WorldWideScience

Sample records for optic based optical

  1. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  2. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  3. Integrated-optics-based optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high resolution, imaging technique that has developed over the last 20 years from a complicated laboratory setup into a ready-to-use commercially available device. Instead of using electronic time gating as being used by ultrasound (US) imaging, in OCT, the op

  4. Optical Microangiography Based on Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Roberto; Wang, Ruikang K.

    Proper homeostasis regulation of in vivo biological systems requires microvascular blood perfusion, which is the process of delivering blood into the tissue's capillary beds. Abnormal tissue vascularization has been associated with various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders, wounds, and inflammation. Understanding the changes in the vascular network or microangiography will have an important role in determining the causes and developing potential treatments for these diseases. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method for imaging three-dimensional biological tissues with high resolution (~10 µm) and without requiring the use of contrast agents. In this chapter we review several techniques for using OCT to determine blood flow velocities and the vessel morphology (optical microangiography). Different techniques will be discussed with a brief explanation of their limitations. Also, methods for quantifying these images are presented, as well as the depiction of several applications.

  5. Field-based transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    Instead of common definition of the transformation-optics devices via the coordinate transformation we offer the approach founded on boundary conditions for the fields. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by two examples: two-shell cloak and concentrator of electric field. We believe...... that the field-based approach is quite important for effective field control....

  6. Development of optical devices based on neutron refractive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oku, T.; Morita, S.; Moriyasu, S. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (JP)] [and others

    2001-03-01

    We have been developing neutron optical devices based on neutron refractive optics, such as a neutron lens and prism to improve neutron scattering methods. Prototypes of a compound Fresnel lens, a magnetic lens and prism for neutrons have been developed. The functions of each devices were verified by experimental and numerical simulation studies, and their improvement and applications are still being investigated. The recent progress in our work is reviewed and perspective of their application to neutron scattering experiments is described. (author)

  7. A novel all-optical label processing based on multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences for optical packet switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Qiu, Kun; Xu, Bo; Ling, Yun

    2008-05-01

    This paper proposes an all-optical label processing scheme that uses the multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences (MOOCS)-based optical label for optical packet switching (OPS) (MOOCS-OPS) networks. In this scheme, each MOOCS is a permutation or combination of the multiple optical orthogonal codes (MOOC) selected from the multiple-groups optical orthogonal codes (MGOOC). Following a comparison of different optical label processing (OLP) schemes, the principles of MOOCS-OPS network are given and analyzed. Firstly, theoretical analyses are used to prove that MOOCS is able to greatly enlarge the number of available optical labels when compared to the previous single optical orthogonal code (SOOC) for OPS (SOOC-OPS) network. Then, the key units of the MOOCS-based optical label packets, including optical packet generation, optical label erasing, optical label extraction and optical label rewriting etc., are given and studied. These results are used to verify that the proposed MOOCS-OPS scheme is feasible.

  8. New nonlinear optical materials based on ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J P [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Yu, K W [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-01-01

    We exploit theoretically a new class of magneto-controlled nonlinear optical material based on ferrofluids in which ferromagnetic nanoparticles are coated with a nonmagnetic metallic nonlinear shell. Such an optical material can have anisotropic nonlinear optical properties and a giant enhancement of nonlinearity, as well as an attractive figure of merit.

  9. Optical Fiber Grating based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis differenct optical fiber gratings are used for sensor purposes. If a fiber with a core concentricity error (CCE) is used, a directional dependent bend sensor can be produced. The CCE direction can be determined by means of diffraction. This makes it possible to produce long......-period gratings in a fiber with a CCE direction parallel or perpendicular to the writing direction. The maximal bending sensitivity is independent on the writing direction, but the detailed bending response is different in the two cases. A temperature and strain sensor, based on a long-period grating and two...

  10. Experimental demonstration of tunable multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences-based optical label for optical packets switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Qiu, Kun; Zhou, Heng; Ling, Yun; Wang, Yawei; Xu, Bo

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, the tunable multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences (MOOCS)-based optical label for optical packet switching (OPS) (MOOCS-OPS) is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. The tunable MOOCS-based optical label is performed by using fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based optical en/decoders group and optical switches configured by using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and the optical label is erased by using Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA). Some waveforms of the MOOCS-based optical label, optical packet including the MOOCS-based optical label and the payloads are obtained, the switching control mechanism and the switching matrix are discussed, the bit error rate (BER) performance of this system is also studied. These experimental results show that the tunable MOOCS-OPS scheme is effective.

  11. Fiber optic-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1991-01-01

    The NRL fiber optic biosensor is a device which measures the formation of a fluorescent complex at the surface of an optical fiber. Antibodies and DNA binding proteins provide the mechanism for recognizing an analyze and immobilizing a fluorescent complex on the fiber surface. The fiber optic biosensor is fast, sensitive, and permits analysis of hazardous materials remote from the instrumentation. The fiber optic biosensor is described in terms of the device configuration, chemistry for protein immobilization, and assay development. A lab version is being used for assay development and performance characterization while a portable device is under development. Antibodies coated on the fiber are stable for up to two years of storage prior to use. The fiber optic biosensor was used to measure concentration of toxins in the parts per billion (ng/ml) range in under a minute. Immunoassays for small molecules and whole bacteria are under development. Assays using DNA probes as the detection element can also be used with the fiber optic sensor, which is currently being developed to detect biological warfare agents, explosives, pathogens, and toxic materials which pollute the environment.

  12. Fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, M. J., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    We have developed a hand-held fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for scanning of the oral cavity We have produced, using this scanning device, in viva cross-sectional images of hard and soft dental tissues in human volunteers Clinically relevant anatomical structures, including the gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction, were visible in all the images The dento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone were identifiable in approximately two thirds of the images These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in viva OCT images of human dental tissue.

  13. Establishing a fiber-optic-based optical neural interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamantidis, Antoine R; Zhang, Feng; de Lecea, Luis; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-08-01

    Selective expression of opsins in genetically defined neurons makes it possible to control a subset of neurons without affecting nearby cells and processes in the intact brain, but light must still be delivered to the target brain structure. Light scattering limits the delivery of light from the surface of the brain. For this reason, we have developed a fiber-optic-based optical neural interface (ONI), which allows optical access to any brain structure in freely moving mammals. The ONI system is constructed by modifying the small animal cannula system from PlasticsOne. The system for bilateral stimulation consists of a bilateral cannula guide that has been stereotactically implanted over the target brain region, a screw cap for securing the optical fiber to the animal's head, a fiber guard modified from the internal cannula adapter, and a bare fiber whose length is customized based on the depth of the target region. For unilateral stimulation, a single-fiber system can be constructed using unilateral cannula parts from PlasticsOne. We describe here the preparation of the bilateral ONI system and its use in optical stimulation of the mouse or rat brain. Delivery of opsin-expressing virus and implantation of the ONI may be conducted in the same surgical session; alternatively, with a transgenic animal no opsin virus is delivered during the surgery. Similar procedures are useful for deep or superficial injections (even for neocortical targets, although in some cases surface light-emitting diodes or cortex-apposed fibers can be used for the most superficial cortical targets).

  14. Silicon based ultrafast optical waveform sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Galili, Michael; Pu, Minhao

    2010-01-01

    A 300 nmx450 nmx5 mm silicon nanowire is designed and fabricated for a four wave mixing based non-linear optical gate. Based on this silicon nanowire, an ultra-fast optical sampling system is successfully demonstrated using a free-running fiber laser with a carbon nanotube-based mode-locker...

  15. Biaxial crystal-based optical tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Andrew P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.;

    2010-01-01

    We suggest an optical tweezer setup based on an optically biaxial crystal. To control movements of opaque particles, we use shifts. The results of experimental studies are reported which are concerned with this laser tweezer setup. We demonstrate a movement of microparticles of toner using...... a singular-optical trap, rotation of particles due to orbital angular momentum of the field, and converging or diverging of two different traps when changing transmission plane of polariser at the input of our polarisation interferometer....

  16. Biaxial crystal-based optical tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Andrew P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.

    2010-01-01

    We suggest an optical tweezer setup based on an optically biaxial crystal. To control movements of opaque particles, we use shifts. The results of experimental studies are reported which are concerned with this laser tweezer setup. We demonstrate a movement of microparticles of toner using...... a singular-optical trap, rotation of particles due to orbital angular momentum of the field, and converging or diverging of two different traps when changing transmission plane of polariser at the input of our polarisation interferometer....

  17. Mobile based optical form evaluation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Sinan YÜKSEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical forms that contain multiple-choice answers are widely used both for electing students and evaluating student achievements in education systems in our country and worldwide. Optical forms are evaluated by employing optical mark recognition techniques through optical readers. High cost of these machines, limited access to them, long waiting time for evaluation results make the process hard for educationists working in cities or countries. In this study, a mobile application was developed for the educationists who own mobile phones or tablets for the purpose of evaluating students' answer sheets quickly and independent of location and optical readers. Optical form recognition, reading and evaluation processes are done on the image of student's answer sheet that is taken with the mobile phone or tablet of educationist. The Android based mobile application that we developed has a user-friendly interface, high success rate and is the first of our knowledge application that operates on mobile platforms in this field.

  18. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  19. Reconfigurable nonblocking 4-port silicon thermo-optic optical router based on Mach-Zehnder optical switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Xia, Yuhao; Zhang, Fanfan; Chen, Qiaoshan; Ding, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a reconfigurable nonblocking 4-port silicon thermo-optic optical router based on Mach-Zehnder optical switches. For all optical links in its 9 routing states, the optical signal-to-noise ratios are larger than 15 dB in the wavelength range from 1525 to 1565 nm. Each optical link of the optical router can manipulate 50 wavelength-division-multiplexing channels with the data rate of 32 Gbps for each channel in the same wavelength range. Its average energy efficiency is about 16.3 fJ/bit, and its response time is about 19 μs.

  20. Graphene-Based Optical Biosensors and Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhiwen; He, Shijiang; Pei, Hao; Du, Dan; Fan, Chunhai; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-01-13

    This chapter focuses on the design, fabrication and application of graphene based optical nanobiosensors. The emerging graphene based optical nanobiosensors demonstrated the promising bioassay and biomedical applications thanking to the unique optical features of graphene. According to the different applications, the graphene can be tailored to form either fluorescent emitter or efficient fluorescence quencher. The exceptional electronic feature of graphene makes it a powerful platform for fabricating the SPR and SERS biosensors. Today the graphene based optical biosensors have been constructed to detect various targets including ions, small biomolecules, DNA/RNA and proteins. This chapter reviews the recent progress in graphene-based optical biosensors and discusses the opportunities and challenges in this field.

  1. Space-based optical image encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2010-12-20

    In this paper, we propose a new method based on a three-dimensional (3D) space-based strategy for the optical image encryption. The two-dimensional (2D) processing of a plaintext in the conventional optical encryption methods is extended to a 3D space-based processing. Each pixel of the plaintext is considered as one particle in the proposed space-based optical image encryption, and the diffraction of all particles forms an object wave in the phase-shifting digital holography. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results. The proposed method can provide a new optical encryption strategy instead of the conventional 2D processing, and may open up a new research perspective for the optical image encryption.

  2. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2011-01-01

    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touchin...... finger is also demonstrated....

  3. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Jakobsen, Michael L.; Hanson, Steen G.; Mosgaard, Morten; Iversen, Theis; Korsgaard, Jorgen

    2011-08-01

    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touching finger is also demonstrated.

  4. Optically-induced-potential-based image encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Chu; Wang, He-Zhou

    2011-11-07

    We present a technique of nonlinear image encryption by use of virtual optics. The image to be encrypted is superposed on a random intensity image. And this superposed image propagates through a nonlinear medium and a 4-f system with single phase key. The image is encrypted to a stationary white noise. The decryption process is sensitive to the parameters of the encryption system and the phase key in 4-f system. This sensitivity makes attackers hard to access the phase key. In nonlinear medium, optically-induced potentials, which depend on intensity of optical wave, make the superposition principle frustrated. This nonlinearity based on optically induced potentials highly improves the secrecy level of image encryption. Resistance against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique proves that it has the high secrecy level. This nonlinear image encryption based on optically induced potentials is proposed and demonstrated for the first time.

  5. All-optical adder/subtractor based on tera-hertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip Kumar Gayen; Rajat Kumar Pal; Jitendra Nath Roy

    2009-01-01

    An all-optical adder/subtractor (A/S) unit with the help of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) is proposed.Tile all-optical A/S unit with a set of all-optical full-adders and optical exclusive-ORs (XORs),can be used to perform a fast central processor unit using optical hardware components.We try to exploit the advantages of TOAD-based optical switch to design an integrated all-optical circuit which can perform binary addition and subtraction.With computer simulation results confirming the described methods,conclusions are given.

  6. Bidirectional all-optical switches based on highly nonlinear optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Yang, Chunyu; Liu, Mengli; Yu, Weitian; Zhang, Yujia; Lei, Ming; Wei, Zhiyi

    2017-05-01

    All-optical switches have become one of the research focuses of nonlinear optics due to their fast switching speed. They have been applied in such fields as ultrafast optics, all-optical communication and all-optical networks. In this paper, based on symbolic computation, bidirectional all-optical switches are presented using analytic two-soliton solutions. Various types of soliton interactions are analyzed through choosing the different parameters of high-order dispersion and nonlinearity. Results indicate that bidirectional all-optical switches can be effectively achieved using highly nonlinear optical fibers.

  7. A Space-Based Optical Communication System Utilizing Fiber Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-09

    single mode elliptic core fibers," Opt. Commun., 49, 3, 178-183 (1984). 35 15. B.J. Klein and J.J. Degnan, " Optical antenna gain. 1: Transmitting...antennas," Appl. Opt., 13,9,2134- 2141 (1974). 16. B.J. Klein and J.J. Degnan, " Optical antenna gain. 2: Receiving antennas," Appl. Opt., 13, 10,2397- 2401...1974). 17. B.J. Klein and J.J. Degnan, " Optical antenna gain. 3: The effect of secondary element support struts on transmitter gain," Appl. Opt., 15

  8. Semiconductor optical amplifier-based all-optical gates for high-speed optical processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers are useful building blocks for all-optical gates as wavelength converters and OTDM demultiplexers. The paper reviews the progress from simple gates using cross-gain modulation and four-wave mixing to the integrated interferometric gates using cross-phase modulation....... These gates are very efficient for high-speed signal processing and open up interesting new areas, such as all-optical regeneration and high-speed all-optical logic functions...

  9. Evaluation of laser diode based optical switches for optical processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Paul D.; Parker, Michael A.; Libby, Stuart I.

    1993-07-01

    Three optical switching elements have been designed, fabricated, and tested for use in an integrated, optical signal processor. The first, an optical NOR logic gate, uses gain quenching as a means of allowing one (or more) light beam(s) to control the output light. This technique, along with the use of a two pad bistable output laser, is used in demonstrating the feasibility of the second device, an all optical RS flip flop. The third device consists of a broad area orthogonal model switching laser, whose corollary outputs correspond to the sign of the voltage difference between its two high impedance electrical inputs. This device also has possible memory applications if bistable mode switching within the broad area laser can be achieved.

  10. Optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R

    2010-11-15

    In this Letter, we propose a method for optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging. An optical multiple random phase mask encoding system is applied, and one of the phase-only masks is selected and laterally translated along a preset direction during the encryption process. For image decryption, a phase retrieval algorithm is proposed to extract a high-quality plaintext. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results. The proposed method can provide a new strategy instead of conventional interference methods, and it may open up a new research perspective for optical image encryption.

  11. Microcontroller-based locking in optics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universités, CNRS, ENS-PSL Research University, Collège de France, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Le Jeannic, H.; Ruaudel, J.; Morin, O.; Laurat, J., E-mail: julien.laurat@upmc.fr [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universités, CNRS, ENS-PSL Research University, Collège de France, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2014-12-15

    Optics experiments critically require the stable and accurate locking of relative phases between light beams or the stabilization of Fabry-Perot cavity lengths. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive technique based on a stand-alone microcontroller unit to perform such tasks. Easily programmed in C language, this reconfigurable digital locking system also enables automatic relocking and sequential functioning. Different algorithms are detailed and applied to fringe locking and to low- and high-finesse optical cavity stabilization, without the need of external modulations or error signals. This technique can readily replace a number of analog locking systems advantageously in a variety of optical experiments.

  12. Microcontroller-based locking in optics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, K; Ruaudel, J; Morin, O; Laurat, J

    2014-01-01

    Optics experiments critically require the stable and accurate locking of relative phases between light beams or the stabilization of Fabry-Perot cavity lengths. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive technique based on a stand-alone microcontroller unit to perform such tasks. Easily programmed in C language, this reconfigurable digital locking system also enables automatic relocking and sequential functioning. Different algorithms are detailed and applied to fringe locking and to low- and high-finesse optical cavity stabilization, without the need of external modulations or error signals. This technique can readily replace a number of analog locking systems advantageously in a variety of optical experiments.

  13. Microcontroller-based locking in optics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K; Le Jeannic, H; Ruaudel, J; Morin, O; Laurat, J

    2014-12-01

    Optics experiments critically require the stable and accurate locking of relative phases between light beams or the stabilization of Fabry-Perot cavity lengths. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive technique based on a stand-alone microcontroller unit to perform such tasks. Easily programmed in C language, this reconfigurable digital locking system also enables automatic relocking and sequential functioning. Different algorithms are detailed and applied to fringe locking and to low- and high-finesse optical cavity stabilization, without the need of external modulations or error signals. This technique can readily replace a number of analog locking systems advantageously in a variety of optical experiments.

  14. Optical Fibre Based Frequency Shifters Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-28

    A fibre optic frequency shifter can be used to replace the Bragg cell acousto-optic modulator, currently used to generate low frequency optical...carriers, in fibre optic communications and sensor systems. This new form of frequency shifter, being an all fibre device, in which the propagating optical...large number of workers in recent years, (for example references [2-81 and those contained therein). The main elements of a fibre - optic frequency

  15. Performance analysis of multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences-based optical labels for optical packet switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Ma, Chunli; Wang, Zhengsuan; Qiu, Kun

    2011-09-01

    Multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences (MOOCS)-based optical labels for optical packet switching (MOOCS-OPS) were proposed and studied in our previous works. In order to evaluate the performances of the MOOCS-OPS networks resulting from interference of the MOOCS-based optical labels, we utilize a new study method that applies the independent case of multiple optical orthogonal codes to derive the probability function of the MOOCS-OPS networks for the first time. Additionally, the optical label processing time, the utilization efficiency, and the packet loss rate in the MOOCS-OPS networks are also considered. We discuss the performance and efficiency characteristics with a variety of parameters, and compare some characteristics of the system employed by a single optical orthogonal code or MOOCS-based optical labels. The performances of the system are also calculated, and our results verify that the method and the networks are effective. Moreover, it is found that performances of the MOOCS-OPS networks would, negatively, be worsened, compared with the single optical orthogonal code-based optical label for optical packet switching; however, the MOOCS-OPS networks can greatly enlarge the scalability of the optical packet switching networks.

  16. Ultrafast all-optical clock recovery based on phase-only linear optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We report on a novel, efficient technique for all-optical clock recovery from RZ-OOK data signals based on spectral phase-only (all-pass) optical filtering. This technique significantly enhances both the recovered optical clock quality and energy efficiency in comparison with conventional amplitude...... optical filtering approaches using a Fabry-Perot filter. The proposed concept is validated through recovery of the optical clock from a 640 Gbit/s RZ-OOK data signal using a commercial linear optical waveshaper. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America...

  17. Duality based optical flow algorithms with applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau

    We consider the popular TV-L1 optical flow formulation, and the so-called duality based algorithm for minimizing the TV-L1 energy. The original formulation is extended to allow for vector valued images, and minimization results are given. In addition we consider different definitions of total...... variation regularization, and related formulations of the optical flow problem that may be used with a duality based algorithm. We present a highly optimized algorithmic setup to estimate optical flows, and give five novel applications. The first application is registration of medical images, where X......-ray images of different hands, taken using different imaging devices are registered using a TV-L1 optical flow algorithm. We propose to regularize the input images, using sparsity enhancing regularization of the image gradient to improve registration results. The second application is registration of 2D...

  18. Duality based optical flow algorithms with applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau

    We consider the popular TV-L1 optical flow formulation, and the so-called duality based algorithm for minimizing the TV-L1 energy. The original formulation is extended to allow for vector valued images, and minimization results are given. In addition we consider different definitions of total...... variation regularization, and related formulations of the optical flow problem that may be used with a duality based algorithm. We present a highly optimized algorithmic setup to estimate optical flows, and give five novel applications. The first application is registration of medical images, where X......-ray images of different hands, taken using different imaging devices are registered using a TV-L1 optical flow algorithm. We propose to regularize the input images, using sparsity enhancing regularization of the image gradient to improve registration results. The second application is registration of 2D...

  19. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information of the...... of the displacement. Systems for probing lateral displacements and in-plane vibrations (1-D and 2-D) are displayed, as will systems for probing angular velocity and torsional vibrations of rotating objects....

  20. Integrated optic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tomme, Emmanuel; van Daele, Peter P.; Baets, Roel G.; Lagasse, Paul E.

    1991-03-01

    An examination is made of the state of the art of nonlinear optical polymeric materials in view of their potential advantages. It is shown that these organic materials have many attractive features compared to LiNbO3 and III-V semiconductors with regard to their use in integrated optic circuits, especially since the level of integration is ever increasing. Considering more specifically electro-optic devices, a description is given of some of the theoretical background and basic properties. These polymers have already demonstrated a very high and extremely fast electro-optic effect compared to LiNbO3. It is also shown how low-loss waveguides can be fabricated by using easy techniques such as direct UV bleaching. The performance of phase modulators, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, and 2 x 2 space switches built with such polymers is already very promising. The results described in this study indicate a rapid rate of progress made by this technology, and one can expect that polymers in general and NLO polymers in particular will play an increasingly important role in integrated optics.

  1. A graphene-based broadband optical modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Geng, Baisong; Zentgraf, Thomas; Ju, Long; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xiang

    2011-06-01

    Integrated optical modulators with high modulation speed, small footprint and large optical bandwidth are poised to be the enabling devices for on-chip optical interconnects. Semiconductor modulators have therefore been heavily researched over the past few years. However, the device footprint of silicon-based modulators is of the order of millimetres, owing to its weak electro-optical properties. Germanium and compound semiconductors, on the other hand, face the major challenge of integration with existing silicon electronics and photonics platforms. Integrating silicon modulators with high-quality-factor optical resonators increases the modulation strength, but these devices suffer from intrinsic narrow bandwidth and require sophisticated optical design; they also have stringent fabrication requirements and limited temperature tolerances. Finding a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible material with adequate modulation speed and strength has therefore become a task of not only scientific interest, but also industrial importance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a broadband, high-speed, waveguide-integrated electroabsorption modulator based on monolayer graphene. By electrically tuning the Fermi level of the graphene sheet, we demonstrate modulation of the guided light at frequencies over 1GHz, together with a broad operation spectrum that ranges from 1.35 to 1.6µm under ambient conditions. The high modulation efficiency of graphene results in an active device area of merely 25µm2, which is among the smallest to date. This graphene-based optical modulation mechanism, with combined advantages of compact footprint, low operation voltage and ultrafast modulation speed across a broad range of wavelengths, can enable novel architectures for on-chip optical communications.

  2. Modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, B D

    2015-01-01

    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  3. Optical diffusers based on silicone emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Hao; Lien, Shui-Yang; Ho, Jeng-Rong; Shih, Teng-Kai; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Chien-Chung; Whang, Wha-Tzong

    2009-12-01

    The present study provides an experimental approach for fabricating optical diffuser films based on silicone emulsions. The silicone emulsion consisting of silicone polymer (Sylgard 184) and NaCl aq. solution was used as the optical material of diffusers, wherein NaCl aq. solution was severed as surfactant to stabilize the emulsions. After stirring mechanically, microscaled water drop with various sizes distributed randomly in silicone polymer, wherein water drop was used as scattering diffusion particles. To modulate the volume of NaCl aq. solution, the diffusing performance of diffusers could be change by different amount drop particles. Thereafter, an optical examination was carried out to characterize optical properties, transmittance, and light diffusivity of volumetric diffuser films.

  4. Optical Sensors Based on Plastic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilro, Lúcia; Alberto, Nélia; Pinto, João L.; Nogueira, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    The recent advances of polymer technology allowed the introduction of plastic optical fiber in sensor design. The advantages of optical metrology with plastic optical fiber have attracted the attention of the scientific community, as they allow the development of low-cost or cost competitive systems compared with conventional technologies. In this paper, the current state of the art of plastic optical fiber technology will be reviewed, namely its main characteristics and sensing advantages. Several measurement techniques will be described, with a strong focus on interrogation approaches based on intensity variation in transmission and reflection. The potential applications involving structural health monitoring, medicine, environment and the biological and chemical area are also presented. PMID:23112707

  5. Optical Sensors Based on Plastic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Nogueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances of polymer technology allowed the introduction of plastic optical fiber in sensor design. The advantages of optical metrology with plastic optical fiber have attracted the attention of the scientific community, as they allow the development of low-cost or cost competitive systems compared with conventional technologies. In this paper, the current state of the art of plastic optical fiber technology will be reviewed, namely its main characteristics and sensing advantages. Several measurement techniques will be described, with a strong focus on interrogation approaches based on intensity variation in transmission and reflection. The potential applications involving structural health monitoring, medicine, environment and the biological and chemical area are also presented.

  6. Optic Neuritis

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Demyelinating optic neuritis is the most common cause of unilateral painful visual loss in the United States. Although patients presenting with demyelinating optic neuritis have favorable long-term visual prognosis, optic neuritis is the initial clinical manifestation of multiple sclerosis in 20% of patients. The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT) has helped stratify the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after the first episode of optic neuritis based on abnormal findings on brain MRI....

  7. Optical fiber-based devices and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perry Ping SHUM; Jonathan C. KNIGHT; Jesper LAEGSGAARD; Dora Juan Juan HU

    2010-01-01

    @@ Optical fiber technology has undergone tremendous growth and development over the last 40 years. Optical fibers constitute an information super highway and are vital in enabling the proliferating use of the Internet. Optical fiber is also an enabling technology which can find applications in sensing, imaging, biomedical, machining, etc. There have been a few milestones in the advancement of optical fiber technology. Firstly, the invention and development of the laser some 50 years ago made optical communications possible. Secondly, the fabrication of low-loss optical fibers has been a key element to the success of optical communication.

  8. Optical Nyquist channel generation using a comb-based tunable optical tapped-delay-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyadi, Morteza; Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Khaleghi, Salman; Almaiman, Ahmed; Cao, Yinwen; Willner, Moshe J; Tur, Moshe; Paraschis, Loukas; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Touch, Joseph D; Willner, Alan E

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate optical Nyquist channel generation based on a comb-based optical tapped-delay-line. The frequency lines of an optical frequency comb are used as the taps of the optical tapped-delay-line to perform a finite-impulse response (FIR) filter function. A single optical nonlinear element is utilized to multiplex the taps and form the Nyquist signal. The tunablity of the approach over the baud rate and modulation format is shown. Optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty of 2.8 dB is measured for the 11-tap Nyquist filtering of 32-Gbaud QPSK signal.

  9. Resource Letter: LBOT-1: Laser-based optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Matthew J.; Block, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on optical tweezers, also known as laser-based, gradient-force optical traps. Journal articles and books are cited for the following main topics: general papers on optical tweezers, trapping instrument design, optical detection methods, optical trapping theory, mechanical measurements, single molecule studies, and sections on biological motors, cellular measurements and additional applications of optical tweezers. PMID:16971965

  10. Resource Letter: LBOT-1: Laser-based optical tweezers

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Matthew J.; Block, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on optical tweezers, also known as laser-based, gradient-force optical traps. Journal articles and books are cited for the following main topics: general papers on optical tweezers, trapping instrument design, optical detection methods, optical trapping theory, mechanical measurements, single molecule studies, and sections on biological motors, cellular measurements and additional applications of optical tweezers.

  11. Optical computation based on nonlinear total reflectional optical switch at the interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianqi Zhang; Huan Xu

    2009-03-01

    A new scheme of binary half adder and full adder is proposed. It realizes a kind of all-optical computation which is based on the polarization coding technique and the nonlinear total reflectional optical switches.

  12. Advanced Optical Signal Processing using Time Lens based Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    An overview of recent progress on time lens based advanced optical signal processing is presented, with a special focus on all-optical ultrafast 640 Gbit/s all-channel serial-to-parallel conversion, and scalable WDM regeneration....

  13. Optic glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  14. Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio; Bang, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are reported. We have written 3mm FBGs for 1550nm operation, characterized their temperature and strain response, and tested their performance in a prototype accelerometer.......Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are reported. We have written 3mm FBGs for 1550nm operation, characterized their temperature and strain response, and tested their performance in a prototype accelerometer....

  15. Optical stimulator for vision-based sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rössler, Dirk; Pedersen, David Arge Klevang; Benn, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an optical stimulator system for vision-based sensors. The stimulator is an efficient tool for stimulating a camera during on-ground testing with scenes representative of spacecraft flights. Such scenes include starry sky, planetary objects, and other spacecraft. The optical...... precision and long-term stability. The system can be continuously used over several days. By facilitating a full camera including optics in the loop, the stimulator enables the more realistic simulation of flight maneuvers based on navigation cameras than pure computer simulations or camera stimulations...... stimulator is used as a test bench to simulate high-precision navigation by different types of camera systems that are used onboard spacecraft, planetary rovers, and for spacecraft rendezvous and proximity maneuvers. Careful hardware design and preoperational calibration of the stimulator result in high...

  16. 40-Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Zheng, Xueyan; Peucheret, Christophe

    2000-01-01

    All-optical wavelength conversion based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) at 40 Gb/s is demonstrated for the first time. The effect of walkoff time between control beam and signal beams is investigated when the NOLM is used as an all-optical wavelength converter or an all...

  17. Vortex-based line beam optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2016-10-01

    A vortex-based line beam, which has a straight-line shape of intensity and possesses phase gradient along the line trajectory is developed and applied for optical manipulation in this paper. The intensity and phase distributions of the beam in the imaging plane of the Fourier transform are analytically studied. Simulation results show that the length of the line and phase gradient possessed by a vortex-based line beam are dependent on the topological charge and the azimuthal proportional constant. A superposition of multiple phase-only holograms with elliptical azimuthal phases can be used to generate an array of vortex-based line beams. Optical trapping with the vortex-based line beams has been implemented. Furthermore, the automatic transportation of microparticles along the line trajectory perpendicular to the optical axis is realized with an array of the beams. The generation method for the vortex-based line beam is simple. The beam would have potential applications in fields such as optical trapping, laser machining, and so on.

  18. Passive optical switches based on endohedral fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yongchang; Deepika Saini Collaboration; Luis A. Echegoyen Collaboration; Ramakrishna Podila Collaboration

    Although there have been many attempts to find better nanomaterial-based optical limiters & switches in recent years, currently there are only a few effective options for high-energy lasers. Reverse saturable absorption in fullerenes has been widely used to realize excellent passive optical limiters for the visible region up to 650 nm. The electronic structure of fullerenes can be modified by the encapsulation of endohedral clusters to achieve exotic quantum states of matter such as superconductivity. Building on this concept, in this talk, we show that three tri-metallic nitride endohedral fullerenes could alter the HOMO-LUMO gap and allow passive optical switching with a low limiting threshold (0.3 J/cm2) and a wider operation window up to 1064 nm (average pulse energy>0.5 mJ in ns regime).

  19. All-optical sampling based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen; Wang, Yongjun; Wang, Lina

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, the all-optical signal processing system has become a hot research field of optical communication. This paper focused on the basic research of quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and studied its practical application to all-optical sampling. A multi-level dynamic physical model of QD-SOA is established, and its ultrafast dynamic characteristics are studied through theoretical and simulation research. For further study, an all-optical sampling scheme based on the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect of QD-SOA is also proposed. This paper analyzed the characteristics of optical switch window and investigated the influence of different control light pulses on switch performance. The presented optical sampling method has an important role in promoting the improvement of all-optical signal processing technology.

  20. New approaches in diffraction based optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, M.; Vanoppen, P.; Jak, M.; v. d. Zouw, G.; Cramer, H.; Nooitgedagt, T.; v. d. Laan, H.

    2016-03-01

    Requirements for on-product overlay, focus and CD uniformity continue to tighten in order to support the demands of 10nm and 7nm nodes. This results in the need for simultaneously accurate, robust and dense metrology data as input for closed-loop control solutions thereby enabling wafer-level control and high order corrections. In addition the use of opaque materials and stringent design rules drive the need for expansion of the available measurement wavelengths and metrology target design space. Diffraction based optical metrology has been established as the leading methodology for integrated as well as standalone optical metrology for overlay, focus and CD monitoring and control in state of the art chip manufacturing. We are presenting the new approaches to diffraction based optical metrology designed to meet the processing diffraction based metrology signals. In this paper we will present the new detection principle and its impact on key performance characteristics of overlay and focus measurements. We will also describe the wide range of applications of a newly introduced increased measurement spot size, enabling significant improvements to accuracy and process robustness of overlay and focus measurements. With the YS350E the optical CD measurement capability is also extended, to 10x10μm2 targets. We will discuss the performance and value of small targets in after-develop and after-etch applications.

  1. Low voltage integrated optics electro-optical modulator applied to optical voltage transformer based on WLI technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. C.; Rubini, J.; Silva, L. P. C.; Caetano, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of two electro-optical modulators linked in series, one for sensing and one for recovering signals, was formerly presented by some of the authors as a solution for interrogation of optical fiber sensor systems based on WLI method. A key feature required from such systems is that half-wave voltage (Vπ) of recovering modulator must be as small as possible. Aiming at meeting this requirement, in this paper it is presented the use of an unbalanced Michelson Interferometer implemented using an integrated optics component as recover interferometer in an optical voltage transformer intended for high voltage measurements.

  2. Optical biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biose...

  3. Optical OFDM-based Data Center Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforos Kachris

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing and web emerging application has created the need for more powerful data centers with high performance interconnection networks.Current data center networks,based on electronic packet switches,will not be able to satisfy the required communication bandwidth of emerging applications without consuming excessive power.Optical interconnercts have gained attention recently as a promising solution offering high throughput,low latency and reduced energy cosumption compared to current networks based in commidity switches.This paper presents a novel architecture for data center networks based on optical OFDM using Wavelength Selective Swithces(WSS. The OFDM-based solution provides high throughput,reduced latency and fine grain bandwidth allocation. A heuristic algorithm for the bandwidth allocation is presented and evaluated in terms of utilization. The power analysis shows that the proposed scheme is almost 60% more energy efficient compared to the current networks based on eommodity switches.

  4. Optical position encoder based on four-section diffraction grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherdev, A. Y.; Odinokov, S. B.; Lushnikov, D. S.; Markin, V. V.; Gurylev, O. A.; Shishova, M. V.

    2017-05-01

    Optical position encoder consists of movable coding grating and fixed analyzing grating. Light passing and diffracting through these two gratings creates interference signal on optical detector. Decoding of interference signal phase allows to determinate current position. Known optical position encoders use several accurate adjusted optical channels and detectors to gather several signals with different phase for higher encoder accuracy. We propose to use one optical channel with several-section analyzing diffraction grating for this purpose to simplify optical scheme and adjusting requirements. Optical scheme of position encoder based on four-section analyzing diffraction grating is developed and described in this paper.

  5. Optical Solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    1. Optical solitons in fibres: theoretical review A. Hasegawa; 2. Solitons in optical fibres: an experimental account L. F. Mollenauer; 3. All-optical long-distance soliton-based transmission systems K. Smith and L. F. Mollenauer; 4. Nonlinear propagation effects in optical fibres: numerical studies K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran; 5. Soliton-soliton interactions C. Desem and P. L. Chu; 6. Soliton amplification in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers and its application to soliton communication M. Nakazawa; 7. Nonlinear transformation of laser radiation and generation of Raman solitons in optical fibres E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, A. M. Prokhorov and V. N. Serkin; 8. Generation and compression of femtosecond solitons in optical fibers P. V. Mamyshev; 9. Optical fibre solitons in the presence of higher order dispersion and birefringence C. R. Menyuk and Ping-Kong A. Wai; 10. Dark optical solitons A. M. Weiner; 11. Soliton Raman effects J. R. Taylor; Bibliography; Index.

  6. Reconfigurable Optical Signal Processing Based on a Distributed Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Deng, Ye; Tang, Jian; Sun, Shuqian; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-01-27

    All-optical signal processing has been considered a solution to overcome the bandwidth and speed limitations imposed by conventional electronic-based systems. Over the last few years, an impressive range of all-optical signal processors have been proposed, but few of them come with reconfigurability, a feature highly needed for practical signal processing applications. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an analog optical signal processor based on a phase-shifted distributed feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFB-SOA) and an optical filter. The proposed analog optical signal processor can be reconfigured to perform signal processing functions including ordinary differential equation solving and temporal intensity differentiation. The reconfigurability is achieved by controlling the injection currents. Our demonstration provitdes a simple and effective solution for all-optical signal processing and computing.

  7. Reconfigurable Optical Signal Processing Based on a Distributed Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Deng, Ye; Tang, Jian; Sun, Shuqian; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-01-01

    All-optical signal processing has been considered a solution to overcome the bandwidth and speed limitations imposed by conventional electronic-based systems. Over the last few years, an impressive range of all-optical signal processors have been proposed, but few of them come with reconfigurability, a feature highly needed for practical signal processing applications. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an analog optical signal processor based on a phase-shifted distributed feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFB-SOA) and an optical filter. The proposed analog optical signal processor can be reconfigured to perform signal processing functions including ordinary differential equation solving and temporal intensity differentiation. The reconfigurability is achieved by controlling the injection currents. Our demonstration provitdes a simple and effective solution for all-optical signal processing and computing.

  8. Quantum stream cipher based on optical communications

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, Osamu; Kato, Kentaro; Sohma, Masaki; Usuda, Tsuyoshi S.; HARASAWA, Katsuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, an attractive new quantum cryptography was discovered by H.P.Yuen based on quantum communication theory. It is applicable to direct encryption, for example quantum stream cipher based on Yuen protocol(Y-00), with high speeds and for long distance by sophisticated optical devices which can work under the average photon number per signal light pulse:$ = 1000 \\sim 10000$. In addition, it may provide information-theoretic security against known/chosen plaintext attack, which has no class...

  9. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  10. All-optical virtual private network and ONUs communication in optical OFDM-based PON system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Huang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Kun

    2011-11-21

    We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme, which enables all-optical virtual private network (VPN) and all-optical optical network units (ONUs) inter-communications in optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system using the subcarrier bands allocation for the first time (to our knowledge). We consider the intra-VPN and inter-VPN communications which correspond to two different cases: VPN communication among ONUs in one group and in different groups. The proposed scheme can provide the enhanced security and a more flexible configuration for VPN users compared to the VPN in WDM-PON or TDM-PON systems. The all-optical VPN and inter-ONU communications at 10-Gbit/s with 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) for the proposed optical OFDM-PON system are demonstrated. These results verify that the proposed scheme is feasible.

  11. An electro-optic waveform interconnect based on quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Li-Guo; Gong, Shang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The ability to modulate an optical field via an electric field is regarded as a key function of electro-optic interconnects, which are used in optical communications and information processing systems. One of the main required devices for such interconnects is the electro-optic modulator (EOM). Current EOM based on the electro-optic effect and the electro-absorption effect often is bulky and power inefficient due to the weak electro-optic properties of its constituent materials. Here we propose a new mechanism to produce an arbitrary-waveform EOM based on the quantum interference, in which both the real and imaginary parts of the susceptibility are engineered coherently with the superhigh efficiency. Based on this EOM, a waveform interconnect from the voltage to the modulated optical absorption is realised. We expect that such a new type of electro-optic interconnect will have a broad range of applications including the optical communications and network.

  12. Nanopinholes-Based Optical Superlens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Fu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of nanopinhole-based plasmonic structure is presented. It can realize superfocusing within micron-scale propagation distance with spatial resolution beyond diffraction limit. Cut-off wavelength effect is highlighted for understanding how periodicity distribution of the nanopinholes influences transmission and focusing through the structure. Redshift peak transmission occurs while the periodicity increases. In addition, focusing property of the plasmonic structures is analyzed for the monochromatic illumination with different incident wavelengths ranging from 400 nm to 750 nm. The easy fabrication and high focusing performance of the proposed structures may be used in data storage devices, bioimaging, and nanolithography.

  13. Temperature Sensors Based on WGM Optical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute; Itchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    A proposed technique for measuring temperature would exploit differences between the temperature dependences of the frequencies of two different electromagnetic modes of a whispering gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator. An apparatus based on this technique was originally intended to be part of a control system for stabilizing a laser frequency in the face of temperature fluctuations. When suitably calibrated, apparatuses based on this technique could also serve as precise temperature sensors for purposes other than stabilization of lasers. A sensor according to the proposal would include (1) a transparent WGM dielectric resonator having at least two different sets of modes characterized by different thermo-optical constants and (2) optoelectronic instrumentation for measuring the difference between the temperature-dependent shifts of the resonance frequencies of the two sets of modes.

  14. Silicon-Chip-Based Optical Frequency Combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    frequencies . This phenomenon appears in many systems spanning biology, chemistry, neuroscience, and physics [29,30]. Examples include power grid networks... Frequency Combs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008). [91] F. Leo, et al., “Dispersive wave emission and supercontinuum generation in a silicon wire...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0365 Silicon-Chip-Based Optical Frequency Combs Alexander Gaeta CORNELL UNIVERSITY Final Report 10/26/2015 DISTRIBUTION A

  15. Fractal zone plate beam based optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shubo; Zhang, Xinyu; Ma, Wenzhuo; Tao, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate optical manipulation with an optical beam generated by a fractral zone plate (FZP). The experimental results show that the FZP beam can simultaneously trap multiple particles positioned in different focal planes of the FZP beam, owing to the multiple foci and self-reconstruction property of the FZP beam. The FZP beam can also be used to construct three-dimensional optical tweezers for potential applications. PMID:27678305

  16. Broadband optical isolator based on helical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hu; Yang, ZhenYu; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Lin; Zhang, Peng

    2015-05-01

    Based on helical metamaterials, a new broadband optical isolator with a triple-helix structure is proposed in this paper. The right-handed circularly polarized light can transmit through the isolator with its polarization unchanged. The reverse propagating light, which is caused by the reflection of the latter optical devices, is converted into left-handed circularly polarized light that is suppressed by the proposed isolator because of absorption. Our design has some unprecedented advantages such as broad frequency ranges and a compact structure; moreover, neither polarizers nor adscititious magnetic fields are required. Properties of the isolator are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain method, and this phenomenon is studied by the mechanism of helical antenna theory.

  17. Reflective Optical Limiter Based on Resonant Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Makri, Eleana; Vitebskiy, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Optical limiters transmit low-level radiation while blocking electromagnetic pulses with excessively high energy (energy limiters) or with excessively high peak intensity (power limiters). A typical optical limiter absorbs most of the high-level radiation which can cause its destruction via overheating. Here we introduce the novel concept of a reflective energy limiter which blocks electromagnetic pulses with excessively high total energy by reflecting them back to space, rather than absorbing them. The idea is to use a defect layer with temperature dependent loss tangent embedded in a low-loss photonic structure. The low energy pulses with central frequency close to that of the localized defect mode will pass through. But if the cumulative energy carried by the pulse exceeds certain level, the entire photonic structure reflects the incident light (and does not absorb it!) for a broad frequency window. The underlying physical mechanism is based on self-regulated impedance mismatch which increases dramatically...

  18. Multicore optical fibre and fibre-optic delay line based on it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, O. N.; Astapovich, M. S.; Belkin, M. E.; Semjonov, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    The first switchable fibre-optic delay line based on a 1300-{\\text{m}}-long multicore optical fibre has been fabricated and investigated. We have obtained signal delay times of up to 45 \\unicode{956}{\\text{s}} at 6.43-\\unicode{956}{\\text{s}} intervals. Sequential signal propagation through the cores of the multicore optical fibre makes it possible to reduce the fibre length necessary for obtaining a predetermined delay time, which is important for reducing the weight and dimensions of devices based on the use of fibre-optic delay lines.

  19. Proposal for loadable and erasable optical memory unit based on dual active microring optical integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunhong; Zhang, Xiaobei; Zhang, Xinliang; Huang, Dexiu

    2008-11-01

    A novel approach for loadable and erasable optical memory unit based on dual microring optical integrators is proposed and studied. The optical integrator, which can generate an optical step function for data storing, is synthesized using active media for loss compensation and a tunable phase shifter for data reading at any time. The input data into the memory is return-to-zero (RZ) signal, and the output data read from the memory is also RZ format with a narrower pulse width. An optical digital register based on the proposed optical memory unit is also investigated and simulated, which shows the potential for large scale data storage and serial-to-parallel data conversion. A great number of such memory units can be densely integrated on a photonic circuit for future large scale data storage and buffer.

  20. Photonic processing and realization of an all-optical digital comparator based on semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simranjit; Kaur, Ramandeep; Kaler, Rajinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    A module of an all-optical 2-bit comparator is analyzed and implemented using semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). By employing SOA-based cross phase modulation, the optical XNOR logic is used to get an A=B output signal, where as AB¯ and A¯B> logics operations are used to realize A>B and Aoptical high speed networks and computing systems.

  1. All-Optical Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (toad) Based Binary Comparator:. a Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    Comparator determines whether a number is greater than, equals to or less than another number. It plays a significant role in fast central processing unit in all-optical scheme. In all-optical scheme here 1-bit binary comparator is proposed and described by Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch. Simulation result by Mathcad-7 is also given. Cascading technique of building up the n-bit binary comparator with this 1-bit comparator block is also proposed here.

  2. Management Concerns for Optical Based Filing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    terminals, WORM Palo Alto, CA 94303 drives, optical jukeboxes, printers, scanners. Candi Technology Inc. Systems integrators providing 2354 Calle Del Mundo ...n.3, p. 68, 6 February 1989. Dortch, M., "A Storage Media Primer ", LAN Times, v.6, n.1, pp. 38-39, January 1989. Dukeman, John, "Optical Disk - A

  3. A microfluidic based optical particle detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, James; Chen, Lu; Nayyar, Rakesh; Aitchison, Stewart

    2012-03-01

    An optical particle detection and analysis method is presented. This method combines the capillary microfluidics, integrated optics and novel image acquisition and analysis algorithms to form the basis of a portable or handheld cytometer instrument. Experimental results provided shows the testing results are closely matched with conventional flow cytometer data.

  4. Optical coherent detection Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensor based on orthogonal polarization diversity reception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muping Song; Bin Zhao; Xianmin Zhang

    2005-01-01

    In Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensor, using optical coherent detection to detect Brillouin scattering optical signal is a good method, but there exists the polarization correlated detection problem. A novel detecting scheme is presented and demonstrated experimentally, which adopts orthogonal polarization diversity reception to resolve the polarization correlated detection problem. A laser is used as pump and reference light sources, a microwave electric-optical modulator (EOM) is adopted to produce frequency shift reference light, a polarization controller is used to control the polarization of the reference light which is changed into two orthogonal polarization for two adjacent acquisition periods. The Brillouin scattering light is coherently detected with the reference light, and the Brillouin scattering optical signal is taken out based on Brillouin frequency shift. After electronic processing, better Brillouin distributed sensing signal is obtained. A 25-km Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensor is achieved.

  5. Passive optical networks based on optical CDMA: Design and system analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ChongFu; QIU Kun; XU Bo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a novel Passive Optical Network based on Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA-PON) is presented. The design of the Optical Line Terminator (OLT) and the Optical Network Unit (ONU) for the OCDMA-PON are studied in detail. The proposed OCDMA-PON combines the advantages of PON and OCDMA technology and it can be applied to an optical access network with full services on demand, such as internet protocol, video on demand, tele-presence and high quality audio. Compared to other multiple access technologies, the proposed OCDMA-PON provides more ONU and assembly flexibly for PON. We analyze in detail the scalability and system transmission performance of such a network. Simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme is feasible and that the novel design can improve the scalability and transmission performance of the optical access networks.

  6. Optical flow based finger stroke detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongdi; Li, Bin; Wang, Kongqiao

    2010-07-01

    Finger stroke detection is an important topic in hand based Human Computer Interaction (HCI) system. Few research studies have carried out effective solutions to this problem. In this paper, we present a novel approach for stroke detection based on mono vision. Via analyzing the optical flow field within the finger area, our method is able to detect finger stroke under various camera position and visual angles. We present a thorough evaluation for each component of the algorithm, and show its efficiency and effectiveness on solving difficult stroke detection problems.

  7. Advanced applications of scatterometry based optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Dhairya; Keller, Nick; Kagalwala, Taher; Recchia, Fiona; Lifshitz, Yevgeny; Elia, Alexander; Todi, Vinit; Fronheiser, Jody; Vaid, Alok

    2017-03-01

    The semiconductor industry continues to drive patterning solutions that enable devices with higher memory storage capacity, faster computing performance, and lower cost per transistor. These developments in the field of semiconductor manufacturing along with the overall minimization of the size of transistors require continuous development of metrology tools used for characterization of these complex 3D device architectures. Optical scatterometry or optical critical dimension (OCD) is one of the most prevalent inline metrology techniques in semiconductor manufacturing because it is a quick, precise and non-destructive metrology technique. However, at present OCD is predominantly used to measure the feature dimensions such as line-width, height, side-wall angle, etc. of the patterned nano structures. Use of optical scatterometry for characterizing defects such as pitch-walking, overlay, line edge roughness, etc. is fairly limited. Inspection of process induced abnormalities is a fundamental part of process yield improvement. It provides process engineers with important information about process errors, and consequently helps optimize materials and process parameters. Scatterometry is an averaging technique and extending it to measure the position of local process induced defectivity and feature-to-feature variation is extremely challenging. This report is an overview of applications and benefits of using optical scatterometry for characterizing defects such as pitch-walking, overlay and fin bending for advanced technology nodes beyond 7nm. Currently, the optical scatterometry is based on conventional spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectroscopic reflectometry measurements, but generalized ellipsometry or Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry data provides important, additional information about complex structures that exhibit anisotropy and depolarization effects. In addition the symmetry-antisymmetry properties associated with Mueller matrix (MM) elements

  8. Experimental study on all-optical half-adder based on semi-conductor optical amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bing-chen; YU Jin-long; WANG Wen-rui; ZHANG Li-tai; HU Hao; YANG En-ze

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel all-optical half-adder based on two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAS). Two optical band-pass filters are used to select the two idlers generated by four-wave mixing (FWM) effect of the first SOA. Therefore, the AND gate and XNOR logic are realized simultaneously. The second SOA acts as a NOT gate, in which the NOR logic is achieved with the input of the logic XNOR. As a result, the output is the sum of the two input bits and the carry. In the experiment, all-optical half-addition calculation is achieved between two 10 Gb/s signals.

  9. All-optical digital processor based on harmonic generation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Rakovsky, Vsevolod Y.

    1990-07-01

    Digital optical processors are designed to combine ultra- parallel data procesing capabilities of optical aystems cnd high accur&cy of performed computations. The ultimate limit of the processing rate can be anticipated from all-optical parcllel erchitecturea based on networks o logic gates using materials exibiting strong electronic nonlinearities with response times less than 1O seconds1.

  10. Document Indexing for Image-Based Optical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Thomas J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of image-based information retrieval systems focuses on indexing. Highlights include computerized information retrieval; multimedia optical systems; optical mass storage and personal computers; and a case study that describes an optical disk system which was developed to preserve, access, and disseminate military documents. (19…

  11. [Optic neuritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, H; Heine, C; Tonagel, F

    2014-11-01

    Optic neuritis is a frequent neuro-ophthalmological disease in which the diagnosis can be based on just a few symptoms and findings. It is not only important to differentiate from other optic nerve disorders but also to recognise special types of optic neuritis, which is mostly only possible during the course of the disease. This article presents a review of the current state in diagnosis and therapy from the authors' personal point of view.

  12. A Novel Extrinsic Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Strain Sensor System Based on Optical Amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Jiang Rao; Jian Jiang; Zheng-Lin Ran

    2003-01-01

    A novel extrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric strain sensor system is demonstrated based on the simultaneous use of the amplified spontaneous emission and optical amplification. The improvement of 3~4 orders of magnitude in signal level can be achieved.

  13. High-accurate optical vector analysis based on optical single-sideband modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Pan, Shilong

    2016-11-01

    Most of the efforts devoted to the area of optical communications were on the improvement of the optical spectral efficiency. Varies innovative optical devices are thus developed to finely manipulate the optical spectrum. Knowing the spectral responses of these devices, including the magnitude, phase and polarization responses, is of great importance for their fabrication and application. To achieve high-resolution characterization, optical vector analyzers (OVAs) based on optical single-sideband (OSSB) modulation have been proposed and developed. Benefiting from the mature and highresolution microwave technologies, the OSSB-based OVA can potentially achieve a resolution of sub-Hz. However, the accuracy is restricted by the measurement errors induced by the unwanted first-order sideband and the high-order sidebands in the OSSB signal, since electrical-to-optical conversion and optical-to-electrical conversion are essentially required to achieve high-resolution frequency sweeping and extract the magnitude and phase information in the electrical domain. Recently, great efforts have been devoted to improve the accuracy of the OSSB-based OVA. In this paper, the influence of the unwanted-sideband induced measurement errors and techniques for implementing high-accurate OSSB-based OVAs are discussed.

  14. A Novel Extrinsic Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Strain Sensor System Based on Optical Amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel extrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric strain sensor system is demonstrated based on the simultaneous use of the amplified spontaneous emission and optical amplification. The improvement of 3~4 orders of magnitude in signal level can be achieved.

  15. Optical resilient packet ring (O-RPR) based on all-optical buffering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongqing; Sheng, Xingzhi; Fu, Songnian; Wei, Bin; Li, Yajie; Liu, Aiming

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of the 863 high-technology project of China "Optical Resilient Packet Ring (O-RPR) Based on All-optical Buffering Techniques". In this ring network, for the packet through an intermediate node the conversion of O/E/O is not needed in order to overcome the bottleneck of O/E/O. In all-optical node a Dual Loop Optical Buffer (DLOB) is used to revolve the collision between the packet, which pass through the node, and add packet from local user to ring. The principle of DLOB is introduced. The bit-rate of head of optical frame is lower than the bit-rate of payload in a packet, in order to increase the efficiency of transmission link. This paper will introduce the network topology, layers and the structure of optical node. It includes an optical splitter, optical delay line as input buffer, a SOA as optical switch, which switch the packet dropping down form the ring or pass through the node, a DLOB and an electric buffer. An ARM is used for regulation of different buffers. The experiment results of a demonstrate network including 3 nodes are given.

  16. Waveguide-based optical chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Karen M.; Swanson, Basil I.; Honkanen, Seppo

    2007-03-13

    The invention provides an apparatus and method for highly selective and sensitive chemical sensing. Two modes of laser light are transmitted through a waveguide, refracted by a thin film host reagent coating on the waveguide, and analyzed in a phase sensitive detector for changes in effective refractive index. Sensor specificity is based on the particular species selective thin films of host reagents which are attached to the surface of the planar optical waveguide. The thin film of host reagents refracts laser light at different refractive indices according to what species are forming inclusion complexes with the host reagents.

  17. Optical Properties of Bismuth Tellurite Based Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi Ming Oo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of binary tellurite based glasses (Bi2O3x (TeO2100−x was prepared by melt quenching method. The density, molar volume and refractive index increase when bismuth ions Bi3+ increase, this is due to the increased polarization of the ions Bi3+ and the enhanced formation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results show the bonding of the glass sample and the optical band gap, Eopt decreases while the refractive index increases when the ion Bi3+ content increases.

  18. Optical properties of bismuth tellurite based glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Hooi Ming; Mohamed-Kamari, Halimah; Wan-Yusoff, Wan Mohd Daud

    2012-01-01

    A series of binary tellurite based glasses (Bi(2)O(3))(x) (TeO(2))(100-) (x) was prepared by melt quenching method. The density, molar volume and refractive index increase when bismuth ions Bi(3+) increase, this is due to the increased polarization of the ions Bi(3+) and the enhanced formation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results show the bonding of the glass sample and the optical band gap, E(opt) decreases while the refractive index increases when the ion Bi(3+) content increases.

  19. Polymer based nanocomposites with tailorable optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Annalisa; Simonutti, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Transparent polymers are extensively used in everyday life, from windows to computer displays, from food packaging to lenses. A possible approach for modulating their optical properties (refractive index, transparency, color and luminescence) is to change the chemical structure of the polymer, however this option is in many cases economically prohibitive. Our approach, instead, relies in the use of standard polymers with the supplement of specific nanostructured additives able to tune the final property of the material. Among others, the cases of luminescent solar concentrators based on poly(methylmethacrylate) containing luminescent quantum dots and highly transparent polymer nanocomposites with high refractive index will be presented.

  20. Optical Generation of Fuzzy-Based Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2002-08-01

    In the last third of the 20th century, fuzzy logic has risen from a mathematical concept to an applicable approach in soft computing. Today, fuzzy logic is used in control systems for various applications, such as washing machines, train-brake systems, automobile automatic gear, and so forth. The approach of optical implementation of fuzzy inferencing was given by the authors in previous papers, giving an extra emphasis to applications with two dominant inputs. In this paper the authors introduce a real-time optical rule generator for the dual-input fuzzy-inference engine. The paper briefly goes over the dual-input optical implementation of fuzzy-logic inferencing. Then, the concept of constructing a set of rules from given data is discussed. Next, the authors show ways to implement this procedure optically. The discussion is accompanied by an example that illustrates the transformation from raw data into fuzzy set rules.

  1. Optical design of rotationally symmetric triangulation sensors with low-cost detectors based on reflective optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Peter

    2003-05-01

    Classical triangulation sensors exhibit an orientation depend signal if the scattering properties of the work-piece are not symmetrical like at curved surface locations. This problem is avoided by rotational symmetric triangulation sensors. Due to this attractive property in a lot of applications such a sensor was introduced very recently on the market. This sensor is based on refractive optics and a special PSD detector, both custom made resulting in high costs. Additionally, the existing optical design approach does not offer an optical layout to start with, thus a good amount of trial and error is required and non-optimal solutions are probable. Therefore, there is great interest for a clear optical design strategy that results in layouts that are suitable also to use low cost commercial available detectors, such as CCD or CMOS image detectors. In this paper such a design procedure is presented for optical designs that use reflecting optical surfaces. Several solutions are depicted and discussed. The designs are not only attractive from the optical point of view and from detector considerations, but also from opto-mechanical design issues. For example designs with only one opto-mechanical part are possible. The resulting optical designs consist of aspherical surfaces which are obtained directly by using only some new relations of first order optics for off-axis objects. The designs are validated by exact ray tracing. These ray tracing results show already very good performance. Nevertheless, it was possible to further optimize the optical designs very efficiently using ray tracing software, thus yielding improved optical properties.

  2. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  3. Passive endoscopic polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with completely fiber based optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Lucas; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Ng, Samson; MacAulay, Calum E.; Poh, Catherine; Lane, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PSOCT) is a functional extension of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) that is sensitive to well-structured, birefringent tissue such as scars, smooth muscle and cartilage. In this work, we present a novel completely fiber based swept source PSOCT system using a fiber-optic rotary pullback catheter. This PSOCT implementation uses only passive optical components and requires no calibration while adding minimal additional cost to a standard structural OCT imaging system. Due to its complete fiber construction, the system can be made compact and robust, while the fiber-optic catheter allows access to most endoscopic imaging sites. The 1.5mm diameter endoscopic probe can capture 100 frames per second at pullback speeds up to 15 mm/s allowing rapid traversal of large imaging fields. We validate the PSOCT system with known birefringent tissues and demonstrate in vivo PSOCT imaging of human oral scar tissue.

  4. All-optical flip-flop based on vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Deqiang; Gauss, Veronica; Zhang, Haijiang; Gross, Matthias; Wen, Pengyue; Esener, Sadik

    2007-10-15

    We report the operation of an all-optical set-reset (SR) flip-flop based on vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs). This flip-flop is cascadable, has low optical switching power (~10 microW), and has the potential to be integrated on a small footprint (~100 microm(2)). The flip-flop is composed of two cross-coupled electrically pumped VCSOA inverters and uses the principles of cross-gain modulation, polarization gain anisotropy, and highly nonlinear gain characteristics to achieve flip-flop functionality. We believe that, when integrated on chip, this type of all-optical flip-flop opens new prospects for implementing all-optical fast memories and timing regeneration circuits.

  5. Optical chiral metamaterial based on the resonant behaviour of nanodiscs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Mahdi; Mojtaba Mirsalehi, Mir

    2016-08-01

    Circular dichorism and optical activity have been achieved by chiral metamaterials in the optical spectrum, but for the case of negative index of refraction, remarkable achievements have not been obtained in this region so far. We employ nanoparticles to shift the resonant frequency of a chiral metamaterial based on twisted cross wires to optical domain. Our proposed structure provides giant optical activity, strong circular dichorism and also negative refractive index in the optical wavelengths. Optical activity in our structure has a rotary power similar to a gyrotropic crystal of quartz, but in a thickness which is four orders of magnitude smaller. The foundation of our method for realizing such an optical chiral metamaterial is based on creating a different coupling between longitudinal modes of localized surface plasmons for right and left circularly polarized incident waves.

  6. Optical image encryption based on a joint Fresnel transform correlator with double optical wedges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xueju; Dou, Shuaifeng; Lei, Ming; Chen, Yudan

    2016-10-20

    An optical cryptosystem based on the joint Fresnel transform correlator (JFTC) with double optical wedges is designed. The designed cryptosystem retains the two major advantages of JTC-based optical cryptosystems. First, the encrypted image is real-valued and therefore is easier to record and transmit. Second, the encryption process is simplified, since it doesn't require accurate alignment of optical elements or the generation of the complex conjugate of the key. Also, the designed optical cryptosystem can produce a decrypted image with higher quality than a JTC-based optical cryptosystem, because the original encrypted image is divided by the Fresnel transform power distribution of the key mask to generate the new encrypted image, which significantly reduces the noise during the decryption process. Simulation results showed that the correlation coefficient of the decrypted image and the original image can reach as large as 0.9819 after denoising and adequately selecting half-central interval a and encrypted image width w. Another improvement relative to JTC-based optical cryptosystems is that the attack resistibility gets enhanced due to the nonlinearity of the encryption process as well as the additional key parameter a, which enlarges the key space.

  7. Large Optical Telescope Based on High Efficiency Thin Film Planar Diffractive Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In future ground-based receivers for deep-space optical communications with spacecraft, aperture diameters of the order of 10 meters are required even with the most...

  8. Grazing-Incidence Neutron Optics based on Wolter Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, M. V.; Ramsey, B. D.; Mildner, D. F. R.

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of grazing-incidence neutron imaging optics based on the Wolter geometries have been successfully demonstrated. Biological microscopy, neutron radiography, medical imaging, neutron crystallography and boron neutron capture therapy would benefit from high resolution focusing neutron optics. Two bounce optics can also be used to focus neutrons in SANS experiments. Here, the use of the optics would result in lower values of obtainable scattering angles. The high efficiency of the optics permits a decrease in the minimum scattering vector without lowering the neutron intensity on sample. In this application, a significant advantage of the reflective optics over refractive optics is that the focus is independent of wavelength, so that the technique can be applied to polychromatic beams at pulsed neutron sources.

  9. Active optical zoom for space-based imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, David V.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Sweatt, William C.; Peterson, Gary L.; Martinez, Ty; Restaino, Sergio R.; Andrews, Jonathan R.; Wilcox, Christopher C.; Payne, Don M.; Romeo, Robert

    2006-08-01

    The development of sensors that are compact, lighter weight, and adaptive is critical for the success of future military initiatives. Space-based systems need the flexibility of a wide FOV for surveillance while simultaneously maintaining high-resolution for threat identification and tracking from a single, nonmechanical imaging system. In order to meet these stringent requirements, the military needs revolutionary alternatives to conventional imaging systems. We will present recent progress in active optical (aka nonmechanical) zoom for space applications. Active optical zoom uses multiple active optics elements to change the magnification of the imaging system. In order to optically vary the magnification of an imaging system, continuous mechanical zoom systems require multiple optical elements and use fine mechanical motion to precisely adjust the separations between individual or groups of elements. By incorporating active elements into the optical design, we have designed, demonstrated, and patented imaging systems that are capable of variable optical magnification with no macroscopic moving parts.

  10. Inexpensive LED-based spectrophotometer for analyzing optical coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Hardie, Kayla; Kuntz, Katanya B; Jennewein, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Optical coatings are widespread in everyday life, from camera lenses to glasses, to complex optics experiments. A simple, reliable device that can quickly and inexpensively analyze optical coatings is a valuable laboratory tool. Such a device can identify unknown or mislabelled optics, and characterize the transmission spectra of optical elements used in an experiment. We present the design and characterization of a LED-based spectrophotometer, and demonstrate its ability to identify different optical coatings. Our approach uses ten LEDs that cover a spectrum from 365 nm to 1000 nm. A small servomotor and microcontroller rotates a LED board to sequentially position each LED over an optical sample, and the transmitted light corresponding to each LED is measured with a silicon photodetector. The device is automated, portable, inexpensive, user-friendly and simple to build.

  11. Realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics for real-time testing of phase objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Aggarwal; Sushil K Kaura; D P Chhachhia; A K Sharma

    2004-11-01

    The paper describes a simple and cost effective method for the realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics, which use minimal bulk optical components. The optical arrangement in the proposed method involves a very simple alignment procedure and inexpensive holographic recording material is used in the formation of holographic optical elements. The proposed interferometer set-up is quite suitable for performing optical test studies on phase (transparent) objects in real-time. Recording schemes for the formation of holographic optical elements and the related technique for the realization of the interferometer set-up along with the experimental results have been presented.

  12. Optical biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. PMID:27365039

  13. Lagrangian optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Thyagarajan, K

    2002-01-01

    Ingeometrical optics, light propagation is analyzed in terms of light rays which define the path of propagation of light energy in the limitofthe optical wavelength tending to zero. Many features oflight propagation can be analyzed in terms ofrays,ofcourse, subtle effects near foci, caustics or turning points would need an analysis based on the wave natureoflight. Allofgeometric optics can be derived from Fermat's principle which is an extremum principle. The counterpart in classical mechanics is of course Hamilton's principle. There is a very close analogy between mechanics ofparticles and optics oflight rays. Much insight (and useful results) can be obtained by analyzing these analogies. Asnoted by H. Goldstein in his book Classical Mechanics (Addison Wesley, Cambridge, MA, 1956), classical mechanics is only a geometrical optics approximation to a wave theory! In this book we begin with Fermat's principle and obtain the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures of ray propagation through various media. Given the ...

  14. Optical Biosensors Based on Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of semiconductor-based nanostructures with novel and unique properties has sparked widespread interest in their use in the field of biosensing. The precise control over the size, shape and composition of these nanostructures leads to the accurate control of their physico-chemical properties and overall behavior. Furthermore, modifications can be made to the nanostructures to better suit their integration with biological systems, leading to such interesting properties as enhanced aqueous solubility, biocompatibility or bio-recognition. In the present work, the most significant applications of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of optical biosensing will be reviewed. In particular, the use of quantum dots as fluorescent bioprobes, which is the most widely used application, will be discussed. In addition, the use of some other nanometric structures in the field of biosensing, including porous semiconductors and photonic crystals, will be presented.

  15. Attenuation in silica-based optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandel, Marie Emilie

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis on attenuation in silica based optical fibers results within three main topics are reported. Spectral attenuation measurements on transmission fibers are performed in the wide wavelength range 290 nm – 1700 nm. The measured spectral attenuation is analyzed with special emphasis...... on absorption peaks in order to investigate the cause of an unusual high attenuation in a series of transmission fibers. Strong indications point to Ni2+ in octahedral coordination as being the cause of the high attenuation. The attenuation of fibers having a high core refractive index is analyzed and the cause...... of the high attenuation measured in such fibers is described as being due to scattering of light on fluctuations of the core diameter. A novel semi-empirical model for predicting the attenuation of high index fibers is presented. The model is shown to be able to predict the attenuation of high index fibers...

  16. Ultrafast all-optical NOR gate based on semiconductor optical amplifier and fiber delay interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Xinliang; Liu, Deming; Huang, Dexiu

    2006-10-01

    An ultrafast all-optical logic NOR gate based on a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a fiber delay interferometer (FDI) is presented. For high-speed input return-to-zero (RZ) signal, nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) switching windows which satisfy Boolean NOR operation can be formed by properly choosing the delay time and the phase shift of FDI. 40Gb/s NOR operation has been demonstrated successfully with low control optical power. The factors that degrade the NOR operation have been discussed.

  17. Tunable Optical Filter Based on Mechanically Induced Cascaded Long Period Optical Fiber Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita P. Ugale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed and demonstrated experimentally a novel and simple tunable optical filter based on mechanically induced and cascaded long period optical fiber gratings. In this filter variable FWHM and center wavelength is provided by cascading long period and ultralong period optical fiber gratings with different periods in a novel fiber structure. We report here for the first time to our knowledge the characterization of mechanically induced long period fiber gratings with periods up to several millimeters in novel multimode-single-mode-multimode fiber structure. We have obtained maximum loss peak of around 20 dB.

  18. Glass-based integrated optical splitters: engineering oriented research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yinlei; Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Jianyi; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Minghua

    2010-10-01

    Optical splitter is one of most typical device heavily demanded in implementation of Fiber To The Home (FTTH) system. Due to its compatibility with optical fibers, low propagation loss, flexibility, and most distinguishingly, potentially costeffectiveness, glass-based integrated optical splitters made by ion-exchange technology promise to be very attractive in application of optical communication networks. Aiming at integrated optical splitters applied in optical communication network, glass ion-exchange waveguide process is developed, which includes two steps: thermal salts ion-exchange and field-assisted ion-diffusion. By this process, high performance optical splitters are fabricated in specially melted glass substrate. Main performance parameters of these splitters, including maximum insertion loss (IL), polarization dependence loss (PDL), and IL uniformity are all in accordance with corresponding specifications in generic requirements for optic branching components (GR-1209-CORE). In this paper, glass based integrated optical splitters manufacturing is demonstrated, after which, engineering-oriented research work results on glass-based optical splitter are presented.

  19. Fiber Optic-Based Refractive Index Sensing at INESC Porto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Pedro A. S.; Silva, Susana O.; Gouveia, Carlos; Tafulo, Paula; Coelho, Luis; Caldas, Paulo; Viegas, Diana; Rego, Gaspar; Baptista, José M.; Santos, José L.; Frazão, Orlando

    2012-01-01

    A review of refractive index measurement based on different types of optical fiber sensor configurations and techniques is presented. It addresses the main developments in the area, with particular focus on results obtained at INESC Porto, Portugal. The optical fiber sensing structures studied include those based on Bragg and long period gratings, on micro-interferometers, on plasmonic effects in fibers and on multimode interference in a large spectrum of standard and microstructured optical fibers. PMID:22969405

  20. Optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, S. C.

    1985-12-01

    The technical contributions were as follows: (1) Optical parallel 2-D neighborhood processor and optical processor assessment technique; (2) High accuracy with moderately accurate components and optical fredkin gate architectures; (3) Integrated optical threshold computing, pipelined polynomial processor, and all optical analog/digital converter; (4) Adaptive optical associative memory model with attention; (5) Effectiveness of parallelism and connectivity in optical computers; (6) Optical systolic array processing using an integrated acoustooptic module; (7) Optical threshold elements and networks, holographic threshold processors, adaptive matched spatial filtering, and coherence theory in optical computing; (8) Time-varying optical processing for sub-pixel targets, optical Kalman filtering, and adaptive matched filtering; (9) Optical degrees of freedom, ultra short optical pulses, number representations, content-addressable-memory processors, and integrated optical Givens rotation devices; (10) Optical J-K flip flop analysis and interfacing for optical computers; (11) Matrix multiplication algorithms and limits of incoherent optical computers; (12) Architecture for machine vision with sensor fusion, pattern recognition functions, and neural net implementations; (13) Optical computing algorithms, architectures, and components; and (14) Dynamic optical interconnections, advantages and architectures.

  1. An Optical Pressure Sensor Based on MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Zhang; Sheng Qiang; Frank Lewis; Yalin Wu; Xiaozhu Chi

    2006-01-01

    An optical fiber pressure sensor has been developed for the measurement in human body. The sensing element is possessed of a membrane structure, which is fabricated by micromachining. The fabrication process includes anisotropic wet etching on the silicon wafer. For the transmitting source and signal light, a multimode optical fiber 50/125 μm (core/clad) in diameter was used. The intensity of the light reflected back into the fiber varies with the membrane deflection, which is a function of pressure. The deflection of the membrane by applied pressure can be mathematically described.

  2. Experimental and theoretical investigation of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based all-optical switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup

    2004-01-01

    This thesis analyzes semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based all-optical switches experimentally and through numerical simulations. These devices are candidates for optical signal processing functionalities such as wavelength conversion, regeneration, and logic processing in future transparent...... optical networks. The factors governing the modulation bandwidth of SOAs are determined, and schemes for reducing detrimental patterning effects are discussed. Three types of SOA-based switches are investigated numerically: so-called standardmode and differential-mode switches, and the filtering assisted...... switch. Differential -mode switches are shown to eliminate one contribution to the patterning effects, referred to as the linear patterning. This enables operation at bitrates far beyond the limit set by the carrier lifetime, but ultimately a saturation-induced patterning effect, nonlinear patterning...

  3. Achieving Giant Magneto-optic Effects with Optical Tamm States in Graphene-based Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Haixia; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Bao, Qiaoliang; Teng, Jinghua; Loh, Kian Ping; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    We manipulate optical Tamm states in graphene-based photonics to achieve and steer large magneto-optical effects. Here we report the presence of a giant Faraday rotation via a single graphene layer of atomic thickness while keeping a high transmission. The Faraday rotation is enhanced across the interface between two photonic crystals due to the presence of an interface mode, which presents a strong electromagnetic field confinement at the location of the graphene sheet. Our proposed scheme o...

  4. Mathematical Model of Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor Based on Optic Absorption and Experiment Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of analysis on the temperature monitoring methods for high voltage devices, a new type of fiber optic sensor structure with reference channel is given. And the operation principle of fiber optic sensor is analysed at large based on the absorption of semiconductor chip. The mathematical model of both devices and the whole system are also given. It is proved by the experiment that this mathematical model is reliable.

  5. A passive optical network based on optical code division multiplexing and time division multiple access technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A passive optical network (PON) scheme based on optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) for the downstream traffics is proposed and analyzed in detail. In the PON, the downstream traffics are broadcasted by OCDM technology to guarantee the security, while the upstream traffics pass through the same optical fiber by the common time division multiple access (TDMA) technology to decrease the cost.This schemes are denoted as OCDM/TDMA-PON, which can be applied to an optical access network (OAN) with full services on demand, such as Internet protocol, video on demand, tele-presence and high quality audio. The proposed OCDM/TDMA-PON scheme combines advantages of PON, TDMA, and OCDM technology. Simulation results indicate that the designed scheme improves the OAN performance,and enhances flexibility and scalability of the system.

  6. Large dynamic range optical vector analyzer based on optical single-sideband modulation and Hilbert transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Pan, Shilong; Zhao, Yongjiu

    2016-07-01

    A large dynamic range optical vector analyzer (OVA) based on optical single-sideband modulation is proposed and demonstrated. By dividing the optical signal after optical device under test into two paths, reversing the phase of one swept sideband using a Hilbert transformer in one path, and detecting the two signals from the two paths with a balanced photodetector, the measurement errors induced by the residual -1st-order sideband and the high-order sidebands can be eliminated and the dynamic range of the measurement is increased. In a proof-of-concept experiment, the stimulated Brillouin scattering and a fiber Bragg grating are measured by OVAs with and without the Hilbert transform and balanced photodetection. Results show that about 40-dB improvement in the measurement dynamic range is realized by the proposed OVA.

  7. Performance of laser based optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dhrupesh S.; Banerjee, Arup; Vora, Anup; Biswas, Amiya; Patel, Naimesh; Kurulkar, Amit; Dutt, Ashutosh

    2016-05-01

    Day night imaging application requires high dynamic range optical imaging system to detect targets of interest covering mid-day (>32000 Lux)[1], and moonless night ( 1mLux)[1] under clear sky- (visibility of >10km, atmospheric loss of 500m, atmospheric loss of >15dB/Km) conditions. Major governing factors for development of such camera systems are (i) covert imaging with ability to identify the target, (ii) imaging irrespective to the scene background, (iii) reliable operation , (iv) imaging capabilities in inclement weather conditions, (v) resource requirement vs availability power & mass, (vi) real-time data processing, (vii) self-calibration, and (viii) cost. Identification of optimum spectral band of interest is most important to meet these requirements. Conventional detection systems sensing in MWIR and LWIR band has certain draw backs in terms of target detection capabilities, susceptibility to background and huge thermo-mechanical resource requirement. Alternatively, range gated imaging camera system sensing in NIR/SWIR spectrum has shown significant potential to detect wide dynamic range targets. ToF Camera configured in NIR band has certain advantages in terms of Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) development with large format detectors and thermo-mechanical resource requirement compared to SWIR band camera configuration. In past, ToF camera systems were successfully configured in NIR spectrum using silicon based Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD), Intensifier CCD (ICCD) along with Gating device and pulsed laser source having emission in between 800nm to 900nm. However, these systems have a very low dynamic range and not suitable for clear sky mid-day conditions. Recently silicon based scientific grade CMOS image sensors have shown significant improvement in terms of high NIR responsivity and available in bigger formats (5MP or more), adequate Full well capacity for day time imaging (>30Ke), very low readout noise (<2e) required for night imaging and higher frame

  8. Photodiode Based Detection for Multiple Trap Optical Tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Dino

    This thesis is concerned with the position tracking of microscopic, optically trapped particles and the quantification of the forces acting on them. A new detection method for simultaneous, three-dimensional tracking of multiple particles is presented, its performance is evaluated, and its...... usefulness is illustrated in specific application examples. Optical traps enable contact-less, all-optical manipulation of microscopic objects. Over the last decades, this laser-based micro-manipulation tool has facilitated numerous exciting discoveries within biology and physics, and it is today regarded...... as one of the workhorses of biophysical research. There exists a variety of implementations of optical traps, from simple single traps to complex multiple traps with engineered three-dimensional light fields. In comparison to single beam optical traps, multiple beam optical traps offer more freedom...

  9. Nanofiber-based all-optical switches

    CERN Document Server

    Kien, Fam Le

    2016-01-01

    We study all-optical switches operating on a single four-level atom with the $N$-type transition configuration in a two-mode nanofiber cavity with a significant length (on the order of $20$ mm) and a moderate finesse (on the order of 300) under the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) conditions. In our model, the gate and probe fields are the quantum nanofiber-cavity fields excited by weak classical light pulses, and the parameters of the $D_2$ line of atomic cesium are used. We examine two different switching schemes. The first scheme is based on the effect of the presence of a photon in the gate mode on the EIT of the probe mode. The second scheme is based on the use of EIT to store a photon of the gate mode in the population of an appropriate atomic level, which leads to the reduction of the transmission of the field in the probe mode. We investigate the dependencies of the switching contrast on various parameters, such as the cavity length, the mirror reflectivity, and the detunings and powers ...

  10. Quantum stream cipher based on optical communications

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, O; Sohma, M; Usuda, T S; Harasawa, K; Hirota, Osamu; Kato, Kentaro; Sohma, Masaki; Usuda, Tsuyoshi S.; Harasawa, Katsuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, an attractive new quantum cryptography was discovered by H.P.Yuen based on quantum communication theory. It is applicable to direct encryption, for example quantum stream cipher based on Yuen protocol(Y-00), with high speeds and for long distance by sophisticated optical devices which can work under the average photon number per signal light pulse:$ = 1000 \\sim 10000$. In addition, it may provide information-theoretic security against known/chosen plaintext attack, which has no classical analogue. That is, one can provide secure communication, even the system has $H(K) << H(X)$. In this paper, first, we give a brief review on the general logic of Yuen's theory. Then, we show concrete security analysis of quantum stream cipher to quantum individual measurement attacks. Especially by showing the analysis of Lo-Ko known plaintext attack, the feature of Y-00 is clarified. In addition, we give a simple experimental result on the advantage distillation by scheme consisting of intensity modulation/dir...

  11. Optical fiber gas sensing system based on FBG filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shutao

    2008-10-01

    An optical fiber gas sensing system based on the law of Beer-Lambert is designed to determine the concentration of gas. This technique relies on the fact that the target gas has a unique, well-defined absorption characteristic within the infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum. The narrow-band filtering characteristic of optical fiber Bragg grating is used to produce the narrow spectrum light signal. An aspheric objective optical fiber collimator is used in the system as an optical fiber gas sensing detector to improve the sensitivity and stability. Experimental results show there is a high measuring sensitivity at 0.01%, and the measuring range goes beyond 5%.

  12. All-optical pseudorandom bit sequences generator based on TOADs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenchao; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Chongqing; Wang, Fu; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    A scheme for all-optical pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS) generator is demonstrated with optical logic gate 'XNOR' and all-optical wavelength converter based on cascaded Tera-Hertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOADs). Its feasibility is verified by generation of return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) 263-1 PRBS at the speed of 1 Gb/s with 10% duty radio. The high randomness of ultra-long cycle PRBS is validated by successfully passing the standard benchmark test.

  13. A Passive Optical Fiber Current Sensor Based on YIG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Shao; Wen Liu; Cui-Qing Liu; Duan Xu

    2008-01-01

    A research on passive optical fiber current sensor based on magneto-optical crystal and a new design of light path of the sensor head are presented. Both methods of dual-channel optical detection of the polarization state of the output light and signal processing are proposed. Signal processing can obtain the linear output of the current measurement of the wire more conveniently. Theoretical analysis on the magneto-optical fiber current sensor is given, followed by experiments. After that, further analysis is made according to the results, which leads to clarifying the exiting problems and their placements.

  14. Fourier optics analysis of phase-mask-based path-length-multiplexed optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Biwei; Dwelle, Jordan; Wang, Bingqing; Wang, Tianyi; Feldman, Marc D; Rylander, Henry G; Milner, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that constructs a depth-resolved image by measuring the optical path-length difference between broadband light backscattered from a sample and a reference surface. For many OCT sample arm optical configurations, sample illumination and backscattered light detection share a common path. When a phase mask is placed in the sample path, features in the detected signal are observed, which suggests that an analysis of a generic common path OCT imaging system is warranted. In this study, we present a Fourier optics analysis using a Fresnel diffraction approximation of an OCT system with a path-length-multiplexing element (PME) inserted in the sample arm optics. The analysis may be generalized for most phase-mask-based OCT systems. A radial-angle-diverse PME is analyzed in detail, and the point spread function, coherent transfer function, sensitivity of backscattering angular diversity detection, and signal formation in terms of sample spatial frequency are simulated and discussed. The analysis reveals important imaging features and application limitations of OCT imaging systems with a phase mask in the sample path optics.

  15. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... containing systems and are characterized using techniques in optical spectroscopy. Of the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy, particular attention has been paid to those based on time-resolved measurements and polarization, which is reflected in the experiment design in the projects. Not all...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  16. Slow light based optical frequency shifter

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qian; Thuresson, Axel; Nilsson, Adam N; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a controllable way of shifting the frequency of an optical pulse by using a combination of spectral hole burning, slow light effect, and linear Stark effect in a rare-earth-ion doped crystal. We claim that the solid angle of acceptance of a frequency shift structure can be close to $2\\pi$, which means that the frequency shifter could work not only for optical pulses propagating in a specific spatial mode but also for randomly scattered light. As the frequency shift is controlled solely by an external electric field, it works also for weak coherent light fields, and can e.g. be used as a frequency shifter for quantum memory devices in quantum communication.

  17. Enzyme-Based Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Camins, Irene; Angel, Stanley M.

    1988-06-01

    Fiber optic chemical sensors capable of detecting glucose and penicillin were developed. Each consists of a polymer membrane that is covalently attached to the tip of a glass optical fiber. The membrane contains the enzyme and a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (fluorescein). A signal is produced when the enzyme catalyzes the conversion of the analyte (glucose or penicillin) into a product (gluconic or penicilloic acid, respectively) that lowers the microenvironmental pH of the membrane and, consequently, lowers the fluorescence intensity of the dye. Each sensor is capable of responding to analyte concentrations in the range of ~0.1 to 100 mM. The penicillin optrode response time is 40 to 60 s while that for glucose is ~5 to 12 min.

  18. Optical Flow based Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlouche Souhila

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.

  19. Microresonator-based optical frequency combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenberg, T J; Holzwarth, R; Diddams, S A

    2011-04-29

    The series of precisely spaced, sharp spectral lines that form an optical frequency comb is enabling unprecedented measurement capabilities and new applications in a wide range of topics that include precision spectroscopy, atomic clocks, ultracold gases, and molecular fingerprinting. A new optical frequency comb generation principle has emerged that uses parametric frequency conversion in high resonance quality factor (Q) microresonators. This approach provides access to high repetition rates in the range of 10 to 1000 gigahertz through compact, chip-scale integration, permitting an increased number of comb applications, such as in astronomy, microwave photonics, or telecommunications. We review this emerging area and discuss opportunities that it presents for novel technologies as well as for fundamental science.

  20. Optical microscopic imaging based on VRML language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuedian; Zhang, Zhenyi; Sun, Jun

    2009-11-01

    As so-called VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language), is a kind of language used to establish a model of the real world or a colorful world made by people. As in international standard, VRML is the main kind of program language based on the "www" net building, which is defined by ISO, the kind of MIME is x-world or x-VRML. The most important is that it has no relationship with the operating system. Otherwise, because of the birth of VRML 2.0, its ability of describing the dynamic condition gets better, and the interaction of the internet evolved too. The use of VRML will bring a revolutionary change of confocal microscope. For example, we could send different kinds of swatch in virtual 3D style to the net. On the other hand, scientists in different countries could use the same microscope in the same time to watch the same samples by the internet. The mode of sending original data in the model of text has many advantages, such as: the faster transporting, the fewer data, the more convenient updating and fewer errors. In the following words we shall discuss the basic elements of using VRML in the field of Optical Microscopic imaging.

  1. Optical correlation recognition based on LCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingchuan; Wu, Jianhong

    2013-08-01

    Vander-Lugt correlator[1] plays an important role in optical pattern recognition due to the characteristics of accurate positioning and high signal-to-noise ratio. The ideal Vander-Lugt correlator should have the ability of outputting strong and sharp correlation peak in allusion to the true target, in the existing Spatial Light Modulators[2], Liquid Crystal On Silicon(LCOS) has been the most competitive candidate for the matched filter owing to the continuous phase modulation peculiarity. Allowing for the distortions of the target to be identified including rotations, scaling changes, perspective changes, which can severely impact the correlation recognition results, herein, we present a modified Vander-Lugt correlator based on the LCOS by means of applying an iterative algorithm to the design of the filter so that the correlator can invariant to the distortions while maintaining good performance. The results of numerical simulation demonstrate that the filter could get the similar recognition results for all the training images. And the experiment shows that the modified correlator achieves the 180° rotating tolerance significantly improving the recognition efficiency of the correlator.

  2. Simple nonlinear interferometer-based all-optical thresholder and its applications for optical CDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Konstantin; Prucnal, Paul R; Bubnov, Mikhail M

    2007-10-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of an ultrafast all-optical thresholder based on a nonlinear Sagnac interferometer. The proposed design is intended for operation at very small nonlinear phase shifts. Therefore, it requires an in-loop nonlinearity lower than for the classical nonlinear loop mirror scheme. Only 15 meters of conventional (non-holey) silica-based fiber is used as a nonlinear element. The proposed thresholder is polarization insensitive and is good for multi-wavelength operation, meeting all the requirements for autocorrelation detection in various optical CDMA communication systems. The observed cubic transfer function is superior to the quadratic transfer function of second harmonic generation-based thresholders.

  3. Recombinant Reflectin-Based Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoroiso- propanol (HFIP), the ionic liquid , 1-butyl-3-methylimidazo- lium chloride (BMIM), and SDS. SDS solubility suggested a...the combination of a Deuterium lamp and a Halogen lamp, providing a wave- length range of 400–1100 nm. The resolution of the spec- trometer was 1 nm...reflectin thin films was changed by dipping the sample in liquid .11 Here we present more quantitative characteriza- tion of optical responses of

  4. Optimization-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics for multiphoton microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonello, J.; Werkhoven, T. van; Verhaegen, M.; Truong, H.H.; Keller, C.U.; Gerritsen, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Optical aberrations have detrimental effects in multiphoton microscopy. These effects can be curtailed by implementing model-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics, which only requires the addition of a wavefront shaping device, such as a deformable mirror (DM) to an existing microscope. The abe

  5. Phosphorus-based compounds for EUV multilayer optics materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, V.V.; Yakshin, A.E.; Kruijs, van de R.W.E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated the prospects of phosphorus-based compounds in extreme ultraviolet multilayer optics. Boron phosphide (BP) is suggested to be used as a spacer material in reflective multilayer optics operating just above the L-photoabsorption edge of P (λ ≈9.2 nm). Mo, Ag, Ru, Rh, and Pd were cons

  6. Optical correlation based on the fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, S; Arizaga, R; Sicre, E E

    1997-09-10

    Some properties of optical correlation based on the fractional Fourier transform are analyzed. For a particular set of fractional orders, a filter is obtained that becomes insensitive to scale variations of the object. An optical configuration is also proposed to carry out the fractional correlation in a flexible way, and some experimental results are shown.

  7. Ring-based All-Optical Datacenter Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Berger, Michael Stübert; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2015-01-01

    Ring-based generic network architecture for all-optical datacenters is proposed, offering highly scalable interconnection network with reduced cabling complexity. Simulations show improved performance compared to all-optical fat-tree datacenter architecture with 40%-99% improved connection request...

  8. Optical carrier-based microwave interferometers for sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Lan, Xinwei; Wang, Hanzheng; Yuan, Lei; Xiao, Hai

    2014-06-01

    Optical fiber interferometers (OFIs) have been extensively utilized for precise measurements of various physical/chemical quantities (e.g., temperature, strain, pressure, rotation, refractive index, etc.). However, the random change of polarization states along the optical fibers and the strong dependence on the materials and geometries of the optical waveguides are problematic for acquiring high quality interference signal. Meanwhile, difficulty in multiplexing has always been a bottleneck on the application scopes of OFIs. Here, we present a sensing concept of optical carrier based microwave interferometry (OCMI) by reading optical interferometric sensors in microwave domain. It combines the advantages from both optics and microwave. The low oscillation frequency of the microwave can hardly distinguish the optical differences from both modal and polarization dispersion making it insensitive to the optical waveguides/materials. The phase information of the microwave can be unambiguitly resolved so that it has potential in fully distributed sensing. The OCMI concept has been implemented in different types of interferometers (i.e., Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Fabry-Perot) among different optical waveguides (i.e., singlemode, multimode, and sapphire fibers) with excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and low polarization dependence. A spatially continuous distributed strain sensing has been demonstrated.

  9. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: An update of clinical demonstrations with the Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Mourant, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bohorfoush, A. [Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. Our clinical studies have expanded since the last Biomedical Optics Europe conference (Budapest, September 1993), and we report here on the latest results of clinical tests in gastrointestinal tract. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. The OBS employs a small fiberoptic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination. The probe is designed to be used in optical contact with the tissue under examination and has separate illuminating and collecting fibers. Thus, the light that is collected and transmitted to the analyzing spectrometer must first scatter through a small volume of the tissue before entering the collection fiber(s). Consequently, the system is also sensitive to the optical absorption spectrum of the tissue, over an effective operating range of <300 to 950 nm, and such absorption adds valuable complexity to the scattering spectral signature.

  10. Gabor-based fusion technique for Optical Coherence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Jannick P; Meemon, Panomsak; Murali, Supraja; Thompson, Kevin P; Lee, Kye-sung

    2010-02-15

    We recently reported on an Optical Coherence Microscopy technique, whose innovation intrinsically builds on a recently reported - 2 microm invariant lateral resolution by design throughout a 2 mm cubic full-field of view - liquid-lens-based dynamic focusing optical probe [Murali et al., Optics Letters 34, 145-147, 2009]. We shall report in this paper on the image acquisition enabled by this optical probe when combined with an automatic data fusion method developed and described here to produce an in-focus high resolution image throughout the imaging depth of the sample. An African frog tadpole (Xenopus laevis) was imaged with the novel probe and the Gabor-based fusion technique, demonstrating subcellular resolution in a 0.5 mm (lateral) x 0.5 mm (axial) without the need, for the first time, for x-y translation stages, depth scanning, high-cost adaptive optics, or manual intervention. In vivo images of human skin are also presented.

  11. Optimize Etching Based Single Mode Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of etching process for fabrication single mode optical fiber sensors. The process of fabrication demonstrates an optimized etching based method to fabricate single mode fiber (SMF optic sensors in specified constant time and temperature. We propose a single mode optical fiber based temperature sensor, where the temperature sensing region is obtained by etching its cladding diameter over small length to a critical value. It is observed that the light transmission through etched fiber at 1550 nm wavelength optical source becomes highly temperature sensitive, compared to the temperature insensitive behavior observed in un-etched fiber for the range on 30ºC to 100ºC at 1550 nm. The sensor response under temperature cycling is repeatable and, proposed to be useful for low frequency analogue signal transmission over optical fiber by means of inline thermal modulation approach.

  12. An optical FSK transmitter based on an integrated DFB laser-EA modulator and its application in optical labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Chi, Nan; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva;

    2003-01-01

    An optical frequency-shift-keying (FSK) transmitter based on an integrated distributed feedback laser-electroabsorption modulator is proposed and demonstrated. The feasibility of its application in optical labeling is also validated by the experimental results. The generated optical signal, consi...

  13. Dynamics of dual-polarization VCSEL-based optical frequency combs under optical injection locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, E; de Dios, C; Criado, R; Ortsiefer, M; Meissner, P; Acedo, P

    2016-09-01

    The present experimental work studies the dynamics of dual-polarization optical frequency combs (OFCs) based on gain switching (GS) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes under optical injection locking (OIL). This study presents two main results. First, we have obtained an overall comb formed by two orthogonally polarized sub-combs with comparable span and power. The overall comb shows enhanced optical span and flatness and high coherence between its modes. The second result is that we have been able to control the polarization state of the overall comb by tuning the polarization state of the injected light by locking the same single teeth of the comb. This produces an overall comb with single polarization that is parallel or orthogonal. These are novel findings that provide for the development of efficient and compact OFCs based on GS VCSEL sources with versatile polarization dynamics.

  14. Demonstration of optical computing logics based on binary decision diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiyun; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi

    2012-01-16

    Optical circuits are low power consumption and fast speed alternatives for the current information processing based on transistor circuits. However, because of no transistor function available in optics, the architecture for optical computing should be chosen that optics prefers. One of which is Binary Decision Diagram (BDD), where signal is processed by sending an optical signal from the root through a serial of switching nodes to the leaf (terminal). Speed of optical computing is limited by either transmission time of optical signals from the root to the leaf or switching time of a node. We have designed and experimentally demonstrated 1-bit and 2-bit adders based on the BDD architecture. The switching nodes are silicon ring resonators with a modulation depth of 10 dB and the states are changed by the plasma dispersion effect. The quality, Q of the rings designed is 1500, which allows fast transmission of signal, e.g., 1.3 ps calculated by a photon escaping time. A total processing time is thus analyzed to be ~9 ps for a 2-bit adder and would scales linearly with the number of bit. It is two orders of magnitude faster than the conventional CMOS circuitry, ~ns scale of delay. The presented results show the potential of fast speed optical computing circuits.

  15. All-Optical Ultra-High-Speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM Conversion Based on Complete Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel all-optical ultra-high-speed orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) to Nyquist wavelength-division multiplexing (Nyquist-WDM) conversion scheme, achieved by exchanging the temporal and spectral profiles using a complete optical Fourier transformation (OFT). This scheme...... enables high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion without complex optical/electrical/optical conversion. The all-optical OFDM transmitter is based on the generation of OFDM symbols with a low duty cycle by rectangular temporal gating, which in combination with optical time-division multiplexing yields...... a higher symbol-rate OFDM signal. In the receiver, the converted Nyquist-WDM super-channel is WDM demultiplexed into individual Nyquist-WDM channels using a rectangular optical bandpass filter, followed by optical sampling at the intersymbol-interference free point. In the experimental demonstration...

  16. Improved optical amplification using metamaterial based split ring structures in optical fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Geetha; Nigam, Raaghvam; Das, Sovan; Chellappa, Sharath

    2016-04-01

    Optical fibres provide the best solutions for transmitting high speed, large amounts of data with good power efficiency. However such transmission would also need amplification for transmission over large distances. Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifiers(EDFAs) are currently being used for optical amplification. But good amplification is achievable with multiple stages and considerable length of EDFA fibres. In this paper we compare the use of Silver Split Ring Resonators(SRRs) , Gold Nano Rods and Silver Fishnet structures which give metamaterial properties to be used in optical fibres to give better amplification than EDFA based fibres. Metamaterials belong to a new class of materials with negative values for permittivity and permeability. Such materials would exhibit negative refractive index leading to these materials being called as left handed media.If such left handed media have an internal structure made of dimensions much smaller than the wavelength but sufficiently thick to exhibit bulk properties, using other optical domains such as plasmonics, it is possible to control light interactions and propagation. Artificial structures smaller than the wavelength of light can be used to enhance electric and magnetic fields. Surface plasmons can be excited on a metal and this can enhance the electric field at the surface. Our paper proposes the use of this phenomenon of achieving gain at optical frequencies by using SRRs, Fishnet structures , Nano Rods. We compare the performance of these structures and observe that they provide gain which is much more than that provided by EDFAs.

  17. Spectrally encoded common-path fiber-optic-based parallel optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kye-Sung; Hur, Hwan; Sung, Ha-Young; Kim, I Jong; Kim, Geon-Hee

    2016-09-15

    We demonstrate a fiber-optic-based parallel optical coherence tomography (OCT) using spectrally encoded extended illumination with a common-path handheld probe, where the flexibility and robustness of the system are significantly improved, which is critical in the clinical environment. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first parallel OCT based on fiber optics including a fiber coupler with a sensitivity of 94 dB, which is comparable to that of point-scanning OCT. We also investigated the effect of the phase stability of the fiber-based interferometry on the parallel OCT system by comparing the common-path OCT with two-arm OCT. Using the homemade common-path handheld probe based on a Mirau interferometer, the phase stability was 32 times better than that of the two-arm OCT. The axial resolution of the common-path OCT was measured as 5.1±0.3  μm. To demonstrate the in vivo imaging performance of the fiber-optic-based parallel OCT, human skin was imaged.

  18. A novel optical transmission link with DHT-based constant envelope optical OFDM signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianxin; Liang, Hao

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a novel optical OFDM transmission link that takes advantages of discrete Hartley Transform (DHT) and constant envelope (CE) modulation, obtaining DHT-based constant envelope optical OFDM. The numerical results show that this design achieves better performance when compared with conventional O-OFDM in terms of bit error rate (BER) and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). The impact of phase modulation index (PMI) on both PAPR and noise tolerance is investigated. Since the scheme has simplified design, it is believed to be a cost-effective in the practical implement.

  19. Compact MEMS-based Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Zawadzki, R; Evans, J; Choi, S; Werner, J

    2008-02-04

    We describe a compact MEMS-based adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography system with improved AO performance and ease of clinical use. A typical AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror that measures and corrects the ocular and system aberrations. Because of the limitation on the current deformable mirror technologies, the amount of real-time ocular-aberration compensation is restricted and small in the previous AO-OCT instruments. In this instrument, we proposed to add an optical apparatus to correct the spectacle aberrations of the patients such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This eliminated the tedious process of the trial lenses in clinical imaging. Different amount of spectacle aberration compensation was achieved by motorized stages and automated with the AO computer for ease of clinical use. In addition, the compact AO-OCT was optimized to have minimum system aberrations to reduce AO registration errors and improve AO performance.

  20. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  1. All-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Li; Huang, Lirong, E-mail: lrhuang@hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2015-07-07

    The newly introduced metamaterial-based optical circuit, an analogue of electronic circuit, is becoming a forefront topic in the fields of electronics, optics, plasmonics, and metamaterials. However, metals, as the commonly used plasmonic elements in an optical circuit, suffer from large losses at the visible and infrared wavelengths. We propose here a low-loss, all-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale by using interleaved intrinsic GaAs and doped GaAs, and present the detailed design process for various lumped optical circuit elements, including lumped optical inductors, optical capacitors, optical conductors, and optical insulators. By properly combining these optical circuit elements and arranging anisotropic optical connectors, we obtain a subwavelength optical filter, which can always hold band-stop filtering function for various polarization states of the incident electromagnetic wave. All-semiconductor optical circuits may provide a new opportunity in developing low-power and ultrafast components and devices for optical information processing.

  2. Optical Picosecond MCPI-Based Imagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckles, R. A.; guyton, R. L.; Ross, P. W.

    2012-08-14

    We report on the design, construction, and initial test results of a custom MCPI design which incorporates a wideband strip transmission line drive structure. A special 16:1 series transmission-line-transformer (STLT) is utilized to distribute the drive signal from a 50-ohm, 1.85 mm coaxial vacuum feedthrough to a 3-ohm strip across the MCP. Transformer circuit material is a flexible Teflon/Kapton laminate for minimal loss and dispersion. A novel vialess multilayer structure composed of embedded, symmetrical strips, preserves ideal impulse response. Impedance matched interfaces and transitions are designed with method of moments, empirical codes, and finite element analysis. Millimeter-wave time-domain reflectometer and vector network analyzer measurements are presented, with comparison to time-domain and swept frequency 3D finite element simulation. Gain compression is expected to produce a 20 ps optical impulse response, dominated by the leaded MCP glass dielectric dispersion. Follow-on work will complete the optical impulse response tests, and extrapolation to more expensive silicon MCP and 1-mm feedthroughs promises an impulse response of 5 ps.

  3. Picosecond optical MCPI-based imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Guyton, Robert L.; Ross, Patrick W.

    2012-10-01

    We present the desired performance specifications for an advanced optical imager, which borrows practical concepts in high-speed microchannel plate (MCP) intensified x-ray stripline imagers and time-dilation techniques. With a four-fold speed improvement in state-of-the-art high-voltage impulse drivers, and novel atomic-layer deposition MCPs, we tender a design capable of 5 ps optical gating without the use of magnetic field confinement of the photoelectrons. We analyze the electron dispersion effects in the MCP and their implications for gating pulses shorter than the MCP transit time. We present a wideband design printed-circuit version of the Series Transmission Line Transformer (STLT) that makes use of 50-ohm coaxial 1.0 mm (110 GHz) and 1.85 mm (65 GHz) hermetically sealed vacuum feedthroughs and low-dispersion Teflon/Kapton circuit materials without the use of any vias. The STLT matches impedance at all interfaces with a 16:1 impedance (4:1 voltage) reduction, and delivers a dispersion-limited sharp impulse to the MCP strip. A comparison of microstrip design calculations is given, showing variances between method of moments, empirical codes, and finite element methods for broad, low-impedance traces. Prototype performance measurements are forthcoming.

  4. Optical-frequency-comb based ultrasound sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Ogura, Takashi; Masuoka, Takashi; Hase, Eiji; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Yamaoka, Yoshihisa; Minoshima, Kaoru; Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    Photo-acoustic imaging is a promising modality for deep tissue imaging with high spatial resolution in the field of biology and medicine. High penetration depth and spatial resolution of the photo-acoustic imaging is achieved by means of the advantages of optical and ultrasound imaging, i.e. tightly focused beam confines ultrasound-generated region within micrometer scale and the ultrasound can propagate through tissues without significant energy loss. To enhance the detection sensitivity and penetration depth of the photo-acoustic imaging, highly sensitive ultrasound detector is greatly desired. In this study, we proposed a novel ultrasound detector employing optical frequency comb (OFC) cavity. Ultrasound generated by the excitation of tightly focused laser beam onto a sample was sensed with a part of an OFC cavity, being encoded into OFC. The spectrally encoded OFC was converted to radio-frequency by the frequency link nature of OFC. The ultrasound-encoded radio-frequency can therefore be directly measured with a high-speed photodetector. We constructed an OFC cavity for ultrasound sensing with a ring-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser. We provided a proof-of-principle demonstration of the detection of ultrasound that was generated by a transducer operating at 10 MHz. Our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for detecting ultrasounds for photo-acoustic imaging in the future.

  5. Tunable laser optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ

    2015-01-01

    This Second Edition of a bestselling book describes the optics and optical principles needed to build lasers. It also highlights the optics instrumentation necessary to characterize laser emissions and focuses on laser-based optical instrumentation. The book emphasizes practical and utilitarian aspects of relevant optics including the essential theory. This revised, expanded, and improved edition contains new material on tunable lasers and discusses relevant topics in quantum optics.

  6. Cascaded Optical Buffer Based on Nonlinear Polarization Rotation in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Mu; WU Chong-Qing; LIU Hua

    2008-01-01

    A cascaded buffer based on nonlinear polarization rotation in semiconductor optical amplifiers is proposed, which is suitable for fast reconfiguration of buffering time at picoseconds. With the proposed buffer, sixty different buffer times are demonstrated at 2.5 Gb/s.

  7. Complete all-optical processing polarization-based binary logic gates and optical processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Y A; Zaghloul, A R M

    2006-10-16

    We present a complete all-optical-processing polarization-based binary-logic system, by which any logic gate or processor can be implemented. Following the new polarization-based logic presented in [Opt. Express 14, 7253 (2006)], we develop a new parallel processing technique that allows for the creation of all-optical-processing gates that produce a unique output either logic 1 or 0 only once in a truth table, and those that do not. This representation allows for the implementation of simple unforced OR, AND, XOR, XNOR, inverter, and more importantly NAND and NOR gates that can be used independently to represent any Boolean expression or function. In addition, the concept of a generalized gate is presented which opens the door for reconfigurable optical processors and programmable optical logic gates. Furthermore, the new design is completely compatible with the old one presented in [Opt. Express 14, 7253 (2006)], and with current semiconductor based devices. The gates can be cascaded, where the information is always on the laser beam. The polarization of the beam, and not its intensity, carries the information. The new methodology allows for the creation of multiple-input-multiple-output processors that implement, by itself, any Boolean function, such as specialized or non-specialized microprocessors. Three all-optical architectures are presented: orthoparallel optical logic architecture for all known and unknown binary gates, singlebranch architecture for only XOR and XNOR gates, and the railroad (RR) architecture for polarization optical processors (POP). All the control inputs are applied simultaneously leading to a single time lag which leads to a very-fast and glitch-immune POP. A simple and easy-to-follow step-by-step algorithm is provided for the POP, and design reduction methodologies are briefly discussed. The algorithm lends itself systematically to software programming and computer-assisted design. As examples, designs of all binary gates, multiple

  8. Recent Advancements in Semiconductor-based Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M L; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching....

  9. Helium-3 Microscopic Optical Model Potential Based on Skyrme Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The helium-3 microscopic optical potential is obtained by Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The reaction cross

  10. A Compact, Waveguide Based Programmable Optical Comb Generator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase I STTR effort will establish the feasibility of developing a compact broadband near to mid-IR programmable optical comb for use in laser based remote...

  11. Characterization of optical strain sensors based on silicon waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, W.J.; Pozo Torres, J.M.; Muilwijk, P.M.; Leinders, S.M.; Harmsma, P.J.; Tabak, E.; Dool, T.C. van den; Dongen, K.W.A. van; Yousefi, M.; Urbach, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Strain gauges are widely employed in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for sensing of, for example, deformation, acceleration, pressure, or sound [1]. Such gauges are typically based on electronic piezoresistivity. We propose integrated optical sensors which have particular benefits: insensitivi

  12. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  13. Optic axis determination by fibre-based polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Zenghai; Kasaragod, Deepa K; Matcher, Stephen J, E-mail: z.lu@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: s.j.matcher@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, North Campus, Broad Lane, Sheffield, S3 7HQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-21

    We describe a fibre-based variable-incidence angle (VIA) polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (PS-SS-OCT) system to determine the 3D optical axis of birefringent biological tissues. Single-plane VIA-PS-OCT is also explored which requires measurement of the absolute fast-axis orientation. A state-of-the-art PS-SS-OCT system with some improvements both in hardware and software was used to determine the apparent optical birefringence of equine tendon for a number of different illumination directions. Polar and azimuthal angles of cut equine tendon were produced by the VIA method and compared with the nominal values. A quarter waveplate (QWP) and equine tendon were used as test targets to validate the fast-axis measurements using the system. Polar and azimuthal angles of cut equine tendon broadly agreed with the expected values within about 8% of the nominal values. A theoretical and experimental analysis of the effect of the sample arm fibre on determination of optical axis orientation using a proposed definition based on the orientation of the eigenpolarization ellipse experimentally confirms that this algorithm only works correctly for special settings of the sample arm fibre. A proposed algorithm based on the angle between Stokes vectors on the Poincare sphere is confirmed to work for all settings of the sample arm fibre. A calibration procedure is proposed to remove the sign ambiguity of the measured orientation and was confirmed experimentally by using the QWP.

  14. Optical inclinometer based on fibre-taper-modal Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, L. M. N.; Frazão, O.; Santos, J. L.; Lobo Ribeiro, A. B.

    2010-09-01

    An inclinometer sensor based on optical fibre-taper-modal Michelson interferometer is demonstrated. The magnitude of the tilt (bending angle of the fibre taper interferometer) is obtained by passive interferometric interrogation based on the generation of two quadrature phase-shifted signals from two fibre Bragg gratings. Optical phase-to-rotation sensitivity of 1.13 rad/degree with a 14 mrad/√Hz resolution is achieved.

  15. Optically-Based Diagnostics for Gas-Phase Laser Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Phase Laser Development Acknowledgement of Support and Disclaimer This material is based upon work supported by Air Force Office of Scientific...00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optically-Based Diagnostics for Gas-Phase Laser Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Sciences Inc. Role of Optical Diagnostics in High Energy Gas Laser Development  Chemically rich, energetic, reacting flow with competing phenomena

  16. Dynamically reconfigurable multiple beam illumination based on optical correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2009-01-01

    We adapt concepts from optical correlation and optical pattern recognition to propose a method for generating reconfigurable multiple spots with high efficiency. The generated spots correspond to the correlation spikes in optical pattern recognition. In pattern recognition, optimizing the correla...

  17. Ultrafast optical signal processing on silicon-based platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2016-03-01

    The development of silicon - based photonic components and systems has advanced tremendously over the last decade, largely for applications in optical interconnects. The role of silicon - based platforms for both linear and nonlinear optics remains highly pertinent because of their ability to be integrated with CMOS - based electronics. In this paper, we present recent research progress pertaining to ultrafast optical signal processing on silicon - based platforms. Advances in on - chip multiplexing strategies with the potential for meeting 200GHz dense wavelength division multiplexing standards across the C - and L - bands will be discussed. In addition, the development of a silicon - based nonlinear optics platform with high nonlinear figures of merit will be presented. Nonlinear optical devices fabricated from the developed platform possess nonlinear parameters 500 times larger than that in silicon nitride waveguides, while possessing negligible nonlinear losses at 1.55μm. Ultra - broadband, low power nonlinear wavelength generation using these devices, as well as their potential for realizing advanced light sources for optical interconnect - based applications will be presented.

  18. Photodiode Based Detection for Multiple Trap Optical Tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Dino

    This thesis is concerned with the position tracking of microscopic, optically trapped particles and the quantification of the forces acting on them. A new detection method for simultaneous, three-dimensional tracking of multiple particles is presented, its performance is evaluated, and its...... usefulness is illustrated in specific application examples. Optical traps enable contact-less, all-optical manipulation of microscopic objects. Over the last decades, this laser-based micro-manipulation tool has facilitated numerous exciting discoveries within biology and physics, and it is today regarded...

  19. Distributed optical fiber dynamic magnetic field sensor based on magnetostriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Ali; Newson, Trevor P

    2014-05-01

    A distributed optical fiber sensor is introduced which is capable of quantifying multiple magnetic fields along a 1 km sensing fiber with a spatial resolution of 1 m. The operation of the proposed sensor is based on measuring the magnetorestrictive induced strain of a nickel wire attached to an optical fiber. The strain coupled to the optical fiber was detected by measuring the strain-induced phase variation between the backscattered Rayleigh light from two segments of the sensing fiber. A magnetic field intensity resolution of 0.3 G over a bandwidth of 50-5000 Hz was demonstrated.

  20. An optical CDMA system based on chaotic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-lei; En, De; Wang, Li-guo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a coherent asynchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is proposed, whose encoder/decoder is an all-optical generator. This all-optical generator can generate analog and bipolar chaotic sequences satisfying the logistic maps. The formula of bit error rate (BER) is derived, and the relationship of BER and the number of simultaneous transmissions is analyzed. Due to the good property of correlation, this coherent OCDMA system based on these bipolar chaotic sequences can support a large number of simultaneous users, which shows that these chaotic sequences are suitable for asynchronous OCDMA system.

  1. CODEX optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabre, Bernard; Manescau, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    CODEX is a high resolution spectrograph for the ESO E-ELT. A classical spectrograph can only achieve a resolution of about 120.000 on a 42 m telescope with extremely large echelle gratings and cameras. This paper describes in detail the optical concept of CODEX, which uses only optical elements size similar to those in current high resolution spectrographs. This design is based on slicers, anamorphic beams and slanted VPHG as cross dispersers. In this new version of the CODEX design, no special expensive materials as calcium fluoride or abnormal dispersion glasses are needed. The optical quality is excellent and compatible with 10K x 10K detectors with 10 μm pixels.

  2. Analysis of offset error for segmented micro-structure optical element based on optical diffraction theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinyan; Wu, Shibin; Yang, Wei; Wang, Lihua

    2016-10-01

    Micro-structure optical elements are gradually applied in modern optical system due to their characters such as light weight, replicating easily, high diffraction efficiency and many design variables. Fresnel lens is a typical micro-structure optical element. So in this paper we take Fresnel lens as base of research. Analytic solution to the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the segmented Fresnel lens is derived based on the theory of optical diffraction, and the mathematical simulation model is established. Then we take segmented Fresnel lens with 5 pieces of sub-mirror as an example. In order to analyze the influence of different offset errors on the system's far-field image quality, we obtain the analytic solution to PSF of the system under the condition of different offset errors by using Fourier-transform. The result shows the translation error along XYZ axis and tilt error around XY axis will introduce phase errors which affect the imaging quality of system. The translation errors along XYZ axis constitute linear relationship with corresponding phase errors and the tilt errors around XY axis constitute trigonometric function relationship with corresponding phase errors. In addition, the standard deviations of translation errors along XY axis constitute quadratic nonlinear relationship with system's Strehl ratio. Finally, the tolerances of different offset errors are obtained according to Strehl Criteria.

  3. Optical microsystems based on a nanomaterial technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Stefano, L [National Council of Research-Institute for Microelectronic and Microsystems-Department of Naples, Via P Castellino 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Rotiroti, L [National Council of Research-Institute for Microelectronic and Microsystems-Department of Naples, Via P Castellino 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Rea, I [National Council of Research-Institute for Microelectronic and Microsystems-Department of Naples, Via P Castellino 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Iodice, M [National Council of Research-Institute for Microelectronic and Microsystems-Department of Naples, Via P Castellino 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Rendina, I [National Council of Research-Institute for Microelectronic and Microsystems-Department of Naples, Via P Castellino 111, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    In this work, we present an optical sensor for quantitative determination of the alcohol content in hydro-alcohol mixtures, realized by using porous silicon (PSi) nanotechnology. The device is an oxidized PSi micro-cavity (PSMC) constituted by a Fabry-Perot layer between two distributed Bragg reflectors. Due to the capillary condensation, a red shift of the PSMC reflectivity spectrum is observed on exposure to vapour mixtures. The phenomenon is completely reversible. Moreover, to reduce the analysis time, we have designed the integration of the sensor in a thermally controlled lab-on-chip, by merging PSi and anodic bonding technologies. Numerical calculations have been performed to study the thermal behaviour of the integrated device.

  4. Adaptive optics in digital micromirror based confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, P.; Wilding, D.; Soloviev, O.; Vdovin, G.; Verhaegen, M.

    2016-03-01

    This proceeding reports early results in the development of a new technique for adaptive optics in confocal microscopy. The term adaptive optics refers to the branch of optics in which an active element in the optical system is used to correct inhomogeneities in the media through which light propagates. In its most classical form, mostly used in astronomical imaging, adaptive optics is achieved through a closed loop in which the actuators of a deformable mirror are driven by a wavefront sensor. This approach is severely limited in fluorescence microscopy, as the use of a wavefront sensor requires the presence of a bright, point like source in the field of view, a condition rarely satisfied in microscopy samples. Previously reported approaches to adaptive optics in fluorescence microscopy are therefore limited to the inclusion of fluorescent microspheres in the sample, to use as bright stars for wavefront sensors, or time consuming sensorless optimization procedures, requiring several seconds of optimization before the acquisition of a single image. We propose an alternative approach to the problem, implementing sensorless adaptive optics in a Programmable array microscope. A programmable array microscope is a microscope based on a digital micromirror device, in which the single elements of the micromirror act both as point sources and pinholes.

  5. Optical keyboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veligdan, James T.; Feichtner, John D.; Phillips, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  6. Optical systems fabricated by printing-based assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John; Nuzzo, Ralph; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Baca, Alfred; Motala, Michael; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Park, Sang-Il; Yu, Chang-Jae; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Yoon, Jongseung

    2017-03-21

    Provided are optical devices and systems fabricated, at least in part, via printing-based assembly and integration of device components. In specific embodiments the present invention provides light emitting systems, light collecting systems, light sensing systems and photovoltaic systems comprising printable semiconductor elements, including large area, high performance macroelectronic devices. Optical systems of the present invention comprise semiconductor elements assembled, organized and/or integrated with other device components via printing techniques that exhibit performance characteristics and functionality comparable to single crystalline semiconductor based devices fabricated using conventional high temperature processing methods. Optical systems of the present invention have device geometries and configurations, such as form factors, component densities, and component positions, accessed by printing that provide a range of useful device functionalities. Optical systems of the present invention include devices and device arrays exhibiting a range of useful physical and mechanical properties including flexibility, shapeability, conformability and stretchablity.

  7. Lithium-niobate-based integrated optic chip utilizing digital electrode layout for use in a miniature fiber optic rate sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ner, Manjeet S.; Groellmann, Peter; Mutter, Gerhard

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes to the best of our knowledge the first implementation of a lithium niobate based 8 bit electroded integrated optic waveguide fiber optic gyro chip referred here as 'Digi- MIOC' (digital-electroded multifunction integrated optic chip, which has been used in a Sagnac effect exploiting microfiber optic rate sensor ((mu) -FORS) developed by LITEF. The paper highlights various features of a Digi-MIOC, such as design philosophy, fabrication aspects, and test procedures to evaluate static and dynamic characteristics of the electro-optic parameters. When used in closed loop operation, the Digi-MIOC forms the key optical component of a (mu) -FORS to aid the required optical-to-electrical signal processing to give linear output for input rates of rotation. Various test results and features of LITEF's (mu) - FORS, such as small size, large rotation rate measurement potential, low drive power, and high reliabliity are also highlighted.

  8. Determining Aerodynamic Loads Based on Optical Deformation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Barrows, D. A.; Burner, A. W.; Rhew, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a videogrammetric technique for determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements. The data reduction methods are developed to extract the normal force and pitching moment from beam deformation data. The axial force is obtained by measuring the axial translational motion of a movable shaft in a spring/bearing device. Proof-of-concept calibration experiments are conducted to assess the accuracy of this optical technique.

  9. Compressive sensing holography based on optical heterodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youjun; Zhou, Dingfu; Yuan, Sheng; Wei, Yayun; Wang, Mengting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, compressive sensing holography based on optical heterodyne detection is presented, which can photograph the hologram of an object. The complex hologram is composed of a sine-hologram and a cosine-hologram. A single pixel photoelectric conversion element is used to detect the time-varying optical field which contains the amplitude and phase information of the transmitted light, and a simulation result is demonstrated further by recording the Fresnel hologram of a complex amplitude object.

  10. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Gavela, Adrián; Grajales García, Daniel; Ramirez, Jhonattan C; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-02-24

    We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies.

  11. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: Recent clinical demonstrations with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Loree, T.R.; Mourant, J.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Story-Held, K.; Glickman, R.D. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Urology

    1993-08-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic tool that could identify malignancy in situ and in real time would have a major impact on the detection and treatment of cancer. We have developed and are testing early prototypes of an optical biopsy system (OBS) for detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the microscopic structure of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be strongly wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength dependence of elastic scattering. The data acquisition and storage/display time with the OBS instrument is {approximately}1 second. Thus, in addition to the reduced invasiveness of this technique compared with current state-of-the-art methods (surgical biopsy and pathology analysis), the OBS offers the possibility of impressively faster diagnostic assessment. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope, catheter or hypodermic, or to direct surface examination (e.g. as in skin cancer or cervical cancer). It has been tested in vitro on animal and human tissue samples, and clinical testing in vivo is currently in progress.

  12. Optical profilometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieloszyńska, Aleksandra; StrÄ kowski, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    The profilometry plays a huge role in the most fields of science and technology. It allows to measure the profile of the surface with high-resolution. This technique is used in the fields like optic, electronic, medicine, automotive, and much more. The aim of the current work was to design and build optical profilometer based on the interference phenomena. The developed device has been working with He-Ne laser (632.8 nm). The optical parts have been chosen in order to reach the sized 2.0 mm x 1.6 mm of scanning area. The setup of the profilometer is based on Twyman-Green interferometer. Therefore, the phase distribution of the backreflected light from measured surface is recorded. The measurements are carried out with the aid of multiframe algorithms. In this approach we have used the Hariharan algorithm to obtain the exact value of the recorded phase. During tests, which have been carried out in order to check the functionality of the device, the interference patterns have been recoded and processed in order to obtain the 3D profile of measured surface. In this contribution the setup of the optical system, as well as signal processing methods are going to be presented. The brief discussion about the advantages and disadvantages, and usefulness of this approach will be carried out.

  13. Amplifier Noise Based Optical Steganography with Coherent Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ben; Chang, Matthew P.; Caldwell, Naomi R.; Caldwell, Myles E.; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2014-12-01

    We summarize the principle and experimental setup of optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. Using ASE noise as the signal carrier, optical steganography effectively hides a stealth channel in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Coherent detection is used at the receiver of the stealth channel. Because ASE noise has short coherence length and random phase, it only interferes with itself within a very short range. Coherent detection requires the stealth transmitter and stealth receiver to precisely match the optical delay,which generates a large key space for the stealth channel. Several methods to further improve optical steganography, signal to noise ratio, compatibility with the public channel, and applications of the stealth channel are also summarized in this review paper.

  14. Soliton-based ultra-high speed optical communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akira Hasegawa

    2001-11-01

    Multi-terabit/s, ultra-high speed optical transmissions over several thousands kilometers on fibers are becoming a reality. Most use RZ (Return to Zero) format in dispersion-managed fibers. This format is the only stable waveform in the presence of fiber Kerr nonlinearity and dispersion in all optical transmission lines with loss compensated by periodic amplifications. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation assisted by the split step numerical solutions is commonly used as the master equation to describe the information transfer in optical fibers. All these facts are the outcome of research on optical solitons in fibers in spite of the fact that the commonly used RZ format is not always called a soliton format. The overview presented here attempts to incorporate the role of soliton-based communications research in present day ultra-high speed communications.

  15. Optical Fibre Sensors Using Graphene-Based Materials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaez, Miguel; Zamarreño, Carlos R.; Melendi-Espina, Sonia; Bird, Liam R.; Mayes, Andrew G.; Arregui, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Graphene and its derivatives have become the most explored materials since Novoselov and Geim (Nobel Prize winners for Physics in 2010) achieved its isolation in 2004. The exceptional properties of graphene have attracted the attention of the scientific community from different research fields, generating high impact not only in scientific journals, but also in general-interest newspapers. Optical fibre sensing is one of the many fields that can benefit from the use of these new materials, combining the amazing morphological, chemical, optical and electrical features of graphene with the advantages that optical fibre offers over other sensing strategies. In this document, a review of the current state of the art for optical fibre sensors based on graphene materials is presented. PMID:28098825

  16. Optical Fibre Sensors Using Graphene-Based Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hernaez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene and its derivatives have become the most explored materials since Novoselov and Geim (Nobel Prize winners for Physics in 2010 achieved its isolation in 2004. The exceptional properties of graphene have attracted the attention of the scientific community from different research fields, generating high impact not only in scientific journals, but also in general-interest newspapers. Optical fibre sensing is one of the many fields that can benefit from the use of these new materials, combining the amazing morphological, chemical, optical and electrical features of graphene with the advantages that optical fibre offers over other sensing strategies. In this document, a review of the current state of the art for optical fibre sensors based on graphene materials is presented.

  17. Optical image encryption topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Liang, Xiao; Xin, Zhou; Qiong-Hua, Wang; Sheng, Yuan; Yao-Yao, Chen

    2009-10-15

    Optical image encryption topology is proposed based on the principle of random-phase encoding. Various encryption topological units, involving peer-to-peer, ring, star, and tree topologies, can be realized by an optical 6f system. These topological units can be interconnected to constitute an optical image encryption network. The encryption and decryption can be performed in both digital and optical methods.

  18. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  19. Optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, J; Boutruche, J P

    1986-01-01

    Optical Fibers covers numerous research works on the significant advances in optical fibers, with particular emphasis on their application.This text is composed of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. The first part deals with the manufacture of optical fibers and the materials used in their production. The second part describes optical-fiber connectors, terminals and branches. The third part is concerned with the major optoelectronic components encountered in optical-communication systems.This book will be of value to research scientists, engineers, and patent workers.

  20. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  1. Optical limiter based on two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbas, Amirouche; Lazoul, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The aim behind this work is to investigate the capabilities of nonlinear photonic crystals to achieve ultra-fast optical limiters based on third order nonlinear effects. The purpose is to combine the actions of nonlinear effects with the properties of photonic crystals in order to activate the photonic band according to the magnitude of the nonlinear effects, themselves a function of incident laser power. We are interested in designing an optical limiter based nonlinear photonic crystal operating around 1064 nm and its second harmonic at 532 nm. Indeed, a very powerful solid-state laser that can blind or destroy optical sensors and is widely available and easy to handle. In this work, we perform design and optimization by numerical simulations to determine the better structure for the nonlinear photonic crystal to achieve compact and efficient integrated optical limiter. The approach consists to analyze the band structures in Kerr-nonlinear two-dimensional photonic crystals as a function of the optical intensity. We confirm that these bands are dynamically red-shifted with regard to the bands observed in linear photonic crystals or in the case of weak nonlinear effects. The implemented approach will help to understand such phenomena as intensitydriven optical limiting with Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals.

  2. Improved optical performance monitoring technique based on nonlinear optics for high-speed WDM Nyquist systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmi, Latifa; Menif, Mourad

    2016-04-01

    The field of fiber optics nonlinearity is more discussed last years due to such remarkable enhancement in the nonlinear processes efficiency. In this paper, and for optical performance monitoring (OPM), a new achievement of nonlinear effects has been investigated. The use of cross-phase modulation (XPM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) effects between input optical signal and inserted continuous-wave probe has proposed for impairments monitoring. Indeed, transmitting a multi-channels phase modulated signal at high data rate (1 Tbps WDM Nyquist NRZ- DP-QPSK) improves the sensitivity and the dynamic range monitoring. It was observed by simulation results that various optical parameters including optical power, wavelength, chromatic dispersion (CD), polarization mode dispersion (PMD), optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), Q-factor and so on, can be monitored. Also, the effect of increasing the channel spacing between WDM signals is studied and proved its use for FWM power monitoring.

  3. Silicon waveguide based 320 Gbit/s optical sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Galili, Michael; Pu, Minhao

    2010-01-01

    A silicon waveguide-based ultra-fast optical sampling system is successfully demonstrated using a free-running fiber laser with a carbon nanotube-based mode-locker as the sampling source. A clear eye-diagram of a 320 Gbit/s data signal is obtained.......A silicon waveguide-based ultra-fast optical sampling system is successfully demonstrated using a free-running fiber laser with a carbon nanotube-based mode-locker as the sampling source. A clear eye-diagram of a 320 Gbit/s data signal is obtained....

  4. All-optical switching and limiting properties of a Ru (II) Schiff-base complex for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, K. B.; Rajarao, Ravindra; Umesh, G.; Ramachandra Bhat, B.; Poornesh, P.

    2017-08-01

    A salen-based ruthenium (Ru) (II) complex was synthesized for possible use in nonlinear optical device applications. The Ru complex was doped in a polymer matrix to fabricate films using a low-cost spin-coating technique. The third-order nonlinear optical parameters of the complex were investigated by Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing techniques. The study reveals two-order enhancement of third-order optical susceptibility χ (3) and exhibits superior limiting capability due to a reverse saturable absorption process. All-optical switching action for the films indicates that the sample can function as an optical inverter or a NOT gate. Hence, the Ru (II) Schiff-base complex materializes as a possible candidate for use in nonlinear optical devices.

  5. Reversible quantum optical data storage based on resonant Raman optical field excited spin coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Byoung S

    2008-09-01

    A method of reversible quantum optical data storage is presented using resonant Raman field excited spin coherence, where the spin coherence is stored in an inhomogeneously broadened spin ensemble. Unlike the photon echo method, in the present technique, a 2pi Raman optical rephasing pulse area is used and multimode (parallel) optical channels are available in which the multimode access gives a great benefit to quantum information processors such as quantum repeaters.

  6. Optical biosensors based on photonic crystal surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopsky, Valery N; Alieva, Elena V

    2009-01-01

    Optical biosensors have played a key role in the selective recognition of target biomolecules and in biomolecular interaction analysis, providing kinetic data about biological binding events in real time without labeling. The advantages of the label-free concept are the elimination of detrimental effects from labels that may interfere with fundamental interaction and the absence of a time-consuming pretreatment. The disadvantages of all label-free techniques--including the most mature one, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique, are a deficient sensitivity to a specific signal and undesirable susceptibilities to non-specific signals, e.g., to the volume effect of refraction index variations. These variations arise from temperature fluctuations and drifts and they are the limiting factor for many state-of-the-art optical biosensors. Here we describe a new optical biosensor technique based on the registration of dual optical s-polarized waves on a photonic crystal surface. The simultaneous registration of two different optical modes from the same surface spot permits the segregation of the volume and the surface signals, while the absence of metal damping permits an increase in the propagation length of the optical surface waves and the sensitivity of the biosensor. The technique was tested with the binding of biotin molecules to a streptavidin monolayer that has been detected with a signal/noise ratio of about 15 at 1 s signal accumulation time. The detection limit is about 20 fg of the analyte on the probed spot of the surface.

  7. A virtual optical probe based on evanescent wave interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙利群; 王佳; 洪涛; 田芊

    2002-01-01

    A virtual probe is a novel immaterial tip based on the near-field evanescent wave interference and small aperture diffraction, which can be used in near-field high-density optical data storage, nano-lithography, near-field optical imaging and spectral detection, near-field optical manipulation of nano-scale specimen, etc. In this paper, the formation mechanism of the virtual probe is analysed, the evanescent wave interference discussed theoretically, andthe sidelobe suppression by small aperture is simulated by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method The simulation results of the optical distribution of the near-field virtual probe reveal that the transmission efficiencyof the virtual probe is 102-104 times higher than that of the nano-aperture metal-coated fibre probe widely used in near-field optical systems. The full width at half maximum of the peak, in other words, the size of virtual probe, is constant whatever the distance in a certain range so that the critical nano-separation control in the near-field system can be relaxed. We give an example of the application of the virtual probe in ultrahigh-density optical data storage.

  8. Performance Study of optical Modulator based on electrooptic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palodiya, V.; Raghuwanshi, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have studied and derive performance parameter of highly integrated Lithium Niobate optical modulator. This is a chirp free modulator having low switching voltage and large bandwidth. For an external modulator in which travelling-wave electrodes length L imposed the modulating switching voltage, the product of Vπ and L is fixed for a given electro optic material Lithium Niobate. We investigate to achieve a low Vπ by both magnitude of the electro-optic coefficient for a wide variety of electro-optic materials. A Sellmeier equation for the extraordinary index of congruent lithium niobate is derived. For phase-matching, predictions are accmate for temperature between room temperature 250°C and wavelength ranging from 0.4 to 5µm. The Sellmeier equations predict more accmately refractive indices at long wavelengths. Theoretical result is confirmed by simulated results. We have analysed the various parameters such as switching voltage, device performance index, time constant, transmittance, cut-off frequency, 3-dB bandwidth, power absorption coefficient and transmission bit rate of Lithium Niobate optical Modulator based on electro -optic effect.

  9. Demultiplexing of OTDM-DPSK signals based on a single semiconductor optical amplifier and optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jing; Ding, Yunhong; Peucheret, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate the use of a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and optical filtering to time demultiplex tributaries from an optical time division multiplexing-differential phase shift keying (OTDM-DPSK) signal. The scheme takes advantage of the fact that phase variations...... as the bit period at 80 Gbit=s. Large dynamic ranges for the input power and SOA current are experimentally demonstrated. The scheme is expected to be scalable toward higher bit rates. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  10. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, A E

    2011-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  11. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Mechalakos, James [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Wei, Jie [Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Sullivan, James [Pulmonary Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔV{sub torso} = ΔV{sub thorax} + ΔV{sub abdomen}) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BP{sub v} = ΔV{sub thorax}/ΔV{sub torso}) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume

  12. Method to improve the performance of reflectance diffuse optical imaging based on polygonal optical fibers arrangement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weitao Li; Zhiyu Qian; Ting Li

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of reflectance diffuse optical imaging(rDOI),a novel polynomial geometry(PG)of optical fibers arrangement is proposed.Polynomial geometry is based on the hexagonal geometry(HG)and multicentered double-density(MD)mode.The overlapping sensitivity matrix,area ratio(AR),reconstruction image,two-absorber model,arid contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR)in different depths are used to evaluate the performance of PG.The other three geometries including HG,rectangular geometry(RG),and MD mode are also compared with PG.The deformation of the reconstruction images is evaluted by circular ratio(CR).The results prove that the proposed PG has high performance and minimum deformation in quality of reconstruction image in rDOI.

  13. Simulation and Optimization of MQW based optical modulator for on chip optical interconnect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumita Mishra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical interconnects are foreseen as a potential solution to improve the performance of data transmission in high speed integrated circuits since electrical interconnects operating at high bit rates have several limitations which creates a bottleneck at the interconnect level. The objective of the work is to model and then simulate the MQWM based optical interconnect transmitter. The power output of the simulated modulator is then optimized with respect to various parameters namely contrast ratio, insertion loss and bias current. The methodology presented here is suitable for investigation of both analog and digital modulation performance but it primarily deals with digital modulation. We have not included the effect of carrier charge density in multiple quantum well simulation.

  14. Optical flow based velocity estimation for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuzhi; Zhao, Guanrong; Jia, Songmin; Qin, Baoling; Yang, Ailin

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an optical flow based novel technique to perceive the instant motion velocity of mobile robots. The primary focus of this study is to determine the robot's ego-motion using displacement field in temporally consecutive image pairs. In contrast to most previous approaches for estimating velocity, we employ a polynomial expansion based dense optical flow approach and propose a quadratic model based RANSAC refinement of flow fields to render our method more robust with respect to noise and outliers. Accordingly, techniques for geometrical transformation and interpretation of the inter-frame motion are presented. Advantages of our proposal are validated by real experimental results conducted on Pioneer robot.

  15. Universal method for constructing N-port non-blocking optical router based on 2 × 2 optical switch for photonic networks-on-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiaoshan; Zhang, Fanfan; Ji, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Lin

    2014-05-19

    We propose a universal method for constructing N-port non-blocking optical router for photonic networks-on-chip, in which all microring (MR) optical switches or Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) optical switches behave as 2 × 2 optical switches. The optical router constructed by the proposed method has minimum optical switches, in which the number of the optical switches is reduced about 50% compared to the reported optical routers based on MR optical switches and more than 30% compared to the reported optical routers based on M-Z optical switches, and therefore is more compact in footprint and more power-efficient. We also present a strict mathematical proof of the non-blocking routing of the proposed N-port optical router.

  16. Fiber-optic based in situ atomic spectroscopy for manufacturing of x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasoff, George; Metting, Christopher J.; von Bredow, Hasso

    2016-09-01

    The manufacturing of multilayer Laue (MLL) components for X-ray optics by physical vapor deposition (PVD) requires high precision and accuracy that presents a significant process control challenge. Currently, no process control system provides the accuracy, long-term stability and broad capability for adoption in the manufacturing of X-ray optics. In situ atomic absorption spectroscopy is a promising process control solution, capable of monitoring the deposition rate and chemical composition of extremely thin metal silicide films during deposition and overcoming many limitations of the traditional methods. A novel in situ PVD process control system for the manufacturing of high-precision thin films, based on combined atomic absorption/emission spectrometry in the vicinity of the deposited substrate, is described. By monitoring the atomic concentration in the plasma region independently from the film growth on the deposited substrate, the method allows deposition control of extremely thin films, compound thin films and complex multilayer structures. It provides deposition rate and film composition measurements that can be further utilized for dynamic feedback process control. The system comprises a reconfigurable hardware module located outside the deposition chamber with hollow cathode light sources and a fiber-optic-based frame installed inside the deposition chamber. Recent experimental results from in situ monitoring of Al and Si thin films deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at a variety of plasma conditions and monitoring configurations are presented. The results validate the operation of the system in the deposition of compound thin films and provide a path forward for use in manufacturing of X-Ray optics.

  17. Electro-optic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer based Optical Digital Magnitude Comparator and 1's Complement Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The optical switching activity is one of the most essential phenomena in the optical domain. The electro-optic effect-based switching phenomena are applicable to generate some effective combinational and sequential logic circuits. The processing of digital computational technique in the optical domain includes some considerable advantages of optical communication technology, e.g. immunity to electro-magnetic interferences, compact size, signal security, parallel computing and larger bandwidth. The paper describes some efficient technique to implement single bit magnitude comparator and 1's complement calculator using the concepts of electro-optic effect. The proposed techniques are simulated on the MATLAB software. However, the suitability of the techniques is verified using the highly reliable Opti-BPM software. It is interesting to analyze the circuits in order to specify some optimized device parameter in order to optimize some performance affecting parameters, e.g. crosstalk, extinction ratio, signal losses through the curved and straight waveguide sections.

  18. Existence problem of optical correlation based pattern recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Yanxin(张延炘); LI; Sumei(李素梅)

    2003-01-01

    The existence problem of optical correlation based pattern recognition, namely its range of validity and its limitation, is discussed in this paper conjointly with the function approximation theory of neural networks. The conclusion is that only if the sets to be recognized are linearly separable (which is rare) or the subsets, in which a segmental sample of the targets is involved,are linearly separable, can the classical 4f optical correlation system carry out the task of recognition inerrably. The recognition principle of a joint transform correlator is the same as that of a 4f system, and so is its range of validities. Based on the demonstration of the existence problem of optical correlation based pattern recognition an evaluation on some important problems that were studied in this field over the past 40 years is presented explicitly.

  19. Physical Optics Based Computational Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas, Stephen Joseph

    There is an ongoing demand on behalf of the consumer, medical and military industries to make lighter weight, higher resolution, wider field-of-view and extended depth-of-focus cameras. This leads to design trade-offs between performance and cost, be it size, weight, power, or expense. This has brought attention to finding new ways to extend the design space while adhering to cost constraints. Extending the functionality of an imager in order to achieve extraordinary performance is a common theme of computational imaging, a field of study which uses additional hardware along with tailored algorithms to formulate and solve inverse problems in imaging. This dissertation details four specific systems within this emerging field: a Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System, an Extended Depth-of-Focus Imaging System, a Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System, and a Compressive Imaging System. The Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System is part of a larger project, where the work presented in this thesis was to use image processing techniques to mitigate problems inherent to fiber bundle image relay and then, form high-resolution wide field-of-view panoramas captured from multiple sensors within a custom state-of-the-art imager. The Extended Depth-of-Focus System goals were to characterize the angular and depth dependence of the PSF of a focal swept imager in order to increase the acceptably focused imaged scene depth. The goal of the Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System was to build a system that can capture a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), long-exposure image which is inherently blurred while at the same time capturing motion data using additional optical sensors in order to deblur the degraded images. Lastly, the objective of the Compressive Imager was to design and build a system functionally similar to the Single Pixel Camera and use it to test new sampling methods for image generation and to characterize it against a traditional camera. These computational

  20. Preparation, thermo-optic property and simulation of optical switch based on azo benzothiazole polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhijuan; Qiu, Fengxian; Wang, Qing; Cao, Guorong; Guan, Yijun; Zhuang, Lin; Xu, Xiaolong; Wang, Jie; Chen, Qian; Yang, Dongya

    2013-04-01

    An azo chromophore molecule 4-[(benzothiazole-2-yl)diazenyl]phenyl-1,3-diamine (BTPD) was prepared with 2-amino benzothiazole and m-phenylenediamine by diazo-coupling reaction. Then, the chromophore molecule BTPD was polymerized with NJ-210 and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) to obtain novel azo benzothiazole polymer (BTPU). The structures of BTPD and BTPU were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared, UV-visible spectroscopy, DSC and TGA. The physical properties of the obtained BTPU were investigated. The refractive index ( n) of BTPU was demonstrated at different temperature and wavelength (532, 650 and 850 nm) using attenuated total reflection technique. The transmission loss and dispersion characteristic of BTPU film were investigated using the CCD digital imaging devices and Sellmeyer equation. A Y-branch and 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) polymeric thermo-optic switches based on the thermo-optic effect of prepared BTPU were proposed and the performance of switches was simulated. The results indicated that the power consumption of the Y-branch thermo-optic switch could be only 0.6 mW. The Y-branch and MZI switching rising and falling times obtained were 8.0 and 1.8 ms.

  1. Bandwidth-tunable narrowband rectangular optical filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yi, Lilin; Jaouën, Yves; Hu, Weisheng

    2014-09-22

    We propose a rectangular optical filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber with bandwidth tuning from 50 MHz to 4 GHz at less than 15-MHz resolution. The rectangular shape of the filter is precisely achieved utilizing digital feedback control of the comb-like pump spectral lines. The passband ripple is suppressed to ~1 dB by mitigating the nonlinearity influences of the comb-like pump lines generated in electrical and optical components and fibers. Moreover a fiber with a single Brillouin peak is employed to further reduce the in-band ripple and the out-of-band SBS gain at the same time. Finally, we analyze the noise performance of the filter at different bandwidth cases and demonstrate the system performance of the proposed filter with 2.1-GHz bandwidth and 19-dB gain by amplifying a 2-GHz orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signal with quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) and 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16-QAM) on each subscriber.

  2. GPU-based computational adaptive optics for volumetric optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Han; Mulligan, Jeffrey A.; Untracht, Gavrielle R.; Zhang, Xihao; Adie, Steven G.

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that measures reflectance from within biological tissues. Current higher-NA optical coherence microscopy (OCM) technologies with near cellular resolution have limitations on volumetric imaging capabilities due to the trade-offs between resolution vs. depth-of-field and sensitivity to aberrations. Such trade-offs can be addressed using computational adaptive optics (CAO), which corrects aberration computationally for all depths based on the complex optical field measured by OCT. However, due to the large size of datasets plus the computational complexity of CAO and OCT algorithms, it is a challenge to achieve high-resolution 3D-OCM reconstructions at speeds suitable for clinical and research OCM imaging. In recent years, real-time OCT reconstruction incorporating both dispersion and defocus correction has been achieved through parallel computing on graphics processing units (GPUs). We add to these methods by implementing depth-dependent aberration correction for volumetric OCM using plane-by-plane phase deconvolution. Following both defocus and aberration correction, our reconstruction algorithm achieved depth-independent transverse resolution of 2.8 um, equal to the diffraction-limited focal plane resolution. We have translated the CAO algorithm to a CUDA code implementation and tested the speed of the software in real-time using two GPUs - NVIDIA Quadro K600 and Geforce TITAN Z. For a data volume containing 4096×256×256 voxels, our system's processing speed can keep up with the 60 kHz acquisition rate of the line-scan camera, and takes 1.09 seconds to simultaneously update the CAO correction for 3 en face planes at user-selectable depths.

  3. Optical electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yariv, Amnon

    1991-01-01

    This classic text introduces engineering students to the first principles of major phenomena and devices of optoelectronics and optical communication technology. Yariv's "first principles" approach employs real-life examples and extensive problems. The text includes separate chapters on quantum well and semiconductor lasers, as well as phase conjugation and its applications. Optical fiber amplification, signal and noise considerations in optical fiber systems, laser arrays and distributed feedback lasers all are covered extensively in major sections within chapters.

  4. Novel coherent optical OFDM-based transponder for optical slot switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mestre, Miquel A.; Estaran, Jose M.; Jenneve, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel coherent optical OFDM transponder approach capable of recovering microsecond-scale data-burst while adapting to tight filtering constraints present in optical slot switched intradatacenter networks. Filtering effects in such large node-count environments are reviewed. The CO...

  5. Nonlinear fiber-optic strain sensor based on four-wave mixing in microstructured optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Bobo; Yuan, Scott Wu; Frosz, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a nonlinear fiber-optic strain sensor, which uses the shifts of four-wave mixing Stokes and anti-Stokes peaks caused by the strain-induced changes in the structure and refractive index of a microstructured optical fiber. The sensor thus uses the inherent nonlinearity of the fiber...

  6. Optical Stabilizer Based on Optical Bistable Devices with All-Fibre Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng; YE Hong-An; ZHAO Xue-Zeng; YANG Jiu-Ru; ZHANG Xin-Ming; LU Guo-Hui

    2004-01-01

    @@ We propose a fibre optical stabilizer constituted by a photoelectric-hybrid optical bistable device in which fibre Bragg grating is used as a light intensity modulator. The intensity noise-reducing ability is well improved through the method by employing two feed signals. As a result, the light intensity variation can be reduced to ~ 1/64.

  7. Statistical Studies of Ground-Based Optical Lightning Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C. R.; Nemzek, R. J.; Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    Most extensive optical studies of lightning have been conducted from orbit, and the statistics of events collected from earth are relatively poorly documented. The time signatures of optical power measured in the presence of clouds are inevitably affected by scattering,which can distort the signatures by extending and delaying the amplitude profile in time. We have deployed two all-sky photodiode detectors, one in New Mexico and one in Oklahoma, which are gathering data alongside electric field change monitors as part of the LANL EDOTX Great Plains Array. Preliminary results show that the photodiode is sensitive to approximately 50% or more of RF events detected at ranges of up to 30 km, and still has some sensitivity at ranges in excess of 60 km (distances determined by the EDOTX field-change array). The shapes of events within this range were assessed, with focus on rise time, width, peak power, and their correlation to corresponding electric field signatures, and these are being compared with published on-orbit and ground-based data. Initial findings suggest a mean characteristic width (ratio of total detected optical energy to peak power) of 291 +/- 12 microseconds and a mean delay between the RF signal peak and optical peak of 121 +/- 17 microseconds. These values fall between prior ground-based measurements of direct return stroke emissions, and scattering-dominated on-orbit measurements. This work will promote better understanding of the correspondence between radio and optical measurements of lightning.

  8. Miniature fiber optic sensor based on fluorescence energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, David L.; Schultz, Jerome S.

    1992-04-01

    Optical fiber biosensors based on fluorescence assays have several distinct advantages when measuring biological analytes such as metabolites, cofactors, toxins, etc. Not only are optical signals immune to electronic interferences, but the polychromatic nature of most fluorochemical assays provides more potentially useful data about the system being studied. One of the most common difficulties normally encountered with optical biosensors is the inability to routinely recalibrate the optical and electronic components of the system throughout the life of the sensor. With this in mind, we present an optical fiber assay system for glucose based on a homogeneous singlet/singlet energy transfer assay along with the electronic instrumentation built to support the sensor system. In the sensor probe, glucose concentrations are indirectly measured from the level of fluorescence quenching caused by the homogeneous competition assay between TRITC labeled concanavalin A (receptor) and FITC labeled Dextran (ligand). The FITC signal is used to indicate glucose concentrations and the TRITC signal is used for internal calibration. Data is also presented on a protein derivatization procedure that was used to prevent aggregation of the receptor protein in solution. Also, a molecular model is described for the singlet/singlet energy transfer interactions that can occur in a model system composed of a monovalent ligand (FITC labeled papain) and a monovalent receptor (TRITC labeled concanavalin A).

  9. Optical notch filter design based on digital signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Sen; ZHANG Juan; LI Xue

    2011-01-01

    Based on digital signal processing theory, a novel method of designing optical notch filter is proposed for Mach-Zehnder interferometer with cascaded optical fiber rings coupled structure. The method is simple and effective, and it can be used to implement the designing of the optical notch filter which has arbitrary number of notch points in one free spectrum range (FSR). A design example of notch filter based on cascaded single-fiber-rings is given. On this basis, an improved cascaded double-fiber-rings structure is presented to eliminate the effect of phase shift caused by the single-fiber-ring structure. This new structure can improve the stability and applicability of system. The change of output intensity spectrum is finally investigated for each design parameter and the tuning characteristics of the notch filter are also discussed.

  10. Demonstration of an All-Optical 2-to-4 Level Encoder Based on an Optical Parametric Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a novel technique for all-optical 2-to-4 level amplitude-shift keying (ASK coding based on a fiber optical parametric amplifier. A 20-Gb/s signal is realized by multiplexing two 10-Gb/s data streams.

  11. Time Lens based Optical Fourier Transformation for All-Optical Signal Processing of Spectrally-Efficient Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Lillieholm, Mads;

    2016-01-01

    four-wave mixing (FWM), separated by a dispersive medium, which enables time-to-frequency and frequency-to-time conversions simultaneously, thus performing an exchange between the temporal and spectral profiles of the input signal. Using the proposed complete OFT, several advanced all-optical signal......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced all-optical signal processing. A novel time lens based complete optical Fourier transformation (OFT) technique is introduced. This complete OFT is based on two quadratic phase-modulation stages using...... processing schemes for spectrally-efficient systems and networks have been achieved, including all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient signals. The spectrally-efficient signals in this paper mainly refer to efficiently multiplexed signals with a high symbol rate per Hz...

  12. Distributed optically integrated manufacture system based on CORBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Ming; Jiang, Jian-chun; Liu, Xing-fa; Hu, Rui-fei

    2007-12-01

    Focused on the shortcoming and insufficiency of reconfigurable manufacture system (RMS) for optical manufacturing in control layer and interface of manufacturing execution systems (MES) and control layer, the difference of MES-plan layer interface and that of MES-control layer is discussed, and an architecture of distributed optically integrated manufacture executing system based on fieldbus/Ethernet network and common object request broker architecture (CORBA) is presented. In this solution, the optical manufacture equipments are connected by fieldbus network, a gateway is used for the communication of fieldbus manufacture equipment and MES in the workshop, and CORBA services which provide a general interface for communication of heterogeneous fieldbus manufacture equipment of workshop are realized on the gateway. Then all specifics of heterogeneous fieldbus manufacture equipments are concealed, which show as virtual equipment and can be accessed in a simple and unified way. So the control layer is composed of virtual equipment and easy to be reconfigured. Similarly workshop management function components are modeled and encapsulated by CORBA interface, and MES could be integrated to RMS expediently. The optical integrated manufacture system presented is proved with good ability of flexible, reconfigurable, opening and high feasibility, and met the reconfigurable requirement of distributed optical manufacturing workshop preferably.

  13. Optical design of LED-based automotive tail lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domhardt, André; Rohlfing, Udo; Klinger, Karsten; Manz, Karl; Kooß, Dieter; Lemmer, Uli

    2007-09-01

    The application of ultra bright monochromatic and white High-Power-LEDs in the range of automotive lighting systems is now state of the art. These LEDs offer new possibilities in optical design and engineering within different fields of automotive lighting, e.g., tail lamps, signal lamps, headlamps and interior lighting. This contribution describes the process of the optical design of an automotive LED tail lamp based on a practical example. We will elaborate the principal geometric approach, the radiometric conditions and the optical design by using standard and advanced mathematical optimization methods. Special attention will be paid to the following topics: efficient light coupling from the LED into the optical device, adaptation of the illuminance and optimization with respect to the requirements from SAE/ECE regulations. It will be shown that the development of LED-lamps requires the complex interaction of several factors. The challenge for the optical designer is to fulfill the technical demands while also considering the appearance of the final product desired by the customer. Further design specifications emerge from the electrical and thermal layout of the lamp.

  14. Leo-Based Optical/Microwave Terrestrial Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Meulenberg, Andrew; Ramanathan, Shivram

    2010-01-01

    We propose a LEO-based communication system that is built by deploying circum-terra, optic fibers connecting hundreds of small (perhaps) phased-array-communications and RF-signal-transfer antennas around the earth on multiple rings. The proposed LEO-earth connection will be through microwave links (Ku or low-Ka band) and many of the ISL's through the optic-fiber rings. Inter-ring connectivity could be with either high-Ka band or optical (laser) links. The initial ring would serve to complement existing terrestrial fiber networks; but, the system would expand with additional rings into non-equatorial planes to provide global connectivity. The proposed system would make use of connectivity & broadcasting capability of satellite constellations as well as the high throughput point-to-point capability of optic-fiber systems. The advantages, options, and economics of the proposed LEO optic-fiber / microwave communication system over existing terrestrial- and space-communication systems (of similar functionality...

  15. Research of optical rotation measurement system based on centroid algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junjie; Jia, Hongzhi; Shen, Xinrong; Jiang, Shixin

    2016-09-01

    An optical rotation measurement system based on digital signal processor, modulated laser, and step motor rotating stage is established. Centroid algorithm featured fast and simple calculation is introduced to process light signals with or without sample to obtain the optical rotating angle through the step difference between two centroids. The system performance is proved experimentally with standard quartz tubes and glucose solutions. After various measurements, the relative error and precision of the system are determined to 0.4% and 0.004°, which demonstrates the reliable repeatability and high accuracy of whole measurement system.

  16. Transparent and flexible force sensor array based on optical waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsung; Park, Suntak; Park, Seung Koo; Yun, Sungryul; Kyung, Ki-Uk; Sun, Kyung

    2012-06-18

    This paper suggests a force sensor array measuring contact force based on intensity change of light transmitted throughout optical waveguide. For transparency and flexibility of the sensor, two soft prepolymers with different refractive index have been developed. The optical waveguide consists of two cladding layers and a core layer. The top cladding layer is designed to allow light scattering at the specific area in response to finger contact. The force sensor shows a distinct tendency that output intensity decreases with input force and measurement range is from 0 to -13.2 dB.

  17. AC dipole based optics measurement and correction at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, X; Bai, M; White, S; Robert-Domolaize, G; Luo, Y; Marusic, A; Tomas, R

    2013-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to the AC dipole based optics measurement at RHIC to extract beta functions as well as phase advances at each BPM. Existence of excessive beta-beat was observed in both rings of RHIC at polarized proton store energy. A unique global optics correction scheme was then developed and tested successfully during the RHIC polarized proton run in 2013. The feasibility of using horizontal closed orbit bump at sextupole for arc beta-beat correction was also demonstrated.

  18. Dynamic fluorescence lifetime imaging based on acousto-optic deflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Peng, Xiao; Qi, Jing; Gao, Jian; Fan, Shunping; Wang, Qi; Qu, Junle; Niu, Hanben

    2014-11-01

    We report a dynamic fluorescence lifetime imaging (D-FLIM) system that is based on a pair of acousto-optic deflectors for the random regions of interest (ROI) study in the sample. The two-dimensional acousto-optic deflector devices are used to rapidly scan the femtosecond excitation laser beam across the sample, providing specific random access to the ROI. Our experimental results using standard fluorescent dyes in live cancer cells demonstrate that the D-FLIM system can dynamically monitor the changing process of the microenvironment in the ROI in live biological samples.

  19. Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R. S.; Dasgupta, R.; Ahlawat, S.; Kumar, N.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-08-01

    We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two.

  20. Optical fiber sensing based on reflection laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Gianluca; Salza, Mario; Ferraro, Pietro; Chehura, Edmond; Tatam, Ralph P; Gangopadhyay, Tarun K; Ballard, Nicholas; Paz-Soldan, Daniel; Barnes, Jack A; Loock, Hans-Peter; Lam, Timothy T-Y; Chow, Jong H; De Natale, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    An overview on high-resolution and fast interrogation of optical-fiber sensors relying on laser reflection spectroscopy is given. Fiber Bragg-gratings (FBGs) and FBG resonators built in fibers of different types are used for strain, temperature and acceleration measurements using heterodyne-detection and optical frequency-locking techniques. Silica fiber-ring cavities are used for chemical sensing based on evanescent-wave spectroscopy. Various arrangements for signal recovery and noise reduction, as an extension of most typical spectroscopic techniques, are illustrated and results on detection performances are presented.

  1. Optical Fiber Sensing Based on Reflection Laser Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gagliardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview on high-resolution and fast interrogation of optical-fiber sensors relying on laser reflection spectroscopy is given. Fiber Bragg-gratings (FBGs and FBG resonators built in fibers of different types are used for strain, temperature and acceleration measurements using heterodyne-detection and optical frequency-locking techniques. Silica fiber-ring cavities are used for chemical sensing based on evanescent-wave spectroscopy. Various arrangements for signal recovery and noise reduction, as an extension of most typical spectroscopic techniques, are illustrated and results on detection performances are presented.

  2. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Fernández Gavela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies.

  3. Fiber-Optic Vibration Sensor Based on Multimode Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lujo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a fiberoptic vibration sensor based on the monitoring of the mode distribution in a multimode optical fiber. Detection of vibrations and their parameters is possible through observation of the output speckle pattern from the multimode optical fiber. A working experimental model has been built in which all used components are widely available and cheap: a CCD camera (a simple web-cam, a multimode laser in visible range as a light source, a length of multimode optical fiber, and a computer for signal processing. Measurements have shown good agreement with the actual frequency of vibrations, and promising results were achieved with the amplitude measurements although they require some adaptation of the experimental model. Proposed sensor is cheap and lightweight and therefore presents an interesting alternative for monitoring large smart structures.

  4. Optical fiber temperature sensor based on wavelength-dependent detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Li(李志刚); Zhenhui Du(杜振辉); Baoguang Wang(王宝光); Chengzhi Jiang(蒋诚志)

    2004-01-01

    Semiconductor fiber temperature sensors have been used widely in many fields, but most of them pick up temperature by measuring the optical intensity of certain fixed narrow-band in absorption spectrum.Furthermore, they are sensitive to the loss of optical intensity and the fluctuation of light source power.The novel temperature measurement system proposed in this paper is based on the semiconductor absorption theory and the spectral analysis of method. To measure temperature, the sensor model detects not the certain narrow-band spectrum but the most spectra of the optical absorption edge. Therefore the measurement accuracy and the stability can be improved greatly. Experimental results are in agreement with theoretical analysis results perfectly.

  5. Ground-based optical observation system for LEO objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Oda, H.; Tagawa, M.

    2015-08-01

    We propose a ground-based optical observation system for monitoring LEO objects, which uses numerous optical sensors to cover a vast region of the sky. Its potential in terms of detection and orbital determination were examined. About 30 cm LEO objects at 1000 km altitude are detectable using an 18 cm telescope, a CCD camera and the analysis software developed. Simulations and a test observation showed that two longitudinally separate observation sites with arrays of optical sensors can identify the same objects from numerous data sets and determine their orbits precisely. The proposed system may complement or replace the current radar observation system for monitoring LEO objects, like space-situation awareness, in the near future.

  6. Laser pulse spectral shaping based on electro-optic modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhai Wang; Jiangfeng Wang; You'en Jiang; Yan Bao; Xuechun Li; Zunqi Lin

    2008-01-01

    A new spectrum shaping method, based on electro-optic modulation, to alleviate gain narrowing in chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system, is described and numerically simulated. Near-Fourier transform-limited seed laser pulse is chirped linearly through optical stretcher. Then the chirped laser pulse is coupled into integrated waveguide electro-optic modulator driven by an aperture-coupled-stripline (ACSL) electricalwaveform generator, and the pulse shape and amplitude are shaped in time domain. Because of the directrelationship between frequency interval and time interval of the linearly chirped pulse, the laser pulse spectrum is shaped correspondingly. Spectrum-shaping examples are modeled numerically to determine the spectral resolution of this technique. The phase error introduced in this method is also discussed.

  7. Nanofiber-based optical trapping of cold neutral atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Vetsch, Eugen; Mitsch, Rudolf; Reitz, Daniel; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Rauschenbeutel, Arno

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental techniques and results related to the optimization and characterization of our nanofiber-based atom trap [Vetsch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010)]. The atoms are confined in an optical lattice which is created using a two-color evanescent field surrounding the optical nanofiber. For this purpose, the polarization state of the trapping light fields has to be properly adjusted. We demonstrate that this can be accomplished by analyzing the light scattered by the nanofiber. Furthermore, we show that loading the nanofiber trap from a magneto-optical trap leads to sub-Doppler temperatures of the trapped atomic ensemble and yields a sub-Poissonian distribution of the number of trapped atoms per trapping site.

  8. A Nanofiber-Based Optical Conveyor Belt for Cold Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Schneeweiss, Philipp; Mitsch, Rudolf; Reitz, Daniel; Vetsch, Eugen; Rauschenbeutel, Arno

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate optical transport of cold cesium atoms over millimeter-scale distances along an optical nanofiber. The atoms are trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by a two-color evanescent field surrounding the nanofiber, far red- and blue-detuned with respect to the atomic transition. The blue-detuned field is a propagating nanofiber-guided mode while the red-detuned field is a standing-wave mode which leads to the periodic axial confinement of the atoms. Here, this standing wave is used for transporting the atoms along the nanofiber by mutually detuning the two counter-propagating fields which form the standing wave. The performance and limitations of the nanofiber-based transport are evaluated and possible applications are discussed.

  9. Sound field reconstruction based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic measurements are usually carried out with transducers that interact mechanically with the sound field under investigation. The goal of this work is to employ a completely different measurement principle, the determination of sound pressure based on the interaction between sound and light......, namely the acousto-optic effect. When sound propagates through a medium, it gives rise to pressure fluctuations that change the instantaneous density of the medium. Under such circumstances, the speed of light is not constant, but changed by the acoustic field. This acousto-optic interaction can...... be measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer; furthermore, it can be exploited to characterize an arbitrary sound field using tomographic techniques. This paper briefly reviews the fundamental principles governing the acousto-optic effect in air, and presents an investigation of the tomographic reconstruction...

  10. An Integrated Optical Memory based on Laser Written Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Corrielli, Giacomo; Mazzera, Margherita; Osellame, Roberto; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first realization of an integrated optical memory for light based on a laser written waveguide in a doped crystal. Using femto-second laser micromachining, we fabricate waveguides in Pr$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ crystal. We demonstrate that the waveguide inscription does not affect the coherence properties of the material and that the light confinement in the waveguide increases the interaction with the active ions by a factor 6. We also demonstrate that, analogously to the bulk crystals, we can operate the optical pumping protocols necessary to prepare the population in atomic frequency combs, that we use to demonstrate light storage in excited and spin states of the Praseodymium ions. Our results represent the first realization of laser written waveguides in a Pr$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ crystal and the first implementation of an integrated on-demand spin wave optical memory. They open new perspectives for integrated quantum memories.

  11. Power optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollonov, V V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it

  12. Power optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2014-02-01

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  13. Optical Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  14. Optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Roed, H; Sellebjerg, F

    2004-01-01

    To study the involvement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands (CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/ITAC) in optic neuritis (ON).......To study the involvement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands (CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/ITAC) in optic neuritis (ON)....

  15. Optical hydrogen sensors based on metal-hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaman, M.; Westerwaal, R.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.

    2012-06-01

    For many hydrogen related applications it is preferred to use optical hydrogen sensors above electrical systems. Optical sensors reduce the risk of ignition by spark formation and are less sensitive to electrical interference. Currently palladium and palladium alloys are used for most hydrogen sensors since they are well known for their hydrogen dissociation and absorption properties at relatively low temperatures. The disadvantages of palladium in sensors are the low optical response upon hydrogen loading, the cross sensitivity for oxygen and carbon, the limited detection range and the formation of micro-cracks after some hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles. In contrast to Pd, we find that the use of magnesium or rear earth bases metal-hydrides in optical hydrogen sensors allow tuning of the detection levels over a broad pressure range, while maintaining a high optical response. We demonstrate a stable detection layer for detecting hydrogen below 10% of the lower explosion limit in an oxygen rich environment. This detection layer is deposited at the bare end of a glass fiber as a micro-mirror and is covered with a thin layer of palladium. The palladium layer promotes the hydrogen uptake at room temperature and acts as a hydrogen selective membrane. To protect the sensor for a long time in air a final layer of a hydrophobic fluorine based coating is applied. Such a sensor can be used for example as safety detector in automotive applications. We find that this type of fiber optic hydrogen sensor is also suitable for hydrogen detection in liquids. As example we demonstrate a sensor for detecting a broad range of concentrations in transformer oil. Such a sensor can signal a warning when sparks inside a high voltage power transformer decompose the transformer oil over a long period.

  16. Tunable photonic bandgap fiber based devices for optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Scolari, Lara; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    In future all optical networks one of the enabling technologies is tunable elements including reconfigurable routers, switches etc. Thus, the development of a technology platform that allows construction of tuning components is critical. Lately, microstructured optical fibers, filled with liquid...

  17. Event-Based Corpuscular Model for Quantum Optics Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.; Raedt, H. De

    2011-01-01

    A corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one is presented. The event-based corpuscular model is shown to give a u

  18. Linear optical pulse compression based on temporal zone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Li, Ming; Lou, Shuqin; Azaña, José

    2013-07-15

    We propose and demonstrate time-domain equivalents of spatial zone plates, namely temporal zone plates, as alternatives to conventional time lenses. Both temporal intensity zone plates, based on intensity-only temporal modulation, and temporal phase zone plates, based on phase-only temporal modulation, are introduced and studied. Temporal zone plates do not exhibit the limiting tradeoff between temporal aperture and frequency bandwidth (temporal resolution) of conventional linear time lenses. As a result, these zone plates can be ideally designed to offer a time-bandwidth product (TBP) as large as desired, practically limited by the achievable temporal modulation bandwidth (limiting the temporal resolution) and the amount of dispersion needed in the target processing systems (limiting the temporal aperture). We numerically and experimentally demonstrate linear optical pulse compression by using temporal zone plates based on linear electro-optic temporal modulation followed by fiber-optics dispersion. In the pulse-compression experiment based on temporal phase zone plates, we achieve a resolution of ~25.5 ps over a temporal aperture of ~5.77 ns, representing an experimental TBP larger than 226 using a phase-modulation amplitude of only ~0.8π rad. We also numerically study the potential of these devices to achieve temporal imaging of optical waveforms and present a comparative analysis on the performance of different temporal intensity and phase zone plates.

  19. Crowd Analysis by Using Optical Flow and Density Based Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Francesco; Pedro, Sergio; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system to detect and track crowds in a video sequence captured by a camera. In a first step, we compute optical flows by means of pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking. Afterwards, a density based clustering is used to group similar vectors. In the last step...

  20. Event-Based Corpuscular Model for Quantum Optics Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.; Raedt, H. De

    A corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one is presented. The event-based corpuscular model is shown to give a

  1. Event-based Simulation Model for Quantum Optics Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Jaeger, G; Khrennikov, A; Schlosshauer, M; Weihs, G

    2011-01-01

    We present a corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one. The event-based corpuscular model gives a unified

  2. A population-based prospective study of optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, K; Jarius, S; Skejoe, Hanne Pernille Bro

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is often associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Early diagnosis is critical to optimal patient management. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of acute ON and the rates of conversion to MS and antibody-mediated ON. METHOD: Population-based prospective study was ...

  3. Wave front sensor based on holographic optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, M. S.; Krasin, G. K.; Malinina, P. I.; Odinokov, S. B.; Sagatelyan, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    A wavefront sensor (WFS) based on holographic optical elements, namely computer generated Fourier holograms is proposed as a perspective alternative to the Shack-Hartmann sensor. A possibility of single and multimode sensor and the dependence of their characteristics were investigated.

  4. Demonstration of a refractometric sensor based on optical microfiber resonator

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a refractometric sensor based on a coated optical microfiber coil resonator. It is robust, compact, and comprises an intrinsic fluidic channel. A sensitivity of about 40 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) has been measured, in agreement with predictions.

  5. Characterization of Integrated Optical Strain Sensors Based on Silicon Waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, W.J.; Leinders, S.M.; Muilwijk, P.M.; Pozo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Microscale strain gauges are widely used in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) to measure strains such as those induced by force, acceleration, pressure or sound. We propose all-optical strain sensors based on micro-ring resonators to be integrated with MEMS. We characterized the strain-induced

  6. Stego Optical Encryption Based on Chaotic Baker's Map Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Gondal, Muhammad Asif

    2014-06-01

    In this article, an optical image encryption algorithm based on chaotic baker's map is presented. The stego-image is encrypted with the help of double random phase encoding algorithm and then produced disorder with the help of chaotic transformation. Security test shows that the reading of proposed algorithm is very close to the optimal values.

  7. Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Ying; Liu, Ying; Doyle, James; He, Nan; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Bai, Jinrui; Blau, Werner J

    2007-01-01

    Optical limiting is an important application of nonlinear optics, useful for the protection of human eyes, optical elements, and optical sensors from intense laser pulses. An optical limiter is such a device that strongly attenuates high intensity light and potentially damaging light such as focused laser beams, whilst allowing for the high transmission of ambient light. Optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube suspensions, solubilized carbon nanotubes, small molecules doped carbon nanotubes and polymer/carbon nanotube composites have been reviewed. The optical limiting responses of carbon nanotube suspensions are shown to be dominated by nonlinear scattering as a result of thermally induced solvent-bubble formation and sublimation of the nanotubes, while the solubilized carbon nanotubes optically limit through nonlinear absorption mechanism and exhibit significant solution-concentration-dependent optical limiting responses. In the former case the optical limiting results are independent of nanotube concentrations at the same linear transmittance as that of the solubilized systems. Many efforts have been invested into the research of polymer/carbon nanotube composites in an attempt to allow for the fabrication of films required for the use of nanotubes in a real optical limiting application. The higher carbon nanotube content samples block the incident light more effectively at higher incident energy densities or intensities. The optical limiting mechanism of these composite materials is quite complicated. Besides nonlinear scattering contribution to the optical limiting, there may also be other contributions e.g., nonlinear absorption, nonlinear refraction, electronic absorption and others to the optical limiting. Further improvements in the optical limiting efficiency of the composites and in the dispersion and alignment properties of carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix could be realized by variation of both nanostructured guest and polymer host, and by

  8. Optical Fiber Sensor Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Using Silver Nanoparticles Photodeposited on the Optical Fiber End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Mendoza, J. Gabriel; Padilla-Vivanco, Alfonso; Toxqui-Quitl, Carina; Zaca-Morán, Placido; Villegas-Hernández, David; Chávez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the implementation of an optical fiber sensor to measure the refractive index in aqueous media based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). We have used a novel technique known as photodeposition to immobilize silver nanoparticles on the optical fiber end. This technique has a simple instrumentation, involves laser light via an optical fiber and silver nanoparticles suspended in an aqueous medium. The optical sensor was assembled using a tungsten lamp as white light, a spectrometer, and an optical fiber with silver nanoparticles. The response of this sensor is such that the LSPR peak wavelength is linearly shifted to longer wavelengths as the refractive index is increased, showing a sensitivity of 67.6 nm/RIU. Experimental results are presented. PMID:25302813

  9. Optical fiber sensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance using silver nanoparticles photodeposited on the optical fiber end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Mendoza, J Gabriel; Padilla-Vivanco, Alfonso; Toxqui-Quitl, Carina; Zaca-Morán, Placido; Villegas-Hernández, David; Chávez, Fernando

    2014-10-09

    This paper reports the implementation of an optical fiber sensor to measure the refractive index in aqueous media based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). We have used a novel technique known as photodeposition to immobilize silver nanoparticles on the optical fiber end. This technique has a simple instrumentation, involves laser light via an optical fiber and silver nanoparticles suspended in an aqueous medium. The optical sensor was assembled using a tungsten lamp as white light, a spectrometer, and an optical fiber with silver nanoparticles. The response of this sensor is such that the LSPR peak wavelength is linearly shifted to longer wavelengths as the refractive index is increased, showing a sensitivity of 67.6 nm/RIU. Experimental results are presented.

  10. Optical Fiber Sensor Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Using Silver Nanoparticles Photodeposited on the Optical Fiber End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabriel Ortega-Mendoza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the implementation of an optical fiber sensor to measure the refractive index in aqueous media based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR. We have used a novel technique known as photodeposition to immobilize silver nanoparticles on the optical fiber end. This technique has a simple instrumentation, involves laser light via an optical fiber and silver nanoparticles suspended in an aqueous medium. The optical sensor was assembled using a tungsten lamp as white light, a spectrometer, and an optical fiber with silver nanoparticles. The response of this sensor is such that the LSPR peak wavelength is linearly shifted to longer wavelengths as the refractive index is increased, showing a sensitivity of 67.6 nm/RIU. Experimental results are presented.

  11. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-nan; Hou, Chang-jun; Huo, Dan-qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-bao; Lei, Jin-can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  12. Comprehensive research on self phase modulation based optical delay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Ai-Ying; Sun Yu-Nan

    2010-01-01

    This paper comprehensively investigates the properties of self phase modulation based optical delay systems consisting of dispersion compensation fibre and highly nonlinear fibres.It researches into the impacts of power level launched into highly nonlinear fibres,conversion wavelength,dispersion slope,modulation format and optical filter bandwidth on the overall performance of optical delay systems.The results reveal that,if the power launched into highly nonlinear fibres is fixed,the time delay generally varies linearly with the conversion wavelength,but jumps intermittently at some conversion wavelengths.However,the time delay varies semi-periodically with the power launched into highly nonlinear fibres.The dispersion slope of highly nonlinear fibres has significant influence on the time delay,especially for the negative dispersion slope.The time delay differs with modulation formats due to the different combined interaction of nonlinearity and dispersion in fibres.The bandwidth of the optical filters also greatly affects the time delay because it determines the bandwidth of the passed signal in the self phase modulation based time delay systems.The output signal quality of the overall time delay systems depends on the conversion wavelength and input power level.The optimisation of the power level and conversion wavelength to provide the best output signal quality is made at the end of this paper.

  13. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  14. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  15. Optical holography

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Optical Holography deals with the use of optical holography to solve technical problems, with emphasis on the properties of holograms formed with visible light. Topics covered include the Fourier transform, propagation and diffraction, pulsed-laser holography, and optical systems with spherical lenses. A geometric analysis of point-source holograms is also presented, and holograms and hologram spatial filters formed with spatially modulated reference waves are described. This book is comprised of 20 chapters and begins with an introduction to concepts that are basic to understanding hologr

  16. ALL OPTICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH SPEED AND LOW POWER REVERSIBLE FULL ADDER USING SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER BASED MACH-ZEHNDER INTERFEROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Bommi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years reversible logic design has promising applications in low power computing, optical computing, quantum computing. VLSI design mainly concentrates on low power logic circuit design. In the present scenario researchers have made implementations of reversible logic gates in optical domain for its low energy consumption and high speed. This study is all about designing a reversible Full adder using combination of all optical Toffoli and all optical TNOR and to compare it with the Full adder designed using all optical Toffoli gate in terms of optical cost. All optical TNOR gate can work as a replacement of existing NAND based All optical Toffoli Gate (TG. The gates are designed using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI based optical switch. The proposed system is developed with the basic of reversibility to design all optical full Adder implemented with CMOS transistors. The design is efficient in terms of both architecture and in power consumption.

  17. Cavity modes with optical orbital angular momentum in a metamaterial ring based on transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H W; Wang, F; Dong, Y Q; Shu, F Z; Zhang, K; Peng, R W; Xiong, X; Wang, Mu

    2015-12-14

    In this work, we theoretically study the cavity modes with transverse orbital angular momentum in metamaterial ring based on transformation optics. The metamaterial ring is designed to transform the straight trajectory of light into the circulating one by enlarging the azimuthal angle, effectively presenting the modes with transverse orbital angular momentum. The simulation results confirm the theoretical predictions, which state that the transverse orbital angular momentum of the mode not only depends on the frequency of the incident light, but also depends on the transformation scale of the azimuthal angle. Because energy dissipation inevitably reduces the field amplitude of the modes, the confined electromagnetic energy and the quality factor of the modes inside the ring are also studied in order to evaluate the stability of those cavity modes. The results show that the metamaterial ring can effectively confine light with a high quality factor and maintain steady modes with the orbital angular momentum, even if the dimension of the ring is much smaller than the wavelength of the incident light. This technique for exploiting the modes with optical transverse orbital angular momentum may provides a unique platform for applications related to micromanipulation.

  18. Tunable transportable spectroradiometer based on an acousto-optical tunable filter: Development and optical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, O.; Sadouni, A.; Truong, D.; Briaudeau, S.; Himbert, M.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a high-performance, transportable, versatile spectroradiometer based on an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). The instrument was developed for temperature metrology, namely, to determine the thermodynamic temperature of black bodies above the Ag freezing point (961.78 °C). Its main design feature is the attenuation of the diffraction side lobes (and, thus, out-of-band stray light) thanks to the use of a double-pass configuration. The radiofrequency tuning of the AOTF allows continuous, fine, and rapid wavelength control over a wide spectral range (650 nm-1000 nm). The instrument tunability can be easily calibrated with an Ar spectral lamp with reproducibility within 10 pm over one week. The instrument was characterised in terms of relative signal stability (few 10-4) and wavelength stability (1 pm) over several hours. The spectral responsivity of the instrument was calibrated with two complementary methods: tuning of the wavelength of the optical source or tuning the radiofrequency of the AOTF. Besides the application for thermodynamic temperature determination at the lowest uncertainty level, this instrument can also be used for multispectral non-contact thermometry of processed materials of non-grey and non-unitary emissivity (in the glass or metallurgical industries).

  19. Fiber-optical microphones and accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio; Bang, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Polymer optical fibers (POFs) are ideal for applications as the sensing element in fiber-optical microphones and accelerometers based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) due to their reduced Young’s Modulus of 3.2GPa, compared to 72GPa of Silica. To maximize the sensitivity and the dynamic range...... of the device the outer diameter and the length of the sensing fiber segment should be as small as possible. To this end we have fabricated 3mm FBGs in single-mode step-index POFs of diameter 115 micron, using 325nm UV writing and a phase-mask technique. 6mm POF sections with FBGs in the center have been glued...... to standard Silica SMF28 fibers. These POF FBGs have been characterized in terms of temperature and strain to find operating regimes with no hysteresis. Commercial fast wavelength interrogators (KHz) are shown to be able to track the thin POF FBGs and they are finally applied in a prototype accelerometer...

  20. A Cs-Based Optical Frequency Measurement Using Cross-Linked Optical and Microwave Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Tamm, Chr; Lipphardt, B; Gerginov, V; Nemitz, N; Kazda, M; Weyers, S; Peik, E

    2013-01-01

    We describe a measurement of the frequency of the 2S1/2(F = 0) - 2D3/2(F' = 2) transition of 171Yb+ at the wavelength 436 nm (frequency 688 THz), using a single Yb+ ion confined in a Paul trap and two caesium fountains as references. In one of the fountains, the frequency of the microwave oscillator that interrogates the caesium atoms is stabilized by the laser that excites the Yb+ reference transition with a linewidth in the hertz range. The stability is transferred to the microwave oscillator with the use of a fiber laser based optical frequency comb generator that also provides the frequency conversion for the absolute frequency measurement. The frequency comb generator is configured as a transfer oscillator so that fluctuations of the pulse repetition rate and of the carrier offset frequency do not degrade the stability of the frequency conversion. The phase noise level of the generated ultrastable microwave signal is comparable to that of a cryogenic sapphire oscillator. For fountain operation with optic...

  1. Fiber-optical microphones and accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio; Bang, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Polymer optical fibers (POFs) are ideal for applications as the sensing element in fiber-optical microphones and accelerometers based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) due to their reduced Young’s Modulus of 3.2GPa, compared to 72GPa of Silica. To maximize the sensitivity and the dynamic range...... of the device the outer diameter and the length of the sensing fiber segment should be as small as possible. To this end we have fabricated 3mm FBGs in single-mode step-index POFs of diameter 115 micron, using 325nm UV writing and a phase-mask technique. 6mm POF sections with FBGs in the center have been glued...... to standard Silica SMF28 fibers. These POF FBGs have been characterized in terms of temperature and strain to find operating regimes with no hysteresis. Commercial fast wavelength interrogators (KHz) are shown to be able to track the thin POF FBGs and they are finally applied in a prototype accelerometer...

  2. Highly Linear, Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-optic Polymer

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xingyu; Lin, Che-yun; Wang, Alan X; Hosseini, Amir; Chen, Ray T

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and characterization of a traveling wave directional coupler modulator based on electro-optic polymer, which is able to provide both high linearity and broad bandwidth. The high linearity is realized by introducing domain-inversion technique in the two-domain directional coupler. A travelling wave electrode is designed to function with bandwidth-length product of 302GHz cm, by achieving low microwave loss, excellent impedance matching and velocity matching, as well as smooth electric field profile transformation. The 3-dB bandwidth of the device is measured to be 10GHz. The spurious free dynamic range of about 110dB Hz^(2/3) is measured over the modulation frequency range 2-8GHz. To the best of our knowledge, such high linearity is first measured at the frequency up to 8GHz. In addition, a 1-to-2 multi-mode interference 3dB-splitter, a photobleached refractive index taper and a quasi-vertical taper are used to reduce the optical insertion loss of the device.

  3. Integrated Optical Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The optical (tele-) communication is the main driving force for the worldwide R&D on integrated optical devices and microsystems. lO-sensors have to compete with many other sensor types both within the optical domain (fiber sensors) and outside that domain, where sensors based on measurand induced c

  4. Integrated Optical Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul V.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The optical (tele-) communication is the main driving force for the worldwide R&D on integrated optical devices and microsystems. lO-sensors have to compete with many other sensor types both within the optical domain (fiber sensors) and outside that domain, where sensors based on measurand induced c

  5. New fiber-based approaches for optical biopsy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jessie R.; Rivière, Christophe; Proulx, Antoine; Gallant, Pascal; Mermut, Ozzy

    2017-02-01

    Optical biopsy of tissue using fiber optic probes has proven to be a powerful tool for non-invasive and minimally invasive diagnostics. However, there are still many challenges to improving diagnostic value and commercial translation of these techniques. Many fiber-based methods are limited by background noise, which impairs sensitivity and specificity. Aspects of quality control, such as adequacy of the target of interest sampled and validation of optical measurements with histopathology can be problematic. Complexity, cost, and disposability or sterilizability are roadblocks to widespread clinical use. Here, we present new approaches to using fibers for optical biopsy aimed at solving these problems. Specifically, the new concepts are designed with the goals of being simple and disposable, to improve control of light delivery and collection from the sample, and to inherently enable better quality control of the biopsy process. A concept-of-operation aimed at nearly zero impact to the work flow of the biopsy and standard pathology procedures will be outlined. Several concepts for fiber implementations will be presented. A trade-off analysis of the concepts used to select a first implementation for testing will be presented. Preliminary experimental validation in phantoms and tissue samples will be presented for the selected configuration.

  6. Design of an optical sensor based on plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Marwa M.; AlSharif, Haya; Alshabani, Haifaa; Qadi, Eilaf; Sultan, Maha

    2016-04-01

    Plasmonic nano-structured array sensors have been highlighted by their tremendously promising applications, such as the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical biosensors. In this paper, within the visible spectrum region, the optical transmission properties of a metallic thin film deposited over dielectric films of various refraction indices are investigated. With finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, we investigate the optical transmission spectra of such plasmonic structures based on both nano-holes and nano-disc arrays. This investigation includes monitoring the modification in both the transmission resonance wavelengths and peak transmittance. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the interaction between light and plasmonic nano-hole and nano-disc arrays. It shows that the changing the shapes of the nano-holes can affect the resonance wavelengths and the intensity of transmitted spectra and alter its resonance peak transmittance values. We found that the interaction coupling between the localized plasmons (LSP) and the propagating surface plasmons (PSP) can be tuned to boost the performance of the optical sensor.

  7. Residual Stress Analysis Based on Acoustic and Optical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanichiro Yoshida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-application of acoustoelasticity and optical interferometry to residual stress analysis is discussed. The underlying idea is to combine the advantages of both methods. Acoustoelasticity is capable of evaluating a residual stress absolutely but it is a single point measurement. Optical interferometry is able to measure deformation yielding two-dimensional, full-field data, but it is not suitable for absolute evaluation of residual stresses. By theoretically relating the deformation data to residual stresses, and calibrating it with absolute residual stress evaluated at a reference point, it is possible to measure residual stresses quantitatively, nondestructively and two-dimensionally. The feasibility of the idea has been tested with a butt-jointed dissimilar plate specimen. A steel plate 18.5 mm wide, 50 mm long and 3.37 mm thick is braze-jointed to a cemented carbide plate of the same dimension along the 18.5 mm-side. Acoustoelasticity evaluates the elastic modulus at reference points via acoustic velocity measurement. A tensile load is applied to the specimen at a constant pulling rate in a stress range substantially lower than the yield stress. Optical interferometry measures the resulting acceleration field. Based on the theory of harmonic oscillation, the acceleration field is correlated to compressive and tensile residual stresses qualitatively. The acoustic and optical results show reasonable agreement in the compressive and tensile residual stresses, indicating the feasibility of the idea.

  8. Fiber Optic Based Thermometry System for Superconducting RF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [Microxact Inc.

    2013-05-06

    Thermometry is recognized as the best technique to identify and characterize losses in SRF cavities. The most widely used and reliable apparatus for temperature mapping at cryogenic temperatures is based on carbon resistors (RTDs). The use of this technology on multi-cell cavities is inconvenient due to the very large number of sensors required to obtain sufficient spatial resolution. Recent developments make feasible the use of multiplexible fiber optic sensors for highly distributed temperature measurements. However, sensitivity of multiplexible cryogenic temperature sensors was found extending only to 12K at best and thus was not sufficient for SRF cavity thermometry. During the course of the project the team of MicroXact, JLab and Virginia Tech developed and demonstrated the multiplexible fiber optic sensor with adequate response below 20K. The demonstrated temperature resolution is by at least a factor of 60 better than that of the best multiplexible fiber optic temperature sensors reported to date. The clear path toward at least 10times better temperature resolution is shown. The first to date temperature distribution measurements with ~2.5mm spatial resolution was done with fiber optic sensors at 2K to4K temperatures. The repeatability and accuracy of the sensors were verified only at 183K, but at this temperature both parameters significantly exceeded the state of the art. The results of this work are expected to find a wide range of applications, since the results are enabling the whole new testing capabilities, not accessible before.

  9. Photonic crystal optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. Wirth; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2011-06-01

    After several decades pushing the technology and the development of the world, the electronics is giving space for technologies that use light. We propose and analyze an optical memory embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC), whose system of writing and reading data is controlled by an external command signal. This optical memory is based on optical directional couplers connected to a shared optical ring. Such a device can work over the C-Band of ITU (International Telecommunication Union).

  10. Optical Vector Network Analyzer with an Improved Dynamic Range Based on a Polarization Multiplexing Electro-Optic Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Wen-Ting; Chen, Wei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhu, Ning-Hua

    2017-05-01

    We present a new method to achieve an optical vector network analyzer (OVNA) based on a polarization multiplexing electro-optic modulator (PM-EOM) without an optical bandpass filter. Optical single sideband (OSSB) modulated signals with a tunable optical carrier-sideband ratio (OCSR) are obtained at the output of the PM-EOM. The OCSR can be flexibly tuned by controlling bias voltages of the PM-EOM. The dynamic range of the OVNA is expanded by taking the improvement of the OCSR into account. The transmission response of an optical device under test (ODUT) is measured based on one-to-one mapping from optical domain to electrical domain. By optimizing the OCSR of the OSSB modulated signals, the dynamic range of the OVNA can be effectively improved with 3.7 dB. An analytical model is derived to describe the transfer function of the ODUT. The magnitude and phase responses of a fiber Bragg grating are characterized with a large dynamic range. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61377070, 61090391 and 61675196, and the National High-Technology Research and Development Program of China under Grant No 2013AA014203.

  11. Optical fiber based slide tactile sensor for underwater robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ding-zhong; WANG Qi-ming; SONG Rui-han; YAO Xin; GU Yi-hua

    2008-01-01

    In the underwater environment,many visual sensors don't work,and many sensors which work well for robots working in space or on land can not be used underwater.Therefore,an optical fiber slide tactile sensor was designed based on the inner modulation mechanism of optical fibers.The principles and structure of the sensor are explained in detail.Its static and dynamic characteristics were analyzed theoretically and then simulated.A dynamic characteristic model was built and the simulation made using the GA based neural network.In order to improve sensor response,the recognition model of the sensor was designed based on the'inverse solution'principle of neural networks,increasing the control precision and the sensitivity of the manipulator.

  12. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Nanoparticle-Embedded Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Urrutia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles (NPs in scientific applications has attracted the attention of many researchers in the last few years. The use of NPs can help researchers to tune the physical characteristics of the sensing coating (thickness, roughness, specific area, refractive index, etc. leading to enhanced sensors with response time or sensitivity better than traditional sensing coatings. Additionally, NPs also offer other special properties that depend on their nanometric size, and this is also a source of new sensing applications. This review focuses on the current status of research in the use of NPs within coatings in optical fiber sensing. Most used sensing principles in fiber optics are briefly described and classified into several groups: absorbance-based sensors, interferometric sensors, fluorescence-based sensors, fiber grating sensors, and resonance-based sensors, among others. For each sensor group, specific examples of the utilization of NP-embedded coatings in their sensing structure are reported.

  13. Intensity based sensor based on single mode optical fiber patchcords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuwati, Dwi; Waluyo, Tomi Budi; Mulyanto, Imam

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the use of several single mode (SM) fiber patchcords available commercially in the market for intensity based sensor by taking the benefit of bending loss phenomenon. Firtsly, the full transmission spectrum of all fiber patchcords were measured and analyzed to examine its bending properties at a series of wavelength using white light source and optical spectrum analyzer. Bending spectral at various bending diameter using single wavelength light sources were then measured for demonstration.Three good candidates for the intensity based sensor are SM600 fiber patchcord with 970 nm LED, SMF28 fiber patchcord with 1050 nm LED and 780HP fiber patchcord with 1310 nm LED which have noticeable bending sensitive area. Experiments show that the combination of the SMF28with 1050 nm LED has 30 mm measurement range which is the widest; with sensitivity 0.107 dB/mm and resolution 0.5 mm compared with combination of SM600 patchcord and LED 970 nm which has the best sensitivity (0.891 dB/mm) and resolution (0.06 mm) but smaller range measurement (10 mm). Some suitable applications for each fiber patchcord - light source pair have also been discussed.

  14. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and theoretical, at the Ioffe Institute and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris are documented in the book Optical Orientation, edited by F Meier and B P Zakharchenya in the series Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences [4], in which the foundations of optical orientation are comprehensively presented by renowned authors. This book is still the unsurpassed standard work in the field. If one asks what has become new since that publication in 1984 it is obviously the arrival of low-dimensional structures, two-dimensional heterostructures and zero-dimensional quantum dots. It has turned out that the quantum confinement can significantly modify the spin lifetime and the spin relaxation. The experimental work on spin alignment was done by a relative small number of researchers. However, the situation has substantially changed during the last decade. Research on spin-related phenomena has become very popular and the word 'spintronics' was coined. Spin research is no longer considered to be somewhat esoteric, since the replacement of silicon microelectronics based on the electron charge by spin-based electronics is being discussed. Whether these proposals can be realized remains to be seen. But one consequence has been a worldwide increase of high level basic research in spin phenomena. Another line of current research which has contributed to the popularity of spin-related research is quantum computing, based on spin-qubits. To be useful, solid state systems require long spin relaxation times and weak interaction with the environment. This is indispensable for low error rates. The difficulties in achieving these goals have been extensively discussed in the literature. Nowadays, because of the volume and diversity of spin-related work worldwide, a book on optical orientation like that edited by Meyer and Zakharchenya does not seem possible, so in this special issue of

  15. Interferometer -based Technology for Optical Nanoscale Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabko M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the interferometer-based approach for nanoscale grating Critical Dimension (CD measurements and prove the possibility to achieve no worse than 10 nm accuracy of measurements for 100 nm pitch gratings. The approach is based on phase shift measurement of light fields specularly reflected from periodical pattern and adjacent substrate with subsequent comparison between experimental and simulation results. RCWA algorithm is used to fit the measured results and extract the CD value. It is shown that accuracy of CD value measurement depends rather on the grating’s CD/pitch ratio than its CD value

  16. Optical fibre dosemeter systems for clinical applications based on radioluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence from Al2O3:C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, C.J.; Andersen, C.E.; Aznar, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Optical fibre dosemeter systems based on radioluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) crystals were developed for in vivo real-time dose rate and absorbed dose measurements in radiotherapy and mammography. A technique was also developed...... for making ultra-small dosemeter probes that can easily be placed inside patients in radiation treatment. These probes have shown excellent properties in both head and neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment and in mammography. The dose-response of the OSL signal for the new optical fibre...

  17. Quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....

  18. Quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....

  19. Miniature optical coherence tomography system based on silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margallo-Balbás, Eduardo; Pandraud, Gregory; French, Patrick J.

    2008-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a promising medical imaging technique. It has found applications in many fields of medicine and has a large potential for the optical biopsy of tumours. One of the technological challenges impairing faster adoption of OCT is the relative complexity of the optical instrumentation required, which translates into expensive and bulky setups. In this paper we report an implementation of Time Domain OCT (TD-OCT) based on a silicon photonic platform. The devices are fabricated using Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers, on which rib waveguides are defined. While most of the components needed are well-known in this technology, a fast delay line with sufficient scanning range is a specific requirement of TD-OCT. In the system reported, this was obtained making use of the thermo-optical effect of silicon. By modulating the thermal resistance of the waveguide to the substrate, it is possible to establish a trade-off between maximum working frequency and power dissipation. Within this trade-off, the systems obtained can be operated in the kHz range, and they achieve temperature shifts corresponding to scanning ranges of over 2mm. Though the current implementation still requires external sources and detectors to be coupled to the Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC), future work will include three-dimensional integration of these components onto the substrate. With the potential to include the read-out and driving electronics on the same die, the reported approach can yield extremely compact and low-cost TD-OCT systems, enabling a wealth of new applications, including gastrointestinal pills with optical biopsy capabilities.

  20. Ocean optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  1. Research on testing the nonlinear optical performance of nonlinear optical materials based on the effect of second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-Xuan; Wei, Yong; Huang, Cheng-Hui; Zhuang, Feng-Jiang; Zhang, Ge; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper the authors report a research on testing the nonlinear optical performance of optical materials in visible and infrared band. Based on the second order nonlinear optic principle and the photoelectric signal detection technology, the authors have proposed a new testing scheme in which a infrared OPO laser and a method for separating the beams arising from frequency matching and the light produced by other optical effects were used. The OPO laser is adopted as light source to avoid the error of measurement caused by absorption because the double frequency signal of the material is in the transmittance band Our research work includes testing system composition, operational principle and experimental method. The experimental results of KTP, KDP, AGS tested by this method were presented. In the experiment several new infrared non-linear materials were found. This method possesses the merits of good stability and reliability, high sensitivity, simple operation and good reproducibility, which can effectively make qualitative and semi-quantitative test for optical material's nonlinear optical properties from visible to infrared. This work provides an important test -method for the research on second order nonlinear optical materials in visible, infrared and ultraviolet bands.

  2. Optic nerve atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optic atrophy; Optic neuropathy ... There are many causes of optic atrophy. The most common is poor blood flow. This is called ischemic optic neuropathy. The problem most often affects older adults. The optic ...

  3. Optic Fiber-Based Dynamic Pressure Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu-Lin Gan; Hai-Wen Cai; Jian-Xin Geng; Zheng-Qing Pan; Rong-Hui Qu; Zu-Jie Fang

    2008-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion(WIM) technique is the process of measuring the dynamic tire forces of a moving vehicle and estimating the corresponding tire loads of the static vehicle. Compared with the static weigh station, WIM station is an efficient and cost effective choice that will minimize unneccessary stops and delay for truckers. The way to turn birefringence of single-mode fiber into a prime quality for a powerful and reliable sensor is shown. Preliminary results for the development of a weigh-in-motion (WIM) technique based on sagnac-loop sensor are presented. After a brief description of the sensor and its principle of operation, the theoretical model is developed. Then, a full characterization made in static conditions is presented.

  4. RELIABLE VALIDATION BASED ON OPTICAL FLOW VISUALIZATION FOR CFD SIMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜宗林

    2003-01-01

    A reliable validation based on the optical flow visualization for numerical simula-tions of complex flowfields is addressed in this paper. Several test cases, including two-dimensional,axisymmetric and three-dimensional flowfields, were presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the validation and gain credibility of numerical solutions of complex flowfields. In the validation, imagesof these flowfields were constructed from numerical results based on the principle of the optical flowvisualization, and compared directly with experimental interferograms. Because both experimental and numerical results axe of identical physical representation, the agreement between them can be evaluatedeffectively by examining flow structures as well as checking discrepancies in density. The study shows that the reliable validation can be achieved by using the direct comparison between numerical and experiment results without any loss of accuracy in either of them.

  5. Erbium-doped nanoparticles in silica-based optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Wilfried; Dussardier, Bernard; 10.1504/IJNT.2012.045350

    2012-01-01

    Developing of new rare-earth (RE)-doped optical fibres for power amplifiers and lasers requires continuous improvements in the fibre spectroscopic properties (like shape and width of the gain curve, optical quantum efficiency, resistance to spectral hole burning and photodarkening...). Silica glass as a host material for fibres has proved to be very attractive. However, some potential applications of RE-doped fibres suffer from limitations in terms of spectroscopic properties resulting from clustering or inappropriate local environment when doped into silica. To this aim, we present a new route to modify some spectroscopic properties of RE ions in silica-based fibres based on the incorporation of erbium ions in amorphous dielectric nanoparticles, grown in-situ in fibre preforms. By adding alkaline earth elements, in low concentration into silica, one can obtain a glass with an immiscibility gap. Then, phase separation occurs under an appropriate heat treatment. We investigated the role of three alkaline-earth...

  6. Proliferation-resistant stable isotope separation based on optical pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol-Jung; Park, Hyunmin; Ko, Kwang-Hoon; Lim, Gwon; Kim, Taek-Soo; Rho, Sipyo; Cha, Yong-Ho; Han, Jamin; Jeong, Do-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of). Quantum Optics Division

    2008-07-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed the laser stable isotope separation based on optical pumping which can be applied to isotopes with small isotopic shift, provides high enrichment, is economical owing to high efficiency, and is proliferation-resistant. KAERI's laser isotope separation is based on isotope-selective optical pumping by very narrow bandwidth continuous wave laser followed by efficient infrared photo-ionization. KAERI demonstrated the pilot production of Tl-203 enriching over 97 % and separating 100 mg/hr. KAERI also demonstrated the separation of Yb-168 over 30 % and Yb- 176 over 97 % with tens of mg/hr. KAERI plans to scale up the production of Tl-203 up to 500 mg/hr and apply it to separation of Zn-67, Zn-70, Ba-130 and Ca-48 which are very important in medical industry and basic sciences. (author)

  7. RELIABLE VALIDATION BASED ON OPTICAL FLOW VISUALIZATION FOR CFD SIMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜宗林

    2003-01-01

    A reliable validation based on the optical flow visualization for numerical simulations of complex flowfields is addressed in this paper.Several test cases,including two-dimensional,axisymmetric and three-dimensional flowfields,were presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the validation and gain credibility of numerical solutions of complex flowfields.In the validation,images of these flowfields were constructed from numerical results based on the principle of the optical flow visualization,and compared directly with experimental interferograms.Because both experimental and numerical results are of identical physical representation,the agreement between them can be evaluated effectively by examining flow structures as well as checking discrepancies in density.The study shows that the reliable validation can be achieved by using the direct comparison between numerical and experiment results without any loss of accuracy in either of them.

  8. Demonstration of a Chip-based Nonlinear Optical Isolator

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, Shiyue; Jiang, Xiaoshun; Hua, Qian; Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Despite fundamentally challenging in integrated (nano)photonics, achieving chip-based light nonreciprocity becomes increasingly urgent in signal processing and optical communications. Because of material incompatibilities in conventional approaches based on Faraday effects, alternative solutions have resorted to nonlinear processes to obtain one-way transmission. However, revealed dynamic reciprocity in a recent theoretical analysis has pinned down the functionalities of these nonlinear isolators. To overcome this dynamic reciprocity, we here report the first demonstration of a nonlinear optical isolator on a silicon chip enforced by phase-matched parametric amplification. Using a high-Q microtoroid resonator, we realize highly nonreciprocal transport at the 1,550 nm wavelength when waves are simultaneously launched in both forward and backward directions. Our design, compatible with current CMOS technique, yields convincing isolation performance with sufficiently low insertion loss for a wide range of input ...

  9. A Novel Acoustic Emission Fiber Optic Sensor Based on a Single Mode Optical Fiber Coupler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Rongsheng; LIAO Yanbiao; ZHENG Gangtie; LIU Tongyu; Gerard Franklyn Fernando

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, on the use of a fused-taper single mode optical fiber coupler as a sensing element for the detection of acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasound. When an acoustic wave impinges on the mode-coupling region of a coupler, the coupling coefficient is modulated via the photo-elastic effect. Therefore, the transfer function of the coupler is modulated by an acoustic wave. The sensitivity of the sensor at 140 kHz was approximately 5.2 mV/Pa and the noise floor was 1 Pa. The bandwidth of the sensor was up to several hundred kHz. This AE sensor exhibits significant advantage compared with interferometer-based AE sensors.

  10. Noncontact speckle-based optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration using magneto-optic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Polani, Sagi; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally verify a speckle-based technique for noncontact measurement of glucose concentration in the bloodstream. The final device is intended to be a single wristwatch-style device containing a laser, a camera, and an alternating current (ac) electromagnet generated by a solenoid. The experiments presented are performed in vitro as proof of the concept. When a glucose substance is inserted into a solenoid generating an ac magnetic field, it exhibits Faraday rotation, which affects the temporal changes of the secondary speckle pattern distributions. The temporal frequency resulting from the ac magnetic field was found to have a lock-in amplification role, which increased the observability of the relatively small magneto-optic effect. Experimental results to support the proposed concept are presented.

  11. Gyroscope based on a crystalline optical WGM microresonator (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Eliyahu, Danny; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute

    2017-02-01

    We report on a study of performance of both active and passive optical gyroscopes based on high finesse crystalline whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators. We show that the sensitivity of the devices is ultimately limited due to the nonlinearity of the resonator host material. A gyroscope characterized with 0.02 deg/hr^1/2 angle random walk and 2 deg/hr bias drift is demonstrated.

  12. Singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator based on KTA crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Das; S Gangopadhyay; C Ghosh; G C Bhar

    2005-01-01

    Tunable mid-infra-red radiation by singly resonant optical parametric oscillation based on KTA crystal pumped by multi-axial Gaussian shape beam from Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been demonstrated. Threshold energy of oscillation at different idler wavelengths for different cavity length has been demonstrated. Single pass conversion efficiency of incident pump energy to infra-red wavelength has also been measured.

  13. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor Based on Multimode Interference Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Soto, J G; Antonio-Lopez, J E; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J [Photonics and Optical Physics Laboratory, Optics Department, INAOE Apdo. Postal 51 and 216, Tonantzintla, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); May-Arrioja, D A, E-mail: darrioja@uat.edu.mx

    2011-01-01

    A novel fiber optic temperature sensor based on multimode interference was designed, fabricated and tested. The sensor is very simple and inexpensive since we only need to splice a section of multimode fiber between two single mode fibers. Using this device a sensing range of 25 deg. C to 375 deg. C is demonstrated. We should also highlight that due to the pass-band filter response of MMI devices, multiplexing is rather simple by just changing the length of the multimode section.

  14. All-optical logic-gates based on bacteriorhodopsin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Gui-Ying; Zhang Chun-Ping; Guo Zong-Xia; Tian Jian-Guo; Zhang Guang-Yin; Song Qi-Wang

    2005-01-01

    Based on self-diffraction in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) film, we propose all-optical NOT, XOR, half adder and XNOR logic operations. Using the relation between diffraction light and the polarization states of recording beams, we demonstrate NOT and XNOR logic operations. Studying the relation of polarization states among the diffracting, recording and reading beams, we implement XOR logic and half adder operations with three inputs. The methods are simple and practicable.

  15. Optical fiber accelerometer based on a silicon micromachined cantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Abdelrafik; Lecoy, Pierre; Marty, Jeanine; Renouf, Christine; Ferdinand, Pierre

    1995-12-01

    An intensity-modulated fiber-optic accelerometer based on backreflection effects has been manufactured and tested. It uses a multimode fiber placed at a spherical mirror center, and the beam intensity is modulated by a micromachined silicon cantilever. This device has applications as an accelerometer and vibrometer for rotating machines. It exhibits an amplitude linearity of +/-1.2% in the range of 0.1-22 m s-2, a frequency linearity of +/-1% in the

  16. Ultrabroadband Phased-Array Receivers Based on Optical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0121 Ultrabroadband Phased-array Receivers Based on Optical Techniques Christopher Schuetz UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Final Report...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Delaware 210 Hullihen Hall Newark, DE 19716 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 Adobe Professional 7.0 Reset INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING SF 298 1. REPORT DATE. Full publication date

  17. Research of optical rainfall sensor based on CCD linear array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Bifeng; LIU; Yuyan; LU; Ying; WU; Shangqian

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall monitoring is one of the most important meteorological observation elements for the disaster weather. The maintenance of current tipping bucket rain gauge and weighing type rain gauge is a critical issue. The optical rainfall sensor based on CCD linear array is mainly studied in this paper. Because of the maintenance-free time and good adaptability,it can be widely used in the automatic rainfall monitoring in severe environment and have a good perspective in using.

  18. Polarimetry noise in fiber-based optical coherence tomography instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ellen Ziyi; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    High noise levels in fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) have broadly limited its clinical utility. In this study we investigate contribution of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) to the polarimetry noise. We develop numerical models of the PS-OCT system including PMD and validate these models with empirical data. Using these models, we provide a framework for predicting noise levels, for processing signals to reduce noise, and for designing an optimized system. PMID:21935044

  19. Robust design of an optical router based on a tapered side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of optical resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettotti, P; Mancinelli, M; Guider, R; Masi, M; Vanacharla, M Rao; Pavesi, L

    2011-04-15

    A novel (to our knowledge) scheme of an optical router/switch element, composed of a tapered side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of optical resonators, is proposed. It is based on a modified design of the ring sequence in which the resonance conditions are set by the single ring resonance and by the coherent feedback of the sequence of rings. This double condition yields robustness against fabrication defects, dense routing capability, and high switching efficiency.

  20. Optimizing Fiber Topologies for WDM Optical Networks Based on Multi-Granularity Optical Switching Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junjie; ZHOU Bingkun; ZHANG Hanyi; LI Yanhe

    2006-01-01

    For the quality of service (QoS) and fairness considerations, the hop counts of various lightpaths in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network should be short and compact. The development of multi-granularity optical switching technology has made it possible to construct various fiber topologies over a fixed physical topology. This paper describes a fiber topology design (FTD) problem, which minimizes the maximum number of required fibers in the physical links for a maximum lightpath hop count in the fiber topology. After the formular description for the FTD problem, a method was given to obtain the lower bound on the maximum number of required fibers. For large or moderate scale networks, three heuristic algorithms are given to efficiently solve the FTD problem. This study gives a new way to optimize the resource configuration performance in WDM optical networks at the topology level and proves its effectiveness via both analyses and numerical experiments.

  1. Fiber optic anemometer based on metal infiltrated microstructured optical fiber inscribed with Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Gao, Shaorui; Liu, Zhengyong; Zhang, A. Ping; Shen, Yonghang; Tam, Hwayaw

    2015-09-01

    An all-fiber optical anemometer with high light-heat conversion efficiency by using an in-house microstructured optical fiber Bragg grating (MOFBG) is presented. Low-molten-temperature BiSnIn alloy was successfully infiltrated into 11- cm length of a six-hole microstructured optical fiber which was inscribed with a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) centered at ~848 nm. Light launched into the MOFBG was strongly absorbed by the metal to generate heat, while the FBG was utilized to monitor temperature change due to surrounding wind speed. The sensitivity of the laser-heated MOFBG anemometer was measured to be ~0.1 nm/(m/s) for wind speed ranged from 0.5 m/s to 2 m/s. The efficiency of the anemometer, defined as effective sensitivity per pump power, is 8.7 nm/(m/s*W).

  2. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin

    The current project investigated the possibility of designing aluminium based coatings focusing on the effect of composition and surface finish on the optical appearance and on the alkaline corrosion properties using titanium as the main alloying element. The main results and discussions of this ......The current project investigated the possibility of designing aluminium based coatings focusing on the effect of composition and surface finish on the optical appearance and on the alkaline corrosion properties using titanium as the main alloying element. The main results and discussions...... the optical appearance is affected by the alloy composition, surface morphology, and the microstructure. Four commercial aluminium alloys were studied before and after polishing, etching, anodisation, and hot water sealing, giving an overview on how the alloy composition affects the appearance. It was found...... that the roughness after etching increases with higher amounts of alloying elements (especially iron and silicon). Proper polishing requires some alloy hardness, while alloy purity is required for a glossy appearance after anodisation. Magnetron sputtered aluminium based coatings containing up to 18 wt. % titanium...

  3. Applied research of quantum information based on linear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiao-Ye

    2016-08-01

    This thesis reports on outstanding work in two main subfields of quantum information science: one involves the quantum measurement problem, and the other concerns quantum simulation. The thesis proposes using a polarization-based displaced Sagnac-type interferometer to achieve partial collapse measurement and its reversal, and presents the first experimental verification of the nonlocality of the partial collapse measurement and its reversal. All of the experiments are carried out in the linear optical system, one of the earliest experimental systems to employ quantum communication and quantum information processing. The thesis argues that quantum measurement can yield quantum entanglement recovery, which is demonstrated by using the frequency freedom to simulate the environment. Based on the weak measurement theory, the author proposes that white light can be used to precisely estimate phase, and effectively demonstrates that the imaginary part of the weak value can be introduced by means of weak measurement evolution. Lastly, a nine-order polarization-based displaced Sagnac-type interferometer employing bulk optics is constructed to perform quantum simulation of the Landau-Zener evolution, and by tuning the system Hamiltonian, the first experiment to research the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in non-equilibrium kinetics processes is carried out in the linear optical system.

  4. Negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlee, C.; Casasent, D.

    1986-01-01

    In the digital multiplication by analog convolution algorithm, the bits of two encoded numbers are convolved to form the product of the two numbers in mixed binary representation; this output can be easily converted to binary. Attention is presently given to negative base encoding, treating base -2 initially, and then showing that the negative base system can be readily extended to any radix. In general, negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors represents a more efficient technique than either sign magnitude or 2's complement encoding, when the additions of digitally encoded products are performed in parallel.

  5. All-optical encryption based on interleaved waveband switching modulation for optical network security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mable P; Prucnal, Paul R

    2009-05-01

    All-optical encryption for optical code-division multiple-access systems with interleaved waveband-switching modulation is experimentally demonstrated. The scheme explores dual-pump four-wave mixing in a 35 cm highly nonlinear bismuth oxide fiber to achieve XOR operation of the plaintext and the encryption key. Bit 0 and bit 1 of the encrypted data are represented by two different wavebands. Unlike on-off keying encryption methods, the encrypted data in this approach has the same intensity for both bit 0 and bit 1. Thus no plaintext or ciphertext signatures are observed.

  6. Si-based optical I/O for optical memory interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyoungho; Shin, Dongjae; Byun, Hyunil; Cho, Kwansik; Na, Kyoungwon; Ji, Hochul; Pyo, Junghyung; Hong, Seokyong; Lee, Kwanghyun; Lee, Beomseok; Shin, Yong-hwack; Kim, Junghye; Kim, Seong-gu; Joe, Insung; Suh, Sungdong; Choi, Sanghoon; Han, Sangdeok; Park, Yoondong; Choi, Hanmei; Kuh, Bongjin; Kim, Kichul; Choi, Jinwoo; Park, Sujin; Kim, Hyeunsu; Kim, Kiho; Choi, Jinyong; Lee, Hyunjoo; Yang, Sujin; Park, Sungho; Lee, Minwoo; Cho, Minchang; Kim, Saebyeol; Jeong, Taejin; Hyun, Seokhun; Cho, Cheongryong; Kim, Jeong-kyoum; Yoon, Hong-gu; Nam, Jeongsik; Kwon, Hyukjoon; Lee, Hocheol; Choi, Junghwan; Jang, Sungjin; Choi, Joosun; Chung, Chilhee

    2012-01-01

    Optical interconnects may provide solutions to the capacity-bandwidth trade-off of recent memory interface systems. For cost-effective optical memory interfaces, Samsung Electronics has been developing silicon photonics platforms on memory-compatible bulk-Si 300-mm wafers. The waveguide of 0.6 dB/mm propagation loss, vertical grating coupler of 2.7 dB coupling loss, modulator of 10 Gbps speed, and Ge/Si photodiode of 12.5 Gbps bandwidth have been achieved on the bulk-Si platform. 2x6.4 Gbps electrical driver circuits have been also fabricated using a CMOS process.

  7. Silicon-on-Insulator Based Electro-optic Variable Optical Attenuator with a Series Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yue-Jiao; LI Fang; LIU Yu-Liang

    2005-01-01

    An electro-optic variable optical attenuator in silicon-on-insulator is designed and fabricated. A series structure is used to improve the device efficiency. Compared to the attenuator in the single p-i-n diode structure in the same modulating length, the attenuation range of the device in the series structure improves 2-3 times in the same injecting current density, while the insertion loss is not affected. The maximum dynamic attenuation of the device is greater than 30dB. The response frequency is obtained to be about 2MHz.

  8. Riboswitch-based sensor in low optical background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, Svetlana V.; Davidson, Molly E.; Chushak, Yaroslav G.; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Stone, Morley O.

    2008-08-01

    Riboswitches are a type of natural genetic control element that use untranslated sequence in the RNA to recognize and bind to small molecules that regulate expression of that gene. Creation of synthetic riboswitches to novel ligands depends on the ability to screen for analyte binding sensitivity and specificity. In our work, we have coupled a synthetic riboswitch to an optical reporter assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two genetically-coded fluorescent proteins. Specifically, a theophylline-sensitive riboswitch was placed upstream of the Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease coding sequence, and a FRET-based construct, BFP-eGFP or eGFP-REACh, was linked by a peptide encoding the recognition sequence for TEV protease. Cells expressing the riboswitch showed a marked optical difference in fluorescence emission in the presence of theophylline. However, the BFP-eGFP FRET pair posses significant optical background that reduces the sensitivity of a FRET-based assay. To improve the optical assay, we designed a nonfluorescent yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) mutant called REACh (for Resonance Energy-Accepting Chromoprotein) as the FRET acceptor for eGFP. The advantage of using an eGFP-REACh pair is the elimination of acceptor fluorescence which leads to an improved detection of FRET via better signal-to-noise ratio. The EGFP-REACh fusion protein was constructed with the TEV protease cleavage site; thus upon TEV translation, cleavage occurs diminishing REACh quenching and increasing eGFP emission resulting in a 4.5-fold improvement in assay sensitivity.

  9. Laser-heating-based active optics for synchrotron radiation applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fugui; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities, because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile based on laser-heating-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as sub-nanometer scale, and that variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-heating technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach towards effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques.

  10. Photoprotection in Plants Optical Screening-based Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Solovchenko, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    Optical screening of excessive and potentially harmful solar radiation is an important photoprotective mechanism, though it has received much less attention in comparison with other systems preventing photooxidative damage to photoautotrophic organisms. This photoprotection in the form of screening appears to be especially important for juvenile and senescing plants as well as under environmental stresses—i.e. in situations where the efficiency of enzymatic ROS elimination, DNA repair and other ‘classical’ photoprotective systems could be impaired. This book represents an attempt to develop an integral view of optical screening-based photoprotection in microalgae and higher plants. Towards this end, the key groups of pigments involved in the screening of ultraviolet and visible components of solar radiation in microalgae and higher plants, and the patterns of their accumulation and distribution within plant cells and tissues, are described. Special attention is paid to the manifestations of screening pi...

  11. An Optical Fibre-Based Sensor for Respiratory Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krehel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a textile-based respiratory sensing system is presented. Highly flexible polymeric optical fibres (POFs that react to applied pressure were integrated into a carrier fabric to form a wearable sensing system. After the evaluation of different optical fibres, different setups were compared. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a wearable sensor, the setup featuring the best performance was placed on the human torso, and thus it was possible to measure the respiratory rate. Furthermore, we show that such a wearable system enables to keep track of the way of breathing (diaphragmatic, upper costal and mixed when the sensor is placed at different positions of the torso. A comparison of the results with the output of some commercial respiratory measurements devices confirmed the utility of such a monitoring device.

  12. Optical sensor based on a single CdS nanobelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Yang, Shuming; Han, Feng; Wang, Liangjun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Jiang, Zhuangde; Pan, Anlian

    2014-04-23

    In this paper, an optical sensor based on a cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanobelt has been developed. The CdS nanobelt was synthesized by the vapor phase transportation (VPT) method. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results revealed that the nanobelt had a hexagonal wurtzite structure of CdS and presented good crystal quality. A single nanobelt Schottky contact optical sensor was fabricated by the electron beam lithography (EBL) technique, and the device current-voltage results showed back-to-back Schottky diode characteristics. The photosensitivity, dark current and the decay time of the sensor were 4 × 10⁴, 31 ms and 0.2 pA, respectively. The high photosensitivity and the short decay time were because of the exponential dependence of photocurrent on the number of the surface charges and the configuration of the back to back Schottky junctions.

  13. Optical mode switch based on multimode interference couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huifu; Deng, Lin; Zhao, Guolin; Liu, Zilong; Meng, Yinghao; Guo, Xiaonan; Liu, Guipeng; Liu, Su; Ding, Jianfeng; Tian, Yonghui

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an optical mode switch based on two cascaded multimode interference (MMI) couplers. After a fundamental mode divided into two equal-power fundamental modes in the first MMI coupler, the thermo-optic effect is employed to modulate the phase of the two fundamental modes before directed to the next MMI for the purpose of mode switching. By adjusting the electric signals applied to the modulation arms, the proposed device can implement mode switching in three states: (a) one first-order and two fundamental modes simultaneously output, (b) one first-order mode output, and (c) two fundamental modes output. As a result, the simulated excess losses are -0.29 dB, -0.10 dB, and -0.63 dB, respectively.

  14. Secure passive optical network based on chaos synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Chongfu; Qiu, Kun

    2012-11-01

    A physical-enhanced secure passive optical network (PON) based on chaos synchronization is proposed and numerically demonstrated. In this scheme, the chaotic output of an external-cavity semiconductor laser is used as the transmission carrier in both downstream and upstream directions, the chaos modulation technology is used to encrypt the downstream data, and the multiplexed subcarrier-modulation technology is adopted for the upstream transmission. Simulation results demonstrate that both the downstream data and the upstream data encrypted into the chaotic carriers can be successfully decrypted; moreover, the security of downstream can be enhanced by properly increasing the bit rate, and the upstream security can be maintained at a high level. The proposed PON affords secure all-optical access at the physical layer.

  15. Optical-based spectral modeling of infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzali, Salima; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Ferrec, Yann; Primot, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    We adopt an optical approach in order to model and predict the spectral signature of an infrared focal plane array. The modeling is based on a multilayer description of the structure and considers a one-dimensional propagation. It provides a better understanding of the physical phenomena occurring within the pixels, which is useful to perform radiometric measurements, as well as to reliably predict the spectral sensitivity of the detector. An exhaustive model is presented, covering the total spectral range of the pixel response. A heuristic model is also described, depicting a complementary approach that separates the different optical phenomena inside the pixel structure. Promising results are presented, validating the models through comparison with experimental results. Finally, advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  16. Ultrastable, Zerodur-based optical benches for quantum gas experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Hannes; Hellmig, Ortwin; Wenzlawski, André; Grote, Alexander; Rafipoor, Amir Jones; Rafipoor, Mona; Sengstock, Klaus; Windpassinger, Patrick

    2014-07-10

    Operating ultracold quantum gas experiments outside of a laboratory environment has so far been a challenging goal, largely due to the lack of sufficiently stable optical systems. In order to increase the thermal stability of free-space laser systems, the application of nonstandard materials such as glass ceramics is required. Here, we report on Zerodur-based optical systems which include single-mode fiber couplers consisting of multiple components jointed by light-curing adhesives. The thermal stability is thoroughly investigated, revealing excellent fiber-coupling efficiencies between 0.85 and 0.92 in the temperature range from 17°C to 36°C. In conjunction with successfully performed vibration tests, these findings qualify our highly compact systems for atom interferometry experiments aboard a sounding rocket as well as various other quantum information and sensing applications.

  17. Optical vortex coronagraphs on ground-based telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The optical vortex coronagraph is potentially a remarkably effective device, at least for an ideal unobstructed telescope. Most ground-based telescopes however suffer from central obscuration and also have to operate through the aberrations of the turbulent atmosphere. This note analyzes the performance of the optical vortex in these circumstances and compares to some other designs, showing that it performs similarly in this situation. There is a large class of coronagraphs of this general type, and choosing between them in particular applications depends on details of performance at small off-axis distances and uniformity of response in the focal plane. Issues of manufacturability to the necessary tolerances are also likely to be important.

  18. Interactive cell segmentation based on phase contrast optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hang; Su, Zhou; Zheng, Shibao; Yang, Hua; Wei, Sha

    2014-01-01

    Cell segmentation in phase contrast microscopy images lays a crucial foundation for numerous subsequent computer-aided cell image analysis, but it encounters many unsolved challenges due to image qualities and artifacts caused by phase contrast optics. Addressing the unsolved challenges, the authors propose an interactive cell segmentation scheme over phase retardation features. After partitioning the images into phase homogeneous atoms, human annotations are propagated to unlabeled atoms over an affinity graph that is learned based on discrimination analysis. Then, an active query strategy is proposed for which the most informative unlabeled atom is selected for annotation, which is also propagated to the other unlabeled atoms. Cell segmentation converges to quality results after several rounds of interactions involving both the user's intentions and characteristics of image features. Experimental results demonstrate that cells with different optical properties are well segmented via the proposed approach.

  19. MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B A; Graham, J R; Oppenheimer, B; Poyneer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Veran, J

    2005-11-18

    The next major step in the study of extrasolar planets will be the direct detection, resolved from their parent star, of a significant sample of Jupiter-like extrasolar giant planets. Such detection will open up new parts of the extrasolar planet distribution and allow spectroscopic characterization of the planets themselves. Detecting Jovian planets at 5-50 AU scale orbiting nearby stars requires adaptive optics systems and coronagraphs an order of magnitude more powerful than those available today--the realm of ''Extreme'' adaptive optics. We present the basic requirements and design for such a system, the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI.) GPI will require a MEMS-based deformable mirror with good surface quality, 2-4 micron stroke (operated in tandem with a conventional low-order ''woofer'' mirror), and a fully-functional 48-actuator-diameter aperture.

  20. Radiation-hard/high-speed array-based optical engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, K. K.; Buchholz, P.; Heidbrink, S.; Kagan, H. P.; Kass, R. D.; Moore, J.; Smith, D. S.; Vogt, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2016-12-01

    We have designed and fabricated a compact array-based optical engine for transmitting data at 10 Gb/s. The device consists of a 4-channel ASIC driving a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array in an optical package. The ASIC is designed using only core transistors in a 65 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. The ASIC contains an 8-bit DAC to control the bias and modulation currents of the individual channels in the VCSEL array. The DAC settings are stored in SEU (single event upset) tolerant registers. Several devices were irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons and the performance of the devices is satisfactory after the irradiation.

  1. All-optical reservoir computer based on saturation of absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2014-05-05

    Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers.

  2. Optical Sensor Based on a Single CdS Nanobelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optical sensor based on a cadmium sulfide (CdS nanobelt has been developed. The CdS nanobelt was synthesized by the vapor phase transportation (VPT method. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM results revealed that the nanobelt had a hexagonal wurtzite structure of CdS and presented good crystal quality. A single nanobelt Schottky contact optical sensor was fabricated by the electron beam lithography (EBL technique, and the device current-voltage results showed back-to-back Schottky diode characteristics. The photosensitivity, dark current and the decay time of the sensor were 4 × 104, 31 ms and 0.2 pA, respectively. The high photosensitivity and the short decay time were because of the exponential dependence of photocurrent on the number of the surface charges and the configuration of the back to back Schottky junctions.

  3. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  4. 38.2-Gb/s Optical-Wireless Transmission in 75-110 GHz Based on Electrical OFDM with Optical Comb Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Beltrán, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate scalable optical comb- and heterodyning-based generation, optical and 1.3-m wireless transmission, and electrical heterodyne detection of multiband OFDM up to 38.2 Gb/s occupying 14.4-GHz RF bandwidth, for high-capacity optical-wireless links in 75-110 GHz.......We demonstrate scalable optical comb- and heterodyning-based generation, optical and 1.3-m wireless transmission, and electrical heterodyne detection of multiband OFDM up to 38.2 Gb/s occupying 14.4-GHz RF bandwidth, for high-capacity optical-wireless links in 75-110 GHz....

  5. Optical triangulation-based microtopographic inspection of surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F M

    2012-01-01

    The non-invasive inspection of surfaces is a major issue in a wide variety of industries and research laboratories. The vast and increasing range of surface types, tolerance requirements and measurement constraints demanded during the last decades represents a major research effort in the development of new methods, systems and metrological strategies. The discreet dimensional evaluation the rugometric characterization and the profilometric inspection seem to be insufficient in many instances. The full microtopographic inspection has became a common requirement. Among the different systems developed, optical methods have the most important role and among those triangulation-based ones have gained a major status thanks to their flexibility, reliability and robustness. In this communication we will provide a brief historical review on the development of optical triangulation application to the dimensional inspection of objects and surfaces and on the work done at the Microtopography Laboratory of the Physics Department of the University of Minho, Portugal, in the development of methods and systems of optical triangulation-based microtopographic inspection of surfaces.

  6. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Musin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible.

  7. Parametric optimization of optical devices based on strong photonic localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Minmin; Yang, Xiangbo

    2017-07-01

    Symmetric two-segment-connected triangular defect waveguide networks (STSCTDWNs) can produce strong photonic localization, which is useful for designing highly efficient energy storage devices, high power superluminescent light emitting diodes, all-optical switches, and more. Although STSCTDWNs have been studied in previous works, in this paper we systematically optimize the parameters of STSCTDWNs to further enhance photonic localization so that the function of optical devices based on strong photonic localization can be improved. When optimizing the parameters, we find a linear relationship between the logarithm of photonic localization and the broken degree of networks. Furthermore, the slope and intercept of the linear relationship are larger than previous results. This means that the increasing speed of photonic localization is improved. The largest intensity of photonic localizations can reach 1036, which is 16 orders of magnitude larger than previous reported results. These optimized networks provide practical solutions for all optical devices based on strong photonic localization in the low frequency range, such as nanostructured devices.

  8. Graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatoli, Teresa; Conteduca, Donato; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Ciminelli, Caterina; Armenise, Mario N

    2016-06-01

    The design of an integrated graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line on silicon nitride for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas is reported. A high value of the optical delay time (τg=920  ps) together with a compact footprint (4.15  mm2) and optical loss antennas. The delay line includes two graphene-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer switches and two vertically stacked microring resonators between which a graphene capacitor is placed. The tuning range is obtained by varying the value of the voltage applied to the graphene electrodes, which controls the optical path of the light propagation and therefore the delay time. The graphene provides a faster reconfigurable time and low values of energy dissipation. Such significant advantages, together with a negligible beam-squint effect, allow us to overcome the limitations of conventional RF beamformers. A highly efficient fine-tunable optical delay line for the beamsteering of 20 radiating elements up to ±20° in the azimuth direction of a tile in a phased-array antenna of an X-band synthetic aperture radar has been designed.

  9. Optical image hiding with silhouette removal based on the optical interference principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2012-02-20

    The earlier proposed interference-based encryption method with two phase-only masks (POMs), which actually is a special case of our method, is quite simple and does not need iterative encoding. However, it has been found recently that the encryption method has security problems and cannot be directly applied to image encryption due to the inherent silhouette problem. Several methods based on chaotic encryption algorithms have been proposed to remove the problem by postprocessing of the POMs, which increased the computation time or led to digital inverse computation in decryption. Here we propose a new method for image encryption based on optical interference and analytical algorithm that can be directly used for image encryption. The information of the target image is hidden into three POMs, and the silhouette problem that exists in the method with two POMs can be resolved during the generation procedure of POMs based on the interference principle. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  10. A Novel Electro-Optic Polymer Modulator Based on Long Period Fiber Gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Dong; Li Pei; Bin Li; Shui-sheng Jian

    2003-01-01

    A novel high-speed electro-optic (EO) polymer modulator based on long period gratings (LPG) is designed. Using the theory of multi-cladding optical waveguide, we achieved relationship between modulate voltage and LPG’s resonant wavelength.

  11. A Novel Electro-Optic Polymer Modulator Based on Long Period Fiber Gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel high-speed electro-optic (EO) polymer modulator based on long period gratings (LPG) is designed. Using the theory of multi-cladding optical waveguide, we achieved relationship between modulate voltage and LPG's resonant wavelength.

  12. Colorless ONU Based on All-VCSEL Sources with Remote Optical Injection for WDM-PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan;

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel low-cost and colorless WDM-PON architecture by using all VCSELs-based optical injection locking technique. A bidirectional transmission system over 26 km SMF at 5 Gbps without optical amplification is successfully achieved....

  13. Colorless ONU Based on All-VCSEL Sources with Remote Optical Injection for WDM-PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel low-cost and colorless WDM-PON architecture by using all VCSELs-based optical injection locking technique. A bidirectional transmission system over 26 km SMF at 5 Gbps without optical amplification is successfully achieved....

  14. Synthetic-lattice enabled all-optical devices based on orbital angular momentum of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2017-07-01

    All-optical photonic devices are crucial for many important photonic technologies and applications, ranging from optical communication to quantum information processing. Conventional design of all-optical devices is based on photon propagation and interference in real space, which may rely on large numbers of optical elements, and the requirement of precise control makes this approach challenging. Here we propose an unconventional route for engineering all-optical devices using the photon's internal degrees of freedom, which form photonic crystals in such synthetic dimensions for photon propagation and interference. We demonstrate this design concept by showing how important optical devices such as quantum memory and optical filters can be realized using synthetic orbital angular momentum (OAM) lattices in degenerate cavities. The design route utilizing synthetic photonic lattices may significantly reduce the requirement for numerous optical elements and their fine tuning in conventional design, paving the way for realistic all-optical photonic devices with novel functionalities.

  15. All-optical signal processing of OTDM and OFDM signals based on time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented.......All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented....

  16. Optical bistability in a high-Q racetrack resonator based on small SU-8 ridge waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Fu, Xin; Yang, Bo; Shi, Yaocheng; Dai, Daoxin

    2013-06-15

    A racetrack resonator with a high Q value (~34,000) is demonstrated experimentally based on small SU-8 optical ridge waveguides, which were fabricated with an improved etchless process. Optical bistability is observed in the present racetrack resonator even with a low input optical power (5.6-7.3 mW), which is attributed to the significant thermal nonlinear optical effect due to the high Q value and the large negative thermo-optical coefficient of SU-8. Theoretical modeling for the optical bistability is also given, and it agrees well with the experimental result.

  17. An all-optical matrix multiplication scheme with non-linear material based switching system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Archan Kumar Das; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    Optics is a potential candidate in information, data, and image processing. In all-optical data and information processing, optics has been used as information carrying signal because of its inherent advantages of parallelism. Several optical methods are proposed in support of the above processing. In many algebraic,arithmetic, and image processing schemes fundamental logic and memory operations are conducted exploring all-optical devices. In this communication we report an all-optical matrix multiplication operation with non-linear material based switching circuit.

  18. Optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  19. Semiconductor Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Klingshirn, Claus F

    2012-01-01

    This updated and enlarged new edition of Semiconductor Optics provides an introduction to and an overview of semiconductor optics from the IR through the visible to the UV, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, dynamics, magneto and electrooptics, high-excitation effects and laser processes, some applications, experimental techniques and group theory. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered extend from physics to materials science and optoelectronics. Significantly updated chapters add coverage of current topics such as electron hole plasma, Bose condensation of excitons and meta materials. Over 120 problems, chapter introductions and a detailed index make it the key textbook for graduate students in physics. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered ...

  20. LED Based Optical Wireless Communication System for WBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATTIYA BAQAI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the O-WBANs (Optical Wireless Body Area Networks is presented as an alternative to the radio and microwave BANs which are plagued with issues like interference, power hungry, hazardous and costly spectrum. Various experiments performed in this work demonstrate the feasibility of LED (Light-Emitting Diode based optical systems to be used for BANs. The system cost is kept as low as possible. Mainly the effects on the optical link are observed under ambient light and with different modulation schemes by varying link distance and line of sight in this paper. Experimental results reveal the satisfactory link availability up to the distance of 7 feet (around 2m, the optimum range of WBAN and within the field of view of 30-60º. The low cost solution presented in this paper meets the WBANs data rate requirement for physiological data (i.e. 10-100 kbps. As IR (Infra-Red signals do not provide any interference with the signals generated by the medical equipment of hospitals which is the problem in case of RF or microwave signals, additionally the IR signals are confined within a room hence IR signaling can prove to be potential candidate for WBAN fulfilling its security and limited access requirement.

  1. Design of distributed Raman temperature sensing system based on single-mode optical fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziheng XU; Deming LIU; Hairong LIU; Qizhen SUN; Zhifeng SUN; Xu ZHANG; Wengang WANG

    2009-01-01

    The distributed optical fiber temperature sensor system based on Raman scattering has developed rapidly since it was invented in 1970s. The optical wavelengths used in most of the distributed temperature optical fiber sensor system based on the Raman scattering are around from 840 to 1330 nm, and the system operates with multimode optical fibers. However, this wavelength range is not suitable for long-distance transmission due to the high attenuation and dispersion of the transmission optical fiber. A novel distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor system based on standard single-mode optical fiber is proposed. The system employs the wavelength of 1550 nm as the probe light and the standard communication optical fiber as the sensing medium to increase the sensing distance. This system mainly includes three modules: the probe light transmitting module, the light magnifying and transmission module, and the signal acquisition module.

  2. Lithium niobate-based integrated optic chip utilizing digital electrode layout for use in a miniature fiber optic rate sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ner, Manjeet S.; Kemmler, Manfred W.; Spahlinger, Guenter

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes to the best of our knowledge the first implementation of a Lithium Niobate based 8 bit electroded integrated optic waveguide fiber optic gyro chip referred here to as 'Digi-MIOC', which has been used in a Sagnac effect exploiting micro fiber optic rate sensor ((mu) -FORS) developed by LITEF. The paper highlights various features of a Digi-MIOC, such as design philosophy, fabrication aspects, and test procedures to evaluate static and dynamic characteristics of the electro-optic parameters. As a consequence of this work, it has been possible for LITEF to cost effectively mass produce Digi-MIOCs. When used in closed loop operation, the Digi-MIOC forms the key optical component of a (mu) -FORS to aid the required optical-to- electrical signal processing to give linear output for input rates of rotation. Various test results and features of LITEF's (mu) -FORS, such as small size, large rotation rate measurement potential, low drive power and high reliability are also highlighted.

  3. Optical clock networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Within the last decade, optical atomic clocks have surpassed the best cesium clocks, which are used to realize the unit of time and frequency, in terms of accuracy and stability by about two orders of magnitude. When remote optical atomic clocks are connected by links without degradation in the clock signals, an optical clock network is formed, with distinct advantages for the dissemination of time, geodesy, astronomy and basic and applied research. Different approaches for time and frequency transfer in the microwave and optical regime, via satellites and free-space links, optical fibre links, or transportable optical atomic clocks, can be used to form a hybrid clock network that may allow a future redefinition of the unit of time based on an optical reference transition.

  4. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  5. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  6. Time-lens based optical packet pulse compression and retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new optical circuit that performs both pulse compression and frame synchronization and retiming. Our design aims at directly multiplexing several 10G Ethernet data packets (frames) to a high-speed OTDM link. This scheme is optically transparent and does not require clock...

  7. Peptide-Based Optical uPAR Imaging for Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Karina; Christensen, Anders; Persson, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared intra-operative optical imaging is an emerging technique with clear implications for improved cancer surgery by enabling a more distinct delineation of the tumor margins during resection. This modality has the potential to increase the number of patients having a curative radical......-operative optical guidance in cancer surgery to ensure complete removal of tumors while preserving adjacent, healthy tissue....

  8. Time-lens based optical packet pulse compression and retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist

    2010-01-01

    compression, as well. The overall design is: (1) Pulses are converted from NRZ to RZ; (2) pulses are synchronized, retimed and further compressed at the specially designed time-lens; and (3) with adequate optical delays, frames from different input interfaces are added, with a simple optical coupler...

  9. Application of optical coherence tomography based microangiography for cerebral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Requirements of in vivo rodent brain imaging are hard to satisfy using traditional technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging and two-photon microscopy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging tool that can easily reach at high speeds and provide high resolution volumetric images with a relatively large field of view for rodent brain imaging. Here, we provide the overview of recent developments of functional OCT based imaging techniques for neuroscience applications on rodents. Moreover, a summary of OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) studies for stroke and traumatic brain injury cases on rodents are provided.

  10. Purely optical navigation with model-based state prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendobry, Alexander; Graber, Thorsten; Klingauf, Uwe

    2010-10-01

    State-of-the-art Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have a lack of precision especially in GPS denied environments like urban canyons or in pure indoor missions. The proposed Optical Navigation System (ONS) provides bias free ego-motion estimates using triple redundant sensor information. In combination with a model based state prediction our system is able to estimate velocity, position and attitude of an arbitrary aircraft. Simulating a high performance flow-field estimator the algorithm can compete with conventional low-cost INS. By using measured velocities instead of accelerations the system states drift behavior is not as distinctive as for an INS.

  11. A novel single fiber optical tweezers based on GIMMF: simulation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Tang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yaxun; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Zhihai

    2017-04-01

    We propose a novel single fiber optical tweezers based on a graded-index multimode fiber (GIMMF), whose length is arbitrary (when the length is larger than 5mm). The optical fiber tweezers based on GIMMFs can propagate larger light field intensity and trap particles easily. The optical fiber tweezers based on precise length GIMMF had been achieved. In this paper, the optical fiber tweezers applies the GIMMF with arbitrary length, which ensure the fabrication of the optical tweezers based on the GIMMF simple, convenient and repeatability.

  12. Novel optical devices based on the tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid and their characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yong, E-mail: zhaoyong@ise.neu.edu.cn [College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang Yuyan [College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China); Lv Riqing; Wang Qi [College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2011-12-15

    As a new type of functional material, magnetic fluid (MF) is a stable colloid of magnetic nanoparticles, dressed with surfactant and dispersed in the carrier liquid uniformly. The MF has many unique optical properties, and the most important one is its tunable refractive index property. This paper summarizes the properties of the MF refractive index and the related optical devices. The refractive index can be easily controlled by external magnetic field, temperature, and so on. But the tunable refractive index of MF has a relaxation effect. As a result, the response time is more than milliseconds and the MF is only suitable for low speed environment. Compared with the traditional optical devices, the magnetic fluid based optical devices have the tuning ability. Compared with the tunable optical devices (the electro-optic devices (LiNbO{sub 3}) of more than 10 GHz modulation speed, acoustic-optic devices (Ge) of more than 20 MHz modulation speed), the speed of the magnetic fluid based optical devices is low. Now there are many applications of magnetic fluid based on the refractive index in the field of optical information communication and sensing technology, such as tunable beam splitter, optical-fiber modulator, tunable optical gratings, tunable optical filter, optical logic device, tunable interferometer, and electromagnetic sensor. With the development of the research and application of magnetic fluid,a new method, structure and material to improve the response time can be found, which will play an important role in the fields of optical information communication and sensing technology. - Highlights: > Magnetic fluid is a new type of functional material, which has many unique optical properties. > We summarize the tunable refractive index property and the related optical devices. > Refractive index can be easily controlled by external magnetic field, temperature and so on. > There are many applications in the field of optical communication and sensing technology

  13. Optical Sensing and Trapping Based on Localized Surface Plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhiwen

    This project involves the study of novel plasmonic nanodevices that provide unique functionality in optical sensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and optical trapping. The first design is based on a coupling system involving double-layered metal nano-strips arrays. This system has the advantages of simple geometry and direct integration with microfluidic chips. The intense optical localization due to field coupling within the system can enhance detection sensitivity of target molecules, especially by virtue of the optical trapping of plasmonic nanoparticles. The optical resonant condition is obtained theoretically through analyzing the SPs modes. Numerical modeling based on two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) is consistent with the theoretical analysis and demonstrates the feasibility of using this system for optical sensing and trapping. In the second design, a gold nano-ring structure is demonstrated to be an effective approach for plasmonic nano-optical tweezers (PNOTs) for trapping metallic nanoparticles. In our demonstration example, we have optimized a device for SERS operation at the wavelength of 785 nm. Three-dimensional (3D) FDTD techniques have been employed to calculate the optical response, and the optical force distribution have been derived using the Maxwell stress tensor (MST) method. Simulation results indicate that the nano-ring produces a maximum trapping potential well of ~32 kBT on a 20 nm gold nanoparticle. The existence of multiple potential well results in a very large active trapping volume of ~106 nm3 for the target particles. Furthermore, the trapped gold nanoparticles further lead to the formation of nano-gaps that offer a near-field enhancement of ~160 times, resulting in an achievable EF of 108 for SERS. In the third design, we propose a concept of all-optical nano-manipulation. We show that target molecules, after being trapped, can be transferred between the trapping sites within a linear array of

  14. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer based tree-net architecture for all-optical conversion scheme from binary to its other 2n radix based form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To exploit the parallelism of optics in data processing,a suitable number system and an efficient encoding/decoding scheme for handling the data are very essential.In the field of optical computing and parallel information processing,several number systems like binary,quaternary,octal,hexadecimal,etc.have been used for different arithmetic and algebraic operations.Here,we have proposed an all-optical conversion scheme from its binary to its other 2n radix based form with the help of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based tree-net architecture.

  15. Study on multiple-hops performance of MOOC sequences-based optical labels for OPS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Qiu, Kun; Ma, Chunli

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we utilize a new study method that is under independent case of multiple optical orthogonal codes to derive the probability function of MOOCS-OPS networks, discuss the performance characteristics for a variety of parameters, and compare some characteristics of the system employed by single optical orthogonal code or multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences-based optical labels. The performance of the system is also calculated, and our results verify that the method is effective. Additionally it is found that performance of MOOCS-OPS networks would, negatively, be worsened, compared with single optical orthogonal code-based optical label for optical packet switching (SOOC-OPS); however, MOOCS-OPS networks can greatly enlarge the scalability of optical packet switching networks.

  16. Diophantine Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouan, D.

    2016-09-01

    What I call Diophantine optics is the exploitation in optics of some remarkable algebraic relations between powers of integers. The name comes from Diophantus of Alexandria, a greek mathematician, known as the father of algebra. He studied polynomial equations with integer coefficients and integer solutions, called diophantine equations. Since constructive or destructive interferences are playing with optical path differences which are multiple integer (odd or even) of λ/2 and that the complex amplitude is a highly non-linear function of the optical path difference (or equivalently of the phase), one can understand that any Taylor development of this amplitude implies powers of integers. This is the link with Diophantine equations. We show how, especially in the field of interferometry, remarkable relations between powers of integers can help to solve several problems, such as achromatization of a phase shifter or deep nulling efficiency. It appears that all the research that was conducted in this frame of thinking, relates to the field of detection of exoplanets, a very active domain of astrophysics today.

  17. Optical Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    34perceptron" (F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics ), workers in the neural network field have been seeking to understand how neural networks can perform...Moscow). 13. F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics , (Spartan, 1962). 14. W. Stoner "Incoherent optical processing via spatially offset pupil

  18. Optical correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boden, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is given of the most common types of coherent optical correlators, which are classified as spatial plane correlators, frequency plane correlators and special reference correlators. Only the spatial plane correlators are dealt with rather thoroughly. Basic principles, some special features,

  19. Optical metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gåsvik, Kjell J

    2003-01-01

    New material on computerized optical processes, computerized ray tracing, and the fast Fourier transform, Bibre-Bragg sensors, and temporal phase unwrapping.* New introductory sections to all chapters.* Detailed discussion on lasers and laser principles, including an introduction to radiometry and photometry.* Thorough coverage of the CCD camera.

  20. Pulsed Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirlimann, C.

    Optics is the field of physics which comprises knowledge on the interaction between light and matter. When the superposition principle can be applied to electromagnetic waves or when the properties of matter do not depend on the intensity of light, one speaks of linear optics. This situation occurs with regular light sources such as light bulbs, low-intensity light-emitting diodes and the sun. With such low-intensity sources the reaction of matter to light can be characterized by a set of parameters such as the index of refraction, the absorption and reflection coefficients and the orientation of the medium with respect to the polarization of the light. These parameters depend only on the nature of the medium. The situation changed dramatically after the development of lasers in the early sixties, which allowed the generation of light intensities larger than a kilowatt per square centimeter. Actual large-scale short-pulse lasers can generate peak powers in the petawatt regime. In that large-intensity regime the optical parameters of a material become functions of the intensity of the impinging light. In 1818 Fresnel wrote a letter to the French Academy of Sciences in which he noted that the proportionality between the vibration of the light and the subsequent vibration of matter was only true because no high intensities were available. The intensity dependence of the material response is what usually defines nonlinear optics.

  1. Ethernet-Based Passive Optical Local-Area Networks for Fiber-to-the-Desk Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovanovic, Igor; Etten, van Wim; Freriks, Hennie

    2003-01-01

    We introduce optical local-area network (LAN) architectures based on multimode optical fiber and components, short wavelength lasers and detectors, and the widely used fast Ethernet protocol. These architectures are designed to lower the costs associated with passive optical LAN implementation. Furt

  2. 640 Gbit/s RZ-to-NRZ format conversion based on optical phase filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for all optical RZ-to-NRZ conversion based on optical phase filtering. The proposed concept is experimentally validated through format conversion of a 640 Gbit/s coherent RZ signal to NRZ signal using a simple phase filter implemented by a commercial optical waveshaper....

  3. QoS-aware precautionary performance monitoring for PCE-based coherent optical OFDM networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueming Lu; Lianxing Hou

    2012-01-01

    A quality-of-service (QoS) aware scheme,called precautionary performance monitoring,is proposed to solve the optical impairments and congestion control in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (CO-OFDM) networks.The centralized path computation element (PCE) extensions based on the QoS level are applied to optical performance monitoring in this letter.

  4. Ethernet Based Passive Optical Local Area Networks for Fiber-to-the-Desk Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovanovic, Igor; van Etten, Wim; Freriks, Hennie

    2003-01-01

    We introduce optical local-area network (LAN) architectures based on multimode optical fiber and components, short wavelength lasers and detectors, and the widely used fast Ethernet protocol. These architectures are designed to lower the costs associated with passive optical LAN implementation.

  5. A Novel All-optical Wavelength Converter Based on Self-pump Four-wave Mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianxiao; CHEN Zhangyuan; TAO Zhenning; WU Deming; XU Anshi; WANG Ziyu

    2002-01-01

    A novel scheme of all-optical wavelength converter(AOWC) based on dual pump four-wave mixing(DP-FWM) was demonstrated. To suppress the ASE noise of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), one of the two pumps was generated interiorly from a loop laser constructed mainly by tunable optical filter and SOA. The theoretical model and some experimental results were presented.

  6. A Convergence Strategy of Data and Optical Networks Based on a Novel Node Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The convergence of data and optical networks is a charming tendency of the current network evolution. In this paper, we propose a novel data and optical network integrating device. Based on it, a converging network structure is put forward and named Hierarchical Data and Optical Networking Integrating (HDONI) networking architecture.

  7. New Ethernet Based Optically Transparent Network for Fiber-to-the-Desk Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovanovic, Igor; Etten, van Wim

    2003-01-01

    We present a new optical local area network architecture based on multimode optical fibers and components, short wavelength lasers and detectors and the widely used fast Ethernet protocol. The presented optically transparent network represent a novel approach in fiber-to-the-desk applications. It is

  8. The Experimental Study on Acousto-optic Modulation Based on Single-mode Fiber Fused Coupler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guoxiang; Hu Li; Ye Kunzhen; Lin Weigan

    2002-01-01

    In-line acoustic-optic (AO) modulation experiments were demonstrated based on the acoustic-optic effect in optical fiber fused taper couplers.About 73%,64%,and 61% modulation have been achieved at frequencies of 0.169 MHz,0.367 MHz and 0.521 MHz with an electrical driving power less than 10 mW,respectively.

  9. A phase insensitive all-optical router based on nonlinear lenslike planar waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Eduardo; Liñares, Jesús

    2005-05-02

    We present the design of an all-optical router based on the properties of both propagation and interaction of Gaussian beams in lenslike planar guides. Variational results of single co- and counterpropagation are derived and used to design three integrated optical devices, that is, a header extraction device, an optical bistable device and a data routing device, which perform an ultrafast, phase-insensitive and fiber compatible routing operation in the optical domain.

  10. Implementation of tristate logic based all optical flip-flop with nonlinear material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Partha Ghosh; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    @@ The advantages of multivalued logic in optical parallel computation need no introduction. There are lots of proposals, already reported, where tristate, quarternary state logic operations can be performed with optics. Here we report a new approach to implement tristate logic based all optical flip-flop using optical nonlinear material. The concept and the principle of operation of this type of flip-flop are different from that of the conventional binary one.

  11. Silica-on-silicon optical couplers and coupler based optical filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    This work concerns modeling and chracterization of non ampligying silica-on-silicon optical components for wavelength division mulitplexed networks. Emphasis is placed on optical couplers and how they can be used as building blocks for devices with a larger complexity. It has been investigated how...... mode interference couplers have superior proces tolerance. The measured characteristics of mulit mode interference couplers deviate from the simulations, showing an unexpected imbalance and large polarization sensitivity. This can be explained by a sligthly non-uniform index distribution across...... penalty. The dispersion can be removed by adding a three-stage all-pass filter on the input arm. The above mentioned silica-on-silicon components have been fabricated using a conventional method where the waveguides are defined and fabricated using cleanroom processing. Waveguides can also be fabricated...

  12. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi

  13. Optical Channel Capacity Upgrade Based on Multiwavelength Conversion XGM Using Semiconductor Optical Amplifier for Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a 10 Gb/s one-to-two-wavelength conversion configuration based on cross-gain modulation for optical access networks using a single TW-SOA. The method is capable of converting a signal data of specific wavelength 1541 nm to certain wavelengths of CW’s laser 1554 nm and 1558 nm with 4 nm spacing. The pump power level was classified due to channel response. A result obtained was the best power level offering wavelength converter between −6 and 3 dBm. The conversion efficiency achievement provided an acceptable result for probe signals. The findings of Q-factor performance were investigated. The Q values were found to be more than 9 for point to point transmission and 20 km fiber configurations for the original and converted signal. The technique implemented at 20 km and the power of all channels were adequate to provide a splitting ratio of 1/64 for the launched pump power 3 dBm.

  14. Modulator-Based, High Bandwidth Optical Links for HEP Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Underwood, D G; Fernando, W S; Stanek, R W

    2012-01-01

    As a concern with the reliability, bandwidth and mass of future optical links in LHC experiments, we are investigating CW lasers and light modulators as an alternative to VCSELs. These links will be particularly useful if they utilize light modulators which are very small, low power, high bandwidth, and are very radiation hard. We have constructed a test system with 3 such links, each operating at 10 Gb/s. We present the quality of these links (jitter, rise and fall time, BER) and eye mask margins (10GbE) for 3 different types of modulators: LiNbO3-based, InP-based, and Si-based. We present the results of radiation hardness measurements with up to ~1012 protons/cm2 and ~65 krad total ionizing dose (TID), confirming no single event effects (SEE) at 10 Gb/s with either of the 3 types of modulators. These optical links will be an integral part of intelligent tracking systems at various scales from coupled sensors through intra-module and off detector communication. We have used a Si-based photonic transceiver to...

  15. Real-time all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain optical fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Kong, Deming; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel simple all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain OFT using time-lenses. A real-time 160 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM transmission with 16 decorrelated data subcarriers is successfully demonstrated over 100 km.......We propose a novel simple all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain OFT using time-lenses. A real-time 160 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM transmission with 16 decorrelated data subcarriers is successfully demonstrated over 100 km....

  16. Diffractive Optical Elements for Dynamic Optical Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhe Zhou; Xin Zhao; Liren Liu

    2003-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements such as the complementary Dammann gratings are incorporated for dynamic optical fiber splitting and combining. Experimental results of 1′8 dynamic optical couplings are presented.

  17. Diffractive Optical Elements for Dynamic Optical Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements such as the complementary Dammann gratings are incorporated for dynamic optical fiber splitting and combining. Experimental results of 1×8 dynamic optical couplings are presented.

  18. Optical-based smart structures for tamper-indicating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliva, P.; Anheier, N.C.; Simmons, K.L.; Undem, H.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a compilation of several related projects performed from 1991 through 1996 concerning the design, construction, and application of optical-based smart structure to tamper-indicating and sensing secure containers. Due to several influences, the projects were carried through to varying degrees of completion. Cancellation of the overall project at the client level motivated the authors to gather all of the technology and ideas about smart structures developed during these several projects, whether completed or just conceptualized, into one document. Although each section individually discusses a specific project, the overall document is written chronologically with each successive section showing how increased smart structure complexity was integrated into the container.

  19. Broadband unidirectional behavior of electromagnetic waves based on transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yiming; Ji, Xuebin; Chen, Lin; Hu, Qing; Zhuang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    High directive antennas are fundamental elements for microwave communication and information processing. Here, inspired by the method of transformation optics, we propose and demonstrate a transformation medium to control the transmission path of a point source, resulting in the unidirectional behavior of electromagnetic waves (directional emitter) without any reflectors. The network of inductor-capacitor transmission lines is designed to experimentally realize the transformation medium. Furthermore, the designed device can work in a broadband frequency range. The unidirectional-manner-based device demonstrated in this work will be an important step forward in developing a new type of directive antennas.

  20. Absolute small-angle measurement based on optical feedback interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingang Zhong; Xianhua Zhang; Zhixiang Ju

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple but effective method for small-angle measurement based on optical feedback inter-ferometry (or laser self-mixing interferometry). The absolute zero angle can be defined at the biggest fringe amplitude point, so this method can also achieve absolute angle measurement. In order to verify the method, we construct an angle measurement system. The Fourier-transform method is used to analysis the interference signal. Rotation angles are experimentally measured with a resolution of 10-6 rad and a measurement range of approximately from -0.0007 to +0.0007 rad.

  1. Event-based Corpuscular Model for Quantum Optics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Michielsen, K; De Raedt, H

    2010-01-01

    A corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one is presented. The event-based corpuscular model is shown to give a unified description of multiple-beam fringes of a plane parallel plate, single-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Wheeler's delayed choice, photon tunneling, quantum erasers, two-beam interference, double-slit, and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm and Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments.

  2. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dietler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.

  3. Analysis of a plastic optical fiber-based displacement sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Felipe; Arrue, Jon; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Durana, Gaizka; Zubia, Joseba; Ziemann, Olaf; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2007-09-01

    An easy-to-manufacture setup for a displacement sensor based on plastic optical fiber (POF) is analyzed, showing computational and experimental results. If the displacement is the consequence of force or pressure applied to the device, this can be used as a force or pressure transducer. Its principle of operation consists of bending a POF section around a flexible cylinder and measuring light attenuation when the whole set is subjected to side pressure. Attenuations are obtained computationally as a function of side deformation for different design parameters. Experimental results with an actually built prototype are also provided.

  4. Photonic crystal biosensor based on optical surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopsky, Valery N; Karakouz, Tanya; Alieva, Elena V; Vicario, Chiara; Sekatskii, Sergey K; Dietler, Giovanni

    2013-02-19

    A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.

  5. Fiber optic displacement measurement model based on finite reflective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhe; Guan, Kaisen; Hu, Zhaohui

    2016-10-01

    We present a fiber optic displacement measurement model based on finite reflective plate. The theoretical model was derived, and simulation analysis of light intensity distribution, reflective plate width, and the distance between fiber probe and reflective plate were conducted in details. The three dimensional received light intensity distribution and the characteristic curve of light intensity were studied as functions of displacement of finite reflective plate. Experiments were carried out to verify the established model. The physical fundamentals and the effect of operating parameters on measuring system performance were revealed in the end.

  6. Diffuse optical tomography based on time-resolved compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, A.; Betcke, M.; Di Sieno, L.; Bassi, A.; Ducros, N.; Pifferi, A.; Valentini, G.; Arridge, S.; D'Andrea, C.

    2017-02-01

    Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) can be described as a highly multidimensional problem generating a huge data set with long acquisition/computational times. Biological tissue behaves as a low pass filter in the spatial frequency domain, hence compressive sensing approaches, based on both patterned illumination and detection, are useful to reduce the data set while preserving the information content. In this work, a multiple-view time-domain compressed sensing DOT system is presented and experimentally validated on non-planar tissue-mimicking phantoms containing absorbing inclusions.

  7. Optical and electrical characterizations of multifunctional silver phosphate glass and polymer-based optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Maxime; Ledemi, Yannick; Morency, Steeve; de Lima Filho, Elton Soares; Messaddeq, Younès

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the fabrication of multifunctional fibers has expanded for multiple applications that require the transmission of both light and electricity. Fibers featuring these two properties are usually composed either of a single material that supports the different characteristics or of a combination of different materials. In this work, we fabricated (i) novel single-core step-index optical fibers made of electrically conductive AgI-AgPO3-WO3 glass and (ii) novel multimaterial fibers with different designs made of AgI-AgPO3-WO3 glass and optically transparent polycarbonate and poly (methyl methacrylate) polymers. The multifunctional fibers produced show light transmission over a wide range of wavelengths from 500 to 1000 nm for the single-core fibers and from 400 to 1000 nm for the multimaterial fibers. Furthermore, these fibers showed excellent electrical conductivity with values ranging between 10−3 and 10−1 S·cm−1 at room temperature within the range of AC frequencies from 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Multimodal taper-tipped fibre microprobes were then fabricated and were characterized. This advanced design could provide promising tools for in vivo electrophysiological experiments that require light delivery through an optical core in addition to neuronal activity recording. PMID:28256608

  8. Focal-plane wavefront sensing for active optics in the VST based on an analytical optical aberration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzlöhner, R.; Taubenberger, S.; Rakich, A. P.; Noethe, L.; Schipani, P.; Kuijken, K.

    2016-08-01

    We study a novel focal plane wavefront sensing and active optics control scheme at the VST on Cerro Paranal, an f/5.5 survey telescope with a 1x1 degree field of view and a 2.6m primary mirror. This scheme analyzes the elongation pattern of stellar PSFs across the full science image (256 Mpixels) and compares their second moments with an analytical model based on 5th-order geometrical optics. We consider 11 scalar degrees of freedom in mirror misalignments and deformations (M2 piston, tip/tilt and lateral displacement, detector tip/tilt, plus M1 figure astigmatism and trefoil). Using a numerical optimization method, we extract up to 4000 stars and complete the fitting process in under one minute. We demonstrate successful closed-loop active optics control based on maximum likelihood filtering.

  9. Magnetic field-induced spectroscopy of forbidden optical transitions with application to lattice-based optical atomic clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Oates, C W; Hoyt, C W; Barber, Z W; Hollberg, L

    2006-03-01

    We develop a method of spectroscopy that uses a weak static magnetic field to enable direct optical excitation of forbidden electric-dipole transitions that are otherwise prohibitively weak. The power of this scheme is demonstrated using the important application of optical atomic clocks based on neutral atoms confined to an optical lattice. The simple experimental implementation of this method--a single clock laser combined with a dc magnetic field--relaxes stringent requirements in current lattice-based clocks (e.g., magnetic field shielding and light polarization), and could therefore expedite the realization of the extraordinary performance level predicted for these clocks. We estimate that a clock using alkaline-earth-like atoms such as Yb could achieve a fractional frequency uncertainty of well below 10(-17) for the metrologically preferred even isotopes.

  10. Error-free 320-to-40-Gbit/s optical demultiplexing based on blueshift filtering in a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Motoharu; Raz, Oded; Gomez-Agis, Fausto; Calabretta, Nicola; Dorren, Harm J S

    2013-01-15

    We present an ultrahigh-speed optical demultiplexing concept based on optical blue-shift filtering in a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA). Using a simple scheme, a QD-SOA and an optical bandpass filter, we have successfully achieved error-free operations at 40 Gbit/s on all the extracted tributaries from an aggregated traffic at 320 Gbit/s.

  11. Observations of the Geometry of Horizon-Based Optical Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, John; Robinson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Orion Project has sparked a renewed interest in horizon-based optical navigation(OPNAV) techniques for spacecraft in the Earth-Moon system. Some approaches have begun to explore the geometry of horizon-based OPNAV and exploit the fact that it is a conic section problem. Therefore, the present paper focuses more deeply on understanding and leveraging the various geometric interpretations of horizon-based OPNAV. These results provide valuable insight into the fundamental workings of OPNAV solution methods, their convergence properties, and associated estimate covariance. Most importantly, the geometry and transformations uncovered in this paper lead to a simple and non-iterative solution to the generic horizon-based OPNAV problem. This represents a significant theoretical advancement over existing methods. Thus, we find that a clear understanding of geometric relationships is central to the prudent design, use, and operation of horizon-based OPNAV techniques.

  12. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  13. Optical engineering of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Rabeau, James R

    2013-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.

  14. Optical antialiasing filters based on complementary Golay codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J R; Schuler, J; Morphis, N; Knowlden, R

    1997-07-10

    An optical filter that has an ideal response for removing aliasing noise from a sampled imaging system is described. The all-phase filter uses complementary Golay codes to achieve an optimum low-pass transfer function with no sidelobes. A computer model shows that the optical system has the expected performance in the ideal case, but degrades somewhat with wavelength variations and image aberrations. An experimental demonstration of the filter shows the optical transfer function performance and the response to imagery with a sampled detector.

  15. Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2005-01-01

    of LCs combined with the unique waveguiding features of PBG fibers gives the LC filled PCFs unique tunable properties. PBG guidance has been demonstrated for different mesophases of LCs and various functional compact fibers has been demonstrated, which utilitzes the high thermo-optical and electro-optical...... effects of LCs. Thermally controlled spectral filters and broadband switching functionalities, electrically controlled switches, polarizers and polarization rotators and an all-optical modulator has been demonstrated. The waveguiding mechanism of anistotropic PBGs fibers has been analyzed and spectral...

  16. An optical nanofiber-based interface for single molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Skoff, Sarah M; Schauffert, Hardy; Rauschenbeutel, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Optical interfaces for quantum emitters are a prerequisite for implementing quantum networks. Here, we couple single molecules to the guided modes of an optical nanofiber. The molecules are embedded within a crystal that provides photostability and due to its inhomogeneous environment, a means to spectrally address single molecules. Single molecules are excited and detected solely via the nanofiber interface without the requirement of additional optical access. In this way, we realize a fully fiber-integrated system that is scalable and may become a versatile constituent for quantum hybrid systems.

  17. Optical nanoprobes based on gold nanoparticles for sugar sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scampicchio, Matteo; Arecchi, Alessandra; Mannino, Saverio

    2009-04-01

    A novel optical nanoprobe for sugar sensing is reported. The assay used an electrospun polyamide mesh containing Au salts. The reaction of carbohydrates with these Au salts in alkaline media generates gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature without the need for Au seeds. The optical properties of the resulting AuNPs relate to the total reducing sugar content of the samples analysed. The development of such inexpensive disposable optical nanoprobes could find applications in a host of industrial, biomedical and clinical fields.

  18. Research of high speed optical switch based on compound semiconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG MingHua; QI Wei; YU Hui; JIANG XiaoQing; YANG JianYi

    2009-01-01

    High-speed optical switch and its array are the crucial components of all-optical switching system. This paper presents the analytical model of a total-internal-reflection (TIR) optical switch. By employing the carrier injection effect in GaAs and the GaAs/AlGaAs double heterojunction structure, the X-junction TIR switch and the Mach-Zehnder interference (MZI) switch are demonstrated at 1.55 IJm. The measured results show that the extinction ratio of both switches exceeds 20 dB. The switching speed reaches the scale of 10 ns.

  19. Si-based integrated optical and photonic microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppihalme, Matti J.; Aalto, Timo T.; Katila, Pekka; Heimala, Paeivi; Blomberg, Martti; Tammela, Simo K. T.

    2000-03-01

    The design, fabrication and properties of various types of optical waveguides on silicon substrates as well as Fabry- Perot devices accomplished mainly at the Microelectronics Center of VTT Electronics are introduced. Different waveguides, directional couplers, multimode interference couplers, switches and power splitters have been studied. For waveguide fabrication on silicon substrates principally three materials were used depending on the application: silicon oxynitride, silicon on insulator (SOI). Silicon waveguides with large Si-core and a thermo-optical switch have been fabricated by SOI technology. Silicon Fabry-Perot structures have been fabricated for wavelength scanning applications in instrumentation and to measure chirp properties of lasers used in optical communications.

  20. Multiple Constraints Based Lightpath Provisioning in Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGSheng; LILemin

    2005-01-01

    In Wavelength-routed optical Networks, a lightpath can be provisioned only if a path can be found which satisfies multiple constraints while simultaneously achieving optimal primary cost. Where the primary cost can be any metric set by network administrators, and the constraints concerned in optical networks include wavelength continuity constraint and some other impairments in optical domain. In this paper~ the impact of these constraints on the optimal path calculation algorithms is studied, then a unique solving framework is proposed, which treated the whole problem as a Multiple constraint optimal path (MCOP) problem. A novel heuristic for solving MCOP problem is proposed, and its performance is evaluated through extensive simulations.

  1. Optical testing of progressive ophthalmic glasses based on galvo mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuerwald, S.; Schmitt, R.

    2014-03-01

    In production of ophthalmic freeform optics like progressive eyeglasses, the specimens are tested according to a standardized method which is based on the measurement of the vertex power on usually less than 10 points. For a better quality management and thus to ensure more reliable and valid tests, a more comprehensive measurement approach is required. For Shack Hartmann Sensors (SHS) the dynamic range is defined by the number of micro-lenses and the resolution of the imaging sensor. Here, we present an approach for measuring wavefronts with increased dynamic range and lateral resolution by the use of a scanning procedure. Therefore, the proposed innovative setup is based on galvo mirrors that are capable of measuring the vertex power with a lateral resolution below one millimeter since this is sufficient for a functional test of progressive eyeglasses. Expressed in a more abstract way, the concept is based on a selection and thereby encoding of single sub-apertures of the wave front under test. This allows measuring the wave fronts slope consecutively in a scanning procedure. The use of high precision galvo systems allows a lateral resolution below one millimeter as well as a significant fast scanning ability. The measurement concept and performance of this method will be demonstrated for different spherical and freeformed specimens like progressive eye glasses. Furthermore, approaches for calibration of the measurement system will be characterized and the optical design of the detector will be discussed.

  2. Refractive Index Measurement of Liquids Based on Microstructured Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on microstructured optical fiber sensors developed in recent years for liquid RI sensing. The review is divided into three parts: the first section introduces a general view of the most relevant refractometric sensors that have been reported over the last thirty years. Section 2 discusses several microstructured optical fiber designs, namely, suspended-core fiber, photonic crystal fiber, large-core air-clad photonic crystal fiber, and others. This part is also divided into two main groups: the interferometric-based and resonance-based configurations. The sensing methods rely either on full/selective filling of the microstructured fiber air holes with a liquid analyte or by simply immersing the sensing fiber into the liquid analyte. The sensitivities and resolutions are tabled at the end of this section followed by a brief discussion of the obtained results. The last section concludes with some remarks about the microstructured fiber-based configurations developed for RI sensing and their potential for future applications.

  3. Applied optics and optical engineering v.9

    CERN Document Server

    Shannon, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume IX covers the theories and applications of optics and optical engineering. The book discusses the basic algorithms for optical engineering; diffraction gratings, ruled and holographic; and recording and reading of information on optical disks. The text also describes the perfect point spread function; the multiple aperture telescope diffraction images; and the displays and simulators. Ophthalmic optics, as well as the canonical and real-space coordinates used in the theory of image formation are also encompassed. Optical engineers and students tak

  4. Soft optics in intelligent optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Chikong; Cao, Yang

    2001-10-01

    In addition to the recent advances in Hard-optics that pushes the optical transmission speed, distance, wave density and optical switching capacity, Soft-optics provides the necessary intelligence and control software that reduces operational costs, increase efficiency, and enhances revenue generating services by automating optimal optical circuit placement and restoration, and enabling value-added new services like Optical VPN. This paper describes the advances in 1) Overall Hard-optics and Soft-optics 2) Layered hierarchy of Soft-optics 3) Component of Soft-optics, including hard-optics drivers, Management Soft-optics, Routing Soft-optics and System Soft-optics 4) Key component of Routing and System Soft-optics, namely optical routing and signaling (including UNI/NNI and GMPLS signaling). In summary, the soft-optics on a new generation of OXC's enables Intelligent Optical Networks to provide just-in-time service delivery and fast restoration, and real-time capacity management that eliminates stranded bandwidth. It reduces operational costs and provides new revenue opportunities.

  5. Fibre-optical microendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, M; Bao, H; Kang, H

    2014-04-01

    Microendoscopy has been an essential tool in exploring micro/nano mechanisms in vivo due to high-quality imaging performance, compact size and flexible movement. The investigations into optical fibres, micro-scanners and miniature lens have boosted efficiencies of remote light delivery to sample site and signal collection. Given the light interaction with materials in the fluorescence imaging regime, this paper reviews two classes of compact microendoscopy based on a single fibre: linear optical microendoscopy and nonlinear optical microendoscopy. Due to the fact that fluorescence occurs only in the focal volume, nonlinear optical microendoscopy can provide stronger optical sectioning ability than linear optical microendoscopy, and is a good candidate for deep tissue imaging. Moreover, one-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopy as the linear optical microendoscopy suffers from severe photobleaching owing to the linear dependence of photobleaching rate on excitation laser power. On the contrary, nonlinear optical microendoscopy, including two-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopy and second harmonic generation microendoscopy, has the capability to minimize or avoid the photobleaching effect at a high excitation power and generate high image contrast. The combination of various nonlinear signals gained by the nonlinear optical microendoscopy provides a comprehensive insight into biophenomena in internal organs. Fibre-optical microendoscopy overcomes physical limitations of traditional microscopy and opens up a new path to achieve early cancer diagnosis and microsurgery in a minimally invasive and localized manner.

  6. Time lens based optical fourier transformation for advanced processing of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Morioka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals.......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals....

  7. Energy-Efficient Next-Generation Passive Optical Networks Based on Sleep Mode and Heuristic Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulai, Luis G. T.; Durand, Fábio R.; Abrão, Taufik

    2015-05-01

    In this article, an energy-efficiency mechanism for next-generation passive optical networks is investigated through heuristic particle swarm optimization. Ten-gigabit Ethernet-wavelength division multiplexing optical code division multiplexing-passive optical network next-generation passive optical networks are based on the use of a legacy 10-gigabit Ethernet-passive optical network with the advantage of using only an en/decoder pair of optical code division multiplexing technology, thus eliminating the en/decoder at each optical network unit. The proposed joint mechanism is based on the sleep-mode power-saving scheme for a 10-gigabit Ethernet-passive optical network, combined with a power control procedure aiming to adjust the transmitted power of the active optical network units while maximizing the overall energy-efficiency network. The particle swarm optimization based power control algorithm establishes the optimal transmitted power in each optical network unit according to the network pre-defined quality of service requirements. The objective is controlling the power consumption of the optical network unit according to the traffic demand by adjusting its transmitter power in an attempt to maximize the number of transmitted bits with minimum energy consumption, achieving maximal system energy efficiency. Numerical results have revealed that it is possible to save 75% of energy consumption with the proposed particle swarm optimization based sleep-mode energy-efficiency mechanism compared to 55% energy savings when just a sleeping-mode-based mechanism is deployed.

  8. N-port strictly non-blocking optical router based on Mach-Zehnder optical switch for photonic networks-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Minming; Tang, Zhenhua; Chang, Kan; Huang, Xufang; Zheng, Jiali

    2017-01-01

    A universal method for constructing an N-port strictly non-blocking optical router based on 2×2 Mach-Zehnder optical switch for photonic networks-on-chip is proposed. By analyzing the routing table of the N-port optical router, the relationship between the optical links of port m→port n and port m→port n-1 is indicated, as well as the relationships between the block matrices of the N-port optical router. The strictly non-blocking property of the N-port optical router is proved by the contradiction method. The scale of the N-port optical router can be increased with the improvement of the performance of the Mach-Zehnder optical switch.

  9. Broadband Continuous-Wave Multi-Harmonic Optical Comb Based on a Frequency Division-by-Three Optical Parametric Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Yin Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a multi-watt broadband continuous-wave multi-harmonic optical comb based on a frequency division-by-three singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator. This cw optical comb is frequency-stabilized with the help of a beat signal derived from the signal and frequency-doubled idler waves. The measured frequency fluctuation in one standard deviation is ~437 kHz. This is comparable to the linewidth of the pump laser which is a master-oscillator seeded Yb:doped fiber amplifier at ~1064 nm. The measured powers of the fundamental wave and the harmonic waves up to the 6th harmonic wave are 1.64 W, 0.77 W, 3.9 W, 0.78 W, 0.17 W, and 0.11 W, respectively. The total spectral width covered by this multi-harmonic comb is ~470 THz. When properly phased, this multi-harmonic optical comb can be expected to produce by Fourier synthesis a light source consisting of periodic optical field waveforms that have an envelope full-width at half-maximum of 1.59 fs in each period.

  10. Visual guidance based on optic flow: a biorobotic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses some basic questions as to how vision links up with action and serves to guide locomotion in both biological and artificial creatures. The thorough knowledge gained during the past five decades on insects' sensory-motor abilities and the neuronal substrates involved has provided us with a rich source of inspiration for designing tomorrow's self-guided vehicles and micro-vehicles, which will be able to cope with unforeseen events on the ground, under water, in the air, in space, on other planets, and inside the human body. Insects can teach us some useful tricks for designing agile autonomous robots. Since constructing a "biorobot" first requires exactly formulating the biological principles presumably involved, it gives us a unique opportunity of checking the soundness and robustness of these principles by bringing them face to face with the real physical world. "Biorobotics" therefore goes one step beyond computer simulation. It leads to experimenting with real physical robots which have to pass the stringent test of the real world. Biorobotics provide us with a new tool, which can help neurobiologists and neuroethologists to identify and investigate worthwhile issues in the field of sensory-motor control. Here we describe some of the visually guided terrestrial and aerial robots we have developed since 1985 on the basis of our biological findings. All these robots behave in response to the optic flow, i.e., they work by measuring the slip speed of the retinal image. Optic flow is sensed on-board by miniature electro-optical velocity sensors. The very principle of these sensors was based on studies in which we recorded the responses of single identified neurons to single photoreceptor stimulation in a model visual system: the fly's compound eye.

  11. All-optical gates based on photonic crystal resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moille, Grégory; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    We briefly review the technology of advanced nonlinear resonators for all-optical gating with a specific focus on the application of high-performance signal sampling and on the properties of III-V semiconductor photonic crystals

  12. Planetary-Whigs: Optical MEMS-Based Seismometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I, Michigan Aerospace Corporation will adapt the design of an optical MEMS seismometer for lunar and other planetary science instrumentation. The...

  13. Polymer-based optical interconnects using nanoimprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Wiegersma, S.; Offrein, B.J.; Duis, J.; Delis, J.; Ortsiefer, M.; Steenberge, G. van; Karpinen, M.; Blaaderen, A. van; Corbett, B.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing request for higher data speeds in the information and communication technology leads to continuously increasing performance of microprocessors. This has led to the introduction of optical data transmission as a replacement of electronic data transmission in most transmission

  14. Photonic multi-shape UWB pulse generation using a semiconductor optical amplifier-based nonlinear optical loop mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Bo-Wen; Dong Jian-Ji; Yu Yuan; Yang Ting; Zhang Xin-Liang

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme to implement photonic multi-shape ultra-wideband (UWB) signal generation using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM).By employing the cross phase modulation (XPM) effect,cross gain modulation (XGM),or both,multi-shape UWB waveforms are generated including monocycle,doublet,triplet,and quadruplet pulses.Both the shapes and polarities of the generated pulses are flexible to adjust,which may be very useful in UWB pulse shape modulation and pulse polarity modulation.

  15. Quartz optical filter for wavelength selection of frequency-doubled laser based on optical rotatory dispersion effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Zhang; Fuquan Wu; Wendi Wu; Haifeng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the optical rotatory dispersion effect, an optical filter for selecting the second harmonic of a frequency-doubled laser is constructed from quartz in combination with polarizers. The operating principle is analyzed by matrix formulation, and the result indicates that the second harmonic of a frequency-doubled laser will be obtained when the rotation angle has a difference of (2n + 1)π/2 (n = 0, 1, 2, 3,… ) between the two polarizations of the second-harmonic laser and the fundamental laser. The spectrum of the output laser is taken by the AQ-6315A spectrometer, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical results.

  16. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  17. Optical MEMS-Based Seismometer "WHIGS"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    inducer. The deflection of the cantilever beam will be monitored using a Michelson interferometer setup. The vacuum chamber eliminates unwanted...weakly coupled to an optical fiber , as shown in Figure 1a. The optical fiber , which carries light from a tunable laser, serves as an input/output port...for the microsphere. When the microsphere comes into contact with an exposed section of the fiber core, light is coupled into the outer layer of the

  18. Experimental phase-space-based optical amplification of scar modes

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Claire; Doya, Valerie; Aschieri, Pierre; Blanc, Wilfried; Legrand, Olivier; Mortessagne, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Waves billiard which are chaotic in the geometrical limit are known to support non-generic spatially localized modes called scar modes. The interaction of the scar modes with gain has been recently investigated in optics in micro-cavity lasers and vertically-cavity surface-emitting lasers. Exploiting the localization properties of scar modes in their wave analogous phase space representation, we report experimental results of scar modes selection by gain in a doped D-shaped optical fiber.

  19. Plenoptic microscope based on laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI)

    CERN Document Server

    Glastre, W; Jacquin, O; de Chatellus, H Guillet; Lacot, E

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the performances of a plenoptic microscope which combines the high sensitivity of a laser optical feedback imaging setup , the high resolution of optical synthetic aperture and a shot noise limited signal to noise ratio by using acoustic photon tagging. By using an adapted phase filtering, this microscope allows phase drift correction and numerical aberration compensation (defocusing, coma, astigmatism ...). This new kind of microscope seems to be well adapted to make deep imaging through scattering and heterogeneous media.

  20. Quantum optical waveform conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Wiseman, HM

    2010-01-01

    Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

  1. Silicon Optical Modulator Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Thor LIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed a way of predicting and analyzing high speed optical modulator. Our research adopted a bottom-up approach to consider high-speed optical links using an eye diagram. Our method leverages on modular mapping of electrical characteristics to optical characteristics, while attaining the required accuracy necessary for device footprint approaching sub-micron scales where electrical data distribution varies drastically. We calculate for the bias dependent phase shift (2pi/mm and loss (dB/mm for the optical modulator based on the real and imaginary part of complex effective indices. Subsequently, combine effectively both the electrical and optical profiles to construct the optical eye diagram which is the essential gist of signal integrity of such devices.

  2. Silicon optical modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham T. Reed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the earliest research on optical circuits, dating back to the 1970s, there have been visions of an optical superchip (see for example1,2, containing a variety of integrated optical components to carry out light generation, modulation, manipulation, detection, and amplification (Fig. 1. The early work was associated with ferroelectric materials such as lithium niobate (LiNbO3, and III-V semiconductors such as gallium arsenide (GaAs and indium phosphide (InP based systems. LiNbO3 was interesting almost solely because of the fact that it possesses a large electro-optic coefficient3, enabling optical modulation via the Pockels effect. Alternatively, the III-V compounds were interesting because of the relative ease of laser fabrication and the prospect of optical and electronic integration.

  3. Optical aeronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Stanley C.

    1991-01-01

    Optical measurements of thermospheric and ionospheric processes and their interpretation are reviewed and the chemical reactions and their effects on emissions are discussed. Also included are the phenomena which excite the airglow and aurora, i.e., the solar UV/EUV flux and auroral particle precipitation. Consideration is given to solar flux, atomic emissions, molecular emissions, hydrogen geocorona, and molecular oxygen and the green line nightglow.

  4. Applied Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Han, M; Wang, Anbo

    2004-01-01

    A straightforward theory is presented to accurately model the light inferences in a low-finesse multimode fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer. The effect on the fringe visibility of the gap length, sensor structure imperfections, and modal power distributions is explored. The analysis is particularly useful in the design and optimization of sensors that use an extrinsic FP cavity as the sensing element. (C) 2004 Optical Society of America.

  5. Engineering aperiodic nanostructured surfaces for scattering-based optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuk Kwan Sylvanus

    Novel optical devices such as biosensors, color displays and authentication devices can be obtained from the distinctive light scattering properties of resonant nanoparticles and nanostructured arrays. These arrays can be optimized through the choice of material, particle morphology and array geometry. In this thesis, by engineering the multi-frequency colorimetric responses of deterministic aperiodic nanostructured surfaces (DANS) with various spectral Fourier properties, I designed, fabricated and characterized scattering-based devices for optical biosensing and structural coloration applications. In particular, using analytical and numerical optimization, colorimetric biosensors are designed and fabricated with conventional electron beam lithography, and characterized using dark-field scattering imaging as well as image autocorrelation analysis of scattered intensity in the visible spectral range. These sensors, which consist of aperiodic surfaces ranging from quasi-periodic to pseudo-random structures with flat Fourier spectra, sustain highly complex structural resonances that enable a novel optical sensing approach beyond the traditional Bragg scattering. To this end, I have experimentally demonstrated that DANS with engineered structural colors are capable of detecting nanoscale protein monolayers with significantly enhanced sensitivity over periodic structures. In addition, different aperiodic arrays of gold (Au) nanoparticles are integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic structures by soft-lithographic micro-imprint techniques. Distinctive scattering spectral shifts and spatial modifications of structural color patterns in response to refractive index variations were simultaneously measured. The successful integration of DANS with microfluidics technology has introduced a novel opto-fluidic sensing platform for label-free and multiplexed lab-on-a-chip applications. Moreover, by studying the isotropic scattering properties of homogenized

  6. Adaptive fiber optics collimator based on flexible hinges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Pengfei; Si, Lei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu

    2014-08-20

    In this manuscript, we present a new design for an adaptive fiber optics collimator (AFOC) based on flexible hinges by using piezoelectric stacks actuators for X-Y displacement. Different from traditional AFOC, the new structure is based on flexible hinges to drive the fiber end cap instead of naked fiber. We fabricated a real AFOC based on flexible hinges, and the end cap's deviation and resonance frequency of the device were measured. Experimental results show that this new AFOC can provide fast control of tip-tilt deviation of the laser beam emitting from the end cap. As a result, the fiber end cap can support much higher power than naked fiber, which makes the new structure ideal for tip-tilt controlling in a high-power fiber laser system.

  7. Scattered Data Processing Approach Based on Optical Facial Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, animation reconstruction of facial expressions has become a popular research field in computer science and motion capture-based facial expression reconstruction is now emerging in this field. Based on the facial motion data obtained using a passive optical motion capture system, we propose a scattered data processing approach, which aims to solve the common problems of missing data and noise. To recover missing data, given the nonlinear relationships among neighbors with the current missing marker, we propose an improved version of a previous method, where we use the motion of three muscles rather than one to recover the missing data. To reduce the noise, we initially apply preprocessing to eliminate impulsive noise, before our proposed three-order quasi-uniform B-spline-based fitting method is used to reduce the remaining noise. Our experiments showed that the principles that underlie this method are simple and straightforward, and it delivered acceptable precision during reconstruction.

  8. Wave Optics Based LEO-LEO Radio Occultation Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the theory for performing retrieval of radio occultations that use probing frequencies in the XK and KM band. Normally radio occultations use frequencies in the L band and GPS satellites are used as the transmitting source and the occultation signals are received by a GPS...... in the signal amplitude caused by atmospheric absorption. The radio wave transmitter is placed on one of these satellites while the receiver is placed on the other LEO satellite. One of the drawbacks of normal GPS based radio occultations is that external information is needed to calculate some...... chain is therefore a wave optics based retrieval chain and it is therefore possible to process measurements that include multipath. In this paper simulated LEO to LEO radio occultations based on 5 different frequencies are used. The 5 frequencies are placed in the XK or KM frequency band. This new wave...

  9. Wave Optics Based LEO-LEO Radio Occultation Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per

    2016-01-01

    in the signal amplitude caused by atmospheric absorption. The radio wave transmitter is placed on one of these satellites while the receiver is placed on the other LEO satellite. One of the drawbacks of normal GPS based radio occultations is that external information is needed to calculate some...... of the atmospheric products such as the correct water vapor content in the atmosphere. These limitations can be overcome when a proper selected range of high frequency waves are used to probe the atmosphere. Probing frequencies close to the absorption line of water vapor have been included, thus allowing...... chain is therefore a wave optics based retrieval chain and it is therefore possible to process measurements that include multipath. In this paper simulated LEO to LEO radio occultations based on 5 different frequencies are used. The 5 frequencies are placed in the XK or KM frequency band. This new wave...

  10. Optical encryption interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  11. LIGHT MODULATION: Ultrafast optical modulators based on the nonlinear optical response of an electron—hole plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, M. V.; Stankevich, V. V.; Buganov, O. V.; Tikhomirov, S. A.; Ganonenko, S. V.; Kuznetsov, P. I.; Yakushcheva, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of multilayer heterostructures based on zinc chalcogenides are studied. Rapid variations in the reflection and transmission of samples excited by ultrashort laser pulses are demonstrated. The characteristic relaxation times of the induced nonlinearity are 2-5 ps and are almost independent within the experimental error on the excitation energy and temperature of a sample.

  12. Deformable Nanolaminate Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S S; Papavasiliou, A P; Barbee, T W; Miles, R R; Walton, C C; Cohn, M B; Chang, K

    2006-05-12

    We are developing a new class of deformable optic based on electrostatic actuation of nanolaminate foils. These foils are engineered at the atomic level to provide optimal opto-mechanical properties, including surface quality, strength and stiffness, for a wide range of deformable optics. We are combining these foils, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with commercial metal processing techniques to produce prototype deformable optics with aperture sizes up to 10 cm and actuator spacing from 1 mm to 1 cm and with a range of surface deformation designed to be as much as 10 microns. The existing capability for producing nanolaminate foils at LLNL, coupled with the commercial metal processing techniques being used, enable the potential production of these deformable optics with aperture sizes of over 1 m, and much larger deformable optics could potentially be produced by tiling multiple deformable segments. In addition, based on the fabrication processes being used, deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be produced with areal densities of less than 1 kg per square m for applications in which lightweight deformable optics are desirable, and deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be fabricated with intrinsically curved surfaces, including aspheric shapes. We will describe the basic principles of these devices, and we will present details of the design, fabrication and characterization of the prototype deformable nanolaminate optics that have been developed to date. We will also discuss the possibilities for future work on scaling these devices to larger sizes and developing both devices with lower areal densities and devices with curved surfaces.

  13. Optical polarization tractography based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; Wang, Yuanbo; Ravanfar, Mohammadreza; Azinfar, Leila; Yao, Xuan; Zhang, Keqing; Duan, Dongsheng

    2016-03-01

    Fibrous tissues exist in many parts of the body, where the directional fiber organization is critical in maintaining their normal functions. Disruption of the normal fibrous structure is often linked to tissue dysfunction. An imaging tool that can reveal the detailed fiber architecture will be valuable for our understanding of the structure-function relationship in these tissues. Here, we described a new high-resolution tractography method developed from Jones matrix polarizationsensitive optical coherence tomography. We demonstrated its applications for visualization of fibrous structures in several different animal tissues.

  14. Incoherent broadband optical pulse generation using an optical gate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biao Chen; Qiong Jiang

    2008-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2D) time-spreading/wavelength-hopping optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems, employing less coherent broadband optical pulse sources allows lower electrical operating rate and better system performance. An optical gate based scheme for generating weakly coherent(approximately incoherent) broadband optical pulses was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Inthis scheme, the terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer, together with a coherent narrowband controlpulse source, turns an incoherent broadband continuous-wave (CW) light source into the required pulse source.

  15. Assembly of optical fibers for the connection of polymer-based waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansel, Yannick; Grau, Daniel; Holzki, Markus; Kraus, Silvio; Neumann, Frank; Reinhard, Carsten; Schmitz, Felix

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes the realization of polymer-based optical structures and the assembly and packaging strategy to connect optical fiber ribbons to the waveguides. For that a low cost fabrication process using the SU-8TM thick photo-resist is presented. This process consists in the deposition of two photo-structurized resist layers filled up with epoxy glue realising the core waveguide. For the assembly, a new modular vacuum gripper was realised and installed on an automatic pick and place assembly robot to mount precisely and efficiently the optical fibers in the optical structures. First results have shown acceptable optical propagation loss for the complete test structure.

  16. Microring-resonator-based four-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruiqiang; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Yonghui; Ding, Jianfeng; Chen, Hongtao; Lu, Yangyang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Weiwei

    2011-09-26

    We design and fabricate a four-port optical router, which is composed of eight microring-resonator-based switching elements, four optical waveguides and six waveguide crossings. The extinction ratio is about 13 dB for the through port and larger than 30 dB for the drop port. The crosstalk of the measured optical links is less than -13 dB. The average tuning power consumption is about 10.37 mW and the tuning efficiency is 5.398 mW/nm. The routing functionality and optical signal integrity are verified by transmitting a 12.5 Gb/s PRBS optical signal.

  17. Reconfigurable non-blocking four-port optical router based on microring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Jia, Hao; Zhao, Yunchou; Chen, Qiaoshan

    2015-03-15

    A reconfigurable non-blocking four-port optical router with the least optical switches is demonstrated. The device is based on microring resonators tuned through thermo-optic effect. The optical signal-to-noise ratio of the device at its nine routing states is about 15 dB. A 25 Gbps data transmission has been performed on its whole 12 optical links, and 8-channel wavelength division multiplexing data transmission has been implemented to expand its communication capacity. The energy efficiency of the device is 23 fJ/bit, and the response time of the device is about 25 μs.

  18. Optical encryption/decryption of 8PSK signal using FWM-based modified XOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Cui, Yue; Zhan, Yueying; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Xue

    2015-09-01

    A scheme for optical encryption/decryption of an eight-phase-shift keying (8PSK) signal is proposed, and this scheme applies modified optical XOR gates based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Theoretical analyses and simulations are conducted. Both the performance and the parameter design of a 40-Gbit/s all-optical encryption/decryption system under various key parameters are studied. The results are useful for designing optical encryption/decryption for complex modulated signals.

  19. Packet QoS level classifier based on optical binary priority comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seoksu; Nguyen, Vancanh; Park, Jinwoo

    2010-07-19

    Next generation High-Speed optical packet switching networks require components capable of classifying incoming packet into the appropriate priority queue according to the service class of the packet. For the first time, we proposed an all-optical packet QoS (Quality of Service) level classifier employing a sequential binary packet priority comparator, which is implemented using the SOA-based optical logic gates. The performance of the optical binary packet priority comparator was verified experimentally at 1 Gbit/s showing that the proposed scheme can operate higher data rates. These packet level classifier structures are attractive for all-optical network and applications.

  20. Parallel optical sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-20

    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  1. Optical fiber based imaging of bioengineered tissue construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapoznik, Etai; Niu, Guoguang; Lu, Peng; Zhou, Yu; Xu, Yong; Soker, Shay

    2016-04-01

    Imaging cells and tissues through opaque and turbid media is challenging and presents a major barrier for monitoring maturation and remodeling of bioengineered tissues. The fiber optics based imaging system described here offers a new approach for fluorescent cell imaging. A micro imaging channel is embedded in a Polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun scaffold designed for cell seeding, which allows us to use an optical fiber to locally deliver excitation laser close to the fluorescent cells. The emission is detected by an Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) detector and image reconstruction of multiple excitation points is achieved with a working distance of several centimeters. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of system parameters on image reconstruction outcomes. Initial studies using fluorescent beads indicated that scaffold thickness had a small effect on image quality, whereas scaffold composition (collagen content), fluorophore spectra, and the reconstruction window size had a large effect. The results also suggest that a far-red fluorescent emission is preferential when using collagenous scaffolds with a thickness of up to 500 μm. Using these optimized parameters, we were able to image fluorescently labeled cells on a scaffold with a resolution of 15-20 μm, and have also measured muscle progenitor cell differentiation and scaffold surface coverage with endothelial cells. In the future, this imaging platform can be applied to other bioengineered tissues for non-invasive monitoring both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Medical smart textiles based on fiber optic technology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano

    2015-04-13

    The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

  3. Optical Enhancement of Exoskeleton-Based Estimation of Glenohumeral Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Camilo; Unzueta, Luis; de Los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Ruiz, Oscar E; Flórez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    In Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR) the accurate estimation of the patient limb joint angles is critical for assessing therapy efficacy. In RAR, the use of classic motion capture systems (MOCAPs) (e.g., optical and electromagnetic) to estimate the Glenohumeral (GH) joint angles is hindered by the exoskeleton body, which causes occlusions and magnetic disturbances. Moreover, the exoskeleton posture does not accurately reflect limb posture, as their kinematic models differ. To address the said limitations in posture estimation, we propose installing the cameras of an optical marker-based MOCAP in the rehabilitation exoskeleton. Then, the GH joint angles are estimated by combining the estimated marker poses and exoskeleton Forward Kinematics. Such hybrid system prevents problems related to marker occlusions, reduced camera detection volume, and imprecise joint angle estimation due to the kinematic mismatch of the patient and exoskeleton models. This paper presents the formulation, simulation, and accuracy quantification of the proposed method with simulated human movements. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the method accuracy to marker position estimation errors, due to system calibration errors and marker drifts, has been carried out. The results show that, even with significant errors in the marker position estimation, method accuracy is adequate for RAR.

  4. Ultra-High Temperature Sensors Based on Optical Property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeel Riza

    2008-09-30

    In this program, Nuonics, Inc. has studied the fundamentals of a new Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials-based optical sensor technology suited for extreme environments of coal-fired engines in power production. The program explored how SiC could be used for sensing temperature, pressure, and potential gas species in a gas turbine environment. The program successfully demonstrated the optical designs, signal processing and experimental data for enabling both temperature and pressure sensing using SiC materials. The program via its sub-contractors also explored gas species sensing using SiC, in this case, no clear commercially deployable method was proven. Extensive temperature and pressure measurement data using the proposed SiC sensors was acquired to 1000 deg-C and 40 atms, respectively. Importantly, a first time packaged all-SiC probe design was successfully operated in a Siemens industrial turbine rig facility with the probe surviving the harsh chemical, pressure, and temperature environment during 28 days of test operations. The probe also survived a 1600 deg-C thermal shock test using an industrial flame.

  5. Fabrication of silicon based glass fibres for optical communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek P Kude; R S Khairnar

    2004-02-01

    Silicon based glass fibres are fabricated by conventional fibre drawing process. First, preform fabrication is carried out by means of conventional MCVD technique by using various dopants such as SiCl4, GeCl4, POCl3, and FeCl3. The chemicals are used in such a way that step index single mode fibre can be drawn. The fibre drawing process consists of various steps such as heating the preform at elevated temperature, diameter monitor, primary and secondary coating, and ultra violet radiation curing. The fibres are then characterized for their geometrical and optical properties. The drawn fibre has diameter of core and cladding to be 8.3 m and 124.31 m, respectively whereas non-circularity is found to be 4.17% for core and 0.26% for cladding as seen from phase plot. Mode field diameter is found to be 8.9 m and 9.2 m using Peterman II and Gaussian method, respectively. The fabricated fibres showed the signal attenuation of 0.35 dB/km and 0.20 dB/km for 1310 nm and 1550 nm, respectively as measured by the optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR).

  6. Optical-Based Artificial Palpation Sensors for Lesion Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jun Park

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Palpation techniques are widely used in medical procedures to detect the presence of lumps or tumors in the soft breast tissues. Since these procedures are very subjective and depend on the skills of the physician, it is imperative to perform detailed a scientific study in order to develop more efficient medical sensors to measure and generate palpation parameters. In this research, we propose an optical-based, artificial palpation sensor for lesion characterization. This has been developed using a multilayer polydimethylsiloxane optical waveguide. Light was generated at the critical angle to reflect totally within the flexible and transparent waveguide. When a waveguide was compressed by an external force, its contact area would deform and cause the light to scatter. The scattered light was captured by a high-resolution camera and saved as an image format. To test the performance of the proposed system, we used a realistic tissue phantom with embedded hard inclusions. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor can detect inclusions and provide the relative value of size, depth, and Young’s modulus of an inclusion.

  7. Medical Smart Textiles Based on Fiber Optic Technology: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Massaroni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

  8. Interferometric and localized surface plasmon based fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Harald Ian D. I.; Bano, Andon; Hjelme, Dag Roar

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a novel single point, multi-parameter, fiber optic sensor concept based on a combination of interferometric and plasmonic sensor modalities on an optical fiber end face. The sensor consists of a micro-Fabry-Perot interferometer in the form of a hemispherical stimuli-responsive hydrogel with immobilized gold nanoparticles. We present results of proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing of refractive index (RI) in the visible range and interferometric measurements of volumetric changes of the pH stimuli-responsive hydrogel in near infrared range. The response of LSPR to RI (Δλr/ΔRI 877nm/RI) and the free spectral range (FSR) to pH (ΔpH/ΔFSR = 0.09624/nm) were measured with LSPR relatively constant for hydrogel swelling degree and FSR relatively constant for RI. We expect this novel sensor concept to be of great value for biosensors for medical applications.

  9. Ultra-High Temperature Sensors Based on Optical Property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeel Riza

    2008-09-30

    In this program, Nuonics, Inc. has studied the fundamentals of a new Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials-based optical sensor technology suited for extreme environments of coal-fired engines in power production. The program explored how SiC could be used for sensing temperature, pressure, and potential gas species in a gas turbine environment. The program successfully demonstrated the optical designs, signal processing and experimental data for enabling both temperature and pressure sensing using SiC materials. The program via its sub-contractors also explored gas species sensing using SiC, in this case, no clear commercially deployable method was proven. Extensive temperature and pressure measurement data using the proposed SiC sensors was acquired to 1000 deg-C and 40 atms, respectively. Importantly, a first time packaged all-SiC probe design was successfully operated in a Siemens industrial turbine rig facility with the probe surviving the harsh chemical, pressure, and temperature environment during 28 days of test operations. The probe also survived a 1600 deg-C thermal shock test using an industrial flame.

  10. All-Optical Flip-Flop Based on an SOA/DFB-Laser Diode Optical Feedback Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Oosterlinck, W.; Buron, Jakob Due; Öhman, Filip;

    2007-01-01

    We report on the dynamic all-optical flip-flop (AOFF) operation of an optical feedback scheme consisting of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD), bidirectionally coupled to each other. The operation of the AOFF relies on the interplay between...

  11. Problem-based learning in optical engineering studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is one of the most prospective educational technologies. PBL is based on evaluation of learning outcomes of a student, both professional and personal, instead of traditional evaluation of theoretical knowledge and selective practical skills. Such an approach requires changes in the curricula development. There should be introduced projects (cases) imitating real tasks from the professional life. These cases should include a problem summary with necessary theoretic description, charts, graphs, information sources etc, task to implement and evaluation indicators and criteria. Often these cases are evaluated with the assessment-center method. To motivate students for the given task they could be divided into groups and have a contest. Whilst it looks easy to implement in social, economic or teaching fields PBL is pretty complicated in engineering studies. Examples of cases in the first-cycle optical engineering studies are shown in this paper. Procedures of the PBL implementation and evaluation are described.

  12. Fast optical source for quantum key distribution based on semiconductor optical amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jofre, M; Anzolin, G; Amaya, W; Capmany, J; Ursin, R; Peñate, L; Lopez, D; Juan, J L San; Carrasco, J A; Garcia, F; Torcal-Milla, F J; Sanchez-Brea, L M; Bernabeu, E; Perdigues, J M; Jennewein, T; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V; 10.1364/OE.19.003825

    2011-01-01

    A novel integrated optical source capable of emitting faint pulses with different polarization states and with different intensity levels at 100 MHz has been developed. The source relies on a single laser diode followed by four semiconductor optical amplifiers and thin film polarizers, connected through a fiber network. The use of a single laser ensures high level of indistinguishability in time and spectrum of the pulses for the four different polarizations and three different levels of intensity. The applicability of the source is demonstrated in the lab through a free space quantum key distribution experiment which makes use of the decoy state BB84 protocol. We achieved a lower bound secure key rate of the order of 3.64 Mbps and a quantum bit error ratio as low as $1.14\\times 10^{-2}$ while the lower bound secure key rate became 187 bps for an equivalent attenuation of 35 dB. To our knowledge, this is the fastest polarization encoded QKD system which has been reported so far. The performance, reduced size,...

  13. Fast optical source for quantum key distribution based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, M; Gardelein, A; Anzolin, G; Amaya, W; Capmany, J; Ursin, R; Peñate, L; Lopez, D; San Juan, J L; Carrasco, J A; Garcia, F; Torcal-Milla, F J; Sanchez-Brea, L M; Bernabeu, E; Perdigues, J M; Jennewein, T; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V

    2011-02-28

    A novel integrated optical source capable of emitting faint pulses with different polarization states and with different intensity levels at 100 MHz has been developed. The source relies on a single laser diode followed by four semiconductor optical amplifiers and thin film polarizers, connected through a fiber network. The use of a single laser ensures high level of indistinguishability in time and spectrum of the pulses for the four different polarizations and three different levels of intensity. The applicability of the source is demonstrated in the lab through a free space quantum key distribution experiment which makes use of the decoy state BB84 protocol. We achieved a lower bound secure key rate of the order of 3.64 Mbps and a quantum bit error ratio as low as 1.14×10⁻² while the lower bound secure key rate became 187 bps for an equivalent attenuation of 35 dB. To our knowledge, this is the fastest polarization encoded QKD system which has been reported so far. The performance, reduced size, low power consumption and the fact that the components used can be space qualified make the source particularly suitable for secure satellite communication.

  14. Design of differential optical absorption spectroscopy long-path telescopes based on fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, André; Tschritter, Jens; Platt, Ulrich

    2011-02-10

    We present a new design principle of telescopes for use in the spectral investigation of the atmosphere and the detection of atmospheric trace gases with the long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A combination of emitting and receiving fibers in a single bundle replaces the commonly used coaxial-Newton-type combination of receiving and transmitting telescope. This very simplified setup offers a higher light throughput and simpler adjustment and allows smaller instruments, which are easier to handle and more portable. The higher transmittance was verified by ray-tracing calculations, which result in a theoretical factor threefold improvement in signal intensity compared with the old setup. In practice, due to the easier alignment and higher stability, up to factor of 10 higher signal intensities were found. In addition, the use of a fiber optic light source provides a better spectral characterization of the light source, which results in a lower detection limit for trace gases studied with this instrument. This new design will greatly enhance the usability and the range of applications of active DOAS instruments.

  15. Hamilton optics: transformational theory of optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Ge, Wenjun

    2013-09-01

    In 1824 William Rowan Hamilton presented a memoir to the Royal Irish Academy on Optics(Trans. R. Irish. Acacamy, XV, 1828), which was the foundation for transformational optics, classical mechanics, nonimaging optics and thermodynamical foundation of nonimaging optics,etc. It is useful for us even in 2013 to revisit the Hamilton resolution.

  16. Optical Thermal Ratchet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, L. P.; Bourdieu, L. S.; Kaplan, P. D.; Libchaber, A. J.

    1995-02-01

    We present an optical realization of a thermal ratchet. Directed motion of Brownian particles in water is induced by modulating in time a spatially periodic but asymmetric optical potential. The net drift shows a maximum as a function of the modulation period. The experimental results agree with a simple theoretical model based on diffusion.

  17. Optical packet switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekel, Eyal; Ruschin, Shlomo; Majer, Daniel; Levy, Jeff; Matmon, Guy; Koenigsberg, Lisa; Vecht, Jacob; Geron, Amir; Harlavan, Rotem; Shfaram, Harel; Arbel, Arnon; McDermott, Tom; Brewer, Tony

    2005-02-01

    We report here a scalable, multichassis, 6.3 terabit core router, which utilizes our proprietary optical switch. The router is commercially available and deployed in several customer sites. Our solution combines optical switching with electronic routing. An internal optical packet switching network interconnects the router"s electronic line cards, where routing and buffering functions take place electronically. The system architecture and performance will be described. The optical switch is based on Optical Phased Array (OPA) technology. It is a 64 x 64, fully non-blocking, optical crossbar switch, capable of switching in a fraction of a nanosecond. The basic principles of operation will be explained. Loss and crosstalk results will be presented, as well as the results of BER measurements of a 160 Gbps transmission through one channel. Basic principles of operation and measured results will be presented for the burst-mode-receivers, arbitration algorithm and synchronization. Finally, we will present some of our current research work on a next-generation optical switch. The technological issues we have solved in our internal optical packet network can have broad applicability to any global optical packet network.

  18. Optical implementation of neural learning algorithms based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Zhi; Le, Yansi; Sun, Chonghui; Song, Xiaojia; Wu, Chongqing

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering has a wide range of applications in the fields of machine learning, pattern recognition, adaptive control, etc. Photonics, characterized by its high speed, wide bandwidth, low power consumption and massive parallelism, is an ideal way to realize ultrafast spiking neural networks (SNNs). Synaptic plasticity is believed to be critical for learning, memory and development in neural circuits. Experimental results have shown that changes of synapse are highly dependent on the relative timing of pre- and postsynaptic spikes. Synaptic plasticity in which presynaptic spikes preceding postsynaptic spikes results in strengthening, while the opposite timing results in weakening is called antisymmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) learning rule. And synaptic plasticity has the opposite effect under the same conditions is called antisymmetric anti-STDP learning rule. We proposed and experimentally demonstrated an optical implementation of neural learning algorithms, which can achieve both of antisymmetric STDP and anti-STDP learning rule, based on the cross-gain modulation (XGM) within a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The weight and height of the potentitation and depression window can be controlled by adjusting the injection current of the SOA, to mimic the biological antisymmetric STDP and anti-STDP learning rule more realistically. As the injection current increases, the width of depression and potentitation window decreases and height increases, due to the decreasing of recovery time and increasing of gain under a stronger injection current. Based on the demonstrated optical STDP circuit, ultrafast learning in optical SNNs can be realized.

  19. Multiplexed refractive index-based sensing using optical fiber microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; André, Ricardo M.; Dellith, Jan; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Optical fibers are promising tools for performing biological and biomedical sensing due to their small cross section and potential for multiplexing. In particular, fabricating ultra-small sensing devices is of increasing interest for measuring biological material such as cells. A promising direction is the use of interferometric techniques combined with optical fiber post-processing. In this work we present recent progress in the development of Fabry-Perot micro-cavities written into optical fiber tapers using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. We first demonstrate that FIB milled optical fiber microcavities are sensitive enough to measure polyelectrolyte layer deposition. We then present new results on the fabrication and optical characterization of serially-multiplexed dual cavity micro-sensors. Two cavities were written serially along the fiber with two different cavity lengths, producing a total of four reflecting surfaces and thus six possible interferometric pairs/cavities. By using fast Fourier transform it is possible to obtain de-multiplexed measurements for each cavity. This will be particularly important for bioassays where positive and negative controls are required to be measured within close spatial proximity.

  20. DESIGN OF AN ARRAYED WAVEGUIDE GRATINGS BASED OPTICAL PACKET SWITCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAIBHAV SHUKLA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical packet switching is considered as the future of data transfer technologyin combination with middle-aged electronics. The biggest challenge encountered in optical packet switching is the lack of optical buffers for storing the contending packets. Therefore, for the contention resolution of packets, a temporary storage in terms of fiber delay lines is used. This task is accomplished by an optical packet switch. In this paper, a design modification in the AWGR (Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router is presented for improving the switch performance. The power budget analysis of the switch is also presented to estimate the sufficient power level of the switch. The obtained results clearly reveal that the architecture presented in this paper can be operated in micro-watts in comparison to the earlier optical switch which operates in milli watts regime. Finally, simulation results are presented to obtain packet loss probability and average delay. Even at the higher load of 0.6, the switch presented in this paper provides a very low loss probability (10^6 and delay remain within 2 slots.

  1. Cloud optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, A

    2006-01-01

    Clouds affect the climate of the Earth, and they are an important factor in the weather. Therefore, their radiative properties must be understood in great detail. This book summarizes current knowledge on cloud optical properties, for example their ability to absorb, transmit, and reflect light, which depends on the clouds' geometrical and microphysical characteristics such as sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and structures. In addition, problems related to the image transfer through clouds and cloud remote sensing are addressed in this book in great detail. This book can be an im

  2. Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Garrison, J C

    2008-01-01

    Quantum optics, i.e. the interaction of individual photons with matter, began with the discoveries of Planck and Einstein, but in recent years it has expanded beyond pure physics to become an important driving force for technological innovation. This book serves the broader readership growing out of this development by starting with an elementary description of the underlying physics and then building up a more advanced treatment. The reader is led from the quantum theory of thesimple harmonic oscillator to the application of entangled states to quantum information processing. An equally impor

  3. Optical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-07-13

    An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.

  4. Design of an All-Optical Network Based on LCoS Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuh-Jiuh; Shiau, Yhi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an all-optical network composed of the ROADMs (reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer), L2/L3 optical packet switches, and the fiber optical cross-connection for fiber scheduling and measurement based on LCoS (liquid crystal on silicon) technologies is proposed. The L2/L3 optical packet switches are designed with optical output buffers. Only the header of optical packets is converted to electronic signals to control the wavelength of input ports and the packet payloads can be transparently destined to their output ports. An optical output buffer is designed to queue the packets when more than one incoming packet should reach to the same destination output port. For preserving service-packet sequencing and fairness of routing sequence, a priority scheme and a round-robin algorithm are adopted at the optical output buffer. The wavelength of input ports is designed for routing incoming packets using LCoS technologies. Finally, the proposed OFS (optical flow switch) with input buffers can quickly transfer the big data to the output ports and the main purpose of the OFS is to reduce the number of wavelength reflections. The all-optical content delivery network is comprised of the OFSs for a large amount of audio and video data transmissions in the future.

  5. Detection of typhoid fever by diatom-based optical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Viji; Muthukumar, Anbazhagi; Nagamony, Ponpandian; Chinnuswamy, Viswanathan

    2017-06-02

    Surface-modified diatom substrates are employed for the development of immunocomplex-based optical biosensor for diagnosis of typhoid. Biosensor has been prepared by covalent immobilization of Salmonella typhi antibody onto the crosslinked diatom substrates via glutaraldehyde. Photoluminescent (PL) studies revealed good specificity and ability of conjugated diatom substrates to distinguish complementary (S. typhi) and non-complementary (Escherichia coli) antigens. The immunocomplexed biosensor showed detection limit of 10 pg. The excellent performance of biosensor is associated to its large surface-to-volume ratio, good photoluminescent property, and biocompatibility of diatom frustules, which enhances the antibody immobilization and facilitates the nucleophilic electron transfer between antibody and conjugated diatom surface. Hence, immunocomplexed diatom substrates are considered to be a suitable platform for the environmental monitoring of water-borne pathogen S. typhi.

  6. Sensing of Tooth Microleakage Based on Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes microleakage sensing based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT. With a handheld scanning probe, the SS-OCT system can provide portable real-time imaging for clinical diagnosis. Radiography is the traditional clinical imaging instrument used for dentistry; however, it does not provide good contrast images between filling material and the enamel of treated teeth with microleakage. The results of this study show that microleakage can be detected with oral probing using SS-OCT in vivo. The calculated microleakage length was 401 μm and the width is 148 μm, which is consistent with the related histological biopsy measurements. The diagnosis of microleakage in teeth could be useful for prevention of secondary caries in the clinical treatment plans developed in the field of oral medicine.

  7. Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Simon, Christoph; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of quantum states over long distances is limited by photon loss. Straightforward amplification as in classical telecommunications is not an option in quantum communication because of the no-cloning theorem. This problem could be overcome by implementing quantum repeater protocols, which create long-distance entanglement from shorter-distance entanglement via entanglement swapping. Such protocols require the capacity to create entanglement in a heralded fashion, to store it in quantum memories, and to swap it. One attractive general strategy for realizing quantum repeaters is based on the use of atomic ensembles as quantum memories, in combination with linear optical techniques and photon counting to perform all required operations. Here the theoretical and experimental status quo of this very active field are reviewed. The potentials of different approaches are compared quantitatively, with a focus on the most immediate goal of outperforming the direct transmission of photons.

  8. Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of quantum states over long distances is limited by photon loss. Straightforward amplification as in classical telecommunications is not an option in quantum communication because of the no-cloning theorem. This problem could be overcome by implementing quantum repeater protocols, which create long-distance entanglement from shorter-distance entanglement via entanglement swapping. Such protocols require the capacity to create entanglement in a heralded fashion, to store it in quantum memories, and to swap it. One attractive general strategy for realizing quantum repeaters is based on the use of atomic ensembles as quantum memories, in combination with linear optical techniques and photon counting to perform all required operations. Here we review the theoretical and experimental status quo of this very active field. We compare the potential of different approaches quantitatively, with a focus on the most immediate goal of outperforming the direct transmission of photons.

  9. High Sensitivity Polymer Optical Fiber-Bragg-Grating-Based Accelerometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Andresen, Søren; Yuan, Wu

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of the first accelerometer based on a polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for operation at both 850 and 1550 nm. The devices have a flat frequency response over a 1-kHz bandwidth and a resonance frequency of about 3 kHz. The response is linear...... up to at least 15 g and sensitivities as high as 19 pm/g (shift in resonance wavelength per unit acceleration) have been demonstrated. Given that 15 g corresponds to a strain of less than 0.02% and that polymer fibers have an elastic limit of more than 1%, the polymer FBG accelerometer can measure...... very strong accelerations. We compare with corresponding silica FBG accelerometers and demonstrate that using polymer FBGs improves the sensitivity by more than a factor of four and increases the figure of merit, defined as the sensitivity times the resonance frequency squared....

  10. 4F-based optical phase imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to 4F-based optical phase imaging system and in particular to reconstructing quantitative phase information of an object when using such systems. The invention applies a two-dimensional, complex spatial light modulator (SLM) to impress a complex spatial synthesized modulation...... in addition to the complex spatial modulation impressed by the object. This SLM is arranged so that the synthesized modulation is superimposed with the object modulation and is thus placed at an input plane to the phase imaging system. By evaluating output images from the phase imaging system, the synthesized...... modulation is selected to optimize parameters in the output image which improves the reconstruction of qualitative and quantitative object phase information from the resulting output images....

  11. Dust optical properties retrieved from ground-based polarimetric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiang; Goloub, Philippe; Blarel, Luc; Damiri, Bahaiddin; Podvin, Thierry; Jankowiak, Isabelle

    2007-03-20

    We have systematically processed one year of sunphotometer measurements (recorded at five AERONET/PHOTONS sites in Africa) in order to assess mineral dust optical properties with the use of a new polarimetry-based algorithm. We consider the Cimel CE318 polarized sunphotometer version to obtain single-scattering albedo, scattering phase matrix elements F(11) and F(12) for dust aerosols selected with Angström exponents ranging from -0.05 to 0.25. Retrieved F(11) and F(12) differ significantly from those of spherical particles. The degree of linear polarization -F(12)/F(11) for single scattering of atmospheric total column dust aerosols in the case of unpolarized incident light is systematically retrieved for the first time to our knowledge from sunphotometer measurements and shows consistency with previous laboratory characterizations of nonspherical particles.

  12. Optical secure image verification system based on ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjing; Haobogedewude, Buyinggaridi; Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

    2017-09-01

    The ghost imaging can perform Fourier-space filtering by tailoring the configuration. We proposed a novel optical secure image verification system based on this theory with the help of phase matched filtering. In the verification process, the system key and the ID card which contain the information of the correct image and the information to be verified are put in the reference and the test paths, respectively. We demonstrate that the ghost imaging configuration can perform an incoherent correlation between the system key and the ID card. The correct verification manifests itself with a correlation peak in the ghost image. The primary image and the image to be verified are encrypted and encoded into pure phase masks beforehand for security. Multi-image secure verifications can also be implemented in the proposed system.

  13. EIT-based MZ-MMI all-optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, A.; Rostami, A.; Nazari, F.; Abbasian, K.

    2010-11-01

    We propose a new control structure for all-optical switching in multimode inference (MMI)-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) devices. This structure is composed of an MZI doped by three-level nanocrystals for the realization of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the lower arm. We use two different intensities of control field for two states of the proposed switch. Using a control field in both of the two switching states is necessary, where the EIT region is transparent. By changing the intensity of the control field, the refractive index of the doped region changes, which makes the phase difference between the two arms of the MZI. Hence, the switching operation takes place. Simulation results show that the extinction ratio of the device is -32dB in the worst case.

  14. Ground-based complex for checking the optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenyuk, V.; Boreiko, V.; Dmitrotsa, A.; Gorbunov, N.; Khrenov, B.; Klimov, P.; Lavrova, M.; Popescu, E. M.; Sabirov, B.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Volvach, A.; Yashin, I.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose TUS space experiment is to study cosmic rays of ultrahigh energies produced by extensive air showers from space. The concentrator is located on satellite, made in the form of the Fresnel mirror towards the earth's atmosphere, the focus of which is a photodetector. The angle of view of the mirror is ±4.5° that for a given height of the orbit corresponds to the area 80 × 80 km2 on ground. The ground complex consisting of a number of stations, to check the optical system of the experiment is created, (their location and the amount will be determined after the launch of the satellite based on its actual orbit).

  15. Crowd Analysis by Using Optical Flow and Density Based Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Francesco; Pedro, Sergio; Tan, Zheng-Hua;

    2010-01-01

    , it is applied a crowd tracker in every frame, allowing us to detect and track the crowds. Our system gives the output as a graphic overlay, i.e it adds arrows and colors to the original frame sequence, in order to identify crowds and their movements. For the evaluation, we check when our system detect certains......In this paper, we present a system to detect and track crowds in a video sequence captured by a camera. In a first step, we compute optical flows by means of pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking. Afterwards, a density based clustering is used to group similar vectors. In the last step...... events on the crowds, such as merging, splitting and collision....

  16. Amylin Detection with a Miniature Optical-Fiber Based Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaowen; Ann, Matsko; Hughes, Adam; Reeves, Mark

    We present results of a biosensor based on shifts in the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles self-assembled on the end of an optical fiber. This system allows for detection of protein expression in low sensing volumes and for scanning in cell cultures and tissue samples. Positive and negative controls were done using biotin/avidin and the BSA/Anti-BSA system. These demonstrate that detection is specific and sensitive to nanomolar levels. Sensing of amylin, an important protein for pancreatic function, was performed with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. The measured data demonstrates the difference in sensitivity to the two types of antibodies, and titration experiments establish the sensitivity of the sensor. Further experiments demonstrate that the sensor can be regenerated and then reused.

  17. Parallel processing using an optical delay-based reservoir computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Delay systems subject to delayed optical feedback have recently shown great potential in solving computationally hard tasks. By implementing a neuro-inspired computational scheme relying on the transient response to optical data injection, high processing speeds have been demonstrated. However, reservoir computing systems based on delay dynamics discussed in the literature are designed by coupling many different stand-alone components which lead to bulky, lack of long-term stability, non-monolithic systems. Here we numerically investigate the possibility of implementing reservoir computing schemes based on semiconductor ring lasers. Semiconductor ring lasers are semiconductor lasers where the laser cavity consists of a ring-shaped waveguide. SRLs are highly integrable and scalable, making them ideal candidates for key components in photonic integrated circuits. SRLs can generate light in two counterpropagating directions between which bistability has been demonstrated. We demonstrate that two independent machine learning tasks , even with different nature of inputs with different input data signals can be simultaneously computed using a single photonic nonlinear node relying on the parallelism offered by photonics. We illustrate the performance on simultaneous chaotic time series prediction and a classification of the Nonlinear Channel Equalization. We take advantage of different directional modes to process individual tasks. Each directional mode processes one individual task to mitigate possible crosstalk between the tasks. Our results indicate that prediction/classification with errors comparable to the state-of-the-art performance can be obtained even with noise despite the two tasks being computed simultaneously. We also find that a good performance is obtained for both tasks for a broad range of the parameters. The results are discussed in detail in [Nguimdo et al., IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst. 26, pp. 3301-3307, 2015

  18. Optical Backplane Interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Herbert D.

    1991-01-01

    Optical backplane interconnection (OBIT), method of optically interconnecting many parallel outputs from data processor to many parallel inputs of other data processors by optically changing wavelength of output optical beam. Requires only one command: exact wavelength necessary to make connection between two desired processors. Many features, including smallness advantageous to incorporate OBIT into integrated optical device. Simplifies or eliminates wiring and speeds transfer of data over existing electrical or optical interconnections. Computer hookups and fiber-optical communication networks benefit from concept.

  19. Universal Michelson Gires-Tournois interferometer optical interleaver based on digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Yang, Xiaowei

    2010-03-01

    Optical interleavers based on Michelson Gires-Tournois interferometer (MGTI) with arbitrary cascaded reflectors for symmetrical or asymmetrical periodic frequency response with arbitrary duty cycles are defined as universal MGTI optical interleaver (UMGTIOI). It can significantly enhance flexibility and applicability of optical networks. A novel and simple method based on digital signal processing is proposed for the design of UMGTIOI. Different kinds of design examples are given to confirm effectiveness of the method.

  20. Electrically Controlled Optical Metamaterials Based on Dispersions of Nano-Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    4844 Final Report ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED OPTICAL METAMATERIALS BASED ON DISPERSIONS OF NANO-RODS Andrii B. Golovin , Jie Xiang, Heung-Shik Park...axis can be supplemented by gradients of the composition. For example, as shown by Golovin et al. [22,46] for isotropic dispersion of Au NRs...Optic. Lett. 2008, 33, 1342-1344. 22. Golovin , A.B.; Lavrentovich, O.D. Electrically reconfigurable optical metamaterial based on colloidal