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Sample records for oppositional defiant language

  1. Defining Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Background: ICD-10 and DSM-IV include similar criterial symptom lists for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but while DSM-IV treats each list separately, ICD-10 considers them jointly. One consequence is that ICD-10 identifies a group of children with ODD subtype who do not receive a diagnosis under DSM-IV. Methods: We…

  2. Oppositional defiant disorder: current insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abhishek Ghosh,1 Anirban Ray,2 Aniruddha Basu1 1Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, India Abstract: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD is diagnosed broadly on the basis of frequent and persistent angry or irritable mood, argumentativeness/defiance, and vindictiveness. Since its inception in the third Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, epidemiological and longitudinal studies have strongly suggested a distinct existence of ODD that is different from other closely related externalizing disorders, with different course and outcome and possibly discrete subtypes. However, several issues, such as symptom threshold, dimensional versus categorical conceptualization, and sex-specific symptoms, are yet to be addressed. Although ODD was found to be highly heritable, no genetic polymorphism has been identified with confidence. There has been a definite genetic overlap with other externalizing disorders. Studies have begun to explore its epigenetics and gene–environment interaction. Neuroimaging findings converge to implicate various parts of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. Alteration in cortisol levels has also been demonstrated consistently. Although a range of environmental factors, both familial and extrafamilial, have been studied in the past, current research has combined these with other biological parameters. Psychosocial treatment continues to be time-tested and effective. These include parental management training, school-based training, functional family therapy/brief strategic family therapy, and cognitive behavior therapy. Management of severe aggression and treatment of co-morbid disorders are indications for pharmacotherapy. In line with previous conceptualization of chronic

  3. Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct, and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1996-01-01

    The link between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) was evaluated in 140 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 120 normal controls examined at baseline and 4 years later, in midadolescence, at the Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatric Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

  4. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Information for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcalow, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder, one of the disruptive behavior disorders, has far-reaching consequences for the individual, family, school, community, and society. Early recognition allows interventions geared toward promotion of prosocial behaviors, possibly halting progression to the more deviant conduct disorder. Awareness of this disorder and…

  5. Common Questions About Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Ahmed, Sana; Locke, Amy

    2016-04-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a disruptive behavior disorder characterized by a pattern of angry or irritable mood, argumentative or defiant behavior, or vindictiveness lasting for at least six months. Children and adolescents with ODD may have trouble controlling their temper and are often disobedient and defiant toward others. There are no tools specifically designed for diagnosing ODD, but multiple questionnaires can aid in diagnosis while assessing for other psychiatric conditions. ODD is often comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and mood disorders, including anxiety and depression. Behavioral therapy for the child and family members improves symptoms of ODD. Medications are not recommended as first-line treatment for ODD; however, treatment of comorbid mental health conditions with medications often improves ODD symptoms. Adults and adolescents with a history of ODD have a greater than 90% chance of being diagnosed with another mental illness in their lifetime. They are at high risk of developing social and emotional problems as adults, including suicide and substance use disorders. Early intervention seeks to prevent the development of conduct disorder, substance abuse, and delinquency that can cause lifelong social, occupational, and academic impairments.

  6. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Perspectives on Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Psychopathic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a few perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and early forms of psychopathy. The developmental changes and stability of each, and the interrelationship between the three conditions are reviewed, and correlates and predictors are highlighted. The paper also examines effective interventions…

  8. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: An Overview and Strategies for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sara H.

    2018-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavioral disorder that affects approximately 3.3% of the population across cultures. In this article, the author discusses symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and treatments for the disorder. Although most empirically supported treatments of ODD are based on parent--child training and therapy, there are some…

  9. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  10. Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Oppositional Defiant Problems as Antecedents of School Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Jansen, Pauline W.; Veenstra, Rene; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Shaw, Philip; Tiemeier, Henning

    Objective: To examine whether early manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) increase children's later risk of bullying or victimization. Method: Using a population-based, prospective cohort, our multi-informant approach comprised

  11. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated…

  12. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder as Predictors of Depression and Conduct Disorder in Preadolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) rather than CD may explain the comorbidity between behavioral disorders and depression; to test whether distinct affective and behavioral dimensions can be discerned within the symptoms of ODD; and to determine if an affective dimension of ODD symptoms is specifically predictive of later depression.

  13. Temperament Differences among Children with Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

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    Joyce, Diana; Oakland, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Temperament-based learning style preferences of 80 children, ages 8 to 17, 40 with conduct disorder (CD) and 40 with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were examined using the Student Styles Questionnaire (SSQ). The SSQ measures four dimensions of learning style preferences based on temperament theory (Extroverted-Introverted, Thinking-Feeling,…

  14. Effectiveness of Group Play Therapy on Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Among Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Morshed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With regard to the prevalence of Oppositional-Defiant Disorder in children and converting to the other disorders, if left untreated, this research aims to investigate the effectiveness of group play therapy on oppositional-defiant disorder symptoms among children. Materials and Methods: This study is interventional and quasi-experimental research. In this study based on cluster sampling method, 30 participants were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The tools discussed here included Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Raven's Progressive Matrixes, Teacher Report Form (TRF as well as a clinical interview with parents. Play therapy was provided weekly by group for the participants, in sixty-minute eight sessions. Participants were assessed in three stages of pre- interference post- interference and after two month intervals from completing sessions. SPSS18 and multi-variables covariance analysis method were used for analyzing data. Results: The results obtained by Mancova analysis showed that there was a significant decrease in oppositional defiant-disorder symptoms in comparison with control group reporting by parents and teacher (P < 0.001. In addition, the results indicated the same effect after two months. Conclusions: The results indicated the efficiency of group play therapy on decrease of oppositional defiant disorder symptoms among children. Accordingly using this treatment method on children was recommended to the therapists.

  15. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder as Predictors of Depression and Conduct Disorder in Preadolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) rather than conduct disorder (CD) may explain the comorbidity between behavioral disorders and depression; to test whether distinct affective and behavioral dimensions can be discerned within the symptoms of ODD; and to determine whether an affective dimension of ODD symptoms is…

  16. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders in Clinically Referred Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Boeldt, Debra; Chen, Diane; Coyne, Claire; Donald, Radiah; Duax, Jeanne; Hart, Katherine; Perrott, Jennifer; Strickland, Jennifer; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Davis, Shante; Kampani, Smita; Humphries, Marisha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic validity of oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) for preschoolers has been questioned based on concerns regarding the ability to differentiate normative, transient disruptive behavior from clinical symptoms. Data on concurrent validity have accumulated, but predictive validity is limited. Predictive…

  17. Source-Specific Oppositional Defiant Disorder among Inner-City Children: Prospective Prediction and Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Bubier, Jennifer; Chen, Diane; Price, Julia; Lanza, H. Isabella

    2011-01-01

    We examined prospective prediction from parent- and teacher-reported oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms to parent-reported ODD, conduct disorder (CD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and whether child executive functioning abilities moderated these relations among an urban, low-income sample of…

  18. Predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder from Preschool Diagnostic Assessments

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    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Thakar, Dhara A.; Errazuriz, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the power of measures of early preschool behavior to predict later diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 168 children with behavior problems at age 3 who underwent a multimethod assessment of ADHD and ODD symptoms and…

  19. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  20. A Comprehensive Investigation of Memory Impairment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Park, Joanne; Seth, Sarah; Coghill, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic assessment of memory functioning in drug-naive boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Methods: Boys performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) component (storage and central executive) and verbal and spatial storage load tasks,…

  1. Conduct behaviors and oppositional defiant behaviors in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    There is controversy about the association among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder behaviors, and oppositional defiant behaviors. This study examines whether different subcategories of conduct behaviors co-occur in children with ADHD, and investigates the association of conduct behaviors with ADHD symptoms and oppositional defiant behavior, considering the covariant factors of parental age and educational level. A total of 441 children and adolescents with ADHD participated in this study - 342 (77.6%) boys and 99 girls (22.4%). Their mean age was 9.1 (standard deviation = 2.2) years. They came from families with 1 to 8 children. There were statistically significant correlations among different subcategories of conduct disorder (p Oppositional behavior scores were associated with all 4 subcategories of conduct behaviors. The severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity was associated with the subcategory of "destruction of property." The inattentiveness score was associated with "aggression to people and animals." The current results do not suggest that conduct behaviors exclude oppositional defiant behaviors. The subcategories of conduct behaviors occur in a cluster rather than as a solitary behavior. Larger family size and lower educational level of the father increase the risk of aggression to people and animals in children with ADHD.

  2. Emotional Regulation and Executive Function Deficits in Unmedicated Chinese Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wenqing; Li, Yan; Du, Yasong; Fan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the feature of emotional regulation and executive functions in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) children. Methods The emotional regulation and executive functions of adolescents with ODD, as well as the relationship between the two factors were analyzed using tools including Adolescent Daily Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ADERQ), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in comparison with ...

  3. Parenting practices as mediating variables between parents' psychopathology and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Trepat de Ancos, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is very frequent in preschoolers. The severity and the long-term negative outcomes make the understanding of this disorder a priority. The goal in this study was to assess the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between parents’ psychopathology and ODD in preschoolers. Method: A community sample of 622 children was assessed longitudinally at age 3 and age 5. Parents reported on children’s psychopathology through a diagnosti...

  4. Socioeconomic status and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    OpenAIRE

    Roser eGranero; Roser eGranero; Leonie eLouwaars; Lourdes eEzpeleta; Lourdes eEzpeleta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children’s executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors.Method. Sample included 622 three years-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed.Results. Structural Equation Modeling showed...

  5. Executive Function Features in Drug-naive Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Manfei; Jiang, Wenqing; DU, Yasong; Li, Yan; Fan, Juan

    2017-08-25

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) that is characterized by markedly defiant, disobedient, and disruptive behavior in younger children has been regarded as disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), together with conduct disorder (CD). However, in contrast to CD, ODD does not include severe aggressive or antisocial behavior. This study aimed to examine executive function (EF) features of children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Cross sectional design was used in this study. The EF of children with ODD and pure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were compared with children without a psychiatric disorder, using the Stroop Color-Word Tests A and B, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Fourth Edition; WISC-IV), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) corrected for age. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for EF deficits characteristic of ODD and ADHD. The ODD group exhibited significantly lower scores in both Stroop Color-Word Tests, the backwards digital span of the WISC-IV, and the categories completed and perseverative responses of the WCST, and significantly higher scores in spatial working memory (SWM) between errors, and the strategy in SWM of the CANTAB compared with the control group. When the ODD group was designated as 1 and the ADHD group was designated as 0, digital span (X1) fit the regression equation very well. Children with ODD perform substantially worse in EF tasks. Responsive inhibition appears to be uniquely associated with ODD development, while responsive inhibition and working memory appear to be associated with ADHD.

  6. Telomere length is associated with oppositional defiant behavior and maternal clinical depression in Latino preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, J M; Heyman, M B; Elwan, D; Shiboski, S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Epel, E

    2015-06-16

    Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression from birth to the age of 5 years and child behavior from ages 3-5 years in a cohort of Latino children in relation to child leukocyte TL at ages 4 and 5 years. Children who had oppositional defiant behavior at 3, 4 or 5 years had shorter TL than those without by ~450 base pairs (P maternal clinical depression at 3 years of age (β = -363.99, 95% CI -651.24 to 764.74; P = 0.01), shorter maternal TL (β = 502.92, 95% CI 189.21-816.63) and younger paternal age at the child's birth (β = 24.63, 95% CI 1.14-48.12). Thus, exposure to maternal clinical depression (versus depressive symptoms) in early childhood was associated with deleterious consequences on child cellular health as indicated by shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age. Similarly, children with oppositional defiant behavior also had shorter TL, possibly related to early exposures to maternal clinical depression. Our study is the first to link maternal clinical depression and oppositional defiant behavior with shorter TL in the preschool years in a relatively homogenous population of low-income Latino children.

  7. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: prevalence based on parent and teacher ratings of Malaysian primary school children.

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    Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder complicated by symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Steeber, Jennifer; McBurnett, Keith

    2010-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder with significant functional impairment. ADHD is frequently complicated by oppositional symptoms, which are difficult to separate from comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and aggressive symptoms. This review addresses the impact of oppositional symptoms on ADHD, disease course, functional impairment, clinical management, and treatment response. Oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder may be comorbid in more than half of ADHD cases and are more common with the combined than with the inattentive ADHD subtype. Comorbid symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in patients with ADHD can have a significant impact on the course and prognosis for these patients and may lead to differential treatment response to both behavioral and pharmacologic treatments. Assessment of oppositional symptoms is an essential part of ADHD screening and diagnosis and should include parental, as well as educator, input. Although clinical evidence remains limited, some stimulant and nonstimulant medications have shown effectiveness in treating both core ADHD symptoms and oppositional symptoms. Oppositional symptoms are a key consideration in ADHD management, although the optimum approach to treating ADHD complicated by such symptoms remains unclear. Future research should focus on the efficacy and safety of various behavioral and medication regimens, as well as longitudinal studies to further clarify the relationships between ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

  9. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder(ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection, and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7-12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Controlling for parent reported symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Conduct disorder (CD), depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment, and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Oppositional defiant disorder is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Innocent or Intentional?: Interpreting Oppositional Defiant Disorder in a Preschool Mental Health Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouardani, Christine N

    2017-03-01

    Based on 9 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. mental health clinic focused on the treatment of preschool-aged children who exhibited extremely disruptive behavior, this article examines the contradictions clinicians faced when trying to identify and attribute "intentionality" to very young children. Disruptive, aggressive behavior is one of the central symptoms involved in a wide-range of childhood psychopathology and the number one reason young children are referred to mental health clinics in the United States. In the clinic where I conducted my research, clinicians were especially interested in diagnosing these children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), in order to identify those at risk for more serious mental illness later in the lifecourse. In this article, I look at the different strategies clinicians used in interpreting whether aggressive, defiant behavior was a part of the child's "self," a biologically driven symptom of a disease, or a legitimate reaction to problematic social environments. I argue that conceptualizing intentionality as a developmental, interpersonal process may help to make sense of the multiple discourses and practices clinicians used to try to reconcile the contradictions inherent in diagnosing ODD.

  11. Oppositional defiant disorder dimensions and subtypes among detained male adolescent offenders.

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    Aebi, Marcel; Barra, Steffen; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Walitza, Susanne; Plattner, Belinda

    2016-06-01

    In adolescent offenders, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and its dimensions/subtypes have been frequently ignored due to the stronger focus on criminal behaviours. The revised criteria of the DSM-5 now allow diagnosing ODD in older youths independent of conduct disorder (CD). This study aimed at analysing ODD dimensions/subtypes and their relation to suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and criminal behaviours after release from detention in a sample of detained male adolescents. Suicidality and psychiatric disorders (including ODD symptoms) were assessed in a consecutive sample of 158 male adolescents (Mage  = 16.89 years) from the Zurich Juvenile Detention Centre. Based on previous research findings, an irritable ODD dimension and a defiant/vindictive ODD dimension based on ODD symptoms were defined. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify distinct subtypes of adolescent offenders according to their ODD symptom profiles. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to analyse the relations of ODD dimensions/ODD subtypes to comorbid psychopathology and criminal reoffenses from official data. The ODD-irritable dimension, but not the ODD defiant/vindictive dimension predicted comorbid anxiety, suicidality and violent reoffending. LCA identified four subtypes, namely, a no-ODD subtype, a severe ODD subtype and two moderate ODD subtypes with either defiant or irritable symptoms. The irritable ODD subtype and the severe ODD subtype were related to suicidality and comorbid affective/anxiety disorders. The irritable ODD subtype was the strongest predictor of criminal (violent) reoffending even when controlling for CD. The present findings confirm the presence of ODD dimensions/subtypes in a highly disturbed adolescent offender sample. Irritable youths were at risk of suicide and persistent criminal behaviours. Due to the severe consequences of irritability, a standardized assessment approach and a specific treatment is needed in prison to

  12. ADHD with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder: discrete or nondistinct disruptive behavior disorders?

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    Connor, Daniel F; Doerfler, Leonard A

    2008-09-01

    In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male children and adolescents with either ADHD (n = 65), ADHD with ODD (n = 85), or ADHD with CD (n = 50) were compared using structured diagnostic interviews and parent, teacher, and clinician rating scales. In children with ADHD, significant differences emerged between ODD and CD in the domains of delinquency, overt aggression, and ADHD symptom severity; ADHD with CD was most severe, followed by ADHD with ODD, and ADHD had the least severe symptoms. Distinctions between ADHD with CD and the other two groups were found for parenting, treatment history, and school variables. Within the limits of a cross-sectional methodology, results support clinically meaningful distinctions between ODD and CD in children with ADHD.

  13. Oppositional Defiant Disorder Is Better Conceptualized as a Disorder of Emotional Regulation.

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    Cavanagh, Monica; Quinn, Declan; Duncan, Don; Graham, Tom; Balbuena, Lloyd

    2017-03-01

    It has been reported that Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) can be differentiated into distinct subtypes associated with different outcomes in adulthood. We examined whether ODD is conceptually independent and coherent, and whether ODD and Conduct Disorder (CD) are expressions of the same core deficit. The data come from a sample of 4,380 children for whom SNAP rating scales were available. Parallel analysis was performed on the eight-item ODD diagnostic items and on the SNAP-90 scale. These were factor analyzed and the components were correlated. ODD has one underlying factor, whereas the parent-rated SNAP has nine underlying factors. ODD items grouped together with emotional lability and irritability items, which did not group with CD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the separation of ODD and CD but not ODD and emotion dysregulation. The expanded ODD factor more likely captures a disorder of emotion regulation, rather than a disruptive behavior disorder.

  14. Beyond Symptom Counts for Diagnosing Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B; Hipwell, Alison E; Pardini, Dustin A

    2015-10-01

    Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) are among the most commonly diagnosed childhood behavioral health disorders. Although there is substantial evidence of heterogeneity of symptom presentations, DSM diagnoses of CD and ODD are formally diagnosed on the basis of symptom counts without regard to individual symptom patterns. We used unidimensional item response theory (IRT) two-parameter logistic (2PL) models to examine item parameters for the individual symptoms of CD and ODD using data on 6,491 adolescents (ages 13-17) from the National Comorbidity Study: Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). For each disorder, the symptoms differed in terms of severity and discrimination parameters. As a result, some adolescents who were above DSM diagnostic thresholds for disruptive behavior disorders exhibited lower levels of the underlying construct than others below the thresholds, based on their unique symptom profile. In terms of incremental benefit, our results suggested an advantage of latent trait scores for CD but not ODD.

  15. Does oppositional defiant disorder have temperament and psychopathological profiles independent of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Won; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yeo, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    Most studies on temperamental and behavioral/emotional characteristics of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) did not rule out the effect of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main objective of this study was to identify the temperamental and psychopathological patterns of ODD independent of comorbid ADHD. We also aimed to compare the patterns of temperament and psychopathology between ODD with and without ADHD. Parents of 2673 students, randomly selected from 19 representative schools in Seoul, Korea, completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV. Among 118 children and adolescents with ODD diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV, the parents of 94 subjects (mean age, 10.4 +/- 3.0 years) and the parents of a random sample of 94 age- and gender-matched non-ODD/non-ADHD children and adolescents completed the parent's version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Subjects with ODD showed temperament and character profiles of high Novelty Seeking, low Self-directedness, and low Cooperativeness, a distinct pattern on the CBCL, and were at increased risk for anxiety and mood disorders compared to the controls after controlling for the effect of comorbid ADHD. The children and adolescents with both ODD and ADHD showed decreased levels of Persistence and Self-directedness and higher scores on 4 subscales of the CBCL (Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, Delinquent Behaviors, and Aggressive Behaviors) compared to those with ODD only. Oppositional defiant disorder is associated with specific temperamental and behavioral/emotional characteristics, independent of ADHD. Moreover, the results of this study support that co-occurring ADHD and ODD have differentially higher levels of behavioral and emotional difficulties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Atomoxetine Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Milton, Denai R.; Michelson, David

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine (1) moderating effects of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment response and (2) responses of ODD symptoms to atomoxetine. Method: Children and adolescents (ages 8-18) with ADHD were treated for approximately 8 weeks with placebo or atomoxetine (fixed dosing: 0.5,…

  17. CBCL Clinical Scales Discriminate ADHD Youth with Structured-Interview Derived Diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kaiser, Roselinde; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between the clinical scales of the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in a large sample of youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The sample consisted of 101 girls and 106 boys ages 6 to 17 with ADHD. Conditional…

  18. The influence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder on white matter microstructure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Noordermeer, Siri D. S.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Oosterlaan, J.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are highly comorbid disorders. ADHD has been associated with altered white matter (WM) microstructure, though the literature is inconsistent, which may be due to differences in the in- or exclusion of

  19. DSM-IV Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Implications and Guidelines for School Mental Health Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marc S.; McKay, Mary McKernan; Talbott, Elizabeth; Arvanitis, Patrice

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the DSM-IV criteria for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), comparing their counterparts in DSM-III-R. Results from DSM-IV field trials indicate interrater and test-retest reliability were only marginally improved compared to prior criteria. Although overlooked in DSM-IV, community factors, gender differences,…

  20. Risk Factors for Conduct Disorder and Oppositional/Defiant Disorder: Evidence from a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the social, family background, and individual antecedents of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the extent to which CD and ODD symptoms were predicted by common environmental risk factors, and the extent to which the antecedents of CD and ODD accounted for the comorbidity between the two disorders.…

  1. Therapeutic Assessment for Preadolescent Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A Replicated Single-Case Time-Series Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.; Handler, Leonard; Nash, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The Therapeutic Assessment (TA) model is a relatively new treatment approach that fuses assessment and psychotherapy. The study examines the efficacy of this model with preadolescent boys with oppositional defiant disorder and their families. A replicated single-case time-series design with daily measures is used to assess the effects of TA and to…

  2. Callous unemotional traits, autism spectrum disorder symptoms and empathy in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijper, Jarla; de Wied, Minet; van Rijn, Sophie; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined additive and interactive effects of callous unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms in relation to trait empathy, in boys with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 49 boys with ODD/CD, aged between 7-12

  3. Impaired Neurocognitive Functions Affect Social Learning Processes in Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Implications for Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive…

  4. A Genetic Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Reading Disability: Aetiological Overlaps and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence; Pieka, Jan; Hay, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occurs with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Reading Disability. Twin studies are an important approach to understanding and modelling potential causes of such comorbidity. Univariate and bivariate genetic models were fitted to maternal report data from 2040 families of…

  5. Dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder as predictors of depression and conduct disorder in preadolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Hipwell, Alison E; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    To examine whether oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) rather than conduct disorder (CD) may explain the comorbidity between behavioral disorders and depression; to test whether distinct affective and behavioral dimensions can be discerned within the symptoms of ODD; and to determine whether an affective dimension of ODD symptoms is specifically predictive of later depression. The dimensions of ODD and their prediction to later CD and depression were examined in a community sample of 2,451 girls between the ages of 5 and 8 years, followed up annually over a 5-year period, using parent, child, and teacher questionnaire ratings of the severity of symptoms of psychopathology. Dimensions of negative affect, oppositional behavior, and antagonistic behavior were found within ODD symptoms. Negative affect predicted later depression. Oppositional and antagonistic behavior predicted CD overall, and for Caucasian girls, negative affect also predicted later CD. CD was not predictive of later depression, controlling for comorbid conditions. ODD plays a key role in the early development of psychopathology. It is central in the comorbidity between internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, which may be caused by a dimension of negative affective symptoms within ODD. How this dimension relates to later CD appears to vary by race.

  6. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: altered functioning in three mental domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2013-02-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to stress, amygdala hyporeactivity to negative stimuli, and altered serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission suggest low punishment sensitivity, which may compromise the ability of children and adolescents to make associations between inappropriate behaviors and forthcoming punishments. Second, sympathetic nervous system hyporeactivity to incentives, low basal heart rate associated with sensation seeking, orbitofrontal cortex hyporeactiviy to reward, and altered dopamine functioning suggest a hyposensitivity to reward. The associated unpleasant emotional state may make children and adolescents prone to sensation-seeking behavior such as rule breaking, delinquency, and substance abuse. Third, impairments in executive functions, especially when motivational factors are involved, as well as structural deficits and impaired functioning of the paralimbic system encompassing the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex, suggest impaired cognitive control over emotional behavior. In the discussion we argue that more insight into the neurobiology of oppositional defiance disorder and conduct disorder may be obtained by studying these disorders separately and by paying attention to the heterogeneity of symptoms within each disorder.

  7. Family routine moderates the relation between child impulsivity and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children (N = 87, 51% male). Child HI and ODD symptoms were assessed using parent and teacher reports. HI also was indexed by a laboratory task. Family routine was assessed using child self-report. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that family routine moderated child HI. Among children with higher levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms, lower levels of family routine were associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ODD symptoms compared to children with lower levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms. Children who self-reported higher levels of family routine were rated as low on teacher-reported ODD symptoms, regardless of teacher-reported HI levels. Parent report and laboratory measures of child HI did not produce significant interactions. Lower levels of family routine may confer risk for ODD symptoms among low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children experiencing higher levels of HI.

  8. Deconstructing oppositional defiant disorder: clinic-based evidence for an anger/irritability phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabick, Deborah A G; Gadow, Kenneth D

    2012-04-01

    To examine risk factors and co-occurring symptoms associated with mother-reported versus teacher-reported anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in a clinic-based sample of 1,160 youth aged 6 through 18 years. Participants completed a background history questionnaire (mothers), school functioning questionnaire (mothers, teachers), and DSM-IV-referenced symptom checklists (mothers, teachers). Youth meeting AIS criteria for ODD were compared to youth with ODD who met criteria for noncompliant symptoms (NS) but not AIS and to clinic controls. Compared with NS youth, youth with AIS were rated as exhibiting higher levels of anxiety and mood symptoms for both mother- and teacher-defined groups, and higher levels of conduct disorder symptoms for mother-defined younger and older youth. The remaining group differences for developmental, psychosocial, and psychiatric correlates varied as a function of informant and youth's age. Evidence suggests that AIS may constitute a more severe and qualitatively different ODD clinical phenotype, but informant and age of youth appear to be important considerations. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical Characteristics of Preschool Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Domènech, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to know whether callous-unemotional (CU) traits identify a more severe group of oppositional defiant children (ODD). The aim of this study is to ascertain cross-sectionally and longitudinally the specific contribution of CU levels and the presence of ODD in the psychological state of preschool children from the general population. A total of 622 children were assessed longitudinally at ages 3 and 5 with a semi-structured diagnostic interview and questionnaires filled out by parents and teachers. In multivariate models simultaneously including ODD diagnosis and CU levels, controlling by socioeconomic status, ethnicity, sex, severity of conduct disorder symptoms and other comorbidity, high CU scores were related to higher levels of aggression, withdrawn, externalizing and global symptomatology, functional impairment and higher probability of comorbid disorders and use of services. The contribution of CU traits on children's psychological state was not moderated by the presence/absence of ODD. Stability for CU traits and number of ODD-symptoms between ages 3 and 5 was statistically significant but moderate-low (intra-class correlation under .40). Assessment and identification of CU traits from preschool might help to identify a subset of children who could have socialization problems, not only among those with ODD but also among those without a diagnosis of conduct problems.

  10. Current issues in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J; Nigg, Joel T

    2012-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification.

  11. The latent structure of oppositional defiant disorder in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D; Marcus, David K; Barry, Christopher T; Coccaro, Emil F

    2013-12-01

    An understanding of the latent structure of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is essential for better developing causal models, improving diagnostic and assessment procedures, and enhancing treatments for the disorder. Although much research has focused on ODD-including recent studies informing the diagnostic criteria for DSM-5-research examining the latent structure of ODD is sparse, and no known study has specifically undertaken a taxometric analysis to address the issue of whether ODD is a categorical or dimensional construct. To address this gap, the authors conducted two separate studies using a set of taxometric analyses with data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (child study; n = 969) and with data from a large mixed sample of adults, which included participants reporting psychiatric difficulties as well as healthy controls (adult study; n = 600). The results of a variety of non-redundant analyses across both studies revealed a dimensional latent structure for ODD symptoms among both children and adults. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have examined latent structure of related constructs (e.g., aggression, antisocial behavior) as well as studies that have examined the dimensional versus categorical structure of ODD using methods other than taxometric analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parsing the familiality of oppositional defiant disorder from that of conduct disorder: a familial risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Carter R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Mick, Eric; Hughes, Samantha; Small, Jacqueline; Faraone, Stephen V; Biederman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Family risk analysis can provide an improved understanding of the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attending to the comorbidity with conduct disorder (CD). We compared rates of psychiatric disorders in relatives of 78 control probands without ODD and CD (Control, N=265), relatives of 10 control probands with ODD and without CD (ODD, N=37), relatives of 19 ADHD probands without ODD and CD (ADHD, N=71), relatives of 38 ADHD probands with ODD and without CD (ADHD+ODD, N=130), and relatives of 50 ADHD probands with ODD and CD (ADHD+ODD+CD, N=170). Rates of ADHD were significantly higher in all three ADHD groups compared to the Control group, while rates of ODD were significantly higher in all three ODD groups compared to the Control group. Evidence for co-segregation was found in the ADHD+ODD group. Rates of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and addictions in the relatives were significantly elevated only in the ADHD+ODD+CD group. ADHD and ODD are familial disorders, and ADHD plus ODD outside the context of CD may mark a familial subtype of ADHD. ODD and CD confer different familial risks, providing further support for the hypothesis that ODD and CD are separate disorders.

  13. Negative parenting behavior and childhood oppositional defiant disorder: differential moderation by positive and negative peer regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Lee, Steve S

    2014-01-01

    Although negative parenting behavior and peer status are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (e.g., oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)), relatively little is known about their interplay, particularly in relation to differentiated measures of positive and negative peer regard. To improve the specificity of the association of negative parenting behavior and peer factors with ODD, we explored the potential interaction of parenting and peer status in a sample of 169 five-to ten-year-old ethnically diverse children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed using multiple measures (i.e., rating scales, interview) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, sex, number of ADHD symptoms, and parents' race-ethnicity, peer acceptance inversely predicted and inconsistent discipline, harsh punishment, and peer rejection were each positively associated with ODD symptom severity. Interactive influences were also evident such that inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment each predicted elevated ODD but only among children experiencing low peer acceptance or high peer rejection. These findings suggest that supportive environments, including peer acceptance, may protect children from negative outcomes associated with inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment. Findings are integrated with theories of social support, and we additionally consider implications for intervention and prevention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the forerunner of alcohol dependence: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish

    2014-10-01

    There are common genetic, neurobiological and psycho-social substrates for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and substance dependence. ODD can be regarded as the mildest and earliest form of disruptive behavioral disorder and also represents the threshold of vulnerability for substance dependence. But it is a less researched area. The aim of this research was to study any possible association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. Data are presented from a non probability sample of 100 adult alcohol dependent subjects and equal number of biologically unrelated control subjects. Assessment was conducted by the instrument Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism for both the assessment of ODD and alcohol dependence. The results of this study demonstrated significant association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. The association remained significant even after the exclusion of the possible confounding effects of the presence of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Our study should encourage further research in this area and is expected to open up an opportunity for preventive research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex Differences in the Prevalence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder During Middle Childhood: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, David H; Hooley, Merrilyn; Sheen, Jade; McGillivray, Jane A; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-02-01

    This review provides a meta-analysed male:female prevalence ratio of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) during middle childhood in non-referred children. It also analyses sex differences in prevalence across cultures and over time. A systematic search for studies via the following sources was conducted: PsycInfo, Web of Knowledge, Medline Complete, Scopus, EMBASE, InfoRMIT, Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Cochrane Library, PubMed and ProQuest Health. The studies presented in two previous systematic reviews were also added to the search results. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were then applied and final studies were appraised for their methodological quality. Nineteen independent effect sizes met full inclusion criteria (aggregated sample N = 44,107). Overall, the prevalence of ODD was significantly higher in boys than girls (RR = 1.59, 95 % CI [1.36, 1.86], p  0.05). Sex differences in prevalence were significant in studies published prior to and post the year 2000 (RR = 1.57, 95 % CI [1.22, 2.02], p  0.05). The sex differences in ODD prevalence are discussed within the context of (i) predominant theories of sex differences in externalising behaviours, and (ii) departure from the sex-differences pattern found for other disruptive behavioural disorders.

  16. Emotional Regulation and Executive Function Deficits in Unmedicated Chinese Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenqing; Li, Yan; Du, Yasong; Fan, Juan

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to explore the feature of emotional regulation and executive functions in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) children. The emotional regulation and executive functions of adolescents with ODD, as well as the relationship between the two factors were analyzed using tools including Adolescent Daily Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ADERQ), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in comparison with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without behavioral problem and healthy children; the ADERQ assessed emotional regulation ability and others were used to assess executive function. Compared to normal children, the ODD group displayed significant differences in the scores of cognitive reappraisal, rumination, expressive suppression, and revealing of negative emotions, as well as in the score of cognitive reappraisal of positive emotions. WCST perseverative errors were well correlated with rumination of negative emotions (r=0.47). Logistic regression revealed that the minimum number of moves in the Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) test (one test in CANTAB) and negative emotion revealing, were strongly associated with ODD diagnosis. Children with ODD showed emotion dysregulation, with negative emotion dysregulation as the main feature. Emotion dysregulation and the lack of ability to plan lead to executive function deficits. The executive function deficits may guide us to understand the deep mechanism under ODD.

  17. Multiple Levels of Family Factors and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms Among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Heath, Melissa A; Chi, Peilian; Xu, Shousen; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2018-03-01

    Family factors are closely associated with child developmental outcomes. This study examined the relationship of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and factors at whole family, dyadic, and individual levels in Chinese children. Participants, who were recruited from 14 primary schools in north, east, and south-west China, included 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads. Children in the participating dyads were previously diagnosed with ODD. Results revealed that family cohesion/adaptability was indirectly associated with ODD symptoms via parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation. Parent-child relationship affected ODD symptoms directly and indirectly through child emotion regulation. In addition, the effects of family cohesion/adaptability on parent emotion regulation and child emotion regulation were mediated by the parent-child relationship. The tested model provides a comprehensive framework of how family factors at multiple levels are related to child ODD symptoms and highlights the importance of understanding child emotional and behavioral problems within the family context, more specifically within the multiple levels of family relationships. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  18. Predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for the DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Waldman, Irwin; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2010-11-01

    Data are presented from 3 studies of children and adolescents to evaluate the predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and the International Classification of Diseases, Version 10 (ICD-10; World Health Organization, 1992). The present analyses strongly support the predictive validity of these diagnoses by showing that they predict both future psychopathology and enduring functional impairment. Furthermore, the present findings generally support the hierarchical developmental hypothesis in DSM-IV that some children with ODD progress to childhood-onset CD, and some youth with CD progress to antisocial personality disorder (APD). Nonetheless, they reveal that CD does not always co-occur with ODD, particularly during adolescence. Importantly, the present findings suggest that ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for ODD, which treat CD symptoms as ODD symptoms when diagnostic criteria for CD are not met, identify more functionally impaired children than the more restrictive DSM-IV definition of ODD. Filling this "hole" in the DSM-IV criteria for ODD should be a priority for the DSM-V. In addition, the present findings suggest that although the psychopathic trait of interpersonal callousness in childhood independently predicts future APD, these findings do not confirm the hypothesis that callousness distinguishes a subset of children with CD with an elevated risk for APD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Clinical Characteristics of Preschool Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available There is a need to know whether callous-unemotional (CU traits identify a more severe group of oppositional defiant children (ODD. The aim of this study is to ascertain cross-sectionally and longitudinally the specific contribution of CU levels and the presence of ODD in the psychological state of preschool children from the general population. A total of 622 children were assessed longitudinally at ages 3 and 5 with a semi-structured diagnostic interview and questionnaires filled out by parents and teachers. In multivariate models simultaneously including ODD diagnosis and CU levels, controlling by socioeconomic status, ethnicity, sex, severity of conduct disorder symptoms and other comorbidity, high CU scores were related to higher levels of aggression, withdrawn, externalizing and global symptomatology, functional impairment and higher probability of comorbid disorders and use of services. The contribution of CU traits on children's psychological state was not moderated by the presence/absence of ODD. Stability for CU traits and number of ODD-symptoms between ages 3 and 5 was statistically significant but moderate-low (intra-class correlation under .40. Assessment and identification of CU traits from preschool might help to identify a subset of children who could have socialization problems, not only among those with ODD but also among those without a diagnosis of conduct problems.

  20. Structural Brain Abnormalities of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Greven, Corina U; Veroude, Kim; Faraone, Stephen V; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (comorbidity rates up to 60%) on these neuroanatomical differences is scarcely studied, while ODD (in combination with conduct disorder) has been associated with structural abnormalities of the frontal lobe, amygdala, and insula. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of comorbid ODD on cerebral volume and cortical thickness in ADHD. Three groups, 16 ± 3.5 years of age (mean ± SD; range 7-29 years), were studied on volumetric and cortical thickness characteristics using structural magnetic resonance imaging (surface-based morphometry): ADHD+ODD (n = 67), ADHD-only (n = 243), and control subjects (n = 233). Analyses included the moderators age, gender, IQ, and scan site. ADHD+ODD and ADHD-only showed volumetric reductions in total gray matter and (mainly) frontal brain areas. Stepwise volumetric reductions (ADHD+ODD attention, (working) memory, and decision-making. Volumetric reductions of frontal lobes were largest in the ADHD+ODD group, possibly underlying observed larger impairments in neurocognitive functions. Previously reported striatal abnormalities in ADHD may be caused by comorbid conduct disorder rather than ODD. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Child maltreatment and interpersonal relationship among Chinese children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Chi, Peilian; Wang, Zhonghui; Heath, Melissa Allen; Du, Hongfei; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment negatively affects children's development and wellbeing. This study investigated the associations between child maltreatment (i.e., emotional neglect, emotional abuse, and physical abuse) and interpersonal functioning, including parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, and peer relationships among children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). A total of 256 children with ODD and their parents and class master teachers from Mainland China completed questionnaires. Results showed a negative correlation between emotional abuse (parent-reported) and children's interpersonal relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Emotional neglect and physical abuse were related to poor parent-child relationships. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of child maltreatment among children with ODD. ODD children with more severe levels of one type of maltreatment were also more likely to have experienced severe levels of other types of maltreatment. Children with ODD who were in the group of high maltreatment had the poorest quality of interpersonal relationships. Our findings highlight the urgent need to prevent child maltreatment and promote more positive parenting in families with ODD children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Current Issues in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification. PMID:22035245

  3. Socioeconomic status and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Louwaars, Leonie; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children's executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors. The sample included 622 three-year-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed. Structural Equation Modeling showed that the associations between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels differed by children's gender: (a) for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was partially mediated by difficulties in EF inhibition, and parenting practices defined by corporal punishment and inconsistent discipline obtained a quasi-significant indirect effect into the association between SES and ODD; (b) for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control) had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation. SES seems a good indicator to identify children at high-risk for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control.

  4. Socioeconomic status and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser eGranero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children’s executive functioning (EF as the mediating factors.Method. Sample included 622 three years-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed.Results. Structural Equation Modeling showed that children’s gender achieved a moderating role into the pathways valuing the underlying process between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels: a for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was mediated by parenting practices (punishment and inconsistent discipline and by difficulties in EF inhibition, and a direct predictive effect on ODD level was achieved for SES, punishment and inconsistence in rearing style and inhibition; b for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation.Conclusion. SES seems a good indicator to identify at high-risk children for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control.

  5. [Nature and severity of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder as they occur together or separately in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapalme, Mélanie; Déry, Michèle

    2009-09-01

    Co-occurring oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms are particularly common, which could be related to the greater severity (number and nature of symptoms) of each disorder. Our study aims to determine if oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms vary when they occur together or separately in children. Our study was conducted with 406 children (aged 6 to 13 years) divided in 4 groups (oppositional disorder only, conduct disorder only, oppositional disorder and conduct disorder, control) with no age or sex difference. Structured diagnostic interviews conducted with one parent and each child separately led to assessing the average number of symptoms for each disorder as well as the onset frequency of each symptom. When occurring together, oppositional disorder and conduct disorder appear more severe than when they occur separately, considering the number and nature of symptoms shown. Further, children with an oppositional disorder only or a conduct disorder only also have more frequent symptoms of the other disorder, compared with children in the control group. These results suggest taking into account, at the time of assessment and potential intervention, the presence of both disorders.

  6. Sarcosine treatment for oppositional defiant disorder symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzang, Ruu-Fen; Chang, Yue-Cune; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Methylphenidate, a stimulant that activates dopaminergic and noradrenergic function, is an important agent in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sarcosine, a glycine transporter-1 inhibitor, may also play a role in treating ADHD by modulating the glutamatergic neurotransmission system through activating N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of sarcosine in treating children with ADHD. We conducted a six-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The primary outcome measures were those on the Inattention, Hyperactivity/impulsivity, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subscales of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale. Efficacy and safety were measured bi-weekly. A total of 116 children with ADHD were enrolled. Among them, 48 (83%) of the 58 sarcosine recipients and 44 (76%) of the 58 placebo recipients returned for the first post-treatment visit. The missing data values were imputed by the last observation carry forward method. From a multiple linear regression analysis, using the generalized estimating equation approach, and an intention to treat analysis, the efficacy of sarcosine marginally surpassed that of placebo at weeks 2, 4, and 6, with p-values=0.01, 0.026, and 0.012, respectively, although only for ODD symptoms. Treatment of ADHD by sarcosine (0.03 g/kg/day) was well tolerated. Sarcosine could possibly be a novel agent for managing ODD symptoms in the context of ADHD. However, future larger-scale studies are warranted to optimize its dosage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Symptoms of autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in clinically referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2012-01-01

    Examined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) symptoms in a clinically referred, non-ASD sample (N=1160; ages 6-18) with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Mothers and teachers completed DSM-IV-referenced symptom checklists. Youth with ODD were subdivided into angry/irritable symptom (AIS) or noncompliant symptom (NS) subtypes. Two different classification strategies were used: within-informant (source-specific) and between-informant (source-exclusive). For the source-specific strategy, youth were classified AIS, NS, or Control (C) according to mothers' and teachers' ratings separately. A second set of analyses focused on youth classified AIS according to mother or teacher report but not both (source-exclusive) versus both mother and teacher (cross-informant) AIS. Results indicated the mother-defined source-specific AIS groups generally evidenced the most severe ASD and SSD symptoms (AIS>NS>C), but this was more pronounced among younger youth. Teacher-defined source-specific ODD groups exhibited comparable levels of symptom severity (AIS, NS>C) with the exception of SSD (AIS>NS>C; younger youth). Source-exclusive AIS groups were clearly differentiated from each other, but there was little evidence of differential symptom severity in cross-informant versus source-exclusive AIS. These findings were largely dependent on the informant used to define the source-exclusive groups. AIS and NS groups differed in their associations with ASD and SSD symptoms. Informant discrepancy provides valuable information that can inform nosological and clinical concerns and has important implications for studies that use different strategies to configure clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting Depression and Anxiety from Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Elementary School-Age Girls and Boys with Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déry, Michèle; Lapalme, Mélanie; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia; Poirier, Martine; Temcheff, Caroline; Toupin, Jean

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the three DSM-5 categories of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms (irritable mood, defiant behavior, vindictive behavior) and anxiety/depression in girls and boys with conduct problems (CP) while controlling for comorbid child psychopathology at baseline. Data were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study of 6- to 9-year-old French-Canadian children (N = 276; 40.8 % girls) receiving special educational services for CP at school and followed for 2 years. Using linear regression analysis, the results showed that irritable mood symptoms predicted a higher level of depression and anxiety in girls and boys 2 years later, whereas the behavioral symptoms of ODD (e.g., defiant, vindictive symptoms) were linked to lower depression scores. The contribution of ODD symptoms to these predictions, while statistically significant, remained modest. The usefulness of ODD irritable symptoms as a marker for identifying girls and boys with CP who are more vulnerable to developing internalizing problems is discussed.

  9. [Family-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Miika; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Nissinen, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial family-based interventions--family therapy, cognitive-behavioral parent training and family-based treatment protocols--are empirically supported treatments for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Well-researched interventions such as remote and group-based parent training programs relate to improvements in parenting quality, positive parenting, and the child's decreased ADHD and conduct behavioral problems, whereas individual family-based treatments are sometimes required, depending on symptom severity. Specific family-based treatment protocols are tailored for older children and adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems. Considering the above, empirically supported programs are used more in Finland, compared to licensed Anglo-American treatment protocols.

  10. Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Show Impaired Adaptation During Stress: An Executive Functioning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2018-04-01

    Evidence for problems in executive functioning (EF) in children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) is mixed and the impact stress may have on EF is understudied. Working memory, sustained attention, inhibition and cognitive flexibility of boys with ODD/CD (n = 65) and non-clinical controls (n = 32) were examined under typical and stressful test conditions. Boys with ODD/CD showed impaired working memory under typical testing conditions, and impairments in working memory and sustained attention under stressful conditions. In contrast to controls, performance on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility and inhibition was less influenced by stress in boys with ODD/CD. These results suggest that boys with ODD/CD show impairments in adaptation to the environment whereas typically developing boys show adaptive changes in EF.

  11. Callous unemotional traits, autism spectrum disorder symptoms and empathy in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijper, Jarla; de Wied, Minet; van Rijn, Sophie; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna; Meeus, Wim

    2016-11-30

    This study examined additive and interactive effects of callous unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms in relation to trait empathy, in boys with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 49 boys with ODD/CD, aged between 7-12 years. Boys completed a questionnaire measure of empathic sadness and a broader questionnaire measure of affective and cognitive empathy. Parents and teachers reported on CU traits, and parents reported on ASD symptoms. In agreement with predictions, results reveal a negative association between CU traits and empathic sadness, particularly strong for ODD/CD boys with low levels of ASD symptoms. Results also reveal a negative association between ASD symptoms and cognitive empathy. Findings suggest that CU traits and ASD symptoms are associated with distinct empathy deficits with poor empathic sadness being more typical of CU traits than ASD symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social skills training and play group intervention for children with oppositional-defiant disorders/conduct disorder: Mediating mechanisms in a head-to-head comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmann, Josepha; Goertz-Dorten, Anja; Hautmann, Christopher; Doepfner, Manfred

    2018-01-19

    Social-cognitive information processing, social skills, and social interactions are problem-maintaining variables for aggressive behavior in children. We hypothesized that these factors may be possible mediators of the mechanism of change in the child-centered treatment of conduct disorders (CDs). The aim of the present study (Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT01406067) was to examine putative mechanisms of change for the decrease in oppositional-defiant behavior resulting from child-centered treatment of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) or CD. 91 children (age 6-12 years) with ODD/CD were randomized to receive either social skills training or to a resource activating play group. Mediator analyses were conducted using path analyses. The assumed mediating effects were not significant. However, alternative models with the putative mediators and outcome in reversed positions showed significant indirect effects of the oppositional-defiant symptoms as mediator for the decrease of disturbance of social-information processing, social skills, and social interactions. The proposed model for mechanisms of change could not be confirmed, with the results pointing to a reversed causality. Variables other than those hypothesized must be responsible for mediating the effects of the intervention on child oppositional-defiant behavior. Possible mechanisms of change were discussed.

  13. Emotion regulation difficulties in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorders and the relation with comorbid autism traits and attention deficit traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD), children with other

  14. Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Danielle M.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from >600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized…

  15. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD…

  16. Understanding Trait and Sources Effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Rating Scales: Mothers', Fathers', and Teachers' Ratings of Children from the Balearic Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Burns, G. Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to model a multitrait (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]-inattention, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity, oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]) by multisource (mothers, fathers, and teachers) matrix to determine the convergent and discriminant validity of ratings by mothers, fathers, and teachers.…

  17. The influence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder on white matter microstructure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Noordermeer, Siri D S; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Faraone, Stephen V; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Oosterlaan, J

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are highly comorbid disorders. ADHD has been associated with altered white matter (WM) microstructure, though the literature is inconsistent, which may be due to differences in the in- or exclusion of participants with comorbid ODD. WM abnormalities in ODD are still poorly understood, and it is unclear whether comorbid ODD in ADHD may have confounded the current ADHD literature. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between ADHD patients with (n = 42) and without (n = 117) comorbid ODD. All participants were between 8-25 years and groups did not differ in mean age or gender. Follow-up analyses were conducted to examine the role of antisocial behaviour (conduct problems) on FA and MD values in both groups. Comorbid ODD in ADHD was associated with lower FA in left frontotemporal WM, which appeared independent of ADHD symptoms. FA was negatively associated with antisocial behaviour in ADHD + ODD, but not in ADHD-only. Comorbid ODD is associated with WM abnormalities in individuals with ADHD, which appears to be independent of ADHD symptoms. Altered WM microstructure in comorbid ODD may play a role in inconsistencies in the current DTI literature in ADHD. Altered development of these tracts may contribute to social-emotional and cognitive problems in children with oppositional and antisocial behaviour.

  18. Familial Risk Factors to Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Parental Psychopathology and Maternal Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In sample of 177 clinic-referred children aged 7-13, association was found between diagnosis of conduct disorder and several aspects of family functioning: maternal parenting (supervision and persistence in discipline) and parent adjustment (paternal antisocial personality disorder and paternal substance abuse). Children with oppositional defiant…

  19. DSM-IV defined conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: an investigation of shared liability in female twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, V S; Bidwell, L C; Flessner, C; Nugent, N; Swenson, L; Bucholz, K K; Madden, P A F; Heath, A C

    2014-04-01

    DSM-IV specifies a hierarchal diagnostic structure such that an oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) diagnosis is applied only if criteria are not met for conduct disorder (CD). Genetic studies of ODD and CD support a combination of shared genetic and environmental influences but largely ignore the imposed diagnostic structure. We examined whether ODD and CD share an underlying etiology while accounting for DSM-IV diagnostic specifications. Data from 1446 female twin pairs, aged 11-19 years, were fitted to two-stage models adhering to the DSM-IV diagnostic hierarchy. The models suggested that DSM-IV ODD-CD covariation is attributed largely to shared genetic influences. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to examine genetic and environmental overlap among these disorders while maintaining a DSM-IV hierarchical structure. The findings reflect primarily shared genetic influences and specific (i.e. uncorrelated) shared/familial environmental effects on these DSM-IV-defined behaviors. These results have implications for how best to define CD and ODD for future genetically informed analyses.

  20. Neuroanatomical correlates of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder accounting for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Daimei; Hayashida, Ayako; Yamasue, Hidenori; Harada, Yuzuru; Kaneko, Tomoki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Amano, Naoji

    2010-08-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies have been conducted to uncover the pathophysiology of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The findings are inconsistent, however, at least partially due to methodological differences. In the present study voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to evaluate brain morphology in ADHD subjects after taking into account the confounding effect of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) comorbidity. Eighteen children with ADHD and 17 age- and gender-matched typically developing subjects underwent high-spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging. The regional gray matter volume differences between the children with ADHD and controls were examined with and without accounting for comorbid ODD and CD in a voxel-by-voxel manner throughout the entire brain. The VBM indicated significantly smaller regional gray matter volume in regions including the bilateral temporal polar and occipital cortices and the left amygdala in subjects with ADHD compared with controls. Significantly smaller regional gray matter volumes were demonstrated in more extensive regions including the bilateral temporal polar cortices, bilateral amygdala, right occipital cortex, right superior temporal sulcus, and left middle frontal gyrus after controlling for the confounding effect of comorbid ODD and CD. Morphological abnormalities in ADHD were seen not only in the regions associated with executive functioning but also in the regions associated with social cognition. When the effect of comorbid CD and ODD was taken into account, there were more extensive regions with significantly smaller volume in ADHD compared to controls.

  1. Predicting Treatment Response for Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Using Pre-treatment Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Dorn, Lorah D; Kolko, David J; Susman, Elizabeth J; Noll, Jennie G; Bukstein, Oscar G

    2012-12-01

    Variations in adrenal and gonadal hormone profiles have been linked to increased rates of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). These relationships suggest that certain hormone profiles may be related to how well children respond to psychological treatments for ODD and CD. The current study assessed whether pre-treatment profiles of adrenal and gonadal hormones predicted response to psychological treatment of ODD and CD. One hundred five children, 6 - 11 years old, participating in a randomized, clinical trial provided samples for cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione. Diagnostic interviews of ODD and CD were administered up to three years post-treatment to track treatment response. Group-based trajectory modeling identified two trajectories of treatment response: 1) a High-response trajectory where children demonstrated lower rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up, and 2) a Low-response trajectory where children demonstrated higher rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up. Hierarchical logistic regression predicting treatment response demonstrated that children with higher pre-treatment concentrations of testosterone were four times more likely to be in the Low-response trajectory. No other significant relationship existed between pre-treatment hormone profiles and treatment response. These results suggest that higher concentrations of testosterone are related to how well children diagnosed with ODD or CD respond to psychological treatment over the course of three years.

  2. Building an evidence base for DSM-5 conceptualizations of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A; Frick, Paul J; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2010-11-01

    The DSM-5 ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Work Group recently outlined a research agenda designed to support possible revisions to the diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Some of the areas in need of further investigation include (a) examining the clinical utility of the current diagnostic system in girls, (b) further clarifying the developmental progression from ODD to CD, (c) determining whether facets of ODD symptoms can help explain heterotypic continuity and enhance predictive validity, (d) evaluating the clinical utility of a new subtyping scheme for CD on the basis of the presence of callous-unemotional traits, and (e) comparing the clinical utility of dimensional versus categorical conceptualizations of ODD and CD. This special section was organized in an attempt to provide data on these issues using a diverse array of longitudinal data sets consisting of both epidemiological and clinic-based samples that collectively cover a large developmental span ranging from childhood through early adulthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Multi-Level Family Factors and Affective and Behavioral Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Tang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the important role of family environment in children's psychological development, the objective of this study was to examine the linkages between family factors at the whole, dyadic, and individual levels and two dimensions (affective and behavioral of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD symptoms in Chinese children. Participants comprised of 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads from families with ODD children. The results indicated that multilevel family factors were differently associated with children's affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. All the family factors at the dyadic and individual levels were significantly associated with child affective ODD symptoms. However, only the most proximal factors (parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation, which were directly related to child were significantly related to child behavioral ODD symptoms. The present study extends the current knowledge regarding the relationships between family factors and two dimensions of child ODD symptoms by testing the comprehensive multilevel family factors model. This study also recommends that future interventions for ODD children should consider the multi-level family factors to enhance intervention efficacy.

  4. Effect of Methylphenidate on Emotional Dysregulation in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder + Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Ayse; Akyol Ardic, Ulku; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2017-04-01

    Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a frequent feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be observed as a dysregulation profile or a deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) profile. Oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) comorbidity is prevalent in ADHD and known to be related with ED. The first-line treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, but their effects on ED are not well studied. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on ED in ADHD + ODD/CD cases. A total of 118 ADHD + ODD/CD patients with a mean age of 9.0 ± 1.9 years were treated with MPH for 1 year. Also, parents of cases were recruited for a parent-training program, which initiated after first month of MPH treatment. Symptom severity was assessed at baseline and 12th month by Turgay Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale-Parent Form, Children Depression Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist 4-18 years, and Parental Acceptance and Rejection Questionnaire-Mother Form. Emotional dysregulation (DESR + DP) was present in 85.6% of cases. Conduct disorder was significantly higher in patients with DP, whereas ODD was significantly higher in the DESR and non-ED groups (P disorders as ODD and CD, which are comorbid with ADHD. The MPH treatment is effective on ED independently from other clinical determinants.

  5. Reliability and validity of teacher-rated symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Elena; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    It is recommended to use information from multiple informants when making diagnostic decisions concerning oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of teacher-rated symptoms of ODD and CD in a clinical sample. The sample comprised 421 children (84% boys; 6-17 years) diagnosed with ODD, CD, and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Teachers completed a standardized ODD/CD symptom rating scale and the Teacher Report Form (TRF). The reliability (internal consistency) of the symptom rating scale was high (α = 0.90). Convergent and divergent validity were demonstrated by substantial correlations with similar TRF syndrome scales and low-to-moderate correlations with dissimilar TRF scales. Discriminant validity was shown by the ability of the symptom rating scale to differentiate between children with ODD/CD and those with ADHD. Factorial validity was demonstrated by principal component analysis, which produced a two-factor solution that is largely consistent with the two-dimensional model of ODD and CD proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR, although some CD symptoms representing aggressive behavior loaded on the ODD dimension. These findings suggest that DSM-IV-TR-based teacher rating scales are useful instruments for assessing disruptive behavior problems in children and adolescents.

  6. Variability in emotional/behavioral problems in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder: the role of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; Van Rijn, Sophie; De Wied, Minet; Van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    It is often reported that children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) are under-aroused. However, the evidence is mixed, with some children with ODD/CD displaying high arousal. This has led to the hypothesis that different profiles of arousal dysfunction may exist within children with ODD/CD. This knowledge could explain variability within children with ODD/CD, both in terms of specific types of aggression as well as comorbid symptoms (e.g., other emotional/behavioral problems). We measured heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) during rest and stress, and obtained parent and teacher reports of aggression, anxiety, attention problems and autism traits in a sample of 66 ODD/CD and 36 non-clinical boys (aged 8-12 years). The ODD/CD group scored significantly higher on aggression, anxiety, attention problems and autism traits than the controls; boys with ODD/CD also had higher resting HRs than controls, but HR stress, HRV and SCL did not differ. Hierarchical regressions showed different physiological profiles in subgroups of boys with ODD/CD based on their type of aggression; a pattern of high baseline HR and SCL, but low stress HRV was related to reactive aggression, whereas the opposite physiological pattern (low HR, low stress SCL, high stress HRV) was related to proactive aggression. Furthermore, high stress SCL was related to anxiety symptoms, whereas low stress SCL was related to attention problems. These findings are important because they indicate heterogeneity within boys with ODD/CD and highlight the importance of using physiology to differentiate boys with different ODD/CD subtypes.

  7. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms and Association with Oppositional Defiant and Other Disorders in a General Population Child Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan D; Waxmonsky, James D; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O

    2016-03-01

    The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), has generated appreciable controversy since its inception, primarily in regard to its validity as a distinct disorder from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The goal of our study was to determine if the two DSM-5 DMDD symptoms (persistently irritable or angry mood and severe recurrent temper outbursts) occurred independently of other disorders, particularly ODD. Other DSM-5 DMDD criteria were not assessed. Maternal ratings of the two DMDD symptoms, clinical diagnosis of ODD using DSM-5 symptom criteria, and psychological problem scores (anxiety, depression, oppositional behavior, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) on the Pediatric Behavior Scale were analyzed in a population sample, 6-12 years of age (n = 665). The prevalence of DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts both rated by mothers as often or very often a problem) was 9%. In all, 92% of children with DMDD symptoms had ODD, and 66% of children with ODD had DMDD symptoms, indicating that it is very unlikely to have DMDD symptoms without ODD, but that ODD can occur without DMDD symptoms. Comorbid psychological problems (anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and ADHD) in addition to ODD did not increase the risk of having DMDD symptoms beyond that for ODD alone. Only 3% of children with psychological problems other than ODD had DMDD symptoms. Our general population findings are similar to those for a psychiatric sample, suggesting that DMDD cannot be differentiated from ODD based on symptomatology. Therefore, it is important to assess all DSM criteria and to examine for comorbid psychopathology when considering a diagnosis of DMDD. Our results support the recommendation made by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11) panel of experts that DMDD symptoms may be

  8. Disrupted Reinforcement Signaling in Orbital Frontal Cortex and Caudate in Youths with Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth C.; Marsh, Abigail A.; Blair, Karina S.; Reid, Marguerite. E.; Sims, Courtney; Ng, Pamela; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, R. James. R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dysfunction in amygdala and orbital frontal cortex functioning has been reported in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. However, the specific nature of the computational irregularities within these brain structures remains poorly understood. The current study used the passive avoidance task to examine responsiveness of these systems to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure, when prediction errors are greatest and learning maximized, and to reward in youths with psychopathic traits and comparison youths. METHOD 30 youths (N=15 with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus high psychopathic traits and N=15 comparison subjects) completed a 3.0 T fMRI scan while performing a passive avoidance learning task. RESULTS Relative to comparison youth, youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits showed reduced orbitofrontal cortex responsiveness both to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure and to rewards, as well as reduced caudate response to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure. Contrary to other predictions, however, there were no group differences in amygdala responsiveness specifically to these two task parameters. However, amygdala responsiveness throughout the task was reduced in the youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits are marked by a compromised sensitivity to early reinforcement information in both orbitofrontal cortex and caudate and to reward outcome information within orbitofrontal cortex. They further suggest that the integrated functioning of the amygdala, caudate and orbitofrontal cortex may be disrupted in individuals with this disorder. PMID:21078707

  9. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account

    OpenAIRE

    Noordermeer, Siri D. S.; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ...

  10. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor Structure and Uniform Differential Item Functioning Across Gender and Three Racial/Ethnic Groups for ADHD, Conduct Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesner, Margit; Kanouse, David E.; Elliott, Marc N.; Windle, Michael; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM–IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 chi...

  11. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Parenting Educational Program on the Anxiety, Parent-Child Conflict and Parent Self-Agency in Mothers with Oppositional Defiant Disorder Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghazanfari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Oppositional defiant disorder that occurs in pre-school or early school-age children and in pre-adolescent stage has a widespread impact on the child, family, teachers and society. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mindful parenting education program on reducing the anxiety and parent-child conflict and increasing the self-agency of parenting in mothers who have oppositional defiant disorder daughters. Materials & Methods: This semi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group was performed during 2015-2016 academic year in 34 mothers of primary school girl students of Noorabad City, Iran, who were suffering from oppositional defiant disorder. The samples were selected by purposeful clustering method and were randomly divided into 2 test and control groups (each had 17 members. The research tools were Child Behavioral Logbook and Teacher Report Form, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Conflict Strategy and Parent Self-efficacy Questionnaires. Mindfulness-based parenting educational program was conducted for the experimental group one 2-hour session a week for 2 months. Data were analyzed by SPSS 23 software using MANCOVA test. Findings: The average of total anxiety, parent-child conflict and parental self-efficacy scores were higher in the experimental group in posttest. After controlling the effect of pre-test scores, there were significant differences between the test and control groups in terms of all variables (p<0.001. Conclusion: Mindfulness-based parenting educational program reduces the anxiety and parent-child conflict and increases the parental self-efficacy in mothers with oppositional defiant disorder.

  12. Perceived Parent-Child Relations, Conduct Problems, and Clinical Improvement Following the Treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Jordan A; Ollendick, Thomas H; Dunsmore, Julie C; Greene, Ross W

    2016-05-01

    Our objective in this study was to examine the moderating influence of parent-child relationship quality (as viewed by the child) on associations between conduct problems and treatment responses for children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). To date, few studies have considered children's perceptions of relationship quality with parents in clinical contexts even though extant studies show the importance of this factor in children's behavioral adjustment in non-clinical settings. In this study, 123 children (ages 7 - 14 years, 61.8% male, 83.7% white) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for ODD received one of two psychosocial treatments: Parent Management Training or Collaborative & Proactive Solutions. In an earlier study, both treatments were found to be effective and equivalent in treatment outcomes (Ollendick et al., in press). In the current study, pre-treatment maternal reports of conduct problems and pre-treatment child reports of relations with parents were used to predict outcomes in ODD symptoms and their severity following treatment. Elevated reports of children's conduct problems were associated with attenuated reductions in both ODD symptoms and their severity. Perceived relationship quality with parents moderated the ties between conduct problems and outcomes in ODD severity but not the number of symptoms. Mother reports of elevated conduct problems predicted attenuated treatment response only when children viewed relationship quality with their parents as poorer. When children viewed the relationship as higher quality, they did not show an attenuated treatment response, regardless of reported conduct problems. The current findings underscore the importance of children's perspectives in treatment response and reductions in externalizing child behaviors.

  13. Family Functioning in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebla Gokce Imren

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine family functioning in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and ADHD comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder ( ODD or conduct disorder ( CD. Method: Forty nine children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and forty eight controls (aged 8-16 years were assesed with Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version; Parents completed the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD for family functioning which asseses 6 dimensions of family functioning ( problem solving, communication, behavior control, affective involvement, affective responsiveness, and roles and also includes a general functioning subscale. Results: 34.7 % of the ADHD children had comorbid psychiatric disorders, and the major comorbidity was ODD (24.5 %. ADHD families scored high at the level of “unhealthy functioning “ in the problem solving, roles, affective involvement, general functioning, and behavior control subscales of FAD. Besides, problem solving behaviour and general functioning were significantly poorer than control families and they had more difficulties in area of roles. When DEHB was comorbid with ODD or DB, all areas of family functioning as measured by FAD were scored high at the level of “unhealthy functioning “. Additionally, general functioning and affective responsiveness were significantly poorer than ADHD without ODD or DB comorbidity. Discussion: Recent studies revealed that ADHD and especially ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB may disrupt family functioning in many ways. In this study, the families of children and adolescents with ADHD and ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB had poorer family functioning in most of the subscales of FAD. Treatment of children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD especially comorbid with ODD or DB should include parental treatment and intervention addressing parental skills, and family functioning. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 22-30

  14. Perceived Parent–Child Relations, Conduct Problems, and Clinical Improvement Following the Treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Greene, Ross W.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to examine the moderating influence of parent-child relationship quality (as viewed by the child) on associations between conduct problems and treatment responses for children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). To date, few studies have considered children’s perceptions of relationship quality with parents in clinical contexts even though extant studies show the importance of this factor in children’s behavioral adjustment in non-clinical settings. In this study, 123 children (ages 7 – 14 years, 61.8% male, 83.7% white) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for ODD received one of two psychosocial treatments: Parent Management Training or Collaborative & Proactive Solutions. In an earlier study, both treatments were found to be effective and equivalent in treatment outcomes (Ollendick et al., in press). In the current study, pre-treatment maternal reports of conduct problems and pre-treatment child reports of relations with parents were used to predict outcomes in ODD symptoms and their severity following treatment. Elevated reports of children’s conduct problems were associated with attenuated reductions in both ODD symptoms and their severity. Perceived relationship quality with parents moderated the ties between conduct problems and outcomes in ODD severity but not the number of symptoms. Mother reports of elevated conduct problems predicted attenuated treatment response only when children viewed relationship quality with their parents as poorer. When children viewed the relationship as higher quality, they did not show an attenuated treatment response, regardless of reported conduct problems. The current findings underscore the importance of children’s perspectives in treatment response and reductions in externalizing child behaviors. PMID:27284234

  15. On the link between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity: do comorbid oppositional defiant and conduct disorder matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Neidhard, John; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Becker, Katja

    2014-07-01

    The link between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and elevated body weight/obesity can be regarded as well established. Because oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) has also been found to be associated with these characteristics and ADHD and ODD/CD often occur comorbidly, we investigated whether ODD/CD and ADHD are independently linked with body weight and obesity. The clinical records of 360 children, 257 (6-12 years) with diagnoses of ADHD, ODD/CD, or comorbid ADHD and ODD/CD and 103 children with adjustment disorder (as a control group) constituted the database. All children were seen for the first time in two outpatient psychiatric clinics. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses (ADHD present vs. not present; ODD/CD present vs. not present) with the standard deviation scores (according to German reference data) of the child's body mass index (BMI-SDS) and presence of obesity were analyzed by ANCOVA and hierarchical logistic regression analysis, respectively. Children with ODD/CD showed higher BMI-SDS (F = 7.67, p < 0.006) and rate of obesity (Wald = 4.12, p < 0.05, OR = 2.43) while controlling for ADHD comorbidity. While adjusting for ODD/CD comorbidity, the links between ADHD and BMI-SDS or obesity did not reach statistical significance. Given a cross validation of these findings, future (preferably prospective longitudinal) research should analyze the mediating mechanism between the psychiatric conditions and obesity. This knowledge could be helpful for preventive interventions.

  16. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; Rijn, Sophie van; Wied, Minet de; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-11-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this study extended previous studies in that not only baseline and reactivity to a psychosocial stressor were examined, but also recovery from a stressor. These three phases of cortisol could be impacted differentially in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) with (+ANX) and without anxiety (-ANX). The results revealed that cortisol patterns in response to psychosocial stress were different for boys with ODD/CD+ANX (n=32), ODD/CD-ANX (n=22) and non-clinical controls (NC) (n=34), with age range of 7.8-12.9 years. The ODD/CD-ANX group showed lower overall cortisol levels than the NC group. When considering the three phases of cortisol separately, the ODD/CD-ANX group had lower baseline cortisol levels relative to the other groups, whereas the ODD/CD+ANX showed an impaired cortisol recovery response. Within those with ODD/CD, callous-unemotional traits were predictive of high baseline cortisol levels. Also, anxiety predicted high baseline and recovery cortisol levels, whereas a high number of CD symptoms predicted reduced cortisol stress reactivity. These results clearly indicate that comorbid anxiety is an important factor in explaining differences in stress response profiles in boys with ODD/CD; although boys with CD/ODD are generally characterized by an impaired cortisol stress response, we found that those with comorbid anxiety showed impaired cortisol recovery, whereas those without anxiety showed reduced baseline cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impaired neurocognitive functions affect social learning processes in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G; Lochman, John E

    2012-09-01

    In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive consequences is compromised in children and adolescents with these disorders due to reduced sensitivity to punishment and to reward. As a result, both learning of appropriate behavior and learning to refrain from inappropriate behavior may be affected. Likewise, problem solving is impaired due to deficiencies in inhibition, attention, cognitive flexibility, and decision making. Consequently, children and adolescents with ODD and CD may have difficulty learning to optimize their behavior in changeable environments. This conceptualization of ODD and CD is relevant for the improvement of the effect of psychological treatments. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral interventions that have been shown to be modestly effective in ODD and CD are based on social learning. Limited effectiveness of these interventions may be caused by difficulties in social learning in children and adolescents with ODD and CD. However, although these impairments have been observed at a group level, the deficits in reward processing, punishment processing, and cognitive control mentioned above may not be present to the same extent in each individual with ODD and CD. Therefore, the neurocognitive characteristics in children and adolescents with ODD and CD should be assessed individually. Thus, instead of delivering interventions in a standardized way, these programs may benefit from an individualized approach that depends on the weaknesses and strengths of the neurocognitive characteristics of the child and the adolescent.

  18. Interrelationships and Continuities in Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders from Age 4 to 10 in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Silje Merethe; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-07-01

    Childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has commonly been thought to increase the risk of conduct disorder (CD) in late childhood and adolescence. However, symptoms of CD may also emerge during preschool and middle childhood. The few studies that have examined whether ODD increases the risk of such early onset CD have produced equivocal results, potentially due to methodological issues. In this study, a community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds (n = 1042, 49.9 % males) was examined bi-annually over four waves of data collection. Symptoms of ODD, CD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depressive disorders were measured through interviews with parents and children using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment and the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. The results showed that at all ages, more symptoms of ODD predicted more symptoms of CD at the next age of examination even after adjusting for previous CD and comorbid conditions. The effect of previous ODD on CD two years later did not differ according to gender, SES, or parental cohabitating status at any point in time. There was modest homotypical continuity in symptoms of CD and moderate homotypical continuity in symptoms of ODD. Symptoms of ODD increased from age 4 to 8 and declined to age 10. In conclusion, symptoms of ODD increase the risk of early onset symptoms of CD. The continuity in symptoms of ODD, and to some extent CD, combined with an increased risk of early symptoms of CD forecasted by symptoms of ODD, underscore the importance of detection, prevention and treatment of behavioral disorders already in early childhood.

  19. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antisocial behavior Impulse control problems Substance use disorder Suicide Many children and teens with ODD also have other mental health disorders, such as: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Conduct disorder Depression Anxiety Learning and communication disorders Treating these other ...

  20. Oppositional defiant disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as possibilities: Anxiety disorders Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Bipolar disorder Depression Learning disorders Substance abuse disorders Treatment The best treatment for the child is to ...

  1. MULTI DISCIPLINARY APPROACH IN TREATING A GIRL CHILD DIAGNOSED WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPER ACTIVE DISORDER AND OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER. A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shaik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The principle features of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. There is little evidence that confirms that Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is arising purely from child rearing methods or social factors.76 % of children with ADHD has a family history, and the similar cases can be seen in the family. The symptoms of more than 50 % of ADHD children will continue in adulthood which requires treatment. Most of the causes appear for ADHD are categorizing the condition in a group of neurobiological and genetic disorders. This does not mean to say that the influence of environmental factors on the severity of disorder, impairment and suffering the child may experience is nil, but those factors do not give rise to the condition by themselves. The chances of getting associated problems like Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD in children with ADHD is one-third to one-half and ODD is more common in boys with ADHD. These children are often non compliant, stubborn, defiant, have outbursts of temper, or become belligerent. Case description: This is a case report of a child who diagnosed as attention deficit hyper active disordered and Oppositional Defiant Disordered (ODD child, with finger contractures of right hand, which treated with medications, behavioral therapy, physiotherapy, relaxation techniques and music therapy as the means of rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The evaluation measures used are Nine-hole peg test, behavioral rating scale and a seven items temperament evaluation scale. Discussion: A holistic rehabilitation therapy increased attention, listening to suggestions, short stories and sleeping in time. Oppositional behaviors were also reduced both at home and school. Her relationships with parent, teachers and school mates were improved. Listening skills, attention, daily activities such as wake up, brushing, bathing, going to school in time were also

  2. Gene‐set and multivariate genome‐wide association analysis of oppositional defiant behavior subtypes in attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; Poelmans, Geert; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Sonuga‐Barke, Edmund J. S.; Stringaris, Argyris; consortium, IMAGE; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Steinhausen, Hans‐Christoph; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a frequent psychiatric disorder seen in children and adolescents with attention‐deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ODD is also a common antecedent to both affective disorders and aggressive behaviors. Although the heritability of ODD has been estimated to be around 0.60, there has been little research into the molecular genetics of ODD. The present study examined the association of irritable and defiant/vindictive dimensions and categorical subtypes of ODD (based on latent class analyses) with previously described specific polymorphisms (DRD4 exon3 VNTR, 5‐HTTLPR, and seven OXTR SNPs) as well as with dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin genes and pathways in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. In addition, we performed a multivariate genome‐wide association study (GWAS) of the aforementioned ODD dimensions and subtypes. Apart from adjusting the analyses for age and sex, we controlled for “parental ability to cope with disruptive behavior.” None of the hypothesis‐driven analyses revealed a significant association with ODD dimensions and subtypes. Inadequate parenting behavior was significantly associated with all ODD dimensions and subtypes, most strongly with defiant/vindictive behaviors. In addition, the GWAS did not result in genome‐wide significant findings but bioinformatics and literature analyses revealed that the proteins encoded by 28 of the 53 top‐ranked genes functionally interact in a molecular landscape centered around Beta‐catenin signaling and involved in the regulation of neurite outgrowth. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular basis of ODD and inform future genetic studies of oppositional behavior. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26184070

  3. Efficacy of individualized social competence training for children with oppositional defiant disorders/conduct disorders: a randomized controlled trial with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz-Dorten, Anja; Benesch, Christina; Berk-Pawlitzek, Emel; Faber, Martin; Hautmann, Christopher; Hellmich, Martin; Lindenschmidt, Timo; Schuh, Lioba; Stadermann, Rahel; Doepfner, Manfred

    2018-03-28

    Patient-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in children with aggressive behavior, which uses group-based social skills training, has resulted in significant reductions in behavioral problems, with effect sizes in the small-to-medium range. However, effects of individually delivered treatments and effects on aggressive behavior and comorbid conditions rated from different perspectives, child functional impairment, child quality of life, parent-child relationship, and parental psychopathology have rarely been assessed. In a randomized controlled trial, 91 boys aged 6-12 years with a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder and peer-related aggression were randomized to receive individually delivered social competence training (Treatment Program for Children with Aggressive Behavior, THAV) or to an active control involving group play that included techniques to activate resources and the opportunity to train prosocial interactions in groups (PLAY). Outcome measures were rated by parents, teachers, or clinicians. Mostly moderate treatment effects for THAV compared to PLAY were found in parent ratings and/or clinician ratings on aggressive behavior, comorbid symptoms, psychosocial impairment, quality of life, parental stress, and negative expressed emotions. In teacher ratings, significant effects were found for ADHD symptoms and prosocial behavior only. THAV is a specifically effective intervention for boys aged 6-12 years with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder and peer-related aggressive behavior as rated by parents and clinicians.

  4. Trastorno oposicional desafiante: enfoques diagnóstico y terapéutico y trastornos asociados Oppositional defiant disorder: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and associated disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Palacio Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se define el trastorno oposicional desafiante (TOD como un patrón recurrente de conducta negativista, desafiante, desobediente y hostil, dirigido a los padres y a las figuras de autoridad. Los estudios en países desarrollados han identificado factores cognitivos y conductuales errados, como los principales determinantes de una actitud negativa, opuesta y contraria a las normas establecidas; mientras que en países en vías de desarrollo, como Colombia, se destacan los factores ambientales como condicionantes de resiliencia y prosocialidad. En este artículo se presenta información general sobre el TOD, sus comorbilidades más frecuentes y su enfoque terapéutico.

    Oppositional-defiant disorder is defined by a repetitive pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile conduct, against parents and other authority figures. Surveys in developed countries have identified cognitive and misconduct risk factors as the main determinants of a negative attitude, opposed and contrary to social laws; but in developing countries, such as Colombia, environmental factors are the main determinants of resilience and prosociality. In this paper we present general information on TOD, its associated disorders, and its therapeutic approach. 

  5. The Associations Between Pre- and Postnatal Maternal Symptoms of Distress and Preschooler's Symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Bothild; Aase, Heidi; Diep, Lien My

    2015-01-01

    ,195), recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, were assessed with a semistructured parental psychiatric interview. Perinatal maternal symptoms of distress were assessed by Symptom Checklist (SCL-5); Poisson regression was used to examine the associations. RESULTS: Mid-gestational maternal......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to examine the associations between pre- and postnatal maternal distress and preschooler's symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and anxiety, by timing and gender. METHOD: Children, aged 3.5 years (N = 1...... distress significantly increased the average number of child symptoms, ranging between 3.8% for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) and 8.7% for anxiety. The combination of high maternal scores of distress both pre- and postnatally were associated with increased risk of child symptoms of anxiety (relative...

  6. Problem of item overlap between the psychopathy screening device and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G L

    2000-12-01

    Content validity requires a clear definition of the construct of interest and the delineation of the construct from similar constructs. Content validity also requires that the items be representative of the construct as well as specific to the construct. An examination of the items on the Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD), a parent- and teacher-rating scale of childhood psychopathy, indicates significant overlap with the symptoms and associated features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). The failure of the PSD to have unique items results in poor discriminant validity with ADHD, ODD, and CD rating scales. More careful attention to content validation guidelines is required to develop a more useful measure of childhood psychopathy.

  7. Disrupted reinforcement signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate in youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and a high level of psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth C; Marsh, Abigail A; Blair, Karina S; Reid, Marguerite E; Sims, Courtney; Ng, Pamela; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, R James R

    2011-02-01

    Dysfunction in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex has been reported in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. The specific nature of the functional irregularities within these structures remains poorly understood. The authors used a passive avoidance task to examine the responsiveness of these systems to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure, when prediction errors are greatest and learning maximized, and to reward in youths with psychopathic traits and comparison youths. While performing the passive avoidance learning task, 15 youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus a high level of psychopathic traits and 15 healthy subjects completed a 3.0-T fMRI scan. Relative to the comparison youths, the youths with a disruptive behavior disorder plus psychopathic traits showed less orbitofrontal responsiveness both to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure and to rewards, as well as less caudate response to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure. There were no group differences in amygdala responsiveness to these two task measures, but amygdala responsiveness throughout the task was lower in the youths with psychopathic traits. Compromised sensitivity to early reinforcement information in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate and to reward outcome information in the orbitofrontal cortex of youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits suggests that the integrated functioning of the amygdala, caudate, and orbitofrontal cortex may be disrupted. This provides a functional neural basis for why such youths are more likely to repeat disadvantageous decisions. New treatment possibilities are raised, as pharmacologic modulations of serotonin and dopamine can affect this form of learning.

  8. A Naturalistic Comparison of Methylphenidate and Risperidone Monotherapy in Drug-Naive Youth With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Comorbid With Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Manfredi, Azzurra; Nieri, Giulia; Muratori, Pietro; Pfanner, Chiara; Milone, Annarita

    2017-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are frequently co-occurring in youth, but data about the pharmacological management of this comorbidity are scarce, especially when impulsive aggression is prominent. Although stimulants are the first-line medication for ADHD, second-generation antipsychotics, namely, risperidone, are frequently used. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and risperidone in a consecutive sample of 40 drug-naive male youths diagnosed as having ADHD-combined presentation, comorbid with ODD and aggression, without psychiatric comorbidities, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and a structured clinical interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Twenty males treated with MPH (mean age, 8.95 ± 1.67 years) and 20 males treated with risperidone (mean age, 9.35 ± 2.72 years), followed up to 6 months, were assessed according to efficacy measures (Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL], Clinical Global Impression-Severity [CGI-S] and Improvement [CGI-I], Children Global Assessment Scale), and safety measures. At the end of the follow-up, both medications were similarly effective based on CBCL subscales of aggression and rule-breaking behaviors, on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented oppositional defiant problems and conduct problems, and on CGI-S, CGI-I, and Children Global Assessment Scale, but only MPH was effective on CBCL attention problems and attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems. Risperidone was associated with weight gain and elevated prolactin levels. Although the nonrandomized, nonblind design limits the conclusions of our exploratory study, our findings suggest that when ADHD is comorbid with ODD and aggression MPH and risperidone are both effective on aggressive behavior, but

  9. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  10. Symptoms of Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Callous-Unemotional Traits as Unique Predictors of Psychosocial Maladjustment in Boys: Advancing an Evidence Base for DSM-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Fite, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The incremental utility of symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits for predicting psychosocial outcomes across multiple domains was examined in a community sample of 1,517 boys. Method: Several outcomes were assessed…

  11. The dynamics of attentional and inhibitory functions in the presence of distracting stimuli in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, high-functioning autism and oppositional defiant disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to elucidate the specific nature of attention and response inhibition deficits in three clinical groups: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and high-functioning autism, as compared to children with a typical development. The analysis approached task performance dynamics as a function of time and the presence of distracting stimuli. Material and method: 108 children aged 7–12 years participated in the study – 21 diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, 21 with high-functioning autism, 19 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; 47 made the control group. The study employed the MOXO-CPT to evaluate attention and inhibition functions. Results: Pairwise comparisons of clinical groups with typically-developing children in their performance on the entire test indicated considerable differences between the control group and children with both oppositional defiant disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but not between healthy subjects and children with autism. Performance profiles varied depending on the group, i.e. the type of disorder, and the level of the test, i.e. stimulus duration and intensity, but they were different for the particular studied aspects of attention and/or inhibition. High levels of similarity in functioning for all clinical groups were found in the measures of response accuracy, i.e. sustained attention and the speed of accurate response. The tendency to provide unnecessary responses and difficulties in complying with rules were found only in children with oppositional-defiant disorders. Impulsiveness rates increased over time in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, fluctuated over time in autism, while in the oppositional defiant disorder group performance was stable over time, but worse than in the control group. Conclusions: The dynamics of attentional and inhibitory control in clinical groups

  12. Functional impairment associated with symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder in preschool and early school boys and girls from the general population

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    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore whether the symptoms and diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD, as defined in the DSM-IV, are equally impairing for girls and boys from the general population in the early school years. Method: A sample of 852 three to seven-year-old schoolchildren were screened out for a double-phase design. A total of 251 families were assessed with a diagnostic interview and with measures of functional impairment. Results: ODD symptoms and diagnosis were equally prevalent in boys and girls, but three to five-year-old girls had a higher prevalence of subthreshold ODD. There were no significant differences between boys and girls in the impact on use of services, treatment received and family burden associated with ODD symptoms and diagnosis. Although diagnosis of ODD was not associated with higher functional impairment by sex, individual symptoms and subthreshold diagnosis were more impairing for boys than for girls. Conclusion: Oppositionality may be measuring different things for boys and girls, and this possibility must be taken into account with a view to the correct identification of this problem in each sex.

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type: evidence for an association with COMT but not MAOA in a Chinese sample

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    Wang Yu-Feng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are three childhood disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, and conduct disorder (CD. The most common comorbid disorder in ADHD is ODD. DSM-IV describes three ADHD subtypes: predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-IA, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-HI, and combined type (ADHD-C. Prior work suggests that specific candidate genes are associated with specific subtypes of ADHD in China. Our previous association studies between ADHD and functional polymorphisms of COMT and MAOA, consistently showed the low transcriptional activity alleles were preferentially transmitted to ADHD-IA boys. Thus, the goal of the present study is to test the hypothesis that COMT Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR jointly contribute to the ODD phenotype among Chinese ADHD boys. Methods 171 Chinese boys between 6 and 17.5 years old (mean = 10.3, SD = 2.6 with complete COMT val158met and MAOA-uVNTR genotyping information were studied. We used logistic regression with genotypes as independent variables and the binary phenotype as the dependent variable. We used p Results Our results highlight the potential etiologic role of COMT in the ADHD with comorbid ODD and its predominately inattentive type in male Chinese subjects. ADHD with comorbid ODD was associated with homozygosity of the high-activity Val allele, while the predominantly inattentive ADHD subtype was associated with the low-activity Met allele. We found no evidence of association between the MAOA-uVNTR variant and ADHD with comorbid ODD or the ADHD-IA subtype. Conclusion Our study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type highlights the potential etiologic role of COMT for ADHD children in China. But we failed to observe an interaction between COMT and MAOA, which suggests that epistasis between COMT and MAOA genes does not

  14. The Possible Effect of Methylphenidate Treatment on Empathy in Children Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Both With and Without Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubchik, Pavel; Weizman, Abraham

    2017-06-01

    To assess the Empathizing Quotient (EQ) of patients diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only or comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and compare the two groups' responses to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment. Fifty-two children (8-18 years) diagnosed with ADHD, 26 of whom were also diagnosed with comorbid ODD (ADHD/ODD), were treated with MPH for 12 weeks. The level of EQ was assessed with the Children's version of the Empathizing Quotient (EQ-C) and the severity of ADHD symptoms with the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Assessments were done at baseline and at end point. A significant increase in EQ scores was obtained in both groups following MPH treatment (p = 0.003 for ADHD/ODD; p = 0.002 for ADHD). Significant correlation was found in the ADHD group between the changes in ADHD-RS and those in EQ, following MPH treatment (p = 0.015), but not in the ADHD/ODD group (p = 0.48). A correlation exists between MPH-related improvement in ADHD symptoms and between more empathy in children with ADHD not comorbid with ODD.

  15. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.

  16. Maltreatment and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Chinese Children With and Without Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Mediating Role of the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfeng; Lin, Xiuyun; Chi, Peilian; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fang, Xiaoyi; Du, Hongfei; Wang, Zhonghui

    2016-11-01

    Maltreatment has negative effects on the parent-child relationship and the emotional and behavioral development of children. The current study aimed to examine the associations among maltreatment, parent-child relationship, and emotional and behavioral problems in Chinese children with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Participants in the study included 259 children with ODD and their 269 non-ODD counterparts from northern, eastern, and southwestern China. We also collected data from their teachers and fathers or mothers. The results showed that ODD children suffered more maltreatment and had more emotional and behavioral problems than their non-ODD peers. For all children (both ODD and non-ODD children), emotional abuse predicted emotional problems but not behavioral problems. Physical abuse predicted behavioral problems but not emotional problems. Parent-child relationship mediated the effects of emotional abuse and physical abuse on emotional problems among ODD children but not among non-ODD children. Implications for prevention of emotional and physical abuse and ODD in the Chinese cultural context are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Impaired functional but preserved structural connectivity in limbic white matter tracts in youth with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth Carrie; Marsh, Abigail; Blair, Karina Simone; Majestic, Catherine; Evangelou, Iordanis; Gupta, Karan; Schneider, Marguerite Reid; Sims, Courtney; Pope, Kayla; Fowler, Katherine; Sinclair, Stephen; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Pine, Daniel; Blair, Robert James

    2012-06-30

    Youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and psychopathic traits (CD/ODD+PT) are at high risk of adult antisocial behavior and psychopathy. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate functional abnormalities in orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala in both youths and adults with psychopathic traits. Diffusion tensor imaging in psychopathic adults demonstrates disrupted structural connectivity between these regions (uncinate fasiculus). The current study examined whether functional neural abnormalities present in youths with CD/ODD+PT are associated with similar white matter abnormalities. Youths with CD/ODD+PT and comparison participants completed 3.0 T diffusion tensor scans and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Diffusion tensor imaging did not reveal disruption in structural connections within the uncinate fasiculus or other white matter tracts in youths with CD/ODD+PT, despite the demonstration of disrupted amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity in these youths. These results suggest that disrupted amygdala-frontal white matter connectivity as measured by fractional anisotropy is less sensitive than imaging measurements of functional perturbations in youths with psychopathic traits. If white matter tracts are intact in youths with this disorder, childhood may provide a critical window for intervention and treatment, before significant structural brain abnormalities solidify. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oppositional defiant- and conduct disorder-like problems: neurodevelopmental predictors and genetic background in boys and girls, in a nationwide twin study

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    Nóra Kerekes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD. The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems–ODD/CD-like problems–and the neurodevelopmental disorders–attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, autism spectrum disorder (ASD–and to investigate underlying genetic effects.Methods. 17,220 twins aged 9 or 12 were screened using the Autism–Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory. The main covariates of ODD- and CD-like problems were investigated, and the relative importance of unique versus shared hereditary and environmental effects was estimated using twin model fitting.Results. Social interaction problems (one of the ASD subdomains was the strongest neurodevelopmental covariate of the behavioural problems in both genders, while ADHD-related hyperactivity/impulsiveness in boys and inattention in girls stood out as important covariates of CD-like problems. Genetic effects accounted for 50%–62% of the variance in behavioural problems, except in CD-like problems in girls (26%. Genetic and environmental effects linked to ADHD and ASD also influenced ODD-like problems in both genders and, to a lesser extent, CD-like problems in boys, but not in girls.Conclusions. The gender-specific patterns should be considered in the assessment and treatment, especially of CD.

  19. A pilot study of a school-based prevention and early intervention program to reduce oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Jo; Carlsson, Anthony; Vance, Alasdair

    2014-05-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) occurs when children's disruptive and antisocial behaviours start to interfere with their academic, emotional and/or social development. Recently, there has been a considerable investment to implement national school-based early intervention programs to help prevent the onset of ODD/CD. This paper describes the delivery of the Royal Children's Hospital, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service and Schools Early Action Program: a whole school, multi-level, multidisciplinary approach to address emerging ODD/CD and pre- versus post-delivery assessment in 40 schools over a 4-year period (2007-2010). All children from preparatory to grade 3 (ages 4-10 years) were screened for conduct problems (n = 8546) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Universal, targeted and indicated interventions were delivered in school settings. In total, 304 children participated in the targeted group program where the Child Behaviour Checklist was used as a pre- and post-intervention measure. Cohen's d effect sizes and a reliability change index were calculated to determine clinical significance. Significant reductions in both parent- and teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms were noted. Parent, teacher and child feedback were very positive. A future randomized controlled trial of the program would address potential placebo and selection bias effects. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Developmental continuity of oppositional defiant disorder subdimensions at ages 8, 10, and 13 years and their distinct psychiatric outcomes at age 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Yvonne M; Stringaris, Argyris; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D

    2013-09-01

    To test the developmental continuity, interrelationships, and predictive associations of the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subdimensions of irritable, headstrong, and hurtful. Data were collected from 6,328 mother-child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (United Kingdom). Developmental continuity for each subdimension was strong and interrelationships indicated that headstrong was associated mainly with irritable, whereas irritable did not cross associate with other ODD subdimensions; and hurtful was associated with lower levels of headstrong. With regard to associations at age 16 years, irritable at age 13 years was associated with depression, whereas headstrong at 13 was associated with delinquency and callous attitude; at age 13, hurtful failed to associate with any of the 3 age 16 outcomes. The results suggest that the ODD headstrong and irritable subdimensions are developmentally distinct, with small cross-over (i.e., headstrong to irritable), and are associated with unique outcomes. Hurtful does not appear to be associated with future maladjustment in children. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Common Versus Specific Correlates of Fifth-Grade Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms: Comparison of Three Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Elliott, Marc N; McLaughlin, Katie A; Banspach, Stephen W; Tortolero, Susan; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    The extent to which risk profiles or correlates of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms overlap among youth continues to be debated. Cross-sectional data from a large, representative community sample (N = 4,705) of African-American, Latino, and White fifth graders were used to examine overlap in correlates of CD and ODD symptoms. About 49 % of the children were boys. Analyses were conducted using negative binomial regression models, accounting for several confounding factors (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms), sampling weights, stratification, and clustering. Results indicated that CD and ODD symptoms had very similar correlates. In addition to previously established correlates, several social skills dimensions were significantly related to ODD and CD symptoms, even after controlling for other correlates. In contrast, temperamental dimensions were not significantly related to CD and ODD symptoms, possibly because more proximal correlates (e.g., social skills) were also taken into account. Only two factors (gender and household income) were found to be specific correlates of CD, but not ODD, symptoms. The pattern of common and specific correlates of CD and ODD symptoms was replicated fairly consistently across the three racial/ethnic subgroups. Implications of these findings for further research and intervention efforts are discussed.

  2. Psychometric properties of a German parent rating scale for oppositional defiant and conduct disorder (FBB-SSV) in clinical and community samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Ise, Elena; Hautmann, Christopher; Walter, Daniel; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-08-01

    The Fremdbeurteilungsbogen für Störungen des Sozialverhaltens (FBB-SSV) is a commonly used DSM- and ICD-based rating scale for disruptive behaviour problems in Germany. This study examined the psychometric properties of the FBB-SSV rated by parents in both a clinical sample (N = 596) and a community sample (N = 720) of children aged 4-17 years. Results indicate that the FBB-SSV is internally consistent (α = .69-.90). Principal component analyses produced two-factor structures that are largely consistent with the distinction between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Diagnostic accuracy was examined using receiver operating characteristic analyses, which showed that the FBB-SSV is excellent at discriminating children with ODD/CD from those in the community sample (AUC = .91). It has satisfactory diagnostic accuracy for detecting ODD/CD in the clinical sample (AUC = .76). Overall, the results show that the FBB-SSV is a reliable and valid instrument. This finding provides further support for the clinical utility of DSM- and ICD-based rating scales.

  3. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD share clinical features of impulsivity, poor self-regulation, and executive dysfunction, while ODD and BPD share features of anger and interpersonal turmoil. The study is based on annual, longitudinal data from the two oldest cohorts in the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 1233). We used piecewise latent growth curve models of ADHD and ODD scores from age 8–10 and 10–13 years to examine the prospective associations between dual trajectories of ADHD and ODD symptom severity and later BPD symptoms at age 14 in girls. To examine the specificity of these associations, we also included conduct disorder (CD) and depression symptom severity at age 14 as additional outcomes. We found that higher levels of ADHD and ODD scores at age 8 uniquely predicted BPD symptoms at age 14. Additionally, the rate of growth in ADHD scores from age 10–13 and the rate of growth in ODD scores from 8–10 uniquely predicted higher BPD symptoms at age 14. This study adds to the literature on the early development of BPD by providing the first longitudinal study to examine ADHD and ODD symptom trajectories as specific childhood precursors of BPD symptoms in adolescent girls. PMID:21671009

  4. Differences in functional activity between boys with pure oppositional defiant disorder and controls during a response inhibition task: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Ying, Kui; Wang, Ji; Su, Linyan; Chen, Jingyuan; Lin, Fan; Cai, Dongyang; Zhou, Ming; Wu, Daxing; Guo, Courtney; Wang, Shi

    2014-12-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of inhibitory control has only been investigated in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of functional areas associated with inhibitory control between boys with pure oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and controls during a response inhibition task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven boys with pure ODD and ten control boys, aged 10 to 12, performed a GoStop response inhibition task in this study. The task has a series of "go" trials to establish a pre-potent response tendency and a number of "stop" trials to test subjects' ability to withhold their responses. During the GoStop task, greater activation in the dorsolateral parts of the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus (lMFG) and right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG) activation was seen in the ODD boys. Additionally, reduced activation in regions of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was seen in the ODD boys in comparison with the control group. The results may suggest that the higher activation in areas adjacent to the rIFG could be the cause of reduced activation in the rIFG; although this is speculative and requires additional supporting evidence. The findings further suggest that ODD is a less pronounced functional disorder compared to ADHD and CD.

  5. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided. PMID:29104548

  6. The Associations Between Pre- and Postnatal Maternal Symptoms of Distress and Preschooler's Symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendiksen, Bothild; Aase, Heidi; Diep, Lien My; Svensson, Elisabeth; Friis, Svein; Zeiner, Pål

    2015-12-07

    The objective of this article is to examine the associations between pre- and postnatal maternal distress and preschooler's symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and anxiety, by timing and gender. Children, aged 3.5 years (N = 1,195), recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, were assessed with a semistructured parental psychiatric interview. Perinatal maternal symptoms of distress were assessed by Symptom Checklist (SCL-5); Poisson regression was used to examine the associations. Mid-gestational maternal distress significantly increased the average number of child symptoms, ranging between 3.8% for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) and 8.7% for anxiety. The combination of high maternal scores of distress both pre- and postnatally were associated with increased risk of child symptoms of anxiety (relative risk [RR] = 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.43, 3.07]), CD (RR = 1.83; 95% CI = [1.33, 2.51]), and ODD (RR = 1.30; 95% CI = [1.03, 1.64]), with minor sex differences. Maternal distress during mid-gestation was associated with ADHD, behavioral, and emotional symptoms in preschool children. Continued exposure into the postnatal period may further increase these risk associations . © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD. Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.

  8. Neurobiological stress responses predict aggression in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder: a 1-year follow-up intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-07-01

    To improve outcome for children with antisocial and aggressive behavior, it is important to know which individual characteristics contribute to reductions in problem behavior. The predictive value of a parent training (Parent Management Training Oregon; PMTO), parenting practices (monitoring, discipline, and punishment), and child neurobiological function (heart rate, cortisol) on the course of aggression was investigated. 64 boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (8-12 years) participated; parents of 22 boys took part in PMTO. All data were collected before the start of the PMTO, and aggression ratings were collected three times, before PMTO, and at 6 and 12 month follow-up. Parent training predicted a decline in aggression at 6 and 12 months. Child neurobiological variables, i.e., higher cortisol stress reactivity and better cortisol recovery, also predicted a decline in aggression at 6 and 12 months. Heart rate and parenting practices were not related to the course of aggression. These results indicate that child neurobiological factors can predict persistence or reduction of aggression in boys with ODD/CD, and have unique prognostic value on top of the parent training effects.

  9. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Oppositional defiant- and conduct disorder-like problems: neurodevelopmental predictors and genetic background in boys and girls, in a nationwide twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, Nóra; Lundström, Sebastian; Chang, Zheng; Tajnia, Armin; Jern, Patrick; Lichtenstein, Paul; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems-ODD/CD-like problems-and the neurodevelopmental disorders-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-and to investigate underlying genetic effects. Methods. 17,220 twins aged 9 or 12 were screened using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory. The main covariates of ODD- and CD-like problems were investigated, and the relative importance of unique versus shared hereditary and environmental effects was estimated using twin model fitting. Results. Social interaction problems (one of the ASD subdomains) was the strongest neurodevelopmental covariate of the behavioural problems in both genders, while ADHD-related hyperactivity/impulsiveness in boys and inattention in girls stood out as important covariates of CD-like problems. Genetic effects accounted for 50%-62% of the variance in behavioural problems, except in CD-like problems in girls (26%). Genetic and environmental effects linked to ADHD and ASD also influenced ODD-like problems in both genders and, to a lesser extent, CD-like problems in boys, but not in girls. Conclusions. The gender-specific patterns should be considered in the assessment and treatment, especially of CD.

  11. START NOW - a comprehensive skills training programme for female adolescents with oppositional defiant and conduct disorders: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Linda; Prätzlich, Martin; Mannstadt, Sandra; Ackermann, Katharina; Kohls, Gregor; Oldenhof, Helena; Saure, Daniel; Krieger, Katrin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Popma, Arne; Freitag, Christine M; Trestman, Robert L; Stadler, Christina

    2016-12-01

    In Europe, the number of females exhibiting oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is growing. Many of these females live in youth welfare institutions. Consequently, there is a great need for evidence-based interventions within youth welfare settings. A recently developed approach targeting the specific needs of girls with ODD and CD in residential care is START NOW. The aim of this group-based behavioural skills training programme is to specifically enhance emotional regulation capacities to enable females with CD or ODD to appropriately deal with daily-life demands. It is intended to enhance psychosocial adjustment and well-being as well as reduce oppositional and aggressive behaviour. We present the study protocol (version 4.1; 10 February 2016) of the FemNAT-CD intervention trial titled 'Group-Based Treatment of Adolescent Female Conduct Disorders: The Central Role of Emotion Regulation'. The study is a prospective, confirmatory, cluster-randomised, parallel-group, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial with 128 institutionalised female adolescents who fulfil the diagnostic criteria of ODD and/or CD. Institutions/wards will be randomised either to provide the 12-week skills training as an add-on intervention or to provide treatment as usual. Once the first cycle is completed, each institution will run a second cycle with the opposite condition. Primary endpoints are the pre-post change in number of CD/ODD symptoms as assessed by a standardised, semi-structured psychiatric interview (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime, CD/ODD section) between baseline and the end of intervention, as well as between baseline and a 3-month follow-up point. Secondary objectives include pre-post change in CD/ODD-related outcome measures, most notably emotional regulation on a behavioural and neurobiological level after completion of START NOW compared with treatment as usual. To our

  12. Inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional-defiant symptoms and school failure Desatenção, hiperatividade, sintomas de oposição e desafio e fracasso escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Serra-Pinheiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is associated with school failure. Inattention has been mainly implicated for this association. Oppositional-defiant disorder's (ODD impact on academic performance remains controversial, because of the high comorbidity between ODD and ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To understand the role of inattention (IN, hyperactivity (H/I and ODD in school failure. METHOD: Parents and teachers filled out SNAP-IV questionnaires for 241 / 6th grade students. The associations of the scores of oppositional-defiant (OP, H/I and IN symptoms with school year failure were calculated. RESULTS: IN was strongly correlated with school failure. H/I and OP were not associated with school failure, when controlled for IN. CONCLUSION: OP and H/I symptoms do not play an important role in school failure, when controlled for IN symptoms. Our study supports the cross-cultural role of IN as a major predictor of school failure.Transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH está fortemente correlacionado a fracasso escolar. Desatenção (DA parece ser primordialmente responsável por essa associação. A influência de transtorno desafiador de oposicão (TDO sobre o desempenho acadêmico continua a ser controversa, principalmente devido à alta comorbidade entre TDO e TDAH. OBJETIVO: Entender melhor o papel da DA, hiperatividade/impulsividade (H/I e sintomas opositivo-desafiadores (OP no fracasso escolar. MÉTODO: Duzentos e quarenta e um estudantes da 6ª série foram avaliados com os questionários de Swanson, Nolan e Pelham (SNAP-IV, preenchidos pelos pais e professores. As associações entre as sub-escalas de OP, H/I e DA, com o número de notas "I" ("insuficiente" e com reprovação escolar foram calculadas. RESULTADOS: Sintomas OP não foram correlacionados com o número de notas "I", após o controle para a sua associação com H/I e DA. DA se associou com fracasso escolar. H/I não se correlacionou com fracasso

  13. Risperidone added to parent training and stimulant medication: effects on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and peer aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar G; Brown, Nicole V; McNamara, Nora K; Rundberg-Rivera, E Victoria; Li, Xiaobai; Kipp, Heidi L; Schneider, Jayne; Farmer, Cristan A; Baker, Jennifer L; Sprafkin, Joyce; Rice, Robert R; Bangalore, Srihari S; Butter, Eric M; Buchan-Page, Kristin A; Hurt, Elizabeth A; Austin, Adrienne B; Grondhuis, Sabrina N; Aman, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to expand on our prior research into the relative efficacy of combining parent training, stimulant medication, and placebo (Basic therapy) versus parent training, stimulant, and risperidone (Augmented therapy) by examining treatment effects for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and peer aggression, symptom-induced impairment, and informant discrepancy. Children (6-12 years of age; N = 168) with severe physical aggression, ADHD, and co-occurring ODD/CD received an open trial of parent training and stimulant medication for 3 weeks. Participants failing to show optimal clinical response were randomly assigned to Basic or Augmented therapy for an additional 6 weeks. Compared with Basic therapy, children receiving Augmented therapy experienced greater reduction in parent-rated ODD severity (p = .002, Cohen's d = 0.27) and peer aggression (p = .02, Cohen's d = 0.32) but not ADHD or CD symptoms. Fewer children receiving Augmented (16%) than Basic (40%) therapy were rated by their parents as impaired by ODD symptoms at week 9/endpoint (p = .008). Teacher ratings indicated greater reduction in ADHD severity (p = .02, Cohen's d = 0.61) with Augmented therapy, but not for ODD or CD symptoms or peer aggression. Although both interventions were associated with marked symptom reduction, a relatively large percentage of children were rated as impaired for at least 1 targeted disorder at week 9/endpoint by parents (Basic 47%; Augmented 27%) and teachers (Basic 48%; Augmented 38%). Augmented therapy was superior to Basic therapy in reducing severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms, peer aggression, and symptom-induced impairment, but clinical improvement was generally context specific, and effect sizes ranged from small to moderate. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00796302

  14. Maltreatment and Affective and Behavioral Problems in Emerging Adults With and Without Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms: Mediation by Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Stearns, Melanie; Szkody, Erica

    2018-03-01

    The current study examined the indirect effect of maternal and paternal emotional and physical maltreatment on affective and behavioral symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) through parent-child relationship quality; gender and overall ODD symptoms were examined as moderators. Participants included 2,362 emerging adults who completed questionnaires about parental emotional and physical maltreatment, parent-child relationship quality, and affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. These characteristics were compared across parent and child gender (i.e., maternal and paternal effects as well as male and female differences) as well as participants reporting high and low ODD symptoms. In the low ODD group, indirect effects of emotional maltreatment occurred in all parent-child dyads except the mother-son dyad, whereas in the high ODD group, indirect effects occurred only in the father-son dyad. Indirect effects of physical maltreatment occurred only in the father-son dyad in the low ODD group, and only in the mother-daughter dyad on behavioral ODD symptoms in the high ODD group. The results suggest that specific parent-child gender dyads respond differently, warranting further investigation of gender effects. Moreover, emerging adults in the low ODD symptoms group demonstrated a positive association between parental maltreatment and ODD symptoms and a negative association between parent-child relationship quality and ODD symptoms, whereas those high in the high ODD symptoms group did not demonstrate these associations. That is, emerging adults reporting high ODD symptoms demonstrated no relationship between their ODD symptoms and harsh parenting, suggesting an ineffective coercive process.

  15. Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and the Relation with Comorbid Autism Traits and Attention Deficit Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantiene Schoorl

    Full Text Available Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD, children with other psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have emotion regulation difficulties too. On a behavioral level some overlap exists between these disorders and comorbidity is high. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1 to examine emotion regulation difficulties in 65 boys with ODD/CD in comparison to a non-clinical control group (NC of 38 boys (8-12 years using a performance measure (Ultimatum Game, parent report and self-report, and 2 to establish to what extent emotion regulation in the ODD/CD group was correlated with severity of autism and/or attention deficit traits. Results on the Ultimatum Game showed that the ODD/CD group rejected more ambiguous offers than the NC group, which is seen as an indication of poor emotion regulation. Parents also reported that the ODD/CD group experienced more emotion regulation problems in daily life than the NC group. In contrast to these cognitive and behavioral measures, self-reports did not reveal any difference, indicating that boys with ODD/CD do not perceive themselves as having impairments in regulating their emotions. Emotional decision making within the ODD/CD group was not related to variation in autism or attention deficit traits. These results support the idea that emotion dysregulation is an important problem within ODD/CD, yet boys with ODD/CD have reduced awareness of this.

  16. Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and the Relation with Comorbid Autism Traits and Attention Deficit Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD), children with other psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have emotion regulation difficulties too. On a behavioral level some overlap exists between these disorders and comorbidity is high. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1) to examine emotion regulation difficulties in 65 boys with ODD/CD in comparison to a non-clinical control group (NC) of 38 boys (8-12 years) using a performance measure (Ultimatum Game), parent report and self-report, and 2) to establish to what extent emotion regulation in the ODD/CD group was correlated with severity of autism and/or attention deficit traits. Results on the Ultimatum Game showed that the ODD/CD group rejected more ambiguous offers than the NC group, which is seen as an indication of poor emotion regulation. Parents also reported that the ODD/CD group experienced more emotion regulation problems in daily life than the NC group. In contrast to these cognitive and behavioral measures, self-reports did not reveal any difference, indicating that boys with ODD/CD do not perceive themselves as having impairments in regulating their emotions. Emotional decision making within the ODD/CD group was not related to variation in autism or attention deficit traits. These results support the idea that emotion dysregulation is an important problem within ODD/CD, yet boys with ODD/CD have reduced awareness of this.

  17. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ODD/CD, studies were classified in hot and cool executive functioning (EF). Both the meta-analytic and narrative reviews showed evidence of smaller brain structures and lower brain activity in individuals with ODD/CD in mainly hot EF-related areas: bilateral amygdala, bilateral insula, right striatum, left medial/superior frontal gyrus, and left precuneus. Evidence was present in both structural and functional studies, and irrespective of the presence of ADHD comorbidity. There is strong evidence that abnormalities in the amygdala are specific for ODD/CD as compared to ADHD, and correlational studies further support the association between abnormalities in the amygdala and ODD/CD symptoms. Besides the left precuneus, there was no evidence for abnormalities in typical cool EF related structures, such as the cerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Resulting areas are associated with emotion-processing, error-monitoring, problem-solving and self-control; areas associated with neurocognitive and behavioural deficits implicated in ODD/CD. Our findings confirm the involvement of hot, and to a smaller extent cool, EF associated brain areas in ODD/CD, and support an integrated model for ODD/CD (e.g. Blair, Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 865-891, 2005).

  19. Canadian guidelines on pharmacotherapy for disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2015-02-01

    To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone's major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use.

  20. Impact of oppositional defiant disorder dimensions on the temporal ordering of conduct problems and depression across childhood and adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie; Feng, Xin; Burke, Jeff; Battista, Deena R; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about the role of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions on the temporal unfolding of conduct disorder (CD) and depression in girls between childhood and adolescence. The year-to-year associations between CD and depressive symptomatology were examined using nine waves of annually collected data (ages 8 through 16 years) from 1215 participants of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. A series of autoregressive path models were tested that included ODD-Emotion Dysregulation (ODD-ED) and ODD-Defiance, as time-varying covariates on CD predicting depression severity in the following year, and vice versa. Conduct problems, depression, and ODD dimensions were relatively stable throughout childhood and adolescence, and a moderate degree of covariance was observed between these variables. Path analyses showed that CD often preceded depression across this developmental period, although the effect sizes were small. There was less consistent prediction from depression to CD. The overlap between ODD-ED and CD partially explained the prospective relations from CD to depression, whereas these paths were fully explained by the overlap between ODD-ED and depression. The overlap between ODD-Defiance and CD did not account for the prospective relations from CD to depression. In contrast, the overlap between ODD-Defiance and depression accounted for virtually all paths from CD to depression. Accounting for the overlap between ODD dimensions and both CD and depression eliminated all significant predictive paths. Symptoms of CD tend to precede depression in girls during childhood and adolescence. However, covariance between depression and both ODD-ED and ODD-Defiance accounts for these prospective relations. ODD dimensions should be assessed when evaluating risk for comorbid depression in girls with conduct problems, and emotion dysregulation and defiance aspects of ODD should be identified as targets for treatment in order to prevent depression in the future. © 2011 The

  1. The long-term longitudinal course of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in ADHD boys: findings from a controlled 10-year prospective longitudinal follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J; Petty, C R; Dolan, C; Hughes, S; Mick, E; Monuteaux, M C; Faraone, S V

    2008-07-01

    A better understanding of the long-term scope and impact of the co-morbidity with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth has important clinical and public health implications. Subjects were assessed blindly at baseline (mean age=10.7 years), 1-year (mean age=11.9 years), 4-year (mean age=14.7 years) and 10-year follow-up (mean age=21.7 years). The subjects' lifetime diagnostic status of ADHD, ODD and CD by the 4-year follow-up were used to define four groups (Controls, ADHD, ADHD plus ODD, and ADHD plus ODD and CD). Diagnostic outcomes at the 10-year follow-up were considered positive if full criteria were met any time after the 4-year assessment (interval diagnosis). Outcomes were examined using a Kaplan-Meier survival function (persistence of ODD), logistic regression (for binary outcomes) and negative binomial regression (for count outcomes) controlling for age. ODD persisted in a substantial minority of subjects at the 10-year follow-up. Independent of co-morbid CD, ODD was associated with major depression in the interval between the 4-year and the 10-year follow-up. Although ODD significantly increased the risk for CD and antisocial personality disorder, CD conferred a much larger risk for these outcomes. Furthermore, only CD was associated with significantly increased risk for psychoactive substance use disorders, smoking, and bipolar disorder. These longitudinal findings support and extend previously reported findings from this sample at the 4-year follow-up indicating that ODD and CD follow a divergent course. They also support previous findings that ODD heralds a compromised outcome for ADHD youth grown up independently of the co-morbidity with CD.

  2. Canadian Guidelines on Pharmacotherapy for Disruptive and Aggressive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. Method: A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). Results: For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone’s major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. Conclusion: When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use. PMID:25886657

  3. The Pharmacological Management of Oppositional Behaviour, Conduct Problems, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Part 2: Antipsychotics and Traditional Mood Stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses in childhood. Aggression and conduct problems are a major source of disability and a risk factor for poor long-term outcomes. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotics, lithium, and anticonvulsants for aggression and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. Each medication was given an overall quality of evidence rating based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results: Eleven RCTs of antipsychotics and 7 RCTs of lithium and anticonvulsants were included. There is moderate-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate-to-large effect on conduct problems and aggression in youth with subaverage IQ and ODD, CD, or disruptive behaviour disorder not otherwise specified, with and without ADHD, and high-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate effect on disruptive and aggressive behaviour in youth with average IQ and ODD or CD, with and without ADHD. Evidence supporting the use of haloperidol, thioridazine, quetiapine, and lithium in aggressive youth with CD is of low or very-low quality, and evidence supporting the use of divalproex in aggressive youth with ODD or CD is of low quality. There is very-low-quality evidence that carbamazepine is no different from placebo for the management of aggression in youth with CD. Conclusion: With the exception of risperidone, the evidence to support the use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers is of low quality. PMID:25886656

  4. The pharmacological management of oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 2: antipsychotics and traditional mood stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-02-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses in childhood. Aggression and conduct problems are a major source of disability and a risk factor for poor long-term outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotics, lithium, and anticonvulsants for aggression and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. Each medication was given an overall quality of evidence rating based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Eleven RCTs of antipsychotics and 7 RCTs of lithium and anticonvulsants were included. There is moderate-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate-to-large effect on conduct problems and aggression in youth with subaverage IQ and ODD, CD, or disruptive behaviour disorder not otherwise specified, with and without ADHD, and high-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate effect on disruptive and aggressive behaviour in youth with average IQ and ODD or CD, with and without ADHD. Evidence supporting the use of haloperidol, thioridazine, quetiapine, and lithium in aggressive youth with CD is of low or very-low quality, and evidence supporting the use of divalproex in aggressive youth with ODD or CD is of low quality. There is very-low-quality evidence that carbamazepine is no different from placebo for the management of aggression in youth with CD. With the exception of risperidone, the evidence to support the use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers is of low quality.

  5. Pregnancy risk factors in relation to oppositional-defiant and conduct disorder symptoms in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisch, I Hyun; Buitelaar, Jan K; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Dietrich, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    Pregnancy factors have been implicated in offspring oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Literature still holds notable limitations, such as studying only a restricted set of pregnancy factors, use of screening questionnaires which assess broadly defined outcome measures, and lack of control for disruptive behavior comorbidity and genetic confounds. We aimed to address these gaps by prospectively studying a broad range of pregnancy factors in relation to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parent and Children. Outcomes were ODD and CD symptom scores at age 7;9 years using the Development and Well-Being Assessment interview. We analyzed maternal (N ≈ 6300) and teacher ratings (N ≈ 4400) of ODD and CD scores separately using negative binomial regression in multivariable models. Control variables included comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, ODD or CD symptoms as appropriate, and genetic risk scores based on an independent CD genome-wide association study. Higher ODD symptom scores were linked to paracetamol use (IRR = 1.24 [98.3% confidence interval 1.05-1.47], P = 0.002, teacher ratings) and life events stress (IRR = 1.22 [1.07-1.39], P = 0.002, maternal ratings) during pregnancy. Higher CD symptom scores were linked to maternal smoking (IRR = 1.33 [1.18-1.51], P < 0.001, maternal ratings), life events stress (IRR = 1.24 [1.11-1.38], P < 0.001, maternal ratings) and depressive symptoms (IRR = 1.14 [1.01-1.30], P = 0.006, maternal ratings) during pregnancy. Common and potentially preventable pregnancy risk factors were independently related to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in children from the general population. Future studies should further address genetic confounds and confounding by environmental factors later in life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Atomoxetine hydrochloride in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder: A placebo-controlled Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnello, Grazia; Maschietto, Dino; Bravaccio, Carmela; Calamoneri, Filippo; Masi, Gabriele; Curatolo, Paolo; Besana, Dante; Mancini, Francesca; Rossi, Andrea; Poole, Lynne; Escobar, Rodrigo; Zuddas, Alessandro

    2009-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of atomoxetine in improving ADHD and ODD symptoms in paediatric patients with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), non-responders to previous psychological intervention with parent support. This was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial conducted in patients aged 6-15 years, with ADHD and ODD diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria by a structured clinical interview (K-SADS-PL). Only subjects who are non-responders to a 6-week standardized parent training were randomised to atomoxetine (up to 1.2 mg/kg/day) or placebo (in a 3:1 ratio) for the following 8-week double blind phase. Only 2 of the 156 patients enrolled for the parent support phase (92.9% of males; mean age: 9.9 years), improved after the parent training program; 139 patients were randomised for entering in the study and 137 were eligible for efficacy analysis. At the end of the randomised double blind phase, the mean changes in the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Rating Scale-Revised (SNAP-IV) ADHD subscale were -8.1+/-9.2 and -2.0+/-4.7, respectively in the atomoxetine and in the placebo group (patomoxetine group (median change at endpoint: -1.0) compared to no changes in the placebo group (patomoxetine, were found in the CHIP-CE scores for risk avoidance domain, emotional comfort and individual risk avoidance subdomains. An improvement in all the subscales of Conners Parents (CPRS-R:S) and Teacher (CTRS-R:S) subscales was observed with atomoxetine, except in the cognitive problems subscale in the CTRS-R:S. Only 3 patients treated with atomoxetine discontinued the study due to adverse events. No clinically significant changes of body weight, height and vital signs were observed in both groups. Treatment with atomoxetine of children and adolescents with ADHD and ODD, who did not initially respond to parental support, was associated with improvements in symptoms of ADHD and ODD, and general health status. Atomoxetine

  7. Symptoms of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and callous-unemotional traits as unique predictors of psychosocial maladjustment in boys: advancing an evidence base for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A; Fite, Paula J

    2010-11-01

    The incremental utility of symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits for predicting psychosocial outcomes across multiple domains was examined in a community sample of 1,517 boys. Several outcomes were assessed semiannually across a 2-year follow-up, including antisocial behavior, internalizing problems, peer conflict, and academic difficulties. Official criminal charges were also examined across adolescence. CD symptoms emerged as the most robust predictor of future antisocial outcomes. However, ODD symptoms predicted later criminal charges and conduct problems, and CU traits were robustly associated with serious and persistent criminal behavior in boys. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms predicted increases in oppositional defiant behavior and conduct problems over time and were uniquely related to future academic difficulties. Both ADHD and ODD symptoms predicted social and internalizing problems in boys, whereas CU traits were associated with decreased internalizing problems over time. The current findings have implications for revisions being considered as part of the DSM-V. Specifically, incorporating CU traits into the diagnostic criteria for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) may help to further delineate boys at risk for severe and persistent delinquency. Although currently prohibited, allowing a diagnosis of ODD when CD is present may provide unique prognostic information about boys who are at risk for future criminal behavior, social problems, and internalizing problems. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Polygenic inheritance of Tourette syndrome, stuttering, attention deficit hyperactivity, conduct, and oppositional defiant disorder: The additive and subtractive effect of the three dopaminergic genes - DRD2, D{beta}H, and DAT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comings, D.E.; Wu, S.; Chiu, C.; Ring, R.H.; Gade, R.; Ahn, C.; Dietz, G.; Muhleman, D. [Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-31

    Polymorphisms of three different dopaminergic genes, dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (DRD2), dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase (D{beta}H), and dopamine transporter (DAT1), were examined in Tourette syndrome (TS) probands, their relatives, and controls. Each gene individually showed a significant correlation with various behavioral variables in these subjects. The additive and subtractive effects of the three genes were examined by genotyping all three genes in the same set of subjects. For 9 of 20 TS associated comorbid behaviors there was a significant linear association between the degree of loading for markers of three genes and the mean behavior scores. The behavior variables showing the significant associations were, in order, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stuttering, oppositional defiant, tics, conduct, obsessive-compulsive, mania, alcohol abuse, and general anxiety - behaviors that constitute the most overt clinical aspects of TS. For 16 of the 20 behavior scores there was a linear progressive decrease in the mean score with progressively lesser loading for the three gene markers. These results suggest that TS, ADHD, stuttering, oppositional defiant and conduct disorder, and other behaviors associated with TS, are polygenic, due in part to these three dopaminergic genes, and that the genetics of other polygenic psychiatric disorders may be deciphered using this technique. 144 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Observed parenting behaviors interact with a polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene to predict the emergence of oppositional defiant and callous-unemotional behaviors at age 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Propper, Cathi B; Waschbusch, Daniel A

    2013-11-01

    Using the Durham Child Health and Development Study, this study (N = 171) tested whether observed parenting behaviors in infancy (6 and 12 months) and toddlerhood/preschool (24 and 36 months) interacted with a child polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene to predict oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors at age 3 years. Child genotype interacted with observed harsh and intrusive (but not sensitive) parenting to predict ODD and CU behaviors. Harsh-intrusive parenting was more strongly associated with ODD and CU for children with a methionine allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene. CU behaviors were uniquely predicted by harsh-intrusive parenting in infancy, whereas ODD behaviors were predicted by harsh-intrusive parenting in both infancy and toddlerhood/preschool. The results are discussed from the perspective of the contributions of caregiving behaviors as contributing to distinct aspects of early onset disruptive behavior.

  10. The Prospective Links Between Hyperactive/Impulsive, Inattentive, and Oppositional-Defiant Behaviors in Childhood and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: The Moderating Influence of Gender and the Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-12-01

    We prospectively investigated the effect of child hyperactive/impulsive, inattentive, and oppositional/defiant behaviors on the development of youth antisocial behaviors, and the moderating influence of gender and the parent-child relationship quality in a normative sample. Participants (N = 673, 50 % girls) were assessed at 10 years of age (parent reports) and at age 15 (parent and adolescent reports). Using latent change models, we found that initial levels of, as well as increases in, hyperactivity/impulsivity and oppositional behaviors and initial levels of inattention behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors. The increase in oppositional behaviors was predictive of youth antisocial behaviors in girls only. Child hyperactive/impulsive behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors only in children for whom the quality of the parent-child relationship deteriorated from childhood to adolescence. Thus, both initial levels of and increases in disruptive behaviors as well as gender are important for understanding the development of antisocial behaviors in adolescence. We received partial support for the hypothesized, moderating role of a high-quality parent-child relationship.

  11. Opposite cerebral dominance for reading and sign language

    OpenAIRE

    Komakula, Sirisha. T.; Burr, Robert. B.; Lee, James N.; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of right hemispheric dominance for sign language but left hemispheric dominance for reading, in a left-handed deaf patient with epilepsy and left mesial temporal sclerosis. Atypical language laterality for ASL was determined by preoperative fMRI, and congruent with ASL modified WADA testing. We conclude that reading and sign language can have crossed dominance and preoperative fMRI evaluation of deaf patients should include both reading and sign language evaluations.

  12. Girls, until a boy says the opposite: language and presence

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo, Catalina; Rosano, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    This work is a reflection on the relationship between the use of language and presence. The guidelines given by the Royal Spanish Academy, which advocatesthe use of male generically, are questioned. It seems that being a girl is possible  as long as there is not a boy present, at that time her feminine identity is invisible. The rules of the Royal Academy, made from a vision of purely linguistic language, are refuted by several authors who argue that the language has a strong ideological char...

  13. The pharmacological management of oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 1: psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-02-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression. These symptoms vary in severity, and may be related to a comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Critical evaluation of the efficacy of ADHD medications may guide the clinician regarding the usefulness of medications for these symptoms. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. The quality of evidence for medications was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Two systematic reviews and 20 randomized controlled trials were included. There is high-quality evidence that psychostimulants have a moderate-to-large effect on oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is very-low-quality evidence that clonidine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is moderate-quality evidence that guanfacine has a small-to-moderate effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD. There is high-quality evidence that atomoxetine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. Evidence indicates that psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine can be beneficial for disruptive and aggressive behaviours in addition to core ADHD symptoms; however, psychostimulants generally provide the most benefit.

  14. Memory consolidation of socially relevant stimuli during sleep in healthy children and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: What you can see in their eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Förster, Alexandra; Siebenhühner, Nadine; Gesch, Maxime; Wiesner, Christian D; Baving, Lioba

    2017-02-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display deficits in sleep-dependent memory consolidation, and being comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), results in deficits in face processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sleep in recognizing faces in children with ADHD+ODD. Sixteen healthy children and 16 children diagnosed with ADHD+ODD participated in a sleep and a wake condition. During encoding (sleep condition at 8p.m.; wake condition at 8a.m.) pictures of faces were rated according to their emotional content; the retrieval session (12h after encoding session) contained a recognition task including pupillometry. Pupillometry and behavioral data revealed that healthy children benefited from sleep compared to wake with respect to face picture recognition; in contrast recognition performance in patients with ADHD+ODD was not improved after sleep compared to wake. It is discussed whether in patients with ADHD+ODD social stimuli are preferentially consolidated during daytime. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of atomoxetine on quality of life and family burden: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in children and adolescents with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeier, Peter M; Schacht, Alexander; Dittmann, Ralf W; Helsberg, Karin; Schneider-Fresenius, Christian; Lehmann, Martin; Bullinger, Monika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine on quality of life (QoL) and family burden in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). This secondary analysis was based on a randomized, double-blind, 9-week study of atomoxetine (target dose 1.2 mg/kg body weight) versus placebo. The study included 180 patients (atomoxetine 121, placebo 59), aged 6-17 years. QoL was measured using the KINDL-R questionnaire. The total score encompasses six dimensions (or subscales) measuring QoL in terms of "physical well-being", "emotional well-being", "self-esteem", "friends", "family", and "school". Family burden of illness was measured using the FaBel questionnaire. With atomoxetine, the KINDL-R total score improved significantly (P = 0.021) more than with placebo. This improvement also applied to the subscales except for "physical well-being" (opposite effect) and "school" (no effect). No significant treatment group differences were seen on the FaBel questionnaire. No differences were found between the fast and slow titration groups in terms of ADHD, ODD, and disruptive behavior severity. Furthermore, no such differences were observed for QoL and family burden. This study suggests positive effects of atomoxetine on quality of life, as measured by the KINDL-R scores on emotional well-being, self-esteem, friends and family, in children and adolescents with ADHD and comorbid ODD/CD. No significant treatment effects were seen on family burden, as measured by FaBel total score.

  16. Emotional Abilities in Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): Impairments in Perspective-Taking and Understanding Mixed Emotions are Associated with High Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kearney, Richard; Salmon, Karen; Liwag, Maria; Fortune, Clare-Ann; Dawel, Amy

    2017-04-01

    Most studies of emotion abilities in disruptive children focus on emotion expression recognition. This study compared 74 children aged 4-8 years with ODD to 45 comparison children (33 healthy; 12 with an anxiety disorder) on behaviourally assessed measures of emotion perception, emotion perspective-taking, knowledge of emotions causes and understanding ambivalent emotions and on parent-reported cognitive and affective empathy. Adjusting for child's sex, age and expressive language ODD children showed a paucity in attributing causes to emotions but no other deficits relative to the comparison groups. ODD boys with high levels of callous-unemotional traits (CU) (n = 22) showed deficits relative to low CU ODD boys (n = 25) in emotion perspective-taking and in understanding ambivalent emotions. Low CU ODD boys did not differ from the healthy typically developing boys (n = 12). Impairments in emotion perceptive-taking and understanding mixed emotions in ODD boys are associated with the presence of a high level of CU.

  17. Transtorno desafiador de oposição: uma revisão de correlatos neurobiológicos e ambientais, comorbidades, tratamento e prognóstico Oppositional defiant disorder: a review of neurobiological and environmental correlates, comorbidities, treatment and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Serra-Pinheiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Transtorno desafiador de oposição (TDO é uma entidade diagnóstica independente, mas é freqüentemente estudada em conjunto com transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH ou com transtorno de conduta (TC. O objetivo deste artigo é o de fazer uma revisão das evidências existentes, obtidas por meio da base de dados PubMed, sobre achados neurobiológicos no transtorno desafiador de oposição, funcionamento familiar e escolar, comorbidades, prognóstico e opções terapêuticas para transtorno desafiador de oposição. A evidência de correlatos hormonais, genéticos e neurofuncionais de transtorno desafiador de oposição, a conexão com a família, as relações e desempenho escolares, a associação com transtornos do humor, ansiosos e disruptivos, o risco de evolução para transtorno de conduta e de persistência de sintomas de transtorno desafiador de oposição são descritos. Uma revisão do efeito da Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental e tratamento farmacológico é apresentada. A análise das evidências disponíveis mostra que o impacto de transtorno desafiador de oposição não deve ser ignorado e que o transtorno desafiador de oposição deve ser devidamente abordado. O impacto do tratamento de transtorno desafiador de oposição no prognóstico de longo prazo dos pacientes ainda precisa ser determinado.Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD is an independent diagnostic entity but it is frequently studied in conjunction with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD or Conduct Disorder (CD. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant evidence, through the PubMed database, on the neurobiological correlates of oppositional defiant disorder and also describe the familiar and school functioning, comorbidities, prognosis and therapeutic options for oppositional defiant disorder. Evidence of hormonal, genetic and neurofunctional findings in oppositional defiant disorder, correlation with the family, school relations

  18. Trastornos de personalidad en padres de adolescentes violentos con diagnóstico de trastorno negativista desafiante y trastorno disocial Personality disorders in parents of violent adolescents diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Quiroga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los principales objetivos del Proyecto UBACyT P049 2008-2010 es realizar la investigación de las funciones parentales de los padres y/o adultos responsables de adolescentes con conductas antisociales y autodestructivas. Esto implica realizar un diagnóstico que incluya el aspecto sintomatológico y el estructural de la personalidad de estos adultos así como también su capacidad de cambio psíquico a través del análisis de proceso y de resultados de los Grupos de Terapia Focalizada para Padres- GTFP que se realizan en forma paralela a los grupos de adolescentes. En este trabajo se focaliza en el diagnóstico de la organización de la personalidad de los padres de adolescentes violentos con diagnóstico de Trastorno Negativista Desafiante y Trastorno Disocial. Para ello se aplicó el Inventario de Organización de la Personalidad- IPO (Clarkin, J.; Foelsch, P. y Kernberg, O., 2001; Adaptación argentina: Quiroga, 2003 a una muestra de 60 padres (52 madres y 8 padres de adolescentes tempranos violentos. Los resultados preliminares muestran que la mayoría de los padres presentan puntajes superiores al punto de corte establecido en la población no clínica en las tres escalas primarias del IPO (Defensas Primitivas, Difusión de Identidad y Prueba de Realidad.One of the main objectives of the UBACyT P049 2008-2010 Project is to carry out the research on the parental functions of the parents and/or adults who are responsible for adolescents with antisocial or self-destructive behaviour. This implies carrying out a diagnosis which comprises the symptomatologic and structural aspect of these adults' personality as well as their capacity of psychic change through process and outcome analysis of the Focused Therapy Group for Parents -FTGP- which are done in parallel with the adolescent groups. This study focuses on the diagnosis of the personality organization of the parents of violent adolescents who have been diagnosed with a Oppositional

  19. Transtorno de oposição e desafio e transtorno de conduta: os desfechos no TDAH em adultos Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: their outcomes into adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Horacio Grevet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores examinam a influência dos transtornos de oposição e desafio (TOD, de conduta (TC e de personalidade anti-social (TPAS ao longo da vida do indivíduo com TDAH. Os principais achados mostram que o TDAH é modulado por essas comorbidades e que seu prognóstico é modificado dependendo da presença ou não desses transtornos. O transtorno de oposição e desafio intensificaria as características de impulsividade e isolacionismo do TDAH, porém não acarretaria em um aumento na incidência de TPAS na vida adulta. Já o TC associado ao TDAH implica um aumento significativo na impulsividade e agressividade, estando associado significativamente a TPAS e um pior prognóstico. A diferenciação entre os diferentes transtornos e seu correto diagnóstico é essencial para o tratamento adequado do TDAH. Futuros estudos precisam determinar se o tratamento do TDAH produziria uma mudança significativa no prognóstico desse grupo de pacientes.The authors examine the influence of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, conduct disorder (CD and anti-social personality disorder (ASPD on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD across life span. The findings showed that ADHD is modulated by this comorbidities and ADHD prognosis is modified depending on the presence or the absence of those disorders. ODD intensifies ADHD impulsivity and isolationism, but does not lead to an increase in the prevalence of ASPD in adulthood. Otherwise, CD associated with ADHD increases significantly the levels of impulsivity and aggressiveness, is associated with ASPD and a poor outcome. The appropriate approach to ADHD must be based on the correct diagnosis of different comorbidities to predict the outcomes. Further studies are needed to investigate if the treatment of ADHD can produce a significant improvement on the outcomes of this group of patients.

  20. Binary Opposition Sociolinguistic Picture of the World (on the Material of Modern English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B. Boyeva-Omelechko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is topical due to the interest of scientists to the problems of interaction of society and language and the role of language in constructing and reconstructing political reality. The authors of the article introduce the notion of the sociolinguistic picture of the world. This picture reflects different aspects of the phenomenon «society» with the help of words which may be called «sociolinguisms». The words in question cover such spheres of society as economical, social, political and spiritual ones. The authors put forward the idea that binary oppositions are typical of the sociolinguistic picture of the world because social phenomena usually contain interdependent and at the same time mutually excluding each other sides which are revealed by the conscience and reflecteded in the language. Unfortunately only some of these oppositions are represented in the dictionaries of synonyms and antonyms. The authors stress that their range is much wider and can be described on the basis of different types of general and explanatory dictionaries with the help of linguistic methods of investigation. Special attention is paid to national peculiarities and axiological properties of antonyms-sociolinguisms.

  1. From Opposition to Transcendence: The Language Practices and Ideologies of Students in a Multilingual University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue

    2014-01-01

    This article explores language ideologies and language uses in a multilingual university in Hong Kong by exploring the voices and experiences of both mainland Chinese and Hong Kong students. Drawing on the notions of language ideologies, separate multilingualism, and translanguaging, the research illustrates how students' linguistic ideologies are…

  2. Real versus template-based Natural Language Generation: a false opposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, Kees; Krahmer, Emiel; Theune, Mariet

    2005-01-01

    This paper challenges the received wisdom that template-based approaches to the generation of language are necessarily inferior to other approaches as regards their maintainability, linguistic well-foundedness and quality of output. Some recent NLG systems that call themselves `templatebased' will

  3. The effectiveness of parent management training in a Brazilian sample of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder A eficácia de treinamento de pais em grupo para pacientes com transtorno desafiador de oposição: um estudo piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Serra-Pinheiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD is considered a hard to treat condition. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parent management training (PMT on the symptoms of ODD and conduct disorder (CD in Brazilian children with ODD. METHODS: We conducted a clinical evaluation in which data was analyzed from parents of five patients with ODD who participated in a PMT group. The ODD and CD symptoms were assessed before and at least a month after they started participating in the group. The outcome measures were rating scales based on the DSM-IV criteria for ODD and CD. RESULTS: Most patients continued to fulfill criteria for ODD, but the severity of their ODD symptoms was reduced 48,75%. The difference between the means on the severity scale of ODD symptoms was statistically significant (p= 0,031 The fulfillment of criteria for CD was largely diminished. CONCLUSIONS: PMT was effective for the reduction of ODD and CD symptoms in patients with ODD. PMT may represent a valuable therapeutic option for patients with ODD in different cultures.INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno desafiador de oposição (TDO é considerado uma condição de difícil tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de um programa em grupo de treinamento de pais (TP na redução dos sintomas de TDO e transtorno de conduta (TC em crianças brasileiras com TDO. MÉTODO: conduziu-se um estudo naturalístico em que se analisou dados dos pais de cinco pacientes com TDO que participaram de um grupo de TP. Os sintomas de TDO e TC foram avaliados antes e pelo menos um mês depois de iniciarem a participação no grupo. As medidas utilizadas foram escalas baseadas nos critérios da DSM-IV para TDO e TC. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes continuou preenchendo critérios para TDO, mas a gravidade dos seus sintomas de TDO diminuiu 48,75%. A diferença entre as médias na escala de gravidade de sintomas desafiadores-opositivo foi estatisticamente significativa (p

  4. 伴有对立违抗障碍注意缺陷多动障碍患儿智力和行为特征及与血清 5- 羟色胺水平的关系%Intellectual and behavioral characteristics and their relations with serum 5 hydroxytryptamine level in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder complicated by oppositional defiant disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪屏; 苏林雁; 谢光荣; 黄春香; 李雪荣

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Oppositional defiant disorder(ODD) often occurs as a comorbid condition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD),characterized by defiant behaviors.ADHD children with ODD have more extensive impairments than those with ADHD alone. Some studies suggest that decreased serum 5 hydroxytryptamine(5 HT) level is related to aggressive behavior in ADHD, but no relevant report is available in China. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical features of ADHD with ODD,and their relations with serum 5 HT. DESIGN:A randomized case controlled study taking the ADHD children with or without ODD as the subjects for study. SETTING:Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital. PARTICIPANTS:Sixty one ADHD children(53 boys and 8 girls) aged 7 to 14 years visiting the Children's Clinic of Mental Health Institute of Central South University from June 2002 to May 2003 were recruited and divided into two groups based on the symptomatic criteria of ODD recommended by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder(DSM Ⅳ ):ADHD group(n=33,without ODD) and ADHD+ ODD group(n=28). INTERVENTIONS:The parents of the enrolled children(n=61) were asked to complete the Achenbach child behavior checklist (CBCL),and the teachers(n=31) completed the teacher's report form (TRF).Two milliliters of fasting venous blood was drawn from these children and the serum separated by centrifugation for quantification of 5 HT using external standard method,and whole blood 5 HT was analyzed by LD 10AD high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Scores of CBCL,TRF and Chinese Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(C WISC) and serum 5 HT levels. RESULTS:In the ADHD+ ODD group,the scores of CBCL and TRF for externalizing, aggressive behaviors and total scores for behavioral problems rated by the parents and teachers were significantly higher than those of the ADHD group(t=2.28 to 3.76,P< 0.05 to 0.01);the former group also had significantly higher scores of

  5. Dimensions of Oppositionality in a Brazilian Community Sample: Testing the "DSM-5" Proposal and Etiological Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Fernanda Valle.; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Goodman, Robert; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Salum, Giovanni; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro; Stahl, Daniel; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Investigating dimensions of oppositional symptoms may help to explain heterogeneity of etiology and outcomes for mental disorders across development and provide further empirical justification for the "DSM-5"-proposed modifications of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). However, dimensions of oppositionality have not…

  6. The History of the Normative Opposition of “Language versus Dialect”: From Its Graeco-Latin Origin to Central Europe’s Ethnolinguistic Nation-States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kamusella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The History of the Normative Opposition of “Language versus Dialect”: From Its Graeco-Latin Origin to Central Europe’s Ethnolinguistic Nation-States The concept of “a language” (Einzelsprache, that is, one of many extant languages and its opposition to “dialect” (considered as a “non-language,” and thus subjugable to an already recognized language merely as “its” dialect is the way people tend to think about languages in the West today. It appears to be a value-free, self-evident conception of the linguistic position. So much so that the concept of “language” was included neither in Immanuel Kant’s system of categories, nor in the authoritative Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe: Historisches Lexikon zur politisch sozialen Sprache in Deutschland. This paper sketches the rise of the “dialect vs language” opposition in classical Greek, its transposition onto classical Latin, and its transfer, through medieval and renaissance Latin, to the early modern period. On the way, the Greek and Latin terms for “language” (and also for “dialect” sometimes functioned as synonyms for peoples (that is, ethnic groups, which – importantly – contributed to the rise of the normative equation of language with nation in the early nineteenth century. It was the beginning of the ethnolinguistic kind of nationalism that prevails to this day in Central Europe.   Dzieje normatywnej dychotomii języka i dialektu: Od greko-łacińskich źródeł po państwa etnicznojęzykowe Europy Środkowej Pojęcie języka jako jednego z wielu (Einzelsprache stawiane w diametralnej opozycji do „dialektu” (czyli „nie-języka”, który normatywnie musi zostać przyporządkowany jakiemuś już wcześniej uznanemu językowi jako jeden z jego dialektów stanowi formę pojęciową, poprzez pryzmat której postrzega się języki i dyskutuje o nich we współczesnym świecie Zachodu. Z powodu powszechnego uznania owa forma pojęciowa wydaje się tak

  7. Anxiety and oppositional behavior profiles among youth with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Rachele A; Kearney, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a debilitating condition in which a child does not speak in social situations where speech is expected. The clinical conceptualization of SM has been debated historically, with evidence pointing partly to anxious and oppositional behavior profiles. Behavioral characteristics were examined in a clinical sample of 57 youth formally diagnosed with selective mutism. Parents rated children across internalizing and externalizing behaviors on the Child Behavior Checklist. Eighteen highly rated items were subjected to exploratory and then confirmatory factor analysis. Anxiety and oppositional behavior factors were derived. The anxious behavior profile was associated with social anxiety disorder symptoms, social problems, and aggressive behaviors but not oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. The oppositional behavior profile was associated with aggressive behaviors, oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, social problems, and inversely to social anxiety disorder symptoms. Results are consistent with emerging research regarding subgroups of children with SM. Behavior profiles are discussed as well with respect to assessment and treatment implications. Readers will learn about the nature of children with selective mutism as well as behaviors that differentiate anxious and oppositional behavior profiles. Items that comprise anxious and oppositional behavior profiles are presented. These item profiles may have ramifications for assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  9. Gender Differences in the Effects of Oppositional Behavior on Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A.; King, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child…

  10. How Oppositionality, Inattention, and Hyperactivity Affect Response to Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Pooled Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Gregory W.; Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Granger, Renee E.; Walton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess how threshold oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity affect the response to atomoxetine versus methylphenidate. Method: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs; greater than or equal to 6 weeks follow-up). The primary measure was core symptom response--greater than or…

  11. Family Correlates of Oppositional and Conduct Disorders in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; McBurnett, Keith; Rathouz, Paul J.; Judice, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Comorbidities among children with ADHD are key determinants of treatment response, course, and outcome. This study sought to separate family factors (parental psychopathology and parenting practices) associated with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) from those associated with Conduct Disorder (CD) among children with Attention…

  12. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adult ADHD and Impact on Emotional and Oppositional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Barrie K.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Robison, Reid J.; Olsen, John L.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This trial evaluated the effect of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the full spectrum of adult symptoms (attention-disorganization, hyperactivity-impulsivity, emotional dysregulation [ED], and oppositional-defiant disorder [ODD]) found in this disorder. Method: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, flexible-dose, crossover…

  13. Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in a National Sample: Developmental Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Barbara; Rowe, Richard; Messer, Julie; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Background: Despite an expanding epidemiological evidence base, uncertainties remain over key aspects of the epidemiology of the "antisocial" disorders in childhood and adolescence. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on a nationally representative sample of 10,438 5-15-year-olds drawn from the 1999 British Child Mental Health Survey…

  14. Structural Brain Abnormalities of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, Siri D. S.; Luman, Marjolein; Greven, Corina U.; Veroude, Kim; Faraone, Stephen V.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of

  15. Efficacy of an individualized social competence training for children with Oppositional Defiant Disorders/Conduct Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz-Dorten, Anja; Benesch, Christina; Hautmann, Christopher; Berk-Pawlitzek, Emel; Faber, Martin; Lindenschmidt, Timo; Stadermann, Rahel; Schuh, Lioba; Doepfner, Manfred

    2017-05-01

    Group-based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of children with aggressive behavior has resulted in significant reductions of behavior problems with small to medium effect sizes. We report the efficacy of an individualized Treatment Program for Children with Aggressive Behavior. A within-subject design with two phases (waiting, treatment) was chosen. Sixty boys aged 6-12 years with peer-related aggressive behavior were included. The course of the outcome measures (growth rates) during a 6-week waiting phase was compared with those in the subsequent treatment phase (24 weekly child sessions together with an average of 8 parent contacts) by multilevel modeling. Primary outcome was peer-related aggressive behavior rated by parents. Further outcome measures included parent ratings and patient self-reports of aggressive and prosocial behavior. During the treatment, growth rates for all parent-rated outcome measures were significant (p children with peer-related aggressive behavior.

  16. Clinical Reasoning in the Assessment and Planning for Intervention for Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Gabrielle; Heudes, Alethea

    2017-01-01

    Clinical reasoning requires thoughtful consideration of a variety of factors that contribute to the conceptualization of a case such as the reason for referral, school information, home environment, assessment outcomes, and behavioural observations made during assessments. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with insight into the…

  17. Mars at Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  18. Merely Misunderstood? Receptive, Expressive, and Pragmatic Language in Young Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremillion, Monica L.; Martel, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) often seem to have poorer language skills compared to same-age peers; however, language as an early risk factor for DBD has received little empirical attention. The present study provides an empirical examination of associations between normal language variation and DBD by investigating receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language skills and preschool DBD symptoms. The sample consisted of 109 preschoolers ages 3 to 6 (M = 4.77 years, SD = 1.10, 59% boys; 73% with DBD, including oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) along with their primary caregivers, who completed a clinician-administered interview, symptom questionnaires, and a questionnaire measure of pragmatic language, and teacher and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires. Children completed objective tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary. Preschoolers with DBD showed poorer receptive, expressive, and pragmatic skills compared to preschoolers without DBD. Preschoolers with ADHD-only or ADHD+ODD exhibited poorer language skills, compared to ODD and non-DBD groups. Specificity analyses suggested that parent-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity were particularly associated with poorer language skills. Thus, preschoolers with DBD exhibited poorer language skills compared to preschoolers without DBD, and preschoolers with increased hyperactivity-impulsivity exhibited particular problems with language skills. This work suggests the need for early assessment of language in preschoolers, particularly those with ADHD, as well as the possible utility of tailored interventions focused on improving language skills, particularly for those with high hyperactivity-impulsivity. PMID:23924073

  19. Parent- and Self-Reported Dimensions of Oppositionality in Youth: Construct Validity, Concurrent Validity, and the Prediction of Criminal Outcomes in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) have been found as valid predictors of further mental health problems and antisocial behaviors in youth. The present study aimed at testing the construct, concurrent, and predictive validity of ODD dimensions derived from parent- and self-report measures. Method: Confirmatory…

  20. The Family Psychosocial Characteristics of Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional or Conduct Problems in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the correlates of family psychosocial characteristics among Japanese children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ according to the comorbid condition of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Three groups of children (12 ADHD, 15 ADHD + ODD/ CD, and 14 control) were compared on…

  1. Three dimensions of oppositionality in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Roughan, Laura; Skuse, David

    2014-02-01

    In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common but poorly understood. DSM-5 has adopted a tripartite model of ODD, parsing its features into 'angry and irritable symptoms' (AIS), 'argumentative and defiant behavior' (ADB) and 'vindictiveness'. This was based on findings in non-autistic populations that each of these dimensions of oppositionality has a distinct constellation of associations with internalising and externalising psychopathology. We applied the tripartite DSM-5 ODD model to ASD to test its generalisability beyond non-ASD populations; and to elucidate the nature of ODD symptoms in ASD. Participants were 216 verbally-fluent young people (mean age = 9.6 years, range 3.0 to 16.2 years, 82 % male) with ASD. Cross-sectional parent-and teacher-report data were analysed using bootstrap multiple regression to test the following predictions, derived from studies of non-ASD young people: (1) AIS will be the main predictor of internalising problems; (2) ADB will be the main predictor of ADHD symptoms; (3) all ODD traits will independently predict conduct disorder symptoms; (4) vindictiveness will be the main predictor of aggressive conduct problems. Our findings using both parent and teacher data were consistent with the non-ASD ODD literature. AIS were associated with internalising but not externalising problems; ADB and vindictiveness were associated with externalising but not internalising problems; and vindictiveness was the main predictor of aggression. The DSM-5 tripartite model of ODD appears to be generalisable to ASD: for people with an autistic disorder, AIS, ADB and vindictive dimensions of oppositionality have distinct associations with concurrent psychopathology, suggesting the need to assess them as separate constructs.

  2. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  3. Gender differences in the effects of oppositional behavior on teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A; King, Alan R

    2004-04-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child exhibiting unremarkable behavior) suggested that oppositional tendencies inflated teacher ratings of ADHD for boys. The term "halo effect" has been used in the literature to refer to the impact of one class of behavior on the perception of another. This study replicated this procedure using identical scripts with both male and female child models. Oppositional behavior was associated with higher teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Portrayals of behavior associated with ADHD generated higher teacher ratings of oppositional conduct. This bidirectional effect differed in magnitude as a function of child gender. The boy actor exhibiting oppositional behavior received teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattention that were roughly half of those elicited by his portrayal of ADHD itself. The girl actor portraying ADHD generated oppositional defiant ratings that were roughly two thirds of those elicited from her performance as a child with ODD. These teacher rating tendencies could contribute to higher diagnostic rates of ADHD among boys and ODD among girls. Available epidemiologic data indicate a much higher rate of ADHD among boys and prevalence differentials for ODD (girls initially lower) that disappear by adolescence. Future research will be required to determine the extent to which these teacher response sets generalize to other evaluators such as parents, physicians and mental health professionals.

  4. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this

  5. Vote No! Managing Organized Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifto, Don E.; Senden, J. Bradford

    2008-01-01

    Organized opposition from A to Z symbolizes both the breadth and the core values of organized opposition groups that have emerged across the nation in recent years. Technological advances have expanded the reach and impact of oppositional messages. Anti-public school websites, group e-mail, the mushrooming blogosphere and web-based marketing…

  6. Challenging Social Hierarchy: Playing with Oppositional Identities in Family Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Shoraka, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how bilingual family members use language choice and language alternation as a local scheme of interpretation to distinguish different and often contesting social identities in interaction. It is argued that the playful creation of oppositional identities in interaction relieves the speakers from responsibility and creates a…

  7. OPPOSITIONS CREATING HOMOUR IN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umral Deveci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human beings, who perceive the reality of death however who do not know when it will happen, begin their life with this deficiency. Therefore, throughout their lives, they struggle to consummate and make up for the things that they perceive as deficiency or shortcomings through different ways. Humor is one of these means. The fact that deficiencies are eliminated results in superiority and relaxation. The sense of humor and relaxation simultaneously provide laughter. When theories of humor such as superiority, incongruous and relief are taken into consideration, it seems that these theories are related and support each other. Each text is whole with its form and content, which should be evaluated as a whole as much as possible. Hence this study dwells on shortcomings in jokes and in the lights of these shortcomings and theories of humor, it is intended tomake humor in stories, in terms of structural and semantic context, more concrete. Five stories/jokes randomly selected through samples are analyzed in this article. There are two basic types of opposition. The firstone is opposition that creates situation, the second one is thatcreates laughter. The first opposition depicts the shortcomings of knowledge, skill, patience arrogance and jealousyand prepares the second opposition. The opposition that creates laughter make up for shortcomings through cause and effect relationship and laughter comes out.

  8. Fifty Strategies for Counseling Defiant, Aggressive Adolescents: Reaching, Accepting, and Relating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Fred J.; Hanna, Constance A.; Keys, Susan G.

    1999-01-01

    Takes a transtheoretical approach using ideas from cognitive behavioral, existential, Gestalt, psychodynamic, and multicultural therapies to describe both new and established strategies for relationships building with defiant youth. Arranges strategies in three categories: reaching, accepting, and relating. Suggestions for counselors when working…

  9. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  10. Oppositionality and socioemotional competence: interacting risk factors in the development of childhood conduct disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Skuse, David; Steer, Colin; St Pourcain, Beate; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2013-07-01

    Oppositional behavior in childhood is a probabilistic risk factor for the subsequent development of more serious conduct problems characteristic of conduct disorder (CD). The capacity to understand the subjective states of others (socioemotional competence) helps regulate antisocial behavior in typical development. We hypothesized that socioemotional competence moderates the developmental relationship between oppositionality and CD symptoms, such that oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms pose the greatest risk for subsequent CD symptoms in children with poor socioemotional competence. Parent-report data were collected for 6,218 children at 7 and 10 years of age. Bootstrap multiple regression predicting CD symptoms at age 10 was used to test for an interaction between socioemotional competence and ODD symptoms, while also accounting for direct effects and controlling for sex, maternal education, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and CD symptoms at 7 years. We further tested whether the interaction applied to both males and females, and to both aggressive and rule-breaking CD symptoms. A significant interaction was found between ODD and socioemotional competence: the association between oppositionality at 7 years and CD traits at 10 years was strongest for children with poor socioemotional capacities. As predicted, this moderation effect was significant in a model predicting aggression, but it was not significant for rule-breaking CD symptoms. Socioemotional competence moderates the developmental relationship between mid-childhood oppositionality and more serious conduct problems in later childhood. A capacity to understand the subjective states of others may buffer the risk posed by oppositionality for later CD symptoms, including aggression. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Success of opposition against Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollmann, A.

    1989-01-01

    A first success for the anti-nuclear movement emerges: the Czechoslovakian government renounces of blocks 3 and 4, 1000 MW each, in Temelin. Although lack of money is admitted as a partial cause, the main cause is the broad opposition of the population, especially in Austria, says the author. Therefore the author appeals to the coworkers to double their efforts in the signature collection against Temelin. The slogan is: we shall make Temelin too. (qui)

  12. Opposite brain laterality in analogous auditory and visual tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltedal, Leif; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2017-11-01

    Laterality for language processing can be assessed by auditory and visual tasks. Typically, a right ear/right visual half-field (VHF) advantage is observed, reflecting left-hemispheric lateralization for language. Historically, auditory tasks have shown more consistent and reliable results when compared to VHF tasks. While few studies have compared analogous tasks applied to both sensory modalities for the same participants, one such study by Voyer and Boudreau [(2003). Cross-modal correlation of auditory and visual language laterality tasks: a serendipitous finding. Brain Cogn, 53(2), 393-397] found opposite laterality for visual and auditory language tasks. We adapted an experimental paradigm based on a dichotic listening and VHF approach, and applied the combined language paradigm in two separate experiments, including fMRI in the second experiment to measure brain activation in addition to behavioural data. The first experiment showed a right-ear advantage for the auditory task, but a left half-field advantage for the visual task. The second experiment, confirmed the findings, with opposite laterality effects for the visual and auditory tasks. In conclusion, we replicate the finding by Voyer and Boudreau (2003) and support their interpretation that these visual and auditory language tasks measure different cognitive processes.

  13. The Necessary Unity of Opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    and `suprahistorical' alternative. As Graham points out, much of Frye's thought is focused on secular concerns, and, within that context, his dialectical and `suprahistorical' thinking is `post-partisan,' a feature which also signifies and explains Frye's appeal. Graham contends it is the thinking of William Blake......, specifically his conceptions of innocence and experience, which provides the inspiration for Frye's dialectical thinking. Graham systematically addresses the main areas of Frye's work: Blake's poetry, secular literature, education and work, politics, and Scripture. In following each of these themes......, The Necessary Unity of Opposites expertly clarifies Frye's dialectical thinking, while drawing attention to its structural connection to Blake, Frye's great preceptor....

  14. Linguistic Representation of the Category of Oppositeness in English Folk Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Владимировна Соловьева

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study manifestations of the category of oppositeness at all language levels in order to establish a classification of textual oppositions found in folktales. Achieving this goal requires using integrated multi-disciplinary research methods such as hypothetical-deductive, inductive, descriptive, comparative and classification methods. The study also involves specifically linguistic research procedures: the method of phonological oppositions which served as the methodological basis for further research into morphological and grammatical oppositions, transformational and component analyses to describe the semantic content of the considered language units, the logical and semantic procedures in text analysis. English is used as the basis for the research, the theoretical principles are illustrated by the data included in The Oxford Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, The Merriam-Webster Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, and The Collins Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, the collection of folktales edited by J. Jacobs serves as the material for the empirical analysis. The category of oppositeness is seen as a phenomenon represented by phonological, semantic and grammatical oppositions and their subclasses. The textual oppositions under consideration are based on semantic and grammatical oppositions and represent the opposed spatial images, the opposed characters and the opposed beginning and ending of a folktale. The phenomenon of neutralization, which is the removal of the opposition in certain positions, is found at all levels of the language system, manifesting itself on the textual level in the ambivalent nature and the contradictory functional roles of certain folktale characters.

  15. Irritable and Defiant Sub-Dimensions of ODD: Their Stability and Prediction of Internalizing Symptoms and Conduct Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research has identified sub-dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder – irritability and defiance -that differentially predict internalizing and externalizing symptoms in preschoolers, children, and adolescents. Using a theoretical approach and confirmatory factor analyses to distinguish between irritability and defiance, we investigate the associations among these dimensions and internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing problems (conduct problems) within and across time in a community-based sample of 662 youth (342 females) spanning ages 12 to 18 years old at baseline. On average, irritability was stable across assessment points and defiance declined. Within time, associations of irritability with internalizing were consistently stronger than associations of irritability with conduct problems. Defiance was similarly associated within time with both internalizing and conduct problems in mid-adolescence, but was more highly related to internalizing than to conduct problems by early adulthood (ages 18 to 25). Over time, increasing irritability was related to changes in both internalizing and conduct problems; whereas increases in defiance predicted increases in conduct problems more strongly than internalizing symptoms. Increases in both internalizing and conduct problems were also associated with subsequent increases in both irritability and defiance. Sex differences in these associations were not significant. PMID:25028284

  16. Medication refusal in children with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder and comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medication history and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidovich, Mark; Kolko, David J; Bukstein, Oscar G; Hart, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Objective: This study examines the characteristics of 96 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families who refused a recommendation for medication as part of their treatment for disruptive disorders. The ADHD cases were taken from a sample of 139 youth (age 6-11) who were recruited for a clinical trial that compared the administration of a modular psychosocial treatment in an outpatient clinic or community settings. Medication management was an optional treatment module for children with ADHD in both conditions. Children who were (vs. were not) taking medication at intake, and children who accepted (vs. refused) medication recommendations during the study were compared on diagnostic and clinical measures related to child, school, parent, and family domains of functioning. Parents of 30% of the children refused study medication for ADHD. Parental medication acceptability and intake correlated highly with both medication history and study refusal of medication. Increased parental self-efficacy and emotional support for their youth correlated with medication refusal. No demographics and few child or school factors were associated with medication refusal. Medication use was associated with reductions in some key ADHD symptoms, but did not affect disruptive behaviors as did the psychosocial interventions. Medication refusers remain poorly understood but certain correlates, such as parental self-efficacy, parental emotional support for their youth, and medication acceptability, warrant further evaluation.

  17. Trastorno oposicional desafiante: enfoques diagnóstico y terapéutico y trastornos asociados Oppositional defiant disorder: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and associated disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Juan David Palacio Ortiz; Carlos Alberto Giraldo Giraldo; Blair Ortiz Giraldo

    2008-01-01

    Se define el trastorno oposicional desafiante (TOD) como un patrón recurrente de conducta negativista, desafiante, desobediente y hostil, dirigido a los padres y a las figuras de autoridad. Los estudios en países desarrollados han identificado factores cognitivos y conductuales errados, como los principales determinantes de una actitud negativa, opuesta y contraria a las normas establecidas; mientras que en países en vías de desarrollo, como Colombia, se destacan los factores ambientales como...

  18. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  19. Comparative study of attachment relationships in young children with symptoms of externalizing disorders: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Najafi Shoar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the relationship of attachment between children with externalizing disorder (ADHD and less conflict and conduct disorder was performed with normal children. And the correlation was causalcomparative research design. The study population included all male students in Year 94 was 12.7 years in Tabriz To this aim, and to a multi-stage random sampling method, a sample of 200 (150 patients with symptoms and 50 normal KCAQ people were selected and CSI-4 was performed on them. The data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results showed that children with externalizing disorders and normal children in terms of attachment there is a significant difference (P <0/005. So that children with attention disorders and children with the disorder more or less active and less conflict in relationships have insecure attachment styles. Another finding of the study showed that children with conduct disorder, avoidant, ambivalent insecure attachment relationships are the common children are secure attachment relationships. Thus, the results of this study have practical implications in clinical areas to the extent that the design of such attachment-based interventions are necessary.

  20. Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition

    CERN Document Server

    Béziau, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    aiThe theory of oppositions based on Aristotelian foundations of logic has been pictured in a striking square diagram which can be understood and applied in many different ways having repercussions in various fields: epistemology, linguistics, mathematics, psychology. The square can also be generalized in other two-dimensional or multi-dimensional objects extending in breadth and depth the original theory of oppositions of Aristotle. The square of opposition is a very attractive theme which has been going through centuries without evaporating. Since 10 years there is a new growing interest for

  1. Reasons for opposition to the breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timbal-Duclaux, Louis

    1979-01-01

    The author gives a sociological analysis of the opposition to breeder reactors in France, stressing that the antinuclear groups main thrust of protest against the Super-Phenix has dimished since its apex two years ago [fr

  2. [Family violence and aggressive and oppositional behavior in childhood: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Renata

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of the world literature about two important subjects: family violence and problems of aggressive behavior and oppositional defiant disorder in childhood. We opted for publications that had used the CBCL- Child Behavior Checklist for investigating behavior problems in children. This instrument is internationally recognized for its reliability and validity, considered an efficient tool for identifying behavior problems in children. Our findings showed that marital violence predominated in the studies as kind of familiar violence able to cause problems of aggressiveness and transgression in children. Another point discussed was the lack of consensus on the terms used in the articles to refer to such behavior problems. The review showed the need for in-depth studies into this subject, mainly in the sense of thinking about prevention and health promotion in childhood and adolescence. Aggressive behavior in children tends to remain and increase over time, a fact that points to the need for strategies for preventing these problems in the school, familiar and health environments.

  3. Reciprocity Between Parental Psychopathology and Oppositional Symptoms From Preschool to Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Zayra; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2018-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a common disorder in preschool children. Evidence indicates that maternal and paternal psychopathology, particularly aggressive behavior and anxious and depressed symptoms, contributes to the development of this disorder. The latest research also suggests that ODD symptoms may exacerbate the mental health problems of parents. Our aim was to establish the existence of a reciprocal association between paternal and maternal psychopathology (aggression, depression, and anxiety) and child ODD at ages 3 and 8, using a longitudinal design in a community sample of preschoolers. The sample included 331 children evaluated at ages 3 and 8 through questionnaires and a semistructured diagnostic interview with parents. Parents also informed about their own psychopathology. At 3 years of age, higher levels of ODD symptoms in girls were concurrently associated with maternal anxious and depressed symptoms and paternal aggressive behavior, and higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys were concurrently associated with maternal aggressive behavior. Longitudinally, for boys, higher levels of maternal anxious and depressed symptoms at child age 3 predicted increases in ODD symptoms from 3 to 8 years of age. In addition, higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys aged 3-8 years predicted increases in fathers' anxious and depressive symptoms. Children with ODD should be evaluated and treated promptly, but efforts should be extended to their parents. Mothers' and fathers' mental health must be explored because the psychopathologies of children and parents reciprocally affect each other. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Oppositional behavior and longitudinal predictions of early adulthood mental health problems in chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Bécue, Jean-Cyprien; Lespérance, Paul; Chouinard, Sylvain; Rouleau, Guy A; Richer, Francois

    2018-03-16

    Chronic tic disorders (TD) are associated with a number of psychological problems such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) as well as anxious and depressive symptoms. ODD is often considered a risk factor for many psychological symptoms and recent work suggests that different ODD dimensions show independent predictions of later psychological problems. This study examined the longitudinal predictions between ODD dimensions of Irritability and Defiance and the most frequent comorbidities in TD from childhood to early adulthood. From an initial sample of 135, parent reports were obtained on 58 participants with TD using standard clinical questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Defiance symptoms decreased from baseline to follow-up whereas Irritability symptoms were more stable over time. In multiple regressions, Irritability in childhood predicted anxiety and OCB in early adulthood while Defiance in childhood predicted ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms in early adulthood. No developmental link was found for depressive symptoms. Results indicate that ODD dimensions are developmentally linked to both internalizing and externalizing adult mental health symptoms in TD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Opposition-Based Adaptive Fireworks Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chibing Gong

    2016-01-01

    A fireworks algorithm (FWA) is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm that is inspired by observing fireworks explosions. An adaptive fireworks algorithm (AFWA) proposes additional adaptive amplitudes to improve the performance of the enhanced fireworks algorithm (EFWA). The purpose of this paper is to add opposition-based learning (OBL) to AFWA with the goal of further boosting performance and achieving global optimization. Twelve benchmark functions are tested in use of an opposition-based a...

  6. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2009-01-01

    society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced......The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The under­stood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... and English within relevant ‘domains' of Danish society. In this article I am going to argue that the concept of ‘domain loss' is not theoretically tenable - its usual depiction ranging from the vague to the nonsensical - which is not to say that the relationship between English and Danish within Danish...

  7. Understanding opposition in green advertising: The opposite does not always attract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana; Hubner, Arlette; Fenko, Anna; Warlop, L.; Muylle, S.

    2015-01-01

    Opposition (contrasting images and/or verbal cues) is acknowledged as a powerful tool to increase ads recall. Yet, no evidence exists whether opposition may be efficiently used in green advertising. The current study addresses this issue. European consumers (N=120) were exposed to print ads. Type of

  8. Interaction between opposite river bank dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonilla Porras, J.A.; Crosato, A.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies regarding bank erosion  and accretion can be found in the literature, it is  not common to find works studying the interaction  between opposite banks. Some existing  morphodynamic models describe bank erosion as  an event that depends on

  9. Synchronized SETI-The Case for "Opposition"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.

    2003-06-01

    If the signals being sought in search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) programs exist but are brief (for example, they are produced intermittently to conserve energy), then it is essential to know when these signals will arrive at the Earth. Different types of transmitter/receiver synchronization schemes are possible, which vary in the relative amount of effort required by the transmitter and the receiver. The case is made for a scheme that is extremely simple for the receiver: Make observations of a target when it is at maximum angular distance from the Sun (i.e., "opposition"). This strategy requires that the transmitter has accurate knowledge of the distance and proper motion of the Sun and the orbit of the Earth. It is anticipated that within the next 10-20 years it will be possible to detect directly nearby extrasolar planets of approximately terrestrial mass. Since extraterrestrial transmitters are expected to have significantly more advanced technology, it is not unreasonable to expect that they would be able to detect the presence of the Earth and measure its orbit at even greater distances. This strategy is simple to implement, and opposition is also typically the time when observations are easiest to make. Limited opposition surveys contained in a number of all-sky surveys have already been performed. However, full-sky opposition surveys are best suited to detectors with very large fields of view.

  10. What is the opposite of cat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Leron, Uri

    2016-01-01

    the open and interactive teaching approach needed to achieve students' active participation and reflection. To demonstrate these challenges, and our experience of trying to cope with them, we have chosen the concept of "inverses" as used in group theory, and its common sense precursor "opposites". We...

  11. Oppositional Decoding as an Act of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Argues that contributors to the "No Comment" feature of "Ms." magazine are engaging in oppositional decoding and speculates on why this is a satisfying group process. Also notes such decoding presents another challenge to the idea that mass media has the same effect on all audiences. (SD)

  12. Opposition-Based Adaptive Fireworks Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibing Gong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A fireworks algorithm (FWA is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm that is inspired by observing fireworks explosions. An adaptive fireworks algorithm (AFWA proposes additional adaptive amplitudes to improve the performance of the enhanced fireworks algorithm (EFWA. The purpose of this paper is to add opposition-based learning (OBL to AFWA with the goal of further boosting performance and achieving global optimization. Twelve benchmark functions are tested in use of an opposition-based adaptive fireworks algorithm (OAFWA. The final results conclude that OAFWA significantly outperformed EFWA and AFWA in terms of solution accuracy. Additionally, OAFWA was compared with a bat algorithm (BA, differential evolution (DE, self-adapting control parameters in differential evolution (jDE, a firefly algorithm (FA, and a standard particle swarm optimization 2011 (SPSO2011 algorithm. The research results indicate that OAFWA ranks the highest of the six algorithms for both solution accuracy and runtime cost.

  13. Political opposition in patriarchal East London

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, D

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban administration. Patriarchalism, as a system, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuan...

  14. Oppositely charged colloids out of equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, T.

    2010-11-01

    Colloids are particles with a size in the range of a few nanometers up to several micrometers. Similar to atomic and molecular systems, they can form gases, liquids, solids, gels and glasses. Colloids can be used as model systems because, unlike molecules, they are sufficiently large to be studied directly with light microscopy and move sufficiently slow to study their dynamics. In this thesis, we study binary systems of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) colloidal particles suspended in low-polar solvent mixtures. Since the ions can still partially dissociate, a surface charge builds up which causes electrostatic interactions between the colloids. By carefully tuning the conditions inside the suspension, we make two kinds of particles oppositely charged. To study our samples, we use Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The positively and negatively charged particles can be distinguished by a different fluorescent dye. Colloids constantly experience a random motion resulting from random kicks of surrounding solvent molecules. When the attractions between the oppositely charged particles are weak, the particles can attach and detach many times and explore a lot of possible configurations and the system can reach thermodynamic equilibrium. For example, colloidal ‘ionic’ crystals consisting of thousands to millions of particles can form under the right conditions. When the attractions are strong, the system can become kinetically trapped inside a gel-like state. We observe that when the interactions change again, crystals can even emerge again from this gel-like phase. By using local order parameters, we quantitatively study the crystallization of colloidal particles and identify growth defects inside the crystals. We also study the effect of gravity on the growth of ionic crystals by using a rotating stage. We find that sedimentation can completely inhibit crystal growth and plays an important role in crystallization from the gel-like state. The surface

  15. The Loyal Opposition & The Practice of Aikido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Miller-Lane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussions regarding martial arts often focus on the unique manner in which different styles respond to a set of common attacks. Indeed, it is in these unique responses that most martial arts distinguish themselves. However, this paper examines the role of the aggressor during training; specifically, in the martial art of Aikido and draws an analogy between the role of an aggressor during Aikido practice and the actions of a member of the loyal opposition in a democracy. A commitment to a set of rules that govern and protect the participants and a commitment to maintain a rich, creative tension mark both the vibrant interactions of an Aikido dojo and democratic life in a multicultural society.

  16. Repulsion between oppositely charged planar macroions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongSeok Jho

    Full Text Available The repulsive interaction between oppositely charged macroions is investigated using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of an unrestricted primitive model, including the effect of inhomogeneous surface charge and its density, the depth of surface charge, the cation size, and the dielectric permittivity of solvent and macroions, and their contrast. The origin of the repulsion is a combination of osmotic pressure and ionic screening resulting from excess salt between the macroions. The excess charge over-reduces the electrostatic attraction between macroions and raises the entropic repulsion. The magnitude of the repulsion increases when the dielectric constant of the solvent is lowered (below that of water and/or the surface charge density is increased, in good agreement with experiment. Smaller size of surface charge and the cation, their discreteness and mobility are other factors that enhance the repulsion and charge inversion phenomenons.

  17. Acquisition of Opposites and Cognitive Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Sun

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the acquisition sequence of two pairs of contrasting terms in English. The research is based on questionnaires completed by Chinese learners of English of various levels. The analysis concludes that easily-recognisable, unmarked, high-frequency terms, from which are derived concepts and terms that express an earlier stage of an action, tend to be easier to learn and enjoy a higher retention level during the first phase of acquisition while those terms which do not share these characteristics have a much lower retention level during the same stage. Given these conclusions, this study suggests that learners and teachers of a language should pay more attention to those terms which are in an unfavourable position in the vocabulary acquisition sequence of a language. (English text.

  18. The square of opposition a cornerstone of thought

    CERN Document Server

    Basti, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    This is a collection of new investigations and discoveries on the theory of opposition (square, hexagon, octagon, polyhedra of opposition) by the best specialists from all over the world. The papers range from historical considerations to new mathematical developments of the theory of opposition including applications to theology, theory of argumentation and metalogic.

  19. Opposition to nuclear power in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1977-01-01

    The opposing factions to nuclear energy in Europe are composed of groups establishing themselves as distinct political forces. The author describes specifically the anti-nuclear movements in West Germany, Sweden, England, and France. The new government in Sweden, swept to power on a wave of anti-nuclear and anti-big government sentiment on September 19, 1976, has put tight restrictions on reactor construction. In Great Britain, economic crisis, North Sea oil, new coal discoveries, and political confusion concerning choice of technology have sufficed to bring new nuclear construction to a halt. The German government, under pressure from a complex coalition of groups exploiting every available means of protest, has stalled on a waste-management issue. While the French opposition has had little success in blocking nuclear construction, the movement is increasingly broad-based; it has managed to make certain issues the subject of a national debate with elections scheduled for March 1978. It is concluded that whatever the outcome, there is no assurance that it will be favorable from the point of view of weapons proliferation

  20. Windpower opposition : notify, consult, engage or partnership?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prier, P.G. [Stantec Consulting, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the methods that can be used to understand and defuse opposition to wind power projects. The presentation discussed the actual empowerment of communities and citizens as opposed to the token gestures often used by large organizations to placate and manipulate stakeholders. Stakeholders were defined as regulatory authorities, directly and indirectly affected landowners, non-government organizations, First Nations groups, and anyone in or outside the study area with an interest in the prospective development. The consultation scope should reflect the significance of potential effects and be conducted early in the decision-making process. The design of the project and its implementation should be transparent, and operators should be responsive to all concerns and questions. A range of consultation techniques should be used to reflect the nature of different stakeholders. Community engagement should support mutual respect of values in order to create an authentic decision-making partnership. Communities should be notified when routine operational or maintenance activities are being conducted. Consultations are required for increases in nameplate capacity of less than 25 percent. Community engagement is required for the development of greenfield wind farms greater than 20 MW. tabs., figs.

  1. Opposition to legal abortion: challenges and questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the Roman Catholic Church's arguments against abortion rights suggests that its opposition is grounded more in outmoded views regarding women's roles than in concern for protecting fetal life. The 1st argument raised by Catholics and other anti-abortion forces is that abortion represents the unjustifiable destruction of a human life. A 2nd argument focuses on the status of the fetus as a person from the moment of conception, making abortion murder. A 3rd equates the fetus's potential for personhood with the pregnant woman's actual personhood. Despite the vehement sentiments expressed by Catholic leaders against abortion, the majority of Catholics support legal abortion. The assignment of personhood status to the fetus is contraindicated by actual practice in the Church, where aborted or miscarried products of early pregnancy are not baptized. Also, the Church does not forbid the taking of human life in war or to preserve political freedom. Finally, in countries such as Poland where abortion has been made illegal through religious pressure, there have been drastic cuts in health care and child care programs.

  2. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  3. [Effect of rehabilitation for prelingual deaf children who use cochlear implants in conjunction with hearing aids in the opposite ears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yanjing; Zhou, Huifang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Dong; Xu, Yi; Guo, Yuxi

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effect of rehabilitation of prelingual deaf children who used a cochlear implant (CI) in one ear and a hearing aids in the opposite ear while the hearing level of the opposite ears are different. Hearing ability, language ability and learning ability was included in the content. The aim of this research is to investigate better style of rehabilitation, and to offer the best help to the prelingual deaf children. Accord ing to the hearing level of the ear opposite to the one wearing a cochlear implant and whether the opposite ear wear a hearing aid or not, 30 prelingual deaf children were divided into three groups, including cochlear implant with opposite severe hearing loss and hearing aid ear (CI+SHA), cochlear implant with opposite profound hearing loss and hearing aid ear (CI+PHA), cochlear implant only (CI). The effect of rehabilitation was assessed in six different times (3,6,9,12,15 and 18 months after the cochlear implants and hearing aids began to work). The longer time the rehabilitation spends, the better the hearing ability,language ability and the learning ability were. The hearing ability of CI+SHA was better than those of CI+PHA (Pdeaf children should take much more time on rehabilitation. The effect of rehabilitation for prelingual deaf children who used cochlear implant in one ear and hearing aid in the other depend on the residual hearing level of the other ear. If a prelingual deaf children still has any residual hearing level in the ear opposite to the cochlear implant ear, it is better for him/her to wear a hearing aid in the ear.

  4. Could languages of the same language families reflect a similar culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Laumann, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    When learning two languages of the same language family, one will realize quickly that there are similarities. But how deep are language and culture related? For long time the hypothesis that languages are responsible for cultural development was held to be true, later the opposite was assumed, and today it is maybe somewhere in between. With the help of Geert Hofstede's dimensions, comparing cultures on a continuum of nonverbal aspects, a connection between linguistic and intercultural commu...

  5. Objectifying the Adjacent and Opposite Angles: A Cultural Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Musallam, Nadera

    2018-01-01

    The angle topic is central to the development of geometric knowledge. Two of the basic concepts associated with this topic are the adjacent and opposite angles. It is the goal of the present study to analyze, based on the cultural historical semiotics framework, how high-achieving seventh grade students objectify the adjacent and opposite angles'…

  6. Oppositional Culture Theory and the Delusion of Colorblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowitz, Marvin J.; Hutchins, Brandi N.; Jenkins, Derrick J.; Mussman, Mark P.; Schneider, Carri A.

    2006-01-01

    Oppositional culture theory is a widely accepted explanation for disparities in academic performance between middle class Whites and middle class African Americans. The authors make the case that oppositional culture theory has its roots in cultural deficit theory popularized in the early 1960s and present a significant body of evidence to refute…

  7. Sex and Age Differences in Attitude toward the Opposite Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rawley

    1997-01-01

    Examines fantasies about the opposite sex expressed by 116 children, adolescents, and adults responding to the Drawing from Imagination task of the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and Emotion. Results indicate that both males and females expressed more negative than positive feelings toward subjects of the opposite sex. Males were more negative.…

  8. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language. This article is part of the themed issue ‘New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences’. PMID:27872370

  9. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny; Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-05

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Interethnic relations and language variation: language use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respect, CAT has typically dealt with interactional settings involving socially contrasting ethnic groups. In such settings ... self-ascribed category in opposition to both "White" and "Native" (or "Black") (Adhikari 1996: 9, 2005). .... axes of demography, institutional control, and status variables related to a language community's ...

  11. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  12. Learning preferences from paired opposite-based semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Montero, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Preference semantics examine the meaning of the preference predicate, according to the way that alternatives can be understood and organized for decision making purposes. Through opposite-based semantics, preference structures can be characterized by their paired decomposition of preference...... on the character of opposition, the compound meaning of preference emerges from the fuzzy reinforcement of paired opposite concepts, searching for significant evidence for affirming dominance among the decision objects. Here we propose a general model for the paired decomposition of preference, examining its...

  13. Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Language and General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Francois H.

    A survey of Maurice Merleau-Ponty's views on the phenomenology of language yields insight into the basic semiotic nature of language. Merleau-ponty's conceptions stand in opposition to Saussure's linguistic postulations and Korzybski's scientism. That is, if language is studied phenomenologically, the acts of speech and gesture take on greater…

  14. Comorbidity as a predictor and moderator of treatment outcome in youth with anxiety, affective, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and oppositional/conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Jarrett, Matthew A; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Hovey, Laura D; Wolff, Jennifer C

    2008-12-01

    In the present review, we examine one of the critical issues that have been raised about evidence-based treatments and their portability to real-world clinical settings: namely, the presence of comorbidity in the participants who have been treated in these studies and whether the presence of comorbidity predicts or moderates treatment outcomes. In doing so, we examine treatment outcomes for the four most commonly occurring childhood psychiatric disorders: Anxiety disorders, affective disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). For each of these disorders, we first review briefly the prevalence of comorbidity in epidemiological and clinical samples and then highlight the evidence-based treatments for these disorders. We next determine the effects of comorbidity on treatment outcomes for these disorders. For the most part, comorbidity in the treated samples is the rule, not the exception. However, the majority of studies have not explored whether comorbidity predicts or moderates treatment outcomes. For the not insignificant number of studies that have examined this issue, comorbidity has not been found to affect treatment outcomes. Notable exceptions are highlighted and recommendations for future research are presented.

  15. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (ORE; Caldara et al., 2004, little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection. The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21 and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24 had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  16. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Martin, Eleonora; Zani, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (Caldara et al., 2004), little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women) who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection). The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP) to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA) showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21) and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24) had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  17. Objectifying the adjacent and opposite angles: a cultural historical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Musallam, Nadera

    2018-02-01

    The angle topic is central to the development of geometric knowledge. Two of the basic concepts associated with this topic are the adjacent and opposite angles. It is the goal of the present study to analyze, based on the cultural historical semiotics framework, how high-achieving seventh grade students objectify the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts. We videoed the learning of a group of three high-achieving students who used technology, specifically GeoGebra, to explore geometric relations related to the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts. To analyze students' objectification of these concepts, we used the categories of objectification of knowledge (attention and awareness) and the categories of generalization (factual, contextual and symbolic), developed by Radford. The research results indicate that teacher's and students' verbal and visual signs, together with the software dynamic tools, mediated the students' objectification of the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts. Specifically, eye and gestures perceiving were part of the semiosis cycles in which the participating students were engaged and which related to the mathematical signs that signified the adjacent and the opposite angles. Moreover, the teacher's suggestions/requests/questions included/suggested semiotic signs/tools, including verbal signs that helped the students pay attention, be aware of and objectify the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts.

  18. Twenty years of environmental opposition in the electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molocchi, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    This article aims to provide a framework for analysing social opposition In Italy against the construction and management of electric power plants (nuclear and thermoelectric) and big electricity power lines in the past twenty years. First The author provide a history of social environmental opposition in the electric sector. This is followed by a typology of reason for opposition in terms of risk perception, which has been applied to about forty cases of social opposition against electric plants. This study an original experimental methodology which could also yield useful results when applied to other complex social phenomena. In the third phase of the study the author analyse the various roles of the social and institutional actors involved in the opposition, and the obstacles to future consensus building. The most interesting result of the study is the not only social but political nature opposition. This factor necessitates integration of the traditional individual risk perception approach with an approach which analyses political and social action of NGO's

  19. The effects of presenting oncologic information in terms of opposites in a medical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burro R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Burro,1 Ugo Savardi,1 Maria Antonietta Annunziata,2 Paolo De Paoli,2 Ivana Bianchi3 1Department of Human Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 2National Cancer Institute IRCCS ‘Centro di Riferimento Oncologico’ (CRO, Aviano, Italy; 3Department of Humanities (Section Philosophy and Human Sciences, University of Macerata, Macerata, Italy Background: An extensive body of literature has demonstrated that many patients who have been asked to participate in clinical trials do not fully understand the informed consent forms. A parallel independent study has demonstrated that opposites have a special status in human cognitive organization: they are common to all-natural languages and are intuitively and naturally understood and learnt.Purpose: The study investigates whether, and how, the use of opposites impacts on doctor–patient communication: does using the terms “small–large” to describe a nodule (ie, bipolar communication rather than speaking in terms of centimeters (ie, unipolar communication affect a patient’s understanding of the situation? And is it better to speak of “common–rare” side effects (ie, bipolar communication instead of the number of people who have suffered from particular side effects (ie, unipolar communication?Methods: Two questionnaires were created and used, one presenting the information in terms of opposites (ie, bipolar communication and another using unipolar communication.Results: The participants’ perception of their situation (in terms of feeling healthy–ill, being at high–low risk, and their treatment requiring high–low commitment varied in the two conditions. Moreover, self-reported levels of understanding and satisfaction with how the information was communicated were higher when opposites were used.Limitations: Since this is the first study that addresses the merits of using bipolar structures versus unipolar structures in doctor–patient communication, further work is

  20. The irresistible fascination of medical theories about opposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, L R; Frati, L

    1989-01-01

    Theurgical medicine was a part of the eternal fight between good and evil and health was reconciliation with the gods. This duality characterized ancient medicine, i.e. Greek medicine after the Homeric age or Chinese traditional medicine. In the passage to medicine of observation due to the School of Cos duel between good and evil becomes substrate of new medicine and the balances between*opposites represented by elements and qualities were the fundaments of the humoralism. Fascination of opposites continues for centuries up to now, both in western and far eastern medicine: yin/yang, antibody/antigen, cAMP/cGMP, oncogene/antioncogene are examples of this attractive theory. Although fundaments of biological and medical observations are the basis of theories of opposites, the trend is to overcome reality and today represents, following idealism in the 19th century, an inconscious ancestral reminiscence of theurgical philosophy and medicine.

  1. Symmetry breaking in clogging for oppositely driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Tobias; Wittkowski, Raphael; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-11-01

    The clogging behavior of a symmetric binary mixture of colloidal particles that are driven in opposite directions through constrictions is explored by Brownian dynamics simulations and theory. A dynamical state with a spontaneously broken symmetry occurs where one species is flowing and the other is blocked for a long time, which can be tailored by the size of the constrictions. Moreover, we find self-organized oscillations in clogging and unclogging of the two species. Apart from statistical physics, our results are of relevance for fields like biology, chemistry, and crowd management, where ions, microparticles, pedestrians, or other particles are driven in opposite directions through constrictions.

  2. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Yoon Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain.

  3. Fatal attraction: the intuitive appeal of GMO opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Jaeger, Geert; Braeckman, Johan; Van Montagu, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Public opposition to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains strong. By contrast, studies demonstrate again and again that GM crops make a valuable contribution to the development of a sustainable type of agriculture. The discrepancy between public opinion and the scientific evidence requires an explanation. We argue that intuitive expectations about the world render the human mind vulnerable to particular misrepresentations of GMOs. We explain how the involvement of particular intuitions accounts for the popularity, persistence, and typical features of GM opposition and tackle possible objections to our approach. To conclude, we discuss the implications for science education, science communication, and the environmental movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Receptivity to sexual invitations from strangers of the opposite gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Hogh-Olesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the primary conclusion from Clark and Hatfield's often cited field experiment ``Consent to Sex with a Stranger'' that men agree to sexual invitations from moderately attractive strangers of the opposite gender more readily than women do. In addition, this study investigated...... whether rates of consent are influenced by a subject's age, relationship status, rating of confederate attractiveness, and type of sexual invitation. A number of moderately attractive confederates of the opposite gender individually approached 173 men and 216 women. After a standard introduction...

  5. Peculiarities of functioning of opposition political parties in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Malyavin

    2017-07-01

    It has been proven that the political opposition does not take into account the mentality of Russians, their aspiration not to the mild model of Western democracy but to the host leader, the defender of the Motherland from external threat. Whereas, the ruling elite and its leader successfully and effectively implement this image in practice, and despite the deterioration of economic indicators, they get the support among the population. Consequently, the political opposition of Russia is immature and primary controlled by the current government.

  6. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun; Cha, Yoon Ki

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain

  7. Grey Wisdom? : Philosophical Reflections on Conformity and Opposition between Generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Ernst; Goor, van Roel

    2006-01-01

    Should 'new' generations act in conformity with, or in opposition to 'older' generations? This can be regarded as a central question in the philosophical study of education. This question has practical implications. Should it be our main concern to initiate children into our traditions, or should we

  8. Dynamic force spectroscopy of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, E.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Gucht, van der J.

    2010-01-01

    Ion pairing is the main driving force in the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes, which find widespread use in micellar assemblies, drug carriers, and coatings. In this paper we examine the actual ion pairing forces in a polyelectrolyte complex between two oppositely charged polyelectrolyte

  9. Colloids from oppositely charged polymers: reversibility and surface activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofs, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns the formation, solution properties, and adsorption of polyelectrolyte complexes composed of at least one diblock copolymer with a neutral and a charged block and either an oppositely charged homopolyelectrolyte or a diblock copolymer, with a neutral

  10. Will the Real Tunisian Opposition Please Stand Up?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Cavatorta, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This contribution examines the reasons behind the failure of Tunisia’s opposition to forge effective coordination and collaborative links during Ben Ali’s reign, focusing specifically on the inability and unwillingness of political parties to act in concert in order to challenge his auth...

  11. Paired fuzzy sets and other opposite-based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Gómez, Daniel; Tinguaro Rodríguez, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we stress the relevance of those fuzzy models that impose a couple of simultaneous views in order to represent concepts. In particular, we point out that the basic model to start with should contain at least two somehow opposite valuations plus a number of neutral concepts that are ...

  12. Assassinating political opposition: An "Albatross" and aberration-the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logicians, though they are not mathematicians, do challenge mathematicians to prove that one plus one is equal to two; so also it appeals to governance and especially the democratic system, where the judiciary and legislature act as watch dogs to the executive; so is the opposition party to the ruling party. This is what the ...

  13. Opposition in the Language of Representation and Undecidability of Pronouns in William Shakespeare’s Sonnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Hamidizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to consider the undecidability of pronouns in William Shakespeare’s sonnet sequence. In sonnet 53 of Shakespeare’s sonnet sequence it is not clear that whether the beloved is male or female, because the beloved has affinity to both men and women: “And you, but one, can every shadow lend/Describe Adonis, and the counterfeit/Is poorly imitated after you/On Helen's cheek all art of beauty set” (53. 4-7. In fact, in sonnet 53 the beloved has been likened both to Adonis who is a male character and to Helen that is female. Therefore, the speaker of sonnets uses pronouns in a very confusing manner that causes confusion for the reader in differentiating between male and female pronouns, because in some sonnets a reversal takes place in the reference point of the pronouns. Even in some of these sonnets it is never clear whether the pronoun “he” refers to a male subject or object, or whether the pronoun “she” is referring to male object. Important examples of this claim are sonnets 20 and 127. In sonnet 20, for example, the speaker tells the addressee that “A woman's face with nature's own hand painted/Hast thou, the master mistress of my passion/A woman's gentle heart, but not acquainted/With shifting change, as is false women's fashion” (20.1-4.

  14. Opposition in the Language of Representation and Undecidability of Pronouns in William Shakespeare’s Sonnets

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Hamidizadeh; Yazdan Mahmoudi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to consider the undecidability of pronouns in William Shakespeare’s sonnet sequence. In sonnet 53 of Shakespeare’s sonnet sequence it is not clear that whether the beloved is male or female, because the beloved has affinity to both men and women: “And you, but one, can every shadow lend/Describe Adonis, and the counterfeit/Is poorly imitated after you/On Helen's cheek all art of beauty set” (53. 4-7). In fact, in sonnet 53 the beloved has been likened both to Adon...

  15. Opposition to nuclear power: a review of international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrey, J; Huggett, C

    1976-12-01

    This paper examines the rise of opposition to nuclear power in the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Sweden, and Japan. It explores the course that opposition has taken, the issues on which it has focused, the factors that have influenced it, and the problems it poses for public decision making. Opinions differ about the causes of nuclear opposition. Indeed, it is probable that a variety of factors have contributed, including cultural and political values regarding continued economic and energy growth and fears of deliberate large-scale violence with the spread of radioactive materials, the protest movements against nuclear weapons testing, the upsurge in environmental concern in the 1960s, the movement towards greater social responsibility in science, and a growing distrust of ''the Establishment''--particularly in the USA because of Watergate. The upsurge in concern was reflected in greater attention to environmental matters in the mass media, schools, universities, and the international agencies. It is important to recognize that this concern cuts across conventional left-right divisions of politics. Radicals, communists, and conservatives can be found among both the proponents and the critics. These difficulties facing the policy maker are accentuated by the amorphous nature both of the opposition and the issues which have received attention and by the evidence of many opinion surveys: that more people are in favor of nuclear power than oppose it, but the majority are uncertain and do not understand the issues. For purposes of analysis it is useful to distinguish between three types of opposition--nuclear-specific, site-specific, and that related to planning and consent procedures. (MCW)

  16. Influence of political opposition and compromise on conservation outcomes in the Tongass National Forest, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M

    2008-12-01

    To understand how a highly contentious policy process influenced a major conservation effort, I examined the origins, compromises, and outcomes of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA) for the Tongass National Forest. Tongass wilderness designation was among the most controversial issues in the ANILCA debate, and it faced strong opposition from influential lawmakers, land managers, and Alaska residents. To investigate the influence of this opposition on Tongass conservation outcomes, I conducted a gap analysis of Tongass reserves and a policy analysis of the ANILCA debate and traced the influence of specific interests through the amendments, negotiations, and resulting compromises needed to enact ANILCA. Overall, I found that Tongass reserves comprise a broadly representative cross-section of ecosystems and species habitats in southeastern Alaska. Redrawn reserve boundaries, industry subsidies, and special access regulations reflected compromises to minimize the impact of wilderness conservation on mining, timber, and local stakeholder interests, respectively. Fragmentation of the Admiralty Island National Monument-the most ecologically valuable and politically controversial reserve-resulted from compromises with Alaskan Native (indigenous peoples of Alaska) corporations and timber interests. Despite language to accommodate "reasonable access" to wilderness reserves, ongoing access limitations highlight the concerns of Alaska residents that opposed ANILCA several decades ago. More broadly, the Tongass case suggests that early and ambitious conservation action may offset strong political opposition; compromises needed to establish key reserves often exacerbate development impacts in unprotected areas; and efforts to minimize social conflicts are needed to safeguard the long-term viability of conservation measures.

  17. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  18. Two opposite hysteresis curves in semiconductors with mobile dopants

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Shin Buhm; Kahng, Byungnam; Noh, Tae Won

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental researches on semiconductors with mobile dopants (SMD) have reported unconventional hysteretic current-voltage (I-V) curves, which form dynamically in either one of the two opposite directions, the counter-figure-eight and figure-eight ways. However the fundamental theory for the formation of the two directions is still absent, and this poses a major barrier for researches oriented to applications. Here, we introduce a theoretical model to explain the origin of the two dir...

  19. Examining ISIS Support and Opposition Networks on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Examining ISIS Support and Opposition Networks on Twitter Elizabeth Bodine-Baron, Todd C. Helmus, Madeline Magnuson, Zev Winkelman C O R P O R A T...Syria (ISIS), like no other terrorist organization before, has used Twitter and other social media channels to broadcast its message, inspire followers...and recruit new fighters. Though much less heralded, ISIS opponents have also taken to Twitter to cas- tigate the ISIS message. This report draws on

  20. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  1. [Children's oppositional behaviour, practice of parental authority and temporal anomie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeau, L

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the relationship between children's oppositional behaviour and the exercise of parental authority. It seeks to explore the value of a heuristic approach to psychic temporality in exercising parental authority. The study aims to better understand the role of psychic temporality in operations producing symbolic law. It goes on to describe a disorder of temporality, known as temporal anomie, which may be involved in a child's oppositional disorders. Psychiatric or psychological consultations motivated by oppositional disorders in children have increased steadily in the past fifteen years in France. The primary reason for consultation is in the form of difficulties for children in accepting the social rules or constraints, but also the difficulties of parenting while coping with the opposition of their children. This increase is made in connection with the works analysing the social and psychological effects imposed by modernity and its acceleration. Correspondingly, we find that some parents do not prioritize their educational requirements, do not know when or how to frustrate their child, or even if it is legitimate to expect from him/her a certain type of behaviour. They seem more preoccupied with the fear of not being loved by their child more than their duty to educate. A general trend suggests an alteration of psychological time, characterized by: a) a disinvestment of links between present and past for the enjoyment of the moment and its extension in the immediate future ; b) a difficulty in supporting educational responses causing frustration for the child ; c) a lack of continuity and constancy in educational requirements. The author proposes to define temporal anomie as the psychical time that weakens the consistency of educational responses. A link between psychological temporality and the symbolic law is discussed. Specifically, the study notes that: in intersubjective relations, mastery of psychological time by parents is an

  2. Endangered Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  3. Consolidity: Moving opposite to built-as-usual systems practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the recent uncovering of the mystery of consolidity as an inner property of systems, it is demonstrated that this notion is an indispensable pillar of systems modeling, analysis, design and building. Based on the opposite mathematical relation between consolidity versus stability and controllability, a new conceptual life cycle (change pathway graph for natural and man-made built-as-usual systems is presented and thoroughly discussed. For the conceptual cycle development progress, it is logically conceived that system behavior changes rate has not accidentally happened, but is relatively influenced at the point of progress by the associated direct system consolidity index corresponding to the acting on-the-spot varying environments or effects. Such conceptual graph represents a real research advancement indicating that we have to move opposite to current systems building practices for solving many real life enigmatic problems. It is illustrated using stabilization of inverted pendulum problem that it is amenable by cleverly manipulating systems structure and parameters to attain new designed systems with aggregates of superiority of consolidity, stability and controllability principle. It is recommended that we have to seek new generation of innovative non-conventional systems structures moving opposite to conventional built-as-usual system practices that can enable providing directly such three aggregates of superiority requirements as their built-in self property. This will open the door towards solving many real life challenging dilemmas in various sciences and disciplines, such as engineering, space sciences, medicine, pharmacology, biology, ecology, life sciences, economy, operations research, humanities and social sciences that are believed to be attributed due to their systems inferior consolidity.

  4. Paired structures and other opposite-based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    , that we will assume dependent on a specific negation, previously determined. In this way we can define a paired fuzzy set as a couple of opposite valuation fuzzy sets. Then we shall explore what kind of new valuation fuzzy sets can be generated from the semantic tension between those two poles, leading...... to a more complex valuation structure that still keeps the essence of being paired. In this way several neutral fuzzy sets can appear, in particular indeterminacy, ambivalence and conflict. Two consequences are then presented: on one hand, we will show how Atanassov´s Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets can be viewed...

  5. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  6. The physics of randomness and regularities for languages (lifetimes, family trees, and the second languages); in terms of random matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2007-01-01

    The physics of randomness and regularities for languages (mother tongues) and their lifetimes and family trees and for the second languages are studied in terms of two opposite processes; random multiplicative noise [1], and fragmentation [2], where the original model is given in the matrix format. We start with a random initial world, and come out with the regularities, which mimic various empirical data [3] for the present languages.

  7. Emerging and continuing trends in vaccine opposition website content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Sandra J

    2011-02-24

    Anti-vaccination websites appeal to persons searching the Internet for vaccine information that reinforces their predilection to avoid vaccination for themselves or their children. Few published studies have systematically examined these sites. The aim of this study was to employ content analysis as a useful tool for examining and comparing anti-vaccination websites for recurring and changing emphases in content, design, and credibility themes since earlier anti-vaccination website content analyses were conducted. Between February and May 2010, using a commonly available search engine followed by a deep web search, 25 websites that contained anti-vaccination content were reviewed and analyzed for 24 content, 14 design, and 13 credibility attributes. Although several content claims remained similar to earlier analyses, two new themes emerged: (1) the 2009 H1N1 epidemic threat was "manufactured," and (2) the increasing presence of so-called "expert" testimony in opposing vaccination. Anti-vaccination websites are constantly changing in response to the trends in public health and the success of vaccination. Monitoring the changes can permit public health workers to mount programs more quickly to counter the opposition arguments. Additionally, opposition claims commonly appeal to emotions whereas the supporting claims appeal to reason. Effective vaccine support may be better served by including more emotionally compelling content. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Moscow and St. Petersburgpsychological schools: from opposition to friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Allakhverdov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to summarize the interaction of the two largest schools of psychology in Russia: the psychological schools of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The paper is a sketch dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the psychological faculties of Moscow and St. Petersburg, and should not be appreciated as a historical treatise. Tense ties between the psychological schools, that originate in the distant past, have gone through different historical stages. Slavophilevs Westernizer traditions affected the initial difference in these schoolsemerging into the opposition: either the human being is studied entirety with his/her vast subjective experience, but losing the reliability of our statements (peculiarity of Moscow school, or we study the human being accurately using objective methods, but losing the integrity of our ideas (peculiarity of St.-Petersburg school. Both psychological schools, having gone through the ups and downs, have retained their identity and their emphasis on research. Moscow scholars in their studies are aimed to larger issues and still rely on large-scale Vygotsky-Leontiev approach. Scholars of St.-Petersburgtouch upon more specific issues using empirical methods, but still continue with nostalgia and hope making plans about creating a common concept of human individual according to Ananiev. Nowadays between the two schools there is no opposition, but only one mutual love.

  9. The parakeet protectors: Understanding opposition to introduced species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Sarah L; Hinchliffe, Steve; McDonald, Robbie A

    2018-01-02

    The surveillance and control of introduced and invasive species has become an increasingly important component of environmental management. However, initiatives targeting 'charismatic' wildlife can be controversial. Opposition to management, and the subsequent emergence of social conflict, present significant challenges for would-be managers. Understanding the substance and development of these disputes is therefore vital for improving the legitimacy and effectiveness of wildlife management. It also provides important insights into human-wildlife relations and the 'social dimensions' of wildlife management. Here, we examine how the attempted eradication of small populations of introduced monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) from England has been challenged and delayed by opposition from interested and affected communities. We consider how and why the UK Government's eradication initiative was opposed, focusing on three key themes: disagreements about justifying management, the development of affective attachments between people and parakeets, and the influence of distrustful and antagonistic relationships between proponents and opponents of management. We draw connections between our UK case and previous management disputes, primarily in the USA, and suggest that the resistance encountered in the UK might readily have been foreseen. We conclude by considering how management of this and other introduced species could be made less conflict-prone, and potentially more effective, by reconfiguring management approaches to be more anticipatory, flexible, sensitive, and inclusive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical properties of the Saturn's rings with the opposition effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deau, E.

    2012-04-01

    We use the Cassini/ISS images from the early prime mission to build lit phase curves data from 0.01 degrees to 155 degrees at a solar elevation of 23-20 degrees. All the main rings exhibit on their phase curves a prominent surge at small phase angles. We use various opposition effect models to explain the opposition surge of the rings, including the coherent backscattering, the shadow hiding and a combination of the two (Kawata & Irvine 1974 In: Exploration of the planetary system Book p441; Shkuratov et al. 1999, Icarus, 141, p132; Poulet et al. 2002 Icarus, 158, p224 ; Hapke et al. 2002 Icarus, 157, p523). Our results show that either the coherent backscattering alone or a combination of the shadow hiding and the coherent backscattering can explain the observations providing physical properties (albedo, filling factor, grain size) consistent with previous other studies. However, they disagree with the most recent work of Degiorgio et al. 2011 (EPSC-DPS Abstract #732). We think that their attempt to use the shadow hiding alone lead to unrealistic values of the filling factor of the ring particles layer. For example they found 10^-3 in one of the thickest regions of the C ring (a plateau at R=88439km with an optical depth tau=0.22). We totally disagree with their conclusions stating that these values are consistent for the C ring plateaux and did not found any references that are consistent with theirs, as they claimed. We believe that their unrealistic values originated from the assumptions of the models they used (Kawata & Irvine and Hapke), which are basically an uniform size distribution. Any model using an uniform size distribution force the medium to be very diluted to reproduce the opposition surge. Our modeling that uses a power law size distribution provides realistic values. All these results have been already published previously (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........25D) and are summarized in a forthcoming manuscript submitted to publication so

  11. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Mingtian; Li, Baohui; Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai

    2015-01-01

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG) 5 /(KGKG) 5 , (EEGG) 5 /(KKGG) 5 , and (EEGG) 5 /(KGKG) 5 , in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order of the apparent weight

  12. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  13. The problem of social opposition to industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malocchi, Andrea

    1996-01-01

    The problem of social opposition to the localization, construction and operation of industrial plants is a major social issue in many industrialized countries where environmental consciousness has rooted deeply in society. This paper proposes a general model for the analysis of the social conflict against the localization and operation of industrial plants. The paper investigates the difference between the 'risk analysis' approach and the 'social acceptability' approach in order to demonstrate the major influence of information and communication between industry and society on social consensus (rather than ordinary technological and environmental factors). In a second part the paper analyses a limit of social acceptability approach highlighting the role of environmental NGO's in the promotion and diffusion of the social protest. As a result of the analysis, a general model for the management of social consensus by companies and public authorities is provided

  14. Speciation and gene flow between snails of opposite chirality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Davison

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in snails is intriguing because individuals of opposite chirality are either unable to mate or can only mate with difficulty, so could be reproductively isolated from each other. We have therefore investigated chiral evolution in the Japanese land snail genus Euhadra to understand whether changes in chirality have promoted speciation. In particular, we aimed to understand the effect of the maternal inheritance of chirality on reproductive isolation and gene flow. We found that the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of Euhadra is consistent with a single, relatively ancient evolution of sinistral species and suggests either recent "single-gene speciation" or gene flow between chiral morphs that are unable to mate. To clarify the conditions under which new chiral morphs might evolve and whether single-gene speciation can occur, we developed a mathematical model that is relevant to any maternal-effect gene. The model shows that reproductive character displacement can promote the evolution of new chiral morphs, tending to counteract the positive frequency-dependent selection that would otherwise drive the more common chiral morph to fixation. This therefore suggests a general mechanism as to how chiral variation arises in snails. In populations that contain both chiral morphs, two different situations are then possible. In the first, gene flow is substantial between morphs even without interchiral mating, because of the maternal inheritance of chirality. In the second, reproductive isolation is possible but unstable, and will also lead to gene flow if intrachiral matings occasionally produce offspring with the opposite chirality. Together, the results imply that speciation by chiral reversal is only meaningful in the context of a complex biogeographical process, and so must usually involve other factors. In order to understand the roles of reproductive character displacement and gene flow in the chiral evolution of Euhadra, it will be

  15. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fuzzy Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahonis, George

    The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ℓ-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

  17. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  18. Is There an Oppositional Culture among Immigrant Adolescents in the Netherlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tubergen, Frank; van Gaans, Milou

    2016-01-01

    This study examines oppositional culture among immigrant and majority adolescents in the Netherlands. Oppositional culture theory expects that immigrant adolescents would uphold positive attitudes towards education. The social exclusion theory predicts instead that immigrant adolescents develop an oppositional culture, particularly in ethnically…

  19. Man - environment - innovations. Are economy and ecology opposite notions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, B.

    1994-01-01

    This book has the aim to describe complex economic and ecological problems in simple language. So, the most pressing challenges of our time, for instance population growth and age structure, energy, urbanization, raw materials and the environment, change of values, growing environmental awareness and technology risk assessment are outlined. Different concepts for solving the ecological problems with economically reasonable premises are described and evaluated. The analysis is followed by concrete calls for changes in the political boundary conditions in the fields of environmental, ecological and economic policy. (orig.) [de

  20. Complexation of Polyelectrolyte Micelles with Oppositely Charged Linear Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogirou, Andreas; Gergidis, Leonidas N; Miliou, Kalliopi; Vlahos, Costas

    2017-03-02

    The formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPECs) from linear AB diblock copolymer precursor micelles and oppositely charged linear homopolymers is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. All beads of the linear polyelectrolyte (C) are charged with elementary quenched charge +1e, whereas in the diblock copolymer only the solvophilic (A) type beads have quenched charge -1e. For the same Bjerrum length, the ratio of positive to negative charges, Z +/- , of the mixture and the relative length of charged moieties r determine the size of IPECs. We found a nonmonotonic variation of the size of the IPECs with Z +/- . For small Z +/- values, the IPECs retain the size of the precursor micelle, whereas at larger Z +/- values the IPECs decrease in size due to the contraction of the corona and then increase as the aggregation number of the micelle increases. The minimum size of the IPECs is obtained at lower Z +/- values when the length of the hydrophilic block of the linear diblock copolymer decreases. The aforementioned findings are in agreement with experimental results. At a smaller Bjerrum length, we obtain the same trends but at even smaller Z +/- values. The linear homopolymer charged units are distributed throughout the corona.

  1. Infrared photometric behavior and opposition effect of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, S.; Bibring, J-P.; Drossart, P.

    1992-01-01

    Although the instrument wasn't designed for this purpose, data from the imaging spectrometer ISM may be used for studying photometric variations of Mars reflectance, that are related to the surface materials and aerosols physical properties. ISM flew aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft which orbited Mars from January to March, 1989. About 40,000 spectra were acquired in 128 channels ranging from 0.76 to 3.16 micro-m, with a spatial resolution of 25 km and a signal-to-noise ratio ranging up to 1000. Analysis of the results leads to the following conclusions: width variations of the opposition surge can be related to differences in porosity or grain size distribution on the various domains, with little or no effect from suspended dust. As the biggest effects are observed on dark and bright materials, intermediate behaviors on average-bright regions cannot result from a mixing process, but are more likely to come from either cementation processes or modification of the grain size distribution under the influence of wind, which under Martian conditions preferentially removes the biggest particles. Thus, a surface dust consisting in big bright and small dark grains could explain the observations.

  2. Dynamic evolution process of turbulent channel flow after opposition control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Mingwei; Tian, De; Yongqian, Liu, E-mail: gmwncepu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources (North China Electric Power University), Beijing102206 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Dynamic evolution of turbulent channel flow after application of opposition control (OC), together with the mechanism of drag reduction, is studied through direct numerical simulation (DNS). In the simulation, the pressure gradient is kept constant, and the flow rate increases due to drag reduction. In the transport of mean kinetic energy (MKE), one part of the energy from the external pressure is dissipated by the mean shear, and the other part is transported to the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) through a TKE production term (TKP). It is found that the increase of MKE is mainly induced by the reduction of TKP that is directly affected by OC. Further analysis shows that the suppression of the redistribution term of TKE in the wall normal direction plays a key role in drag reduction, which represses the wall normal velocity fluctuation and then reduces TKP through the attenuation of its main production term. When OC is suddenly applied, an acute imbalance of energy in space is induced by the wall blowing and suction. Both the skin-friction and TKP terms exhibit a transient growth in the initial phase of OC, which can be attributed to the local effect of 〈 v ′ v ′〉 and 〈− u ′ v ′〉 in the viscous sublayer. (paper)

  3. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  4. Opposition to gender-sensitive development. Learning to answer back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwe, S H

    1995-02-01

    Opposition to gender-sensitive development policies can arise within the very development agencies charged with implementing the policies. Agencies may maintain that policies on equality for women are unnecessary because development is concerned with improving welfare in general. This can be refuted by referring to the literature which points out that failure to address the specific needs of women means their exclusion from the development process. Agencies may argue that women's equality is a political rather than a developmental issue. This is countered by the fact that the "Forward-Looking Strategies" define women's development, equality, and empowerment as intertwined processes. Agencies may say that promoting women's equality constitutes undue interference in a country's internal affairs. This is wrong because aid programs should not be supported in countries which do not support women's rights. Agencies may claim that they must work within the existing laws and policies of a developing country. This is partly correct, but the point must be limited because policies and laws may be "given," but they are not fixed. An agency may state that they have no business seeking or promoting change in existing social and customary practices. This is wrong where such practices stand in the way of development and because any development project is by definition a social and economic intervention. Agencies may consider their policy on women an inappropriate imposition of Western ideas. This is wrong because international conventions place a concern for women's rights on a level with a concern for human rights. Finally, agencies may maintain that women in developing countries do not desire equality with men. While it may be true that women accept their subordinate position, this does not offset issues of human rights and equal development. Oppressed women may be very silent; given the opportunity, they generally have a great deal to say.

  5. Postcolonial Powers of Opposition in Octavia Butler’s Kindred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Amer JubouriAl_Ogaili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will examine postcolonial powers of opposition in Octavia Butler’s Kindred (1979; through Homi Bhabha’s concept of ambivalence and Edward Said’s self-other relationship. By using these concepts, this research aims to unravel how the colonized and the colonizer perceive each in the selected works. It will offer an in-depth analysis of the thematic and ideological characteristics of selected works. Thus, the focus will mainly be on the theme of the mutual relationship between the colonized and the colonizer in the selected works. This relationship is specified to the concept of ambivalence. This concept incarnates the dual, yet, uncontrolled relationship between the colonized and the colonizer. Nevertheless, the colonized considers the colonizer as oppressive but an envious power; and the colonizer judges the colonized as inferior but indigenous. The colonial relationship will also be revealed by using the concept of self-other. Such concept scrutinizes the way the colonized and the colonizer perceive and resist each other. Accordingly, the research’s main focus point is the power relationship developed in the light of colonial ambivalence and self-other continuum. The research’s methodology relies on Bhabha’s concept of ambivalence and Edward Said’s self-other relationship.  In The Location of Culture (1994, Bhabha maintains that the concept of ambivalence conveys “the exercise of colonialist authority, however, requires the production of differentiations, individuations, identity effects through which discriminatory practices can map out subject populations that are tarred with the visible and transparent mark of power” (111. Edward Said, in his discussion of self-other relationship in Orientalism (1979, argues that self-other relationship is “the vacillation [inconstancy] between the familiar [self] and the alien [other]” (72.

  6. COMPARISON OF ABILITY OF OPPOSITION WORDS PROCESSING BETWEEN HEARING AND HEARING IMPAIRED STUDENT IN FIFTH GRADE IN TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B SHAFIEI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing impaired Persons have disorders in Communication. Theu are not able to learning many aspects of language Structures in Paroper time; quantity and quality. They can not Process these factors as same as Partners. In this research we going to assess and comparison opposite word in hearing and hearing impaired Student in fifth grade. This is a semantic research.
    Methods: Subjects of this research were hearing impaired students in fifth grade in tehramwohad + 70dbheaing loss in Best Binaural Average and in order to comparison with them, we selected hearing students in fifth grade. In this research four non linguistic factors were investigated (age, sex, words of Farsi language. The subjects must read these words and write an opposite Word in front of it. In this examination the quantity of types: right, false and without answers.
    Findings: The sequence of right answers had significant different in two group. The Sequence of learned words had significant different two groups. The time of processing in hearing students was shorter than hearing impaired students. The female subjects gave right answers more than male subjects. Discussion: The differences between bearing and hearing impaired students were in the quantity of answers specially in right answers and time of doing the test. probably these differences were due to lack of proper lexicon words and/or poor of it. The hearing students had more right answers and were shorter in time of processing.

  7. Learning to argue as a biotechnologist: disprivileging opposition to genetically modified food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Anne; Bach, Frank; Åkerman, Björn

    2014-03-01

    In the public discussion of genetically modified (GM) food the representations of science as a social good, conducted in the public interest to solve major problems are being subjected to intense scrutiny and questioning. Scientists working in these areas have been seen to struggle for the position of science in society. However few in situ studies of how the debate about science appears in learning situations at the university level have been undertaken. In the present study an introductory course in biotechnology was observed during one semester, lectures and small group supervision concerning GM food were videotaped and student's reports on the issue were collected. The ethnographic approach to Discourse analysis was conducted by means of a set of carefully selected and representative observations of how a group of students learn to argue and appropriate views held in the Discourse they are enculturated into. While socio-scientific issues (SSIs) are often associated with achieving scientific literacy in terms of "informed decisions" involving "rational thought and Discourse" this study shows that SSI in practice, in the context studied here, is primarily concerned with using scientific language to privilege professional understandings of GMOs and discredit public worries and concerns. Scientific claims were privileged over ethical, economical and political claims which were either made irrelevant or rebutted. The students were seen to appropriate a Discourse model held in the biotechnological community that public opposition towards GMO is due to "insufficient knowledge". The present study offers insights into biotechnology students' decision making regarding socio-scientific issues, while also demonstrating the utility of Discourse analysis for understanding learning in this university context. Implications for reflection on the institutional Discourse of science and teaching of controversial issues in science are drawn and the study contributes to the

  8. Genesis and Evolution of the Romance-Germanic Language Border in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Durme, Luc

    2002-01-01

    Discusses various language border theories for the Belgian-Northern French area, and summarizes the results of 40 years of research into the development of the Romance-Germanic language border at large. Suggests that a late Roman Latin-Germanic opposition has functioned as a direct predisposition for the early medieval Romance-Germanic language…

  9. Simplexity, languages and human languaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Building on a distributed perspective, the Special Issue develops Alain Berthoz's concept of simplexity. By so doing, neurophysiology is used to reach beyond observable and, specifically, 1st-order languaging. While simplexity clarifies how language uses perception/action, a community's ‘lexicon......’ (a linguistic 2nd order) also shapes human powers. People use global constraints to make and construe wordings and bring a social/individual duality to human living. Within a field of perception-action-language, the phenomenology of ‘words’ and ‘things’ drives people to sustain their own experience....... Simplex tricks used in building bodies co-function with action that grants humans access to en-natured culture where, together, they build human knowing....

  10. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility

  11. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  12. Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)

  13. ON TRANSITIVITY AND INTRANSITIVITY IN THE AKHVAKH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Akhmedovna Abdulaeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The semantic analysis of verbs of the unwritten Akhvakh language, as one from avaro-ando-tsez group of Nakho-Dagestanian languages, is carried out in this paper. The syntax sentence construction in Dagestanian languages is inseparably linked with opposition of transitivity and intransitivity. Transitive languages form ergative constructions, and intransitive ones – absolute constructions. Based on the particular role of the lexical semantics of verbs in sentence formulating, the verbs of the Akhvakh language are classified into several lexical-semantic groups: transitive, intransitive, affective, labile. A significant number of verbs combine transitive and intransitive meanings. At the level of morphology the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs by special markers (suffixes is typical for the Akhvakh language. The causative forms of verbs, having a special place in the system of intransitive verbs, were also covered in this article.

  14. Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Women from Opposite-Sex Twin Pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, E.A.M.; Vink, J.M.; Lambalk, C.B.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Intrauterine androgens of a male fetus may influence the female fetus in opposite-sex twin pairs. Because female intrauterine overexposure to androgens could lead to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the prevalence of PCOS should be higher in women from opposite-sex twin pairs.

  15. Impulsore Chresto. Opposition to Christianity in the Roman Empire c. 50-250 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jakob

    in context as the most dramatic aspect of a spectrum of opposition including rumors, polemic, harassment and accusations. Such opposition was taken for granted and rarely described. But studying the preserved texts on trials against Christians it appears that even here the roles of relatives, plaintiffs...

  16. Influence Of Opposition On Ball Velocity In The Handball Jump Throw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilla-Garcia, Jesús; Grande, Ignacio; Sampedro, Javier; Van Den Tillaar, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of different degrees of opposition on ball velocity in the jump throw in elite, amateur and adolescent team handball players. Thus, one hundred and nineteen elite, amateur and under 18 team handball players performed jump throws under three different conditions: 1) without opposition, 2) with the opposition of the goalkeeper and 3) with the opposition of the goalkeeper and a defensive player. The degree of opposition was found to have a negative effect on ball velocity in all three groups (p handball players in the jump throw. It indicated that an increase of external stimuli influences the execution of throwing. Experience does not seem to be a factor that can reduce the influence of these external stimuli. PMID:24150629

  17. In Defense of Tradition: Religiosity, Conservatism, and Opposition to Same-Sex Marriage in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Toorn, Jojanneke; Jost, John T; Packer, Dominic J; Noorbaloochi, Sharareh; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2017-10-01

    Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In five studies conducted in the United States and Canada (combined N = 1,673), we observed that religious opposition to same-sex marriage was explained, at least in part, by conservative ideology and linked to sexual prejudice. In Studies 1 and 2, we discovered that the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage was mediated by explicit sexual prejudice. In Study 3, we saw that the mediating effect of sexual prejudice was linked to political conservatism. Finally, in Studies 4a and 4b we examined the ideological underpinnings of religious opposition to same-sex marriage in more detail by taking into account two distinct aspects of conservative ideology. Results revealed that resistance to change was more important than opposition to equality in explaining religious opposition to same-sex marriage.

  18. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  19. Language and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  20. The Languages of Afrofuturism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Elia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Afrofuturism is a transdisciplinary cultural movement based upon the unusual connection between the marginality of allegedly “primitive” people of the African diaspora and “modern” technology and science fiction. At a first glance, Afrofuturism may sound like an oxymoron. “Afro” and “Futurism” are likely to be considered as terms in opposition, the former which used to evoke images of primitivism and backwardness, the latter – ever since F. T. Marinetti’s definition in 1909 – celebrating instead speed and modernity. It is precisely to challenge this assumption that Afrofuturism works on a metaphorical level to reject a number of clichés that have commonly referred to people of African descent. Using a wide range of different genres and media, the creative contribution of Afrofuturist writers, musicians, artists, filmmakers and critics challenges the stereotypical historical view routinely applied to the Black Atlantic experience and proposes counter-histories that reconsider the role of black people in the Western society in the past and imagine alternative roles in the future. The paper aims to consider the different languages of Afrofuturism: music (Sun Ra, visual arts (Basquiat, film (John Coney’s Space is the Place and especially literature − proto-Afrofuturist fiction such as W. E. B. Du Bois’s short story “The Comet” (1920 and more recent examples such as Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man (1952 and Octavia E. Butler’s Kindred (1979.

  1. Variables that Predict Serve Efficacy in Elite Men's Volleyball with Different Quality of Opposition Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Álvaro; Fernández-Echeverría, Carmen; González-Silva, Jara; Claver, Fernando; Moreno, M Perla

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the variables that predicted serve efficacy in elite men's volleyball, in sets with different quality of opposition. 3292 serve actions were analysed, of which 2254 were carried out in high quality of opposition sets and 1038 actions were in low quality of opposition sets, corresponding to a total of 24 matches played during the Men's European Volleyball Championships held in 2011. The independent variables considered in this study were the serve zone, serve type, serving player, serve direction, reception zone, receiving player and reception type; the dependent variable was serve efficacy and the situational variable was quality of opposition sets. The variables that acted as predictors in both high and low quality of opposition sets were the serving player, reception zone and reception type. The serve type variable only acted as a predictor in high quality of opposition sets, while the serve zone variable only acted as a predictor in low quality of opposition sets. These results may provide important guidance in men's volleyball training processes.

  2. Language learning interventions | Kilfoil | Journal for Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results for that intervention show that the hypothesis was correct and students need more time and structure if they are to improve their language competence sufficiently. Keywords: language learning interventions, English for specific purposes, language competence, fossilization. Journal for Language Teaching Vol.

  3. Identification of Fuzzy Inference Systems by Means of a Multiobjective Opposition-Based Space Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new category of fuzzy inference systems with the aid of a multiobjective opposition-based space search algorithm (MOSSA. The proposed MOSSA is essentially a multiobjective space search algorithm improved by using an opposition-based learning that employs a so-called opposite numbers mechanism to speed up the convergence of the optimization algorithm. In the identification of fuzzy inference system, the MOSSA is exploited to carry out the parametric identification of the fuzzy model as well as to realize its structural identification. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy models.

  4. Differentiating social and personal power: opposite effects on stereotyping, but parallel effects on behavioral approach tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Joris; Stoker, Janka I; Stapel, Diederik A

    2009-12-01

    How does power affect behavior? We posit that this depends on the type of power. We distinguish between social power (power over other people) and personal power (freedom from other people) and argue that these two types of power have opposite associations with independence and interdependence. We propose that when the distinction between independence and interdependence is relevant, social power and personal power will have opposite effects; however, they will have parallel effects when the distinction is irrelevant. In two studies (an experimental study and a large field study), we demonstrate this by showing that social power and personal power have opposite effects on stereotyping, but parallel effects on behavioral approach.

  5. Language, Thought, and Culture: Views and Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Zahedi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study follows two aims: one to review some late views on the relations among language, thought, and culture; and the other, to offer a new strategy, in a novel model, based on last achievements in the minimalist approach. Studying views and arguments, three dichotomies are discussed: 1 the views which confirm the relation between culture and language in opposition to the views that deny this; 2 distinguishing the symmetry-procedural view and the transforming views of language; and 3 distinction among the social-communicational, and the biological-genetic motivations of language. The hypothesis for the novel strategy is that considering what the minimalist program has offered, especially from 2000 onwards, it is possible that language affects thought, while coding the and that culture affects language (which is called ethno-grammar . This is in addition to the biological-genetic base. From this point of view, language’s main function is neither to provide communication, nor to express thought, but to connect cognitive and socio-cultural terminals together.

  6. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  7. Modeling Game Avatar Synergy and Opposition through Embedding in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Games

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhengxing; Xu, Yuyu; Nguyen, Truong-Huy D.; Sun, Yizhou; El-Nasr, Magy Seif

    2018-01-01

    Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have received increasing worldwide popularity recently. In such games, players compete in teams against each other by controlling selected game avatars, each of which is designed with different strengths and weaknesses. Intuitively, putting together game avatars that complement each other (synergy) and suppress those of opponents (opposition) would result in a stronger team. In-depth understanding of synergy and opposition relationships among game ...

  8. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P ... in the +I group (P caused by opposite shifts in TSH frequency distribution in mothers and neonates. The association between iodine supplementation and high serum TSH in the neonates was further substantiated by an inverse correlation between thyroglobulin and TSH in cord blood...

  9. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex mar...

  10. COOBBO: A Novel Opposition-Based Soft Computing Algorithm for TSP Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzheng Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel definition of opposite path. Its core feature is that the sequence of candidate paths and the distances between adjacent nodes in the tour are considered simultaneously. In a sense, the candidate path and its corresponding opposite path have the same (or similar at least distance to the optimal path in the current population. Based on an accepted framework for employing opposition-based learning, Oppositional Biogeography-Based Optimization using the Current Optimum, called COOBBO algorithm, is introduced to solve traveling salesman problems. We demonstrate its performance on eight benchmark problems and compare it with other optimization algorithms. Simulation results illustrate that the excellent performance of our proposed algorithm is attributed to the distinct definition of opposite path. In addition, its great strength lies in exploitation for enhancing the solution accuracy, not exploration for improving the population diversity. Finally, by comparing different version of COOBBO, another conclusion is that each successful opposition-based soft computing algorithm needs to adjust and remain a good balance between backward adjacent node and forward adjacent node.

  11. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse any more.    You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner!   General & Professional French courses The next General & Professional French course will start on 26 January. These collective courses aim to bring participants who have at least level A1 to higher levels (up to C2). Each level consists of a combination of face-to-face sessions (40 hours) with personal work (20 hours) following a specially designed programme. A final progress test takes place at the end of the term. Please note that it is mandatory to take the placement test. Please sign up here. French courses for beginners The aim of this course is to give some basic skills to beginners in order to communicate in simple everyday situations in both social and professional life. These courses can start at any time during the year, as soon as a group of beg...

  12. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    Permanence A "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier - French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne - English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00   New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF, DALF). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link:  English courses French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  13. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    PermanenceA "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00 New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF and BULATS). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link: http://English courses http://French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  14. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  15. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  16. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…

  17. Technology in Language Use, Language Teaching, and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…

  18. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 65 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE, LINGUISTICS, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LANGUAGE SKILLS, LANGUAGE PATTERNS, AND…

  19. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  20. Let There Be Languages!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Petur

    1992-01-01

    Examines the resilience of small languages in the face of larger ones. Highlights include the concept of one dominant language, such as Esperanto; the threat of television to small visual-language societies; the power of visual media; man's relationship to language; and the resilience of language. (LRW)

  1. Language as Pure Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2016-01-01

    Language occupies a crucial position in neoliberalism, due to the reimagination of language as commodified skill. This paper studies the role of language ideology in this transformation by identifying a particular ideology that facilitates this process, namely the ideology which views language as pure potential. Neoliberalism treats language as a…

  2. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  3. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  4. Foreign Language Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees; Weltens, Bert

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent research on language maintenance and language loss, focusing on the loss of a second language in a first language environment, the linguistic aspects of loss, and relearning a "lost" language. An annotated bibliography discusses nine important works in the field. (43 references) (MDM)

  5. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  6. Opposite Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ruya Tuncturk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep neck infections are mortal diseases that need emergency treatment. It can occur at any age but usually in pediatric ages. In this report, a left cervical carotid space abscess of a pediatric patient was discussed. It was interesting that the only origin of the left carotid sheath abscess was right inferior first molar tooth decay. Right neck spaces were all clean. Patient had no immunosupression and also there were no congenital masses such as branchial cleft cysts, foreign bodies, or masses suspicious for malignancies in cervical ultrasound and MRI. We discussed this rare condition under the light of the literature.

  7. Health Literacy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Health Literacy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Health Literacy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  9. Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Atrial Fibrillation URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Journal for Language Teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Journal for Language Teaching = Ijenali Yekufundzisa Lulwimi = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig ... SAALT was founded in 1964 for the benefit of language teaching and language teachers and ...

  11. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Introduction to formal languages

    CERN Document Server

    Révész, György E

    1991-01-01

    Covers all areas, including operations on languages, context-sensitive languages, automata, decidability, syntax analysis, derivation languages, and more. Numerous worked examples, problem exercises, and elegant mathematical proofs. 1983 edition.

  15. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  17. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. A Natural Language Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Sodiya, Adesina Simon

    2007-01-01

    Natural languages are the latest generation of programming languages, which require processing real human natural expressions. Over the years, several groups or researchers have trying to develop widely accepted natural language languages based on artificial intelligence (AI). But no true natural language has been developed. The goal of this work is to design a natural language preprocessing architecture that identifies and accepts programming instructions or sentences in their natural forms ...

  19. Reading comprehension and its underlying components in second-language learners: A meta-analysis of studies comparing first- and second-language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2014-03-01

    We report a systematic meta-analytic review of studies comparing reading comprehension and its underlying components (language comprehension, decoding, and phonological awareness) in first- and second-language learners. The review included 82 studies, and 576 effect sizes were calculated for reading comprehension and underlying components. Key findings were that, compared to first-language learners, second-language learners display a medium-sized deficit in reading comprehension (pooled effect size d = -0.62), a large deficit in language comprehension (pooled effect size d = -1.12), but only small differences in phonological awareness (pooled effect size d = -0.08) and decoding (pooled effect size d = -0.12). A moderator analysis showed that characteristics related to the type of reading comprehension test reliably explained the variation in the differences in reading comprehension between first- and second-language learners. For language comprehension, studies of samples from low socioeconomic backgrounds and samples where only the first language was used at home generated the largest group differences in favor of first-language learners. Test characteristics and study origin reliably contributed to the variations between the studies of language comprehension. For decoding, Canadian studies showed group differences in favor of second-language learners, whereas the opposite was the case for U.S. studies. Regarding implications, unless specific decoding problems are detected, interventions that aim to ameliorate reading comprehension problems among second-language learners should focus on language comprehension skills.

  20. Language Assessment Literacy: Implications for Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the applied linguistics field has examined the knowledge, skills, and principles needed for assessment, defined as language assessment literacy. Two major issues in language assessment literacy have been addressed but not fully resolved--what exactly language assessment literacy is and how it differs among stakeholders (e.g., students…

  1. Discussion: Imagining the Languaged Worker's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuoli, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    What people perceive as "a language"--a named entity--is abstracted from practices and notions about those practices. People take for granted that language is somehow a "thing," an objectively distinct and bounded entity. How languages come to be thus imagined indexes the conditions under which they are imagined. The articles…

  2. Language and Language Policy in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, William H., III

    1985-01-01

    Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)

  3. Siting a low-level radioactive waste incinerator in North Carolina: the impacts of public opposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Establishing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facilities has become increasingly difficult due to public opposition to siting proposals. Widespread opposition to siting new waste management facilities of all types has focused sharp attention on the technical, political, and socioeconomic problems associated with siting controversial, but necessary facilities. This paper reviews a recent private sector initiative to site a LLRW incinerator in Bladen County, NC. Public reactions to the proposed facility are documents, as well as reasons for public opposition to the facility. The impacts of public opposition on the siting process, regulatory agencies, the media, industry, the general public, and elected officials are examined. The paper points out how public opposition to proposed waste management facilities may have both positive and negative impacts on the long-term management of LLRW. In doing so, the paper addresses policy questions, processes, and perceptions that will shape the debate over the development and location of new treatment and disposal facilities for managing LLRW. 14 references

  4. Understanding Death Penalty Support and Opposition Among Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Sethuraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a sizable number of studies have gathered information from college students regarding their varying degrees of support for capital punishment, few have explored the underlying rationales behind these students’ death penalty support or opposition. In addition, although criminal justice majors have frequently been used as study participants, little research has sought to explore if law enforcement majors are different in manners for supporting or opposing capital punishment than other criminal justice majors. In the current study, a survey designed to measure reasons for support or opposition to capital punishment was administered to a convenience sample of 135 criminal justice and law enforcement majors at a mid-size Midwestern university. The results indicated that law enforcement majors were not significantly different from criminal justice majors on measures of support or opposition to capital punishment. There were, however, some notable differences found related to the academic standing of the students.

  5. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  6. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536

  7. Paired structures, imprecision types and two-level knowledge representation by means of opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Opposition-based models are a current hot-topic in knowledge representation. The point of this paper is to suggest that opposition can be in fact introduced at two different levels, those of the predicates of interest being represented (as short/tall) and of the logical references (true/false) used...... to evaluate the verification of the former. We study this issue by means of the consideration of different paired structures at each level. We also pay attention at how different types of fuzziness may be introduced in these paired structures to model imprecision and lack of knowledge. As a consequence, we...

  8. Parliamentary Behaviour of the Members of Opposition Political Parties in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Fuzi Omar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In a hegemonic consociational system practised in Malaysia, the Opposition can hardly play a dominant role in making democracy work. Nevertheless, a content analysis of the debates in the House of Representatives from 1982 to 2003 show that the opposition members have contributed to the process of check and balance in the government by asking questions to relevant ministries and by initiating adjournment motions. In the process, they not merely attacked the government for their failure but also suggested alternative policies some of which were implemented by the ruling coalition.

  9. The foreign-language effect: thinking in a foreign tongue reduces decision biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysar, Boaz; Hayakawa, Sayuri L; An, Sun Gyu

    2012-06-01

    Would you make the same decisions in a foreign language as you would in your native tongue? It may be intuitive that people would make the same choices regardless of the language they are using, or that the difficulty of using a foreign language would make decisions less systematic. We discovered, however, that the opposite is true: Using a foreign language reduces decision-making biases. Four experiments show that the framing effect disappears when choices are presented in a foreign tongue. Whereas people were risk averse for gains and risk seeking for losses when choices were presented in their native tongue, they were not influenced by this framing manipulation in a foreign language. Two additional experiments show that using a foreign language reduces loss aversion, increasing the acceptance of both hypothetical and real bets with positive expected value. We propose that these effects arise because a foreign language provides greater cognitive and emotional distance than a native tongue does.

  10. Speech and Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...

  11. The Mixed language Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin.......A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin....

  12. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the

  13. Creativity in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2013-01-01

    One quality among the many that characterize effective teachers is the ability to bring a creative disposition to teaching. In second language teaching, creativity has also been linked to levels of attainment in language learning. Many of the language tasks favored by contemporary language teaching methods are believed to release creativity in…

  14. Language Policy and Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Sauli; Sajavaara, Kari

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on foreign language planning, or the planned changes in foreign language instructional systems and in uses of languages in different social contexts with special reference to the Nordic and Baltic countries. Special attention is given to the relationship between language planning and evaluation. (Author/VWL)

  15. Language Literacy in Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which the transfer of assumptions from first language (L1 writing can help the process of writing in second language (L2. In learning second language writing skills, learners have two primary sources from which they construct a second language system: knowledge and skills from first language and input from second language. To investigate the relative impact of first language literacy skills on second language writing ability, 60 EFL students from Tabriz Islamic Azad University were chosen as participants of this study, based on their language proficiency scores. The subjects were given two topics to write about: the experimental group subjects were asked to write in Persian and then translate their writing into English. The control group wrote in English. The results obtained in this study indicate that the content and vocabulary components of the compositions were mostly affected by the use of first language.

  16. Learning a Second Language

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Caroline; Hermann, Charlotte; Andersen, Signe Hvalsøe; Grigalauskyte, Simona; Tolsgaard, Mads; Holmegaard, Thorbjørn; Hajaya, Zaedo Musa

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the concept of second language learning in Denmark with focus on how second language learners negotiate their identities in relation to language learning and integration. By investigating three language learners’ acquisition of Danish through key theories on the field of second language learning, focus is centred on the subjects’ lived experiences of the learning process within their everyday lives and in the classroom. Through interviews and observations it can be conclud...

  17. Language&Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Saidi, Tamana; Djurhuus, Terji; Egeslund, Søren Due; Oikonomou, Anna Maria; Pietilä, Minerva

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to display how the process differs when acquiring a first language, two first languages simultaneously or a second language. The linguistic elements are presented in First Language and Second Language and in bilingualism. We will be looking at Chomsky’s Nativist approach, as well as Behaviorism by Skinner. Also, socio-cultural theory by Vygotsky and the cognitive approach are used. A study will be conducted to find out whether bilinguals can perform as well as native speaker...

  18. Opposition and Identicalness: Two Basic Components of Adults’ Perception and Mental Representation of Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bianchi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Symmetry is a salient aspect of biological and man-made objects, and has a central role in perceptual organization. Two studies investigate the role of opposition and identicalness in shaping adults’ naïve idea of “symmetry”. In study 1, both verbal descriptions of symmetry (either provided by the participants or selected from among alternatives presented by the experimenter and configurations drawn as exemplars of symmetry were studied. In study 2, a pair comparison task was used. Both studies focus on configurations formed by two symmetrical shapes (i.e., between-objects symmetry. Three main results emerged. The explicit description of symmetry provided by participants generally referred to features relating to the relationship perceived between the two shapes and not to geometrical point-by-point transformations. Despite the fact that people tended to avoid references to opposition in their verbal definition of symmetry in study 1, the drawings that they did to represent their prototypical idea of symmetry manifested opposition as a basic component. This latter result was confirmed when the participants were asked to select the definition (in study 1 or the configuration (in study 2 that best fitted with their idea of symmetry. In conclusion, identicalness is an important component in people’s naïve idea of symmetry, but it does not suffice: opposition complements it.

  19. Leaders, Followers, Oppositional Intellectuals, and the PhD Job Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adalaide

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English department head in a time of educational crisis. Examines the possibility that graduate study in English is losing its moral base. Considers the role of leadership and oppositional politics in the context of the crisis in graduate study. (HB)

  20. Privatisation of agro-industrial parastatals and anglophone opposition in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the regional anglophone opposition in Cameroon which arose after 15 July 1994, when the government was forced by international donors to announce the privatization of 15 public enterprises, notably in the transport and agroindustrial sectors. The most prominent among them was

  1. Cancer risk in opposite-sex and same-sex twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Twin pregnancies are characterized by simultaneous development of two fetuses that share the womb. An interest in opposite-sex (OS) twins, twin pairs consisting of one male and one female, comes from animal studies that showed that exposure to sex hormones is influenced by the position of the fetus...

  2. Bubble merging in breathing DNA as a vicious walker problem in opposite potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Hansen, Mikael Sonne; Novotny, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    on the problem of two vicious walkers in opposite potentials. We also present a discrete master equation approach to the bubble coalescence problem. Numerical evaluation and stochastic simulation of the master equation show excellent agreement with the results from the continuum approach. Given...

  3. An Analysis of Oppositional Culture Theory Applied to One Suburban Midwestern High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, Tricia; Puchner, Laurel; Reeves, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether and to what extent Ogbu and Fordham's Oppositional Culture Theory applied to African American high school students at one Midwestern suburban high school. Based on multiple interviews with six African American students, the study found support for some aspects of the theory but not for others.

  4. State Violence and Oppositional Protest in High-Capacity Authoritarian Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hank Johnston

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This examination of the mobilization-repression nexus in high-capacity authoritarian regimes draws on examples from China, Russia, Iran, and several Middle Eastern states to develop a framework for analyzing state violence and how political oppositions are organized. The study examines middle and low levels of state violence, the provincial and municipal organization of party and regime, and the police, private militias, and thugs as low-level enforcers, and focuses on: (1 the complexity of the state’s apparatus of repression and control and how different levels exercise different forms of violence against activists; (2 the creativity of the opposition’s actions to voice its demands and avoid repression and surveillance; and (3 the recursive relationship between the two, a dark dance between state and opposition with high stakes for both. Hierarchical analysis at national, provincial, and local levels, and lateral analysis across these levels, where elite interests frequently diverge, show that intersections and gaps on both axes can create lapses in social control and openings the opposition. These free spaces of speech and innovative action give rise to novel ways to keep oppositional sentiments in the public forum. The article offers several propositions for analyzing repression and state violence at various levels, and, similarly, the various ways that these free spaces occur.

  5. Opposite-side flavour tagging of $B$ mesons at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; de Bruyn, K; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    The calibration and performance of the opposite-side flavour tagging algorithms used for the measurements of time-dependent asymmetries at the LHCb experiment are described. The algorithms have been developed using simulated events and optimized and calibrated with $B^+ \\to J/ \\psi K^+$, $B^0 \\to J/\\psi K^{*0}$ and $B^0 \\to D^{*-} \\mu^+ \

  6. Does beauty catch the eye?: Sex differences in gazing at attractive opposite-sex targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, I.; Holland, R.; Finkenauer, C.; Hollenstein, T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated to what extent the length of people's gazes during conversations with opposite-sex persons is affected by the physical attractiveness of the partner. Single participants (N = 115) conversed for 5 min with confederates who were rated either as low or high on physical attractiveness.

  7. The relevance of introducing opposition proceedings into the Serbian trademark legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the quality of certain legal procedures applied in domestic trademark legislation in the light of harmonizing our legislation with those of the EU. Trademark Law in the Republic of Serbia (2009 does not rely on opposition proceedings as a phase in the process of trademark registration and a tool that would ensure that only those trademarks that fulfill the necessary conditions are granted legal protection. Intellectual Property Office examines the so-called relative grounds for trademark registration refusal but does so ex officio, thus preventing the holders of trademark rights from benefiting from a relatively inexpensive and effective opposition procedure regarding the registration of a second trademark which violates their previously established rights. In contrast to our trademark laws, EU Council Regulation 207/2009 on Community Trademarks of February 26, 2009 (CTMR -Community trademark regulation enforces opposition proceedings as the most important phase in the process of trademark registration. European experience shows that opposition proceedings carry significant benefits for the process of trademark application. First of all, they allow the holders of previously established trademark rights to avoid long and costly court proceedings whose purpose is to dispute trademarks that violate the owner's rights. Also, state agencies authorizing in trademark approval no longer need to monitor registered trademarks.

  8. Differentiating social and personal power : opposite effects on stereotyping, but parallel effects on behavioral approach tendencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Stoker, J.I.; Stapel, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    How does power affect behavior? We posit that this depends on the type of power. We distinguish between social power (power over other people) and personal power (freedom from other people) and argue that these two types of power have opposite associations with independence and interdependence. We

  9. Effects of complexation of oppositely charged water-soluble cobaltphthalocyanines on catalytic mercaptoethanol autoxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, E.T.W.M.; Heuts, J.P.A.; Piet, P.; Beelen, T.P.M.; German, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    In order to elucidate the different promoting effects polycations have on cobalt(II) phthalocyanine-catalyzed autoxidn. of 2-mercaptoethanol, the properties of mixts. of oppositely charged water-sol. cobalt(II) phthalocyanines were studied. The contribution of polycation-induced dimerization of the

  10. Repulsion between oppositely charged rod-shaped macromolecules: Role of overcharging and ionic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S.; Van Tassel, Paul R.; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The interaction between two oppositely charged rod-shaped macro-ions in a micro-ion solution is investigated via Monte Carlo simulations of the primitive model. The focus is on the asymmetry in rod and/or ion charge, i.e., conditions where oppositely charged objects can repel one another. For equally and oppositely charged rods with asymmetric z:1 micro-ions, repulsion may be induced by overcharging one of the rods with the z valent ions. For asymmetrically charged rods in a symmetric z:z micro-ion solution, a repulsive interaction—at separation of the order of one ion diameter—can arise via an unbalanced osmotic pressure contribution from the ionic atmosphere in the inter-rod space, and an attractive interaction—at a smaller separation—may occur due to a "squeezing out" of the micro-ions from the space between the rods (with a consequent gain in entropy). The thermodynamics of each mechanism is investigated in terms of rod charge and size and micro-ion valence, size, and concentration. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex role of charge asymmetry on the interaction of, for example, oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, functionalized nanotubes, and rod-like biomolecules, e.g., viruses.

  11. The Treatment of Maladaptive Shame in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of "Opposite Action"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to pilot test a short-term intervention for maladaptive shame in borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on the skill of "opposite action" from dialectical behavior therapy. Five women with BPD were treated with the intervention using a single-subject, multiple-baseline design. Results indicate that, although state ratings of…

  12. In defense of tradition: Religiosity, conservatism, and opposition to same-sex marriage in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, J.; Jost, J. T.; Packer, D. J.; Noorbaloochi, S.; van Bavel, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In five studies conducted in the United States and Canada (combined N = 1,673), we observed that religious opposition to same-sex marriage was explained, at least in part, by conservative ideology and linked to sexual

  13. Initial Opposition--Won't Portfolio Assessment Take Away Teacher Autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Marcia

    Unacknowledged and untended opposition can lead the "resistance" to destroy even the best planned of portfolio systems. The greatest cause of initial resistance to portfolio assessment is the fear that teachers will lose their autonomy and/or authority in the classroom. Writing instructors need to ask themselves about issues of control and…

  14. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY AND HARDNESS OF COMPRESSION AND OPPOSITE WOOD CELL WALLS OF MASSON PINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Huang,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Compression wood is commonly found in Masson pine. To evaluate the mechanical properties of the cell wall of Masson pine compression and opposite wood, nanoindentation was used. The results showed that the average values of hardness and cell wall modulus of elasticity of opposite wood were slightly higher than those of compression wood. With increasing age of the annual ring, the modulus of elasticity showed a negative correlation with microfibril angle, but a weak correlation was observed for hardness. In opposite and compression wood from the same annual ring, the differences in average values of modulus of elasticity and hardness were small. These slight differences were explained by the change of microfibril angle (MFA, the press-in mode of nanoindentation, and the special structure of compression wood. The mechanical properties were almost the same for early, transition, and late wood in a mature annual ring of opposite wood. It can therefore be inferred that the average modulus of elasticity (MOE and hardness of the cell walls in a mature annual ring were not being affected by cell wall thickness.

  15. Support and Opposition to the Women's Liberation Movement: Some Personality and Parental Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worell, Judith; Worell, Leonard

    1977-01-01

    This study examines eight hypotheses concerning personality and parental determinants of support and opposition to the Women's Liberation Movement. These cognitive, motivational, and parental variables are interpreted in relation to the differing dispositions of each group toward the issues raised by the women's movement. (Editor/RK)

  16. Birth weight in opposite sex twins as compared to same sex dizygotic twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlebeke, J.F.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Neeleman, D.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in the present report is whether the large birth weight differences in dizygotic twin pairs of opposite sex (DZos), especially in 'male first' couples - observed by Blickstein and Weissman (Blickstein I, Weissman A. Birth weight discordancy in male-first and female-first pairs

  17. Narrowing the Gap: Explaining the Increasing Competitiveness of the Venezuelan Opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krouwel, A.P.M.; Kutiyski, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to explain why electoral support for the Venezuelan opposition has increased substantially, using Venezuelan public opinion survey data from LAPOP and an opt-in sample collected through the online vote advice application Brújula Presidencial Venezuela. It analyzes why Venezuelans

  18. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely-driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelam, Stephen

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes. I will describe some results on this phenomenon obtained by simple physical arguments and computer simulations. Laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely-driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with Peclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely-driven colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas. Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  19. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Oppositely Charged Hydrogels with Super Strong Interface Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Tan, Yu Jun; Liu, Sijun; Li, Lin

    2018-04-04

    A novel strategy to improve the adhesion between printed layers of three-dimensional (3D) printed constructs is developed by exploiting the interaction between two oppositely charged hydrogels. Three anionic hydrogels [alginate, xanthan, and κ-carrageenan (Kca)] and three cationic hydrogels [chitosan, gelatin, and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA)] are chosen to find the optimal combination of two oppositely charged hydrogels for the best 3D printability with strong interface bonding. Rheological properties and printability of the hydrogels, as well as structural integrity of printed constructs in cell culture medium, are studied as functions of polymer concentration and the combination of hydrogels. Kca2 (2 wt % Kca hydrogel) and GelMA10 (10 wt % GelMA hydrogel) are found to be the best combination of oppositely charged hydrogels for 3D printing. The interfacial bonding between a Kca layer and a GelMA layer is proven to be significantly higher than that of the bilayered Kca or bilayered GelMA because of the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes between the oppositely charged hydrogels. A good cell viability of >96% is obtained for the 3D-bioprinted Kca-GelMA construct. This novel strategy has a great potential for 3D bioprinting of layered constructs with a strong interface bonding.

  20. Parlementaires debout : l'interface de l'opposition politique pendant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    espace médiatique dans la lutte qui opposa singulièrement le pouvoir (Mobutu) et l'opposition (Tshisekedi) entre 1990 et 1997. L'expérience congolaise de Parlement debout ne pourrait servir de modèle à la gestion de l'espace public africain qu'à ...

  1. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  2. Efficacy of an opposite position aspiration on resolution of pneumothorax following CT-guided lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L-C; Du, Y; Yang, H-F; Xie, M-G; Liao, H-Q; Zhang, Y-D; Li, L; Wang, Q; Hu, L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of aspiration in an opposite position to deal with pneumothorax after CT-guided lung biopsy. Methods: A retrospective study was developed involving 210 patients with pneumothorax who had undergone CT-guided percutaneous core biopsies from January 2012 to March 2014 for various pulmonary lesions. Asymptomatic patients with minimal pneumothorax were treated conservatively. Simple manual aspiration was performed for symptomatic patients with minimal pneumothorax and for all patients with moderate to large pneumothorax. An opposite position aspiration was performed when simple manual aspiration failed. The efficacy of simple manual aspiration and the opposite position aspiration was observed. Results: Among 210 patients with pneumothorax, 128 (61.0%) asymptomatic patients with minimal pneumothorax were treated conservatively. The remaining 82 were treated with attempted simple manual aspiration. Out of these 82 patients, simple manual aspiration was successful in 58 (70.7%, 58/82) cases. The complete and partial regression rates were 17.2% (10/58) and 82.8% (48/58), respectively. In the other 24 patients (29.3%, 24/82), simple aspiration technique was ineffective. An opposite position (from prone to supine or vice versa) was applied, and a new biopsy puncture site was chosen for reaspiration. This procedure was successful in 22 patients but not in 2 patients who had to have a chest tube insertion. The complete and partial regression rates were 25.0% (6/24) and 66.7% (16/24), respectively. Applying the new method, the total effective rate of aspiration improved significantly from 70.7% (58/82) to 97.6% (80/82). Conclusion: The opposite position aspiration can be safe, effective and minimally invasive treatment for CT-guided lung biopsy-induced pneumothorax thus reducing the use of chest tube significantly. Advances in knowledge: (1) Opposite position aspiration can elevate the success rate of aspiration significantly (from 70.7% to 97

  3. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  4. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposition of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existential aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the following tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of  fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inactivity through the opposition of  fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authentic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific novelty. For the first time the analysis of the  fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the  fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its essential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being.  If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with  human mind and conscious decision,  non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental meaning

  5. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  6. Teaching language arts to English language learners

    CERN Document Server

    Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w

  7. Local languages as the languages of internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    . An ongoing research project tries to find out why this is the case. A preliminary result seems to be that it is not the academic motivation that starts the learning process of the local language, but once the students have stated to learn Danish, some of them also follow study courses in Danish, especially...... on offering programs rather in English than the local language. At Copenhagen Business School, 56.4% of the students at MA level followed courses in English in 2009. Many students come to Denmark from abroad, follow the English language programs offered, but are motivated to learn Danish, the local language...

  8. Language Management x 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2017-01-01

    The term ‘language management’ has become a widely used expression in the sociolinguistic literature. Originally introduced by Jernudd and Neustupný in 1987, as a novel continuation of the language planning tradition stemming from the 1960/70s, language management along these lines has developed...... from the international management discipline, appear to have taken an interest in language as a variable in business and corporate management. It is also common to refer to this research field as language management. This conceptual article offers a theoretically based comparison of the three...... into the Language Management Theory (LMT). A second definition of language management, diverting from LMT, can be found in the work of Spolsky, who treats language management as a theoretical component of the wider concept of language policy. Furthermore, over the past 15 years a number of scholars, particularly...

  9. Language competence in movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    multilingual children's language and literacy acquisition processes, we direct our focus to a single child's active exploration of what it means to know a language. Through analysis of interviews and researcher generated activities, we see how this child both describes and does language competence......This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus...... is shifted from viewing the individual's language competence as a mental linguistic or communicative property, to viewing language as a series of social and spatial practices. Looking at data from the research project Tegn på Sprog (in the following referred to as Signs of Language), which examines...

  10. Rights to Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    This work brings together cutting-edge scholarship in language, education and society from all parts of the world. Celebrating the 60th birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, it is inspired by her work in minority, indigenous and immigrant education; multilingualism; linguistic human rights; and global...... language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights...

  11. Violent behavior patterns: possible homeopathic remedies Modelos de conducta violenta: posibles remedios homeopáticos Padrões de conduta violenta: possíveis medicamentos homeopáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Carmela Maria Vieira Pedalino; Jussara Meyer Osielski; Fernando Antônio Cardoso Bignardi; Célia Regina Barollo

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss violence as a current epidemics and violent behavior in children and adolescents. They present a repertory study including the characteristic and peculiar symptoms of 12 patients, with clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and the symptoms corresponding to the diagnostic criteria in the DSM-IV transcribed in repertory language. The result is a materia medica for patterns of violent behavi...

  12. Longitudinal Risk and Resilience Factors Predicting Psychiatric Disruption, Mental Health Service Utilization & Military Retention in OIF National Guard Troops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    learning disabilities and/or emotional difficulties • Wrote integrated assessment reports • Attended Individual Education Plan ( IEP ) meetings where...worked with wide range of disabilities from autism and cerebral palsy to oppositional defiant disorder and bipolar disorder; developed leadership...therapy program for a nine year old boy with autism to foster the development of social skills; utilized sign language to increase communication

  13. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    Thoroughly updated to reflect the most current developments in language design and implementation, the second edition*Addresses key developments in programming language design:+ Finalized C99 standard+ Java 5+ C# 2.0+ Java concurrency package (JSR 166) and comparable mechanisms in C#+ Java and C# generics*Introduces and discusses scripting languages throughout the book and in an entire new chapter that covers:+ Application domains: shell languages, text processing and report generation, mathematics and statistics, "glue" languages and general purpose scripting, extension languages, scripting t

  14. Language, Mathematics and English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoniou, Misty; Qing, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There is a correlation between language proficiency and achievement in mathematics (Riordain & O'Donoghue, 2009), and this is particularly evident for children who speak English as an additional language or dialect. More effort needs to be made in mathematics classrooms to develop cognitive competencies, including the ability to decode and…

  15. Languages contact and geopolitics of Romance languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Jean Calvet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we first conceive the contact between languages from different configurations to, secondly, analyze the geopolitics of the Romance languages, represented by the three great linguistic groups, that is, the French-speaking, Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking groups.---Original in French.

  16. Languages contact and geopolitics of Romance languages

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Jean Calvet

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we first conceive the contact between languages from different configurations to, secondly, analyze the geopolitics of the Romance languages, represented by the three great linguistic groups, that is, the French-speaking, Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking groups.---Original in French.

  17. Language and identity: A case of Igbo language, Nigeria | Igbokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language is the most important information and communication characteristics of all the human beings. Language is power ... among the Igbo. The Igbo have embraced foreign languages in place of their mother tongue (Igbo language). This

  18. Comparing Tense Systems: the Primacy of the Pres/Past Opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Borik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A way of improving on the description of the English tense system in Reichenbach [1947] is achieved by changing its matrix 3x3 design into a 2x2x2 set up, formed by 3 basic oppositions: • present vs. past • synchronous vs. posterior • incompleted vs. completed action The advantages of the binary system over the Reichenbachian ternary system are the following: • the binary system is completely compositional; • there is no tripartition between Past, Present and Future, but only the basic opposition between Past and Present remains. As we intend to show later, this is empirically supported by the Russian and Polish data; • some concrete problems, for instance, the ambiguity of past perfect with temporal adverbials or more then one configuration for the same tense form [Future Perfect [will have written] or Past Future tense [would write

  19. Performance Assessment in a Heat Exchanger Tube with Opposite/Parallel Wing Twisted Tapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eiamsa-ard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermohydraulic performance in a tube containing a modified twisted tape with alternate-axes and wing arrangements is reported. This work aims to investigate the effects of wing arrangements (opposite (O and parallel (P wings at different wing shapes (triangle (Tri, rectangular (Rec, and trapezoidal (Tra wings and on the thermohydraulic performance characteristics. The obtained results show that wing twisted tapes with all wing shape arrangements (O-Tri/O-Rec/O-Tra/P-Tri/P-Rec/P-Tra give superior thermohydraulic performance and heat transfer rate to the typical twisted tape. In addition, the tapes with opposite wing arrangement of O-Tra, O-Rec, and O-Tri give superior thermohydraulic performances to those with parallel wing arrangement of P-Tra, P-Rec, and P-Tri around 2.7%, 3.5%, and 3.2%, respectively.

  20. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  1. Superposition of two optical vortices with opposite integer or non-integer orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando Díaz Meza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a brief proposal to achieve the superposition of two opposite vortex beams, both with integer or non-integer mean value of the orbital angular momentum. The first part is about the generation of this kind of spatial light distributions through a modified Brown and Lohmann’s hologram. The inclusion of a simple mathematical expression into the pixelated grid’s transmittance function, based in Fourier domain properties, shifts the diffraction orders counterclockwise and clockwise to the same point and allows the addition of different modes. The strategy is theoretically and experimentally validated for the case of two opposite rotation helical wavefronts.

  2. The Emergence of Political Opposition in Mexico, 1949-1952. Two Proposals for Electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Ayala López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using methodological elements from political and institutional history, the present article analyzes, the first proposal for the implementation of an electoral system of proportional representation in Mexico and its primary repercussions in the formulation of subsequent electoral laws. This initiative was presented by Vicente Lombardo Toledano and the Popular Party (PP in 1951, during the XLI Legislature (1949-1952. This event is correlated with the emergence of political opposition in the Chamber of Deputies. In the same year as the PP proposes reform, the National Action Party (PAN proposes another initiative of electoral reform. Both proposals propitiate a legislative debate that identifies the importance of elections as an instrument of State political control and proposed its reformulation. In this sense, the principal contribution of this study is to visibilize the proreform discourses of political opposition in a period which is often through of as being characterized by authoritarianism and censorship.

  3. Opposite-side flavour tagging of B mesons at the LHCb experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; de Bruyn, K; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The calibration and performance of the opposite-side flavour tagging algorithms used for the measurements of time-dependent asymmetries at the LHCb experiment are described. The algorithms have been developed using simulated events and optimized and calibrated with B + → J / ψK + , B 0 → J / ψK ∗0 and B 0 → D ∗- μ + ν μ decay modes with 0.37 fb -1 of data collected in pp collisions at [Formula: see text] during the 2011 physics run. The opposite-side tagging power is determined in the B + → J / ψK + channel to be (2.10±0.08±0.24) %, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  4. Adversarial Framing: President Bashar al-Assad’s Depiction of the Armed Syrian Opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Merz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper evaluates how Syrian president Bashar al-Assad is framing his opponents in the context of the Syrian civil war. The question is addressed by conducting a qualitative thematic analysis of 13 interviews he gave to international television news networks and newspapers between March and November 2013. It is found that Al-Assad consequently labels the armed opposition as “terrorists” preponderantly composed of groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda. The “terrorists” are framed as posing a threat to the region as well as to international security on a global scale. Furthermore, Al-Assad denies the armed opposition its Syrian grassroots by portraying them as outside aggressors fighting for foreign interests. They are also depicted as “enemies of the Syrian people”, responsible for all the atrocities and human suffering committed during the Syrian civil war.' ' '

  5. Opposition-Based Improved PSO for Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch and Voltage Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengrang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An opposition-based improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (OIPSO is presented for solving multiobjective reactive power optimization problem. OIPSO uses the opposition learning to improve search efficiency, adopts inertia weight factors to balance global and local exploration, and takes crossover and mutation and neighborhood model strategy to enhance population diversity. Then, a new multiobjective model is built, which includes system network loss, voltage dissatisfaction, and switching operation. Based on the market cost prices, objective functions are converted to least-cost model. In modeling process, switching operation cost is described according to the life cycle cost of transformer, and voltage dissatisfaction penalty is developed considering different voltage quality requirements of customers. The experiment is done on the new mathematical model. Through the simulation of IEEE 30-, 118-bus power systems, the results prove that OIPSO is more efficient to solve reactive power optimization problems and the model is more accurate to reflect the real power system operation.

  6. Political opposition in patriarchal East London, 1950-1960: dilemmas of paternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Atkinson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban adminis tration. Patriarchal ism, as a sys tem, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuanced. The Location Native Advisory Boards vacillated between opposition to the white patriarchal order and compliance with it. Towards the late 1950s, the political climate became ever more polarized. The paper draws on archival sources from East London to show that patriarchalism, as a moral system, was sufficiently robust to accommodate a variety of viewpoints, within the white and black communities. But as violent resistance took its toll during the 1950s, more coercive forms of paternalism came increasingly to the fore.

  7. Coalition Battle Management Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tolk, Andreas; Galvin, Kevin; Hieb, Michael; Khimeche, Lionel

    2004-01-01

    Battle Management Language (BML) is being developed as an unambiguous language to command and control forces and equipment conducting military operations and to provide for situational awareness and a shared common operational picture...

  8. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    Virtual machines raise the abstraction level of the execution environment at the cost of restricting the set of supported languages. Moreover, the ability of a language implementation to integrate with other languages hosted on the same virtual machine typically constrains the features...... of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...... of a given class. This approach can be deployed both on a statically typed virtual machine, such as the JVM, and on a dynamic virtual machine, such as a Smalltalk virtual machine. We have implemented our approach to language interoperability on top of a prototype virtual machine for embedded systems based...

  9. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  10. Balance Toward Language Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R. Heslinga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in attaining language mastery with students from diverse language backgrounds and levels of ability confront educators around the world. Experiments, research, and experience see positive effects of adding sign language in communication methods to pre-school and K-12 education. Augmentative, alternative, interactive, accommodating, and enriching strategies using sign language aid learners in balancing the skills needed to mastery of one language or multiple languages. Theories of learning that embrace play, drama, motion, repetition, socializing, and self-efficacy connect to the options for using sign language with learners in inclusive and mainstream classes. The methodical use of sign language by this researcher-educator over two and a half decades showed signing does build thinking skills, add enjoyment, stimulate communication, expand comprehension, increase vocabulary acquisition, encourage collaboration, and helps build appreciation for cultural diversity.

  11. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  12. The Rudiments of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, John V.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the question of whether nonhuman species, such as apes, possess rudimentary language, focusing on the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Noam Chomsky in regard to the development of oral language in young children and apes. (51 references) (MDM)

  13. Language Management Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...

  14. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  15. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  16. Language disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders are rarely caused by a lack of intelligence. Language disorders are different than delayed language. With ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  17. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  18. A grammar-based semantic similarity algorithm for natural language sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming Che; Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to "artificial language", such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure.

  19. Language Policy, Language Choice and Language Use in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    systems across sentence boundaries within the same speech event… code- mixing is the ..... practice will inhibit the motivation for expanding the Swahili language through ..... 'Because of the reward with him, we call him contractor?' ...

  20. Luxury as the opposite of vulgarity:a trio of perspectives on luxury brands

    OpenAIRE

    Reyneke, Mignon

    2011-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Luxury as the opposite of vulgarity: A trio of perspectives on luxury brands” considers luxury brands in a trio of contemporary contexts. Despite the academic research surrounding luxury brands being limited, the existent research most often studies luxury brands in a traditional retail context. That is, luxury is viewed from a perspective where the products are sold in luxury retail stores. However, the landscape that these brands function within has changed significan...

  1. Opposition and identicalness: Two basic components of adults' perception and mental representation of symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, I.; Bertamini, M.; Burro, R.; Savardi, U.

    2017-01-01

    Symmetry is a salient aspect of biological and man-made objects, and has a central role in perceptual organization. Two studies investigate the role of opposition and identicalness in shaping adults’ naïve idea of “symmetry”. In study 1, both verbal descriptions of symmetry (either provided by the participants or selected from among alternatives presented by the experimenter) and configurations drawn as exemplars of symmetry were studied. In study 2, a pair comparison task was used. Both stud...

  2. "The Opposite Ends of Supersymmetry and their Implications for the LHC" (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    There have been many predictions for the mass patterns of superpartners. In these lectures I discuss two interesting opposite-end approaches to supersymmetry breaking that determine the superpartner masses: zero scalar mass supersymmetry (no scale, gaugino mediation, etc.) and heavy scalar mass supersymmetry (split susy, PeV-scale susy, etc.). We will step through the theory motivations for each scenario, and detail the rich phenomena that each implies for LHC discovery.

  3. "The Opposite Ends of Supersymmetry and their Implications for the LHC" (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    There have been many predictions for the mass patterns of superpartners. In these lectures I discuss two interesting opposite-end approaches to supersymmetry breaking that determine the superpartner masses: zero scalar mass supersymmetry (no scale, gaugino mediation, etc.) and heavy scalar mass supersymmetry (split susy, PeV-scale susy, etc.). We will step through the theory motivations for each scenario, and detail the rich phenomena that each implies for LHC discovery.

  4. "The Opposite Ends of Supersymmetry and their Implications for the LHC" (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    There have been many predictions for the mass patterns of superpartners. In these lectures I discuss two interesting opposite-end approaches to supersymmetry breaking that determine the superpartner masses: zero scalar mass supersymmetry (no scale, gaugino mediation, etc.) and heavy scalar mass supersymmetry (split susy, PeV-scale susy, etc.). We will step through the theory motivations for each scenario, and detail the rich phenomena that each implies for LHC discovery.

  5. Differences of “Traditional Marketing” in Opposition to “Electronic Marketing”

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Salehi

    2012-01-01

    This paper initially seeks to document and review Differences of traditional marketing in opposition to Electronic marketing.Nowadays; the methods of business conduction have been changed by the revolution of information communication technology (ICT) that most of the transactions are related to internet. Execution of Electronic marketing all over the world can transform the forms of transactions due to the rapid proliferation of the Internet. The World Wide Web, online communication skills h...

  6. The relevance of introducing opposition proceedings into the Serbian trademark legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the quality of certain legal procedures applied in domestic trademark legislation in the light of harmonizing our legislation with those of the EU. Trademark Law in the Republic of Serbia (2009) does not rely on opposition proceedings as a phase in the process of trademark registration and a tool that would ensure that only those trademarks that fulfill the necessary conditions are granted legal protection. Intellectual Property Office examines the so-called relative groun...

  7. Opposite Effects of Stimulant and Antipsychotic Drugs on Striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons

    OpenAIRE

    Wiltschko, Alexander B; Pettibone, Jeffrey R; Berke, Joshua D

    2010-01-01

    Psychomotor stimulants and typical antipsychotic drugs have powerful but opposite effects on mood and behavior, largely through alterations in striatal dopamine signaling. Exactly how these drug actions lead to behavioral change is not well understood, as previous electrophysiological studies have found highly heterogeneous changes in striatal neuron firing. In this study, we examined whether part of this heterogeneity reflects the mixture of distinct cell types present in the striatum, by di...

  8. Some Observations on Cultural Opposites in Contemporary China: Kunming and Beijing Twenty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the cultural opposites observed in various segments of Chinese culture during the author's three stays in China over a period of twenty years. The first and second stay, in 1986 and 1989 respectively, coincided with the initial period of the implementation of modernization reforms in China, when their results were just beginning to be felt. The third stay was in 2009, towards the end of the third decade of reform implementation, at the time of an already developed marketoriented communism. The paper's main thesis is that most of the phenomena observed in present-day urban China can be assigned to opposite categories, namely Chinese-Western and traditional- contemporary. Cultural opposites have been observed in the sphere of tourism and the behavior of both Chinese and foreign visitors, in the use of Chinese and English in notices and signs in public places, and in the promotion of traditional and modern architecture. In addition, they have been noted in the presentation of arts and crafts and industrial products, in the manner of consumption of hot drinks, and in the combining of Chinese and foreign cuisine. They are also evident in a Beijing Opera performance adapted both to the modern Chinese and to foreigners, and in the traditional Chinese exercises and western dances performed in public parks. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the process of establishing connections between China and the West is being carried on in a moderate and controlled way. In the globalization process cultural opposites coexist and merge, imparting new features to Chinese culture.

  9. Co-precipitation of oppositely charged nanoparticles: the case of mixed ligand nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Moglianetti, Mauro; Ponomarev, Evgeniy; Szybowski, Maxime; Stellacci, Francesco; Reguera, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Colloid stability is of high importance in a multitude of fields ranging from food science to biotechnology. There is strong interest in studying the stability of small particles (of a size of a few nanometres) with complex surface structures, that make them resemble the complexity of proteins and other natural biomolecules, in the presence of oppositely charged nanoparticles. While for nanoparticles with homogeneously charged surfaces an abrupt precipitation has been observed at the neutrali...

  10. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes [Vissers et al., Soft Matter 7, 2352 (2011), 10.1039/c0sm01343a]. This phenomenon can be reproduced by two-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations of model particles [Dzubiella et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.021402]. Here we use computer simulation to assess the generality of lane formation with respect to variation of particle type and dynamical protocol. We find that laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with the Péclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics over a range of model parameters. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely driven nonattractive colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas [Katz, Leibowitz, and Spohn, J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1984), 10.1007/BF01018556]. These features include long-ranged correlations in the disordered regime, a critical regime characterized by a change in slope of the particle current with the Péclet number, and fluctuations that grow with system size. By analogy, we suggest that lane formation in the driven colloid system is a phase transition in the macroscopic limit, but that macroscopic phase separation would not occur in finite time upon starting from disordered initial conditions.

  11. Political opposition in patriarchal East London, 1950-1960: dilemmas of paternalism

    OpenAIRE

    D Atkinson

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban adminis tration. Patriarchal ism, as a sys tem, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuanced. The Loc...

  12. System programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Šmit, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  13. Myanmar Language Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Pann Yu Mon; Yoshiki Mikami

    2011-01-01

    With the enormous growth of the World Wide Web, search engines play a critical role in retrieving information from the borderless Web. Although many search engines are available for the major languages, but they are not much proficient for the less computerized languages including Myanmar. The main reason is that those search engines are not considering the specific features of those languages. A search engine which capable of searching the Web documents written in those languages is highly n...

  14. The Origin of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Araki,Naoki

    2018-01-01

    There have been a lot of discussions of the origin of language. Some people think that the origin of words is onomatopoeias. Meanwhile, according to expressive theories, the origin of words and language is the innate cries of pain or pleasure produced by nonhuman animals. Others insist that language originated as a means of communication. Another theory holds that a learned vocalization systems, more like birdsong than innate calls, formed a middle term in language evolution. Others claim tha...

  15. Phase-space dynamics of opposition control in wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yongyun; Ibrahim, Joseph; Yang, Qiang; Doohan, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    The phase-space dynamics of wall-bounded shear flow in the presence of opposition control is explored by examining the behaviours of a pair of nonlinear equilibrium solutions (exact coherent structures), edge state and life time of turbulence at low Reynolds numbers. While the control modifies statistics and phase-space location of the edge state and the lower-branch equilibrium solution very little, it is also found to regularise the periodic orbit on the edge state by reverting a period-doubling bifurcation. Only the upper-branch equilibrium solution and mean turbulent state are significantly modified by the control, and, in phase space, they gradually approach the edge state on increasing the control gain. It is found that this behaviour results in a significant reduction of the life time of turbulence, indicating that the opposition control significantly increases the probability that the turbulent solution trajectory passes through the edge state. Finally, it is shown that the opposition control increases the critical Reynolds number of the onset of the equilibrium solutions, indicating its capability of transition delay. This work is sponsored by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) in the UK (EP/N019342/1).

  16. Friends with Benefits: The Evolved Psychology of Same- and Opposite-Sex Friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M.G. Lewis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During human evolution, men and women faced distinct adaptive problems, including pregnancy, hunting, childcare, and warfare. Due to these sex-linked adaptive problems, natural selection would have favored psychological mechanisms that oriented men and women toward forming friendships with individuals possessing characteristics valuable for solving these problems. The current study explored sex-differentiated friend preferences and the psychological design features of same- and opposite-sex friendship in two tasks. In Task 1, participants (N = 121 categorized their same-sex friends (SSFs and opposite-sex friends (OSFs according to the functions these friends serve in their lives. In Task 2, participants designed their ideal SSFs and OSFs using limited budgets that forced them to make trade-offs between the characteristics they desire in their friends. In Task 1, men, more than women, reported maintaining SSFs for functions related to athleticism and status enhancement and OSFs for mating opportunities. In Task 2, both sexes prioritized agreeableness and dependability in their ideal SSFs, but men prioritized physical attractiveness in their OSFs, whereas women prioritized economic resources and physical prowess. These findings suggest that friend preferences may have evolved to solve ancestrally sex-linked adaptive problems, and that opposite-sex friendship may directly or indirectly serve mating functions.

  17. Friends with benefits: the evolved psychology of same- and opposite-sex friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David M G; Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Al-Shawaf, Laith; Raja, Annia; DeKay, Todd; Buss, David M

    2011-12-08

    During human evolution, men and women faced distinct adaptive problems, including pregnancy, hunting, childcare, and warfare. Due to these sex-linked adaptive problems, natural selection would have favored psychological mechanisms that oriented men and women toward forming friendships with individuals possessing characteristics valuable for solving these problems. The current study explored sex-differentiated friend preferences and the psychological design features of same- and opposite-sex friendship in two tasks. In Task 1, participants (N = 121) categorized their same-sex friends (SSFs) and opposite-sex friends (OSFs) according to the functions these friends serve in their lives. In Task 2, participants designed their ideal SSFs and OSFs using limited budgets that forced them to make trade-offs between the characteristics they desire in their friends. In Task 1, men, more than women, reported maintaining SSFs for functions related to athleticism and status enhancement and OSFs for mating opportunities. In Task 2, both sexes prioritized agreeableness and dependability in their ideal SSFs, but men prioritized physical attractiveness in their OSFs, whereas women prioritized economic resources and physical prowess. These findings suggest that friend preferences may have evolved to solve ancestrally sex-linked adaptive problems, and that opposite-sex friendship may directly or indirectly serve mating functions.

  18. An opposition-based harmony search algorithm for engineering optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Banerjee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmony search (HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm. It draws inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. The proposed opposition-based HS (OHS of the present work employs opposition-based learning for harmony memory initialization and also for generation jumping. The concept of opposite number is utilized in OHS to improve the convergence rate of the HS algorithm. The potential of the proposed algorithm is assessed by means of an extensive comparative study of the numerical results on sixteen benchmark test functions. Additionally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is tested for reactive power compensation of an autonomous power system. For real-time reactive power compensation of the studied model, Takagi Sugeno fuzzy logic (TSFL is employed. Time-domain simulation reveals that the proposed OHS-TSFL yields on-line, off-nominal model parameters, resulting in real-time incremental change in terminal voltage response profile.

  19. A structural model analysis of public opposition to a high-level radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.; Burns, W.

    1991-09-01

    Studies show that most Nevada residents and almost all state officials oppose the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository project at Yucca Mountain. Surveys of the public show that individual citizens view the Yucca Mountain repository as having high risk; nuclear experts, in contrast, believe the risks are very low. Policy analysts have suggested that public risk perceptions may be reduced by better program management, increased trust in the federal government, and increased economic benefits for accepting a repository. The model developed in this study is designed to examine the relationship between public perceptions of risk, trust in risk management, and potential economic impacts of the current repository program using a confirmatory multivariate method known as covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that perceptions of potential economic gains have little relationship to opposition to the repository. On the other hand, risk perceptions and the level of trust in repository management are closely related to each other and to opposition. The impacts of risk perception and trust in management on opposition to the repository result from a combination of their direct influences as well as their indirect influences operating through perceptions that the repository would have serious negative impacts on the state's economy due to stigmatization and reduced tourism

  20. White cells facilitate opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1 impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans.

  1. The effect of the promiscuity stereotype on opposition to gay rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie G

    2017-01-01

    Opposition to gay rights is prevalent in countries around the world. Recent correlational research suggests that opposition to gay rights may be driven by an interaction between one's own short-term mating orientation (i.e. willingness to engage in casual sex) and representations of gay people as sexually promiscuous. Here, we experimentally manipulated representations of gay men by randomly assigning participants to read one of two versions of a fictitious newspaper article, one of which contained faux scientific evidence confirming the stereotype that gay men are promiscuous, and the other containing faux scientific evidence refuting the stereotype. We found that the manipulation interacted with short-term mating orientation (STMO) to predict opposition to gay rights, such that low-STMO individuals (i.e. more averse to casual sex) exhibited more support for gay rights when assigned to read the stereotype-refuting article compared to the stereotype-confirming article, whereas high-STMO individuals (i.e. less averse to casual sex) were not significantly influenced by the manipulation. We discuss the implications of these findings for the study of antigay attitudes, as well as for recent societal changes in acceptance of homosexuality.

  2. Beliefs and practices of the parents of violent and oppositional adolescents: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B; Bates, Jeffrey M

    2006-05-01

    Parenting is a transactional process, influenced by the child's behavior and the environmental context. The present study explores the beliefs and practices of parents of aggressive and oppositional adolescents to understand better the relation among parenting practices, context, and youth violence. Parents of juvenile offenders (N=203) completed assessments of youths' violent and oppositional behaviors, community violence exposure, and their own beliefs and parenting behaviors and perceptions of the juvenile justice system. Parents of youth with the highest levels of violent and oppositional behavior problems reported elevated feelings of hopelessness regarding the child's future, inadequacy as a parent, fear of physical harm by the child, anger toward the child, as well as difficulty monitoring the child. All parents reported relatively high levels of perceived support by the justice system. Parental stress was also examined as a possible influence on the parents' beliefs and behaviors regarding the child. Results suggest that parents' emotional and behavioral responses should be addressed when intervening with juvenile offenders. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors present evidence to suggest that parents' perceptions of hopelessness/inadequacy and their fear for their child's safety are both by-products of life with an aggressive child as well as contributing factors to that aggressive behavior. Thus, successful interventions must both target the parents as change agents in the youth's life but also include a strong parental support component, so that parents will have an opportunity to orchestrate positive impacts in high-risk environments.

  3. Rise and fall of public opposition in specific social movements. [Including nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahy, P J [Akron Univ., OH (USA); Mazur, A [Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)

    1980-08-01

    This article reports a comparative study of four 'specific' social movements which involve aspects of technological controversy: Fluoridation, the ABM, Nuclear Power Plants, and Legalized Abortion. A theoretical model of the rise and fall of public opposition in these movements over time is suggested. Quantitative indicators are developed and applied to this historical model. Rise and fall of controversy follows a regular sequence: Activities of protest leaders increase during periods of great national concern over issues that are complementary to the movement; during these periods, social and economic resources are relatively available to the movement. As the activity of protest leaders increases, mass media coverage of their activities increases. As mass media coverage increases, opposition to the technology among the wider public increases. As the activity of the leaders wanes, mass media coverage declines, and so does opposition among the wider public. The paper concludes with a discussion of the relevance of this perspective for making predictions about the future course of 'specific' social movements.

  4. The rise and fall of public opposition in specific social movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, P.J.; Mazur, A.

    1980-01-01

    This article reports a comparative study of four 'specific' social movements which involve aspects of technological controversy: Fluoridation, the ABM, Nuclear Power Plants, and Legalized Abortion. A theoretical model of the rise and fall of public opposition in these movements over time is suggested. Quantitative indicators are developed and applied to this historical model. Rise and fall of controversy follows a regular sequence: Activities of protest leaders increase during periods of great national concern over issues that are complementary to the movement; during these periods, social and economic resources are relatively available to the movement. As the activity of protest leaders increases, mass media coverage of their activities increases. As mass media coverage increases, opposition to the technology among the wider public increases. As the activity of the leaders wanes, mass media coverage declines, and so does opposition among the wider public. The paper concludes with a discussion of the relevance of this perspective for making predictions about the future course of 'specific' social movements. (author)

  5. Uncovering the mystery of opposite circadian rhythms between mouse and human leukocytes in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Min; Chan, Xue Ying; Tan, Sue Yee; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Fan, Yong; Loh, Eva; Chang, Kenneth Tou En; Tan, Thiam Chye; Chen, Qingfeng

    2017-11-02

    Many immune parameters show circadian rhythms during the 24-hour day in mammals. The most striking circadian oscillation is the number of circulating immune cells that display an opposite rhythm between humans and mice. The physiological roles and mechanisms of circadian variations in mouse leukocytes are well studied, whereas for humans they remain unclear because of the lack of a proper model. In this study, we found that consistent with their natural host species, mouse and human circulating leukocytes exhibited opposite circadian oscillations in humanized mice. This cyclic pattern of trafficking correlated well with the diurnal expression levels of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4, which were controlled by the intracellular hypoxia-inducible factor 1α/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like heterodimer. Furthermore, we also discovered that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases/mitogen-activated 2 had opposite effects between mice and humans in generating intracellular reactive oxygen species, which subsequently regulated HIF-1α expression. In conclusion, we propose humanized mice as a robust model for human circadian studies and reveal insights on a novel molecular clock network in the human circadian rhythm. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. Quantifying the molecular origins of opposite solvent effects on protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Vagenende

    Full Text Available Although the nature of solvent-protein interactions is generally weak and non-specific, addition of cosolvents such as denaturants and osmolytes strengthens protein-protein interactions for some proteins, whereas it weakens protein-protein interactions for others. This is exemplified by the puzzling observation that addition of glycerol oppositely affects the association constants of two antibodies, D1.3 and D44.1, with lysozyme. To resolve this conundrum, we develop a methodology based on the thermodynamic principles of preferential interaction theory and the quantitative characterization of local protein solvation from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that changes of preferential solvent interactions at the protein-protein interface quantitatively account for the opposite effects of glycerol on the antibody-antigen association constants. Detailed characterization of local protein solvation in the free and associated protein states reveals how opposite solvent effects on protein-protein interactions depend on the extent of dewetting of the protein-protein contact region and on structural changes that alter cooperative solvent-protein interactions at the periphery of the protein-protein interface. These results demonstrate the direct relationship between macroscopic solvent effects on protein-protein interactions and atom-scale solvent-protein interactions, and establish a general methodology for predicting and understanding solvent effects on protein-protein interactions in diverse biological environments.

  7. Language: a social mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁钰

    2015-01-01

    <正>Language and gender studies have experienced a long history in the field of linguistics.Sociolinguists did various kinds of research concerning gender-differentiated use of language.The differences between man’s and woman’s language has long been noticed by anthropologists,historians and linguistics.Then there gradually emerged great gap between male and

  8. Language and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  9. Digital Language Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, András

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

  10. Digital language death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kornai

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide.

  11. Language Policy in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  12. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela JIREGHIE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the idea of an effective communication between teacher and students aiming to prove that classroom activities maximize opportunities for learners to use target language in a communicative way for meaningful activities. The emphasis lies on meaning (messages they are creating or tasks they are completing rather than form (correctness of language and language structure.

  13. Case in Language Comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, Markus; Lamers, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Research on human language comprehension has been heavily influenced by properties of the English language. Since case plays only a minor role in English, its role for language comprehension has only recently become a topic for extensive research on psycholinguistics. In the psycholinguistic

  14. Minority Language Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  15. Language Anxiety and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Elaine K.

    2001-01-01

    Considers the literature on language learning anxiety in an effort to clarify the relationship between anxiety and second language learning. Suggests that anxiety is indeed a cause of poor language learning in some individuals and discusses possible sources of this anxiety. (Author/VWL)

  16. Fuzzy Graph Language Recognizability

    OpenAIRE

    Kalampakas , Antonios; Spartalis , Stefanos; Iliadis , Lazaros

    2012-01-01

    Part 5: Fuzzy Logic; International audience; Fuzzy graph language recognizability is introduced along the lines of the established theory of syntactic graph language recognizability by virtue of the algebraic structure of magmoids. The main closure properties of the corresponding class are investigated and several interesting examples of fuzzy graph languages are examined.

  17. Cassirer's View of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Myth is the breakthrough point of [Ernest] Cassirer's philosophy; Art is one of key words to understand his defined language; and Symbolism infiltrates into all aspects of human cultures especially language. The shift of Cassirer from great theories of science and philosophy to the world of art, language, myth, and culture mirrors his bold and…

  18. Modern programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  19. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  20. Natural language understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S

    1982-04-01

    Language understanding is essential for intelligent information processing. Processing of language itself involves configuration element analysis, syntactic analysis (parsing), and semantic analysis. They are not carried out in isolation. These are described for the Japanese language and their usage in understanding-systems is examined. 30 references.

  1. Language Nests and Language Acquisition: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Eve K.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents the findings from interviews conducted with language nest workers, teachers, language nest coordinators, administrators of language revitalization programs, principals and directors of language immersion schools that work in close proximity with language nests, and linguists involved in language revitalization efforts.…

  2. THE OPPOSITION ‘WEST/NON-WEST’ IN THE SOCIAL THOUGHT: PRO ET CONTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К В Радкевич

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the phenomenon of social science debates in the form of the opposi-tion ‘West/Non-West’ and its social-political and identification consequences. The authors focus on the histo-ry of this opposition, the ways to overcome the scientific and social confrontations that were determined by it, and on the methodological significance of the concept ‘Non-Western theories’. The authors study the features of social and political knowledge of the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America; compare social values of Western Europe, China and other countries to identify the ways for its integration in the course of postcolonial political and scientific development. In particular, the article compares the axio-logical triad of T. Heuss (democracy, Roman law, Christian ethics and the Chinese dyad - the will of the people (minxin suoxiang and three convents (sāngāng. Within the West/Non-West opposition, the Western European, Chinese, Japanese, Indian, African, Latin-American social-political constructs are considered to assess the productivity of some categorical oppositions and contaminations adopted in the sphere of social knowledge and to prove the theoretical inconsistency of multiculturalism. The authors also consider the issues of eurocentrism and Western-European messianism on the examples of their relation-ship with Sino-Centrism, and the ideas of African and Latin-American nationalism. Such comparisons prove the metatheoretical status of the ‘West/Non-West’ opposition that can be explained within the paradigm of the social construction of reality. The authors conclude that the concepts ‘West’ and ‘Non-West’ do not have a truly scientific status; they are rather markers of social values claiming a special identifica-tion value, i.e. having a direct relation to self-representation. The concepts ‘West’ and ‘Non-West’ are a kind of political declarations tather than an evidence of epistemological

  3. LANGUAGE TRAVEL SUPPLY: LANGUAGE TOURISM PRODUCT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Iglesias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of literature up to date reflects great scholarly interest in the impacts of study abroad (SA sojourns on foreign language learners’ communicative competence. This paper provides an overview on gains in sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences drawing upon research carried out in this field, which in broad terms supports the belief that both types of competences are effectively developed in SA stays. This article also offers a detailed account of the main constituents of the language tourism product -the travel component and the language learning component- with a special focus on the educational input and the language learning complements included in the latter. Thus, a fundamental part of the language tourism market system will be depicted from a supply perspective. Following an exploratory approach, a literature review was conducted in order to identify existing and missing knowledge in the field of language travel supply, and key aspects were pinpointed and classified. The taxonomy and underpinning concepts resulting from the categorisation of those key features may be considered the starting point for future investigations on SA programmes. The model offered in this exploratory study aims at constituting the underlying conceptual framework for subsequent research on the role of different SA programme design characteristics within the language tourism experience.

  4. Phase behavior of mixtures of oppositely charged nanoparticles: Heterogeneous Poisson-Boltzmann cell model applied to lysozyme and succinylated lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Lindhoud, S.; Vries, de R.J.; Stuart, M.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    We study the phase behavior of mixtures of oppositely charged nanoparticles, both theoretically and experimentally. As an experimental model system we consider mixtures of lysozyme and lysozyme that has been chemically modified in such a way that its charge is nearly equal in magnitude but opposite

  5. Oppositional Behavior and Anxiety in Boys and Girls: A Cross-Sectional Study in Two Community Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireault, Gina; Rooney, Siri; Kouwenhoven, Kristen; Hannan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Studies have repeatedly shown that oppositional behavior is linked to anxiety in clinical samples of children. This study explored whether these variables were similarly related in nonclinical samples of elementary and middle school students (N = 302). Despite greater self-reported oppositional behavior among boys in these samples, anxiety…

  6. Visual languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Visual languages have long been a pursuit of effective communication between human and machine. With rapid advances of the Internet and Web technology, human-human communication through the Web or electronic mobile devices is becoming more and more prevalent. Visual Languages and Applications is a comprehensive introduction to diagrammatical visual languages. This book discusses what visual programming languages are, and how such languages and their underlying foundations can be usefully applied to other fields in computer science. It also covers a broad range of contents from the underlying t

  7. Mixed language programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burow, Burkhard D.

    1996-01-01

    Computing in the next millennium will be using software from this millennium. Programming languages evolve and new ones continue to be created. The use of legacy code demonstrates why some present and future applications may span programming languages. Even a completely new application may mix programming languages, if it allows its components to be more conveniently expressed. Given the need, mixed language programming should be easy and robust. By resolving a variety of difficulties, the well established cfortran.h package provides, the desired convenient interface across the C and Fortran programming languages, as demonstrated using CERN's Book. (author)

  8. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Programming Language Pragmatics is the most comprehensive programming language textbook available today. Taking the perspective that language design and language implementation are tightly interconnected, and that neither can be fully understood in isolation, this critically acclaimed and bestselling book has been thoroughly updated to cover the most recent developments in programming language design. With a new chapter on run-time program management and expanded coverage of concurrency, this new edition provides both students and professionals alike with a solid understanding of the most impo

  9. Programming language structures

    CERN Document Server

    Organick, Elliott Irving; Plummer, Robert P

    1978-01-01

    Programming Language Structures deals with the structures of programming languages and introduces the reader to five important programming languages: Algol, Fortran, Lisp, Snobol, and Pascal. The fundamental similarities and differences among these languages are discussed. A unifying framework is constructed that can be used to study the structure of other languages, such as Cobol, PL/I, and APL. Several of the tools and methodologies needed to construct large programs are also considered.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with a summary of the relevant concepts and principles about al

  10. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2014-01-01

    levels (Schein, 2004) in which each player and his actions can be considered an artefact - a concrete symbol in motion embedded in espoused values and basic assumptions. Therefore, the actions of each dialect are strongly connected to the underlying understanding of football. By document and video......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...

  11. Investigation of language lateralization mechanism by Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belin, Pascal

    1997-01-01

    As language lateralization in the brain left hemisphere is one of the most well known but less understood characteristics of the human brain, this research thesis reports the use of brain functional imaging to address some specific aspects of this lateralization. In a first part, the author reports the study of mechanisms of recovery from aphasia after a left hemisphere lesion within a population of aphasic right-handers. Based on a contrast between patients with a persistent aphasia despite usual language therapies, and patients with a significant recovery after a melodic and rhythmic therapy (TMR), a PET-based (positron emission tomography) activation study has been developed, based on the opposition between usual language stimuli and stimuli accentuated by TMR. In the second part, the author explored more systematically on sane patients the influence of some physical characteristics of auditory stimulation on the induced functional asymmetry [fr

  12. Communicative Language Teaching in Second Language Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Juan

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionReturn the class to the students and let the students be the masters of the class.This is what I have changed during the last three years in my class.I have been using Communicative Language Teaching method instead of Grammar Translation method.In the Grammar Translation method, students only study grammar and learn lists of words and then translate what they have learned into Chinese.In the classroom,the teacher uses the students' first language to explain the grammar and vocabulary in the text and then helps the students to translate it.This method is based on the idea that language is made up of words and that language changes according to the grammar rules.

  13. Bilinguals' Existing Languages Benefit Vocabulary Learning in a Third Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-03-01

    Learning a new language involves substantial vocabulary acquisition. Learners can accelerate this process by relying on words with native-language overlap, such as cognates. For bilingual third language learners, it is necessary to determine how their two existing languages interact during novel language learning. A scaffolding account predicts transfer from either language for individual words, whereas an accumulation account predicts cumulative transfer from both languages. To compare these accounts, twenty English-German bilingual adults were taught an artificial language containing 48 novel written words that varied orthogonally in English and German wordlikeness (neighborhood size and orthotactic probability). Wordlikeness in each language improved word production accuracy, and similarity to one language provided the same benefit as dual-language overlap. In addition, participants' memory for novel words was affected by the statistical distributions of letters in the novel language. Results indicate that bilinguals utilize both languages during third language acquisition, supporting a scaffolding learning model.

  14. Language attitudes in the second language situation

    OpenAIRE

    Riana Roos

    2013-01-01

    A distinction is made between attitudes and specifically language attitudes. The process of acculturation is dealt with and its influence upon the motivation of ESL learners. Integrational and instmmental motivation are defined. Teachers' language attitudes, the dangers of prejudice and stereotyping are discussed. ,Attitude changes are analysed as well as the teacher's role in effecting them. 'n Onderskeid word getref tussen algemene houdings en houdings ten opsigte van taal. Die proses van a...

  15. RLL-1: A Representation Language Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    adaptable organisms over those which contain, built-in optimized features. Compare the extinct dinosaur , unable to adapt to new situations, with two of...natural language understandirq for KRL [Bobrow & Winograd] and OWL [Szolovits, et alD. For this reason , his language is ofL.:n inadequate for any...for no particular reason , switch the organ into its Oboe state. That is, the sequence which triggers a change to the organ is a Punction of the organ’s

  16. The Linguistic Interpretation for Language Union – Language Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Balalykina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the problem of determination of the essence of language union and language family in modern linguistics, which is considered important, because these terms are often used as absolute synonyms. The research is relevant due to the need to distinguish the features of languages that are inherited during their functioning within either language union or language family when these languages are compared. The research has been carried out in order to present the historical background of the problem and to justify the need for differentiation of language facts that allow relating languages to particular language union or language family. In order to fulfill the goal of this work, descriptive, comparative, and historical methods have been used. A range of examples has been provided to prove that some languages, mainly Slavonic and Baltic languages, form a language family rather than a language union, because a whole number of features in their systems are the heritage of their common Indo-European past. Firstly, it is necessary to take into account changes having either common or different nature in the system of particular languages; secondly, one must have a precise idea of what features in the phonetic and morphological systems of compared languages allow to relate them to language union or language family; thirdly, it must be determined whether the changes in compared languages are regular or of any other type. On the basis of the obtained results, the following conclusions have been drawn: language union and language family are two different types of relations between modern languages; they allow identifying both degree of similarity of these languages and causes of differences between them. It is most important that one should distinguish and describe the specific features of two basic groups of languages forming language family or language union. The results obtained during the analysis are very important for linguistics

  17. Long-Ranged Oppositely Charged Interactions for Designing New Types of Colloidal Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Faik Demirörs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Getting control over the valency of colloids is not trivial and has been a long-desired goal for the colloidal domain. Typically, tuning the preferred number of neighbors for colloidal particles requires directional bonding, as in the case of patchy particles, which is difficult to realize experimentally. Here, we demonstrate a general method for creating the colloidal analogs of molecules and other new regular colloidal clusters without using patchiness or complex bonding schemes (e.g., DNA coating by using a combination of long-ranged attractive and repulsive interactions between oppositely charged particles that also enable regular clusters of particles not all in close contact. We show that, due to the interplay between their attractions and repulsions, oppositely charged particles dispersed in an intermediate dielectric constant (4<ϵ<10 provide a viable approach for the formation of binary colloidal clusters. Tuning the size ratio and interactions of the particles enables control of the type and shape of the resulting regular colloidal clusters. Finally, we present an example of clusters made up of negatively charged large and positively charged small satellite particles, for which the electrostatic properties and interactions can be changed with an electric field. It appears that for sufficiently strong fields the satellite particles can move over the surface of the host particles and polarize the clusters. For even stronger fields, the satellite particles can be completely pulled off, reversing the net charge on the cluster. With computer simulations, we investigate how charged particles distribute on an oppositely charged sphere to minimize their energy and compare the results with the solutions to the well-known Thomson problem. We also use the simulations to explore the dependence of such clusters on Debye screening length κ^{−1} and the ratio of charges on the particles, showing good agreement with experimental observations.

  18. Synthesis and binding properties of new selective ligands for the nucleobase opposite the AP site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yukiko; Nakagawa, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Rie; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2012-06-01

    DNA is continuously damaged by endogenous and exogenous factors such as oxidative stress or DNA alkylating agents. These damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase and form apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) as intermediates in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. AP sites are also representative DNA damages formed by spontaneous hydrolysis. The AP sites block DNA polymerase and a mismatch nucleobase is inserted opposite the AP sites by polymerization to cause acute toxicities and mutations. Thus, AP site specific compounds have attracted much attention for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. In this study, we have developed nucleobase-polyamine conjugates as the AP site binding ligand by expecting that the nucleobase part would play a role in the specific recognition of the nucleobase opposite the AP site by the Watson-Crick base pair formation and that the polyamine part should contribute to the access of the ligand to the AP site by a non-specific interaction to the DNA phosphate backbone. The nucleobase conjugated with 3,3'-diaminodipropylamine (A-ligand, G-ligand, C-ligand, T-ligand and U-ligand) showed a specific stabilization of the duplex containing the AP site depending on the complementary combination with the nucleobase opposite the AP site; that is A-ligand to T, G-ligand to C, C-ligand to G, T- and U-ligand to A. The thermodynamic binding parameters clearly indicated that the specific stabilization is due to specific binding of the ligands to the complementary AP site. These results have suggested that the complementary base pairs of the Watson-Crick type are formed at the AP site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oppositional banality: Watching ordinary Muslims in ‘Little Mosque on the Prairie’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer Chao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay interrogates how the globally-syndicated series Little Mosque on the Prairie (2007-2012 mobilises one of the most beloved television formats – the situation comedy – to insert a banal and normalised gaze toward Muslims and contest hostile representations of Islam in Western media. Through what I have termed ‘oppositional banality’ the show relocates Muslim identities to the realm of everyday life and out of the confines of global terrorism. Rather than being under the scrutiny of news cameras and viewed through cataclysmic international events the Muslims in Little Mosque are made comical and timeless, subjected to the emotional entanglements of ordinary life.

  20. Zhong-Yong as Dynamic Balancing Between Yin-Yang Opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to comment on Peter Ping Li’s understanding of Zhong-Yong balancing, presented in his article titled “Global implications of the indigenous epistemological system from the East: How to apply Yin-Yang balancing to paradox management.” Seeing his understanding....... Originality/value This commentary contributes to the “West meets East” discourse by debunking Peter P. Li’s assertion that Yin-Yang balancing is superior as a solution to paradox management and his prescription that balancing between Yin-Yang opposites must be asymmetric. It also contributes to the Chinese...

  1. Combination of same-side with opposite-side flavour tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Calvo, M; Musy, M

    2010-01-01

    A considerable number of CP violation measurements require the most possible accurate knowledge of the flavour at production of the reconstructed $B$ meson. The performance of different flavour tagging methods will be measured from control channels. One of the possible tagging methods that can be used is the one known as $Same Side kaon$. In this note we present how to calibrate the response of the tagging algorithms using the data and combine the result with the so called $Opposite Side tagging$. Also trigger and selection effects are briefly discussed.

  2. Direct measurement of sub-Debye-length attraction between oppositely charged surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Nir; Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Safran, S A; Klein, Jacob

    2009-09-11

    Using a surface force balance with fast video analysis, we have measured directly the attractive forces between oppositely charged solid surfaces (charge densities sigma(+), sigma(-)) across water over the entire range of interaction, in particular, at surface separations D below the Debye screening length lambda(S). At very low salt concentration we find a long-ranged attraction between the surfaces (onset ca. 100 nm), whose variation at D

  3. Opposition Policy Influence Through Agenda-Setting: The Environment in Denmark, 1993–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Henrik Bech

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the opposition’s opportunities to influence policy; a topic that has been neglected in existing party-policy research. The idea that is developed is applied to a remarkable policy development on the environment during the Danish right-wing government in the 2000s. Contrary...... opinion, carbon dioxide emissions, and the government’s approval ratings into account, the empirical estimation based on unique quarterly data shows that opposition criticism had a systematic impact on the pro-environmental policy development. The implications for party-policy research are important...

  4. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören

    2016-01-01

    (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were......Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho...

  5. Phase behaviour and structure of stable complexes of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengarelli, V.; Auvray, L.; Zeghal, M.

    2009-03-01

    We study the formation and structure of stable electrostatic complexes between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, a long polymethacrylic acid and a shorter polyethylenimine, at low pH, where the polyacid is weakly charged. We explore the phase diagram as a function of the charge and concentration ratio of the constituents. In agreement with theory, turbidity and ζ potential measurements show two distinct regimes of weak and strong complexation, which appear successively as the pH is increased and are separated by a well-defined limit. Weak complexes observed by neutron scattering and contrast matching have an open, non-compact structure, while strong complexes are condensed.

  6. Graphene surface plasmon polaritons with opposite in-plane electron oscillations along its two surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Huawei; Ruan, Shuangchen; Zhang, Min; Su, Hong; Li, Irene Ling

    2015-01-01

    We predict the existence of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode that can be guided by a graphene monolayer, regardless of the sign of the imaginary part of its conductivity. In this mode, in-plane electron oscillations along two surfaces of graphene are of opposite directions, which is very different from conventional SPPs on graphene. Significantly, coating graphene with dielectric films yields a way to guide the SPPs with both sub-wavelength mode widths and ultra-long propagation distances. In particular, the mode characteristics are very sensitive to the chemical potential of graphene, so the graphene-based waveguide can find applications in many optoelectronic devices

  7. Graphene surface plasmon polaritons with opposite in-plane electron oscillations along its two surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Huawei; Ruan, Shuangchen, E-mail: scruan@szu.edu.cn; Zhang, Min; Su, Hong; Li, Irene Ling [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Laser Engineering, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-08-31

    We predict the existence of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode that can be guided by a graphene monolayer, regardless of the sign of the imaginary part of its conductivity. In this mode, in-plane electron oscillations along two surfaces of graphene are of opposite directions, which is very different from conventional SPPs on graphene. Significantly, coating graphene with dielectric films yields a way to guide the SPPs with both sub-wavelength mode widths and ultra-long propagation distances. In particular, the mode characteristics are very sensitive to the chemical potential of graphene, so the graphene-based waveguide can find applications in many optoelectronic devices.

  8. Lexical access in sign language: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Naomi K; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M

    2014-01-01

    PSYCHOLINGUISTIC THEORIES HAVE PREDOMINANTLY BEEN BUILT UPON DATA FROM SPOKEN LANGUAGE, WHICH LEAVES OPEN THE QUESTION: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012) presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012), and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either (1) the time course of sign perception or (2) the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition.

  9. Lexical access in sign language: A computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kenney Caselli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psycholinguistic theories have predominantly been built upon data from spoken language, which leaves open the question: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012 presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012, and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either 1 the time course of sign perception or 2 the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition.

  10. Variables that Predict Serve Efficacy in Elite Men’s Volleyball with Different Quality of Opposition Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Álvaro; Fernández-Echeverría, Carmen; González-Silva, Jara; Claver, Fernando; Moreno, M. Perla

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the variables that predicted serve efficacy in elite men’s volleyball, in sets with different quality of opposition. 3292 serve actions were analysed, of which 2254 were carried out in high quality of opposition sets and 1038 actions were in low quality of opposition sets, corresponding to a total of 24 matches played during the Men’s European Volleyball Championships held in 2011. The independent variables considered in this study were the serve zone, serve type, serving player, serve direction, reception zone, receiving player and reception type; the dependent variable was serve efficacy and the situational variable was quality of opposition sets. The variables that acted as predictors in both high and low quality of opposition sets were the serving player, reception zone and reception type. The serve type variable only acted as a predictor in high quality of opposition sets, while the serve zone variable only acted as a predictor in low quality of opposition sets. These results may provide important guidance in men’s volleyball training processes. PMID:29599869

  11. Language as skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chater, Nick; McCauley, Stewart M.; Christiansen, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    occurs on-line. These properties are difficult to reconcile with the 'abstract knowledge' viewpoint, and crucially suggest that language comprehension and production are facets of a unitary skill. This viewpoint is exemplified in the Chunk-Based Learner, a computational acquisition model that processes...... incrementally and learns on-line. The model both parses and produces language; and implements the idea that language acquisition is nothing more than learning to process. We suggest that the Now-or-Never bottleneck also provides a strong motivation for unified perception-production models in other domains......Are comprehension and production a single, integrated skill, or are they separate processes drawing on a shared abstract knowledge of language? We argue that a fundamental constraint on memory, the Now-or-Never bottleneck, implies that language processing is incremental and that language learning...

  12. The Ruby programming language

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    2008-01-01

    This book begins with a quick-start tutorial to the language, and then explains the language in detail from the bottom up: from lexical and syntactic structure to datatypes to expressions and statements and on through methods, blocks, lambdas, closures, classes and modules. The book also includes a long and thorough introduction to the rich API of the Ruby platform, demonstrating -- with heavily-commented example code -- Ruby's facilities for text processing, numeric manipulation, collections, input/output, networking, and concurrency. An entire chapter is devoted to Ruby's metaprogramming capabilities. The Ruby Programming Language documents the Ruby language definitively but without the formality of a language specification. It is written for experienced programmers who are new to Ruby, and for current Ruby programmers who want to challenge their understanding and increase their mastery of the language.

  13. Hardware description languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  14. Constitutionalising Language: A Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the constitutional accommodation of minority languages through a process of dialogue between the President of a Constitutional Council and a constitutional expert. The main goal is to reproduce a possible dialogue in a constituent process in order to accommodate the different...... existing languages in a new born state. The discussion began remarking upon the enormous significance of language in political, identity and constitutional terms. It follows comparing different constitutional systems in the world and the status of minority languages in Argentina, Bolivia, Croatia, Serbia......, South Africa, the states parties of the Nordic Language Convention and the United States. While most of the paper is a detailed analysis of US constitutional decisions, the treatment of the other countries seems to be highly relevant to the constitutional accommodation of languages in the new state...

  15. The Language Growth of Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Raul; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2013-01-01

    Although the research literature regarding language growth trajectories is burgeoning, the shape and direction of English Language Learners' (ELLs) language growth trajectories are largely not known. This study used growth curve modeling to determine the shape of ELLs' language growth trajectories across 12,248 oral narrative language samples…

  16. Language Ideologies of Arizona Voters, Language Managers, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Doolan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Arizona is the site of many explicit language policies as well as ongoing scholarly discussions of related language ideologies--beliefs about the role of language in society. This study adds a critical piece to the investigation of the role of ideologies in language policy processes by thoroughly documenting language ideologies expressed by a…

  17. Language of advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Krchňáková, Leontina

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the Russian language advertising, which examines in an independent system. It aims are analyzing the text of Russian advertising in terms of its information and formal structure. It focuses on a specific aesthetic qualities of language, which the text uses. Work is further focused on the categorization of neologisms and neologisation of the Russian advertising. Next focus is on loanwords from the English language. Used research methods are descriptive and comparative. ...

  18. Language and Recursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Francis

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  19. Sexual imprinting on facial traits of opposite-sex parents in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-09-05

    Positive sexual imprinting is a process by which individuals use the phenotype of their opposite-sex parent as a template for acquiring mates. Recent studies in humans have concluded that an imprinting-like mechanism influences human mate choice in facial traits. However, some of the previous studies have had methodological problems or flaws which might have invalidated or led to an overgeneralization of the original interpretation of their results. In this study, 70 heterosexual adults were used to test if their partners resembled facially their opposite-sex parent as the sexual imprinting hypothesis predicts. Judges assessed the subjective facial similarity between each participant's partner and their parent. We found that there was no perceived facial similarity between women's partners and their fathers. However, men tended to pair more often with women that were perceived as resembling the men's own mothers. In contrast to previous studies, the quality of the relationship between participants and their parents did not predict the level of facial resemblance between the participant's spouse and their parent.

  20. From heresy to dogma in accounts of opposition to Howard Temin's DNA provirus hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, James A

    2002-01-01

    In 1964 the Wisconsin virologist Howard Temin proposed the DNA provirus hypothesis to explain the mechanism by which a cancer-producing virus containing only RNA infects and transforms cells. His hypothesis reversed the flow of genetic information, as ordained by the central dogma of molecular biology. Although there was initial opposition to his hypothesis it was widely accepted, after the discovery of reverse transcriptase in 1970. Most accounts of Temin's hypothesis after the discovery portray the hypothesis as heretical, because it challenged the central dogma. Temin himself in his Nobel Prize speech of 1975 narrates a similar story about its reception. But are these accounts warranted? I argue that members of the virology community opposed Temin's provirus hypothesis not simply because it was a counterexample to the central dogma, but more importantly because his experimental evidence for supporting it was inconclusive. Furthermore, I propose that these accounts of opposition to the DNA provirus hypothesis as heretical, written by Temin and others after the discovery of reverse transcriptase, played a significant role in establishing retrovirology as a specialized field.