após a ingestão de glicerina. Resultados: A administração de glicerina produziu uma redução significante da pressão intra-ocular de 28,2% (95% IC de 20,7 a 32,1%. Não foram observadas alterações estatisticamente significantes após ingestão de glicerina nos seguintes parâmetros topográficos: área da escavação, volume da escavação, área da rima, volume da rima, medida da forma da escavação, profundidade média da escavação e profundidade máxima da escavação. Conclusões: Nenhuma mudança significante foi observada nos parâmetros topográficos com o "Heildelberg Retina Tomograph" após a ingestão de glicerina.Purpose: To verify the effects on optic disc topography of newly diagnosed glaucoma subjects after ingestion of glycerol, a drug that causes major changes in both the intra-ocular pressure (IOP and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP. Methods: We studied 14 patients presenting with intra-ocular pressure over 25 mmHg, without previous use of hypotensive therapy. Results: Glycerol produced a significant intra-ocular pressure average reduction of 28.2% (95% CI of 20.7 to 32.1%. Despite the obtained intraocular pressure reduction, no significant change was observed in any evaluated topographic parameter (cup area and volume, rim area and volume, maximal and mean cup depth. Conclusions: Overall, no significant change in the topographic parameters, using the "Heildelberg Retina Tomograph", was observed after ingestion of glycerol.

  17. [Retinal imaging of the macula and optic disc in neurodegenerative diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turski, G N; Schmitz-Valckenberg, S; Holz, F G; Finger, R P

    2017-02-01

    Due to current demographic trends, the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia is expected to increase considerably. For potential new therapies it is important to identify patients at risk as early as possible. Currently, there is no population-based screening. Therefore, identification of biomarkers that will help screen the population at risk is urgently needed. Thus, a literature review on retinal pathology in neurodegenerative diseases was performed. PubMed was searched for studies published up to August 2016 using the following keywords: "mild cognitive impairment", "dementia", "eye", "ocular biomarkers", "OCT" and "OCT angiography". Relevant publications were selected and summarized qualitatively. Multiple studies using noninvasive in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging showed nonspecific retinal pathological changes in patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Pathological changes in macular volume, optic nerve fiber layer thickness and the ganglion cell complex were observed. However, based on available evidence, no ocular biomarkers for neurodegeneration which could be integrated in routine clinical diagnostics have been identified. The potential use of OCT in the early diagnostic workup and monitoring of progression of neurodegenerative diseases needs to be further explored in longitudinal studies with large cohorts.

  18. MR images of optic nerve compression by the intracranial carotid artery. Including the patients with normal tension glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hiroaki; Kin, Kiyonori; Arichi, Miwa; Ogata, Nahoko; Shimizu, Ken; Akai, Mikio; Ikeda, Koshi; Sawada, Satoshi; Matsumura, Miyo

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-one eyes of 12 patients with MRI-defined optic nerve compression by the intracranial carotid artery were examined to investigate whether the visual field defects result from optic nerve compression or other causes. In 4 affected eyes with 2 patients, we could not distinguish whether the visual field defects were due to optic nerve compression or normal-tension glaucoma. These patients had evidence of glaucoma-like cupping of the optic disc and visual field defects. Nine affected eyes with 7 patients were diagnosed as having compressive optic neuropathy due to unilateral optic nerve compression associated with visual field defects or non-glaucomatous visual field defects. Four of 9 affected eyes were associated with optic disc cupping of various degrees. We suggest that the glaucoma-like visual field defects and optic disc cupping may result from a compressive lesion of the anterior visual pathway. Frequently, this feature caused confusion in the differential diagnosis between optic nerve compression by carotid artery and normal-tension glaucoma. (author)

  19. [Posterior vitrectomy with gas endotamponade and retinal laser therapy in treatment of patients with macular complications of the optic disc pit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywiński, Adam; Kałużny, Jakub; Ferda, Daniela; Piwońska-Lobermajer, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation of functional and anatomical treatment outcomes in patients with macular cornplications of optic disc pit. 9 patients (eyes) underwent central posterior vitrectomy in conjunction with posterior vitreous detachment, retinal laser therapy to the optic disc pit area and endotamponade with expansile gas. It was followed by the patient's forced positioning (recommended for a few days especially at night), which ended the treatment protocol. Improved anatomical relationships, accompanied by functional improvement were achieved in each reported case. The resolution of macular lesions was slow, lasting even for several months. Too long delay in performing the surgery (over 5 months since the onset of visual impairment) was associated with the development of retinal complications, mainly macular hole formation, most likely caused by the long-term ischemia. The central posterior vitrectomy combined with posterior vitreous detachment, laser therapy, andd expansile gas tamponade offers good outcomes in patients with retinal complications of optic disc pit. Surgery performed shortly after the onset of visual dysfunction gives the best functional outcomes. Restoration of normal anatomical relationships is a long-term process. In some cases, though, these abnormalities may not resolve completely.

  20. Association of Bruch's membrane opening and optic disc morphology to axial length and visual field defects in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hideo; Suda, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Akagi, Tadamichi; Kameda, Takanori; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Yokota, Satoshi; Kurimoto, Yasuo; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2018-03-01

    To examine the morphology of Bruch's membrane opening (BMO), optic disc, and peripapillary atrophy (PPA) by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and to determine their association with the axial length and visual field defects. This was a cross-sectional study of 94 eyes of 56 subjects; 77 eyes were diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma and 17 eyes as normal. The margins of the optic disc were determined in the SLO images, and that of the BMO in the SD-OCT images. The ovality and area of the BMO and the optic disc were measured. The beta and gamma-PPA areas were also measured. The association of each parameter with the axial length and the mean deviation (MD) of the visual field tests was determined by generalized estimating equations (GEEs). The optic disc ovality was associated with the axial length and the MD (β = -0.47, P = 7.6 × 10 -4 and β = 0.12, P = 0.040). The BMO ovality was not significantly associated with the axial length and the MD. The BMO area was associated with the axial length (β = 0.30, P = 0.029). A larger BMO area was associated with a thinner BMO-based neuroretinal rim width (BMO-MRW) after adjustments for the MD (β = -0.30, P = 2.1 × 10 -4 ). The beta- and gamma-PPA areas were associated with the axial length (β = 0.50, P = 7.4 × 10 -5 and β = 0.62, P = 4.2 × 10 -6 ). The optic disc ovality was associated with both the axial length and MD, whereas BMO ovality was not. Attention should be paid to the influence of the axial length-related enlargement of the BMO.

  1. Quantitatively Measured Anatomic Location and Volume of Optic Disc Drusen: An Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Lindberg, Anne-Sofie Wessel; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2017-01-01

    function using automated perimetric mean deviation (MD) and multifocal visual evoked potentials. Increased age (P = 0.015); larger ODD volume (P = 0.002); and more superficial anatomic ODD location (P = 0.007) were found in patients with ODD visible by ophthalmoscopy compared to patients with buried ODD.......025) and had a higher effect on MD when compared to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Large ODD volume is associated with optic nerve dysfunction. The worse visual field defects associated with visible ODD should only be ascribed to larger ODD volume and not to a more superficial anatomic ODD location....

  2. Influence of optic disc size on the diagnostic performance of macular ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer analyses in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Daniela Valença; Lima, Verônica Castro; Castro, Dinorah P; Castro, Leonardo C; Pacheco, Maria Angélica; Lee, Jae Min; Dimantas, Marcelo I; Prata, Tiago Santos

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of optic disc size on the diagnostic accuracy of macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) and conventional peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) analyses provided by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in glaucoma. Eighty-two glaucoma patients and 30 healthy subjects were included. All patients underwent GCC (7 × 7 mm macular grid, consisting of RNFL, ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers) and pRNFL thickness measurement (3.45 mm circular scan) by SD-OCT. One eye was randomly selected for analysis. Initially, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for different GCC and pRNFL parameters. The effect of disc area on the diagnostic accuracy of these parameters was evaluated using a logistic ROC regression model. Subsequently, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm(2) disc sizes were arbitrarily chosen (based on data distribution) and the predicted areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) and sensitivities were compared at fixed specificities for each. Average mean deviation index for glaucomatous eyes was -5.3 ± 5.2 dB. Similar AUCs were found for the best pRNFL (average thickness = 0.872) and GCC parameters (average thickness = 0.824; P = 0.19). The coefficient representing disc area in the ROC regression model was not statistically significant for average pRNFL thickness (-0.176) or average GCC thickness (0.088; P ≥ 0.56). AUCs for fixed disc areas (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm(2)) were 0.904, 0.891, and 0.875 for average pRNFL thickness and 0.834, 0.842, and 0.851 for average GCC thickness, respectively. The highest sensitivities - at 80% specificity for average pRNFL (84.5%) and GCC thicknesses (74.5%) - were found with disc sizes fixed at 1.5 mm(2) and 2.5 mm(2). Diagnostic accuracy was similar between pRNFL and GCC thickness parameters. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend for a better diagnostic accuracy of pRNFL thickness measurement in cases of smaller discs. For GCC analysis, an inverse effect

  3. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  4. Cup-mixing type cup vending machines; Cup mixing shiki cup jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, S.; Nagasaki, T.; Hori, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper introduces the newly developed cup-mixing type cup vending machines. In the vending machines, the powder material for each beverage is stored, and the powder material delivered to a cup is carried to the cooking block by the carrier mechanism and cooked and mixed using a propeller mixer after hot and cold water are put. These vending machines meet the needs to the diversified and quality taste. The ejection port of products was also improved, and the door was designed to be higher in grade. The main block of structure is described next. The cup carrier mechanism consists of X, Y, and Z axes, and a hand. The cup is positioned by the control of a stepping motor. The number of propeller rotations in the propeller mechanism can be set to nine levels. The mixing position can also be set freely. In the temporary material reservation mechanism, the stored material is temporarily reserved until a cup is carried. The ejection port door of a cup is opened or closed automatically. The control block that drives the cup carrier mechanism is connected with the host unit by serial communication. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Restoration of the photoreceptor layer and improvement of visual acuity in successfully treated optic disc pit maculopathy: a long follow-up study by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiadis, George P; Grigoropoulos, Vlassis G; Liarakos, Vasilis S; Rouvas, Alexandros; Emfietzoglou, Ioannis; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis G

    2012-07-01

    To investigate by optical coherence tomography (OCT) the evolution of the photoreceptor layer and its association with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in optic disc pit (ODP) maculopathy after successful surgical treatment. Fourteen eyes of 14 patients were included in this study, and followed up from 36 to 95 months (mean 57.36 ± 18.32 months). The follow-up period started at the time of complete subretinal fluid absorption. Examination was performed by time-domain OCT before and after treatment. Spectral-domain OCT was used after treatment. Parameters assessed were type of elevation, central foveal thickness, time elapsed from onset to treatment, type of treatment, BCVA, and inner segment outer segment (IS/OS) junction line. The IS/OS junction was characterized after treatment as intact, interrupted, or absent (not distinguishable). Significant restoration of the IS/OS junction line was first noticed between 6 and 12 months after fluid absorption (p = 0.02; Wilcoxon signed rank test). Restoration was continuous up to the 24th month of postoperative examination after fluid absorption (p = 0.14; Wilcoxon signed rank test). BCVA was 0.99 ± 0.38 logMar before treatment, 0.81 ± 0.26 logMar (p = 0.011; paired t-test) immediately after fluid absorption and 0.61 ± 0.33 logMar (p = 0.026; one-way ANOVA) 24 months after fluid resolution. BCVA was significantly positively correlated with the integrity of the IS/OS junction line during follow-up (Pearson r = 0.775; p final photoreceptor layer condition and BCVA immediately after fluid absorption are the main factors predicting final BCVA after successful surgical treatment of ODP maculopathy.

  6. Robust control of a compact disc mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbuch, M.; Schootstra, G.; Bosgra, O.H.; Levine, W.S.

    1995-01-01

    A compact disc (CD) player is an optical decoding device that reproduces high-quality audio from a digitally coded signal recorded as a spiral-shaped track on a reflective disc. Apart from the audio application, other optical data systems (CD-ROM, optical data drive) and combined audio/video

  7. Wear analysis by applying a pin-disc configuration to phemoral head and acetabular cup Análisis del desgaste de la articulación cabeza femoral–copa acetabular mediante simulación experimental con máquina perno-disco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán-Fernandez Juan Alfonso

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work determines a prosthetic hip system’s life-span, focusing on a Mexican phenotype. The total sliding equivalent distance for the system was determined, as well as the loading regime under which the femoral component and the acetabular cup were subjected in normal operating conditions. An experimental tribology essay was then performed to simulate the wearing of the components in a Pin over Disc machine. This assay (for which the test specimens were manufactured in medical grade stainless steel AISI-ASTM 316L for the femoral component and high density polyethylene for the acetabular cup was aimed at simulating wear conditions involved in 10 years of continuous operation. A numerical simulation of operational conditions (using the finite element method was performedIn for establishing assay loading conditions to accurately determine where the loads should be applied. The tribology assay led to quantifying the volumetric loss of materials for the system being analysed. It can be concluded that the methodology proposed in this work for estimating the life-span of a prosthetic hip system was valid and accurate by comparing the results with those found in the literature. A statistical validation of the proposed method is plaaned for the future. Key words: Design life; femoral component; acetabular cup; Mexican phenotype; pin-disc configuration.Este trabajo presenta un estudio que permite establecer la vida útil esperada de un sistema prostético de cadera para el caso del fenotipo mexicano. En primera instancia se determinó la distancia total equivalente de deslizamiento y las condiciones de carga entre el componente femoral y la copa acetabular bajo condiciones normales de carga. Posteriormente, se desarrolló una simulación experimental para la realización de un ensayo tribológico en una máquina de desgaste del tipo Perno sobre Disco (Pin on Disk, POD. Este ensayo sometió al conjunto fabricado en acero inoxidable AISI

  8. A retained menstrual cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S

    2012-05-01

    A 20-year-old woman attended a genitourinary clinic with a retained vaginal Mooncup that she had inserted the night before. A Mooncup is one type of menstrual cup. On speculum examination the device was visualized high in the vagina and the cervix appeared firmly lodged within it. The physician experienced difficulty in retrieving the cup despite following product instructions. This case highlights a new adverse event with an increasingly used sanitation product. It is important that clinicians are familiar with the cup, its removal process and are able to counsel patients with retained devices on future correct placement.

  9. Influence of optic disc size on the diagnostic performance of macular ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer analyses in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro DV

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Valença Cordeiro1, Verônica Castro Lima1,2, Dinorah P Castro1,3, Leonardo C Castro1,3, Maria Angélica Pacheco2, Jae Min Lee2, Marcelo I Dimantas2, Tiago Santos Prata1,21Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 2Hospital Medicina dos Olhos, São Paulo, 3Centro Brasileiro de Especialidades Oftalmológicas, Araraquara, BrazilAim: To evaluate the influence of optic disc size on the diagnostic accuracy of macular ganglion cell complex (GCC and conventional peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL analyses provided by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT in glaucoma.Methods: Eighty-two glaucoma patients and 30 healthy subjects were included. All patients underwent GCC (7 × 7 mm macular grid, consisting of RNFL, ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers and pRNFL thickness measurement (3.45 mm circular scan by SD-OCT. One eye was randomly selected for analysis. Initially, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were generated for different GCC and pRNFL parameters. The effect of disc area on the diagnostic accuracy of these parameters was evaluated using a logistic ROC regression model. Subsequently, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm2 disc sizes were arbitrarily chosen (based on data distribution and the predicted areas under the ROC curves (AUCs and sensitivities were compared at fixed specificities for each.Results: Average mean deviation index for glaucomatous eyes was -5.3 ± 5.2 dB. Similar AUCs were found for the best pRNFL (average thickness = 0.872 and GCC parameters (average thickness = 0.824; P = 0.19.The coefficient representing disc area in the ROC regression model was not statistically significant for average pRNFL thickness (-0.176 or average GCC thickness (0.088; P ≥ 0.56. AUCs for fixed disc areas (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm2 were 0.904, 0.891, and 0.875 for average pRNFL thickness and 0.834, 0.842, and 0.851 for average GCC thickness, respectively. The highest sensitivities – at

  10. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  11. [Vitrectomy and gas-fluid exchange for the treatment of serous macular detachment due to optic disc pit: long-term evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira Neto, Carlos Augusto; Moreira Junior, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate 5 patients with serous macular detachment due to optic disc pit that were submitted to pars plana vitrectomy and were followed for at least 7 years. Patients were submitted to pars plana vitrectomy, posterior hyaloid removal, autologous serum injection and gas-fluid exchange, without laser photocoagulation, and were evaluated pre and post-operatively with visual acuity and Amsler grid testing, retinography, and recently, with autofluorescence imaging and high resolution OCT. All 5 eyes improved visual acuity significantly following the surgical procedure maintaining good vision throughout the follow-up period. Mean pre-operative visual acuity was 20/400 and final visual acuity was 20/27 with a mean follow-up time of 13.6 years. No recurrences of serous detachments were observed. OCT examinations demonstrated an attached retina up to the margin of the pit. Serous macular detachments due to optic disc pits were adequately treated with pars plana vitrectomy and gas fluid exchange, without the need for laser photocoagulation, maintaining excellent visual results for a long period of time.

  12. Optical sensing system based on wireless paired emitter detector diode device and ionogels for lab-on-a-disc water quality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czugala, Monika; Gorkin, Robert; Phelan, Thomas; Gaughran, Jennifer; Curto, Vincenzo Fabio; Ducrée, Jens; Diamond, Dermot; Benito-Lopez, Fernando

    2012-12-07

    This work describes the first use of a wireless paired emitter detector diode device (PEDD) as an optical sensor for water quality monitoring in a lab-on-a-disc device. The microfluidic platform, based on an ionogel sensing area combined with a low-cost optical sensor, is applied for quantitative pH and qualitative turbidity monitoring of water samples at point-of-need. The autonomous capabilities of the PEDD system, combined with the portability and wireless communication of the full device, provide the flexibility needed for on-site water testing. Water samples from local fresh and brackish sources were successfully analysed using the device, showing very good correlation with standard bench-top systems.

  13. Effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head in diabetes: analysis by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Munire Erman; Yucel, Iclal; Erdem, Uzeyir; Taskin, Omur; Ozel, Alper; Akar, Yusuf

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare menstrual-cycle-dependent topographic changes in the optic nerve head of normally menstruating women with different grades of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the right eyes of 123 normally menstruating women (36 with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy [NPDR], 42 with mild NPDR and 45 healthy subjects). All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination at baseline. At 4 hormonally distinct phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular, late follicular, mid-luteal and late luteal), we analysed the topography of the optic nerve head, using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, and measured the serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone. We excluded from analysis the data for 8 patients with severe NPDR, 10 patients with mild NPDR and 15 control subjects who were lost to follow-up examinations during the menstrual cycle. The mean age and optic disc area did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. The duration of diabetes was significantly longer in the patients with severe NPDR than in those with mild NPDR (p cup-shape measure, linear cup/disc ratio, cup/disc area ratio and cup area in the late luteal phase compared with the other phases of the menstrual cycle (p menstrual cycle. Severe NPDR is associated with significant topographic changes in the rim and cup of the optic nerve head during the menstrual cycle. This must be considered in the evaluation of women with both diabetes and glaucoma. The normal fluctuations in serum sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle of diabetic women seem to affect the optic nerve head more when the disease is advanced.

  14. The effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head analysis in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Munire Erman; Taskin, Omur; Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Yusuf

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head topographic analysis in normally menstruating, healthy women. The study included single eyes selected randomly from each of 52 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination. Optic nerve head topographic analyses were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II (HRT II, software version 1.6). The analyses were repeated three times during the menstrual cycle: in the follicular phase (days 7-10 of the cycle), at ovulation, and in the late luteal phase (days 1-3 before menstrual bleeding). Serum oestradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone levels were measured at each menstrual phase. Fourteen subjects were excluded from the study. The mean age of the subjects (n = 38) was 25.6 +/- 3.7 years (range 21-34 years). Blood oestradiol levels were significantly lower in the late luteal phase (35.8 pg/ml) (p cup : disc ratio, cup : disc area ratio and the cup area were significantly higher during the luteal phase (p menstrual cycle in healthy women significantly alter neuroretinal rim area and cup variables of the optic nerve head. These findings should be taken into consideration in the clinical follow-up of young women with glaucoma.

  15. Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole treatment: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Leonardo Provetti; Cunha, Luciana Virgínia Ferreira Costa; Costa, Carolina Ferreira; Monteiro, Mário Luiz Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) following uneventful pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole treatment. A 56-year-old previously healthy woman presented with a full-thickness macular hole in right eye (OD) and small cup-to-disc ratios in both eyes. Five days after surgery, she noticed sudden painless loss of vision in OD and was found to have an afferent pupillary defect and intraocular pressure of 29 mmHg. Fundus examination showed right optic disc edema and the resolution of a macular hole with an inferior altitudinal visual field defect. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein levels, and general physical examination findings were normal. She was treated with hypotensive eyedrops and oral prednisone, resulting in mild visual improvement and a pale optic disc. A combination of face-down position and increased intraocular pressure due to a small optic disc cup were considered as potential mechanisms underlying NAION in the present case. Vitreoretinal surgeons should be aware of NAION as a potentially serious complication and be able to recognize associated risk factors and clinical findings.

  16. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (An AOS Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teresa C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that video-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) can qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) glaucomatous structural changes. To correlate quantitative SDOCT parameters with disc photography and visual fields. Methods: SDOCT images from 4 glaucoma eyes (4 patients) with varying stages of open-angle glaucoma (ie, early, moderate, late) were qualitatively contrasted with 2 age-matched normal eyes (2 patients). Of 61 other consecutive patients recruited in an institutional setting, 53 eyes (33 patients) met inclusion/exclusion criteria for quantitative studies. Images were obtained using two experimental SDOCT systems, one utilizing a superluminescent diode and the other a titanium:sapphire laser source, with axial resolutions of about 6 μm and 3 μm, respectively. Results: Classic glaucomatous ONH and RNFL structural changes were seen in SDOCT images. An SDOCT reference plane 139 μm above the retinal pigment epithelium yielded cup-disc ratios that best correlated with masked physician disc photography cup-disc ratio assessments. The minimum distance band, a novel SDOCT neuroretinal rim parameter, showed good correlation with physician cup-disc ratio assessments, visual field mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation (P values range, .0003–.024). RNFL and retinal thickness maps correlated well with disc photography and visual field testing. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this thesis presents the first comprehensive qualitative and quantitative evaluation of SDOCT images of the ONH and RNFL in glaucoma. This pilot study provides basis for developing more automated quantitative SDOCT-specific glaucoma algorithms needed for future prospective multicenter national trials. PMID:20126502

  17. Up for the Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Duncan A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity related to probability in order to answer a question based on the English football league. The question is "What is the probability that the FA Cup Final will be between the same two teams that played in the previous tournament?". (ASK)

  18. Complementary Coffee Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  19. Cup Anemometer Overspeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, N. E.; Kristensen, Leif

    1976-01-01

    Statistical considerations are applied to a general equation of motion for cup anemometers in a turbulent wind. It is shown that the relative overspeeding ΔS/S can be expressed as ΔS/S = Ih2 · Js(l0/Λs) + cIw2, where Is and Iw are the horizontal and the vertical turbulence intensifies, respectively...

  20. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Differences Between Caribbean Black and African American Patients as Measured by Spectral Domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohini; Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Al-Aswad, Lama; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana M

    2015-01-01

    There are well-established differences in optic nerve morphology between patients of African and European descent. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning has demonstrated these differences with respect to optic disc area (DA), average cup-disc ratio, cup volume, and nerve fiber layer thickness. However, the term "African descent" describes a heterogenous group with considerable variability. This study evaluates differences in optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters as measured by Cirrus HD-OCT between Caribbean black and African American patients. A total of 25 African American subjects and 25 Caribbean black subjects with normal ocular examinations were consecutively recruited to this study. All patients received imaging of the optic nerve and nerve fiber layer with Cirrus HD-OCT. Optic nerve and RNFL parameters were evaluated for statistically significant differences using a t test. A mixed effect model for correlated data was then created to adjust outcome variables for (1) repeated measures and (2) optic nerve size. Two one-sided t tests were then utilized to determine equivalence. After adjustment for DA, RNFL thickness, cup volume, DA, inferior nerve fiber layer, and vertical cup-disc ratio demonstrated statistically significant equivalence between the 2 groups (P value fiber layer quadrant was significantly different between the 2 groups and may merit further investigation. Findings of this study suggest that optic nerve and RNFL morphology is markedly similar between Caribbean blacks and African Americans once adjusted for optic nerve size but cannot be considered equivalent in all measures, particularly in the superior nerve fiber layer.

  1. A Small Disc Area Is a Risk Factor for Visual Field Loss Progression in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Kitaoka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study, a cross-sectional multicenter collaborative study, used a stereo fundus camera (nonmyd WX to assess various morphological parameters of the optic nerve head (ONH in glaucoma patients. We compared the associations of each parameter between the visual field loss progression group and no-progression group. Methods. The study included 187 eyes of 187 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or normal-tension glaucoma. We divided the mean deviation (MD slope values of all patients into the progression group (<−0.3 dB/year and no-progression group (≧−0.3 dB/year. ONH morphological parameters were calculated with prototype analysis software. The correlations between glaucomatous visual field progression and patient characteristics or each ONH parameter were analyzed with Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Results. The MD slope averages in the progression group and no-progression group were −0.58 ± 0.28 dB/year and 0.05 ± 0.26 dB/year, respectively. Among disc parameters, vertical disc width (diameter, disc area, cup area, and cup volume in the progression group were significantly less than those in the no-progression group. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the visual field progression and disc area (odds ratio 0.49/mm2 disc area. Conclusion. A smaller disc area may be associated with more rapid glaucomatous visual field progression.

  2. Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Corresponds to Drusen Location and Extent of Visual Field Defects in Superficial and Buried Optic Disc Drusen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Wegener, Marianne; Sander, Birgit A; Hamann, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Optic disc drusen (ODD) are hyaline deposits located within the optic nerve head. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning is associated with the high prevalence of visual field defects seen in ODD patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics of patients with ODD and to compare the peripapillary RNFL thickness to the extent of visual field defects and anatomic location (superficial or buried) of ODD. Retrospective, cross sectional study. A total of 149 eyes of 84 ODD patients were evaluated. Sixty-five percent were female and 76% had bilateral ODD. Of 149 eyes, 109 had superficial ODD and 40 had buried ODD. Peripapillary RNFL thinning was seen in 83.6% of eyes, where optical coherence tomography was performed (n = 61). Eyes with superficial ODD had greater mean peripapillary RNFL thinning (P ≤ 0.0001) and visual field defects (P = 0.002) than eyes with buried ODD. There was a correlation between mean peripapillary RNFL thinning and visual field defects as measured by perimetric mean deviation (R-0.66; P = 0.0001). The most frequent visual field abnormalities were arcuate and partial arcuate defects. Peripapillary RNFL thickness correlates with anatomic location (superficial or buried) of ODD. Frequency and extent of visual field defects corresponded with anatomic location of ODD and peripapillary RNFL thickness, suggesting increased axonal damage in patients with superficial ODD.

  3. Modified Faraday cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  4. The Optic Nerve Head in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Eyes With High Myopia: Characteristics and Association With Visual Field Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Wei; Lan, Yu-Wen; Hsieh, Jui-Wen

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the morphologic characteristics of optic neuropathy and its association with visual field (VF) defects in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes with high myopia. In this cross-sectional study, we reviewed data from 375 Taiwanese patients (375 eyes) of POAG, ages 20 to 60 years. Optic disc photographs were used for planimetric measurements of morphologic variables. The myopic refraction was divided into high myopia (<-6.0 D) and nonhigh myopia (moderate myopia to hyperopia). The optic disc area was classified as moderate (1.59 to 2.85 mm), large, and small. Differences in characteristics between groups, correlations with the disc area, and factors associated with VF defects were determined. Of the 142 highly myopic eyes, 33 (23%) had a large disc, 26 (18%) had a small disc, and 55 (39%) had a tilted disc. Large discs had a higher cup-to-disc (C/D) area ratio and a higher tilt ratio; small discs had a smaller rim area and a lower tilt ratio (all P<0.05). Characteristics associated with high myopia included a smaller rim area, a higher C/D area ratio, and a lower tilt ratio (all P<0.001). In logistic regression, the refraction, the C/D area ratio, the rim area, and the tilt ratio (all P<0.05) were associated with VF defects. In Taiwanese individuals with POAG, our study found that tilted, large, or small discs were prevalent in highly myopic eyes. Of these characteristics, only the disc tilt and high myopia by itself were associated with the severity of glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

  5. Feature Based Control of Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    Two servo control loops are used to keep the Optical Pick-up Unit focused and radially on the information track of the Compact Disc. These control servos have problems handling surface faults on the Compact Disc. In this Ph.D thesis a method is proposed to improve the handling of these surface...

  6. Optical Depth Estimates and Effective Critical Densities of Dense Gas Tracers in the Inner Parts of Nearby Galaxy Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Donaire, M. J.; Bigiel, F.; Leroy, A. K.; Cormier, D.; Gallagher, M.; Usero, A.; Bolatto, A.; Colombo, D.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Hughes, A.; Kramer, C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Meier, D. S.; Murphy, E.; Pety, J.

    2016-01-01

    High critical density molecular lines like HCN(1-0) or HCO+(1-0) represent our best tool to study currently star-forming, dense molecular gas at extragalactic distances. The optical depth of these lines is a key ingredient to estimate the effective density required to excite emission. However, constraints on this quantity are even scarcer in the literature than measurements of the high density tracers themselves. Here, we combine new observations of HCN, HCO+ and HNC(1-0) and their optically ...

  7. Development of visual field defect after first-detected optic disc hemorrhage in preperimetric open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Jin; Song, Yong Ju; Kim, Young Kook; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate functional progression in preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) with disc hemorrhage (DH) and to determine the time interval between the first-detected DH and development of glaucomatous visual field (VF) defect. A total of 87 patients who had been first diagnosed with PPG were enrolled. The medical records of PPG patients without DH (Group 1) and with DH (Group 2) were reviewed. When glaucomatous VF defect appeared, the time interval from the diagnosis of PPG to the development of VF defect was calculated and compared between the two groups. In group 2, the time intervals from the first-detected DH to VF defect of the single- and recurrent-DH were compared. Of the enrolled patients, 45 had DH in the preperimetric stage. The median time interval from the diagnosis of PPG to the development of VF defect was 73.3 months in Group 1, versus 45.4 months in Group 2 (P = 0.042). The cumulative probability of development of VF defect after diagnosis of PPG was significantly greater in Group 2 than in Group 1. The median time interval from first-detected DH to the development of VF defect was 37.8 months. The median time interval from DH to VF defect and cumulative probability of VF defect after DH did not show a statistical difference between single and recurrent-DH patients. The median time interval between the diagnosis of PPG and the development of VF defect was significantly shorter in PPG with DH. The VF defect appeared 37.8 months after the first-detected DH in PPG.

  8. Field calibration of cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten

    2007-01-01

    A field calibration method and results are described along with the experience gained with the method. The cup anemometers to be calibrated are mounted in a row on a 10-m high rig and calibrated in the free wind against a reference cup anemometer. The method has been reported [1] to improve...... the statistical bias on the data relative to calibrations carried out in a wind tunnel. The methodology is sufficiently accurate for calibration of cup anemometers used for wind resource assessments and provides a simple, reliable and cost-effective solution to cup anemometer calibration, especially suited...

  9. Pars plana vitrectomy with juxtapapillary laser photocoagulation versus vitrectomy without juxtapapillary laser photocoagulation for the treatment of optic disc pit maculopathy: the results of the KKESH International Collaborative Retina Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouammoh, Marwan A; Alsulaiman, Sulaiman M; Gupta, Vishali S; Mousa, Ahmed; Hirakata, Akito; Berrocal, Maria H; Chenworth, Megan; Chhablani, Jay; Oshima, Yusuke; AlZamil, Waseem M; Casella, Antonio Marcelo; Papa-Oliva, Gabriela; Banker, Alay S; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2016-04-01

    To compare the functional and anatomic outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with juxtapapillary laser photocoagulation (JLP) versus vitrectomy without JLP in optic disc pit maculopathy. This was a multicentre, retrospective study of 46 consecutive patients with optic disc pit maculopathy presenting at tertiary eye centres between 1992 and 2012. Indications for surgery included distorted or decreased vision. Surgical intervention included PPV, posterior vitreous detachment, with or without gas tamponade. Twenty-four patients received laser photocoagulation at the temporal edge of the optic disc pit (group A) and 22 patients had no laser (group B). Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography findings were the main outcome measures. Mean follow-up was 44 months (range 12-98 months). BCVA in group A improved significantly from 0.7 logMAR (20/100) preoperatively to 0.5 logMAR (20/60) postoperatively (p=0.017). In group B, BCVA improved from 0.7 logMAR (20/100) preoperatively to 0.4 logMAR (20/40) postoperatively (p=0.014). The difference in final BCVA between groups was not statistically significant (p=0.693). The mean central macular thickness (CMT) in group A improved significantly from 750 μm preoperatively to 309 μm at last follow-up (pfinal CMT between groups was not statistically significant (p=0.747). PPV with JLP for optic disc pit maculopathy had similar functional and anatomic outcomes compared with vitrectomy without JLP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. [Innovation of characteristic medicinal cupping devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Jianmei; Xu, Xinchun; Niu, Yanxia; Cai, Jun

    2015-08-01

    To compare the differences in the characteristic medicinal cupping therapy between the traditional cupping device and the innovated cupping device. Fifty patients of neck and low back pain were selected. The self-comparison was adopted. The cupping therapy was applied to the acupoints located on the left or right side with the traditional cupping device and the innovated cupping device. The cupping sites were centered at bilateral Quyuan (SI 13) and Dachangshu (BL 25). The cups were retained for 10 min. The traditional cupping device was the glass with smooth border, 100mL. The innovated cupping device was the vacuum-sucking cup. The operative time, medicinal leakage, comfort and cupping marks were observed for the two different cupping devices. The operative time with the innovated medicinal cupping device was shorter obviously compared with the traditional one at Quyuan (SI 13) and Dachangshu (BL 25, both Pcupping device was remarkably improved as compared with the traditional one at the two acupoints (both Pcupping operation (both P>0. 05). The cupping marks with the innovated medicinal cupping device were much deeper than those with the traditional one after cupping therapy. The innovated cupping device is more convenent and comfortable in operation during the characteristic medicinal cupping therapy.

  11. Properties of the second and third harmonics generation in a quantum disc with inverse square potential. A modeling for nonlinear optical responses of a quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, C.M.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of the second and third harmonic generation coefficients is carried out within the framework of the effective mass approximation in two-dimensional GaAs quantum discs under the combined effect of an external magnetic field and parabolic and inverse square confining potentials. Due to the electric dipole selection rules, the system is shown to have second harmonic generation coefficient identically zero for all the values of incident frequency. The generation of third optical harmonics is significantly dependent on the values of the different input parameters, with the presence of resonant peak blueshifts associated with the magnitudes of the parabolic confinement and the applied magnetic field. -- Highlights: ► One-electron conduction states in a two-dimensional quantum dot. ► Magnetic field and an inverse square repulsive potential. ► Generation of second harmonics is always null. ► Magnetic field induces a blueshift of the resonant peaks. ► The inverse square potential induces a reduction of the peak intensities

  12. Properties of the second and third harmonics generation in a quantum disc with inverse square potential. A modeling for nonlinear optical responses of a quantum ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, C.M. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave, Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-06-15

    The calculation of the second and third harmonic generation coefficients is carried out within the framework of the effective mass approximation in two-dimensional GaAs quantum discs under the combined effect of an external magnetic field and parabolic and inverse square confining potentials. Due to the electric dipole selection rules, the system is shown to have second harmonic generation coefficient identically zero for all the values of incident frequency. The generation of third optical harmonics is significantly dependent on the values of the different input parameters, with the presence of resonant peak blueshifts associated with the magnitudes of the parabolic confinement and the applied magnetic field. -- Highlights: ► One-electron conduction states in a two-dimensional quantum dot. ► Magnetic field and an inverse square repulsive potential. ► Generation of second harmonics is always null. ► Magnetic field induces a blueshift of the resonant peaks. ► The inverse square potential induces a reduction of the peak intensities.

  13. [Application of blistering cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xingui; Chen, Zelin; Chen, Bo; Fan, Yihua; Chen, Xianghong

    2016-11-12

    Blistering cupping is special as eliminating wind and dampness as well as removing phlegm and blood stasis, and it achieves effects through suction. In this paper we reviewed relevant literature combined with clinical experience so as to summarize its operation attention through exploring the origin, mechanism and application. We divide the progress into the blistering period, the phlegm-stasis-eliminating period, and the escharosis period according to the changes of bubble and the things pulled out. Blistering cupping creates ways to eliminate concrete unhealthy influences through smoothing meridians and collaterals, such as phlegm and retained fluid, dampness and blood stasis. Thus chronic diseases are relieved. Also,we propose the rules of "blistering acupoints being related to disease location as well as the nature of acupoints and diseases". The therapy has been used to treat diseases of respiratory system, osteoarticular, skin and subcutaneous tissue, mental and behavioral disorders, and tumor, among which the effects of intractable diseases of respiratory and osteoarticular systems are definite. It deserves to be further explored and promoted.

  14. Neurophthalmological conditions mimicking glaucomatous optic neuropathy: analysis of the most common causes of misdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Diego Torres; Ushida, Michele; Battistella, Roberto; Dorairaj, Syril; Prata, Tiago Santos

    2017-01-10

    To analyze the most common neurophthalmological conditions that may mimic glaucomatous optic neuropathy and to determine which most often lead to misdiagnosis when evaluated by a glaucoma specialist. We reviewed the charts of consecutive patients with optic neuropathies caused by neurophthalmological conditions screened in a single Eye Clinic within a period of 24 months. Within these enrolled patients, we selected the eyes whose fundoscopic appearance could resemble glaucoma based in pre-defined criteria (vertical cup-to-disc ratio ≥0.6, asymmetry of the cup-to-disc ratio ≥0.2 between eyes, presence of localized retinal nerve fiber layer and/or neuroretinal rim defects, and disc haemorrhages). Then, color fundus photographs and Humphrey Visual Field tests (HVF) of these eyes were mixed with tests from 21 consecutive glaucomatous patients (42 eyes with normal tension glaucoma). These images were mixed randomly and a masked glaucoma specialist was asked to distinguish if each set of exams was from a patient with glaucoma or with a neurophthalmologic condition. Among the 101 eyes (68 patients) enrolled with neurophthalmological diseases, 16 (15.8%) were classified as conditions that could mimic glaucoma. The most common diagnoses were ischemic optic neuropathy (25%), compressive optic neuropathy (18.7%) and hereditary optic neuropathy (18.7%). Based on the analysis of fundus photographs and HVF tests, 25% of these were misdiagnosed as glaucoma (two ischemic optic neuropathies and two congenital optic disc anomalies). Conversely, 11.9% of the glaucomatous neuropathies were misdiagnosed as neurophthalmological disorders. Overall, the glaucoma specialist correctly diagnosed 84.5% of the eyes. Some neurophthalmological disorders can mimic glaucoma. In our study, isquemic and compressive optic neuropathies were the ones that most often did so. Almost one quarter of the eyes were misdiagnosed when evaluated by a glaucoma specialist, which can lead to inadequate

  15. Collimation of particle beams from thick accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, M [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warszawa (Poland); Wilson, D B [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy

    1981-11-01

    The acceleration and collimation of particle beams in the funnel of thick accretion discs is studied in the approximation that the flow is optically thin. Such flows can be collimated to within approximately 0.1 radians by sufficiently thick discs. The flow cannot convert more than a small fraction of the disc's (super-Eddington) luminosity into the energy flow of a narrow beam without being optically thick.

  16. Radiology in Gerard uncemented double cup arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, W.J.; Rozing, P.M.; Obermann, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    A radiological follow-up was performed on 109 Gerard (uncemented) double cup arthroplasties, with special emphasis on shift of the femoral cup and protrusion of the acetabular cup, for which a new formula was introduced. Varus shift or axial collapse of the femoral cup played a major role in the failure of these cups. Fluoroscopic examination with video-tape recording seemed to be most helpful in determining abnormalities in this kind of arthroplasty. This examination revealed one normal and two abnormal types of movement, either between both cups or between acetabular cup and acetabular cavity. Those hips with normal movement showed a significantly better clinical score. 16 refs.; 6 figs

  17. Structural characteristics of the acquired optic disc pit and the rate of progressive retinal nerve fiber layer thinning in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyen; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2015-10-01

    The optic disc pit (ODP) has been considered a region of localized susceptibility to the damage of glaucoma. To determine whether the rate of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning differs according to the presence and structural characteristics of an ODP in primary open-angle glaucoma. We performed a prospective case-control study that included 163 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (83 with an ODP and 80 without an ODP) from Glaucoma Clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Participants were enrolled from the ongoing Investigating Glaucoma Progression Study from January 1, 2012, through May 31, 2014. Mean (SD) follow-up was 3.32 (0.49) years (through May 31, 2014). Optic nerve heads underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine the presence of focal lamina cribrosa alteration and its structural characteristics. Eyes with and without photographic ODPs and corresponding microscopic laminar alterations were assigned to the ODP and non-ODP groups, respectively. The rates of progressive thinning of global and 6 sectoral spectral-domain OCT RNFL thicknesses were determined by linear regression and compared between the 2 groups. We used a general linear model to determine the factors associated with the rate of RNFL thinning; data obtained from September 21, 2009, through May 31, 2014, were used to calculate the rate of RNFL thinning. The relationship between the presence and structural characteristics of ODPs and the rate of progressive OCT RNFL thinning. Thinning of the RNFL was faster in the ODP group than in the non-ODP group in the global (mean [SD], -1.44 [1.31] vs -0.93 [1.10] [95% CI, -0.97 to -0.19] μm/y; P = .008), temporoinferior (mean [SD], -4.17 [4.15] vs -1.97 [3.26] [95% CI, -3.36 to -1.04] μm/y; P < .001), and temporal (mean [SD], -1.92 [2.62] vs -0.89 [1.62] [95% CI, -1.70 to -0.35] μm/y; P = .003) sectors. The rate of RNFL thinning was maximum in the temporoinferior sector (mean [SD], -4

  18. Morning glory disc anomaly: A case report | Saraswat | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morning glory disc anomaly: A case report. Neeraj K. Saraswat, Ravi Ranjan, Dipendra Shukla, Sushil Ojha. Abstract. A rare case of congenital anomaly of the optic disc is presented to draw attention to the occurrence of this anomaly in rural India. The typical case presented with excavated, enlarged colobomatous optic ...

  19. From Baby Bottle to Cup: Choose Training Cups Carefully, Use Them Temporarily

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... From baby bottle to cup Choose training cups carefully, use them temporarily T ooth decay can ... should encourage their children to drink from a cup by their first birthday. As you make the ...

  20. Spoon-to-Cup Fading as Treatment for Cup Drinking in a Child with Intestinal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Rebecca A.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Zeleny, Jason R.; Dempsey, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    We treated a child with intestinal failure who consumed solids on a spoon but not liquids from a cup. We used spoon-to-cup fading, which consisted of taping a spoon to a cup and then gradually moving the bowl of the spoon closer to the edge of the cup. Spoon-to-cup fading was effective for increasing consumption of liquids from a cup. (Contains 2…

  1. SPOON-TO-CUP FADING AS TREATMENT FOR CUP DRINKING IN A CHILD WITH INTESTINAL FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    Groff, Rebecca A; Piazza, Cathleen C; Zeleny, Jason R; Dempsey, Jack R

    2011-01-01

    We treated a child with intestinal failure who consumed solids on a spoon but not liquids from a cup. We used spoon-to-cup fading, which consisted of taping a spoon to a cup and then gradually moving the bowl of the spoon closer to the edge of the cup. Spoon-to-cup fading was effective for increasing consumption of liquids from a cup.

  2. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross-sectional image of optic nerve head during intraocular pressure elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze changes of the optic nerve head (ONH and peripapillary region during intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.METHODS: Both an optic disc 200×200 cube scan and a high-definition 5-line raster scan were obtained from open angle glaucoma patients presented with monocular elevation of IOP (≥30 mm Hg using SD-OCT. Additional baseline characteristics included age, gender, diagnosis, best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, findings of slit lamp biomicroscopy, findings of dilated stereoscopic examination of the ONH and fundus, IOP, pachymetry findings, and the results of visual field.RESULTS: The 24 patients were selected and divided into two groups:group 1 patients had no history of IOP elevation or glaucoma (n=14, and group 2 patients did have history of IOP elevation or glaucoma (n=10. In each patient, the study eye with elevated IOP was classified into group H (high, and the fellow eye was classified into group L (low. The mean deviation (MD differed significantly between groups H and L when all eyes were considered (P=0.047 and in group 2 (P=0.042, not in group 1 (P=0.893. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL average thickness (P=0.050, rim area (P=0.015, vertical cup/disc ratio (P=0.011, cup volume (P=0.028, inferior quadrant RNFL thickness (P=0.017, and clock-hour (1, 5, and 6 RNFL thicknesses (P=0.050, 0.012, and 0.018, respectively, cup depth (P=0.008, central prelaminar layer thickness (P=0.023, mid-inferior prelaminar layer thickness (P=0.023, and nasal retinal slope (P=0.034 were significantly different between the eyes with groups H and L.CONCLUSION:RNFL average thickness, rim area, vertical cup/disc ratio, cup volume, inferior quadrant RNFL thickness, and clock-hour (1, 5, and 6 RNFL thicknesses significantly changed during acute IOP elevation.

  3. Radially truncated galactic discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijs, R. de; Kregel, M.; Wesson, K H

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: We present the first results of a systematic analysis of radially truncatedexponential discs for four galaxies of a sample of disc-dominated edge-onspiral galaxies. Edge-on galaxies are very useful for the study of truncatedgalactic discs, since we can follow their light distributions out

  4. World Cup Final

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    On July 9, hundreds of millions of fans worldwide will be glued to their television sets watching the final match of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, played in Berlin's Olympic stadium (Olympiastadion). The stadium was originally built for the 1936 Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium seats 76,000,; its roof rises 68 meters over the seats and is made up of transparent panels that allow sunlight to stream in during the day. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 12.1 by 15.9 kilometers (7.5 by 9.5 miles) Location: 52.5 degrees North latitude, 13.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 15, 2005

  5. Alternative medicine: an update on cupping therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Li, M-Y; Liu, P-D; Guo, Y; Chen, Z-L

    2015-07-01

    To know the research progress of cupping therapy all over the world, the authors analyze the research of cupping therapy in recent 5 years. It indicates that cupping therapy can be applied to extensive curable disease, but has poor clinical evidence. Some improvements in the mechanism research of cupping therapy have been made, but it needs further research. The adverse events of cupping therapy attract attention. The standardization of cupping therapy has emerged. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Morphometric Optic Nerve Head Analysis in Glaucoma Patients: A Comparison between the Simultaneous Nonmydriatic Stereoscopic Fundus Camera (Kowa Nonmyd WX3D and the Heidelberg Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (HRT III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Mariacher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the agreement between morphometric optic nerve head parameters assessed with the confocal laser ophthalmoscope HRT III and the stereoscopic fundus camera Kowa nonmyd WX3D retrospectively. Methods. Morphometric optic nerve head parameters of 40 eyes of 40 patients with primary open angle glaucoma were analyzed regarding their vertical cup-to-disc-ratio (CDR. Vertical CDR, disc area, cup volume, rim volume, and maximum cup depth were assessed with both devices by one examiner. Mean bias and limits of agreement (95% CI were obtained using scatter plots and Bland-Altman analysis. Results. Overall vertical CDR comparison between HRT III and Kowa nonmyd WX3D measurements showed a mean difference (limits of agreement of −0.06 (−0.36 to 0.24. For the CDR < 0.5 group (n=24 mean difference in vertical CDR was −0.14 (−0.34 to 0.06 and for the CDR ≥ 0.5 group (n=16 0.06 (−0.21 to 0.34. Conclusion. This study showed a good agreement between Kowa nonmyd WX3D and HRT III with regard to widely used optic nerve head parameters in patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. However, data from Kowa nonmyd WX3D exhibited the tendency to measure larger CDR values than HRT III in the group with CDR < 0.5 group and lower CDR values in the group with CDR ≥ 0.5.

  7. Lab-on-a-disc agglutination assay for protein detection by optomagnetic readout and optical imaging using nano- and micro-sized magnetic beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco

    2016-01-01

    30 s) using the two differently sized beads for the two detection methods. In both cases a sample volume of only 10 μl is required. The demonstrated automation, low sample-to-answer time and portability of both detection instruments as well as integration of the assay on a low-cost disc are important...

  8. Cup tool use by squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Christine L; Hyde, Shellie A; Parker, Karen J; Lyons, David M

    2015-12-01

    Captive-born male and female squirrel monkeys spontaneously 'invented' a cup tool use technique to Contain (i.e., hold and control) food they reduced into fragments for consumption and to Contain water collected from a valve to drink. Food cup use was observed more frequently than water cup use. Observations indicate that 68% (n = 39/57) of monkeys in this population used a cup (a plastic slip cap) to Contain food, and a subset of these monkeys, 10% (n = 4/39), also used a cup to Contain water. Cup use was optional and did not replace, but supplemented, the hand/arm-to-mouth eating and direct valve drinking exhibited by all members of the population. Strategies monkeys used to bring food and cups together for food processing activity at preferred upper-level perching areas, in the arboreal-like environment in which they lived, provides evidence that monkeys may plan food processing activity with the cups. Specifically, prior to cup use monkeys obtained a cup first before food, or obtained food and a cup from the floor simultaneously, before transporting both items to upper-level perching areas. After food processing activity with cups monkeys rarely dropped the cups and more often placed the cups onto perching. Monkeys subsequently returned to use cups that they previously placed on perching after food processing activity. The latter behavior is consistent with the possibility that monkeys may keep cups at preferred perching sites for future food processing activity and merits experimental investigation. Reports of spontaneous tool use by squirrel monkeys are rare and this is the first report of population-level tool use. These findings offer insights into the cognitive abilities of squirrel monkeys and provide a new context for behavior studies with this genus and for comparative studies with other primates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Spectroscopic Parameters of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbetas, G.; Kozlovskaja, A.; Varanius, D.; Graziene, V.; Vaitkus, J.; Vaitkuviene, A.

    2009-06-01

    There are numerous methods of investigating intervertebral disc. Visualization methods are widely used in clinical practice. Histological, imunohistochemical and biochemical methods are more used in scientific research. We propose that a new spectroscopic investigation would be useful in determining intervertebral disc material, especially when no histological specimens are available. Purpose: to determine spectroscopic parameters of intervertebral disc material; to determine emission spectra common for all intervertebral discs; to create a background for further spectroscopic investigation where no histological specimen will be available. Material and Methods: 20 patients, 68 frozen sections of 20 μm thickness from operatively removed intervertebral disc hernia were excited by Nd:YAG microlaser STA-01-TH third harmonic 355 nm light throw 0, 1 mm fiber. Spectrophotometer OceanOptics USB2000 was used for spectra collection. Mathematical analysis of spectra was performed by ORIGIN multiple Gaussian peaks analysis. Results: In each specimen of disc hernia were found distinct maximal spectral peaks of 4 types supporting the histological evaluation of mixture content of the hernia. Fluorescence in the spectral regions 370-700 nm was detected in the disc hernias. The main spectral component was at 494 nm and the contribution of the components with the peak wavelength values at 388 nm, 412 nm and 435±5 nm were varying in the different groups of samples. In comparison to average spectrum of all cases, there are 4 groups of different spectral signatures in the region 400-500 nm in the patient groups, supporting a clinical data on different clinical features of the patients. Discussion and Conclusion: besides the classical open discectomy, new minimally invasive techniques of treating intervertebral disc emerge (PLDD). Intervertebral disc in these techniques is assessed by needle, no histological specimen is taken. Spectroscopic investigation via fiber optics through the

  10. 21 CFR 884.5400 - Menstrual cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Menstrual cup. 884.5400 Section 884.5400 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5400 Menstrual cup. (a) Identification. A menstrual cup is a receptacle placed in the vagina to collect menstrual...

  11. Developing and validating a sham cupping device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Jong-In; Kong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Dong-Hyo; Shin, Byung-Cheul

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a sham cupping device and to validate its use as a placebo control for healthy volunteers. A sham cupping device was developed by establishing a small hole to reduce the negative pressure after suction such that inner pressure could not be maintained in the cup. We enrolled 34 healthy participants to evaluate the validity of the sham cupping device as a placebo control. The participants were informed that they would receive either real or sham cupping and were asked which treatment they thought they had received. Other sensations and adverse events related to cupping therapy were investigated. 17 patients received real cupping therapy and 17 received sham cupping. The two groups felt similar sensations. There was a tendency for subjects to feel that real cupping created a stronger sensation than sham cupping (48.9±21.4 vs 33.3±20.3 on a 100mm visual analogue scale). There were only mild to moderate adverse events observed in both groups. We developed a new sham cupping device that seems to provide a credible control for real cupping therapy by producing little or no negative pressure. This conclusion was supported by a pilot study, but more rigorous research is warranted regarding the use of this device.

  12. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6290 Prophylaxis cup. (a) Identification. A prophylaxis cup is a device made of rubber intended to be held by a dental handpiece and used to apply polishing...

  13. The relationship between vertical cup‑disc ratio and body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the relationship between vertical cup disc ratio (VCDR) and body mass index (BMI) in a population screened for glaucoma in Port Harcourt, Nigeria Materials and Method: This study was part of a one-day screening exercise for glaucoma at the University of Port Harcourt. Demographic data included age, ...

  14. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  15. Field calibration of cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Jensen, G.; Hansen, A.

    2001-01-01

    An outdoor calibration facility for cup anemometers, where the signals from 10 anemometers of which at least one is a reference can be can be recorded simultaneously, has been established. The results are discussed with special emphasis on the statisticalsignificance of the calibration expressions...

  16. Superluminous accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, M [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy; Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. Centrum Astronomiczne)

    1981-07-01

    Upper limits are computed for the total luminosities and collimation of radiation from thick, radiation supported accretion discs around black holes. Numerical results are obtained for the 'extreme' discs with rsub(out) = 10/sup 3/ GMsub(BH)/c/sup 2/, the angular momentum of the black hole being Jsub(BH) = 0.998 GMsub(BH)/c. The high luminosity (L approximately 8.5 Lsub(Edd)) and substantial collimation of radiation found for these discs indicate that such discs can explain both the high luminosities of quasars and similar objects and may produce some of the observed beams and jets.

  17. A variable suppressed aperture and Faraday cup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, H.G.; Charlesworth, T.R.

    1979-02-01

    The injection system of the NSF accelerator within the high voltage enclosure is illustrated. The optics calls for a waist close to the entrance of the 500 kV accelerator tube. This waist will be the initial diagnostic point on the injection path for determining ion source performance and transmission through the later system. This will be made by determining the beam current after a preliminary mass analysis by the 30 0 magnet. To provide this diagnostic and to enable a waist to be formed at this point, a variable aperture and Faraday cup system is required. The Faraday cup will measure the beam transmitted by the aperture. Maximisation of this beam by adjustment of the preceding optical elements will ensure the waist in the beam at that point. (author)

  18. Method for improved reading of a digital data disc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Method for regulating the control signal for adjustment of the optical path between a data disc and a signal pick-up detector system in a data disc drive, where the control is regulated as a response to the deviation of the actual reading signals from expected reading signals, and wherein...

  19. A hierarchical cluster analysis of normal-tension glaucoma using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyoung Won; Ji, Yongwoo; Lee, Hye Sun; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Sung, Kyung Rim; Kim, Chan Yun

    2015-01-01

    Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a heterogenous disease, and there is still controversy about subclassifications of this disorder. On the basis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we subdivided NTG with hierarchical cluster analysis using optic nerve head (ONH) parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses. A total of 200 eyes of 200 NTG patients between March 2011 and June 2012 underwent SD-OCT scans to measure ONH parameters and RNFL thicknesses. We classified NTG into homogenous subgroups based on these variables using a hierarchical cluster analysis, and compared clusters to evaluate diverse NTG characteristics. Three clusters were found after hierarchical cluster analysis. Cluster 1 (62 eyes) had the thickest RNFL and widest rim area, and showed early glaucoma features. Cluster 2 (60 eyes) was characterized by the largest cup/disc ratio and cup volume, and showed advanced glaucomatous damage. Cluster 3 (78 eyes) had small disc areas in SD-OCT and were comprised of patients with significantly younger age, longer axial length, and greater myopia than the other 2 groups. A hierarchical cluster analysis of SD-OCT scans divided NTG patients into 3 groups based upon ONH parameters and RNFL thicknesses. It is anticipated that the small disc area group comprised of younger and more myopic patients may show unique features unlike the other 2 groups.

  20. Instability of warped discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doǧan, S.; Nixon, C. J.; King, A. R.; Pringle, J. E.

    2018-05-01

    Accretion discs are generally warped. If a warp in a disc is too large, the disc can `break' apart into two or more distinct planes, with only tenuous connections between them. Further, if an initially planar disc is subject to a strong differential precession, then it can be torn apart into discrete annuli that precess effectively independently. In previous investigations, torque-balance formulae have been used to predict where and when the disc breaks into distinct parts. In this work, focusing on discs with Keplerian rotation and where the shearing motions driving the radial communication of the warp are damped locally by turbulence (the `diffusive' regime), we investigate the stability of warped discs to determine the precise criterion for an isolated warped disc to break. We find and solve the dispersion relation, which, in general, yields three roots. We provide a comprehensive analysis of this viscous-warp instability and the emergent growth rates and their dependence on disc parameters. The physics of the instability can be understood as a combination of (1) a term that would generally encapsulate the classical Lightman-Eardley instability in planar discs (given by ∂(νΣ)/∂Σ < 0) but is here modified by the warp to include ∂(ν1|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0, and (2) a similar condition acting on the diffusion of the warp amplitude given in simplified form by ∂(ν2|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0. We discuss our findings in the context of discs with an imposed precession, and comment on the implications for different astrophysical systems.

  1. Disc operational system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veretenov, V.Yu.; Volkov, A.I.; Gurevich, M.I.; Kozik, V.S.; Pod'yachev, E.I.; Shapiro, M.L.

    1974-01-01

    A disc operational system is proposed, which is based on the file structure and designed for use in a BESM-6 computer with the software system comprising a dispatcher DD-73 and a monitor 'Dubna'. The main distinguishing feature of the disc operational system is the decentralization of the file system. Each disc package is an independent file unaffected by the state of the other disc packages. The use of several disc packages is allowed. The above feature of the disc operational system makes it possible to simplify the language of communication with the system, to give the user the opportunity of controlling the file quite independently, and to simplify the maintenance of the discs by the computer personnel. One and the same disc can be simultaneously addressed by all problems in the processor (both mathematical and service). A single file, however, may be used in the recording mode by only one problem. The description presented is the instruction for users. It also describes special possibilities open to the system programmers [ru

  2. Intratracheal Seal Disc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karen J; Moeslund, Niels; Lauridsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    . The device consisted of an intratracheal silicone seal disc fixated by a cord through the stoma to an external part. At day 14, computed tomography (CT) was performed before the device was extracted. With the pulling of a cord, the disc unraveled into a thin thread and was extracted through the stoma. At day...

  3. Double rupture disc experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Result of these observations, comparisons and evaluations can be summarized in the following list of concerns regarding the use of double rupture discs coupled to the liquid space of a steam generator that is subjected to a large leak sodium water reaction event. Single rupture disc show delayed collapse characteristics in LLTR Series I and double disc assemblies are presumed to be more complex with additional delay before opening to give pressure relief. Delayed failure increases pressures in the IHTS and must be adequately covered by design requirements. With CRBR design, the first disc may fail only partially reducing the loading on the second disc with the result that relief performance may not meet requirements

  4. Evaluation of Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Primary Craniopharyngioma by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Qu, Yuanzhen; Lu, Wen; Liu, Fengjun

    2016-07-03

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the differences in macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) in child and adult patients with primary craniopharyngioma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and to evaluate their significance in the diagnosis of primary craniopharyngioma. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety-six participants were divided into 3 groups: 32 in the child craniopharyngioma group (CCG) and 32 in the adult craniopharyngioma group (ACG) who were treated in Beijing Tiantan Hospital between November 2013 and October 2014, and 32 in the normal group (NG). All subjects were scanned by FD-OCT to map GCC and pRNFL thicknesses. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between GCC and pRNFL thickness, and pRNFL thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters, including horizontal cup-disc ratio (HCDR), vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR), optic disc area (ODA), and cup area (CA), respectively. RESULTS The correlation between GCC and pRNFL thickness in the CCG was slightly stronger compared with the ACG. A significant difference in GCC thickness was observed among the CCG, ACG, and NG. Although the pRNFL thickness in both the CCG and ACG was significantly higher than that in NG, no significant difference in pRNFL thickness was detected between the 2 craniopharyngioma groups. The average, superior, and inferior pRNFL thicknesses were negatively correlated with VCDR in the CCG (in double eyes) and ACG (only in left eyes). CONCLUSIONS GCC was more sensitive than pRNFL in detecting optic nerve damage in the eyes of craniopharyngioma patients. A thinner pRNFL was especially correlated with VCDR in child craniopharyngioma patients.

  5. Solar Probe Cup: Laboratory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, M. L.; Larson, D. E.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whittlesey, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a Faraday Cup instrument that will fly on the Paker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft, orbiting the Sun at as close as 9.86 solar radii. The SPC instrument is designed to measure the thermal solar wind plasma (protons, alphas, and electrons) that will be encountered throughout its close encounter with the Sun. Due to the solar wind flow being primarily radial, the SPC instrument is pointed directly at the Sun, resulting in an extreme thermal environment that must be tolerated throughout the primary data collection phase. Laboratory testing has been performed over the past 6 months to demonstrate the instrument's performance relative to its requirements, and to characterize the measurements over the expected thermal range. This presentation will demonstrate the performance of the instrument as measured in the lab, describe the operational configurations planned for flight, and discuss the data products that will be created.

  6. Factitious panniculitis induced by cupping therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suk-Ho; Han, Hyun-Ho; Rhie, Jong-Won

    2011-11-01

    Cupping therapy is an alternative medical procedure that has been widely performed in Asian countries to relieve pain. It is known that there is no complication to this therapy, so many non-health care professionals have performed this procedure. However, there have been few reports on complications, such as iron deficiency anemia, hemorrhagic bullae, kelloids, vasovagal syncope, and foreign body reactions. Masses associated with panniculitis induced by cupping are extremely rare, and they require a unique approach.A 56-year-old woman presented with a 10-month history of multiple masses in the posterior neck and right shoulder areas. The patient repeatedly attempted cupping therapy by herself, and multiple palpable masses developed in the posterior neck and right shoulder area where cupping therapy had been performed. The masses were enlarged by repeated cupping, and they decreased in size when cupping was stopped. Among all lesions, the 2 masses with tenderness were surgically excised. The remaining masses resolved after cupping therapy was ceased. When a patient with subcutaneous mass has a history of cupping or trace of cupping marks, panniculitis induced by cupping should be suspected. The lesion seems to spontaneously resolve unless they are repeatedly stimulated. However, surgical resection is considered in patients with infections or severe tenderness as a complication.

  7. The effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head analysis of migrainous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Munire; Durukan, A; Akar, Yusuf; Taskin, Omur; Dora, Babur; Yilmaz, Nurgul

    2005-03-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head topographic analysis of normally menstruating migrainous women. Randomly selected one eye of 44 migrainous and 49 healthy control women with regular menstrual cycles were included in the study. All subjects underwent complete ocular examination. Optic nervehead topographic analysis were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, HRT II (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II, software version 1.6;Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). They were repeated for two times during the menstrual cycle: in follicular phase (7th to 10th day of the cycle) and in the luteal phase (days 3 to 4 before the menstrual bleeding). Serum estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone measurements were repeated at each menstrual phase. The mean age of migrainous and control subjects were 31.5 + 5.1 years and 33.4 +/- 3.7 years, respectively (P > 0.05). Their mean disc areas were 2.26 +/- 0.46 mm(2) and 1.95 +/- 0.39 mm(2), respectively(P 0.05). The parameter rim volume decreased, while the parameters cup volume and cup shape measure increased significantly in the luteal phase of the migrainous women (all P values cup parameters during the menstrual cycle of the migrainous women. Further clinical trials on ocular blood flow changes during the menstrual cycle of the migrainous women may highlight the role of sex steroids in the optic nerve head of the migrainous women.

  8. Discrimination between different kind of surface defects on Compac Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    Compact Disc players have problems playing discs with surface defects such as scratches and finger prints. The problem is that handling normal disturbances such as mechanical shocks etc, require a high bandwidth of the controllers which keep the Optical Pick-Up focused and radial tracked on the i......Compact Disc players have problems playing discs with surface defects such as scratches and finger prints. The problem is that handling normal disturbances such as mechanical shocks etc, require a high bandwidth of the controllers which keep the Optical Pick-Up focused and radial tracked...... on the information track on the disc. In order for the controllers to handle the surface defects it is required that they are non-sensitive to the frequency contents of the defect, since a defect can be viewed as a disturbance on the measurements. A simple solution to this problem is to decrease the controller...

  9. Discrimation among different kind of surface defects on Compact Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    Compact Disc players have problems playing discs with surface defects such as scratches and finger prints. The problem is that handling normal disturbances such as mechanical shocks etc, require a high bandwidth of the controllers which keep the Optical Pick-Up focused and radial tracked on the i......Compact Disc players have problems playing discs with surface defects such as scratches and finger prints. The problem is that handling normal disturbances such as mechanical shocks etc, require a high bandwidth of the controllers which keep the Optical Pick-Up focused and radial tracked...... on the information track on the disc. In order for the controllers to handle the surface defects it is required that they are non-sensitive to the frequency contents of the defect, since a defect can be viewed as a disturbance on the measurements. A simple solution to this problem is to decrease the controller...

  10. Trabeculectomy and optic nerve head topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paranhos Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in optic nerve head parameters, measured by confocal laser tomography, before and after trabeculectomy in order to identify outcome measures for the management of glaucoma. The optic nerve head of 22 eyes (22 patients was analyzed by confocal laser tomography with the Heidelberg retinal tomogram (HRT before and after trabeculectomy. The median time between the first HRT and surgery was 4.6 months (mean: 7.7 ± 8.3 and the median time between surgery and the second HRT was 10.8 months (mean: 12.0 ± 6.8. The patients were divided into two groups, i.e., those with the highest (group A and lowest (group B intraocular pressure (IOP change after surgery. Differences in the 12 standard topographic parameters before and after surgery for each group were evaluated by the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the differences in these parameters between the two groups were compared by the Mann-Whitney rank sum test. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of the change in IOP (deltaIOP and deltaIOP% and the changes in the other parameters. There were significant differences in the HRT measures before and after surgery in group A only for cup volume. In group B, no parameter was statistically different. The changes in group A were not significantly different than those in group B for any parameter (P > 0.004, Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. deltaIOP and deltaIOP% had a statistically significant effect on delta cup disk area, delta cup volume and delta mean cup depth. Changes in cup shape size were influenced significantly only by deltaIOP. Some optic disc parameters measured by HRT presented a significant improvement after filtering surgery, depending on the amount of IOP reduction. Long-term studies are needed to determine the usefulness of these findings as outcome measures in the management of glaucoma.

  11. Lamp with a truncated reflector cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Allen, Steven C.; Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel

    2013-10-15

    A lamp assembly, and method for making same. The lamp assembly includes first and second truncated reflector cups. The lamp assembly also includes at least one base plate disposed between the first and second truncated reflector cups, and a light engine disposed on a top surface of the at least one base plate. The light engine is configured to emit light to be reflected by one of the first and second truncated reflector cups.

  12. Herniated Cervical Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are sometimes prescribed for more severe arm and neck pain because of their very powerful anti-inflammatory effect. ... caused by a herniated cervical disc. However, some neck pain may persist. Most patients respond well to discectomy; ...

  13. Are All Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects on Optic Coherence Tomography Glaucomatous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür Güngör, Sirel; Ahmet, Akman

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the patients who were referred to our clinic with a prediagnosis of glaucoma based on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects on optic coherence tomography (OCT) but were determined to have nonglaucomatous RNLF defects upon detailed examination. The ophthalmic examination notes, OCT images, Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT) II and fundus photographs of 357 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Final diagnoses of these patients were investigated. Of the 357 patients, 216 (60.5%) were diagnosed as open angle glaucoma, 33 (9.2%) as low-tension glaucoma, 39 (10.9%) as pre-perimetric glaucoma. The ophthalmic examinations of 14 patients (3.9%) were normal and there were no RNFL defects in OCT examinations after dilatation. In 39 patients (10.9%), the ophthalmic and optic disc examinations were completely normal and no etiologic factor explaining RNFL defects was found. Twenty-two eyes of 16 patients (4.5%) were included in this study (the mean age was 53.8±11.5 years; 9 men and 7 women). After detailed questioning of the medical history and systemic and neurologic examinations, a diagnosis of ischemic optic neuropathy was made in 11 eyes (10 patients) (2.8%), optic neuritis in 3 eyes (2 patients) (0.6%), optic disc drusen in 4 eyes (2 patients) (0.6%), pseudotumor cerebri in 2 eyes (1 patient) (0.3%), and cerebral palsy in 2 eyes (1 patient) (0.3%). Decrease in RNFL thickness on OCT images alone may be misleading in glaucoma examination. In cases where optic disc cupping is not evident, diagnosis should not be based on OCT RNFL examinations alone, and the patient's medical history, detailed ophthalmic examination, OCT optic disc parameters, HRT, and visual field tests should all be carefully evaluated together.

  14. DZ Chamaeleontis: a bona fide photoevaporating disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas, H.; Montesinos, B.; Schreiber, M. R.; Cieza, L. A.; Eiroa, C.; Meeus, G.; de Boer, J.; Ménard, F.; Wahhaj, Z.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Olofsson, J.; Garufi, A.; Rebollido, I.; van Holstein, R. G.; Caceres, C.; Hardy, A.; Villaver, E.

    2018-02-01

    Context. DZ Cha is a weak-lined T Tauri star (WTTS) surrounded by a bright protoplanetary disc with evidence of inner disc clearing. Its narrow Hα line and infrared spectral energy distribution suggest that DZ Cha may be a photoevaporating disc. Aims: We aim to analyse the DZ Cha star + disc system to identify the mechanism driving the evolution of this object. Methods: We have analysed three epochs of high resolution optical spectroscopy, photometry from the UV up to the sub-mm regime, infrared spectroscopy, and J-band imaging polarimetry observations of DZ Cha. Results: Combining our analysis with previous studies we find no signatures of accretion in the Hα line profile in nine epochs covering a time baseline of 20 yr. The optical spectra are dominated by chromospheric emission lines, but they also show emission from the forbidden lines [SII] 4068 and [OI] 6300Å that indicate a disc outflow. The polarized images reveal a dust depleted cavity of 7 au in radius and two spiral-like features, and we derive a disc dust mass limit of Mdust 80 MJup) companions are detected down to 0.̋07 ( 8 au, projected). Conclusions: The negligible accretion rate, small cavity, and forbidden line emission strongly suggests that DZ Cha is currently at the initial stages of disc clearing by photoevaporation. At this point the inner disc has drained and the inner wall of the truncated outer disc is directly exposed to the stellar radiation. We argue that other mechanisms like planet formation or binarity cannot explain the observed properties of DZ Cha. The scarcity of objects like this one is in line with the dispersal timescale (≲105 yr) predicted by this theory. DZ Cha is therefore an ideal target to study the initial stages of photoevaporation. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 097.C-0536. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number 250112.

  15. Fourier analysis of the aerodynamic behavior of cup anemometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Imanol; Aguado, Maite

    2013-01-01

    The calibration results (the transfer function) of an anemometer equipped with several cup rotors were analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic forces measured on the isolated cups in a wind tunnel. The correlation was based on a Fourier analysis of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force. Three different cup shapes were studied: typical conical cups, elliptical cups and porous cups (conical-truncated shape). Results indicated a good correlation between the anemometer factor, K, and the ratio between the first two coefficients in the Fourier series decomposition of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force. (paper)

  16. Bone remodeling around cementless tantalum cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grillo, J. -C.; Flecher, X.; Bouvenot, J.; Argenson, J. -N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the study.-Most studies have reported a significant decrease in periacetabular bone stock one year after implantation of a cementless cup. The purpose of this work was to study the bone-implant interface of the tantalum cup using plain X-rays and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).

  17. Soccer jersey sponsors and the world cup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.; Ferwerda, J.

    2014-01-01

    The market for soccer jerseys is a multibillion market dominated by Adidas, Nike and Puma. This paper investigates whether jersey sponsorship has a non-arbitrary effect on the outcomes of World Cup knockout matches. The results show that in the knockout stages of the last four World Cup tournaments,

  18. Sound analysis of a cup drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun ho

    2012-01-01

    The International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide tournament that evaluates a high-school student's ability to solve various physics conundrums that have not been fully resolved in the past. The research presented here is my solution to the cup drum problem. The physics behind a cup drum has never been explored or modelled. A cup drum is a musical instrument that can generate different frequencies and amplitudes depending on the location of a cup held upside-down over, on or under a water surface. The tapping sound of a cup drum can be divided into two components: standing waves and plate vibration. By individually researching the nature of these two sounds, I arrived at conclusions that could accurately predict the frequencies in most cases. When the drum is very close to the surface, qualitative explanations are given. In addition, I examined the trend of the tapping sound amplitude at various distances and qualitatively explained the experimental results. (paper)

  19. Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study: findings at 3 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy RK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rahul K Reddy,1 Maziar Lalezary,1 Stephen J Kim,1 Jeffrey A Kammer,1 Rachel W Kuchtey,1 Edward F Cherney,1 Franco M Recchia,2 Karen M Joos,1 Anita Agarwal,1 Janice C Law11Department of Ophthalmology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Tennessee Retina, PC, Nashville, TN, USABackground: The purpose of this paper is to report the 3-month findings of the Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study.Methods: Eighty eyes of 40 participants undergoing vitrectomy were enrolled. Participants underwent baseline evaluation of the study (surgical and fellow (control eye that included: intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, gonioscopy, cup-to-disc ratio measurement, color fundus and optic disc photography, automated perimetry, and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve. Evaluation was repeated at 3 months. Main outcome measures were changes in macula and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and intraocular pressure.Results: All participants completed follow-up. Mean cup-to-disc ratio of study and fellow eyes at baseline was 0.43 ± 0.2 and 0.46 ± 0.2, respectively, and 13% of participants had undiagnosed narrow angles. There was no significant change in intraocular pressure, cup-to-disc ratio, or pattern standard deviation in study eyes compared with baseline or fellow eyes at 3 months. Vision improved in all study eyes at 3 months compared with baseline (P = 0.013, but remained significantly worse than fellow eyes (P < 0.001. Central subfield and temporal peripapillary RNFL thickness were significantly greater in eyes with epiretinal membrane (P < 0.05, and resolution after surgery correlated with visual improvement (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The 3-month results do not indicate any increased risk for open-angle glaucoma but suggest that a relatively high percentage of eyes may be at risk of angle closure glaucoma. Temporal RNFL thickness and central subfield were increased

  20. Human bone ingrowth into a porous tantalum acetabular cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Haidemenopoulos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Porous Tantalum is increasingly used as a structural scaffold in orthopaedic applications. Information on the mechanisms of human bone ingrowth into trabecular metal implants is rather limited. In this work we have studied, qualitatively, human bone ingrowth into a retrieved porous tantalum monoblock acetabular cup using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. According to the results and taking into account the short operational life (4 years of the implant, bone ingrowth on the acetabular cup took place in the first two-rows of porous tantalum cells to an estimated depth of 1.5 to 2 mm. The bone material, grown inside the first raw of cells, had almost identical composition with the attached bone on the cup surface, as verified by the same Ca:P ratio. Bone ingrowth has been a gradual process starting with Ca deposition on the tantalum struts, followed by bone formation into the tantalum cells, with gradual densification of the bone tissue into hydroxyapatite. A critical step in this process has been the attachment of bone material to the tantalum struts following the topology of the porous tantalum scaffold. These results provide insight to the human bone ingrowth process into porous tantalum implants.

  1. Development and first experimental tests of Faraday cup array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokůpek, J; Kaufman, J; Margarone, D; Krůs, M; Velyhan, A; Krása, J; Burris-Mog, T; Busold, S; Deppert, O; Cowan, T E; Korn, G

    2014-01-01

    A new type of Faraday cup, capable of detecting high energy charged particles produced in a high intensity laser-matter interaction environment, has recently been developed and demonstrated as a real-time detector based on the time-of-flight technique. An array of these Faraday cups was designed and constructed to cover different observation angles with respect to the target normal direction. Thus, it allows reconstruction of the spatial distribution of ion current density in the subcritical plasma region and the ability to visualise its time evolution through time-of-flight measurements, which cannot be achieved with standard laser optical interferometry. This is a unique method for two-dimensional visualisation of ion currents from laser-generated plasmas. A technical description of the new type of Faraday cup is introduced along with an ad hoc data analysis procedure. Experimental results obtained during campaigns at the Petawatt High-Energy Laser for Heavy Ion Experiments (GSI, Darmstadt) and at the Prague Asterix Laser System (AS CR) are presented. Advantages and limitations of the used diagnostic system are discussed.

  2. Lab-on-a-disc agglutination assay for protein detection by optomagnetic readout and optical imaging using nano- and micro-sized magnetic beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco

    2016-01-01

    of manual steps involved. The detection of the target protein was achieved in two ways: (1) optomagnetic readout using magnetic nanobeads (MNBs); (2) optical imaging using magnetic microbeads (MMBs). The optomagnetic readout of agglutination is based on optical measurement of the dynamics of MNB aggregates...... whereas the imaging method is based on direct visualization and quantification of the average size of MMB aggregates. By enhancing magnetic particle agglutination via application of strong magnetic field pulses, we obtained identical limits of detection of 25 pM with the same sample-to-answer time (15 min...

  3. The Galactic stellar disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltzing, S; Bensby, T

    2008-01-01

    The study of the Milky Way stellar discs in the context of galaxy formation is discussed. In particular, we explore the properties of the Milky Way disc using a new sample of about 550 dwarf stars for which we have recently obtained elemental abundances and ages based on high-resolution spectroscopy. For all the stars we also have full kinematic information as well as information about their stellar orbits. We confirm results from previous studies that the thin and the thick discs have distinct abundance patterns. But we also explore a larger range of orbital parameters than what has been possible in our previous studies. Several new results are presented. We find that stars that reach high above the Galactic plane and have eccentric orbits show remarkably tight abundance trends. This implies that these stars formed out of well-mixed gas that had been homogenized over large volumes. We find some evidence that suggest that the event that most likely caused the heating of this stellar population happened a few billion years ago. Through a simple, kinematic exploration of stars with super-solar [Fe/H], we show that the solar neighbourhood contains metal-rich, high velocity stars that are very likely associated with the thick disc. Additionally, the HR1614 moving group and the Hercules and Arcturus stellar streams are discussed and it is concluded that, probably, a large fraction of the groups and streams so far identified in the disc are the result of evolution and interactions within the stellar disc rather than being dissolved stellar clusters or engulfed dwarf galaxies.

  4. Paradoxical thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer after reversal of cupping: A case report of primary infantile glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta Chen Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness was assessed by spectral domain optical coherent tomography (SD-OCT before and after surgical reduction of intraocular pressure in an eye with primary infantile glaucoma. In this case, a postoperative reduction of cupping and a subsequent increase in neuroretinal rim area is associated with a paradoxical thinning of the RNFL. This is the first-known characterization of cupping reversal using SD-OCT.

  5. A radioactive football world cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2014-01-01

    The organization of the 2014 football world cup by Brazil is an opportunity to recall how the level of natural radioactivity can change from a country to another. Brazil is with Iran and India one of the 3 countries where the level of natural radioactivity is the highest. In Brazil the average value for natural radioactivity is about 10 mSv/year but you can find spots on the Brazilian 'planalto' where natural radioactivity ranges from 10 to a few tens of mSv/year. The mean value of natural radioactivity at the world scale is about 2.5 mSv/year. The value of 10 mSv/year is the radiation threshold that may trigger the evacuation of the local population in case of a nuclear accident in France. These various figures show that radiation dose limits are very low and should not be considered as representative of actual health hazards. (A.C.)

  6. Field calibration of cup anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, L.; Jensen, G.; Hansen, A.; Kirkegaard, P.

    2001-01-01

    An outdoor calibration facility for cup anemometers, where the signals from 10 anemometers of which at least one is a reference can be recorded simultaneously, has been established. The results are discussed with special emphasis on the statistical significance of the calibration expressions. It is concluded that the method has the advantage that many anemometers can be calibrated accurately with a minimum of work and cost. The obvious disadvantage is that the calibration of a set of anemometers may take more than one month in order to have wind speeds covering a sufficiently large magnitude range in a wind direction sector where we can be sure that the instruments are exposed to identical, simultaneous wind flows. Another main conclusion is that statistical uncertainty must be carefully evaluated since the individual 10 minute wind-speed averages are not statistically independent. (au)

  7. Appearance of Keplerian discs orbiting Kerr superspinars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Schee, Jan, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.c, E-mail: jan.schee@fpf.slu.c [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezrucovo nam. 13, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-07

    We study optical phenomena related to the appearance of Keplerian accretion discs orbiting Kerr superspinars predicted by string theory. The superspinar exterior is described by standard Kerr naked singularity geometry breaking the black hole limit on the internal angular momentum (spin). We construct local photon escape cones for a variety of orbiting sources that enable us to determine the superspinars silhouette in the case of distant observers. We show that the superspinar silhouette depends strongly on the assumed edge where the external Kerr spacetime is joined to the internal spacetime governed by string theory and significantly differs from the black hole silhouette. The appearance of the accretion disc is strongly dependent on the value of the superspinar spin in both their shape and frequency shift profile. Apparent extension of the disc grows significantly with the growing spin, while the frequency shift grows with the descending spin. This behaviour differs substantially from the appearance of discs orbiting black holes enabling thus, at least in principle, to distinguish clearly the Kerr superspinars and black holes. In vicinity of a Kerr superspinar the non-escaped photons have to be separated to those captured by the superspinar and those being trapped in its strong gravitational field leading to self-illumination of the disc that could even influence its structure and cause self-reflection effect of radiation of the disc. The amount of trapped photons grows with descending superspinar spin. We thus can expect significant self-illumination effects in the field of Kerr superspinars with near-extreme spin a {approx} 1.

  8. Heritability of the morphology of optic nerve head and surrounding structures: The Healthy Twin Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Chul Han

    Full Text Available Optic nerve head (ONH and surrounding structures such as β-zone peripapillary atrophy (PPA are important structures in glaucomatous pathogenesis. Thus, for understanding genetic components in glaucoma pathogenesis, it is necessary to evaluate the heritability of ONH and surrounding structures. The present study investigated the genetic influences on ONH and surrounding structures such as β-zone PPA and retinal vessels.A total of 1,205 adult twins and their family members (362 monozygotic (MZ twin subjects (181 pairs, 64 dizygotic (DZ twin subjects (32 pairs, and 779 singletons from 261 families, were part of the Korean Healthy Twin Study. ONH parameters including the vertical cup-to-disc ratio, the presence, the area and the location of β-zone PPA and the angular location of retinal vein were measured. The genetic influences on the structures were evaluated using variance-component methods.The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC values of axial length were highest among the parameters. The ICCs of the area and location of PPA were similar to those of vertical cup-to-disc ratio. However, retinal vessel angular locations showed low ICC values even in MZ twins. After age and sex adjustment, for axial length, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, the presence, area and location of PPA, the estimated narrow-sense heritability was 0.85, 0.48, 0.76, 0.50 and 0.65 in the right eye and 0.84, 0.47, 0.72, 0.46 and 0.72 in the left eye, respectively. The estimated narrow-sense heritability of angular location of the superior and inferior vein was 0.17 and 0.12 in the right eye and 0.13 and 0.05 in the left eye, respectively.ONH and surrounding structures such as vertical cup-to-disc ratio and the presence, the area and the location of β-zone PPA seemed to be determined by the substantial genetic influence, whereas the venous angular location did not.

  9. Tracing Planets in Circumstellar Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Ana L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Planets are assumed to form in circumstellar discs around young stellar objects. The additional gravitational potential of a planet perturbs the disc and leads to characteristic structures, i.e. spiral waves and gaps, in the disc density profile. We perform a large-scale parameter study on the observability of these planet-induced structures in circumstellar discs in the (submm wavelength range for the Atacama Large (SubMillimeter Array (ALMA. On the basis of hydrodynamical and magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of star-disc-planet models we calculate the disc temperature structure and (submm images of these systems. These are used to derive simulated ALMA maps. Because appropriate objects are frequent in the Taurus-Auriga region, we focus on a distance of 140 pc and a declination of ≈ 20°. The explored range of star-disc-planet configurations consists of six hydrodynamical simulations (including magnetic fields and different planet masses, nine disc sizes with outer radii ranging from 9 AU to 225 AU, 15 total disc masses in the range between 2.67·10-7 M⊙ and 4.10·10-2 M⊙, six different central stars and two different grain size distributions, resulting in 10 000 disc models. At almost all scales and in particular down to a scale of a few AU, ALMA is able to trace disc structures induced by planet-disc interaction or the influence of magnetic fields in the wavelength range between 0.4...2.0 mm. In most cases, the optimum angular resolution is limited by the sensitivity of ALMA. However, within the range of typical masses of protoplane tary discs (0.1 M⊙...0.001 M⊙ the disc mass has a minor impact on the observability. At the distance of 140 pc it is possible to resolve discs down to 2.67·10-6 M⊙ and trace gaps in discs with 2.67·10-4 M⊙ with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than three. In general, it is more likely to trace planet-induced gaps in magneto-hydrodynamical disc models, because gaps are wider in the presence of

  10. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of human dental enamel after bracket debonding: a noncontact three-dimensional optical profilometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fabiano G; Nouer, Darcy F; Silva, Nelson P; Garbui, Ivana U; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Nouer, Paulo R A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to undertake a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of changes on enamel surfaces after debonding of brackets followed by finishing procedures, using a high-resolution three-dimensional optical profiler and to investigate the accuracy of the technique. The labial surfaces of 36 extracted upper central incisors were examined. Before bonding, the enamel surfaces were subjected to profilometry, recording four amplitude parameters. Brackets were then bonded using two types of light-cured orthodontic adhesive: composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Finishing was performed by three different methods: pumice on a rubber cup, fine and ultrafine aluminum oxide discs, and microfine diamond cups followed by silicon carbide brushes. The samples were subsequently re-analyzed by profilometry. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Kruskal-Wallis test (p enamel roughness when diamond cups followed by silicon carbide brushes were used to finish surfaces that had remnants of resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive and when pumice was used to finish surfaces that had traces of composite resin. Enamel loss was minimal. The 3D optical profilometry technique was able to provide accurate qualitative and quantitative assessment of changes on the enamel surface after debonding. Morphological changes in the topography of dental surfaces, especially if related to enamel loss and roughness, are of considerable clinical importance. The quantitative evaluation method used herein enables a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of orthodontic bonding on teeth.

  11. ACCUWIND - Methods for classification of cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, J.-Å.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Busche, P.

    2006-01-01

    the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to develop a classification system for quantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. This classification system has now been implementedin the IEC 61400-12-1 standard on power performance measurements in annex I and J. The classification...... of cup anemometers requires general external climatic operational ranges to be applied for the analysis of systematic errors. A Class A categoryclassification is connected to reasonably flat sites, and another Class B category is connected to complex terrain, General classification indices are the result...... developed in the CLASSCUP projectand earlier. A number of approaches including the use of two cup anemometer models, two methods of torque coefficient measurement, two angular response measurements, and inclusion and exclusion of influence of friction have been implemented in theclassification process...

  12. A simple magic cup to inject excitement and curiosity in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nazir

    2018-05-01

    This article highlights a simple demonstration kit that can be easily fabricated in Design & Technology (D&T) workshops to inject excitement and curiosity into students’ learning of physics concepts such as density and optics. Using an ice cream cup from a fast food restaurant and a transparent circular acrylic piece, students can be guided to make a ‘magic’ cup, while at the same time get inquisitive about the physics behind the magic. The project highlights a way of linking physics to D&T in a feasible manner which can motivate and engage students.

  13. [Radiological diagnostics in CUP syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, P M; Nikolaou, K; Rominger, A; Graser, A; Reiser, M F; Cyran, C C

    2014-02-01

    Imaging plays an essential role in the therapeutic management of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) patients for localizing the primary tumor, for the identification of tumor entities for which a dedicated therapy regimen is available and for the characterization of clinicopathological subentities that direct the subsequent diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Modalities include conventional x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound as well as positron emission tomography (PET)-CT and MRI-PET. In whole body imaging CT has a high sensitivity for tumor entities which frequently present as a metastasized cancer illness. According to the current literature CT is diagnostic in 86% of patients with pancreatic carcinoma, in 36% of patients with colon carcinoma and in 74% of patients with lung carcinoma. Additionally a meta-analysis showed that for patients with squamous cell carcinoma and cervical lymph node metastases a positive diagnosis was possible in 22% of the cases using CT, in 36% using MRI and in 28-57% using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT ((18)F-FDG PET-CT). In addition, MRI plays an important role in the localization of primary occult tumors (e.g. breast and prostate) because of its high soft tissue contrast and options for functional imaging. At the beginning of the diagnostic algorithm stands the search for a possible primary tumor and CT of the neck, thorax and abdomen is most frequently used for whole body staging. Subsequent organ-specific imaging examinations follow, e.g. mammography in women with axillary lymphadenopathy. For histological and immunohistochemical characterization of tumor tissue, imaging is also applied to identify the most accessible and representative tumor manifestation for biopsy. Tumor biopsy may be guided by CT, MRI or ultrasound and MRI also plays a central role in the localization of primary occult tumors because of superior soft tissue contrast and options for functional imaging (perfusion

  14. Current concepts in the diagnosis, pathogenesis and management of nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N R; Arnold, A C

    2015-01-01

    Nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common acute optic neuropathy in patients over the age of 50 and is the second most common cause of permanent optic nerve-related visual loss in adults after glaucoma. Patients typically present with acute, painless, unilateral loss of vision associated with a variable visual field defect, a relative afferent pupillary defect, a swollen, hyperaemic optic disc, and one or more flame-shaped peripapillary retinal haemorrhages. The pathogenesis of this condition is unknown, but it occurs primarily in patients with structurally small optic discs that have little or no cup and a variety of underlying vascular disorders that may or may not be known at the time of visual loss. There is no consistently beneficial medical or surgical treatment for the condition, but there are now animal models that allow testing of various potential therapies. About 40% of patients experience spontaneous improvement in visual acuity. Patients in whom NAION occurs in one eye have a 15-19% risk of developing a similar event in the opposite eye over the subsequent 5 years.

  15. Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Corresponds to Drusen Location and Extent of Visual Field Defects in Superficial and Buried Optic Disc Drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Wegener, Marianne; Sander, Birgit A

    2016-01-01

    (P = 0.002) than eyes with buried ODD. There was a correlation between mean peripapillary RNFL thinning and visual field defects as measured by perimetric mean deviation (R-0.66; P = 0.0001). The most frequent visual field abnormalities were arcuate and partial arcuate defects. CONCLUSIONS...... of patients with ODD and to compare the peripapillary RNFL thickness to the extent of visual field defects and anatomic location (superficial or buried) of ODD. METHODS: Retrospective, cross sectional study. RESULTS: A total of 149 eyes of 84 ODD patients were evaluated. Sixty-five percent were female and 76......% had bilateral ODD. Of 149 eyes, 109 had superficial ODD and 40 had buried ODD. Peripapillary RNFL thinning was seen in 83.6% of eyes, where optical coherence tomography was performed (n = 61). Eyes with superficial ODD had greater mean peripapillary RNFL thinning (P ≤ 0.0001) and visual field defects...

  16. Wave disc engine apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco

    2018-01-02

    A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.

  17. Toxicity of extracts from disposable chopsticks, toothpicks, and paper cups on L-929 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juntao; Chen, Sifan; Li, Wenxue; Yang, Guangyu; Zhu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of extracts from disposable chopsticks, toothpicks, and paper cups on L-929 cells. We followed national standards to prepare the extracts from disposable chopsticks, toothpicks, and paper cups used for the cell culture media, and the morphology of L-929 cells was observed with an optical microscope. The loss rate for adherent cells was evaluated with the trypan blue exclusion method, and cell proliferation was determined using the WST-1 assay. Compared with the control group, the cells cultured in media containing the extracts showed signs of apoptosis and necrosis after culturing for 4 or 7 days, and the loss rate for adherent cells was significantly increased (P disposable chopsticks, toothpicks, and paper cups can affect the growth and proliferation of L-929 cells and are potentially toxic to humans.

  18. NMT - A new individual ion counting method: Comparison to a Faraday cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Michael; Gorbunov, Boris

    2018-03-01

    Two sample detectors used to analyze the emission from Gas Chromatography (GC) columns are the Flame Ionization Detector (FID) and the Electron Capture Detector (ECD). Both of these detectors involve ionization of the sample molecules and then measuring electric current in the gas using a Faraday cup. In this paper a newly discovered method of ion counting, Nanotechnology Molecular Tagging (NMT) is tested as a replacement to the Faraday cup in GCs. In this method the effective physical volume of individual molecules is enlarged up to 1 billion times enabling them to be detected by an optical particle counter. It was found that the sensitivity of NMT was considerably greater than the Faraday cup. The background in the NMT was circa 200 ions per cm3, corresponding to an extremely low electric current ∼10-17 A.

  19. Modeling of Flexible Polyurethane Foam Shrinkage for Bra Cup Moulding Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, moulding technology has become a remarkable manufacturing process in the intimate apparel industry. Polyurethane (PU foam sheets are used to mould three-dimensional (3D seamless bra cups of various softness and shapes, which eliminate bulky seams and reduce production costs. However, it has been challenging to accurately and effectively control the moulding process and bra cup thickness. In this study, the theoretical mechanism of heat transfer and the thermal conductivity of PU foams are first examined. Experimental studies are carried out to investigate the changes in foam materials at various moulding conditions (viz., temperatures, and lengths of dwell time in terms of surface morphology and thickness by using electron and optical microscopy. Based on the theoretical and experimental investigations of the thermal conductivity of the foam materials, empirical equations of shrinkage ratio and thermal conduction of foam materials were established. A regression model to predict flexible PU foam shrinkage during the bra cup moulding process was formulated by using the Levenberg-Marquardt method of nonlinear least squares algorithm and verified for accuracy. This study therefore provides an effective approach that optimizes control of the bra cup moulding process and assures the ultimate quality and thickness of moulded foam cups.

  20. Duoplasmatron with a nozzle type plasma expension cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Nishikawa, T.; Takagi, A.

    1974-01-01

    Various tests are described which were carried out in order to clarify the cause of the aberration existing in the beams extracted from a nozzle type plasma expansion cup. The tests involve the extraction electrodes having different edge shapes, gridded extraction electrodes, high-voltage facing electrodes at the cup exit making different angles with the axis, plasma cups having different contours at the exit, plasma cups gridded at the exit, biasing the cup exit with respect to anode, plasma cups having different ratios of the exit area to axial length, etc. The results show that the inward meniscus type distortion of the plasma boundary near the rim of plasma cup will be a dominant source for the aberration. Both proper shaping of the contour of the cup exit and biasing the cup exit reduced the aberration

  1. Calculations for the excitation functions of the 63Cup, n63Zn, 63Cup, 2n62Zn and 65Cup, n65Zn reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, K.

    2001-01-01

    Calculations for the excitation functions of 63 Cup, n 63 Zn, 63 Cup, 2n 62 Zn and 65 Cup, n 65 Zn reactions have been carried out in 3-30 MeV energy range using statistical and pre-equilibrium nuclear reaction models. The calculations have been compared with reported measurements and discussed

  2. Accretion discs around neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringle, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    If the central object in the disc is a neutron star, then we do not need the disc itself to produce the X-rays. In other words, the disc structure itself is not important as long as it plays the role of depositing matter on the neutron star at a sufficient rate to produce the X-ray flux. Similarly, in the outer disc regions, the main disc luminosity comes from absorption and reradiation of X-ray photons and not from the intrinsic, viscously-produced, local energy production rate. These two points indicate why in the compact binary X-ray sources confrontation between disc theory and observations is not generally practicable. For this reason I will divide my talk into two parts: one on observational discs in which I discuss what observational evidence there is for discs in the compact X-ray sources and what the evidence can tell the theorist about disc behaviour, and the other on theoretical discs where I consider in what ways theoretical arguments can put limits or cast doubt on some of the empirical models put forward to explain the observations. (orig.)

  3. Safety of cupping during bevacizumab therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempner, Samuel J; Costa, Daniel B; Wu, Peggy A; Ariyabuddhiphongs, Kim D

    2013-08-01

    This study reports on the safety of the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practice of cupping in a patient undergoing concomitant therapy with bevacizumab for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and raises awareness of the need for improved communication between CAM practitioners and oncologists during the care of patients with cancer. The practice of cupping generates local hyperemia, disrupts superficial vasculature in the dermis, and leads to cutaneous lesions including circular erythema, edema, and subsequently ecchymosis. There are no data on the safety of cupping in patients being treated with bevacizumab. This is a single-institution case report. The setting for this study was a tertiary-care academic medical center. A patient with advanced NSCLC received four cycles of carboplatin AUC 6, paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2), and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg, and was continued on every-3-week maintenance bevacizumab 15 mg/kg. The patient underwent glass dry cupping during cycle six of maintenance bevacizumab treatment without overt cutaneous adverse events or bleeding. The patient did not realize he should have communicated his cupping plans or recent bevacizumab treatment with his providers.

  4. CT discography for cervical soft disc hernia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasa, Kenichi; Mizutani, Shigeru; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Hidehito; Iwasa, Satoru

    1985-03-01

    In this study the effectiveness of computed tomographic discography (CTD) in diagnosing cervical soft disc hernia was evaluated. Twenty-five intervertebral discs of 15 cases with cervical soft disc hernia were examined with a discography and then a CT scan. Results of the CT scan were as follows: three discs were protruded, 12 discs were prolapsed, 6 discs were extruded, and 4 discs were sequestrated. The findings were helpful in determining the location of soft disc hernias between the median and posterolateral discs. They were also valuable in classifying types of hernias and surgical approaches.

  5. CT discography for cervical soft disc hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasa, Kenichi; Mizutani, Shigeru; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Hidehito; Iwasa, Satoru

    1985-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of computed tomographic discography (CTD) in diagnosing cervical soft disc hernia was evaluated. Twenty-five interververtebral discs of 15 cases with cervical soft disc hernia were examined with a discography and then a CT scan. Results of the CT scan were as follows: three discs were protruded, 12 discs were prolapsed, 6 discs were extruded, and 4 discs were sequestrated. The findings were helpful in determining the location of soft disc hernians between the median and posterolateral discs. They were also valuable in classifying types of hernians and surgical aproaches. (author)

  6. The CUP2 gene product regulates the expression of the CUP1 gene, coding for yeast metallothionein.

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, J; Fogel, S; Buchman, C; Karin, M

    1989-01-01

    The yeast CUP1 gene codes for a copper-binding protein similar to metallothionein. Copper sensitive cup1s strains contain a single copy of the CUP1 locus. Resistant strains (CUP1r) carry 12 or more multiple tandem copies. We isolated 12 ethyl methane sulfonate-induced copper sensitive mutants in a wild-type CUP1r parental strain, X2180-1A. Most mutants reduce the copper resistance phenotype only slightly. However, the mutant cup2 lowers resistance by nearly two orders of magnitude. We cloned ...

  7. Nuclear fuel element nut retainer cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    A typical embodiment has an end fitting for a nuclear reactor fuel element that is joined to the control rod guide tubes by means of a nut plate assembly. The nut plate assembly has an array of nuts, each engaging the respective threaded end of the control rod guide tubes. The nuts, moreover, are retained on the plate during handling and before fuel element assembly by means of hollow cylindrical locking cups that are brazed to the plate and loosely circumscribe the individual enclosed nuts. After the nuts are threaded onto the respective guide tube ends, the locking cups are partially deformed to prevent one or more of the nuts from working loose during reactor operation. The locking cups also prevent loose or broken end fitting parts from becoming entrained in the reactor coolant

  8. Adaptive control of the radial servo system of a compact disc player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draijer, W.; Steinbuch, M.; Bosgra, O.H.

    1992-01-01

    The radial servo system of a compact disc player has to cope with large gain variations which are due to disc dependent optical characteristics, tolerances in mechanical and electrical components and nonlinearity in the generation of the position index. In current players this problem has been

  9. Wet cupping therapy restores sympathovagal imbalances in cardiac rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Müzeyyen; Yeşilçam, Nesibe; Aydin, Duygu; Yüksel, Ramazan; Dane, Senol

    2014-04-01

    A recent study showed that cupping had therapeutic effects in rats with myocardial infarction and cardiac arrhythmias. The current studyaimed to investigate the possible useful effects of cupping therapy on cardiac rhythm in terms of heart rate variability (HRV). Forty healthy participants were included. Classic wet cupping therapy was applied on five points of the back. Recording electrocardiography (to determine HRV) was applied 1 hour before and 1 hour after cupping therapy. All HRV parameters increased after cupping therapy compared with before cupping therapy in healthy persons. These results indicate for the first time in humans that cupping might be cardioprotective. In this study, cupping therapy restored sympathovagal imbalances by stimulating the peripheral nervous system.

  10. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  11. Studies in Cup Drawing Behavior of Polymer Laminated Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnagmi, M.; Jain, M.; Bruhis, M.; Nielsen, K.

    2011-08-01

    Axisymmetric deep drawing behavior of a polymer laminated sheet metal (PLSM) is investigated using an axisymmetric cup drawing test. PLSMs are of interest as a replacement for painted finishes for automotive applications as they have the potential to achieve good quality long lasting and aesthetically appealing surfaces on stamped parts. However, there is limited understanding of PLSMs in automotive deep drawing situations to produce complex 3-D parts. The tests are carried out using well-controlled, laboratory-based, dual-action, servo-hydraulic forming presses under blank-holder force and punch displacement control conditions. An optical strain mapping system is used to measure the surface strains (and to construct 3D strain maps) from the film side of the deformed samples for a range of forming conditions. Deep drawing characteristics such as punch load versus punch displacement traces, strain distribution along the cup profile, flange wrinkling and fracture characteristics are experimentally assessed for stainless steel-plastic film laminated sheet materials. Also the effect of lamination pressure on wrinkling and delamination is investigated for a decorative pressure sensitive adhesive film affixed to the stainless steel sheet.

  12. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia

    In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted...

  13. Genetic theory – a suggested cupping therapy mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban , Tamer; Ravalia , Munir

    2017-01-01

    The Cupping Therapy mechanism of action is not clear. Cupping may increase local blood circulation, and may have an immunomodulation effect. Local and systemic effects of Cupping Therapy were reported. Genetic expression is a physiological process that regulates body functions. Genetic modulation is a reported acupuncture effect. In this article, the authors suggest genetic modulation theory as one of the possible mechanisms of action of cupping therapy.

  14. Gravitating discs around black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, V; Hure, J-M; Semerak, O

    2004-01-01

    Fluid discs and tori around black holes are discussed within different approaches and with the emphasis on the role of disc gravity. First reviewed are the prospects of investigating the gravitational field of a black hole-disc system using analytical solutions of stationary, axially symmetric Einstein equations. Then, more detailed considerations are focused to the middle and outer parts of extended disc-like configurations where relativistic effects are small and the Newtonian description is adequate. Within general relativity, only a static case has been analysed in detail. Results are often very inspiring. However, simplifying assumptions must be imposed: ad hoc profiles of the disc density are commonly assumed and the effects of frame-dragging are completely lacking. Astrophysical discs (e.g. accretion discs in active galactic nuclei) typically extend far beyond the relativistic domain and are fairly diluted. However, self-gravity is still essential for their structure and evolution, as well as for their radiation emission and the impact on the surrounding environment. For example, a nuclear star cluster in a galactic centre may bear various imprints of mutual star-disc interactions, which can be recognized in observational properties, such as the relation between the central mass and stellar velocity dispersion. (topical review)

  15. Cup products in Hopf cyclic cohomology with coefficients in contramodules

    OpenAIRE

    Rangipour, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    We use stable anti Yetter-Drinfeld contramodules to improve the cup products in Hopf cyclic cohomology. The improvement fixes the lack of functoriality of the cup products previously defined and show that the cup products are sensitive to the coefficients.

  16. Heat Transfer in a Paper Cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The double-wall paper cup is an everyday object that can be used in the laboratory to study heat transfer. The experiment described here has been done by physics students aged 12-13 years; it can also be used in a different context to prompt debate about environmental issues.

  17. Orienteering World Cup hosted by CERN Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Elite runners took to the streets of Geneva for the last leg of the Orienteering World Cup, from 8-10 October. The Geneva finals were hosted by the CERN Orienteering Club and concluded months of competitions held across 5 countries.   Women's World-Cup winner, Simone Niggli (centre).  © Ilknur Colak The final events of the Orienteering World Cup took place in the Old Town of Geneva and Saint-Cergue, with runners following routes prepared by the CERN Orienteering Club. Orienteering is a sport of navigation, using only a compass, map and your sense of direction. The objective is to get to all the points on the map as quickly as possible, choosing your own paths as you run. This was the CERN club’s first successful participation in the World Cup, cementing its reputation as a fixture in the international orienteering world. Orienteering is not your typical Swiss pastime. Developed in Scandinavia, the sport has been gaining popularity internationally. “...

  18. ACCUWIND - Methods for classification of cup anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Busche, P.

    2006-05-15

    Errors associated with the measurement of wind speed are the major sources of uncertainties in power performance testing of wind turbines. Field comparisons of well-calibrated anemometers show significant and not acceptable difference. The European CLASSCUP project posed the objectives to quantify the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to develop a classification system for quantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. This classification system has now been implemented in the IEC 61400-12-1 standard on power performance measurements in annex I and J. The classification of cup anemometers requires general external climatic operational ranges to be applied for the analysis of systematic errors. A Class A category classification is connected to reasonably flat sites, and another Class B category is connected to complex terrain, General classification indices are the result of assessment of systematic deviations. The present report focuses on methods that can be applied for assessment of such systematic deviations. A new alternative method for torque coefficient measurements at inclined flow have been developed, which have then been applied and compared to the existing methods developed in the CLASSCUP project and earlier. A number of approaches including the use of two cup anemometer models, two methods of torque coefficient measurement, two angular response measurements, and inclusion and exclusion of influence of friction have been implemented in the classification process in order to assess the robustness of methods. The results of the analysis are presented as classification indices, which are compared and discussed. (au)

  19. Fast Faraday Cup With High Bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibele, Craig E [Knoxville, TN

    2006-03-14

    A circuit card stripline Fast Faraday cup quantitatively measures the picosecond time structure of a charged particle beam. The stripline configuration maintains signal integrity, and stitching of the stripline increases the bandwidth. A calibration procedure ensures the measurement of the absolute charge and time structure of the charged particle beam.

  20. Development of an Optical Disc Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    Kenney , F / Zernike D /Lou ,~ R,’Harp:r 1 ( Li, ‘~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ _ _ ~~ _ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I R. McFarlane - - ____________________________ 9. PER...7 371 4 0 “7 4 :4 7-7 / 99 c crc 7i 3d ) -75, 375 331 4 7 Cl 4 :53 2177 70 Ci 0 0 2 ) 2 2-37 3172 FIGURE 4 . 1 S I M I I I A T 1 ON RESUl TS FOR

  1. Recent advances in uranium exploration with electronic alpha cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Data from a new radon measuring device, based on electronic alpha cups are compared with data from the nonelectronic, plastic alpha cups commonly used in exploring for uranium. A burial time of three days appears to be adequate for the electronic alpha cups to collect exploration data equivalent to those from plastic sensing devices. The advantages of the electronic cups are short time of burial and instant readout in the field; the major disadvantages is the capital expenditure required for the instruments. It is possible the cups may be useful for copper exploration too. 5 refs

  2. A Procedure for Classification of Cup-Anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Paulsen, Uwe Schmidt

    1997-01-01

    The paper proposes a classification procedure for cup-anemometers based on similar principles as for power converters. A range of operational parameters are established within which the response of the cup-anemometer is evaluated. The characteristics of real cup-anemometers are fitted...... to a realistic 3D cup-anemometer model. Afterwards, the model is used to calculate the response under the range of operational conditions which are set up for the classification. Responses are compared to the normal linear calibration relationship, derived from Wind tunnel calibrations. Results of the 3D cup...

  3. Double-disc gate valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to an improvement in a conventional double-disc gate valve having a vertically movable gate assembly including a wedge, spreaders slidably engaged therewith, a valve disc carried by the spreaders. When the gate assembly is lowered to a selected point in the valve casing, the valve discs are moved transversely outward to close inlet and outlet ports in the casing. The valve includes hold-down means for guiding the disc-and-spreader assemblies as they are moved transversely outward and inward. If such valves are operated at relatively high differential pressures, they sometimes jam during opening. Such jamming has been a problem for many years in gate valves used in gaseous diffusion plants for the separation of uranium isotopes. The invention is based on the finding that the above-mentioned jamming results when the outlet disc tilts about its horizontal axis in a certain way during opening of the valve. In accordance with the invention, tilting of the outlet disc is maintained at a tolerable value by providing the disc with a rigid downwardly extending member and by providing the casing with a stop for limiting inward arcuate movement of the member to a preselected value during opening of the valve

  4. Transient events in bright debris discs: Collisional avalanches revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.

    2018-01-01

    Context. A collisional avalanche is set off by the breakup of a large planetesimal, releasing vast amounts of small unbound grains that enter a debris disc located further away from the star, triggering there a collisional chain reaction that could potentially create detectable transient structures. Aims: We investigate this mechanism, using for the first time a fully self-consistent code coupling dynamical and collisional evolutions. We also quantify for the first time the photometric evolution of the system and investigate whether or not avalanches could explain the short-term luminosity variations recently observed in some extremely bright debris discs. Methods: We use the state-of-the-art LIDT-DD code. We consider an avalanche-favoring A6V star, and two set-ups: a "cold disc" case, with a dust release at 10 au and an outer disc extending from 50 to 120 au, and a "warm disc" case with the release at 1 au and a 5-12 au outer disc. We explore, in addition, two key parameters: the density (parameterized by its optical depth τ) of the main outer disc and the amount of dust released by the initial breakup. Results: We find that avalanches could leave detectable structures on resolved images, for both "cold" and "warm" disc cases, in discs with τ of a few 10-3, provided that large dust masses (≳1020-5 × 1022 g) are initially released. The integrated photometric excess due to an avalanche is relatively limited, less than 10% for these released dust masses, peaking in the λ 10-20 μm domain and becoming insignificant beyond 40-50 μm. Contrary to earlier studies, we do not obtain stronger avalanches when increasing τ to higher values. Likewise, we do not observe a significant luminosity deficit, as compared to the pre-avalanche level, after the passage of the avalanche. These two results concur to make avalanches an unlikely explanation for the sharp luminosity drops observed in some extremely bright debris discs. The ideal configuration for observing an

  5. Corrosion Behavior of Ceramic Cup of Blast Furnace Hearth by Liquid Iron and Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanglong; Cheng, Shusen; Wang, Zhifeng

    2016-10-01

    Three kinds of sample bricks of ceramic cups for blast furnace hearth were studied by dynamic corrosion tests based on different corrosion systems, i.e., liquid iron system, liquid slag system and liquid iron-slag system. Considering the influence of temperature and sample rotational speed, the corrosion profiles and mass loss of the samples were analyzed. In addition, the microstructure of the corroded samples was observed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the corrosion profiles could be divided into iron corrosion region, slag corrosion region and iron-slag corrosion region via corrosion degree after iron-slag corrosion experiment. The most serious corrosion occurred in iron-slag corrosion region. This is due to Marangoni effect, which promotes a slag film formed between liquid iron and ceramic cup and results in local corrosion. The corrosion of the samples deepened with increasing temperature of liquid iron and slag from 1,623 K to 1,823 K. The variation of slag composition had greater influence on the erosion degree than that of rotational speed in this experiment. Taking these results into account the ceramic cup composition should be close to slag composition to decrease the chemical reaction. A microporous and strong material should be applied for ceramic cup.

  6. Influence of corneal power on circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head measurements by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the influence of corneal power on circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL and optic nerve head (ONH measurements by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. METHODS: Twenty-five eyes of 25 healthy participants (mean age 23.6±3.6y were imaged by SD-OCT using horizontal raster scans. Disposable soft contact lenses of different powers (from −11 to +5 diopters including 0 diopter were worn to induce 2-diopter changes in corneal power. Differences in the cpRNFL and ONH measurements per diopter of change in corneal power were analyzed. RESULTS: As corneal power increased by 1 diopter, total and quadrant cpRNFL thicknesses, except for the nasal sector, decreased by −0.19 to −0.32 μm (P<0.01. Furthermore, the disc, cup, and rim areas decreased by −0.017, −0.007, and −0.015 mm2, respectively (P<0.001; the cup and rim volumes decreased by −0.0013 and −0.006 mm3, respectively (P<0.01; and the vertical and horizontal disc diameters decreased by −0.006 and −0.007 mm, respectively (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: For more precise OCT imaging, the ocular magnification should be corrected by considering both the axial length and corneal power. However, the effect of corneal power changes on cpRNFL thickness and ONH topography are small when compare with those of the axial length.

  7. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  8. Disc Golf: Teaching a Lifetime Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as…

  9. Lumbar disc excision through fenestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lumbar disc herniation often causes sciatica. Many different techniques have been advocated with the aim of least possible damage to other structures while dealing with prolapsed disc surgically in the properly selected and indicated cases. Methods : Twenty six patients with clinical symptoms and signs of prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc having radiological correlation by MRI study were subjected to disc excision by interlaminar fenestration method. Results : The assessment at follow-up showed excellent results in 17 patients, good in 6 patients, fair in 2 patients and poor in 1 patient. The mean preoperative and postoperative Visual Analogue Scores were 9.34 ±0.84 and 2.19 ±0.84 on scale of 0-10 respectively. These were statistically significant (p value< 0.001, paired t test. No significant complications were recorded. Conclusion : Procedures of interlaminar fenestration and open disc excision under direct vision offers sufficient adequate exposure for lumbar disc excision with a smaller incision, lesser morbidity, shorter convalescence, early return to work and comparable overall results in the centers where recent laser and endoscopy facilities are not available.

  10. [Progress of researches on the mechanism of cupping therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuai; Cui, Jin

    2012-12-01

    Cupping therapy of Chinese medicine is able to relieve a variety of diseases or clinical conditions, which results from the comprehensive effects of multiple types of stimulation exerted onto the regional acupoint areas. Among the stimuli, the negative pressure from cupping is one of the main factors inducing therapeutic effects. In the present paper, the authors review development of researches on the underlying mechanism of therapeutic effects of cupping-negative pressure from 1) the factor of intra-cup negative pressure; 2) influence of intra-cup negative pressure on cup-blackspot formation; 3) influence of cupping on regional blood vessels and blood flow; 4) effect of cupping on regional ultrastructure of the capillary in the raw-surface tissue; 5) effect of cupping-negative pressure on regional endothelial cells; and 6) biological effects of negative pressure drainage. Generally, cupping induced negative pressure can dilate local blood vessels to improve microcirculation, promote capillary endothelial cells repair, accelerate granulation and angiogenesis, etc., in the regional tissues, normalizing the patients' functional state at last.

  11. NCI Holds on to Defelice Cup | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI kept the Defelice Cup trophy this year after beating Leidos Biomedical Research, 15 to 9, at the 10th annual Ronald H. Defelice Golf Tournament held on Columbus Day. Sixteen players on each team battled it out at the yearly contractor vs. government tournament held at Rattlewood Golf Course in Mount Airy, Md. NCI leads the series 6–4. “The score was the highest NCI margin

  12. History of cupping (Hijama): a narrative review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Ali, Gazzaffi Ibrahim; Abushanab, Tamer Shaban; El-Olemy, Ahmed Tawfik; Alqaed, Meshari Saleh; El-Subai, Ibrahim S; Al-Bedah, Abdullah M N

    2017-05-01

    Cupping (Hijama in Arabic) is an ancient, holistic method for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Though the exact origin of cupping therapy is a matter of controversy, its use has been documented in early Egyptian and Chinese medical practices. Diverse human civilizations have contributed to the historical development and continuation of cupping therapy. This narrative review describes the history of cupping, historical definitions, cupping instruments and uses of cupping therapy. Electronic searches of relevant databases (PubMed, Google Scholar and OvidSP) were conducted using keywords and Boolean operators. Manual searches and references of published articles and books were also conducted. A number of articles (N = 625) were retained for extensive review, and finally 83 articles were included in this paper. The historical descriptions of cupping therapy were found in ancient human civilizations of the Eastern and Western world. There were inconsistent data concerning the origin of cupping, definitions, instruments, procedures, definite advancements and research in Hijama over centuries. Cupping therapy fell out of favor in 17th and mid-18th centuries but recovered popularity in modern medicine. Currently, cupping therapy is used for health promotion, prophylaxis and treatment of a variety of diseases around the world. Cupping therapy with a good safety profile has a checkered history and is a well-recognized traditional method for managing medical conditions. Currently, the scope of cupping therapy is expanding, and a growing body of research is providing additional evidence-based data for the further advancement of cupping therapy in the treatment of a variety of diseases.

  13. Comparison of Animal Discs Used in Disc Research to Human Lumbar Disc: Torsion Mechanics and Collagen Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Brent L.; Beckstein, Jesse C.; Martin, John T.; Beattie, Elizabeth E.; Orías, Alejandro A. Espinoza; Schaer, Thomas P.; Vresilovic, Edward J.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Experimental measurement and normalization of in vitro disc torsion mechanics and collagen content for several animal species used in intervertebral disc research and comparing these to the human disc. Objective To aid in the selection of appropriate animal models for disc research by measuring torsional mechanical properties and collagen content. Summary of Background Data There is lack of data and variability in testing protocols for comparing animal and human disc torsion mechanics and collagen content. Methods Intervertebral disc torsion mechanics were measured and normalized by disc height and polar moment of inertia for 11 disc types in 8 mammalian species: the calf, pig, baboon, goat, sheep, rabbit, rat, and mouse lumbar, and cow, rat, and mouse caudal. Collagen content was measured and normalized by dry weight for the same discs except the rat and mouse. Collagen fiber stretch in torsion was calculated using an analytical model. Results Measured torsion parameters varied by several orders of magnitude across the different species. After geometric normalization, only the sheep and pig discs were statistically different from human. Fiber stretch was found to be highly dependent on the assumed initial fiber angle. The collagen content of the discs was similar, especially in the outer annulus where only the calf and goat discs were statistically different from human. Disc collagen content did not correlate with torsion mechanics. Conclusion Disc torsion mechanics are comparable to human lumbar discs in 9 of 11 disc types after normalization by geometry. The normalized torsion mechanics and collagen content of the multiple animal discs presented is useful for selecting and interpreting results for animal models of the disc. Structural composition of the disc, such as initial fiber angle, may explain the differences that were noted between species after geometric normalization. PMID:22333953

  14. Management of knee osteoarthritis with cupping therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asim Ali; Jahangir, Umar; Urooj, Shaista

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy at a clinical setting for knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Cupping was performed on 0-6(th) day; 9-11(th) day and 14(th) day, i.e., 11 sittings follow-up to determine longer term carryover of treatment effects utilizing both objective and subjective assessment. The assessment was performed before and after treatment spreading over a period of 15 days. The results of this study shows significant and better results in the overall management of knee osteoarthritis, particularly in relieving pain, edema, stiffness and disability. The efficacy of treatment with cupping therapy in relieving signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis is comparable to that of acetaminophen 650 mg thrice a day orally, in terms of analgesia, anti-inflammatory and resolution of edema with minimal and temporary side-effects like echymosis and blister formation while as control drug has greater side-effects particularly on upper gastrointestinal tract. It is recommended that further studies are conducted with a larger study samples and of longer duration.

  15. Management of knee osteoarthritis with cupping therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Ali Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy at a clinical setting for knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Cupping was performed on 0-6 th day; 9-11 th day and 14 th day, i.e., 11 sittings follow-up to determine longer term carryover of treatment effects utilizing both objective and subjective assessment. The assessment was performed before and after treatment spreading over a period of 15 days. The results of this study shows significant and better results in the overall management of knee osteoarthritis, particularly in relieving pain, edema, stiffness and disability. The efficacy of treatment with cupping therapy in relieving signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis is comparable to that of acetaminophen 650 mg thrice a day orally, in terms of analgesia, anti-inflammatory and resolution of edema with minimal and temporary side-effects like echymosis and blister formation while as control drug has greater side-effects particularly on upper gastrointestinal tract. It is recommended that further studies are conducted with a larger study samples and of longer duration.

  16. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  17. Dust discs around low-mass main-sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolstencroft, R.D.; Walker, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Current understanding of the formation of circumstellar discs as a natural accompaniment to the process of low-mass star formation is briefly reviewed. Models of the thermal emission from the dust discs around the prototype stars α Lyr, α PsA, β Pic and ε Eri are discussed, which indicate that the central regions of three of these discs are almost devoid of dust within radii ranging between 17 and 26 AU, with the temperature of the hottest dust lying between about 115 and 210 K. One possible explanation of the dust-free zones is the presence of a planet at the inner boundary of each cloud that sweeps up grains crossing its orbit. The colour, diameter and thickness of the optical image of β Pic, obtained by coronagraphic techniques, have provided further information on the size, radial distribution of number density and orbital inclination of the grains. The difference in surface brightness on the two sides of the disc is puzzling, but might be explained if the grains are elongated and aligned by the combined effects of a stellar wind and a magnetic field of spiral configuration. Finally, we discuss the orbital evolution and lifetimes of particles in these discs, which are governed primarily by radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson drag and grain-grain collisions. (author)

  18. Evolution of viscous discs. 3. Giant discs in symbiotic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, G T [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics; Pringle, J E [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy

    1982-10-01

    The structure of time-dependent accretion discs in giant binaries with separation of the order of 10/sup 13/ cm is examined. Radiative ..cap alpha..-viscosity discs with ..cap alpha.. of order unity accreting on to main-sequence stars at accretion rates which generate luminosities greater than a giant companion decay on time-scales of the same order as the binary period, unlike those in dwarf nova binaries which decay on time-scales 100 times longer than the binary period. This results from the lower gravitational potential and consequent larger disc thickness (relative to the radius) of luminous 'giant' discs accreting at high accretion rates. The eruptions of the symbiotic binary C I Cygni are modelled by an ..cap alpha.. = 1 disc with outer radius 8.5 x 10/sup 12/ cm and a sequence of five mass-transfer bursts at rates between 1.5 x 10/sup 21/ and 4 x 10/sup 22/g s/sup -1/.

  19. Is cupping blister harmful?-A proteomical analysis of blister fluid induced by cupping therapy and scald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhidan; Chen, Chunlan; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Chuang; Li, Zunyuan; Liang, Wei; Lin, Yufang

    2018-02-01

    Cupping therapy has a long history in traditional medicine especially in Asian countries. It was controversial whether cupping induced blisters are beneficial to healing effects, and the formation and content in the blisters remain unexplored. We aimed to identify and compare the molecular components of the blister fluid from the cupping therapy and the scalds to explore the necessary of inducing cupping induced blisters. Fluid sample of blisters from fifteen patients receiving cupping therapy (Cupping group) and scald burns (Scald group) were collected in this study. Proteins from the blisters were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-gel) and further analyzed by mass spectrometry. In addition, the changes in particular proteins were confirmed by Western blotting. The protein components are significantly different between blister from cupping therapy and scalds. The immune responses, oxidative stress and metabolic related proteins (Ig lambda-2 chain C regions, Ig gamma-1 chain C region, hemopexin, prdx2, calmodulin, succinyl-CoA ligase and tetranectin) were increased, whereas the hemoglobin subunit beta was decreased in the Cupping group compared with the Scald group. Cupping induced blisters contain several proteins which relate to the activation of certain immune pathways including anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, tissue repairing and metabolic regulation. This proteomic analysis may indicate a significant clue to the mechanism study of cupping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Compilation of LLNL CUP-2 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppich, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kips, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lindvall, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-07-31

    The CUP-2 uranium ore concentrate (UOC) standard reference material, a powder, was produced at the Blind River uranium refinery of Eldorado Resources Ltd. in Canada in 1986. This material was produced as part of a joint effort by the Canadian Certified Reference Materials Project and the Canadian Uranium Producers Metallurgical Committee to develop a certified reference material for uranium concentration and the concentration of several impurity constituents. This standard was developed to satisfy the requirements of the UOC mining and milling industry, and was characterized with this purpose in mind. To produce CUP-2, approximately 25 kg of UOC derived from the Blind River uranium refinery was blended, homogenized, and assessed for homogeneity by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The homogenized material was then packaged into bottles, containing 50 g of material each, and distributed for analysis to laboratories in 1986. The CUP-2 UOC standard was characterized by an interlaboratory analysis program involving eight member laboratories, six commercial laboratories, and three additional volunteer laboratories. Each laboratory provided five replicate results on up to 17 analytes, including total uranium concentration, and moisture content. The selection of analytical technique was left to each participating laboratory. Uranium was reported on an “as-received” basis; all other analytes (besides moisture content) were reported on a “dry-weight” basis. A bottle of 25g of CUP-2 UOC standard as described above was purchased by LLNL and characterized by the LLNL Nuclear Forensics Group. Non-destructive and destructive analytical techniques were applied to the UOC sample. Information obtained from short-term techniques such as photography, gamma spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy were used to guide the performance of longer-term techniques such as ICP-MS. Some techniques, such as XRF and ICP-MS, provided complementary types of data. The results

  1. Proteomic effects of wet cupping (Al-hijamah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaiman, Amer A

    2018-01-01

    Wet cupping (Al-hijamah) is a therapeutic technique practiced worldwide as a part of the Unani system of medicine. It involves bloodletting from acupoints on a patient's skin to produce a therapeutic outcome. A thorough review of research articles on wet cupping with relevance to proteomics field that are indexed by Google Scholar, PubMed, and/or Science Direct databases was performed. Eight original research articles were summarized in this paper. Overall, wet cupping did not have a significant effect on C-reactive protein, Hsp-27, sister chromatid exchanges, and cell replication index. In contrast, wet cupping was found to produce higher oxygen saturation, eliminate lactate from subcutaneous tissues, remove blood containing higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and produce higher activity of myeloperoxidase. The proteomic effects of wet cupping therapy have not been adequately investigated. Thus, future studies on wet cupping that use systemic and sound protocols to avoid bias should be conducted.

  2. Paradoxical, Cupping-Induced Localized Psoriasis: A Koebner Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Reid; Vender, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Cupping therapy is a traditional Chinese medicine used to heal psoriasis. The Koebner phenomenon is the occurrence of psoriatic lesions at the site of cutaneous injury. To describe the first case of biopsy-proven cupping-induced localized psoriasis, an example of the Koebner phenomenon. The histopathology of the lesions is described. A brief review of the literature regarding cupping therapy and its efficacy are discussed. A 45-year-old Asian male presented himself to the dermatology clinic for further treatment of his psoriasis. Four unusually circular plaques on the lower back were discovered. Pathologic diagnosis revealed an early lesion of psoriasis. on further inquiry, the patient admitted to undergoing a recent "cupping" procedure in an attempt to cure his condition. The efficacy of cupping therapy is controversial, and psoriatic patients may develop localized psoriasis through koebnerization as a result of cupping therapy rather than achieve desirable therapeutic benefits. © 2014 Canadian Dermatology Association.

  3. Wet-cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagil, Suleyman Murat; Celik, Huseyin Tugrul; Ciftci, Sefa; Kazanci, Fatmanur Hacievliyagil; Arslan, Muzeyyen; Erdamar, Nazan; Kesik, Yunus; Erdamar, Husamettin; Dane, Senol

    2014-12-01

    Wet-cupping therapy is one of the oldest known medical techniques. Although it is widely used in various conditions such as acute\\chronic inflammation, infectious diseases, and immune system disorders, its mechanism of action is not fully known. In this study, we investigated the oxidative status as the first step to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of wet cupping. Wet cupping therapy is implemented to 31 healthy volunteers. Venous blood samples and Wet cupping blood samples were taken concurrently. Serum nitricoxide, malondialdehyde levels and activity of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase were measured spectrophotometrically. Wet cupping blood had higher activity of myeloperoxidase, lower activity of superoxide dismutase, higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitricoxide compared to the venous blood. Wet cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a classification system for cup anemometers - CLASSCUP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2003-01-01

    the objectives to quantify the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to determine the requirements for an optimum design of a cup anemometer, and to develop a classification system forquantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. The present report describes this proposed...... classification system. A classification method for cup anemometers has been developed, which proposes general external operational ranges to be used. Anormal category range connected to ideal sites of the IEC power performance standard was made, and another extended category range for complex terrain...... was proposed. General classification indices were proposed for all types of cup anemometers. As a resultof the classification, the cup anemometer will be assigned to a certain class: 0.5, 1, 2, 3 or 5 with corresponding intrinsic errors (%) as a vector instrument (3D) or as a horizontal instrument (2D...

  5. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  6. Morphological characteristics of the optic nerve evaluated by confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) in a normal population from the city of Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, M; Pazos, M; Morilla, A; Sebastián, M A; Xancó, R; Mora, C; Calderón, B; Vega, Z; Antón, A

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate morphological parameters of optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) examined with confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) in a normal population, and analyze correlations of these parameters with demographic variables. Cross-sectional study in the context of a glaucoma screening campaign in the primary care center of Barcelona. The individuals selected were non-hypertensive Mediterranean Caucasians with risk for glaucoma development (individuals≥60 years old or≥40 years old with family history of glaucoma or intraocular pressure or myopia>3diopter). All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, confocal laser tomography (HRT3) and scanning laser polarimetry (GDX-VCC), subjects with results within normal limits only being included. Structural parameters were analyzed along with age, refraction, and pachymetry based on the Spearman rank correlation test. A total of 224 subjects included, with a mean age of 63.4±11.1 years. Disc areas, excavation and ring area were 2.14±0.52mm(2), 0.44±0.34mm (2) and 1.69±0.38mm(2), respectively. The mean RNFL (GDX) was 55.9±6.9μm. Age was correlated with lower ring volume, highest rate of cup shape measure, largest mean and maximum cup depth, lower nerve fiber index (NFI) and RNFL (all p-values below .05). The mean values and distribution of several parameters of the papilla and the RNFL in normal Mediterranean Caucasians population are presented. A loss of thickness of the RNFL, ring thinning, and enlarged cup was observed with increased age. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Morbidly Obese Patients Who Underwent Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Dogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate changes in optical coherence tomography parameters in morbidly obese patients who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG. Methods. A total of 41 eyes of 41 morbidly obese patients (BMI ≥ 40 who had undergone LSG were included in study. The topographic optic disc parameters, central macular thickness (CMT, total macular volume (TMV, and retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT was measured by enhanced deep imaging-optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT. Results. The mean CMT was 237.4±24.5 μm, 239.3±24.1 μm, and 240.4±24.5 μm preoperatively, 3 months postoperatively, and 6 months postoperatively, respectively (p<0.01. The mean TMV was 9.88±0.52 mm3, 9.96±0.56 mm3, and 9.99±0.56 mm3 preoperatively, 3 months postoperatively, and 6 months postoperatively, respectively (p<0.01. The mean RGCL was 81.2±6.5 μm, 82.7±6.6 μm, and 82.9±6.5 μm preoperatively, 3 months postoperatively, and 6 months postoperatively, respectively (p<0.01. The mean SFCT was 309.8±71.8 μm, 331.0±81.4 μm, and 352.7±81.4 μm preoperatively, 3 months postoperatively, and 6 months postoperatively, respectively (p<0.01. No statistically significant differences were found between the preoperative values and 3- and 6-month postoperative values in rim area (p=0.34, disc area (p=0.64, vertical cup/disc ratio (p=0.39, cup volume (p=0.08, or retinal nerve fiber layer (p=0.90. Conclusions. Morbidly obese patients who undergo LSG experience a statistically significant increase in CMT, TMV, SFCT, and RGCL at 3 months and 6 months after surgery.

  8. Clad vent set cup closure-weld-zone grinding evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Woods, A.T.; Ohriner, E.K.

    1996-04-01

    Clad vent set (CVS) cups were ground in the closure-weld zone to reduce the wall-thickness variation created by the cup deep-drawing process. A significantly more uniform wall thickness would be beneficial for the CVS closure-weld operation. The goal was to reduce the average within-cup wall-thickness variation (defined as the range of wall thicknesses in the closure-weld zone) approximately 50% from the Cassini production value of 42 microm. This goal was shown to be achievable but, unfortunately, not with the existing blank and formed cup thicknesses

  9. The Evolution of the Cup-Cage Technique for Major Acetabular Defects: Full and Half Cup-Cage Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculco, Peter K; Ledford, Cameron K; Hanssen, Arlen D; Abdel, Matthew P; Lewallen, David G

    2017-07-05

    Complex acetabular reconstruction for major bone loss can require advanced methods such as the use of a cup-cage construct. The purpose of this study was to review outcomes after the initial development of the cup-cage technique and the subsequent evolution to the use of a half cup-cage construct. We performed a retrospective, single-center review of 57 patients treated with cup-cage reconstruction for major acetabular bone loss. All patients had major acetabular defects graded as Paprosky Type 2B through 3B, with 34 (60%) having an associated pelvic discontinuity. Thirty patients received a full cup-cage construct and 27, a half cup-cage construct. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Both the full and half cup-cage cohorts demonstrated significantly improved Harris hip score (HHS) values, from 36 to 72 at a minimum of 2 years of follow-up (p cup-cage constructs and 6 (22%) of the half cup-cage constructs. One patient with a full cup-cage construct underwent re-revision of the acetabular component for progressive migration and aseptic loosening. Short-term survivorship free from re-revision for any cause or reoperation was 89% (83% and 96% for full and half cup-cage cohorts, respectively). Both full and half cup-cage constructs demonstrated successful clinical outcomes and survivorship in the treatment of major acetabular defects and pelvic discontinuity. Each method is utilized on the basis of individual intraoperative findings, including the extent and pattern of bone loss, the quality and location of host bone remaining after preparation, and the presence of pelvic discontinuity. Longer-term follow-up is required to understand the durability of these constructs in treating major acetabular defects and pelvic discontinuity. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  10. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  11. The Endcap Disc DIRC of PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Endcap Disc DIRC (EDD) for PANDA has been designed to identify traversing pions, kaons and protons in the future PANDA experiment. Its central part is a 2 cm thick fused silica plate. Focussing optics are attached to the outer rim of the plate, outside of the acceptance of the experiment. Fast, high-resolution MCP-PMTs, designed to register single Cherenkov photons, have been tested in magnetic field. Filters limit the spectral acceptance of the sensors to reduce dispersion effects and to extend their lifetime. A compact and fast readout is realized with ASICs. Analytical reconstruction algorithms allow for fast particle identification. The angular resolution of a DIRC prototype has been simulated in Monte Carlo and confirmed in a test beam. The final detector will be able to provide a 4 σπ / K separation up to a momentum of 4 GeV / c .

  12. Radiographic cup anteversion measurement corrected from pelvic tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liao; Thoreson, Andrew R; Trousdale, Robert T; Morrey, Bernard F; Dai, Kerong; An, Kai-Nan

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel technique to improve the accuracy of radiographic cup anteversion measurement by correcting the influence of pelvic tilt. Ninety virtual total hip arthroplasties were simulated from computed tomography data of 6 patients with 15 predetermined cup orientations. For each simulated implantation, anteroposterior (AP) virtual pelvic radiographs were generated for 11 predetermined pelvic tilts. A linear regression model was created to capture the relationship between radiographic cup anteversion angle error measured on AP pelvic radiographs and pelvic tilt. Overall, nine hundred and ninety virtual AP pelvic radiographs were measured, and 90 linear regression models were created. Pearson's correlation analyses confirmed a strong correlation between the errors of conventional radiographic cup anteversion angle measured on AP pelvic radiographs and the magnitude of pelvic tilt (P cup anteversion angle from the influence of pelvic tilt. The current method proposes to measure the pelvic tilt on a lateral radiograph, and to use it as a correction for the radiographic cup anteversion measurement on an AP pelvic radiograph. Thus, both AP and lateral pelvic radiographs are required for the measurement of pelvic posture-integrated cup anteversion. Compared with conventional radiographic cup anteversion, the errors of pelvic posture-integrated radiographic cup anteversion were reduced from 10.03 (SD = 5.13) degrees to 2.53 (SD = 1.33) degrees. Pelvic posture-integrated cup anteversion measurement improves the accuracy of radiographic cup anteversion measurement, which shows the potential of further clarifying the etiology of postoperative instability based on planar radiographs. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  14. Progress in Electron Beam Mastering of 100 Gbit/inch2 Density Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Minoru; Furuki, Motohiro; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Aki, Yuichi; Kawase, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Miyokawa, Toshiaki; Mutou, Masao; Handa, Nobuo

    2004-07-01

    We developed an electron beam recorder (EBR) capable of recording master discs under atmospheric conditions using a novel differential pumping head. Using the EBR and optimized fabrication process for Si-etched discs with reactive ion etching (RIE), a bottom signal jitter of 9.6% was obtained from a 36 Gbit/inch2 density disc, readout using a near-field optical pickup with an effective numerical aperture (NA) of 1.85 and a wavelength of 405 nm. We also obtained the eye patterns from a 70 Gbit/inch2 density disc readout using an optical pickup with a 2.05 NA and the same wavelength, and showed almost the same modulation ratio as the simulation value. Moreover, the capability of producing pit patterns corresponding to a 104 Gbit/inch2 density is demonstrated.

  15. Migration of the Duraloc cup after 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stihsen, Christoph; Pabinger, Christof; Radl, Roman; Rehak, Peter; Windhager, Reinhard

    2008-12-01

    The Duraloc cup is a frequently used metal-backed, porous-coated, hemispherical, press-fit acetabular component. Published data on loosening rates are contradictory. In this study we investigated migration patterns with computer-assisted Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse (EBRA) of 67 Duraloc 100 cups. Cup migration and clinical scores were analysed over a 5-year follow-up period. Median total migration of the Duraloc 100 cup was 1.21 mm at 5 years. Seventy-five percent of implants were radiologically stable at 2 years and 90% at 4 years. One cup loosened aseptically at 60 months, requiring revision. Cup diameters > or = 54 mm migrated significantly more than cups < 54 mm in diameter (p = 0.029 at 4 years). There was a significant correlation between high polyethylene wear and further migrating cups within the first post-operative year (p = 0.035 at 12 months). Our analysis revealed significantly higher wear in males (p = 0.029 at 4 years). Radiological loosening at two years could be calculated using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, and 1.2 mm as an adequate threshold value (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 89%).

  16. A critical comparison of ten disposable cup LCAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst, van der E.J.M.; Potting, J.

    2013-01-01

    Disposable cups can be made from conventional petro-plastics, bioplastics, or paperboard (coated with petro-plastics or bioplastics). This study compared ten life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of disposable cups with the aim to evaluate the robustness of their results. The selected studies have

  17. A critical comparison of ten disposable cup LCAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harst, Eugenie van der, E-mail: eugenie.vanderharst@wur.nl [Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Potting, José, E-mail: jose.potting@wur.nl [Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Environmental Strategies Research (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-110 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Disposable cups can be made from conventional petro-plastics, bioplastics, or paperboard (coated with petro-plastics or bioplastics). This study compared ten life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of disposable cups with the aim to evaluate the robustness of their results. The selected studies have only one impact category in common, namely climate change with global warming potential (GWP) as its category indicator. Quantitative GWP results of the studies were closer examined. GWPs within and across each study show none of the cup materials to be consistently better than the others. Comparison of the absolute GWPs (after correction for the cup volume) also shows no consistent better or worse cup material. An evaluation of the methodological choices and the data sets used in the studies revealed their influence on the GWP. The differences in GWP can be attributed to a multitude of factors, i.e., cup material and weight, production processes, waste processes, allocation options, and data used. These factors basically represent different types of uncertainty. Sensitivity and scenario analyses provided only the influence of one factor at once. A systematic and simultaneous use of sensitivity and scenario analyses could, in a next research, result in more robust outcomes. -- Highlights: • Conflicting results from life cycle assessment (LCA) on disposable cups • GWP results of LCAs did not point to a best or worst cup material. • Differences in GWP results are due to methodological choices and data sets used. • Standardized LCA: transparency of LCA studies, but still different in approaches.

  18. A critical comparison of ten disposable cup LCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harst, Eugenie van der; Potting, José

    2013-01-01

    Disposable cups can be made from conventional petro-plastics, bioplastics, or paperboard (coated with petro-plastics or bioplastics). This study compared ten life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of disposable cups with the aim to evaluate the robustness of their results. The selected studies have only one impact category in common, namely climate change with global warming potential (GWP) as its category indicator. Quantitative GWP results of the studies were closer examined. GWPs within and across each study show none of the cup materials to be consistently better than the others. Comparison of the absolute GWPs (after correction for the cup volume) also shows no consistent better or worse cup material. An evaluation of the methodological choices and the data sets used in the studies revealed their influence on the GWP. The differences in GWP can be attributed to a multitude of factors, i.e., cup material and weight, production processes, waste processes, allocation options, and data used. These factors basically represent different types of uncertainty. Sensitivity and scenario analyses provided only the influence of one factor at once. A systematic and simultaneous use of sensitivity and scenario analyses could, in a next research, result in more robust outcomes. -- Highlights: • Conflicting results from life cycle assessment (LCA) on disposable cups • GWP results of LCAs did not point to a best or worst cup material. • Differences in GWP results are due to methodological choices and data sets used. • Standardized LCA: transparency of LCA studies, but still different in approaches

  19. Wear numbers for ball cup and journal bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.; Moes, H.

    1980-01-01

    A wear number is defined for ball cup bearings and for journal bearings where the cup and the cylindrical bearing are made of soft material. This dimensionless wear number provides a relation between the following five quantities: the radius of the ball or the length of the journal bearing in

  20. Intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, N.

    2011-01-01

    Back pain is common in both dogs and humans, and is often associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The IVDs are essential structures of the spine and degeneration can ultimately result in diseases such as IVD herniation or spinal instability. In order to design new treatments halting

  1. Intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, Niklas

    Back pain is common in both dogs and humans, and is often associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The IVDs are essential structures of the spine and degeneration can ultimately result in diseases such as IVD herniation or spinal instability. In order to design new treatments halting

  2. CT morphometry of adult thoracic intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Justin G R; Stringer, Mark D; Briggs, Christopher A; Davies, Tilman M; Woodley, Stephanie J

    2015-10-01

    Despite being commonly affected by degenerative disorders, there are few data on normal thoracic intervertebral disc dimensions. A morphometric analysis of adult thoracic intervertebral discs was, therefore, undertaken. Archival computed tomography scans of 128 recently deceased individuals (70 males, 58 females, 20-79 years) with no known spinal pathology were analysed to determine thoracic disc morphometry and variations with disc level, sex and age. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Anterior and posterior intervertebral disc heights and axial dimensions were significantly greater in men (anterior disc height 4.0±1.4 vs 3.6±1.3 mm; posterior disc height 3.6±0.90 vs 3.4±0.93 mm; p<0.01). Disc heights and axial dimensions at T4-5 were similar or smaller than at T2-3, but thereafter increased caudally (mean anterior disc height T4-5 and T10-11, 2.7±0.7 and 5.4±1.2 mm, respectively, in men; 2.6±0.8 and 5.1±1.3 mm, respectively, in women; p<0.05). Except at T2-3, anterior disc height decreased with advancing age and anteroposterior and transverse disc dimensions increased; posterior and middle disc heights and indices of disc shape showed no consistent statistically significant changes. Most parameters showed substantial to almost perfect agreement for intra- and inter-rater reliability. Thoracic disc morphometry varies significantly and consistently with disc level, sex and age. This study provides unique reference data on adult thoracic intervertebral disc morphometry, which may be useful when interpreting pathological changes and for future biomechanical and functional studies.

  3. [The Use of Jumbo Cups in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Roth, Philipp; Wassilew, Georgi I

    2017-10-01

    Extra-large uncemented jumbo cups are among the most common methods of acetabular revision. Jumbo cups do not contribute to bone stock restoration, and in the case of a subsequent revision, an even larger bone defect is to be expected. Thus, understanding long-term survival is essential. The present article discusses the literature relevant to this topic and addresses technical and implant-specific characteristics of jumbo cups. In summary, jumbo cups show an acceptable long-term survival rate, with aseptic loosening as the most common reason for revision and dislocation being the most common complication. Through the development of alternative revision systems, jumbo cups have lost their importance in today's practice. However, they can serve as a benchmark for studies of newer technologies in revision total hip arthroplasty. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Accumulation of radon in the underground detector cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Yuanhuo.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical calculations based on the radon migration mechanism (i. e. diffusion, convection and atmospheric pumping etc) show that the balance of radon concentration in underground detector cups buried and in surrounding soil gas requires about 0.7-10 hours. However, the equilibrium of radon with its daughter products in the cups needs about 4 hours. Therefore, it is considered that 4.5-12 hours are needed for these two processes. It takes 3-4 days for Tn to reach radioactive equilibrium with its short-lived daughter products. When thorium concentration is higher than background exposure time of the detector cups should be over 3-4 days. Using buried detector cups, field experiments give correlative results compared with those of theoretical calculations. The study is oriented both for optimizing the burial time of the detector cup and interpretation of radon anomalies detected

  5. Distance constant of the Risø cup anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Frost Hansen, O.

    2002-01-01

    The theory for cup-anemometer dynamics is presented in some detail and two methods of obtaining the distance constant lo are discussed. The first method is based on wind tunnel measurements: with a constant wind speed the cup anemometer is released from alocked position of the rotor...... and the increasing rotation rate recorded. It is concluded that the rapid increase in rotation rate makes the method very inaccurate. The second method consists of an analysis of turbulent, atmospheric of wind speed asmeasured by the cup anemometer and a fast-responding sonic anemometer with a spatial eddy...... resolution which is significantly better than that which can be obtained by a cup anemometer. The ratio between the measured power spectra of the horizontal windspeed by the two instruments contains the necessary information for determining the response characteristics of the cup anemometer and thereby lo...

  6. Thermochemical modelling of brown dwarf discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, A. J.; Kamp, I.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Woitke, P.; Thi, W.-F.; Rab, Ch.; Aresu, G.; Spaans, M.

    The physical properties of brown dwarf discs, in terms of their shapes and sizes, are still largely unexplored by observations. ALMA has by far the best capabilities to observe these discs in sub-mm CO lines and dust continuum, while also spatially resolving some discs. To what extent brown dwarf

  7. Disc degeneration: current surgical options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Schizas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain attributed to lumbar disc degeneration poses a serious challenge to physicians. Surgery may be indicated in selected cases following failure of appropriate conservative treatment. For decades, the only surgical option has been spinal fusion, but its results have been inconsistent. Some prospective trials show superiority over usual conservative measures while others fail to demonstrate its advantages. In an effort to improve results of fusion and to decrease the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, total disc replacement techniques have been introduced and studied extensively. Short-term results have shown superiority over some fusion techniques. Mid-term results however tend to show that this approach yields results equivalent to those of spinal fusion. Nucleus replacement has gained some popularity initially, but evidence on its efficacy is scarce. Dynamic stabilisation, a technique involving less rigid implants than in spinal fusion and performed without the need for bone grafting, represents another surgical option. Evidence again is lacking on its superiority over other surgical strategies and conservative measures. Insertion of interspinous devices posteriorly, aiming at redistributing loads and relieving pain, has been used as an adjunct to disc removal surgery for disc herniation. To date however, there is no clear evidence on their efficacy. Minimally invasive intradiscal thermocoagulation techniques have also been tried, but evidence of their effectiveness is questioned. Surgery using novel biological solutions may be the future of discogenic pain treatment. Collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists in this multidisciplinary field will undoubtedly shape the future of treating symptomatic disc degeneration.

  8. CT findings of lumbar intervertebral disc: II. Disc herniation (HNP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W. J.; Lee, J. M.; Bahk, Y. W.

    1984-01-01

    In lumbar region the epidural fat pad is relatively abundant so that CT can provides sufficient information in diagnosis of lumbar HNP. Many authors have reported on the CT findings of HNP such as focal nodular protrusion of the posterior disc margin, obliteration of epidural fat pad, impingement of dural sac and nerve root, swelling of nerve root, soft tissue density in the spinal canal and calcification of disc. However there was so previous report describing incidence and reliability of the findings. It is the purpose of the present study to survey the frequency, reliability, and limitation of these CT findings. The clinical material was consisted of 30 operatively proven cases of HNP of the lumbar spine. Each lumbar CT scan was reviewed retrospectively and the findings were analysed by two radiologists independently. There were 20 males and 10 females and the mean age was 36.7 years. Involvement of L4-S5 level was 2.3 times more frequent than that of L5-S1 level. Of 30 cases, 22 were unilateral posterolateral types and 8 cases central or unilateral far lateral types. CT findings observed were nodular protrusion of the posterior margin of the disc, obliteration of epidural fat pad, impingement of dural sac or nerve root, soft tissue density in the spinal canal and calcification in the posterior portion of the protruded disc, in order of decreasing frequency. The conclusions are follows: 1. Nodular protrusion of the posterior disc margin accompanied by obliteration of epidural fat pad was observed in every case. The former findings was designated as direct sign and the latter indirect. 2. Obliteration of the epidural fat appears to be significant in lateral recesses especially when it occurs unilaterally. This was not true, however, in the centrally located fat pad. 3. Impingement of the dural sac and nerve root were observed in 90% and 67%, respectively, and were very helpful in establishing HNP diagnosis when the direct and indirect signs were equivocal

  9. Factors influencing initial cup stability in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirouche, Farid; Solitro, Giovanni; Broviak, Stefanie; Gonzalez, Mark; Goldstein, Wayne; Barmada, Riad

    2014-12-01

    One of the main goals in total hip replacement is to preserve the integrity of the hip kinematics, by well positioning the cup and to make sure its initial stability is congruent and attained. Achieving the latter is not trivial. A finite element model of the cup-bone interface simulating a realistic insertion and analysis of different scenarios of cup penetration, insertion, under-reaming and loading is investigated to determine certain measurable factors sensitivity to stress-strain outcome. The insertion force during hammering and its relation to the cup penetration during implantation is also investigated with the goal of determining the initial stability of the acetabular cup during total hip arthroplasty. The mathematical model was run in various configurations to simulate 1 and 2mm of under-reaming at various imposed insertion distances to mimic hammering and insertion of cup insertion into the pelvis. Surface contact and micromotion at the cup-bone interface were evaluated after simulated cup insertion and post-operative loading conditions. The results suggest a direct correlation between under-reaming and insertion force used to insert the acetabular cup on the micromotion and fixation at the cup-bone interface. While increased under-reaming and insertion force result in an increase amount of stability at the interface, approximately the same percentage of surface contact and micromotion reduction can be achieved with less insertion force. We need to exercise caution to determine the optimal configuration which achieves a good conformity without approaching the yield strength for bone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MR imaging findings of a sequestered disc in the lumbar spine: a comparison with an extruded disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Su Youn; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Jin, Wook

    2007-01-01

    To compare the MR findings of a sequestered disc with an extruded disc. MR images of 28 patients with a sequestered disc and 18 patients with an extruded disc were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with sequestered discs were divided into two groups whether definite separation from the parent disc was or was not seen. In the latter group (definite separation not seen) and the extruded disc group of patients, the signal intensities of the herniated discs were compared with the signal intensities of the parent discs and were evaluated on T1-and T2-weighted images. We also assessed the presence of a notch within the herniated disc. In the sequestered disc group of patients (28 discs), only 5 discs (18%) showed obvious separation from the parent disc. Among the remaining 23 discs with indefinite separation, the notch was visible in 14 discs (61%) and 9 discs (39%) had no notch. In the extruded disc group (18 discs), the notch was visible in 2 (11%) discs and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (ρ 0.0002). The signal intensities of the herniated discs on T1-weighted images were isointense in both the sequestered and extruded discs. The difference of incidence of high signal intensities on T2-weighted images was not statistically significant (ρ = 0.125). It is necessary to consider the possibility of the presence of a sequestered disc when a herniated disc material shows a notch

  11. Bilateral optic neuropathy and intraretinal deposits after pars plana vitrectomy in amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossetti Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological examination of material from a nonextensive pars plana vitrectomy (PPV in the right eye provided a diagnosis of nonfamilial amyloidosis in a 68-year-old woman, who presented with bilateral glass wool-like vitreous opacities. Genetic testing revealed a Tyr114Cys mutation in the transthyretin gene. Six months after PPV, perimetry showed intense constriction with a temporal island and central scotoma in the right eye. An extensive PPV was performed in the left eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography evidenced bilateral epimacular amyloid deposits and unreported reflective spots within the inner retina. One year later, visual acuity had decreased to 20/400 in the left eye, with mild vitreous opacity, pale cupped optic disc and inferior altitudinal field defect. Bilateral diurnal intraocular pressure, transiently increased after PPV, never exceeded 16 mmHg with medication. Our patient presented optic nerve blood supply impairment, due to amyloidosis, which caused optic atrophy. Epiretinal and intraretinal deposit detection could aid in diagnosing patients with suspected amyloidosis.

  12. The PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhl, K.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Böhm, M.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2018-02-01

    Positively identifying charged kaons in the PANDA forward endcap solid angle range can be achieved with the Endcap Disc DIRC, allowing kaon-pion separation from 1 up to 4 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. Design, performance, and components of this DIRC are given, including the recently introduced TOFPET-ASIC based read-out. Results of a prototype operated in a test beam at DESY in 2016 are shown.

  13. The translational regulator Cup controls NMJ presynaptic terminal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kaushiki P; Carrillo, Robert A; Zinn, Kai

    2015-07-01

    During oogenesis and early embryonic development in Drosophila, translation of proteins from maternally deposited mRNAs is tightly controlled. We and others have previously shown that translational regulatory proteins that function during oogenesis also have essential roles in the nervous system. Here we examine the role of Cup in neuromuscular system development. Maternal Cup controls translation of localized mRNAs encoding the Oskar and Nanos proteins and binds to the general translation initiation factor eIF4E. In this paper, we show that zygotic Cup protein is localized to presynaptic terminals at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). cup mutant NMJs have strong phenotypes characterized by the presence of small clustered boutons called satellite boutons. They also exhibit an increase in the frequency of spontaneous glutamate release events (mEPSPs). Reduction of eIF4E expression synergizes with partial loss of Cup expression to produce satellite bouton phenotypes. The presence of satellite boutons is often associated with increases in retrograde bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, and we show that synaptic BMP signaling is elevated in cup mutants. cup genetically interacts with two genes, EndoA and Dap160, that encode proteins involved in endocytosis that are also neuronal modulators of the BMP pathway. Endophilin protein, encoded by the EndoA gene, is downregulated in a cup mutant. Our results are consistent with a model in which Cup and eIF4E work together to ensure efficient localization and translation of endocytosis proteins in motor neurons and control the strength of the retrograde BMP signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Normal modes of Bardeen discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdaguer, E.

    1983-01-01

    The short wavelength normal modes of self-gravitating rotating polytropic discs in the Bardeen approximation are studied. The discs' oscillations can be seen in terms of two types of modes: the p-modes whose driving forces are pressure forces and the r-modes driven by Coriolis forces. As a consequence of differential rotation coupling between the two takes place and some mixed modes appear, their properties can be studied under the assumption of weak coupling and it is seen that they avoid the crossing of the p- and r-modes. The short wavelength analysis provides a basis for the classification of the modes, which can be made by using the properties of their phase diagrams. The classification is applied to the large wavelength modes of differentially rotating discs with strong coupling and to a uniformly rotating sequence with no coupling, which have been calculated in previous papers. Many of the physical properties and qualitative features of these modes are revealed by the analysis. (author)

  15. Clinical Factors Associated with Lamina Cribrosa Thickness in Patients with Glaucoma, as Measured with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Omodaka

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of various risk factors on thinning of the lamina cribrosa (LC, as measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; Topcon.This retrospective study comprised 150 eyes of 150 patients: 22 normal subjects, 28 preperimetric glaucoma (PPG patients, and 100 open-angle glaucoma patients. Average LC thickness was determined in a 3 x 3 mm cube scan of the optic disc, over which a 4 x 4 grid of 16 points was superimposed (interpoint distance: 175 μm, centered on the circular Bruch's membrane opening. The borders of the LC were defined as the visible limits of the LC pores. The correlation of LC thickness with Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation (MD; SITA standard 24-2, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT, the vertical cup-to-disc (C/D ratio, and tissue mean blur rate (MBR was determined with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The relationship of LC thickness with age, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP, MD, the vertical C/D ratio, central corneal thickness (CCT, and tissue MBR was determined with multiple regression analysis. Average LC thickness and the correlation between LC thickness and MD were compared in patients with the glaucomatous enlargement (GE optic disc type and those with non-GE disc types, as classified with Nicolela's method.We found that average LC thickness in the 16 grid points was significantly associated with overall LC thickness (r = 0.77, P < 0.001. The measurement time for this area was 12.4 ± 2.4 minutes. Average LC thickness in this area had a correlation coefficient of 0.57 with cpRNFLT (P < 0.001 and 0.46 (P < 0.001 with MD. Average LC thickness differed significantly between the groups (normal: 268 ± 23 μm, PPG: 248 ± 13 μm, OAG: 233 ± 20 μm. Multiple regression analysis showed that MD (β = 0.29, P = 0.013, vertical C/D ratio (β = -0.25, P = 0.020 and tissue MBR (β = 0.20, P = 0.034 were independent variables significantly

  16. Biomechanics of a Fixed–Center of Rotation Cervical Intervertebral Disc Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Neil R.; Baek, Seungwon; Sawa, Anna G.U.; Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Sonntag, Volker K.H.; Duggal, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Background Past in vitro experiments studying artificial discs have focused on range of motion. It is also important to understand how artificial discs affect other biomechanical parameters, especially alterations to kinematics. The purpose of this in vitro investigation was to quantify how disc replacement with a ball-and-socket disc arthroplasty device (ProDisc-C; Synthes, West Chester, Pennsylvania) alters biomechanics of the spine relative to the normal condition (positive control) and simulated fusion (negative control). Methods Specimens were tested in multiple planes by use of pure moments under load control and again in displacement control during flexion-extension with a constant 70-N compressive follower load. Optical markers measured 3-dimensional vertebral motion, and a strain gauge array measured C4-5 facet loads. Results Range of motion and lax zone after disc replacement were not significantly different from normal values except during lateral bending, whereas plating significantly reduced motion in all loading modes (P biomechanics were less substantial after artificial disc placement than after anterior plating. PMID:25694869

  17. Novel cemented cup-holding technique while performing total hip arthroplasty with navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoki

    2017-09-01

    Recently, navigation systems have been more widely utilized in total hip arthroplasty. However, almost all of these systems have been developed for cementless cups. In the case of cemented total hip arthroplasty using a navigation system, a special-ordered cemented holder is needed. We propose a novel cemented cup-holding technique for navigation systems using readily available articles. We combine a cementless cup holder with an inverted cementless trial cup. The resulting apparatus is used as a cemented cup holder. The upside-down cup-holding technique is useful and permits cemented cup users to utilize a navigation system for placement of the acetabular component.

  18. Novel cemented cup-holding technique while performing total hip arthroplasty with navigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Takai, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, navigation systems have been more widely utilized in total hip arthroplasty. However, almost all of these systems have been developed for cementless cups. In the case of cemented total hip arthroplasty using a navigation system, a special-ordered cemented holder is needed. We propose a novel cemented cup-holding technique for navigation systems using readily available articles. We combine a cementless cup holder with an inverted cementless trial cup. The resulting apparatus is used as a cemented cup holder. The upside-down cup-holding technique is useful and permits cemented cup users to utilize a navigation system for placement of the acetabular component.

  19. Motion of matter in flare loops of the solar disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ao-ao

    1987-01-01

    By using the optical observation data of a Class 3B double-ribbon flare obtained on July 14, 1980 at the Yunan Observatory, and the x-ray result from the SMM satellite for the same flare, the law of motion of matter in the flare loops of the solar disc is discussed. First, the solar disc positions from the Hα and x-ray images for the flare were compared, and the altitude of the flare loop was determined according to projection effects. Second, the line-of-sight velocity distribution in the region of flare activity due to the falling of matter in the flare loop was estimated theoretically. The result agreed with the observed data

  20. Proto-planetary disc evolution and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosotti, Giovanni Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Planets form from gas and dust discs in orbit around young stars. The timescale for planet formation is constrained by the lifetime of these discs. The properties of the formed planetary systems depend thus on the evolution and final dispersal of the discs, which is the main topic of this thesis. Observations reveal the existence of a class of discs called "transitional", which lack dust in their inner regions. They are thought to be the last stage before the complete disc dispersal, and hence they may provide the key to understanding the mechanisms behind disc evolution. X-ray photoevaporation and planet formation have been studied as possible physical mechanisms responsible for the final dispersal of discs. However up to now, these two phenomena have been studied separately, neglecting any possible feedback or interaction. In this thesis we have investigated what is the interplay between these two processes. We show that the presence of a giant planet in a photo-evaporating disc can significantly shorten its lifetime, by cutting the inner regions from the mass reservoir in the exterior of the disc. This mechanism produces transition discs that for a given mass accretion rate have larger holes than in models considering only X-ray photo-evaporation, constituting a possible route to the formation of accreting transition discs with large holes. These discs are found in observations and still constitute a puzzle for the theory. Inclusion of the phenomenon called "thermal sweeping", a violent instability that can destroy a whole disc in as little as 10 4 years, shows that the outer disc left can be very short-lived (depending on the X-ray luminosity of the star), possibly explaining why very few non accreting transition discs are observed. However the mechanism does not seem to be efficient enough to reconcile with observations. In this thesis we also show that X-ray photo-evaporation naturally explains the observed correlation between stellar masses and accretion

  1. Fault Residuals for Compact Disc Players based on Redundant and Non-linear Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    In the process of achieving good performance of Compact Disc players it is important to handle surface defects as good as possible. The first thing in handling these defects is to detect their beginnings and ends.Two servo loops are formed to keep the optical pick-up focused on and radially tracked...... at the information track on the Compact Disc. The pick-up feeds the controllers with two sensor signals for each of the loops. The difference between these two signal pairs is an approximations of focus and radial tracking distances. The sum of these signal pairs is used for fault detection. But due to optical cross...

  2. Figuring out the Statistics of the ICC World Cup 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwalkar, Jyoti P.; Deshpande, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cricket match results from the ICC World Cup 2011. We believe that such data provide good material for interesting classroom exercises. (Contains 7 tables and 1 figure.)

  3. A new technique for radiographic measurement of acetabular cup orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Brian; Diggle, Peter J; Ingham, Christopher J; Macnair, Rory; Wimhurst, James; Jones, Henry Wynn

    2014-02-01

    Accurate radiographic measurement of acetabular cup orientation is required in order to assess susceptibility to impingement, dislocation, and edge loading wear. In this study, the accuracy and precision of a new radiographic cup orientation measurement system were assessed and compared to those of two commercially available systems. Two types of resurfacing hip prostheses and an uncemented prosthesis were assessed. Radiographic images of each prosthesis were created with the cup set at different, known angles of version and inclination in a measurement jig. The new system was the most accurate and precise and could repeatedly measure version and inclination to within a fraction of a degree. In addition it has a facility to distinguish cup retroversion from anteversion on anteroposterior radiographs. © 2013.

  4. Securing South Africa during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Legacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Africa during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Legacy implications for post-event safety and security ... can be sustained to benefit local residents and businesses when the event is over.

  5. Can a cup anemometer 'underspeed'? A heretical question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of cup-anemometer dynamics has been carried out in order to determine whether the mean-wind velocity can have a negative bias. This would be contrary to the general belief that cup anemometers always overspeed. Compared to prior analyses, the effect of a possible nonlinearity...... of the calibration function is included. The conclusion is that neither longitudinal nor lateral velocity fluctuations can contribute significantly to a negative bias. However, if a cup anemometer has an angular response that falls below the ideal cosine response, there will, as demonstrated in the concluding...... discussion, be a negative contribution from the vertical velocity fluctuations to the total bias, and this contribution may even outbalance the positive contributions from the longitudinal velocity fluctuations. Concrete evidence of such exotic cup anemometer behaviour has not been reported in the literature....

  6. Sound of a cup with and without instant coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Andrew; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-05-01

    An empty coffee cup, like an ancient Chinese two-tone bell, emits two distinctly different tones, depending upon where it is tapped. When it is filled with hot water, and some instant coffee is added, however, a whole new set of sounds is heard when the cup is tapped. The pitch rises an octave or more as the foam clears due to the dramatic change in the speed of sound in the bubble-filled liquid. A similar, but smaller, effect was noted in beer by Bragg [The World of Sound (1968)] and in hot chocolate by Crawford [Am. J. Phys. (1982)]. We describe the modes of vibration in a coffee cup and the sound emitted by a coffee cup as filled with instant coffee as the bubble density changes.

  7. [Research progress of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hang; Deng, Xiangyu; Shao, Zengwu

    2017-10-01

    To summarize the research progress of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration and deduce the therapeutic potential of endogenous repair for intervertebral disc degeneration. The original articles about intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration were extensively reviewed; the reparative potential in vivo and the extraction and identification in vitro of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells were analyzed; the prospect of endogenous stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration was predicted. Stem cell niche present in the intervertebral discs, from which stem cells migrate to injured tissues and contribute to tissues regeneration under certain specific microenvironment. Moreover, the migration of stem cells is regulated by chemokines system. Tissue specific progenitor cells have been identified and successfully extracted and isolated. The findings provide the basis for biological therapy of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells. Intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells play a crucial role in intervertebral disc regeneration. Therapeutic strategy of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells is proven to be a promising biological approach for intervertebral disc regeneration.

  8. Biomaterials for intervertebral disc regeneration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Robert D; Setton, Lori A

    2017-06-01

    The intervertebral disc contributes to motion, weight bearing, and flexibility of the spine, but is susceptible to damage and morphological changes that contribute to pathology with age and injury. Engineering strategies that rely upon synthetic materials or composite implants that do not interface with the biological components of the disc have not met with widespread use or desirable outcomes in the treatment of intervertebral disc pathology. Here we review bioengineering advances to treat disc disorders, using cell-supplemented materials, or acellular, biologically based materials, that provide opportunity for cell-material interactions and remodeling in the treatment of intervertebral disc disorders. While a field still in early development, bioengineering-based strategies employing novel biomaterials are emerging as promising alternatives for clinical treatment of intervertebral disc disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of rupture discs for the FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.; Raju, C.; Anandkumar, V.; Seetharaman, V.; Rajan, K.K.

    1984-01-01

    Rupture discs are required as a safety device for protecting the secondary sodium circuit and its components against high pressure surges due to accidental water steam leaks in sodium heated steam generator and the consequent sodium water reaction. For identical reasons, rupture discs are also required on the vessels used for decontamination of sodium components. Reverse buckling knife blade concept with austenitic stainless steel disc has been developed for the rupture disc assemblies required for Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). Hydroforming process without any die has been used for disc fabrication. One rupture disc assembly required for steam generator is undergoing sodium endurance test and has accumulated 4,500 hours. The present status of development work as demonstrated by room temperature experimental results as well as the scope for future work are discussed. (author)

  10. Diagnose of large area electron beam with faraday cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ying; Qian Hang; Yi Aiping; Huang Xin; Yu Li; Liu Jingru; Su Jiancang; Ding Zhenjie; Ding Yongzhong; Yu Jianguo

    2008-01-01

    In the experiment of gas laser pumped by electron beam, large area uniform electron beam is important to generate high efficiency laser output. This paper introduces Faraday cup is used in the diagnose experiment on the uniformity of large area e-beam generated by SPG-200 pulsed power generator. Construction of Faraday cup and the results of calibration are presented in detail. The uniformity of velvet emission is given, and the results of experiment are analyzed. (authors)

  11. Management and marketing of sporting events: Nike Premier Cup Project

    OpenAIRE

    Nedbal, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Title: Management and marketing ofsporting events: Nike Premier Cup project Points of thesis: Publish the Nike Premier Cup promotion campaign project and point out improvement possibilities for upcoming years based on analysis ofpast and present state. Methods: Data will be obtained by interview, observation, description analysis and SWOT analysis Results: Promotion campaign, improvement possibilities, final day schedule Keywords: SWOT analysis, promotion, management, marketing, Nike Premier ...

  12. Faraday cup for analyzing multi-ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takao

    1987-01-01

    A compact and convenient ion analyzer (a kind of a Faraday cup) is developed in order to analyze weakly ionized multi-ion plasmas. This Faraday cup consists of three mesh electrodes and a movable ion collector. With a negative gate pulse superimposed on the ion retarding bias, ions are analyzed by means of time-of-flight. The identification of ion species and measurements of ion density and ion temperature are studied. (author)

  13. Manipulating Tournaments in Cup and Round Robin Competitions

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Tyrel; Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    In sports competitions, teams can manipulate the result by, for instance, throwing games. We show that we can decide how to manipulate round robin and cup competitions, two of the most popular types of sporting competitions in polynomial time. In addition, we show that finding the minimal number of games that need to be thrown to manipulate the result can also be determined in polynomial time. Finally, we show that there are several different variations of standard cup competitions where mani...

  14. Physiological pattern of lumbar disc height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggemann, M.; Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to present a new method of quantifying objectively the height of all discs in lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine and of analysing the normal craniocaudal sequence pattern of lumbar disc heights. Methods: The new parameter is the ventrally measured disc height corrected for the dependence on the angle of lordosis by normalisation to mean angles observed in the erect posture of healthy persons. To eliminate radiographic magnification, the corrected ventral height is related to the mean depth of the cranially adjoining vertebra. In this manner lumbar disc heights were objectively measured in young, mature and healthy persons (146 males and 65 females). The craniocaudal sequence pattern was analysed by mean values from all persons and by height differences of adjoining discs in each individual lumbar spine. Results: Mean normative values demonstrated an increase in disc height between L1/L2 and L4/L5 and a constant or decreasing disc height between L4/L5 and L5/S1. However, this 'physiological sequence of disc height in the statistical mean' was observed in only 36% of normal males and 55% of normal females. Conclusion: The radiological pattern of the 'physiological sequence of lumbar disc height' leads to a relevant portion of false positive pathological results especially at L4/L5. An increase of disc height from L4/L5 to L5/S1 may be normal. The recognition of decreased disc height should be based on an abrupt change in the heights of adjoining discs and not on a deviation from a craniocaudal sequence pattern. (orig.) [de

  15. Proteomic effects of wet cupping (Al-hijamah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer A. Almaiman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wet cupping (Al-hijamah is a therapeutic technique practiced worldwide as a part of the Unani system of medicine. It involves bloodletting from acupoints on a patient’s skin to produce a therapeutic outcome. A thorough review of research articles on wet cupping with relevance to proteomics field that are indexed by Google Scholar, PubMed, and/or Science Direct databases was performed. Eight original research articles were summarized in this paper. Overall, wet cupping did not have a significant effect on C-reactive protein, Hsp-27, sister chromatid exchanges, and cell replication index. In contrast, wet cupping was found to produce higher oxygen saturation, eliminate lactate from subcutaneous tissues, remove blood containing higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and produce higher activity of myeloperoxidase. The proteomic effects of wet cupping therapy have not been adequately investigated. Thus, future studies on wet cupping that use systemic and sound protocols to avoid bias should be conducted.

  16. Splash-cup plants accelerate raindrops to disperse seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Guillermo J.; Yamada, Yasukuni; McCurley, Matthew; Hu, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The conical flowers of splash-cup plants Chrysosplenium and Mazus catch raindrops opportunistically, exploiting the subsequent splash to disperse their seeds. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate their mechanism for maximizing dispersal distance. We fabricate conical plant mimics using three-dimensional printing, and use high-speed video to visualize splash profiles and seed travel distance. Drop impacts that strike the cup off-centre achieve the largest dispersal distances of up to 1 m. Such distances are achieved because splash speeds are three to five times faster than incoming drop speeds, and so faster than the traditionally studied splashes occurring upon horizontal surfaces. This anomalous splash speed is because of the superposition of two components of momentum, one associated with a component of the drop's motion parallel to the splash-cup surface, and the other associated with film spreading induced by impact with the splash-cup. Our model incorporating these effects predicts the observed dispersal distance within 6–18% error. According to our experiments, the optimal cone angle for the splash-cup is 40°, a value consistent with the average of five species of splash-cup plants. This optimal angle arises from the competing effects of velocity amplification and projectile launching angle. PMID:23235266

  17. A Zero-Gravity Cup for Drinking Beverages in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Weislogel, Mark; Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

    2011-01-01

    To date, the method for astronauts to drink liquids in microgravity or weightless environments is to suck the liquid from a bag or pouch through a straw. A new beverage cup works in microgravity and allows astronauts to drink liquids from a cup in a manner consistent with that on Earth. The cup is capable of holding beverages with an angled channel running along the wall from the bottom to the lip. In microgravity, a beverage is placed into the cup using the galley dispenser. The angled channel acts as an open passage that contains only two sides where capillary forces move the liquid along the channel until it reaches the top lip where the forces reach an equilibrium and the flow stops. When one sips the liquid at the lip of the channel, the capillary force equilibrium is upset and more liquid flows to the lip from the reservoir at the bottom to re-establish the equilibrium. This sipping process can continue until the total liquid contents of the cup is consumed, leaving only a few residual drops about the same quantity as in a ceramic cup when it is drunk dry on Earth.

  18. Development of an external Faraday cup for beam current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kye-Ryung; Jung, Myung-Hwan; Ra, Se-Jin; Lee, Seok-Ki

    2010-01-01

    In general, beam current measurements are very important for many kinds of experiments using highly energetic particle beams at accelerators, such as cyclotrons, linacs, etc. The Faraday cup is known to be one of the most popular beam current measurement tools. We developed an external Faraday cup to measure the beam current at a dedicated beam line for low-flux experiments installed at the MC-50 cyclotron of Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). It was designed for external beam current measurements and is composed of a vacuum chamber, an entrance window, a collimator, a electrostatic suppressor ring, and a cup. The window is made of 75-um-thick Kapton film, and the diameter of the collimator is 10 mm or 20 mm. The ring and the cup has 5-cm inner diameters, and the thickness of the bottom of the cup is 2 cm, which is enough to absorb the total proton energy up to 45 MeV. Using this external Faraday cup, we measured the beam current from the cyclotron, and we compared measured flux to the results from film dosimetry using GAF films.

  19. Resolving the disc-halo degeneracy - I: a look at NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniyan, S.; Freeman, K. C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O. E.; Coccato, L.; Fabricius, M.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M.; Ponomareva, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The decomposition of the rotation curve of galaxies into contribution from the disc and dark halo remains uncertain and depends on the adopted mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of the disc. Given the vertical velocity dispersion of stars and disc scale height, the disc surface mass density and hence the M/L can be estimated. We address a conceptual problem with previous measurements of the scale height and dispersion. When using this method, the dispersion and scale height must refer to the same population of stars. The scale height is obtained from near-infrared (IR) studies of edge-on galaxies and is weighted towards older kinematically hotter stars, whereas the dispersion obtained from integrated light in the optical bands includes stars of all ages. We aim to extract the dispersion for the hotter stars, so that it can then be used with the correct scale height to obtain the disc surface mass density. We use a sample of planetary nebulae (PNe) as dynamical tracers in the face-on galaxy NGC 628. We extract two different dispersions from its velocity histogram - representing the older and younger PNe. We also present complementary stellar absorption spectra in the inner regions of this galaxy and use a direct pixel fitting technique to extract the two components. Our analysis concludes that previous studies, which do not take account of the young disc, underestimate the disc surface mass density by a factor of ˜2. This is sufficient to make a maximal disc for NGC 628 appear like a submaximal disc.

  20. SDSS-IV MaNGA: constraints on the conditions for star formation in galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, David V.; Bundy, Kevin A.; Orr, Matthew E.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Westfall, Kyle; Bershady, Matthew; Li, Cheng; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Masters, Karen L.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Lacerna, Ivan; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Yan, Renbin; Zhang, Kai

    2018-02-01

    Regions of disc galaxies with widespread star formation tend to be both gravitationally unstable and self-shielded against ionizing radiation, whereas extended outer discs with little or no star formation tend to be stable and unshielded on average. We explore what drives the transition between these two regimes, specifically whether discs first meet the conditions for self-shielding (parametrized by dust optical depth, τ) or gravitational instability (parametrized by a modified version of Toomre's instability parameters, Qthermal, which quantifies the stability of a gas disc that is thermally supported at T = 104 K). We first introduce a new metric formed by the product of these quantities, Qthermalτ, which indicates whether the conditions for disc instability or self-shielding are easier to meet in a given region of a galaxy, and we discuss how Qthermalτ can be constrained even in the absence of direct gas information. We then analyse a sample of 13 galaxies with resolved gas measurements and find that on average galaxies will reach the threshold for disc instabilities (Qthermal 1). Using integral field spectroscopic observations of a sample of 236 galaxies from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey, we find that the value of Qthermalτ in star-forming discs is consistent with similar behaviour. These results support a scenario where disc fragmentation and collapse occurs before self-shielding, suggesting that gravitational instabilities are the primary condition for widespread star formation in galaxy discs. Our results support similar conclusions based on recent galaxy simulations.

  1. Short-term survival of the trabecular metal cup is similar to that of standard cups used in acetabular revision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaddes, Maziar; Rolfson, Ola; Kärrholm, Johan

    2015-02-01

    The use of trabecular metal (TM) cups in revision surgery has increased worldwide during the last decade. Since the introduction of the TM cup in Sweden in 2006, this design has gradually replaced other uncemented designs used in Sweden. According to data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register (SHAR) in 2012, one-third of all uncemented first-time cup revisions were performed using a TM cup. We compared the risk of reoperation and re-revision for TM cups and the 2 other most frequently used cup designs in acetabular revisions reported to the SHAR. The hypothesis was that the performance of TM cups is as good as that of established designs in the short term. The study population consisted of 2,384 patients who underwent 2,460 revisions during the period 2006 through 2012. The most commonly used cup designs were the press-fit porous-coated cup (n = 870), the trabecular metal cup (n = 805), and the cemented all-polyethylene cup (n = 785). 54% of the patients were female, and the median age at index revision was 72 (19-95) years. Reoperation was defined as a second surgical intervention, and re-revision-meaning exchange or removal of the cup-was used as endpoint. The mean follow-up time was 3.3 (0-7) years. There were 215 reoperations, 132 of which were re-revisions. The unadjusted and adjusted risk of reoperation or re-revision was not significantly different for the TM cup and the other 2 cup designs. Our data support continued use of TM cups in acetabular revisions. Further follow-up is necessary to determine whether trabecular metal cups can reduce the re-revision rate in the long term, compared to the less costly porous press-fit and cemented designs.

  2. Debris disc constraints on planetesimal formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivov, Alexander V.; Ide, Aljoscha; Löhne, Torsten; Johansen, Anders; Blum, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    Two basic routes for planetesimal formation have been proposed over the last decades. One is a classical `slow-growth' scenario. Another one is particle concentration models, in which small pebbles are concentrated locally and then collapse gravitationally to form planetesimals. Both types of models make certain predictions for the size spectrum and internal structure of newly born planetesimals. We use these predictions as input to simulate collisional evolution of debris discs left after the gas dispersal. The debris disc emission as a function of a system's age computed in these simulations is compared with several Spitzer and Herschel debris disc surveys around A-type stars. We confirm that the observed brightness evolution for the majority of discs can be reproduced by classical models. Further, we find that it is equally consistent with the size distribution of planetesimals predicted by particle concentration models - provided the objects are loosely bound `pebble piles' as these models also predict. Regardless of the assumed planetesimal formation mechanism, explaining the brightest debris discs in the samples uncovers a `disc mass problem'. To reproduce such discs by collisional simulations, a total mass of planetesimals of up to ˜1000 Earth masses is required, which exceeds the total mass of solids available in the protoplanetary progenitors of debris discs. This may indicate that stirring was delayed in some of the bright discs, that giant impacts occurred recently in some of them, that some systems may be younger than previously thought or that non-collisional processes contribute significantly to the dust production.

  3. Local models of astrophysical discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latter, Henrik N.; Papaloizou, John

    2017-12-01

    Local models of gaseous accretion discs have been successfully employed for decades to describe an assortment of small-scale phenomena, from instabilities and turbulence, to dust dynamics and planet formation. For the most part, they have been derived in a physically motivated but essentially ad hoc fashion, with some of the mathematical assumptions never made explicit nor checked for consistency. This approach is susceptible to error, and it is easy to derive local models that support spurious instabilities or fail to conserve key quantities. In this paper we present rigorous derivations, based on an asympototic ordering, and formulate a hierarchy of local models (incompressible, Boussinesq and compressible), making clear which is best suited for a particular flow or phenomenon, while spelling out explicitly the assumptions and approximations of each. We also discuss the merits of the anelastic approximation, emphasizing that anelastic systems struggle to conserve energy unless strong restrictions are imposed on the flow. The problems encountered by the anelastic approximation are exacerbated by the disc's differential rotation, but also attend non-rotating systems such as stellar interiors. We conclude with a defence of local models and their continued utility in astrophysical research.

  4. Minimum weight design of inhomogeneous rotating discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahed, Hamid; Farshi, Behrooz; Bidabadi, Jalal

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous applications for gas turbine discs in the aerospace industry such as in turbojet engines. These discs normally work under high temperatures while subjected to high angular velocities. Minimizing the weight of such items in aerospace applications results in benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. High speed of rotation causes large centrifugal forces in a disc and simultaneous application of high temperatures reduces disc material strength. Thus, the latter effects tend to increase deformations of the disc under the applied loads. In order to obtain a reliable disc analysis and arrive at the corresponding correct stress distribution, solutions should consider changes in material properties due to the temperature field throughout the disc. To achieve this goal, an inhomogeneous disc model with variable thickness is considered. Using the variable material properties method, stresses are obtained for the disc under rotation and a steady temperature field. In this paper this is done by modelling the rotating disc as a series of rings of different but constant properties. The optimum disc profile is arrived at by sequentially proportioning the thicknesses of each ring to satisfy the stress requirements. This method vis-a-vis a mathematical programming procedure for optimization shows several advantages. Firstly, it is simple iterative proportioning in each design cycle not requiring involved mathematical operations. Secondly, due to its simplicity it alleviates the necessity of certain simplifications that are common in so-called rigorous mathematical procedures. The results obtained, compared to those published in the literature show agreement and superiority. A further advantage of the proposed method is the independence of the end results from the initially assumed point in the iterative design routine, unlike most methods published so far

  5. New is the well-forgotten old: The use of dry cupping in musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Evgeni; Kalichman, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Cupping is an ancient technique used in treating pain and various disorders. Different techniques have been developed over time, however, applying a cup to create suction over a painful area, is common to all. Dry or fire cupping, used on the intact skin, leaves bluish circular hematomas. Recently, interest in cupping has re-emerged and subsequently, several studies have begun to investigate the mechanisms of cupping therapy. Mechanically, cupping increases blood circulation, whereas physiologically it activates the immune system and stimulates the mechanosensitive fibers, thus leading to a reduction in pain. There is initial scientific evidence that dry cupping is able to reduce musculoskeletal pain. Since cupping is an inexpensive, noninvasive and low-risk (if performed by a trained practitioner) therapeutic modality, we believe that it should be included in the arsenal of musculoskeletal medicine. It is essential to perform additional studies clarifying the biological mechanism and clinical effects of cupping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rutting resistance of asphalt mixture with cup lumps modified binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffie, E.; Hanif, W. M. M. Wan; Arshad, A. K.; Hashim, W.

    2017-11-01

    Rutting is the most common pavement distress in pavement structures which occurs mainly due to several factors such as increasing of traffic volume, climatic conditions and also due to construction design errors. This failure reduced the service life of the pavement, reduced driver safety and increase cost of maintenance. Polymer Modified Binder has been observed for a long time in improving asphalt pavement performance. Research shows that the use of polymer in bituminous mix not only improve the resistance to rutting but also increase the life span of the pavement. This research evaluates the physical properties and rutting performance of dense graded Superpave-designed HMA mix. Two different types of dense graded Superpave HMA mix were developed consists of unmodified binder mix (UMB) and cup lumps rubber (liquid form) modified binder mix (CLMB). Natural rubber polymer modified binder was prepared from addition of 8 percent of cup lumps into binder. Results showed that all the mixes passed the Superpave volumetric properties criteria which indicate that these mixtures were good with respect to durability and flexibility. Furthermore, rutting results from APA rutting test was determined to evaluate the performance of these mixtures. The rutting result of CLMB demonstrates better resistance to rutting than those prepared using UMB mix. Addition of cup lumps rubber in asphalt mixture was found to be significant, where the cup lumps rubber has certainly improves the binder properties and enhanced its rutting resistance due to greater elasticity offered by the cup lumps rubber particles. It shows that the use of cup lumps rubber can significantly reduce the rut depth of asphalt mixture by 41% compared to the minimum rut depth obtained for the UMB mix. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cup lumps rubber is suitable to be used as a modifier to modified binder in order to enhance the properties of the binder and thus improves the performance of asphalt mixes.

  7. CUP Syndrome-Metastatic Malignancy with Unknown Primary Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaun, Gregor; Schuler, Martin; Herrmann, Ken; Tannapfel, Andrea

    2018-03-09

    2-4% of newly diagnosed cases of malignant disease involve cancer of unknown primary (CUP). This mixed entity is one of the 6 most common types of malignant disease in Germany. Highly refined treatment strategies can now be offered to patients with CUP. This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed with an emphasis on articles from the past decade. The current guidelines and recommendations of specialty societies were also considered in the evaluation. CUP most commonly manifests itself as metastases to the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, or bones. With the aid of imaging studies, including functional hybrid imaging and further medical examination, a primary tumor can be discovered in up to 40% of patients initially diagnosed with CUP. Immunohistochemistry guided by histomorphology often enables precise characterization of the lesion and can be supplemented, in selected cases, by molecular-genetic diagnostic evaluation. The most commonly detected types of primary tumor are cancers of the lung, pancreas, liver, and biliary system. For patients with local metastases, surgical resection or radiotherapy with curative intent is usually indicated, sometimes in the framework of a multimodal treatment concept. The median 2-year survival of patients with disseminated CUP is only 20%. For such patients, specific types of systemic therapy are recommended on the basis of the diagnostic characterization of the disease. Immune-modulatory antibodies can be effective, particularly in the treatment of CUP that has been characterized with biomarkers, but should still be considered experimental at present. A combination of conventional and innovative diagnostic methods enables the provision of highly refined therapeutic strategies to patients with CUP who are undergoing treatment in interdisciplinary cancer centers.

  8. Observability of planet-disc interactions in CO kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sebastián; Casassus, S.; Benítez-Llambay, P.

    2018-06-01

    Empirical evidence of planets in gas-rich circumstellar discs is required to constrain giant planet formation theories. Here we study the kinematic patterns which arise from planet-disc interactions and their observability in CO rotational emission lines. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of single giant planets, and predict the emergent intensity field with radiative transfer. Pressure gradients at planet-carved gaps, spiral wakes and vortices bear strong kinematic counterparts. The iso-velocity contours in the CO(2-1) line centroids vo reveal large-scale perturbations, corresponding to abrupt transitions from below sub-Keplerian to super-Keplerian rotation along with radial and vertical flows. The increase in line optical depth at the edge of the gap also modulates vo, but this is a mild effect compared to the dynamical imprint of the planet-disc interaction. The large-scale deviations from the Keplerian rotation thus allow the planets to be indirectly detected via the first moment maps of molecular gas tracers, at ALMA angular resolutions. The strength of these deviations depends on the mass of the perturber. This initial study paves the way to eventually determine the mass of the planet by comparison with more detailed models.

  9. Disc type thermal actuator with straight beams for angular motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M. Arefin; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Ahmed, A.K. Waiz

    2013-01-01

    Motion of a micro thermal actuator largely depends on its structural topology. This paper presents designs for a novel rotary type micro thermal actuator. This actuator has unique arrangement of hot segments around the cold segment. Upon application of potential difference, hot segments expand against the cold segment of disc and make the cold disc rotate about its center. This rotary motion can be used for various optical applications like, switching, attenuation and diffraction. The actuator has been fabricated using poly MUMPS process technology. An analytical model was used for predicting steady state temperature profile along the actuator length and rotational behavior of the cold disc under different applied voltages. A finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to predict the behavior of the actuator by defining an air volume around the structure and also between structure and substrate. Finally testing was done for predicting feasibility of the actuator. Comparison of the rotational behavior obtained from both analytical model and FEA with that of obtained from testing shows close agreement. -- Highlights: ► Electro-thermo-mechanical modeling and verification of rotary micro thermal actuator. ► Modeling with conduction, convection and radiation modes for the air gap below 3 micron. ► In micro level, shape factor and material resistivity were estimated and verified through I–V characteristics. ► Two different designs of different shape factors were designed, fabricated and tested. ► The devices were fabricated using surface micromachining technology and tested for verification

  10. The Physical Relation between Disc and Coronal Emission in Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Lusso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modified version of the observed non-linear relation between the X-ray (2 keV and the ultraviolet (2,500 Å emission in quasars (i.e., LX∝LUVγ which involves the full width at half-maximum, FWHM, of the broad emission line, i.e., LX∝LUVγ^ FWHMβ^. By analyzing a sample of 550 optically selected non-jetted quasars in the redshift range of 0.36–2.23 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey cross matched with the XMM-Newton catalog 3XMM-DR6, we found that the additional dependence of the observed LX − LUV correlation on the FWHM of the Mgii broad emission line is statistically significant. Our statistical analysis leads to a much tighter relation with respect to the one neglecting FWHM, and it does not evolve with redshift. We interpret this new relation within an accretion disc corona scenario where reconnection and magnetic loops above the accretion disc can account for the production of the primary X-ray radiation. For a broad line region size depending on the disc luminosity as Rblr∝Ldisc0.5, we find that LX∝LUV4/7 FWHM4/7, which is in very good agreement with the observed correlation.

  11. A Simulation Model of Focus and Radial Servos in Compact Disc Players with Disc Surface Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    Compact Disc players have been on the market in more than two decades.As a consequence most of the control servo problems have been solved. A large remaining problem to solve is the handling of Compact Discs with severe surface defects like scratches and fingerprints. This paper introduces a method...... for making the design of controllers handling surface defects easier. A simulation model of Compact Disc players playing discs with surface defects is presented. The main novel element in the model is a model of the surface defects. That model is based on data from discs with surface defects. This model...

  12. Movement of retinal vessels toward the optic nerve head after increasing intraocular pressure in monkey eyes with experimental glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Atsumi; Enomoto, Nobuko; Ishida, Kyoko; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Horai, Naoto; Onoe, Hirotaka; Hara, Hideaki; Tomita, Goji

    2017-09-01

    A shift or displacement of the retinal blood vessels (RBVs) with neuroretinal rim thinning indicates the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In chronic open angle glaucoma, individuals with RBV positional shifts exhibit more rapid visual field loss than those without RBV shifts. The retinal vessels reportedly move onto the optic nerve head (ONH) in response to glaucoma damage, suggesting that RBVs are pulled toward the ONH in response to increased cupping. Whether this phenomenon only applies to RVBs located in the vicinity or inside the ONH or, more generally, to RBVs also located far from the ONH, however, is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement of RBVs located relatively far from the ONH edge after increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) in an experimental monkey model of glaucoma. Fundus photographs were obtained in 17 monkeys. High IOP was induced in the monkeys by laser photocoagulation burns applied uniformly with 360° irradiation around the trabecular meshwork of the left eye. The right eye was left intact and used as a non-treated control. Considering the circadian rhythm of IOP, it was measured in both eyes of each animal at around the same time-points. Then, fundus photographs were obtained. Using Image J image analysis software, an examiner (N.E.) measured the fundus photographs at two time-points, i.e. before laser treatment (time 1) and the last fundus photography after IOP elevation (time 2). The following parameters were measured (in pixels): 1) vertical diameter of the ONH (DD), 2) distance from the ONH edge to the first bifurcation point of the superior branch of the central retinal vein (UV), 3) distance from the ONH edge to the first bifurcation point of the inferior branch of the central retinal vein (LV), 4) ONH area, and 5) surface area of the cup of the ONH. We calculated the ratios of UV to DD (UV/DD), LV to DD (LV/DD), and the cup area to disc area ratio (C/D). The mean UV/DD at time 1 (0.656 ± 0.233) was

  13. Intervertebral disc herniation: prevalence and association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low back pain is one of the common health problems encountered in life with intervertebral disc herniation being a common cause of its occurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging has emerged the gold standard for diagnosing a herniated disc. Aims and Objectives: To assess the frequency and pattern of ...

  14. The evolution of stellar exponential discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, AMN; Clarke, CJ

    2001-01-01

    Models of disc galaxies which invoke viscosity-driven radial flows have long been known to provide a natural explanation for the origin of stellar exponential discs, under the assumption that the star formation and viscous time-scales are comparable. We present models which invoke simultaneous star

  15. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  16. Use NASA GES DISC Data in ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenli; Pham, Long B.; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes GIS relevant data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), GES DISC Services and Support for GIS Users, and use cases of GES DISC data in ArcGIS.

  17. Environmentally benign manufacturing of compact disc stampers[Final Phase II report]; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    Optical data storage is currently a$10B/yr. business. With the introduction of the high capacity Digital Versatile Disc (D/D) as well as the continued growth of CD-Audio and CD-ROM worldwide sales of optical data products as a whole are growing at rate of more than 10% per year. In North America, more than 2.5 billion optical discs will be sold in 1998. By 1999, the numbers of optical discs produced for the North American market will grow to almost three billion. The optical disc manufacturing industry is dominated by Asian and European companies (e.g. Sony of Japan and Philips of Netherlands). Prism Corporation has created a process that could significantly improve US competitiveness in the business of optical disc production. The objectives of the Phase II STTR project were to build and test an ion machining system (IMS) for stamper fabrication, prove overall manufacturing system feasibility by fabrication stampers and replicas, and evaluate alternative materials and alternative process parameters to optimize the process. During tie period of the Phase II project Prism Corporation was able to meet these objectives. In the course of doing so, adjustments had been made to better the project and in turn the final product. An ion machining system was designed and built that produced stampers ready for the molding process. Also, many control steps in the manufacturing process were studied to improve the current process and make it even more compatible with the industry standards, fitting seamlessly into current manufacturing lines

  18. Mathematical Analysis of the Effect of Rotor Geometry on Cup Anemometer Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Andrés, Ángel; Sorribes-Palmer, Félix

    2014-01-01

    The calibration coefficients of two commercial anemometers equipped with different rotors were studied. The rotor cups had the same conical shape, while the size and distance to the rotation axis varied. The analysis was based on the 2-cup positions analytical model, derived using perturbation methods to include second-order effects such as pressure distribution along the rotating cups and friction. The comparison with the experimental data indicates a nonuniform distribution of aerodynamic forces on the rotating cups, with higher forces closer to the rotating axis. The 2-cup analytical model is proven to be accurate enough to study the effect of complex forces on cup anemometer performance. PMID:25110735

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of intervertebral disc degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Masao; Kira, Hideaki; Fujiki, Hiroshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Hinoue, Kaichi.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the degree of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration with findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventeen autopsied (from 7 patients) and 21 surgical (from 20 patients) intervertebral discs were used as specimens for histopathological examination. In addition, 21 intervertebral discs were examined on T2-weighted images. Histopathological findings from both autopsied and surgical specimens were well correlated with MRI findings. In particular, T2-weighted images reflected increased collagen fibers and rupture within the fibrous ring accurately. However, when severely degenerated intervertebral discs and hernia protruding the posterior longitudinal ligament existed, histological findings were not concordant well with T2-weighted images. Morphological appearances of autopsy specimens, divided into four on T2-weighted images, were well consistent with histological degeneration. This morphological classification, as shown on T2-weighted images, could also be used in the evaluation of intervertebral disc degeneration. (N.K.)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of intervertebral disc degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Masao (Kitakyushu City Yahata Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)); Kira, Hideaki; Fujiki, Hiroshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Hinoue, Kaichi

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the degree of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration with findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventeen autopsied (from 7 patients) and 21 surgical (from 20 patients) intervertebral discs were used as specimens for histopathological examination. In addition, 21 intervertebral discs were examined on T2-weighted images. Histopathological findings from both autopsied and surgical specimens were well correlated with MRI findings. In particular, T2-weighted images reflected increased collagen fibers and rupture within the fibrous ring accurately. However, when severely degenerated intervertebral discs and hernia protruding the posterior longitudinal ligament existed, histological findings were not concordant well with T2-weighted images. Morphological appearances of autopsy specimens, divided into four on T2-weighted images, were well consistent with histological degeneration. This morphological classification, as shown on T2-weighted images, could also be used in the evaluation of intervertebral disc degeneration. (N.K.).

  1. The formation of planets by disc fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatellos Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the role that disc fragmentation plays in the formation of gas giant and terrestrial planets, and how this relates to the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars, and ultimately to the process of star formation. Protostellar discs may fragment, if they are massive enough and can cool fast enough, but most of the objects that form by fragmentation are brown dwarfs. It may be possible that planets also form, if the mass growth of a proto-fragment is stopped (e.g. if this fragment is ejected from the disc, or suppressed and even reversed (e.g by tidal stripping. I will discuss if it is possible to distinguish whether a planet has formed by disc fragmentation or core accretion, and mention of a few examples of observed exoplanets that are suggestive of formation by disc fragmentation.

  2. T1 hyperintense disc in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Alan A; Silbergleit, Richard; Olson, Rick E; Wilson, Jon; Krishnan, Anant

    2012-10-01

    Case report. To report a rare case of alkaptonuria presenting as a T1-hyperintense disc herniation. A 46-year-old man without previous diagnosis of alkaptonuria underwent evaluation for progressive back pain revealing a T1-hyperintense disc herniation at the L3-L4 level. Discectomy recovered a blackened disc that was pathologically confirmed to be nucleus pulposus with alkaptonuric involvement. The differential diagnosis of a T1-hyperintense, T2-hypointense disc on magnetic resonance imaging is discussed, with emphasis on the pathophysiology of alkaptonuria. A single patient is reported. Pathologically proven patient presentation with radiological and pathological images. We report a rare case of alkaptonuria presenting as a T1-hyperintense disc herniation.

  3. Fabrication of read-only type triple-layered disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huei Wen; Jeng, Tzuan Ren; Yen, Wen Hsin; Chan, Rong Po; Shin, Kuo Ding; Huang, Der Ray

    2003-06-01

    The approach to increase optical recording density has become very popular research subject in these years. One direct and effective method is to increase the recording layer stack number. That is to say, to add one more recording layer can get one more recording capacity. In this paper, we will propose a new method for manufacturing read only type multi-layered disc. The process is described in the following. This first recorded data layer (called L0) still follows the traditional DVD disc manufacturing process. We obtain the polycarbonate substrate by replicating from Ni stamper. Then polycarbonate substrate is sputtered thin silicon film for semi-reflection layer. As for second layer (L1) and even more layer (Ln-1) producing, one special kind of duplication (called SKD) method is proposed. The duplication (or replication) source of second or nth recorded data is not only limited from Ni stamper. Even polycarbonate or PMMA substrate has recording data are also acceptable sources. At next step, the duplication source is deposited by thin gold film. Then we apply spin coating to bond the first layer (L0) substrate and second layer (L1) duplication source by choosing suitable UV curing glue. After being emitted by UV lamp for several seconds, we can easily separate the duplication source of second layer (L1) from (L0) substrate. Then we find the thin second data layer (L1) is replicated and stacks upon the first layer. On the same way, we sputter thin AgTi layer on the thin second data layer for another semi- reflective layer. By following the above manufacture step, we can produce more layers. In our experimental, we prepare triple layered read-only type disc. The total capacity is almost 12GB for one side of disc, and 24GB for two side of disc. The read-out intensity of laser from each data layer is expected to be similar. Thus we have designed particular reflectance and transmittance for each data layer by controlling the thickness of thin silicon film. We can

  4. A minimally invasive in-fiber Bragg grating sensor for intervertebral disc pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, Christopher R; Wild, Peter M; Wilson, David R; Cripton, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    We present an in-fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based intervertebral disc (IVD) pressure sensor that has pressure sensitivity seven times greater than that of a bare fiber, and a major diameter and sensing area of only 400 µm and 0.03 mm 2 , respectively. This is the only optical, the smallest and the most mechanically compliant disc pressure sensor reported in the literature. This is also an improvement over other FBG pressure sensors that achieve increased sensitivity through mechanical amplification schemes, usually resulting in major diameters and sensing lengths of many millimeters. Sensor sensitivity is predicted using numerical models, and the predicted sensitivity is verified through experimental calibrations. The sensor is validated by conducting IVD pressure measurements in porcine discs and comparing the FBG measurements to those obtained using the current standard sensor for IVD pressure. The predicted sensitivity of the FBG sensor matched with that measured experimentally. IVD pressure measurements showed excellent repeatability and agreement with those obtained from the standard sensor. Unlike the current larger sensors, the FBG sensor could be used in discs with small disc height (i.e. cervical or degenerated discs). Therefore, there is potential to conduct new measurements that could lead to new understanding of the biomechanics

  5. Interactive Visualization of a Thin Disc around a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    In a first course in general relativity, the Schwarzschild spacetime is the most discussed analytic solution to Einstein's field equations. Unfortunately, there is rarely enough time to study the optical consequences of the bending of light for some advanced examples. In this paper, we present how the visual appearance of a thin disc around a…

  6. Long term multiwavelength studies of the corona/disc connection in AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, D.; Lohfink, A.; Alston, W.; Fabian, A.; Gallo, L.; Kara, E.; Zoghbi, A.; Wilkins, D.; Miller, J.; Cackett, E.

    2017-10-01

    One way of increasing our understanding of AGN is determining the nature of the connection between the optical/UV emitting accretion disc and the X-ray emitting corona. Studies of variability in these two bands are a key tool for gaining insight into the processes involved. We will present results from a sample of long-term AGN monitoring campaigns in the optical, UV and X-ray with Swift. In particular, we will explore UV/optical-X-ray correlations and associated time lags. We will compare these measurements and the UV/optical RMS spectra with theoretical reprocessing models and confront recent claims of the observed lags being longer than those which are expected for a standard thin disc. Additionally, a new Swift monitoring campaign of the z=2 quasar PG 1247+267 allows us to probe the shorter wavelengths at the peak of the accretion disc spectrum, providing information on the region of the disc closest to the black hole. However, not all AGN show such correlations, including IRAS 13224-3809, the subject of a recent 1.5 Ms XMM observation. Using this and other examples, we will explore the possible reasons for the lack of observed correlation.

  7. A low-mass faraday cup experiment for the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, A. J.; Steinberg, J. T.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Faraday cups have proven to be very reliable and accurate instruments capable of making 3-D velocity distribution measurements on spinning or 3-axis stabilized spacecraft. Faraday cup instrumentation continues to be appropriate for heliospheric missions. As an example, the reductions in mass possible relative to the solar wind detection system about to be flown on the WIND spacecraft were estimated. Through the use of technology developed or used at the MIT Center for Space Research but were not able to utilize for WIND: surface-mount packaging, field-programmable gate arrays, an optically-switched high voltage supply, and an integrated-circuit power converter, it was estimated that the mass of the Faraday Cup system could be reduced from 5 kg to 1.8 kg. Further redesign of the electronics incorporating hybrid integrated circuits as well as a decrease in the sensor size, with a corresponding increase in measurement cycle time, could lead to a significantly lower mass for other mission applications. Reduction in mass of the entire spacecraft-experiment system is critically dependent on early and continual collaborative efforts between the spacecraft engineers and the experimenters. Those efforts concern a range of issues from spacecraft structure to data systems to the spacecraft power voltage levels. Requirements for flight qualification affect use of newer, lighter electronics packaging and its implementation; the issue of quality assurance needs to be specifically addressed. Lower cost and reduced mass can best be achieved through the efforts of a relatively small group dedicated to the success of the mission. Such a group needs a fixed budget and greater control over quality assurance requirements, together with a reasonable oversight mechanism.

  8. Smart Cup: A Minimally-Instrumented, Smartphone-Based Point-of-Care Molecular Diagnostic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shih-Chuan; Peng, Jing; Mauk, Michael G; Awasthi, Sita; Song, Jinzhao; Friedman, Harvey; Bau, Haim H; Liu, Changchun

    2016-06-28

    Nucleic acid amplification-based diagnostics offer rapid, sensitive, and specific means for detecting and monitoring the progression of infectious diseases. However, this method typically requires extensive sample preparation, expensive instruments, and trained personnel. All of which hinder its use in resource-limited settings, where many infectious diseases are endemic. Here, we report on a simple, inexpensive, minimally-instrumented, smart cup platform for rapid, quantitative molecular diagnostics of pathogens at the point of care. Our smart cup takes advantage of water-triggered, exothermic chemical reaction to supply heat for the nucleic acid-based, isothermal amplification. The amplification temperature is regulated with a phase-change material (PCM). The PCM maintains the amplification reactor at a constant temperature, typically, 60-65°C, when ambient temperatures range from 12 to 35°C. To eliminate the need for an optical detector and minimize cost, we use the smartphone's flashlight to excite the fluorescent dye and the phone camera to record real-time fluorescence emission during the amplification process. The smartphone can concurrently monitor multiple amplification reactors and analyze the recorded data. Our smart cup's utility was demonstrated by amplifying and quantifying herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) with LAMP assay in our custom-made microfluidic diagnostic chip. We have consistently detected as few as 100 copies of HSV-2 viral DNA per sample. Our system does not require any lab facilities and is suitable for use at home, in the field, and in the clinic, as well as in resource-poor settings, where access to sophisticated laboratories is impractical, unaffordable, or nonexistent.

  9. Dry cupping for plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Weiqing; Leson, Chelsea; Vukovic, Corey

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dry cupping on pain and function of patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine subjects (age 15 to 59 years old, 20 females and 9 males), randomly assigned into the two groups (dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy groups), participated in this study. The research design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatments were provided to the subjects twice a week for 4 weeks. Outcome measurements included the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS) (at rest, first in the morning, and with activities), the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), as well as the pressure pain threshold. [Results]The data indicated that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function significantly in the population tested, as all the 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) did not include 0 except for the pressure pain threshold. There was no significant difference between the dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation groups in all the outcome measurements. [Conclusion] These results support that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function in the population tested.

  10. Cup Blocks the Precocious Activation of the Orb Autoregulatory Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Chin; Schedl, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Translational regulation of localized mRNAs is essential for patterning and axes determination in many organisms. In the Drosophila ovary, the germline-specific Orb protein mediates the translational activation of a variety of mRNAs localized in the oocyte. One of the Orb target mRNAs is orb itself, and this autoregulatory activity ensures that Orb proteins specifically accumulate in the developing oocyte. Orb is an RNA-binding protein and is a member of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding (CPEB) protein family. We report here that Cup forms a complex in vivo with Orb. We also show that cup negatively regulates orb and is required to block the precocious activation of the orb positive autoregulatory loop. In cup mutant ovaries, high levels of Orb accumulate in the nurse cells, leading to what appears to be a failure in oocyte specification as a number of oocyte markers inappropriately accumulate in nurse cells. In addition, while orb mRNA is mislocalized and destabilized, a longer poly(A) tail is maintained than in wild type ovaries. Analysis of Orb phosphoisoforms reveals that loss of cup leads to the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated Orb, suggesting that an important function of cup in orb-dependent mRNA localization pathways is to impede Orb activation. PMID:22164257

  11. Cup regulates oskar mRNA stability during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyer, Risa M; Monfort, Elena; Wilhelm, James E

    2017-01-01

    The proper regulation of the localization, translation, and stability of maternally deposited transcripts is essential for embryonic development in many organisms. These different forms of regulation are mediated by the various protein subunits of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that assemble on maternal mRNAs. However, while many of the subunits that regulate the localization and translation of maternal transcripts have been identified, relatively little is known about how maternal mRNAs are stockpiled and stored in a stable form to support early development. One of the best characterized regulators of maternal transcripts is Cup - a broadly conserved component of the maternal RNP complex that in Drosophila acts as a translational repressor of the localized message oskar. In this study, we have found that loss of cup disrupts the localization of both the oskar mRNA and its associated proteins to the posterior pole of the developing oocyte. This defect is not due to a failure to specify the oocyte or to disruption of RNP transport. Rather, the localization defects are due to a drop in oskar mRNA levels in cup mutant egg chambers. Thus, in addition to its role in regulating oskar mRNA translation, Cup also plays a critical role in controlling the stability of the oskar transcript. This suggests that Cup is ideally positioned to coordinate the translational control function of the maternal RNP complex with its role in storing maternal transcripts in a stable form. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B

    2014-09-25

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms.

  13. Octopus-like suction cups: from natural to artificial solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, F; Follador, M; Pugno, N M; Mazzolai, B

    2015-05-13

    Octopus suckers are able to attach to all nonporous surfaces and generate a very strong attachment force. The well-known attachment features of this animal result from the softness of the sucker tissues and the surface morphology of the portion of the sucker that is in contact with objects or substrates. Unlike artificial suction cups, octopus suckers are characterized by a series of radial grooves that increase the area subjected to pressure reduction during attachment. In this study, we constructed artificial suction cups with different surface geometries and tested their attachment performances using a pull-off setup. First, smooth suction cups were obtained for casting; then, sucker surfaces were engraved with a laser cutter. As expected, for all the tested cases, the engraving treatment enhanced the attachment performance of the elastomeric suction cups compared with that of the smooth versions. Moreover, the results indicated that the surface geometry with the best attachment performance was the geometry most similar to octopus sucker morphology. The results obtained in this work can be utilized to design artificial suction cups with higher wet attachment performance.

  14. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B

    2014-01-01

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms. (paper)

  15. Classification of operational characteristics of commercial cup-anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T; Schmidt Paulsen, U [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The present classification of cup-anemometers is based on a procedure for classification of operational characteristics of cup-anemometers that was proposed at the EWEC `97 conference in Dublin 1997. Three definitions of wind speed are considered. The average longitudinal wind speed (ID), the average horizontal wind speed (2D) and the average vector wind speed (3D). The classification is provided in these terms, and additionally, the turbulence intensities, which are defined from the same wind speed definitions. The commercial cup-anemometers have all been calibrated in wind tunnel for the normal calibrations and angular characteristics. Friction was measured by blywheel testing, where the surrounding temperatures were varied over a wide range. The characteristics of the cup-anemometers have been fitted to the heuristic dynamic model, and the response has been calculated in time domain for prescribed ranges of external operational conditions. The results are presented in ranges of maximum deviations of `measured` average wind speed. For each definition of wind speed and turbulence intensity, the cup-anemometers are ranked according to the most precise instrument. Finally, the most important systematic error sources are commented. (au)

  16. Evaluation of wet cupping therapy on the arterial and venous blood parameters in healthy Arabian horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turke Shawaf

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Recently, the complementary therapies such as cupping and acupuncture are being used in veterinary medicine. This research was carried out to determine the effects of wet cupping therapy (Hijama on the hematological and the biochemical parameters in the healthy Arabian horses for the first time. Materials and Methods: In this study, seven clinically healthy Arabian horses were randomly selected. Four points on the animal body were selected to perform the cupping therapy. Two points were selected at the back just behind the scapula on the left and right sides; another two points were located in the rump. Cups with 4 oz (125 ml size with narrow mouths were used. A manual pump (sucking cups was used to create the negative pressure within the cups during cupping. Arterial and venous blood parameters and serum cortisol concentration were measured before cupping and 3 days and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after cupping. Results: No significant differences were estimated in most hematological and biochemical parameters after cupping. A significant decrease in the concentration of serum cortisol was observed in 3 and 14 days after cupping. Conclusion: Cupping induced minor changes on the hematological and biochemical parameters in Arabian horses. This is the first trial on the effects of wet cupping therapy on the different parameters in Arabian horses, which would be useful for further investigations on the role of complementary therapies in horses. Our further studies will include different disease models.

  17. Evaluation of wet cupping therapy on the arterial and venous blood parameters in healthy Arabian horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawaf, Turke; El-Deeb, Wael; Hussen, Jamal; Hendi, Mahmoud; Al-Bulushi, Shahab

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Recently, the complementary therapies such as cupping and acupuncture are being used in veterinary medicine. This research was carried out to determine the effects of wet cupping therapy (Hijama) on the hematological and the biochemical parameters in the healthy Arabian horses for the first time. Materials and Methods: In this study, seven clinically healthy Arabian horses were randomly selected. Four points on the animal body were selected to perform the cupping therapy. Two points were selected at the back just behind the scapula on the left and right sides; another two points were located in the rump. Cups with 4 oz (125 ml) size with narrow mouths were used. A manual pump (sucking cups) was used to create the negative pressure within the cups during cupping. Arterial and venous blood parameters and serum cortisol concentration were measured before cupping and 3 days and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after cupping. Results: No significant differences were estimated in most hematological and biochemical parameters after cupping. A significant decrease in the concentration of serum cortisol was observed in 3 and 14 days after cupping. Conclusions: Cupping induced minor changes on the hematological and biochemical parameters in Arabian horses. This is the first trial on the effects of wet cupping therapy on the different parameters in Arabian horses, which would be useful for further investigations on the role of complementary therapies in horses. Our further studies will include different disease models.

  18. Reference interval for the disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in a large population of healthy Japanese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the calculated reference interval for the disc-to-macula distance to disc diameter ratio (DM:DD) based on a large population of healthy Japanese adults. A total of 308 consecutive, healthy Japanese adults were examined in this prospective observational study. Eighteen subjects were also excluded because of poor quality of the fundus photograph of one or both eyes; 290 (161 men and 129 women) were included in this study. For each subject, a color fundus photograph of one eye, either the right or left, was randomly selected and used for analysis. On the photograph, the distances between the fovea and the nearest temporal margin of the optic disc (Dft), and the two kinds of disc diameters (D1 and D2), which bisected at right angles and one of which was directed to the fovea (D1), were measured. DM:DD was estimated using the formula: (2Dft + D1)/(D1 + D2). The mean ± standard deviation of DM:DD was 2.91 ± 0.49 for men and 2.96 ± 0.54 for women; there was no sex difference (P = .78, Mann–Whitney U test). Also, almost no relationship was found between DM:DD and age (ρ = −.12, P = .04, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). The data did not fit a normal distribution (P < .001, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test). The estimated reference interval for DM:DD corresponding to the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles was 2.12 to 4.18. Using a nonparametric approach, the reference interval for DM:DD of a large population of healthy Japanese adults was calculated to be 2.12 to 4.18, regardless of age or sex. PMID:28403107

  19. Digital versus film stereo-photography for assessment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanreisoglu, Murat; Priel, Ethan; Naveh, Lili; Lusky, Moshe; Weinberger, Dov; Benjamini, Yoav; Gaton, Dan D

    2013-03-01

    One of the leading methods for optic nerve head assessment in glaucoma remains stereoscopic photography. This study compared conventional film and digital stereoscopy in the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients. Fifty patients with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma underwent stereoscopic photography of the optic nerve head with a 35-mm color slide film and a digital camera. Photographs/images were presented in random order to 3 glaucoma specialists for independent analysis using a standardized assessment form. Findings for the following parameters were compared among assessors and between techniques: cup/disc (C/D) ratio, state of the optic rim, presence of peripapillary atrophy and appearance of the retinal nerve fiber layer, blood vessels, and lamina cribrosa. The film-based and image-based diagnoses (glaucoma yes/no) were compared as well. Despite high level of agreement across graders using the same method for the horizontal and vertical C/D ratio, (intraclass correlations 0.80 to 0.83), the agreement across graders was much lower for the other parameters using the same method. Similarly the agreement between the findings of the same grader using either method was high for horizontal and vertical C/D ratio, but low for the other parameters. The latter differences were reflected in the disagreement regarding the final diagnosis: The diagnoses differed by technique for each grader in 18% to 46% of eyes, resulting in 38.5% of eyes diagnosed with glaucoma by film photography that "lost" their diagnosis on the digital images, whereas 18.7% of eyes diagnosed as nonglaucomatous by film photography were considered to have glaucoma on the digital images. Although there is consistency between 35-mm film stereoscopy and digital stereoscopy in determining the cup/disc (C/D) ratio, in all other parameters large differences exist, leading to differences in diagnosis. Differences in capturing images between

  20. An aerodynamic analysis of recent FIFA world cup balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratidis, Adrian L.; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2018-05-01

    Drag and lift coefficients of recent FIFA world cup balls are examined. We fit a novel functional form to drag coefficient curves and in the absence of empirical data provide estimates of lift coefficient behaviour via a consideration of the physics of the boundary layer. Differences in both these coefficients for recent balls, which result from surface texture modification, can significantly alter trajectories. Numerical simulations are used to quantify the effect these changes have on the flight paths of various balls. Altitude and temperature variations at recent world cup events are also discussed. We conclude by quantifying the influence these variations have on the three most recent world cup balls, the Brazuca, the Jabulani and the Teamgeist. While our paper presents findings of interest to the professional sports scientist, it remains accessible to students at the undergraduate level.

  1. Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H

    1988-08-01

    A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies.

  2. Characterisation and classification of RISOe P2546 cup anemometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.

    2003-04-01

    The characteristics of the RISOe P2546 cup anemometer were investigated in detail by wind tunnel and laboratory tests. The characteristics include accredited calibration, tilt response measurements for tilt angles between -40 degC to 40 degC, gust response measurements at 8m/s and turbulence intensities of 10%, 16% and 23%, step response measurements at step wind speeds 3,7, 8, 11,9 and 15,2m/s, measurement of torque characteristics at 8m/s, rotor inertia measurements and measurements of friction of bearings at temperatures -20 degC to 40 degC. Characteristics were fitted to a time domain cup anemometer model. The characteristics were transformed into the CLASSCUP classification scheme, and were related to the cup anemometer requirements in the Danish certification system and in the IEC 61400-121 Committee Draft. (au)

  3. Characterisation and classification of RISØ P2546 cup anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of the RISØ P2546 cup anemometer were investigated in detail by wind tunnel and laboratory tests. The characteristics include accredited calibration, tilt response measurements for tilt angles between -40° to 40°, gust responsemeasurements at 8m/s and turbulence intensities...... of 10%, 16% and 23%, step response measurements at step wind speeds 3,7, 8, 11,9 and 15,2m/s, measurement of torque characteristics at 8m/s, rotor inertia measurements and measurements of friction ofbearings at temperatures -20°C to 40°C. Characteristics were fitted to a time domain cup anemometer model....... The characteristics were transformed into the CLASSCUP classification scheme, and were related to the cup anemometer requirements in the Danishcertification system and in the IEC 61400-121 Committee Draft....

  4. Characterisation and classification of RISØ P2546 cup anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of the RISØ P2546 cup anemometer were investigated in detail by wind tunnel and laboratory tests. The characteristics include accredited calibration, tilt response measurements for tilt angles between -40° to 40°, gust responsemeasurements at 8m/s and turbulence intensities...... of 10%, 16% and 23%, step response measurements at step wind speeds 3,7, 8, 11,9 and 15,2m/s, measurement of torque characteristics at 8m/s, rotor inertia measurements and measurements of friction ofbearings at temperatures -20°C to 40°C. Characteristics were fitted to a time domain cup anemometer model....... The characteristics were transformed into the CLASSCUP classification scheme, and were related to the cup anemometer requirements in the Danishcertification system and in the IEC 61400-121 Committee Draft....

  5. Archive-cup insert for liquid-metal sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Kolba, V.M.; Filewicz, E.C.; Holmes, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    An insert for collecting liquid-metal samples within a vertical casing including an elongated housing with an upper and a lower overflow seal of annular shape is described. The lower seal includes a centrally located pedestal on which a sample cup is disposed. Liquid metal enters the annulus of the upper seal and overflows into the cup which fills and overflows into the lower seal. Liquid-metal overflow from the lower seal is discharged from the insert. On cooling, the liquid metal trapped within the seals solidifies to hermetically isolate the metal sample within the cup. The device is particularly applicable for use with sampling systems on liquid metal-cooled reactors. (U.S.)

  6. A novel cupping-assisted plasma treatment for skin disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zilan; Graves, David B.

    2017-02-01

    A novel plasma treatment method/plasma source called cupping-assisted plasma treatment/source for skin disinfection is introduced. The idea combines ancient Chinese ‘cupping’ technology with plasma sources to generate active plasma inside an isolated, pressure-controlled chamber attached to the skin. Advantages of lower pressure include reducing the threshold voltage for plasma ignition and improving the spatial uniformity of the plasma treatment. In addition, with reduced pressure inside the cup, skin pore permeability might be increased and it improves attachment of the plasma device to the skin. Moreover, at a given pressure, plasma-generated active species are restricted inside the cup, raising local reactive species concentration and enhancing the measured surface disinfection rate. A surface micro-discharge (SMD) device is used as an example of a working plasma source. We report discharge characteristics and disinfection efficiency as a function of pressure and applied voltage.

  7. Intervertebral Disc Characteristic on Progressive Neurological Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Yudoyono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the intervertebral disc characteristic on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in lumbar herniated disc (LHD patients with progressive neurological deficit. Methods: Patients were collected retrospectively from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Database from 2011–2013 with LHD, had neurological deficit such as radiculopathy and cauda equine syndrome for less than four weeks with a positive sign confirmed by neurological examination and confirmatory with MRI examination. Results: A total of 14 patients with lumbar herniated disc disease (10 males, 4 females suffered from progressive neurological deficit with an average age of (52.07±10.9 years old. Early disc height was 9.38±0.5 mm and progressive neurological deficit state disc height was 4.03±0.53 mm, which were significantly different statisticaly (p<0.01. Symptoms of radiculopathy were seen in 11 patients and cauda equine syndrome in three patients. Modic changes grade 1 was found in five patients, grade 2 in eight patients,grade 3 in one patient, Pfirmman grade 2 in eleven patients and grade 3 in three patients. Thecal sac compression 1/3 compression was seen in four patients and 2/3 compression in ten patients. Conclusions: Neurosurgeon should raise concerns on the characteristic changes of intervertebral disc in magnetic resonance imaging examination to avoid further neural injury in lumbar herniated disc patients.

  8. Deep-down ionization of protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Lizano, S.; Galli, D.

    2017-12-01

    The possible occurrence of dead zones in protoplanetary discs subject to the magneto-rotational instability highlights the importance of disc ionization. We present a closed-form theory for the deep-down ionization by X-rays at depths below the disc surface dominated by far-ultraviolet radiation. Simple analytic solutions are given for the major ion classes, electrons, atomic ions, molecular ions and negatively charged grains. In addition to the formation of molecular ions by X-ray ionization of H2 and their destruction by dissociative recombination, several key processes that operate in this region are included, e.g. charge exchange of molecular ions and neutral atoms and destruction of ions by grains. Over much of the inner disc, the vertical decrease in ionization with depth into the disc is described by simple power laws, which can easily be included in more detailed modelling of magnetized discs. The new ionization theory is used to illustrate the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects of Ohmic, Hall and Ambipolar diffusion for a magnetic model of a T Tauri star disc using the appropriate Elsasser numbers.

  9. Earliest directly-dated human skull-cups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M Bello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of human braincases as drinking cups and containers has extensive historic and ethnographic documentation, but archaeological examples are extremely rare. In the Upper Palaeolithic of western Europe, cut-marked and broken human bones are widespread in the Magdalenian (∼15 to 12,000 years BP and skull-cup preparation is an element of this tradition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the post-mortem processing of human heads at the Upper Palaeolithic site of Gough's Cave (Somerset, England and identify a range of modifications associated with the production of skull-cups. New analyses of human remains from Gough's Cave demonstrate the skilled post-mortem manipulation of human bodies. Results of the research suggest the processing of cadavers for the consumption of body tissues (bone marrow, accompanied by meticulous shaping of cranial vaults. The distribution of cut-marks and percussion features indicates that the skulls were scrupulously 'cleaned' of any soft tissues, and subsequently modified by controlled removal of the facial region and breakage of the cranial base along a sub-horizontal plane. The vaults were also 'retouched', possibly to make the broken edges more regular. This manipulation suggests the shaping of skulls to produce skull-cups. CONCLUSIONS: Three skull-cups have been identified amongst the human bones from Gough's Cave. New ultrafiltered radiocarbon determinations provide direct dates of about 14,700 cal BP, making these the oldest directly dated skull-cups and the only examples known from the British Isles.

  10. A Confirmed Case of Toxic Shock Syndrome Associated with the Use of a Menstrual Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual cups have been reported to be an acceptable substitute for tampons. These flexible cups have also been reported to provide a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with modest cost savings and no significant health risk.

  11. Development and calibration of a self-recording cup anemometer for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    The instrument design consists of six electronics block stages: Power stage which supplies ... Key words: Wind speed, cup anemometer, sensor, decoder, spindle. INTRODUCTION ... and develop a low cost digital cup anemometer, which is.

  12. Acetabular cup position and risk of dislocation in primary total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seagrave, Kurt G; Troelsen, Anders; Malchau, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - Hip dislocation is one of the most common complications following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Several factors that affect dislocation have been identified, including acetabular cup positioning. Optimal values for cup inclination and anteversion are debatable. We performed...... a systematic review to describe the different methods for measuring cup placement, target zones for cup positioning, and the association between cup positioning and dislocation following primary THA. Methods - A systematic search of literature in the PubMed database was performed (January and February 2016......) to identify articles that compared acetabular cup positioning and the risk of dislocation. Surgical approach and methods for measurement of cup angles were also considered. Results - 28 articles were determined to be relevant to our research question. Some articles demonstrated that cup positioning influenced...

  13. World Cup, manifestations and the occupation of the public space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Aguiar dos Anjos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the announcement of Brazil to host the FIFA World Cup in 2014, social movements organized themselves to denounce and question decisions and arbitrariness about their preparations. During the Confederations Cup of 2013, a series of manifestations marked by the diversity of its participants and their demands became known as the June Journeys. This article presents an analysis of such events focusing on matters relates to the occupation of the public space, problematizing, later, the relation of the movements and the mega sports events in question.

  14. Elastoplastic cup model for cement-based materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on experimental data obtained from triaxial tests and a hydrostatic test, a cup model was formulated. Two plastic mechanisms, respectively a deviatoric shearing and a pore collapse, are taken into account. This model also considers the influence of confining pressure. In this paper, the calibration of the model is detailed and numerical simulations of the main mechanical behavior of cement paste over a large range of stress are described, showing good agreement with experimental results. The case study shows that this cup model has extensive applicability for cement-based materials and other quasi-brittle and high-porosity materials in a complex stress state.

  15. The age grading and the Chen-Ruan cup product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the obstruction bundle used to define the cup-product in Chen-Ruan cohomology is determined by the so-called `age grading' or `degree-shifting numbers'. Indeed, the obstruction bundle can be directly computed using the age grading. We obtain a Kunneth Theorem for Chen-Ruan cohomology...... as a direct consequence of an elementary property of the age grading, and explain how several other results - including associativity of the cup-product - can be proved in a similar way....

  16. Device for the prehension by means of suction cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabillet, Maurice

    1980-01-01

    The difficulties encountered while utilising suction-cups, are mainly caused by the skirts. The skirts are more or less adaptable to the surface of the objects to be handled. The skirt of the device presented, is made out of a round supple elastic bag containing solid particles. By creating a vacuum in the bag, the particles become a solid entity. The bag filled with the particles becomes rigid and can take exactly the shape of the object to be lifted. By creating a second vacuum in the axis of the bag, the object can be lifted. Several suction-cups can be used simultaneously

  17. Likelihood inference for unions of interacting discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Helisova, K.

    2010-01-01

    This is probably the first paper which discusses likelihood inference for a random set using a germ-grain model, where the individual grains are unobservable, edge effects occur and other complications appear. We consider the case where the grains form a disc process modelled by a marked point...... process, where the germs are the centres and the marks are the associated radii of the discs. We propose to use a recent parametric class of interacting disc process models, where the minimal sufficient statistic depends on various geometric properties of the random set, and the density is specified......-based maximum likelihood inference and the effect of specifying different reference Poisson models....

  18. STANDARDIZATION OF CUPPING THERAPY POINTS AND MECHANISM OF ACTION IN THE LIGHT OF SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Izharul Hasan

    2018-01-01

    Now a day’s cupping therapy is an established therapeutic modality among Indian system of medicine as well as worldwide. Inspite of that, standard operative procedure (SOPs) for cupping therapy is yet to develop. In this paper author comprises the possible indications of cupping therapy along with procedures, application points, safety concerns, historical perspective, surgical operative standards described in traditional system of medicine as well as in the light of science. Cupping may be d...

  19. An overview of systematic reviews of clinical evidence for cupping therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Huijuan Cao; Mei Han; Xiaoshu Zhu; Jianping Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a traditional treatment method, cupping therapy is widely used in Asian countries. This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) investigated the effectiveness and safety of cupping therapy through an evidence-based approach. Methods: SRs that assessed the effectiveness of cupping therapy for any type of disease were searched through 6 electronic databases. Target diseases, cupping methods, numbers and types of included studies, quality of included trials, main results (includin...

  20. Novel cemented cup-holding technique while performing total hip arthroplasty with navigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Takai, MD; Tomoki Takahashi, MD, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Recently, navigation systems have been more widely utilized in total hip arthroplasty. However, almost all of these systems have been developed for cementless cups. In the case of cemented total hip arthroplasty using a navigation system, a special-ordered cemented holder is needed. We propose a novel cemented cup-holding technique for navigation systems using readily available articles. We combine a cementless cup holder with an inverted cementless trial cup. The resulting apparatus is used ...

  1. Laser-induced activation of regeneration processes in spine disc cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Emil N.; Vorobjeva, Natalia N.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Baskov, Andrey V.; Shekhter, Anatoliy B.; Baskov, Vladimir A.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Kuranov, Roman V.

    2000-05-01

    The effect of laser radiation on the regeneration processes in spine disk cartilage has been studied in-vivo. We used rabbits as a model and a Holmium (2.09 micrometer) and an Erbium fiber (1.56 micrometer) lasers for irradiation the discs which were preliminary opened to remove annulus fibrosus and the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. The irradiated zone has been examined using an optical coherent tomography in one month after the operation and conventional histological technique in two months after the laser operation. It has been shown that laser radiation promotes the growth of the new cartilaginous tissue of fibrous and hyaline types.

  2. 77 FR 20846 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-835] Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates... the sale within the United States after importation of certain food containers, cups, plates, cutlery... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain food containers, cups, plates...

  3. 77 FR 14423 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items, and Packaging Thereof; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2883] Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and... Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items, and Packaging Thereof, DN 2883; the Commission is... importation of certain food containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items, and packaging thereof. The...

  4. 77 FR 28253 - Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard... navigable waters of the East Passage, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, during the America's Cup World Series... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Safety Zones; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI...

  5. 76 FR 39289 - Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit River, Detroit, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard... immediately after the Detroit APBA Gold Cup boat race. This special local regulation will establish... entry found in 33 CFR 100.918, Detroit APBA Gold Cup, Detroit, MI. Currently, the regulations located at...

  6. 75 FR 29889 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; 2010 International Cup Regatta, Pasquotank River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; 2010 International Cup Regatta, Pasquotank River... traffic in a portion of the Pasquotank River, near Elizabeth City, NC, during the 2010 International Cup... event in 33 CFR 100.501 and 33 CFR Table to Sec. 100.501, No. 54. On June 5 and 6, 2010, Carolina Cup...

  7. 78 FR 57482 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Aerobatic Box, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup Aerobatic Box, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard... America's Cup air shows. These safety zones are established to provide a clear area on the water for... announced by America's Cup Race Management. ADDRESSES: Documents mentioned in this preamble are part of...

  8. 77 FR 7025 - Safety Zones; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard... the America's Cup World Series sailing vessel racing event. This safety zone is intended to safeguard...'s Cup-class races on the waters of the East Passage, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Vessels will be...

  9. 78 FR 40396 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Safety Zone and No Loitering Area, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup Safety Zone and No Loitering Area, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast... America's Cup races. This safety zone and no loitering area are established to enhance the safety of spectators and mariners near the north east corner of the America's Cup regulated area. All persons or...

  10. Thermal analysis on motorcycle disc brake geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Zurin W., S.; Talib, R. J.; Ismail, N. I.

    2017-08-01

    Braking is a phase of slowing and stop the movement of motorcycle. During braking, the frictional heat was generated and the energy was ideally should be faster dissipated to surrounding to prevent the built up of the excessive temperature which may lead to brake fluid vaporization, thermoelastic deformation at the contact surface, material degradation and failure. In this paper, solid and ventilated type of motorcycle disc brake are being analyse using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. The main focus of the analysis is the thermal behaviour during braking for solid and ventilated disc brake. A comparison between both geometries is being discussed to determine the better braking performance in term of temperature distribution. It is found that ventilated disc brake is having better braking performance in terms of heat transfer compare to solid disc.

  11. Hydrodynamic forces on two moving discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a detailed presentation of a flexible method for constructing explicit expressions of irrotational and incompressible fluid flows around two rigid circular moving discs. We also discuss how such expressions can be used to compute the fluid-induced forces and torques on the discs in terms of Killing drives. Conformal mapping techniques are used to identify a meromorphic function on an annular region in C with a flow around two circular discs by a Mobius transformation. First order poles in the annular region correspond to vortices outside of the two discs. Inflows are incorporated by putting a second order pole at the point in the annulus that corresponds to infinity.

  12. Locally prepared antibiotic sensitivity discs: a substitute for imported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zones of inhibition were compared with those obtained from commercial antibiotic discs. Results obtained showed that discs prepared locally from antibiotic tablets, performed comparably with commercially obtained discs. There was no significant statistical difference between the two tested discs. We therefore recommend ...

  13. The lowest surface brightness disc galaxy known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of a galaxy with a prominent bulge and a dominant extremely low surface brightness disc component is reported. The profile of this galaxy is very similar to the recently discovered giant low surface brightness galaxy Malin 1. The disc central surface brightness is found to be ∼ 26.4 Rμ, some 1.5 mag fainter than Malin 1 and thus by far the lowest yet observed. (author)

  14. Injuries among World Cup ski and snowboard athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flørenes, T W; Nordsletten, L; Heir, S; Bahr, R

    2012-02-01

    There is little information available on injuries to World Cup skiers and snowboarders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the injury risk to World Cup athletes in alpine skiing, freestyle skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping, Nordic combined and cross country skiing. We performed retrospective interviews with the International Ski Federation (FIS) World Cup athletes from selected nations during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 winter seasons and recorded all acute injuries occurring during the seasons. We interviewed 2121 athletes and recorded 705 injuries. There were 520 (72%) time-loss injuries and 196 (28%) severe injuries (absence >28 days). In freestyle skiing, alpine skiing and snowboarding, there were 27.6, 29.8 and 37.8 time-loss and 14.4, 11.3 and 13.8 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In Nordic combined, ski jumping and cross country skiing, there were 15.8, 13.6 and 6.3 time-loss and 3.3, 5.6 and 0.7 severe injuries per 100 athletes per season, respectively. In conclusion about 1/3 of the World Cup alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes sustain a time-loss injury each season, while the risk is low in the Nordic disciplines. A particular concern was the high proportion of severe injuries observed among alpine, freestyle and snowboard athletes, which is in contrast to most other sports. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. The 2010 FIFA World Cup and the Eden District Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on sport tourism, mega sport events and the impacts thereof, especially in developing countries, have, in the past, tended to have been overlooked. This article investigates 2010 FIFA World Cup initiatives conducted in the Eden District Municipality (EDM), Western Cape, South Africa, which is situated between the ...

  16. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for 238 PuO 2 fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors

  17. Ryder Cup ning rahvusvaheline kogemus teenindusvaldkonnast / Liis Meeras

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meeras, Liis

    2006-01-01

    Iirimaal Dublini lähedal Kildare maakonna provintsis asuvas K-Clubis 22.-24. septembrini toimunud 36. Ryder Cup turniirist, mis on üks prestiizhikaim golfiüritus maailmas. Oma muljetest räägivad üritusel teenindanud turismitudengid TÜ Pärnu kolledzhist

  18. The Brazilian World Cup: too hot for soccer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Rebecca Luna; Steinke, Ercília Torres; Pacheco, Christina; Vieira, Lucas Lima; Betancour, Maribel Olaya; Steinke, Valdir Adilson

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the climate data for the host cities of the soccer World Cup held in Brazil in June and July 2014. A great deal of criticism was expressed about the Brazilian climate in the national and international press and media in the run-up to the competition, suggesting that the air temperature and relative air humidity would be the main adversaries of the soccer teams, especially those from Europe, during the competition. An analysis of the weather was done at the places and times of each of the 64 matches held. A human thermal comfort index was calculated (discomfort index (DI)) for each of the matches in order to discover the real climatic conditions in the host cities during the 2014 World Cup and their potential influence on the teams and human comfort in general. During the 2014 World Cup, only two matches were played at temperatures above 30 °C, representing a negligible percentage of the total number of matches. The air temperature for over half the matches (53%) was 20-25 °C. The results showed the air temperature and relative humidity data analyzed here both individually and in the form of an index indicate that the World Cup held in Brazil in 2014 did not put any of the players at risk due to extreme heat.

  19. Efficiency of a variable displacement open circuit floating cup pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vael, G.E.M.; Achten, P.A.J.; Brink, van den T.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Floating Cup Displacement principle is a relatively new axial piston displacement principle for hydrostatic pumps, motors and transformers. Since its origin in 2001, it has been mainly applied in fixed displacement pump prototypes. At the SICFP’05, a design for a variable displacement open

  20. Sectoral labour market effects of the 2006 FIFA World Cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Maennig, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Using the case of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, this study is the first to test the employment effects of a mega-sporting event on the basis of data that combines both regional and sectoral data. It is also the first study of sporting events to use a semi-parametric test method. Earlier studies...

  1. Leidos Reclaims Defelice Cup at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Leidos Biomedical Research reclaimed the Defelice Cup trophy from NCI at the eighth annual Ronald H. Defelice golf tournament, held October 14. The final score was 15–7, with Leidos Biomed tying the series 4 to 4. Fourteen players on each team battled it out at Rattlewood golf course in Mount Airy, Md.

  2. In brief: Producing superstars for the economic World Cup

    OpenAIRE

    Lant Pritchett; Martina Viarengo

    2010-01-01

    Most countries' education policies make raising average student performance their priority. Yet just as in the football World Cup, the quality of the top performers is the key to competing successfully at the global level. Lant Pritchett and Martina Viarengo explore this challenge in the particular context of policy-making in Mexico.

  3. RoboCup Rescue Robot and Simulation Leagues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akin, H.L.; Ito, N.; Jacoff, A.; Kleiner, A.; Pellenz, J.; Visser, A.

    2013-01-01

    The RoboCup Rescue Robot and Simulation competitions have been held since 2000. The experience gained during these competitions has increased the maturity level of the field, which allowed deploying robots after real disasters (for example, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster). This article provides

  4. Characterisation and classification of RISOe P2546 cup anemometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.

    2004-03-01

    The characteristics of the RISOe P2546 cup anemometer were investigated in detail, and all data presented in figures and tables. The characteristics include: wind tunnel calibrations, including an accredited calibration; tilt response meas-urements for tilt angles from -40 deg. C to 40 deg. C; gust response measurements at 8m/s, 10,5m/s and 13m/s and turbulence intensities of 10%, 16% and 23%; step response measurements at step wind speeds 4, 8, 12 and 15m/s; measurement of torque characteristics at 8m/s; rotor inertia measurements and measurements of friction of bearings at temperatures -20 deg. C to 40 deg. C. The characteristics are fitted to a time domain cup anemometer model, and the cup anemometer is put into the CLASSCUP classification scheme. The characteristics are also compared to the requirements to cup anemometers in the Danish wind turbine certification system and the CD and CDV of the revision of the standard IEC 61400-12. (au)

  5. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for 238 PuO 2 fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors

  6. Media exposure and sponsor recall: Cricket World Cup 2003 | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study into the relationship between media exposure and sponsor recall relating to an international event, namely the Cricket World Cup 2003 (CWC 2003). The application of sponsorship as a communication construct and recall as a media vehicle effect is investigated. Recall has been widely ...

  7. The economic value of the 2010 Soccer World Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saayman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the potential economic value of the 2010 Soccer World Cup for South Africa. Problem investigated: The Soccer World Cup (SWC is regarded as the largest sporting event to be hosted and South Africa is investing billions of Rand in the hosting thereof. Based on this the question that comes to mind is, what is the potential economic value of such an event? Previous research attempts to determine the economic value were limited in their focus on what should be included when economic modelling of events is conducted. Most of these studies were done by consultants on behalf of various government departments and consequently, the results of these attempts are criticised for their over-inflating and overestimations by various other researchers. Methodology: The literature review identified many aspects that need to be taken into account when modelling the economic impact of such an event together with aspects identified in the literature review. Lessons from the 2002 Korea/Japan and 2006 Germany Soccer World Cups were used as premise for our estimations. In this article, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE modelling is used to estimate the potential economic value. Findings: The results showed that the 2010 Soccer World Cup would in all probability have positive impacts on the economy of the country in terms of GDP growth and employment, with possible negative effects that include higher inflation and net export losses. Value of research: The value of this research lies in the approach that was followed firstly, by introducing lessons learned from previous World Cups as well as aspects not taken into consideration previously in economic modelling and secondly, by using CGE modelling in determining the economic value. Conclusion: The hosting of the 2010 Soccer World Cup is a major achievement not only for South Africa, but also for the rest of Africa, especially from a marketing point of view. From an

  8. Importance of nuclear medicine diagnostics in CUP syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, M.C.; Haberkorn, U.; Kratochwil, C.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) syndrome is extensive, highly time-consuming and cost-intensive and ultimately often fails to detect a primary site. In this context chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) have been used as standard imaging modalities in CUP syndrome. Since the introduction of positron emission tomography (PET) evaluation of tumor vitality has become possible. Furthermore, PET-CT hybrid scanners allow the combination of functional and morphological imaging. Several meta-analyses have reported an additional overall detection rate between 24.5 % and 44 % by either PET or PET-CT. Metastatic localization (cervical versus extracervical) did not influence the performance. The sensitivity was usually high (> 80 %) but specificity was moderate ranging from 68 % to 88 % at best. If mentioned, the results obtained by fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET significantly changed the clinical management in approximately one third of the patients studied. In a direct comparison with PET alone, PET-CT did not depict significantly more primary tumors but was able to reduce false positive findings. To determine the real additional value of PET-CT in the diagnosis of CUP syndrome large prospective studies with more uniform inclusion criteria are needed. Despite the capabilities of FDG-PET-CT there is as yet no evidence that a potentially improved diagnostic algorithm is translated into a better patient outcome. Nevertheless, FDG-PET-CT should be performed in all CUP patients where conventional imaging failed to detect a primary site or the results are equivocal. In CUP patients with cervical lymph node metastases PET-CT should be carried out prior to panendoscopy to reduce the number of false negative biopsies. (orig.) [de

  9. Histogram-driven cupping correction (HDCC) in CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Y.; Meyer, M.; Lapp, R.; Kalender, W. A.

    2010-04-01

    Typical cupping correction methods are pre-processing methods which require either pre-calibration measurements or simulations of standard objects to approximate and correct for beam hardening and scatter. Some of them require the knowledge of spectra, detector characteristics, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a practical histogram-driven cupping correction (HDCC) method to post-process the reconstructed images. We use a polynomial representation of the raw-data generated by forward projection of the reconstructed images; forward and backprojection are performed on graphics processing units (GPU). The coefficients of the polynomial are optimized using a simplex minimization of the joint entropy of the CT image and its gradient. The algorithm was evaluated using simulations and measurements of homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms. For the measurements a C-arm flat-detector CT (FD-CT) system with a 30×40 cm2 detector, a kilovoltage on board imager (radiation therapy simulator) and a micro-CT system were used. The algorithm reduced cupping artifacts both in simulations and measurements using a fourth-order polynomial and was in good agreement to the reference. The minimization algorithm required less than 70 iterations to adjust the coefficients only performing a linear combination of basis images, thus executing without time consuming operations. HDCC reduced cupping artifacts without the necessity of pre-calibration or other scan information enabling a retrospective improvement of CT image homogeneity. However, the method can work with other cupping correction algorithms or in a calibration manner, as well.

  10. A confirmed case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael A; Bisch, Steve; Arntfield, Shannon; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cups have been reported to be an acceptable substitute for tampons. These flexible cups have also been reported to provide a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with modest cost savings and no significant health risk. The present article documents the first case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup in a woman 37 years of age, using a menstrual cup for the first time. Toxic shock syndrome and the literature on menstrual cups is reviewed and a possible mechanism for the development of toxic shock syndrome in the patient is described.

  11. [Development of lipoma following a single cupping massage - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Stefan; Lauche, Romy; Hohmann, Claudia; Zirbes, Thomas; Dobos, Gustav; Saha, Felix Joyonto

    2012-01-01

    The cupping massage is a form of bloodless cupping. This type of cupping is particularly used to treat muscular tension and musculoskeletal pain, such as chronic neck pain; however the data records on mechanisms and potential side effects are not satisfactory. In a study on the effectiveness of cupping massage in patients with chronic neck pain, one patient showed a formation of a lipoma in the cupping area after the first treatment session. Because of the short time interval between therapy and development of the lipoma, a primary cause is not realistic. This adverse event has not been described in the literature before, and the present report describes the case in summary.

  12. Influence of cup-center-edge angle on micro-motion at the interface between the cup and host bone in cementless total hip arthroplasty: three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Nobuhiro; Tabata, Tomonori; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    We verified the index cup position required for bulk bone grafting instead of morcellized grafting immediately after cementless total hip arthroplasty. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to evaluate changes in the volume of the slippage of the cup-host bone interface as micro-motion of the cup at the acetabular bone defect site depending on the cup-center-edge (CE) angle. The conditions of bulk bone grafts were similar to those of cortical bone. Slippage increased with decreasing cup-CE angle. A bulk bone graft tightly fixed to the host bone prevented considerably larger slippage between the cup and host bone. A smaller cup-CE angle increased the impact of the bulk bone graft on slippage. When the cup-CE angle was 0° or -10°, the criterion for slippage in favorable initial fixation in all conditions was cup and bone graft, it is impossible to obtain reliable fixation of the cup with a cup-CE angle cup-host bone fixation, especially when the cup-CE angle is small, such as cups, and sufficient fixation between the host bone and cup or bulk bone graft using a screw is effective when the cup-CE angle is extremely small.

  13. [Study on standardization of cupping technique: elucidation on the establishment of the National Standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-zhong; Liu, Bing

    2010-02-01

    From the aspects of basis, technique descriptions, core contents, problems and solutions, and standard thinking in standard setting process, this paper states experiences in the establishment of the national standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping, focusing on methodologies used in cupping standard setting process, the method selection and operating instructions of cupping standardization, and the characteristics of standard TCM. In addition, this paper states the scope of application, and precautions for this cupping standardization. This paper also explaines tentative ideas on the research of standardized manipulation of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  14. Radiological diagnostics in CUP syndrome; Radiologische Diagnostik des CUP-Syndroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierczak, P.M.; Nikolaou, K.; Graser, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Cyran, C.C. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Rominger, A. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Grosshadern, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Imaging plays an essential role in the therapeutic management of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) patients for localizing the primary tumor, for the identification of tumor entities for which a dedicated therapy regimen is available and for the characterization of clinicopathological subentities that direct the subsequent diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Modalities include conventional x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound as well as positron emission tomography (PET)-CT and MRI-PET. In whole body imaging CT has a high sensitivity for tumor entities which frequently present as a metastasized cancer illness. According to the current literature CT is diagnostic in 86% of patients with pancreatic carcinoma, in 36% of patients with colon carcinoma and in 74% of patients with lung carcinoma. Additionally a meta-analysis showed that for patients with squamous cell carcinoma and cervical lymph node metastases a positive diagnosis was possible in 22% of the cases using CT, in 36% using MRI and in 28-57% using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT ({sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT). In addition, MRI plays an important role in the localization of primary occult tumors (e.g. breast and prostate) because of its high soft tissue contrast and options for functional imaging. At the beginning of the diagnostic algorithm stands the search for a possible primary tumor and CT of the neck, thorax and abdomen is most frequently used for whole body staging. Subsequent organ-specific imaging examinations follow, e.g. mammography in women with axillary lymphadenopathy. For histological and immunohistochemical characterization of tumor tissue, imaging is also applied to identify the most accessible and representative tumor manifestation for biopsy. Tumor biopsy may be guided by CT, MRI or ultrasound and MRI also plays a central role in the localization of primary occult tumors because of superior soft tissue contrast and options for functional imaging (perfusion

  15. New series of cup combination vending machines; Cup combination jido hanbaiki no shin series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, K.; Hamamoto, K. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development, Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper introduces the cup combination vending machines developed as new series. The point of development is to improve the taste of regular coffee, stabilize the taste of a beverage, design a bright door, improve the sanitary condition, and simplify the operativity. To improve the taste of coffee, coffee beans are ground using a mill in the vending machine and extracted at 95{degree}C by the brewer mechanism based on a forced drip system. A heater is provided in the pipe arrangement so as to keep the temperature of hot water that is an important factor for determining the taste. The taste of a powder beverage is stabilized by a uniform reduction function for first-in first-out that holds the freshness of materials and a high-precision discharge function that reduces the dispersion in discharge. Materials can be uniformly reduced by rotating the pin disk in the mixing part at the top of a canister. The taste of a syrup beverage is stabilized by a new-type carbonator that dissolves CO2 in cold water at a high dissolution rate and high retention rate and an ice quantitative unit that reduces the dispersion in ice discharge. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. The lamppost model: effects of photon trapping, the bottom lamp and disc truncation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiecki, Andrzej; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    2018-04-01

    We study the lamppost model, in which the primary X-ray sources in accreting black-hole systems are located symmetrically on the rotation axis on both sides of the black hole surrounded by an accretion disc. We show the importance of the emission of the source on the opposite side to the observer. Due to gravitational light bending, its emission can increase the direct (i.e., not re-emitted by the disc) flux by as much as an order of magnitude. This happens for near to face-on observers when the disc is even moderately truncated. For truncated discs, we also consider effects of emission of the top source gravitationally bent around the black hole. We also present results for the attenuation of the observed radiation with respect to that emitted by the lamppost as functions of the lamppost height, black-hole spin and the degree of disc truncation. This attenuation, which is due to the time dilation, gravitational redshift and the loss of photons crossing the black-hole horizon, can be as severe as by several orders of magnitude for low lamppost heights. We also consider the contribution to the observed flux due to re-emission by optically-thick matter within the innermost stable circular orbit.

  17. Clinical research evidence of cupping therapy in China: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Han, Mei; Li, Xun; Dong, Shangjuan; Shang, Yongmei; Wang, Qian; Xu, Shu; Liu, Jianping

    2010-11-16

    Though cupping therapy has been used in China for thousands of years, there has been no systematic summary of clinical research on it.This review is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy using evidence-based approach based on all available clinical studies. We included all clinical studies on cupping therapy for all kinds of diseases. We searched six electronic databases, all searches ended in December 2008. We extracted data on the type of cupping and type of diseases treated. 550 clinical studies were identified published between 1959 and 2008, including 73 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 22 clinical controlled trials, 373 case series, and 82 case reports. Number of RCTs obviously increased during past decades, but the quality of the RCTs was generally poor according to the risk of bias of the Cochrane standard for important outcome within each trials. The diseases in which cupping was commonly employed included pain conditions, herpes zoster, cough or asthma, etc. Wet cupping was used in majority studies, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, medicinal cupping, etc. 38 studies used combination of two types of cupping therapies. No serious adverse effects were reported in the studies. According to the above results, quality and quantity of RCTs on cupping therapy appears to be improved during the past 50 years in China, and majority of studies show potential benefit on pain conditions, herpes zoster and other diseases. However, further rigorous designed trials in relevant conditions are warranted to support their use in practice.

  18. [Osteosynthesis and cup revision in periprosthetic acetabulum fractures using a Kocher-Langenbeck approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, P; Märdian, S; Perka, C; Schaser, K-D

    2016-04-01

    Reconstruction/stable fixation of the acetabular columns to create an adequate periacetabular requirement for the implantation of a revision cup. Displaced/nondisplaced fractures with involvement of the posterior column. Resulting instability of the cup in an adequate bone stock situation. Periprosthetic acetabulum fractures with inadequate bone stock. Extended periacetabular defects with loss of anchorage options. Isolated periprosthetic fractures of the anterior column. Septic loosening. Dorsal approach. Dislocation of hip. Mechanical testing of inlaying acetabular cup. With unstable cup situation explantation of the cup, fracture fixation of acetabulum with dorsal double plate osteosynthesis along the posterior column. Cup revision. Hip joint reposition. Early mobilization; partial weight bearing for 12 weeks. Thrombosis prophylaxis. Clinical and radiological follow-ups. Periprosthetic acetabular fracture in 17 patients with 9 fractures after primary total hip replacement (THR), 8 after revision THR. Fractures: 12 due to trauma, 5 spontaneously; 7 anterior column fractures, 5 transverse fractures, 4 posterior column fractures, 1 two column fracture after hemiendoprosthesis. 5 type 1 fractures and 12 type 2 fractures. Operatively treated cases (10/17) received 3 reinforcement ring, 2 pedestal cup, 1 standard revision cup, cup-1 cage construct, 1 ventral plate osteosynthesis, 1 dorsal plate osteosynthesis, and 1 dorsal plate osteosynthesis plus cup revision (10-month Harris Hip Score 78 points). Radiological follow-up for 10 patients: consolidation of fractures without dislocation and a fixed acetabular cup. No revision surgeries during follow-up; 2 hip dislocations, 1 transient sciatic nerve palsy.

  19. Tool for cutting locking cups from guide tube mounting screws in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nee, J.D.; Hahn, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for freeing a socket-head screw from a locking cup therefor in a reactor cavity, wherein the locking cup includes a fixed cylindrical side wall encircling the side surface of the screw head and an annular end wall overlying the outer end surface of the screw head. The apparatus consists of: frame means, cylindrical cutter means having a longitudinal axis and having a frustoconical cutting surface with an inner diameter less than the inner diameter of the locking cup side wall and with an outer diameter greater than the outer diameter of the locking cup side wall, and drive means carried by the frame means and coupled to the cutter means for effecting rotation thereof about the axis, the rotating cutter means are operable for severing the locking cup end wall from the locking cup side wall at the junction therebetween when the cutter means is moved against the locking cup substantially coaxially therewith

  20. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis.

  1. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Yolas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years. Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%. On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis.

  2. Only marginal alignment of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, René; Jahnke, Knud

    2011-12-01

    Testing theories of angular-momentum acquisition of rotationally supported disc galaxies is the key to understanding the formation of this type of galaxies. The tidal-torque theory aims to explain this acquisition process in a cosmological framework and predicts positive autocorrelations of angular-momentum orientation and spiral-arm handedness, i.e. alignment of disc galaxies, on short distance scales of 1 Mpc h-1. This disc alignment can also cause systematic effects in weak-lensing measurements. Previous observations claimed discovering these correlations but are overly optimistic in the reported level of statistical significance of the detections. Errors in redshift, ellipticity and morphological classifications were not taken into account, although they have a significant impact. We explain how to rigorously propagate all the important errors through the estimation process. Analysing disc galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base, we find that positive autocorrelations of spiral-arm handedness and angular-momentum orientations on distance scales of 1 Mpc h-1 are plausible but not statistically significant. Current data appear not good enough to constrain parameters of theory. This result agrees with a simple hypothesis test in the Local Group, where we also find no evidence for disc alignment. Moreover, we demonstrate that ellipticity estimates based on second moments are strongly biased by galactic bulges even for Scd galaxies, thereby corrupting correlation estimates and overestimating the impact of disc alignment on weak-lensing studies. Finally, we discuss the potential of future sky surveys. We argue that photometric redshifts have too large errors, i.e. PanSTARRS and LSST cannot be used. Conversely, the EUCLID project will not cover the relevant redshift regime. We also discuss the potentials and problems of front-edge classifications of galaxy discs in order to improve the autocorrelation estimates of angular-momentum orientation.

  3. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: formation of a central stellar disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panamarev, Taras; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Meiron, Yohai; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer; Omarov, Chingis; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil

    2018-05-01

    We perform high-resolution direct N-body simulations to study the effect of an accretion disc on stellar dynamics in an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We show that the interaction of the nuclear stellar cluster (NSC) with the gaseous accretion disc (AD) leads to formation of a stellar disc in the central part of the NSC. The accretion of stars from the stellar disc on to the super-massive black hole is balanced by the capture of stars from the NSC into the stellar disc, yielding a stationary density profile. We derive the migration time through the AD to be 3 per cent of the half-mass relaxation time of the NSC. The mass and size of the stellar disc are 0.7 per cent of the mass and 5 per cent of the influence radius of the super-massive black hole. An AD lifetime shorter than the migration time would result in a less massive nuclear stellar disc. The detection of such a stellar disc could point to past activity of the hosting galactic nucleus.

  4. Cup Implant Planning Based on 2-D/3-D Radiographic Pelvis Reconstruction-First Clinical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Steffen; Sato, Yoshinobu; Nakanishi, Yuki; Yokota, Futoshi; Takao, Masaki; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Zheng, Guoyan

    2015-11-01

    In the following, we will present a newly developed X-ray calibration phantom and its integration for 2-D/3-D pelvis reconstruction and subsequent automatic cup planning. Two different planning strategies were applied and evaluated with clinical data. Two different cup planning methods were investigated: The first planning strategy is based on a combined pelvis and cup statistical atlas. Thereby, the pelvis part of the combined atlas is matched to the reconstructed pelvis model, resulting in an optimized cup planning. The second planning strategy analyzes the morphology of the reconstructed pelvis model to determine the best fitting cup implant. The first planning strategy was compared to 3-D CT-based planning. Digitally reconstructed radiographs of THA patients with differently severe pathologies were used to evaluate the accuracy of predicting the cup size and position. Within a discrepancy of one cup size, the size was correctly identified in 100% of the cases for Crowe type I datasets and in 77.8% of the cases for Crowe type II, III, and IV datasets. The second planning strategy was analyzed with respect to the eventually implanted cup size. In seven patients, the estimated cup diameter was correct within one cup size, while the estimation for the remaining five patients differed by two cup sizes. While both planning strategies showed the same prediction rate with a discrepancy of one cup size (87.5%), the prediction of the exact cup size was increased for the statistical atlas-based strategy (56%) in contrast to the anatomically driven approach (37.5%). The proposed approach demonstrated the clinical validity of using 2-D/3-D reconstruction technique for cup planning.

  5. Radiological assessment of loss of disc height during acute and chronic degenerative lumbar disc alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, J.; Sancaktaroglu, T.; Nafe, B.; Eysel, P.; Loew, R.

    2001-01-01

    Aim of the study: A loss of disc height with increasing segmental mobility is an important reason for low back pain. The measurement of hyaluronic acid content of the nucleus pulposus prolaps shows a difference between acute (group 1) and chronic (group 2) disc degeneration. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the decreasing of disc height between these two groups and the no-symptomatic segments of these patients. Methods: 20 human lateral preoperative X-ray measurements according to Frobin et al. were taken; group 1 with 7 patients (mean age 41 years) and group 2 with 13 patients (mean age 44 years). Results: There was a significant tendency (p=0.091) to a reduction of disc height in group 2 between symptomatic and asymptomatic discs. Conclusion: The used method is not suitable to answer the present question conclusively. (orig.) [de

  6. INJURIES IN DISC GOLF - A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disc golf is rapidly increasing in popularity and more than two million people are estimated to regularly participate in disc golf activities. Despite this popularity, the epidemiology of injuries in disc golf remains under reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study...... was to investigate the prevalence and anatomic distribution of injuries acquired through disc-golf participation in Danish disc golf players. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted on Danish disc-golf players. In May 2015, invitations to complete a web-based questionnaire were spread online via...... social media, and around disc-golf courses in Denmark. The questionnaire included questions regarding disc-golf participation and the characteristics of injuries acquired through disc golf participation. The data was analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: An injury prevalence of 13.3% (95% CI: 6.7% to 19...

  7. MRI findings of traumatic cervical disc herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hisato; Kasahara, Takaki; Akiyama, Nanae

    2011-01-01

    In general practice, disc hernia is increasingly being questioned about its relation with traffic injuries. In this study, we examined the image findings of cervical disc herniation for findings indicative of traumatic hernia. In 2008, we examined 35 cases of cervical disc herniation at our hospital by MRI. The patients were divided into two groups; patients with trauma history (19 cases) and those without (16 cases), and their images were compared. Disc herniation in the trauma group showed high intensity at T2, with some of the patients in this group also indicating continuous high intensity of the internal and herniated discs. Traumatic force was found to cause swelling under the laryngeal soft tissue. Cases with further flexion injury showed interspinous ligament hemorrhage. These findings strongly suggest the involvement of injury. But given that some younger patients in the non-trauma group also show high intensity at T2*, attention must be paid not to confuse swelling below the larynx with inflammation of the longus colli muscle. (author)

  8. Active galactic nucleus outflows in galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Tilman; Volonteri, Marta; Dashyan, Gohar

    2018-05-01

    Galactic outflows, driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), play a crucial role in galaxy formation and in the self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes (BHs). AGN feedback couples to and affects gas, rather than stars, and in many, if not most, gas-rich galaxies cold gas is rotationally supported and settles in a disc. We present a 2D analytical model for AGN-driven outflows in a gaseous disc and demonstrate the main improvements, compared to existing 1D solutions. We find significant differences for the outflow dynamics and wind efficiency. The outflow is energy-driven due to inefficient cooling up to a certain AGN luminosity (˜1043 erg s-1 in our fiducial model), above which the outflow remains momentum-driven in the disc up to galactic scales. We reproduce results of 3D simulations that gas is preferentially ejected perpendicular to the disc and find that the fraction of ejected interstellar medium is lower than in 1D models. The recovery time of gas in the disc, defined as the free-fall time from the radius to which the AGN pushes the ISM at most, is remarkably short, of the order 1 Myr. This indicates that AGN-driven winds cannot suppress BH growth for long. Without the inclusion of supernova feedback, we find a scaling of the BH mass with the halo velocity dispersion of MBH ∝ σ4.8.

  9. Jamming Transition: Heptagons, Pentagons, and Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yuanyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The jamming behavior of a system composed of discs has been well documented. However, it remains unclear how a granular system consisting of non-spherical particles transitions between unjammed and jammed states. Here, we present compression experiments to study the jamming transition of 2D granular materials composed of photoelastic heptagonal particles and compare these results to data for discs and pentagons. We determine the critical packing fraction of heptagons and make a comparison to discs and pentagons. In the experiment, we subject 618 heptagonal particles to cyclic compression. We track the motion (inlcuding rotations of the particles, and we measure forces on particles by photoelasticity. We observe a power law relationship between the average contact number (Z and the pressure (P. Furthermore, we classify the type of contacts by the relative orientation of pairs of contacting particles (creating point-to-face and face-to-face contacts, and we explore the evolution of the contacts during jamming.

  10. On the formation of exponential discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yuzuru; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper

    1989-01-01

    Spiral galaxy discs are characterized by approximately exponential surface luminosity profiles. In this paper the evolutionary equations for a star-forming, viscous disc are solved analytically or semi-analytically. It is shown that approximately exponential stellar surface density profiles result if the viscous time-scale t ν is comparable to the star-formation time scale t * everywhere in the disc. The analytical solutions are used to illuminate further on the issue of why the above mechanism leads to resulting exponential stellar profiles under certain conditions. The sensitivity of the solution to variations of various parameters are investigated and show that the initial gas surface density distribution has to be fairly regular in order that final exponential stellar surface density profiles result. (author)

  11. Imaging cell competition in Drosophila imaginal discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Shizue; Sugimura, Kaoru; Takino, Kyoko; Igaki, Tatsushi

    2012-01-01

    Cell competition is a process in which cells with higher fitness ("winners") survive and proliferate at the expense of less fit neighbors ("losers"). It has been suggested that cell competition is involved in a variety of biological processes such as organ size control, tissue homeostasis, cancer progression, and the maintenance of stem cell population. By advent of a genetic mosaic technique, which enables to generate fluorescently marked somatic clones in Drosophila imaginal discs, recent studies have presented some aspects of molecular mechanisms underlying cell competition. Now, with a live-imaging technique using ex vivo-cultured imaginal discs, we can dissect the spatiotemporal nature of competitive cell behaviors within multicellular communities. Here, we describe procedures and tips for live imaging of cell competition in Drosophila imaginal discs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. M6-C artificial disc placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coric, Domagoj; Parish, John; Boltes, Margaret O

    2017-01-01

    There has been a steady evolution of cervical total disc replacement (TDR) devices over the last decade resulting in surgical technique that closely mimics anterior cervical discectomy and fusion as well as disc design that emphasizes quality of motion. The M6-C TDR device is a modern-generation artificial disc composed of titanium endplates with tri-keel fixation as well as a polyethylene weave with a polyurethane core. Although not yet approved by the FDA, M6-C has finished a pilot and pivotal US Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) study. The authors present the surgical technique for implantation of a 2-level M6-C cervical TDR device. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/rFEAqINLRCo .

  13. Calcification of intervertebral discs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, D.

    1984-01-01

    Thirteen children with intervertebral disc calcifications of the cervical, thoracal and lumbar spine have been diagnosed since 1970. Most of them were observed over a period of several years. Ten children fell ill with acute pains, but only 2 of them sufferred from a trauma. In 3 cases the features were discovered accidentally combined with malformations of vertebral bodies and congenital diseases. Our results suggest a primary structural inferiority of the calcified discs. The calcifications arise partially from a birth trauma, partially from an unknown etiology. They can last for a long time without symptoms. An acute event effects the pains due to shifting or herniation of calcified disc-fragments. Secondary findings such as decrease of the height of cervical vertebral bodies or destructions of the endplates of thoracal and lumbar vertebral bodies disappear retarded and often incompletely and demand a control for a long time. (orig.)

  14. Faraday cup dosimetry in a proton therapy beam without collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusell, Erik; Isacsson, Ulf; Montelius, Anders; Medin, Joakim

    1995-01-01

    A Faraday cup in a proton beam can give an accurate measurement of the number of protons collected by the cup. It is shown that the collection efficiency with a proper design can be close to unity. To be able to calibrate an ionization chamber from such a measurement, as is recommended in some dosimetry protocols, the energy spectrum of the proton beam must be accurately known. This is normally not the case when the lateral beam extension is defined by collimators. Therefore a method for relating an ionization chamber measurement in an uncollimated beam to the total number of protons in the beam has been developed and is described together with experimental results from calibrating an ionization chamber using this method in the therapeutic beam in Uppsala. This method is applicable to ionization chambers of any shape and the accuracy is estimated to be 1.6% (1 SD). (Author)

  15. Bittersweet Findings: Round Cups Fail to Induce Sweeter Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casparus J. A. Machiels

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of literature demonstrates that consumers associate visual information with specific gustatory elements. This phenomenon is better known as cross-modal correspondence. A specific correspondence that has received attention of late is the one between round forms and sweet taste. Research indicates that roundness (as opposed to angularity is consistently associated with an increased sweetness perception. Focusing on two different cup forms (round versus angular, two studies tested this association for a butter milk drink and a mate-based soft drink. Results, however, were not able to corroborate the frequently suggested correspondence effect, but a correspondence was found between the angular cup and a more bitter taste for the soft drink. These results are discussed in light of previous findings matching sweetness with roundness and bitterness with angularity, hopefully aiding researchers in this field in conducting future experiments.

  16. Epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in America's Cup yacht racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, V J; Molloy, J; Brooks, J H M; Speedy, D B; Atkinson, G

    2006-04-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of injuries and illnesses incurred by a professional America's Cup yacht racing crew during the preparation for and participation in the challenge for the 2003 America's Cup. A prospective study design was used over 74 weeks of sailing and training. All injuries and illnesses sustained by the 35 professional male crew members requiring medical treatment were recorded, including the diagnosis, nature, location, and mechanism of injury. The volume of sailing and training were recorded, and the severity of incidents were determined by the number of days absent from both sailing and training. In total, 220 injuries and 119 illnesses were recorded, with an overall incidence of 8.8 incidents/1000 sailing and training hours (injuries, 5.7; illnesses, 3.1). The upper limb was the most commonly injured body segment (40%), followed by the spine and neck (30%). The most common injuries were joint/ligament sprains (27%) and tendinopathies (20%). The incidence of injury was significantly higher in training (8.6) than sailing (2.2). The most common activity or mechanism of injury was non-specific overuse (24%), followed by impact with boat hardware (15%) and weight training (13%). "Grinders" had the highest overall injury incidence (7.7), and "bowmen" had the highest incidence of sailing injuries (3.2). Most of the illnesses were upper respiratory tract infections (40%). The data from this study suggest that America's Cup crew members are at a similar risk of injury to athletes in other non-collision team sports. Prudent allocation of preventive and therapeutic resources, such as comprehensive health and medical care, well designed conditioning and nutritional programmes, and appropriate management of recovery should be adopted by America's Cup teams in order to reduce the risk of injury and illness.

  17. Mortar modified with sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups

    OpenAIRE

    MOTTA,L. A. C.; VIEIRA,J. G.; OMENA,T. H.; FARIA,F. A. C.; RODRIGUES FILHO,G.; ASSUNÇÃO,R. M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this work, we studied the addition of sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups as an admixture for mortars. Mortars were analyzed with polystyrene content of 0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0 and 1.4% in relation to the cement mass. The influence of polystyrene on the mortars' properties was evaluated by the consistency index, water retention, water absorption, porosity, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, bond tensile strength and microscopy. The increase...

  18. Effect of Recycling in Post-Consumer Polystyrene Cups

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mehnaz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to recycle post-consumer polystyrene cups and to analyze the changes in mechanical and rheological properties of the recycled polystyrene. The me-chanical properties were tensile strength, Young’s modulus and the rheological proper-ties was melt flow index. In order to analyze the changes in properties, material testing results of pristine polystyrene were compared with the recycled polystyrene. The same polystyrene material was recycled and tested twice in order to ...

  19. Central X-ray beam correction of radiographic acetabular cup measurement after THA: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, T; Weber, M; Wörner, M; Renkawitz, T; Grifka, J; Craiovan, B

    2017-05-01

    Accurate assessment of cup orientation on postoperative radiographs is essential for evaluating outcome after THA. However, accuracy is impeded by the deviation of the central X-ray beam in relation to the cup and the impossibility of measuring retroversion on standard pelvic radiographs. In an experimental trial, we built an artificial cup holder enabling the setting of different angles of anatomical anteversion and inclination. Twelve different cup orientations were investigated by three examiners. After comparing the two methods for radiographic measurement of the cup position developed by Lewinnek and Widmer, we showed how to differentiate between anteversion and retroversion in each cup position by using a second plane. To show the effect of the central beam offset on the cup, we X-rayed a defined cup position using a multidirectional central beam offset. According to Murray's definition of anteversion and inclination, we created a novel corrective procedure to balance measurement errors caused by deviation of the central beam. Measurement of the 12 different cup positions with the Lewinnek's method yielded a mean deviation of [Formula: see text] (95 % CI 1.3-2.3) from the original cup anteversion. The respective deviation with the Widmer/Liaw's method was [Formula: see text] (95 % CI 2.4-4.0). In each case, retroversion could be differentiated from anteversion with a second radiograph. Because of the multidirectional central beam offset ([Formula: see text] cm) from the acetabular cup in the cup holder ([Formula: see text] anteversion and [Formula: see text] inclination), the mean absolute difference for anteversion was [Formula: see text] (range [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (range [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] for inclination. The application of our novel mathematical correction of the central beam offset reduced deviation to a mean difference of [Formula: see text] for anteversion and [Formula: see text

  20. Actuator disc edge singularity. The key to a revised actuator disc concept and momentum theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuik, G.A.M. van (The Wind Energy Group of the Technical University Eindhoven (NL))

    1989-01-01

    Since the beginning of rotor aerodynamics the actuator disc momentum theory occupies a prominant place in almost any textbook on this subject. Specially in axial flow the theory provides an easy and rather accurate performance prediction. The results first obtained by Lanchester for the induced power of a hovering rotor and the maximum power of a wind turbine are still used as guidelines for complicated calculations. On the other hand, experimental results for propellers are known to deviate systematically (some 10%) from the momentum theory results. This is commonly attributed to the differences between a real rotor and an actuator disc. However, some actuator disc- and actuator strip (the 2-dimensional version) experiments are described in literature, showing the same deviations from momentum theory results. Therefore, apart from the question how representative an actuator disc is for a real rotor, the actuator disc concept itself may be inadequate. This problem is the subject of the work describe here. It will be shown that the classical actuator disc concept ignores discrete forces resulting from a flow singularity at the edge of the disc. The (extended) momentum theory, applied to this actuator strip model, shows a shift of the results towards the experimental data, and for the static case (hover) even a quantitative agreement is obtained. (author) 12 refs.