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Sample records for oppositional defiant disorder

  1. Defining Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Background: ICD-10 and DSM-IV include similar criterial symptom lists for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but while DSM-IV treats each list separately, ICD-10 considers them jointly. One consequence is that ICD-10 identifies a group of children with ODD subtype who do not receive a diagnosis under DSM-IV. Methods: We…

  2. Oppositional defiant disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as possibilities: Anxiety disorders Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Bipolar disorder Depression Learning disorders Substance abuse disorders Treatment The best treatment for the child is to ...

  3. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antisocial behavior Impulse control problems Substance use disorder Suicide Many children and teens with ODD also have other mental health disorders, such as: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Conduct disorder Depression Anxiety Learning and communication disorders Treating these other ...

  4. Oppositional defiant disorder: current insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abhishek Ghosh,1 Anirban Ray,2 Aniruddha Basu1 1Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, India Abstract: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD is diagnosed broadly on the basis of frequent and persistent angry or irritable mood, argumentativeness/defiance, and vindictiveness. Since its inception in the third Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, epidemiological and longitudinal studies have strongly suggested a distinct existence of ODD that is different from other closely related externalizing disorders, with different course and outcome and possibly discrete subtypes. However, several issues, such as symptom threshold, dimensional versus categorical conceptualization, and sex-specific symptoms, are yet to be addressed. Although ODD was found to be highly heritable, no genetic polymorphism has been identified with confidence. There has been a definite genetic overlap with other externalizing disorders. Studies have begun to explore its epigenetics and gene–environment interaction. Neuroimaging findings converge to implicate various parts of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. Alteration in cortisol levels has also been demonstrated consistently. Although a range of environmental factors, both familial and extrafamilial, have been studied in the past, current research has combined these with other biological parameters. Psychosocial treatment continues to be time-tested and effective. These include parental management training, school-based training, functional family therapy/brief strategic family therapy, and cognitive behavior therapy. Management of severe aggression and treatment of co-morbid disorders are indications for pharmacotherapy. In line with previous conceptualization of chronic

  5. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Information for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcalow, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder, one of the disruptive behavior disorders, has far-reaching consequences for the individual, family, school, community, and society. Early recognition allows interventions geared toward promotion of prosocial behaviors, possibly halting progression to the more deviant conduct disorder. Awareness of this disorder and…

  6. Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct, and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1996-01-01

    The link between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) was evaluated in 140 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 120 normal controls examined at baseline and 4 years later, in midadolescence, at the Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatric Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

  7. Common Questions About Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Ahmed, Sana; Locke, Amy

    2016-04-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a disruptive behavior disorder characterized by a pattern of angry or irritable mood, argumentative or defiant behavior, or vindictiveness lasting for at least six months. Children and adolescents with ODD may have trouble controlling their temper and are often disobedient and defiant toward others. There are no tools specifically designed for diagnosing ODD, but multiple questionnaires can aid in diagnosis while assessing for other psychiatric conditions. ODD is often comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and mood disorders, including anxiety and depression. Behavioral therapy for the child and family members improves symptoms of ODD. Medications are not recommended as first-line treatment for ODD; however, treatment of comorbid mental health conditions with medications often improves ODD symptoms. Adults and adolescents with a history of ODD have a greater than 90% chance of being diagnosed with another mental illness in their lifetime. They are at high risk of developing social and emotional problems as adults, including suicide and substance use disorders. Early intervention seeks to prevent the development of conduct disorder, substance abuse, and delinquency that can cause lifelong social, occupational, and academic impairments.

  8. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Perspectives on Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Psychopathic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a few perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and early forms of psychopathy. The developmental changes and stability of each, and the interrelationship between the three conditions are reviewed, and correlates and predictors are highlighted. The paper also examines effective interventions…

  10. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: An Overview and Strategies for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sara H.

    2018-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavioral disorder that affects approximately 3.3% of the population across cultures. In this article, the author discusses symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and treatments for the disorder. Although most empirically supported treatments of ODD are based on parent--child training and therapy, there are some…

  11. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder as Predictors of Depression and Conduct Disorder in Preadolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) rather than conduct disorder (CD) may explain the comorbidity between behavioral disorders and depression; to test whether distinct affective and behavioral dimensions can be discerned within the symptoms of ODD; and to determine whether an affective dimension of ODD symptoms is…

  12. Predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder from Preschool Diagnostic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Thakar, Dhara A.; Errazuriz, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the power of measures of early preschool behavior to predict later diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 168 children with behavior problems at age 3 who underwent a multimethod assessment of ADHD and ODD symptoms and…

  13. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder as Predictors of Depression and Conduct Disorder in Preadolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) rather than CD may explain the comorbidity between behavioral disorders and depression; to test whether distinct affective and behavioral dimensions can be discerned within the symptoms of ODD; and to determine if an affective dimension of ODD symptoms is specifically predictive of later depression.

  14. Temperament Differences among Children with Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Diana; Oakland, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Temperament-based learning style preferences of 80 children, ages 8 to 17, 40 with conduct disorder (CD) and 40 with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were examined using the Student Styles Questionnaire (SSQ). The SSQ measures four dimensions of learning style preferences based on temperament theory (Extroverted-Introverted, Thinking-Feeling,…

  15. A Comprehensive Investigation of Memory Impairment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Park, Joanne; Seth, Sarah; Coghill, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic assessment of memory functioning in drug-naive boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Methods: Boys performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) component (storage and central executive) and verbal and spatial storage load tasks,…

  16. Source-Specific Oppositional Defiant Disorder among Inner-City Children: Prospective Prediction and Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Bubier, Jennifer; Chen, Diane; Price, Julia; Lanza, H. Isabella

    2011-01-01

    We examined prospective prediction from parent- and teacher-reported oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms to parent-reported ODD, conduct disorder (CD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and whether child executive functioning abilities moderated these relations among an urban, low-income sample of…

  17. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  18. A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder complicated by symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Steeber, Jennifer; McBurnett, Keith

    2010-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder with significant functional impairment. ADHD is frequently complicated by oppositional symptoms, which are difficult to separate from comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and aggressive symptoms. This review addresses the impact of oppositional symptoms on ADHD, disease course, functional impairment, clinical management, and treatment response. Oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder may be comorbid in more than half of ADHD cases and are more common with the combined than with the inattentive ADHD subtype. Comorbid symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in patients with ADHD can have a significant impact on the course and prognosis for these patients and may lead to differential treatment response to both behavioral and pharmacologic treatments. Assessment of oppositional symptoms is an essential part of ADHD screening and diagnosis and should include parental, as well as educator, input. Although clinical evidence remains limited, some stimulant and nonstimulant medications have shown effectiveness in treating both core ADHD symptoms and oppositional symptoms. Oppositional symptoms are a key consideration in ADHD management, although the optimum approach to treating ADHD complicated by such symptoms remains unclear. Future research should focus on the efficacy and safety of various behavioral and medication regimens, as well as longitudinal studies to further clarify the relationships between ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

  19. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated…

  20. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders in Clinically Referred Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Boeldt, Debra; Chen, Diane; Coyne, Claire; Donald, Radiah; Duax, Jeanne; Hart, Katherine; Perrott, Jennifer; Strickland, Jennifer; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Davis, Shante; Kampani, Smita; Humphries, Marisha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic validity of oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) for preschoolers has been questioned based on concerns regarding the ability to differentiate normative, transient disruptive behavior from clinical symptoms. Data on concurrent validity have accumulated, but predictive validity is limited. Predictive…

  1. Callous unemotional traits, autism spectrum disorder symptoms and empathy in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijper, Jarla; de Wied, Minet; van Rijn, Sophie; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined additive and interactive effects of callous unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms in relation to trait empathy, in boys with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 49 boys with ODD/CD, aged between 7-12

  2. A Genetic Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Reading Disability: Aetiological Overlaps and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence; Pieka, Jan; Hay, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occurs with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Reading Disability. Twin studies are an important approach to understanding and modelling potential causes of such comorbidity. Univariate and bivariate genetic models were fitted to maternal report data from 2040 families of…

  3. ADHD with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder: discrete or nondistinct disruptive behavior disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Doerfler, Leonard A

    2008-09-01

    In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male children and adolescents with either ADHD (n = 65), ADHD with ODD (n = 85), or ADHD with CD (n = 50) were compared using structured diagnostic interviews and parent, teacher, and clinician rating scales. In children with ADHD, significant differences emerged between ODD and CD in the domains of delinquency, overt aggression, and ADHD symptom severity; ADHD with CD was most severe, followed by ADHD with ODD, and ADHD had the least severe symptoms. Distinctions between ADHD with CD and the other two groups were found for parenting, treatment history, and school variables. Within the limits of a cross-sectional methodology, results support clinically meaningful distinctions between ODD and CD in children with ADHD.

  4. Current issues in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J; Nigg, Joel T

    2012-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification.

  5. Current Issues in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification. PMID:22035245

  6. Parenting practices as mediating variables between parents' psychopathology and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Trepat de Ancos, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is very frequent in preschoolers. The severity and the long-term negative outcomes make the understanding of this disorder a priority. The goal in this study was to assess the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between parents’ psychopathology and ODD in preschoolers. Method: A community sample of 622 children was assessed longitudinally at age 3 and age 5. Parents reported on children’s psychopathology through a diagnosti...

  7. Beyond Symptom Counts for Diagnosing Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B; Hipwell, Alison E; Pardini, Dustin A

    2015-10-01

    Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) are among the most commonly diagnosed childhood behavioral health disorders. Although there is substantial evidence of heterogeneity of symptom presentations, DSM diagnoses of CD and ODD are formally diagnosed on the basis of symptom counts without regard to individual symptom patterns. We used unidimensional item response theory (IRT) two-parameter logistic (2PL) models to examine item parameters for the individual symptoms of CD and ODD using data on 6,491 adolescents (ages 13-17) from the National Comorbidity Study: Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). For each disorder, the symptoms differed in terms of severity and discrimination parameters. As a result, some adolescents who were above DSM diagnostic thresholds for disruptive behavior disorders exhibited lower levels of the underlying construct than others below the thresholds, based on their unique symptom profile. In terms of incremental benefit, our results suggested an advantage of latent trait scores for CD but not ODD.

  8. Oppositional Defiant Disorder Is Better Conceptualized as a Disorder of Emotional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Monica; Quinn, Declan; Duncan, Don; Graham, Tom; Balbuena, Lloyd

    2017-03-01

    It has been reported that Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) can be differentiated into distinct subtypes associated with different outcomes in adulthood. We examined whether ODD is conceptually independent and coherent, and whether ODD and Conduct Disorder (CD) are expressions of the same core deficit. The data come from a sample of 4,380 children for whom SNAP rating scales were available. Parallel analysis was performed on the eight-item ODD diagnostic items and on the SNAP-90 scale. These were factor analyzed and the components were correlated. ODD has one underlying factor, whereas the parent-rated SNAP has nine underlying factors. ODD items grouped together with emotional lability and irritability items, which did not group with CD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the separation of ODD and CD but not ODD and emotion dysregulation. The expanded ODD factor more likely captures a disorder of emotion regulation, rather than a disruptive behavior disorder.

  9. Emotional Regulation and Executive Function Deficits in Unmedicated Chinese Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wenqing; Li, Yan; Du, Yasong; Fan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the feature of emotional regulation and executive functions in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) children. Methods The emotional regulation and executive functions of adolescents with ODD, as well as the relationship between the two factors were analyzed using tools including Adolescent Daily Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ADERQ), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in comparison with ...

  10. Socioeconomic status and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    OpenAIRE

    Roser eGranero; Roser eGranero; Leonie eLouwaars; Lourdes eEzpeleta; Lourdes eEzpeleta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children’s executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors.Method. Sample included 622 three years-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed.Results. Structural Equation Modeling showed...

  11. Executive Function Features in Drug-naive Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Manfei; Jiang, Wenqing; DU, Yasong; Li, Yan; Fan, Juan

    2017-08-25

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) that is characterized by markedly defiant, disobedient, and disruptive behavior in younger children has been regarded as disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), together with conduct disorder (CD). However, in contrast to CD, ODD does not include severe aggressive or antisocial behavior. This study aimed to examine executive function (EF) features of children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Cross sectional design was used in this study. The EF of children with ODD and pure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were compared with children without a psychiatric disorder, using the Stroop Color-Word Tests A and B, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Fourth Edition; WISC-IV), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) corrected for age. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for EF deficits characteristic of ODD and ADHD. The ODD group exhibited significantly lower scores in both Stroop Color-Word Tests, the backwards digital span of the WISC-IV, and the categories completed and perseverative responses of the WCST, and significantly higher scores in spatial working memory (SWM) between errors, and the strategy in SWM of the CANTAB compared with the control group. When the ODD group was designated as 1 and the ADHD group was designated as 0, digital span (X1) fit the regression equation very well. Children with ODD perform substantially worse in EF tasks. Responsive inhibition appears to be uniquely associated with ODD development, while responsive inhibition and working memory appear to be associated with ADHD.

  12. The influence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder on white matter microstructure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Noordermeer, Siri D. S.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Oosterlaan, J.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are highly comorbid disorders. ADHD has been associated with altered white matter (WM) microstructure, though the literature is inconsistent, which may be due to differences in the in- or exclusion of

  13. Risk Factors for Conduct Disorder and Oppositional/Defiant Disorder: Evidence from a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the social, family background, and individual antecedents of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the extent to which CD and ODD symptoms were predicted by common environmental risk factors, and the extent to which the antecedents of CD and ODD accounted for the comorbidity between the two disorders.…

  14. Does oppositional defiant disorder have temperament and psychopathological profiles independent of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Won; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yeo, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    Most studies on temperamental and behavioral/emotional characteristics of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) did not rule out the effect of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main objective of this study was to identify the temperamental and psychopathological patterns of ODD independent of comorbid ADHD. We also aimed to compare the patterns of temperament and psychopathology between ODD with and without ADHD. Parents of 2673 students, randomly selected from 19 representative schools in Seoul, Korea, completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV. Among 118 children and adolescents with ODD diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV, the parents of 94 subjects (mean age, 10.4 +/- 3.0 years) and the parents of a random sample of 94 age- and gender-matched non-ODD/non-ADHD children and adolescents completed the parent's version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Subjects with ODD showed temperament and character profiles of high Novelty Seeking, low Self-directedness, and low Cooperativeness, a distinct pattern on the CBCL, and were at increased risk for anxiety and mood disorders compared to the controls after controlling for the effect of comorbid ADHD. The children and adolescents with both ODD and ADHD showed decreased levels of Persistence and Self-directedness and higher scores on 4 subscales of the CBCL (Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, Delinquent Behaviors, and Aggressive Behaviors) compared to those with ODD only. Oppositional defiant disorder is associated with specific temperamental and behavioral/emotional characteristics, independent of ADHD. Moreover, the results of this study support that co-occurring ADHD and ODD have differentially higher levels of behavioral and emotional difficulties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: altered functioning in three mental domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2013-02-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to stress, amygdala hyporeactivity to negative stimuli, and altered serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission suggest low punishment sensitivity, which may compromise the ability of children and adolescents to make associations between inappropriate behaviors and forthcoming punishments. Second, sympathetic nervous system hyporeactivity to incentives, low basal heart rate associated with sensation seeking, orbitofrontal cortex hyporeactiviy to reward, and altered dopamine functioning suggest a hyposensitivity to reward. The associated unpleasant emotional state may make children and adolescents prone to sensation-seeking behavior such as rule breaking, delinquency, and substance abuse. Third, impairments in executive functions, especially when motivational factors are involved, as well as structural deficits and impaired functioning of the paralimbic system encompassing the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex, suggest impaired cognitive control over emotional behavior. In the discussion we argue that more insight into the neurobiology of oppositional defiance disorder and conduct disorder may be obtained by studying these disorders separately and by paying attention to the heterogeneity of symptoms within each disorder.

  16. Dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder as predictors of depression and conduct disorder in preadolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Hipwell, Alison E; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    To examine whether oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) rather than conduct disorder (CD) may explain the comorbidity between behavioral disorders and depression; to test whether distinct affective and behavioral dimensions can be discerned within the symptoms of ODD; and to determine whether an affective dimension of ODD symptoms is specifically predictive of later depression. The dimensions of ODD and their prediction to later CD and depression were examined in a community sample of 2,451 girls between the ages of 5 and 8 years, followed up annually over a 5-year period, using parent, child, and teacher questionnaire ratings of the severity of symptoms of psychopathology. Dimensions of negative affect, oppositional behavior, and antagonistic behavior were found within ODD symptoms. Negative affect predicted later depression. Oppositional and antagonistic behavior predicted CD overall, and for Caucasian girls, negative affect also predicted later CD. CD was not predictive of later depression, controlling for comorbid conditions. ODD plays a key role in the early development of psychopathology. It is central in the comorbidity between internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, which may be caused by a dimension of negative affective symptoms within ODD. How this dimension relates to later CD appears to vary by race.

  17. Atomoxetine Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Milton, Denai R.; Michelson, David

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine (1) moderating effects of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment response and (2) responses of ODD symptoms to atomoxetine. Method: Children and adolescents (ages 8-18) with ADHD were treated for approximately 8 weeks with placebo or atomoxetine (fixed dosing: 0.5,…

  18. DSM-IV Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Implications and Guidelines for School Mental Health Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marc S.; McKay, Mary McKernan; Talbott, Elizabeth; Arvanitis, Patrice

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the DSM-IV criteria for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), comparing their counterparts in DSM-III-R. Results from DSM-IV field trials indicate interrater and test-retest reliability were only marginally improved compared to prior criteria. Although overlooked in DSM-IV, community factors, gender differences,…

  19. Impaired Neurocognitive Functions Affect Social Learning Processes in Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Implications for Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive…

  20. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder(ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection, and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7-12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Controlling for parent reported symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Conduct disorder (CD), depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment, and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Oppositional defiant disorder is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Parsing the familiality of oppositional defiant disorder from that of conduct disorder: a familial risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Carter R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Mick, Eric; Hughes, Samantha; Small, Jacqueline; Faraone, Stephen V; Biederman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Family risk analysis can provide an improved understanding of the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attending to the comorbidity with conduct disorder (CD). We compared rates of psychiatric disorders in relatives of 78 control probands without ODD and CD (Control, N=265), relatives of 10 control probands with ODD and without CD (ODD, N=37), relatives of 19 ADHD probands without ODD and CD (ADHD, N=71), relatives of 38 ADHD probands with ODD and without CD (ADHD+ODD, N=130), and relatives of 50 ADHD probands with ODD and CD (ADHD+ODD+CD, N=170). Rates of ADHD were significantly higher in all three ADHD groups compared to the Control group, while rates of ODD were significantly higher in all three ODD groups compared to the Control group. Evidence for co-segregation was found in the ADHD+ODD group. Rates of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and addictions in the relatives were significantly elevated only in the ADHD+ODD+CD group. ADHD and ODD are familial disorders, and ADHD plus ODD outside the context of CD may mark a familial subtype of ADHD. ODD and CD confer different familial risks, providing further support for the hypothesis that ODD and CD are separate disorders.

  2. [Nature and severity of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder as they occur together or separately in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapalme, Mélanie; Déry, Michèle

    2009-09-01

    Co-occurring oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms are particularly common, which could be related to the greater severity (number and nature of symptoms) of each disorder. Our study aims to determine if oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms vary when they occur together or separately in children. Our study was conducted with 406 children (aged 6 to 13 years) divided in 4 groups (oppositional disorder only, conduct disorder only, oppositional disorder and conduct disorder, control) with no age or sex difference. Structured diagnostic interviews conducted with one parent and each child separately led to assessing the average number of symptoms for each disorder as well as the onset frequency of each symptom. When occurring together, oppositional disorder and conduct disorder appear more severe than when they occur separately, considering the number and nature of symptoms shown. Further, children with an oppositional disorder only or a conduct disorder only also have more frequent symptoms of the other disorder, compared with children in the control group. These results suggest taking into account, at the time of assessment and potential intervention, the presence of both disorders.

  3. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: prevalence based on parent and teacher ratings of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for the DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Waldman, Irwin; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2010-11-01

    Data are presented from 3 studies of children and adolescents to evaluate the predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and the International Classification of Diseases, Version 10 (ICD-10; World Health Organization, 1992). The present analyses strongly support the predictive validity of these diagnoses by showing that they predict both future psychopathology and enduring functional impairment. Furthermore, the present findings generally support the hierarchical developmental hypothesis in DSM-IV that some children with ODD progress to childhood-onset CD, and some youth with CD progress to antisocial personality disorder (APD). Nonetheless, they reveal that CD does not always co-occur with ODD, particularly during adolescence. Importantly, the present findings suggest that ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for ODD, which treat CD symptoms as ODD symptoms when diagnostic criteria for CD are not met, identify more functionally impaired children than the more restrictive DSM-IV definition of ODD. Filling this "hole" in the DSM-IV criteria for ODD should be a priority for the DSM-V. In addition, the present findings suggest that although the psychopathic trait of interpersonal callousness in childhood independently predicts future APD, these findings do not confirm the hypothesis that callousness distinguishes a subset of children with CD with an elevated risk for APD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Structural Brain Abnormalities of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Greven, Corina U; Veroude, Kim; Faraone, Stephen V; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (comorbidity rates up to 60%) on these neuroanatomical differences is scarcely studied, while ODD (in combination with conduct disorder) has been associated with structural abnormalities of the frontal lobe, amygdala, and insula. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of comorbid ODD on cerebral volume and cortical thickness in ADHD. Three groups, 16 ± 3.5 years of age (mean ± SD; range 7-29 years), were studied on volumetric and cortical thickness characteristics using structural magnetic resonance imaging (surface-based morphometry): ADHD+ODD (n = 67), ADHD-only (n = 243), and control subjects (n = 233). Analyses included the moderators age, gender, IQ, and scan site. ADHD+ODD and ADHD-only showed volumetric reductions in total gray matter and (mainly) frontal brain areas. Stepwise volumetric reductions (ADHD+ODD attention, (working) memory, and decision-making. Volumetric reductions of frontal lobes were largest in the ADHD+ODD group, possibly underlying observed larger impairments in neurocognitive functions. Previously reported striatal abnormalities in ADHD may be caused by comorbid conduct disorder rather than ODD. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oppositional defiant disorder dimensions and subtypes among detained male adolescent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Barra, Steffen; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Walitza, Susanne; Plattner, Belinda

    2016-06-01

    In adolescent offenders, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and its dimensions/subtypes have been frequently ignored due to the stronger focus on criminal behaviours. The revised criteria of the DSM-5 now allow diagnosing ODD in older youths independent of conduct disorder (CD). This study aimed at analysing ODD dimensions/subtypes and their relation to suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and criminal behaviours after release from detention in a sample of detained male adolescents. Suicidality and psychiatric disorders (including ODD symptoms) were assessed in a consecutive sample of 158 male adolescents (Mage  = 16.89 years) from the Zurich Juvenile Detention Centre. Based on previous research findings, an irritable ODD dimension and a defiant/vindictive ODD dimension based on ODD symptoms were defined. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify distinct subtypes of adolescent offenders according to their ODD symptom profiles. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to analyse the relations of ODD dimensions/ODD subtypes to comorbid psychopathology and criminal reoffenses from official data. The ODD-irritable dimension, but not the ODD defiant/vindictive dimension predicted comorbid anxiety, suicidality and violent reoffending. LCA identified four subtypes, namely, a no-ODD subtype, a severe ODD subtype and two moderate ODD subtypes with either defiant or irritable symptoms. The irritable ODD subtype and the severe ODD subtype were related to suicidality and comorbid affective/anxiety disorders. The irritable ODD subtype was the strongest predictor of criminal (violent) reoffending even when controlling for CD. The present findings confirm the presence of ODD dimensions/subtypes in a highly disturbed adolescent offender sample. Irritable youths were at risk of suicide and persistent criminal behaviours. Due to the severe consequences of irritability, a standardized assessment approach and a specific treatment is needed in prison to

  7. CBCL Clinical Scales Discriminate ADHD Youth with Structured-Interview Derived Diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kaiser, Roselinde; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between the clinical scales of the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in a large sample of youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The sample consisted of 101 girls and 106 boys ages 6 to 17 with ADHD. Conditional…

  8. Symptoms of autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in clinically referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2012-01-01

    Examined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) symptoms in a clinically referred, non-ASD sample (N=1160; ages 6-18) with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Mothers and teachers completed DSM-IV-referenced symptom checklists. Youth with ODD were subdivided into angry/irritable symptom (AIS) or noncompliant symptom (NS) subtypes. Two different classification strategies were used: within-informant (source-specific) and between-informant (source-exclusive). For the source-specific strategy, youth were classified AIS, NS, or Control (C) according to mothers' and teachers' ratings separately. A second set of analyses focused on youth classified AIS according to mother or teacher report but not both (source-exclusive) versus both mother and teacher (cross-informant) AIS. Results indicated the mother-defined source-specific AIS groups generally evidenced the most severe ASD and SSD symptoms (AIS>NS>C), but this was more pronounced among younger youth. Teacher-defined source-specific ODD groups exhibited comparable levels of symptom severity (AIS, NS>C) with the exception of SSD (AIS>NS>C; younger youth). Source-exclusive AIS groups were clearly differentiated from each other, but there was little evidence of differential symptom severity in cross-informant versus source-exclusive AIS. These findings were largely dependent on the informant used to define the source-exclusive groups. AIS and NS groups differed in their associations with ASD and SSD symptoms. Informant discrepancy provides valuable information that can inform nosological and clinical concerns and has important implications for studies that use different strategies to configure clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sarcosine treatment for oppositional defiant disorder symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzang, Ruu-Fen; Chang, Yue-Cune; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Methylphenidate, a stimulant that activates dopaminergic and noradrenergic function, is an important agent in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sarcosine, a glycine transporter-1 inhibitor, may also play a role in treating ADHD by modulating the glutamatergic neurotransmission system through activating N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of sarcosine in treating children with ADHD. We conducted a six-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The primary outcome measures were those on the Inattention, Hyperactivity/impulsivity, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subscales of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale. Efficacy and safety were measured bi-weekly. A total of 116 children with ADHD were enrolled. Among them, 48 (83%) of the 58 sarcosine recipients and 44 (76%) of the 58 placebo recipients returned for the first post-treatment visit. The missing data values were imputed by the last observation carry forward method. From a multiple linear regression analysis, using the generalized estimating equation approach, and an intention to treat analysis, the efficacy of sarcosine marginally surpassed that of placebo at weeks 2, 4, and 6, with p-values=0.01, 0.026, and 0.012, respectively, although only for ODD symptoms. Treatment of ADHD by sarcosine (0.03 g/kg/day) was well tolerated. Sarcosine could possibly be a novel agent for managing ODD symptoms in the context of ADHD. However, future larger-scale studies are warranted to optimize its dosage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Innocent or Intentional?: Interpreting Oppositional Defiant Disorder in a Preschool Mental Health Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouardani, Christine N

    2017-03-01

    Based on 9 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. mental health clinic focused on the treatment of preschool-aged children who exhibited extremely disruptive behavior, this article examines the contradictions clinicians faced when trying to identify and attribute "intentionality" to very young children. Disruptive, aggressive behavior is one of the central symptoms involved in a wide-range of childhood psychopathology and the number one reason young children are referred to mental health clinics in the United States. In the clinic where I conducted my research, clinicians were especially interested in diagnosing these children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), in order to identify those at risk for more serious mental illness later in the lifecourse. In this article, I look at the different strategies clinicians used in interpreting whether aggressive, defiant behavior was a part of the child's "self," a biologically driven symptom of a disease, or a legitimate reaction to problematic social environments. I argue that conceptualizing intentionality as a developmental, interpersonal process may help to make sense of the multiple discourses and practices clinicians used to try to reconcile the contradictions inherent in diagnosing ODD.

  11. Therapeutic Assessment for Preadolescent Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A Replicated Single-Case Time-Series Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.; Handler, Leonard; Nash, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The Therapeutic Assessment (TA) model is a relatively new treatment approach that fuses assessment and psychotherapy. The study examines the efficacy of this model with preadolescent boys with oppositional defiant disorder and their families. A replicated single-case time-series design with daily measures is used to assess the effects of TA and to…

  12. Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Danielle M.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from >600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized…

  13. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the forerunner of alcohol dependence: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish

    2014-10-01

    There are common genetic, neurobiological and psycho-social substrates for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and substance dependence. ODD can be regarded as the mildest and earliest form of disruptive behavioral disorder and also represents the threshold of vulnerability for substance dependence. But it is a less researched area. The aim of this research was to study any possible association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. Data are presented from a non probability sample of 100 adult alcohol dependent subjects and equal number of biologically unrelated control subjects. Assessment was conducted by the instrument Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism for both the assessment of ODD and alcohol dependence. The results of this study demonstrated significant association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. The association remained significant even after the exclusion of the possible confounding effects of the presence of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Our study should encourage further research in this area and is expected to open up an opportunity for preventive research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Family-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Miika; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Nissinen, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial family-based interventions--family therapy, cognitive-behavioral parent training and family-based treatment protocols--are empirically supported treatments for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Well-researched interventions such as remote and group-based parent training programs relate to improvements in parenting quality, positive parenting, and the child's decreased ADHD and conduct behavioral problems, whereas individual family-based treatments are sometimes required, depending on symptom severity. Specific family-based treatment protocols are tailored for older children and adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems. Considering the above, empirically supported programs are used more in Finland, compared to licensed Anglo-American treatment protocols.

  15. Callous unemotional traits, autism spectrum disorder symptoms and empathy in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijper, Jarla; de Wied, Minet; van Rijn, Sophie; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna; Meeus, Wim

    2016-11-30

    This study examined additive and interactive effects of callous unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms in relation to trait empathy, in boys with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 49 boys with ODD/CD, aged between 7-12 years. Boys completed a questionnaire measure of empathic sadness and a broader questionnaire measure of affective and cognitive empathy. Parents and teachers reported on CU traits, and parents reported on ASD symptoms. In agreement with predictions, results reveal a negative association between CU traits and empathic sadness, particularly strong for ODD/CD boys with low levels of ASD symptoms. Results also reveal a negative association between ASD symptoms and cognitive empathy. Findings suggest that CU traits and ASD symptoms are associated with distinct empathy deficits with poor empathic sadness being more typical of CU traits than ASD symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD…

  17. Deconstructing oppositional defiant disorder: clinic-based evidence for an anger/irritability phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabick, Deborah A G; Gadow, Kenneth D

    2012-04-01

    To examine risk factors and co-occurring symptoms associated with mother-reported versus teacher-reported anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in a clinic-based sample of 1,160 youth aged 6 through 18 years. Participants completed a background history questionnaire (mothers), school functioning questionnaire (mothers, teachers), and DSM-IV-referenced symptom checklists (mothers, teachers). Youth meeting AIS criteria for ODD were compared to youth with ODD who met criteria for noncompliant symptoms (NS) but not AIS and to clinic controls. Compared with NS youth, youth with AIS were rated as exhibiting higher levels of anxiety and mood symptoms for both mother- and teacher-defined groups, and higher levels of conduct disorder symptoms for mother-defined younger and older youth. The remaining group differences for developmental, psychosocial, and psychiatric correlates varied as a function of informant and youth's age. Evidence suggests that AIS may constitute a more severe and qualitatively different ODD clinical phenotype, but informant and age of youth appear to be important considerations. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Characteristics of Preschool Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Domènech, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to know whether callous-unemotional (CU) traits identify a more severe group of oppositional defiant children (ODD). The aim of this study is to ascertain cross-sectionally and longitudinally the specific contribution of CU levels and the presence of ODD in the psychological state of preschool children from the general population. A total of 622 children were assessed longitudinally at ages 3 and 5 with a semi-structured diagnostic interview and questionnaires filled out by parents and teachers. In multivariate models simultaneously including ODD diagnosis and CU levels, controlling by socioeconomic status, ethnicity, sex, severity of conduct disorder symptoms and other comorbidity, high CU scores were related to higher levels of aggression, withdrawn, externalizing and global symptomatology, functional impairment and higher probability of comorbid disorders and use of services. The contribution of CU traits on children's psychological state was not moderated by the presence/absence of ODD. Stability for CU traits and number of ODD-symptoms between ages 3 and 5 was statistically significant but moderate-low (intra-class correlation under .40). Assessment and identification of CU traits from preschool might help to identify a subset of children who could have socialization problems, not only among those with ODD but also among those without a diagnosis of conduct problems.

  19. The latent structure of oppositional defiant disorder in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D; Marcus, David K; Barry, Christopher T; Coccaro, Emil F

    2013-12-01

    An understanding of the latent structure of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is essential for better developing causal models, improving diagnostic and assessment procedures, and enhancing treatments for the disorder. Although much research has focused on ODD-including recent studies informing the diagnostic criteria for DSM-5-research examining the latent structure of ODD is sparse, and no known study has specifically undertaken a taxometric analysis to address the issue of whether ODD is a categorical or dimensional construct. To address this gap, the authors conducted two separate studies using a set of taxometric analyses with data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (child study; n = 969) and with data from a large mixed sample of adults, which included participants reporting psychiatric difficulties as well as healthy controls (adult study; n = 600). The results of a variety of non-redundant analyses across both studies revealed a dimensional latent structure for ODD symptoms among both children and adults. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have examined latent structure of related constructs (e.g., aggression, antisocial behavior) as well as studies that have examined the dimensional versus categorical structure of ODD using methods other than taxometric analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Negative parenting behavior and childhood oppositional defiant disorder: differential moderation by positive and negative peer regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Lee, Steve S

    2014-01-01

    Although negative parenting behavior and peer status are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (e.g., oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)), relatively little is known about their interplay, particularly in relation to differentiated measures of positive and negative peer regard. To improve the specificity of the association of negative parenting behavior and peer factors with ODD, we explored the potential interaction of parenting and peer status in a sample of 169 five-to ten-year-old ethnically diverse children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed using multiple measures (i.e., rating scales, interview) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, sex, number of ADHD symptoms, and parents' race-ethnicity, peer acceptance inversely predicted and inconsistent discipline, harsh punishment, and peer rejection were each positively associated with ODD symptom severity. Interactive influences were also evident such that inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment each predicted elevated ODD but only among children experiencing low peer acceptance or high peer rejection. These findings suggest that supportive environments, including peer acceptance, may protect children from negative outcomes associated with inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment. Findings are integrated with theories of social support, and we additionally consider implications for intervention and prevention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sex Differences in the Prevalence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder During Middle Childhood: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, David H; Hooley, Merrilyn; Sheen, Jade; McGillivray, Jane A; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-02-01

    This review provides a meta-analysed male:female prevalence ratio of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) during middle childhood in non-referred children. It also analyses sex differences in prevalence across cultures and over time. A systematic search for studies via the following sources was conducted: PsycInfo, Web of Knowledge, Medline Complete, Scopus, EMBASE, InfoRMIT, Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Cochrane Library, PubMed and ProQuest Health. The studies presented in two previous systematic reviews were also added to the search results. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were then applied and final studies were appraised for their methodological quality. Nineteen independent effect sizes met full inclusion criteria (aggregated sample N = 44,107). Overall, the prevalence of ODD was significantly higher in boys than girls (RR = 1.59, 95 % CI [1.36, 1.86], p  0.05). Sex differences in prevalence were significant in studies published prior to and post the year 2000 (RR = 1.57, 95 % CI [1.22, 2.02], p  0.05). The sex differences in ODD prevalence are discussed within the context of (i) predominant theories of sex differences in externalising behaviours, and (ii) departure from the sex-differences pattern found for other disruptive behavioural disorders.

  2. Emotional Regulation and Executive Function Deficits in Unmedicated Chinese Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenqing; Li, Yan; Du, Yasong; Fan, Juan

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to explore the feature of emotional regulation and executive functions in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) children. The emotional regulation and executive functions of adolescents with ODD, as well as the relationship between the two factors were analyzed using tools including Adolescent Daily Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ADERQ), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in comparison with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without behavioral problem and healthy children; the ADERQ assessed emotional regulation ability and others were used to assess executive function. Compared to normal children, the ODD group displayed significant differences in the scores of cognitive reappraisal, rumination, expressive suppression, and revealing of negative emotions, as well as in the score of cognitive reappraisal of positive emotions. WCST perseverative errors were well correlated with rumination of negative emotions (r=0.47). Logistic regression revealed that the minimum number of moves in the Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) test (one test in CANTAB) and negative emotion revealing, were strongly associated with ODD diagnosis. Children with ODD showed emotion dysregulation, with negative emotion dysregulation as the main feature. Emotion dysregulation and the lack of ability to plan lead to executive function deficits. The executive function deficits may guide us to understand the deep mechanism under ODD.

  3. Clinical Characteristics of Preschool Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available There is a need to know whether callous-unemotional (CU traits identify a more severe group of oppositional defiant children (ODD. The aim of this study is to ascertain cross-sectionally and longitudinally the specific contribution of CU levels and the presence of ODD in the psychological state of preschool children from the general population. A total of 622 children were assessed longitudinally at ages 3 and 5 with a semi-structured diagnostic interview and questionnaires filled out by parents and teachers. In multivariate models simultaneously including ODD diagnosis and CU levels, controlling by socioeconomic status, ethnicity, sex, severity of conduct disorder symptoms and other comorbidity, high CU scores were related to higher levels of aggression, withdrawn, externalizing and global symptomatology, functional impairment and higher probability of comorbid disorders and use of services. The contribution of CU traits on children's psychological state was not moderated by the presence/absence of ODD. Stability for CU traits and number of ODD-symptoms between ages 3 and 5 was statistically significant but moderate-low (intra-class correlation under .40. Assessment and identification of CU traits from preschool might help to identify a subset of children who could have socialization problems, not only among those with ODD but also among those without a diagnosis of conduct problems.

  4. Family routine moderates the relation between child impulsivity and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children (N = 87, 51% male). Child HI and ODD symptoms were assessed using parent and teacher reports. HI also was indexed by a laboratory task. Family routine was assessed using child self-report. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that family routine moderated child HI. Among children with higher levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms, lower levels of family routine were associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ODD symptoms compared to children with lower levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms. Children who self-reported higher levels of family routine were rated as low on teacher-reported ODD symptoms, regardless of teacher-reported HI levels. Parent report and laboratory measures of child HI did not produce significant interactions. Lower levels of family routine may confer risk for ODD symptoms among low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children experiencing higher levels of HI.

  5. Multiple Levels of Family Factors and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms Among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Heath, Melissa A; Chi, Peilian; Xu, Shousen; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2018-03-01

    Family factors are closely associated with child developmental outcomes. This study examined the relationship of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and factors at whole family, dyadic, and individual levels in Chinese children. Participants, who were recruited from 14 primary schools in north, east, and south-west China, included 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads. Children in the participating dyads were previously diagnosed with ODD. Results revealed that family cohesion/adaptability was indirectly associated with ODD symptoms via parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation. Parent-child relationship affected ODD symptoms directly and indirectly through child emotion regulation. In addition, the effects of family cohesion/adaptability on parent emotion regulation and child emotion regulation were mediated by the parent-child relationship. The tested model provides a comprehensive framework of how family factors at multiple levels are related to child ODD symptoms and highlights the importance of understanding child emotional and behavioral problems within the family context, more specifically within the multiple levels of family relationships. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  6. Child maltreatment and interpersonal relationship among Chinese children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Chi, Peilian; Wang, Zhonghui; Heath, Melissa Allen; Du, Hongfei; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment negatively affects children's development and wellbeing. This study investigated the associations between child maltreatment (i.e., emotional neglect, emotional abuse, and physical abuse) and interpersonal functioning, including parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, and peer relationships among children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). A total of 256 children with ODD and their parents and class master teachers from Mainland China completed questionnaires. Results showed a negative correlation between emotional abuse (parent-reported) and children's interpersonal relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Emotional neglect and physical abuse were related to poor parent-child relationships. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of child maltreatment among children with ODD. ODD children with more severe levels of one type of maltreatment were also more likely to have experienced severe levels of other types of maltreatment. Children with ODD who were in the group of high maltreatment had the poorest quality of interpersonal relationships. Our findings highlight the urgent need to prevent child maltreatment and promote more positive parenting in families with ODD children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Socioeconomic status and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Louwaars, Leonie; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children's executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors. The sample included 622 three-year-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed. Structural Equation Modeling showed that the associations between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels differed by children's gender: (a) for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was partially mediated by difficulties in EF inhibition, and parenting practices defined by corporal punishment and inconsistent discipline obtained a quasi-significant indirect effect into the association between SES and ODD; (b) for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control) had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation. SES seems a good indicator to identify children at high-risk for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control.

  8. Socioeconomic status and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser eGranero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children’s executive functioning (EF as the mediating factors.Method. Sample included 622 three years-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed.Results. Structural Equation Modeling showed that children’s gender achieved a moderating role into the pathways valuing the underlying process between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels: a for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was mediated by parenting practices (punishment and inconsistent discipline and by difficulties in EF inhibition, and a direct predictive effect on ODD level was achieved for SES, punishment and inconsistence in rearing style and inhibition; b for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation.Conclusion. SES seems a good indicator to identify at high-risk children for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control.

  9. Effect of Methylphenidate on Emotional Dysregulation in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder + Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Ayse; Akyol Ardic, Ulku; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2017-04-01

    Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a frequent feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be observed as a dysregulation profile or a deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) profile. Oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) comorbidity is prevalent in ADHD and known to be related with ED. The first-line treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, but their effects on ED are not well studied. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on ED in ADHD + ODD/CD cases. A total of 118 ADHD + ODD/CD patients with a mean age of 9.0 ± 1.9 years were treated with MPH for 1 year. Also, parents of cases were recruited for a parent-training program, which initiated after first month of MPH treatment. Symptom severity was assessed at baseline and 12th month by Turgay Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale-Parent Form, Children Depression Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist 4-18 years, and Parental Acceptance and Rejection Questionnaire-Mother Form. Emotional dysregulation (DESR + DP) was present in 85.6% of cases. Conduct disorder was significantly higher in patients with DP, whereas ODD was significantly higher in the DESR and non-ED groups (P disorders as ODD and CD, which are comorbid with ADHD. The MPH treatment is effective on ED independently from other clinical determinants.

  10. Familial Risk Factors to Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Parental Psychopathology and Maternal Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In sample of 177 clinic-referred children aged 7-13, association was found between diagnosis of conduct disorder and several aspects of family functioning: maternal parenting (supervision and persistence in discipline) and parent adjustment (paternal antisocial personality disorder and paternal substance abuse). Children with oppositional defiant…

  11. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account

    OpenAIRE

    Noordermeer, Siri D. S.; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ...

  12. Neuroanatomical correlates of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder accounting for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Daimei; Hayashida, Ayako; Yamasue, Hidenori; Harada, Yuzuru; Kaneko, Tomoki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Amano, Naoji

    2010-08-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies have been conducted to uncover the pathophysiology of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The findings are inconsistent, however, at least partially due to methodological differences. In the present study voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to evaluate brain morphology in ADHD subjects after taking into account the confounding effect of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) comorbidity. Eighteen children with ADHD and 17 age- and gender-matched typically developing subjects underwent high-spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging. The regional gray matter volume differences between the children with ADHD and controls were examined with and without accounting for comorbid ODD and CD in a voxel-by-voxel manner throughout the entire brain. The VBM indicated significantly smaller regional gray matter volume in regions including the bilateral temporal polar and occipital cortices and the left amygdala in subjects with ADHD compared with controls. Significantly smaller regional gray matter volumes were demonstrated in more extensive regions including the bilateral temporal polar cortices, bilateral amygdala, right occipital cortex, right superior temporal sulcus, and left middle frontal gyrus after controlling for the confounding effect of comorbid ODD and CD. Morphological abnormalities in ADHD were seen not only in the regions associated with executive functioning but also in the regions associated with social cognition. When the effect of comorbid CD and ODD was taken into account, there were more extensive regions with significantly smaller volume in ADHD compared to controls.

  13. Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Show Impaired Adaptation During Stress: An Executive Functioning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2018-04-01

    Evidence for problems in executive functioning (EF) in children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) is mixed and the impact stress may have on EF is understudied. Working memory, sustained attention, inhibition and cognitive flexibility of boys with ODD/CD (n = 65) and non-clinical controls (n = 32) were examined under typical and stressful test conditions. Boys with ODD/CD showed impaired working memory under typical testing conditions, and impairments in working memory and sustained attention under stressful conditions. In contrast to controls, performance on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility and inhibition was less influenced by stress in boys with ODD/CD. These results suggest that boys with ODD/CD show impairments in adaptation to the environment whereas typically developing boys show adaptive changes in EF.

  14. Emotion regulation difficulties in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorders and the relation with comorbid autism traits and attention deficit traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD), children with other

  15. Understanding Trait and Sources Effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Rating Scales: Mothers', Fathers', and Teachers' Ratings of Children from the Balearic Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Burns, G. Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to model a multitrait (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]-inattention, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity, oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]) by multisource (mothers, fathers, and teachers) matrix to determine the convergent and discriminant validity of ratings by mothers, fathers, and teachers.…

  16. Family Functioning in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebla Gokce Imren

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine family functioning in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and ADHD comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder ( ODD or conduct disorder ( CD. Method: Forty nine children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and forty eight controls (aged 8-16 years were assesed with Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version; Parents completed the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD for family functioning which asseses 6 dimensions of family functioning ( problem solving, communication, behavior control, affective involvement, affective responsiveness, and roles and also includes a general functioning subscale. Results: 34.7 % of the ADHD children had comorbid psychiatric disorders, and the major comorbidity was ODD (24.5 %. ADHD families scored high at the level of “unhealthy functioning “ in the problem solving, roles, affective involvement, general functioning, and behavior control subscales of FAD. Besides, problem solving behaviour and general functioning were significantly poorer than control families and they had more difficulties in area of roles. When DEHB was comorbid with ODD or DB, all areas of family functioning as measured by FAD were scored high at the level of “unhealthy functioning “. Additionally, general functioning and affective responsiveness were significantly poorer than ADHD without ODD or DB comorbidity. Discussion: Recent studies revealed that ADHD and especially ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB may disrupt family functioning in many ways. In this study, the families of children and adolescents with ADHD and ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB had poorer family functioning in most of the subscales of FAD. Treatment of children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD especially comorbid with ODD or DB should include parental treatment and intervention addressing parental skills, and family functioning. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 22-30

  17. The influence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder on white matter microstructure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Noordermeer, Siri D S; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Faraone, Stephen V; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Oosterlaan, J

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are highly comorbid disorders. ADHD has been associated with altered white matter (WM) microstructure, though the literature is inconsistent, which may be due to differences in the in- or exclusion of participants with comorbid ODD. WM abnormalities in ODD are still poorly understood, and it is unclear whether comorbid ODD in ADHD may have confounded the current ADHD literature. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between ADHD patients with (n = 42) and without (n = 117) comorbid ODD. All participants were between 8-25 years and groups did not differ in mean age or gender. Follow-up analyses were conducted to examine the role of antisocial behaviour (conduct problems) on FA and MD values in both groups. Comorbid ODD in ADHD was associated with lower FA in left frontotemporal WM, which appeared independent of ADHD symptoms. FA was negatively associated with antisocial behaviour in ADHD + ODD, but not in ADHD-only. Comorbid ODD is associated with WM abnormalities in individuals with ADHD, which appears to be independent of ADHD symptoms. Altered WM microstructure in comorbid ODD may play a role in inconsistencies in the current DTI literature in ADHD. Altered development of these tracts may contribute to social-emotional and cognitive problems in children with oppositional and antisocial behaviour.

  18. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms and Association with Oppositional Defiant and Other Disorders in a General Population Child Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan D; Waxmonsky, James D; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O

    2016-03-01

    The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), has generated appreciable controversy since its inception, primarily in regard to its validity as a distinct disorder from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The goal of our study was to determine if the two DSM-5 DMDD symptoms (persistently irritable or angry mood and severe recurrent temper outbursts) occurred independently of other disorders, particularly ODD. Other DSM-5 DMDD criteria were not assessed. Maternal ratings of the two DMDD symptoms, clinical diagnosis of ODD using DSM-5 symptom criteria, and psychological problem scores (anxiety, depression, oppositional behavior, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) on the Pediatric Behavior Scale were analyzed in a population sample, 6-12 years of age (n = 665). The prevalence of DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts both rated by mothers as often or very often a problem) was 9%. In all, 92% of children with DMDD symptoms had ODD, and 66% of children with ODD had DMDD symptoms, indicating that it is very unlikely to have DMDD symptoms without ODD, but that ODD can occur without DMDD symptoms. Comorbid psychological problems (anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and ADHD) in addition to ODD did not increase the risk of having DMDD symptoms beyond that for ODD alone. Only 3% of children with psychological problems other than ODD had DMDD symptoms. Our general population findings are similar to those for a psychiatric sample, suggesting that DMDD cannot be differentiated from ODD based on symptomatology. Therefore, it is important to assess all DSM criteria and to examine for comorbid psychopathology when considering a diagnosis of DMDD. Our results support the recommendation made by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11) panel of experts that DMDD symptoms may be

  19. Predicting Depression and Anxiety from Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Elementary School-Age Girls and Boys with Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déry, Michèle; Lapalme, Mélanie; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia; Poirier, Martine; Temcheff, Caroline; Toupin, Jean

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the three DSM-5 categories of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms (irritable mood, defiant behavior, vindictive behavior) and anxiety/depression in girls and boys with conduct problems (CP) while controlling for comorbid child psychopathology at baseline. Data were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study of 6- to 9-year-old French-Canadian children (N = 276; 40.8 % girls) receiving special educational services for CP at school and followed for 2 years. Using linear regression analysis, the results showed that irritable mood symptoms predicted a higher level of depression and anxiety in girls and boys 2 years later, whereas the behavioral symptoms of ODD (e.g., defiant, vindictive symptoms) were linked to lower depression scores. The contribution of ODD symptoms to these predictions, while statistically significant, remained modest. The usefulness of ODD irritable symptoms as a marker for identifying girls and boys with CP who are more vulnerable to developing internalizing problems is discussed.

  20. Reliability and validity of teacher-rated symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Elena; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    It is recommended to use information from multiple informants when making diagnostic decisions concerning oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of teacher-rated symptoms of ODD and CD in a clinical sample. The sample comprised 421 children (84% boys; 6-17 years) diagnosed with ODD, CD, and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Teachers completed a standardized ODD/CD symptom rating scale and the Teacher Report Form (TRF). The reliability (internal consistency) of the symptom rating scale was high (α = 0.90). Convergent and divergent validity were demonstrated by substantial correlations with similar TRF syndrome scales and low-to-moderate correlations with dissimilar TRF scales. Discriminant validity was shown by the ability of the symptom rating scale to differentiate between children with ODD/CD and those with ADHD. Factorial validity was demonstrated by principal component analysis, which produced a two-factor solution that is largely consistent with the two-dimensional model of ODD and CD proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR, although some CD symptoms representing aggressive behavior loaded on the ODD dimension. These findings suggest that DSM-IV-TR-based teacher rating scales are useful instruments for assessing disruptive behavior problems in children and adolescents.

  1. DSM-IV defined conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: an investigation of shared liability in female twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, V S; Bidwell, L C; Flessner, C; Nugent, N; Swenson, L; Bucholz, K K; Madden, P A F; Heath, A C

    2014-04-01

    DSM-IV specifies a hierarchal diagnostic structure such that an oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) diagnosis is applied only if criteria are not met for conduct disorder (CD). Genetic studies of ODD and CD support a combination of shared genetic and environmental influences but largely ignore the imposed diagnostic structure. We examined whether ODD and CD share an underlying etiology while accounting for DSM-IV diagnostic specifications. Data from 1446 female twin pairs, aged 11-19 years, were fitted to two-stage models adhering to the DSM-IV diagnostic hierarchy. The models suggested that DSM-IV ODD-CD covariation is attributed largely to shared genetic influences. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to examine genetic and environmental overlap among these disorders while maintaining a DSM-IV hierarchical structure. The findings reflect primarily shared genetic influences and specific (i.e. uncorrelated) shared/familial environmental effects on these DSM-IV-defined behaviors. These results have implications for how best to define CD and ODD for future genetically informed analyses.

  2. Building an evidence base for DSM-5 conceptualizations of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A; Frick, Paul J; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2010-11-01

    The DSM-5 ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Work Group recently outlined a research agenda designed to support possible revisions to the diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Some of the areas in need of further investigation include (a) examining the clinical utility of the current diagnostic system in girls, (b) further clarifying the developmental progression from ODD to CD, (c) determining whether facets of ODD symptoms can help explain heterotypic continuity and enhance predictive validity, (d) evaluating the clinical utility of a new subtyping scheme for CD on the basis of the presence of callous-unemotional traits, and (e) comparing the clinical utility of dimensional versus categorical conceptualizations of ODD and CD. This special section was organized in an attempt to provide data on these issues using a diverse array of longitudinal data sets consisting of both epidemiological and clinic-based samples that collectively cover a large developmental span ranging from childhood through early adulthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Social skills training and play group intervention for children with oppositional-defiant disorders/conduct disorder: Mediating mechanisms in a head-to-head comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmann, Josepha; Goertz-Dorten, Anja; Hautmann, Christopher; Doepfner, Manfred

    2018-01-19

    Social-cognitive information processing, social skills, and social interactions are problem-maintaining variables for aggressive behavior in children. We hypothesized that these factors may be possible mediators of the mechanism of change in the child-centered treatment of conduct disorders (CDs). The aim of the present study (Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT01406067) was to examine putative mechanisms of change for the decrease in oppositional-defiant behavior resulting from child-centered treatment of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) or CD. 91 children (age 6-12 years) with ODD/CD were randomized to receive either social skills training or to a resource activating play group. Mediator analyses were conducted using path analyses. The assumed mediating effects were not significant. However, alternative models with the putative mediators and outcome in reversed positions showed significant indirect effects of the oppositional-defiant symptoms as mediator for the decrease of disturbance of social-information processing, social skills, and social interactions. The proposed model for mechanisms of change could not be confirmed, with the results pointing to a reversed causality. Variables other than those hypothesized must be responsible for mediating the effects of the intervention on child oppositional-defiant behavior. Possible mechanisms of change were discussed.

  4. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor Structure and Uniform Differential Item Functioning Across Gender and Three Racial/Ethnic Groups for ADHD, Conduct Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesner, Margit; Kanouse, David E.; Elliott, Marc N.; Windle, Michael; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM–IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 chi...

  5. Disrupted Reinforcement Signaling in Orbital Frontal Cortex and Caudate in Youths with Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth C.; Marsh, Abigail A.; Blair, Karina S.; Reid, Marguerite. E.; Sims, Courtney; Ng, Pamela; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, R. James. R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dysfunction in amygdala and orbital frontal cortex functioning has been reported in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. However, the specific nature of the computational irregularities within these brain structures remains poorly understood. The current study used the passive avoidance task to examine responsiveness of these systems to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure, when prediction errors are greatest and learning maximized, and to reward in youths with psychopathic traits and comparison youths. METHOD 30 youths (N=15 with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus high psychopathic traits and N=15 comparison subjects) completed a 3.0 T fMRI scan while performing a passive avoidance learning task. RESULTS Relative to comparison youth, youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits showed reduced orbitofrontal cortex responsiveness both to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure and to rewards, as well as reduced caudate response to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure. Contrary to other predictions, however, there were no group differences in amygdala responsiveness specifically to these two task parameters. However, amygdala responsiveness throughout the task was reduced in the youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits are marked by a compromised sensitivity to early reinforcement information in both orbitofrontal cortex and caudate and to reward outcome information within orbitofrontal cortex. They further suggest that the integrated functioning of the amygdala, caudate and orbitofrontal cortex may be disrupted in individuals with this disorder. PMID:21078707

  6. Variability in emotional/behavioral problems in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder: the role of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; Van Rijn, Sophie; De Wied, Minet; Van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    It is often reported that children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) are under-aroused. However, the evidence is mixed, with some children with ODD/CD displaying high arousal. This has led to the hypothesis that different profiles of arousal dysfunction may exist within children with ODD/CD. This knowledge could explain variability within children with ODD/CD, both in terms of specific types of aggression as well as comorbid symptoms (e.g., other emotional/behavioral problems). We measured heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) during rest and stress, and obtained parent and teacher reports of aggression, anxiety, attention problems and autism traits in a sample of 66 ODD/CD and 36 non-clinical boys (aged 8-12 years). The ODD/CD group scored significantly higher on aggression, anxiety, attention problems and autism traits than the controls; boys with ODD/CD also had higher resting HRs than controls, but HR stress, HRV and SCL did not differ. Hierarchical regressions showed different physiological profiles in subgroups of boys with ODD/CD based on their type of aggression; a pattern of high baseline HR and SCL, but low stress HRV was related to reactive aggression, whereas the opposite physiological pattern (low HR, low stress SCL, high stress HRV) was related to proactive aggression. Furthermore, high stress SCL was related to anxiety symptoms, whereas low stress SCL was related to attention problems. These findings are important because they indicate heterogeneity within boys with ODD/CD and highlight the importance of using physiology to differentiate boys with different ODD/CD subtypes.

  7. On the link between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity: do comorbid oppositional defiant and conduct disorder matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Neidhard, John; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Becker, Katja

    2014-07-01

    The link between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and elevated body weight/obesity can be regarded as well established. Because oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) has also been found to be associated with these characteristics and ADHD and ODD/CD often occur comorbidly, we investigated whether ODD/CD and ADHD are independently linked with body weight and obesity. The clinical records of 360 children, 257 (6-12 years) with diagnoses of ADHD, ODD/CD, or comorbid ADHD and ODD/CD and 103 children with adjustment disorder (as a control group) constituted the database. All children were seen for the first time in two outpatient psychiatric clinics. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses (ADHD present vs. not present; ODD/CD present vs. not present) with the standard deviation scores (according to German reference data) of the child's body mass index (BMI-SDS) and presence of obesity were analyzed by ANCOVA and hierarchical logistic regression analysis, respectively. Children with ODD/CD showed higher BMI-SDS (F = 7.67, p < 0.006) and rate of obesity (Wald = 4.12, p < 0.05, OR = 2.43) while controlling for ADHD comorbidity. While adjusting for ODD/CD comorbidity, the links between ADHD and BMI-SDS or obesity did not reach statistical significance. Given a cross validation of these findings, future (preferably prospective longitudinal) research should analyze the mediating mechanism between the psychiatric conditions and obesity. This knowledge could be helpful for preventive interventions.

  8. Impaired neurocognitive functions affect social learning processes in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G; Lochman, John E

    2012-09-01

    In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive consequences is compromised in children and adolescents with these disorders due to reduced sensitivity to punishment and to reward. As a result, both learning of appropriate behavior and learning to refrain from inappropriate behavior may be affected. Likewise, problem solving is impaired due to deficiencies in inhibition, attention, cognitive flexibility, and decision making. Consequently, children and adolescents with ODD and CD may have difficulty learning to optimize their behavior in changeable environments. This conceptualization of ODD and CD is relevant for the improvement of the effect of psychological treatments. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral interventions that have been shown to be modestly effective in ODD and CD are based on social learning. Limited effectiveness of these interventions may be caused by difficulties in social learning in children and adolescents with ODD and CD. However, although these impairments have been observed at a group level, the deficits in reward processing, punishment processing, and cognitive control mentioned above may not be present to the same extent in each individual with ODD and CD. Therefore, the neurocognitive characteristics in children and adolescents with ODD and CD should be assessed individually. Thus, instead of delivering interventions in a standardized way, these programs may benefit from an individualized approach that depends on the weaknesses and strengths of the neurocognitive characteristics of the child and the adolescent.

  9. Structural Brain Abnormalities of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, Siri D. S.; Luman, Marjolein; Greven, Corina U.; Veroude, Kim; Faraone, Stephen V.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of

  10. Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in a National Sample: Developmental Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Barbara; Rowe, Richard; Messer, Julie; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Background: Despite an expanding epidemiological evidence base, uncertainties remain over key aspects of the epidemiology of the "antisocial" disorders in childhood and adolescence. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on a nationally representative sample of 10,438 5-15-year-olds drawn from the 1999 British Child Mental Health Survey…

  11. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; Rijn, Sophie van; Wied, Minet de; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-11-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this study extended previous studies in that not only baseline and reactivity to a psychosocial stressor were examined, but also recovery from a stressor. These three phases of cortisol could be impacted differentially in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) with (+ANX) and without anxiety (-ANX). The results revealed that cortisol patterns in response to psychosocial stress were different for boys with ODD/CD+ANX (n=32), ODD/CD-ANX (n=22) and non-clinical controls (NC) (n=34), with age range of 7.8-12.9 years. The ODD/CD-ANX group showed lower overall cortisol levels than the NC group. When considering the three phases of cortisol separately, the ODD/CD-ANX group had lower baseline cortisol levels relative to the other groups, whereas the ODD/CD+ANX showed an impaired cortisol recovery response. Within those with ODD/CD, callous-unemotional traits were predictive of high baseline cortisol levels. Also, anxiety predicted high baseline and recovery cortisol levels, whereas a high number of CD symptoms predicted reduced cortisol stress reactivity. These results clearly indicate that comorbid anxiety is an important factor in explaining differences in stress response profiles in boys with ODD/CD; although boys with CD/ODD are generally characterized by an impaired cortisol stress response, we found that those with comorbid anxiety showed impaired cortisol recovery, whereas those without anxiety showed reduced baseline cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MULTI DISCIPLINARY APPROACH IN TREATING A GIRL CHILD DIAGNOSED WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPER ACTIVE DISORDER AND OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER. A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shaik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The principle features of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. There is little evidence that confirms that Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is arising purely from child rearing methods or social factors.76 % of children with ADHD has a family history, and the similar cases can be seen in the family. The symptoms of more than 50 % of ADHD children will continue in adulthood which requires treatment. Most of the causes appear for ADHD are categorizing the condition in a group of neurobiological and genetic disorders. This does not mean to say that the influence of environmental factors on the severity of disorder, impairment and suffering the child may experience is nil, but those factors do not give rise to the condition by themselves. The chances of getting associated problems like Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD in children with ADHD is one-third to one-half and ODD is more common in boys with ADHD. These children are often non compliant, stubborn, defiant, have outbursts of temper, or become belligerent. Case description: This is a case report of a child who diagnosed as attention deficit hyper active disordered and Oppositional Defiant Disordered (ODD child, with finger contractures of right hand, which treated with medications, behavioral therapy, physiotherapy, relaxation techniques and music therapy as the means of rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The evaluation measures used are Nine-hole peg test, behavioral rating scale and a seven items temperament evaluation scale. Discussion: A holistic rehabilitation therapy increased attention, listening to suggestions, short stories and sleeping in time. Oppositional behaviors were also reduced both at home and school. Her relationships with parent, teachers and school mates were improved. Listening skills, attention, daily activities such as wake up, brushing, bathing, going to school in time were also

  13. Predicting Treatment Response for Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Using Pre-treatment Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Dorn, Lorah D; Kolko, David J; Susman, Elizabeth J; Noll, Jennie G; Bukstein, Oscar G

    2012-12-01

    Variations in adrenal and gonadal hormone profiles have been linked to increased rates of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). These relationships suggest that certain hormone profiles may be related to how well children respond to psychological treatments for ODD and CD. The current study assessed whether pre-treatment profiles of adrenal and gonadal hormones predicted response to psychological treatment of ODD and CD. One hundred five children, 6 - 11 years old, participating in a randomized, clinical trial provided samples for cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione. Diagnostic interviews of ODD and CD were administered up to three years post-treatment to track treatment response. Group-based trajectory modeling identified two trajectories of treatment response: 1) a High-response trajectory where children demonstrated lower rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up, and 2) a Low-response trajectory where children demonstrated higher rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up. Hierarchical logistic regression predicting treatment response demonstrated that children with higher pre-treatment concentrations of testosterone were four times more likely to be in the Low-response trajectory. No other significant relationship existed between pre-treatment hormone profiles and treatment response. These results suggest that higher concentrations of testosterone are related to how well children diagnosed with ODD or CD respond to psychological treatment over the course of three years.

  14. Problem of item overlap between the psychopathy screening device and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G L

    2000-12-01

    Content validity requires a clear definition of the construct of interest and the delineation of the construct from similar constructs. Content validity also requires that the items be representative of the construct as well as specific to the construct. An examination of the items on the Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD), a parent- and teacher-rating scale of childhood psychopathy, indicates significant overlap with the symptoms and associated features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). The failure of the PSD to have unique items results in poor discriminant validity with ADHD, ODD, and CD rating scales. More careful attention to content validation guidelines is required to develop a more useful measure of childhood psychopathy.

  15. Interrelationships and Continuities in Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders from Age 4 to 10 in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Silje Merethe; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-07-01

    Childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has commonly been thought to increase the risk of conduct disorder (CD) in late childhood and adolescence. However, symptoms of CD may also emerge during preschool and middle childhood. The few studies that have examined whether ODD increases the risk of such early onset CD have produced equivocal results, potentially due to methodological issues. In this study, a community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds (n = 1042, 49.9 % males) was examined bi-annually over four waves of data collection. Symptoms of ODD, CD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depressive disorders were measured through interviews with parents and children using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment and the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. The results showed that at all ages, more symptoms of ODD predicted more symptoms of CD at the next age of examination even after adjusting for previous CD and comorbid conditions. The effect of previous ODD on CD two years later did not differ according to gender, SES, or parental cohabitating status at any point in time. There was modest homotypical continuity in symptoms of CD and moderate homotypical continuity in symptoms of ODD. Symptoms of ODD increased from age 4 to 8 and declined to age 10. In conclusion, symptoms of ODD increase the risk of early onset symptoms of CD. The continuity in symptoms of ODD, and to some extent CD, combined with an increased risk of early symptoms of CD forecasted by symptoms of ODD, underscore the importance of detection, prevention and treatment of behavioral disorders already in early childhood.

  16. Multi-Level Family Factors and Affective and Behavioral Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Tang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the important role of family environment in children's psychological development, the objective of this study was to examine the linkages between family factors at the whole, dyadic, and individual levels and two dimensions (affective and behavioral of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD symptoms in Chinese children. Participants comprised of 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads from families with ODD children. The results indicated that multilevel family factors were differently associated with children's affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. All the family factors at the dyadic and individual levels were significantly associated with child affective ODD symptoms. However, only the most proximal factors (parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation, which were directly related to child were significantly related to child behavioral ODD symptoms. The present study extends the current knowledge regarding the relationships between family factors and two dimensions of child ODD symptoms by testing the comprehensive multilevel family factors model. This study also recommends that future interventions for ODD children should consider the multi-level family factors to enhance intervention efficacy.

  17. Symptoms of Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Callous-Unemotional Traits as Unique Predictors of Psychosocial Maladjustment in Boys: Advancing an Evidence Base for DSM-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Fite, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The incremental utility of symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits for predicting psychosocial outcomes across multiple domains was examined in a community sample of 1,517 boys. Method: Several outcomes were assessed…

  18. Efficacy of individualized social competence training for children with oppositional defiant disorders/conduct disorders: a randomized controlled trial with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz-Dorten, Anja; Benesch, Christina; Berk-Pawlitzek, Emel; Faber, Martin; Hautmann, Christopher; Hellmich, Martin; Lindenschmidt, Timo; Schuh, Lioba; Stadermann, Rahel; Doepfner, Manfred

    2018-03-28

    Patient-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in children with aggressive behavior, which uses group-based social skills training, has resulted in significant reductions in behavioral problems, with effect sizes in the small-to-medium range. However, effects of individually delivered treatments and effects on aggressive behavior and comorbid conditions rated from different perspectives, child functional impairment, child quality of life, parent-child relationship, and parental psychopathology have rarely been assessed. In a randomized controlled trial, 91 boys aged 6-12 years with a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder and peer-related aggression were randomized to receive individually delivered social competence training (Treatment Program for Children with Aggressive Behavior, THAV) or to an active control involving group play that included techniques to activate resources and the opportunity to train prosocial interactions in groups (PLAY). Outcome measures were rated by parents, teachers, or clinicians. Mostly moderate treatment effects for THAV compared to PLAY were found in parent ratings and/or clinician ratings on aggressive behavior, comorbid symptoms, psychosocial impairment, quality of life, parental stress, and negative expressed emotions. In teacher ratings, significant effects were found for ADHD symptoms and prosocial behavior only. THAV is a specifically effective intervention for boys aged 6-12 years with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder and peer-related aggressive behavior as rated by parents and clinicians.

  19. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Parenting Educational Program on the Anxiety, Parent-Child Conflict and Parent Self-Agency in Mothers with Oppositional Defiant Disorder Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghazanfari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Oppositional defiant disorder that occurs in pre-school or early school-age children and in pre-adolescent stage has a widespread impact on the child, family, teachers and society. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mindful parenting education program on reducing the anxiety and parent-child conflict and increasing the self-agency of parenting in mothers who have oppositional defiant disorder daughters. Materials & Methods: This semi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group was performed during 2015-2016 academic year in 34 mothers of primary school girl students of Noorabad City, Iran, who were suffering from oppositional defiant disorder. The samples were selected by purposeful clustering method and were randomly divided into 2 test and control groups (each had 17 members. The research tools were Child Behavioral Logbook and Teacher Report Form, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Conflict Strategy and Parent Self-efficacy Questionnaires. Mindfulness-based parenting educational program was conducted for the experimental group one 2-hour session a week for 2 months. Data were analyzed by SPSS 23 software using MANCOVA test. Findings: The average of total anxiety, parent-child conflict and parental self-efficacy scores were higher in the experimental group in posttest. After controlling the effect of pre-test scores, there were significant differences between the test and control groups in terms of all variables (p<0.001. Conclusion: Mindfulness-based parenting educational program reduces the anxiety and parent-child conflict and increases the parental self-efficacy in mothers with oppositional defiant disorder.

  20. Perceived Parent-Child Relations, Conduct Problems, and Clinical Improvement Following the Treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Jordan A; Ollendick, Thomas H; Dunsmore, Julie C; Greene, Ross W

    2016-05-01

    Our objective in this study was to examine the moderating influence of parent-child relationship quality (as viewed by the child) on associations between conduct problems and treatment responses for children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). To date, few studies have considered children's perceptions of relationship quality with parents in clinical contexts even though extant studies show the importance of this factor in children's behavioral adjustment in non-clinical settings. In this study, 123 children (ages 7 - 14 years, 61.8% male, 83.7% white) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for ODD received one of two psychosocial treatments: Parent Management Training or Collaborative & Proactive Solutions. In an earlier study, both treatments were found to be effective and equivalent in treatment outcomes (Ollendick et al., in press). In the current study, pre-treatment maternal reports of conduct problems and pre-treatment child reports of relations with parents were used to predict outcomes in ODD symptoms and their severity following treatment. Elevated reports of children's conduct problems were associated with attenuated reductions in both ODD symptoms and their severity. Perceived relationship quality with parents moderated the ties between conduct problems and outcomes in ODD severity but not the number of symptoms. Mother reports of elevated conduct problems predicted attenuated treatment response only when children viewed relationship quality with their parents as poorer. When children viewed the relationship as higher quality, they did not show an attenuated treatment response, regardless of reported conduct problems. The current findings underscore the importance of children's perspectives in treatment response and reductions in externalizing child behaviors.

  1. Perceived Parent–Child Relations, Conduct Problems, and Clinical Improvement Following the Treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Greene, Ross W.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to examine the moderating influence of parent-child relationship quality (as viewed by the child) on associations between conduct problems and treatment responses for children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). To date, few studies have considered children’s perceptions of relationship quality with parents in clinical contexts even though extant studies show the importance of this factor in children’s behavioral adjustment in non-clinical settings. In this study, 123 children (ages 7 – 14 years, 61.8% male, 83.7% white) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for ODD received one of two psychosocial treatments: Parent Management Training or Collaborative & Proactive Solutions. In an earlier study, both treatments were found to be effective and equivalent in treatment outcomes (Ollendick et al., in press). In the current study, pre-treatment maternal reports of conduct problems and pre-treatment child reports of relations with parents were used to predict outcomes in ODD symptoms and their severity following treatment. Elevated reports of children’s conduct problems were associated with attenuated reductions in both ODD symptoms and their severity. Perceived relationship quality with parents moderated the ties between conduct problems and outcomes in ODD severity but not the number of symptoms. Mother reports of elevated conduct problems predicted attenuated treatment response only when children viewed relationship quality with their parents as poorer. When children viewed the relationship as higher quality, they did not show an attenuated treatment response, regardless of reported conduct problems. The current findings underscore the importance of children’s perspectives in treatment response and reductions in externalizing child behaviors. PMID:27284234

  2. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  3. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD share clinical features of impulsivity, poor self-regulation, and executive dysfunction, while ODD and BPD share features of anger and interpersonal turmoil. The study is based on annual, longitudinal data from the two oldest cohorts in the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 1233). We used piecewise latent growth curve models of ADHD and ODD scores from age 8–10 and 10–13 years to examine the prospective associations between dual trajectories of ADHD and ODD symptom severity and later BPD symptoms at age 14 in girls. To examine the specificity of these associations, we also included conduct disorder (CD) and depression symptom severity at age 14 as additional outcomes. We found that higher levels of ADHD and ODD scores at age 8 uniquely predicted BPD symptoms at age 14. Additionally, the rate of growth in ADHD scores from age 10–13 and the rate of growth in ODD scores from 8–10 uniquely predicted higher BPD symptoms at age 14. This study adds to the literature on the early development of BPD by providing the first longitudinal study to examine ADHD and ODD symptom trajectories as specific childhood precursors of BPD symptoms in adolescent girls. PMID:21671009

  4. Disrupted reinforcement signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate in youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and a high level of psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth C; Marsh, Abigail A; Blair, Karina S; Reid, Marguerite E; Sims, Courtney; Ng, Pamela; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, R James R

    2011-02-01

    Dysfunction in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex has been reported in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. The specific nature of the functional irregularities within these structures remains poorly understood. The authors used a passive avoidance task to examine the responsiveness of these systems to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure, when prediction errors are greatest and learning maximized, and to reward in youths with psychopathic traits and comparison youths. While performing the passive avoidance learning task, 15 youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus a high level of psychopathic traits and 15 healthy subjects completed a 3.0-T fMRI scan. Relative to the comparison youths, the youths with a disruptive behavior disorder plus psychopathic traits showed less orbitofrontal responsiveness both to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure and to rewards, as well as less caudate response to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure. There were no group differences in amygdala responsiveness to these two task measures, but amygdala responsiveness throughout the task was lower in the youths with psychopathic traits. Compromised sensitivity to early reinforcement information in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate and to reward outcome information in the orbitofrontal cortex of youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits suggests that the integrated functioning of the amygdala, caudate, and orbitofrontal cortex may be disrupted. This provides a functional neural basis for why such youths are more likely to repeat disadvantageous decisions. New treatment possibilities are raised, as pharmacologic modulations of serotonin and dopamine can affect this form of learning.

  5. A Naturalistic Comparison of Methylphenidate and Risperidone Monotherapy in Drug-Naive Youth With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Comorbid With Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Manfredi, Azzurra; Nieri, Giulia; Muratori, Pietro; Pfanner, Chiara; Milone, Annarita

    2017-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are frequently co-occurring in youth, but data about the pharmacological management of this comorbidity are scarce, especially when impulsive aggression is prominent. Although stimulants are the first-line medication for ADHD, second-generation antipsychotics, namely, risperidone, are frequently used. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and risperidone in a consecutive sample of 40 drug-naive male youths diagnosed as having ADHD-combined presentation, comorbid with ODD and aggression, without psychiatric comorbidities, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and a structured clinical interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Twenty males treated with MPH (mean age, 8.95 ± 1.67 years) and 20 males treated with risperidone (mean age, 9.35 ± 2.72 years), followed up to 6 months, were assessed according to efficacy measures (Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL], Clinical Global Impression-Severity [CGI-S] and Improvement [CGI-I], Children Global Assessment Scale), and safety measures. At the end of the follow-up, both medications were similarly effective based on CBCL subscales of aggression and rule-breaking behaviors, on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented oppositional defiant problems and conduct problems, and on CGI-S, CGI-I, and Children Global Assessment Scale, but only MPH was effective on CBCL attention problems and attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems. Risperidone was associated with weight gain and elevated prolactin levels. Although the nonrandomized, nonblind design limits the conclusions of our exploratory study, our findings suggest that when ADHD is comorbid with ODD and aggression MPH and risperidone are both effective on aggressive behavior, but

  6. The Associations Between Pre- and Postnatal Maternal Symptoms of Distress and Preschooler's Symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Bothild; Aase, Heidi; Diep, Lien My

    2015-01-01

    ,195), recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, were assessed with a semistructured parental psychiatric interview. Perinatal maternal symptoms of distress were assessed by Symptom Checklist (SCL-5); Poisson regression was used to examine the associations. RESULTS: Mid-gestational maternal......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to examine the associations between pre- and postnatal maternal distress and preschooler's symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and anxiety, by timing and gender. METHOD: Children, aged 3.5 years (N = 1...... distress significantly increased the average number of child symptoms, ranging between 3.8% for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) and 8.7% for anxiety. The combination of high maternal scores of distress both pre- and postnatally were associated with increased risk of child symptoms of anxiety (relative...

  7. Trastorno oposicional desafiante: enfoques diagnóstico y terapéutico y trastornos asociados Oppositional defiant disorder: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and associated disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Palacio Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se define el trastorno oposicional desafiante (TOD como un patrón recurrente de conducta negativista, desafiante, desobediente y hostil, dirigido a los padres y a las figuras de autoridad. Los estudios en países desarrollados han identificado factores cognitivos y conductuales errados, como los principales determinantes de una actitud negativa, opuesta y contraria a las normas establecidas; mientras que en países en vías de desarrollo, como Colombia, se destacan los factores ambientales como condicionantes de resiliencia y prosocialidad. En este artículo se presenta información general sobre el TOD, sus comorbilidades más frecuentes y su enfoque terapéutico.

    Oppositional-defiant disorder is defined by a repetitive pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile conduct, against parents and other authority figures. Surveys in developed countries have identified cognitive and misconduct risk factors as the main determinants of a negative attitude, opposed and contrary to social laws; but in developing countries, such as Colombia, environmental factors are the main determinants of resilience and prosociality. In this paper we present general information on TOD, its associated disorders, and its therapeutic approach. 

  8. Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Oppositional Defiant Problems as Antecedents of School Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Jansen, Pauline W.; Veenstra, Rene; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Shaw, Philip; Tiemeier, Henning

    Objective: To examine whether early manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) increase children's later risk of bullying or victimization. Method: Using a population-based, prospective cohort, our multi-informant approach comprised

  9. The dynamics of attentional and inhibitory functions in the presence of distracting stimuli in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, high-functioning autism and oppositional defiant disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to elucidate the specific nature of attention and response inhibition deficits in three clinical groups: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and high-functioning autism, as compared to children with a typical development. The analysis approached task performance dynamics as a function of time and the presence of distracting stimuli. Material and method: 108 children aged 7–12 years participated in the study – 21 diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, 21 with high-functioning autism, 19 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; 47 made the control group. The study employed the MOXO-CPT to evaluate attention and inhibition functions. Results: Pairwise comparisons of clinical groups with typically-developing children in their performance on the entire test indicated considerable differences between the control group and children with both oppositional defiant disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but not between healthy subjects and children with autism. Performance profiles varied depending on the group, i.e. the type of disorder, and the level of the test, i.e. stimulus duration and intensity, but they were different for the particular studied aspects of attention and/or inhibition. High levels of similarity in functioning for all clinical groups were found in the measures of response accuracy, i.e. sustained attention and the speed of accurate response. The tendency to provide unnecessary responses and difficulties in complying with rules were found only in children with oppositional-defiant disorders. Impulsiveness rates increased over time in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, fluctuated over time in autism, while in the oppositional defiant disorder group performance was stable over time, but worse than in the control group. Conclusions: The dynamics of attentional and inhibitory control in clinical groups

  10. Gene‐set and multivariate genome‐wide association analysis of oppositional defiant behavior subtypes in attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; Poelmans, Geert; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Sonuga‐Barke, Edmund J. S.; Stringaris, Argyris; consortium, IMAGE; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Steinhausen, Hans‐Christoph; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a frequent psychiatric disorder seen in children and adolescents with attention‐deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ODD is also a common antecedent to both affective disorders and aggressive behaviors. Although the heritability of ODD has been estimated to be around 0.60, there has been little research into the molecular genetics of ODD. The present study examined the association of irritable and defiant/vindictive dimensions and categorical subtypes of ODD (based on latent class analyses) with previously described specific polymorphisms (DRD4 exon3 VNTR, 5‐HTTLPR, and seven OXTR SNPs) as well as with dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin genes and pathways in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. In addition, we performed a multivariate genome‐wide association study (GWAS) of the aforementioned ODD dimensions and subtypes. Apart from adjusting the analyses for age and sex, we controlled for “parental ability to cope with disruptive behavior.” None of the hypothesis‐driven analyses revealed a significant association with ODD dimensions and subtypes. Inadequate parenting behavior was significantly associated with all ODD dimensions and subtypes, most strongly with defiant/vindictive behaviors. In addition, the GWAS did not result in genome‐wide significant findings but bioinformatics and literature analyses revealed that the proteins encoded by 28 of the 53 top‐ranked genes functionally interact in a molecular landscape centered around Beta‐catenin signaling and involved in the regulation of neurite outgrowth. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular basis of ODD and inform future genetic studies of oppositional behavior. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26184070

  11. Risperidone added to parent training and stimulant medication: effects on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and peer aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar G; Brown, Nicole V; McNamara, Nora K; Rundberg-Rivera, E Victoria; Li, Xiaobai; Kipp, Heidi L; Schneider, Jayne; Farmer, Cristan A; Baker, Jennifer L; Sprafkin, Joyce; Rice, Robert R; Bangalore, Srihari S; Butter, Eric M; Buchan-Page, Kristin A; Hurt, Elizabeth A; Austin, Adrienne B; Grondhuis, Sabrina N; Aman, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to expand on our prior research into the relative efficacy of combining parent training, stimulant medication, and placebo (Basic therapy) versus parent training, stimulant, and risperidone (Augmented therapy) by examining treatment effects for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and peer aggression, symptom-induced impairment, and informant discrepancy. Children (6-12 years of age; N = 168) with severe physical aggression, ADHD, and co-occurring ODD/CD received an open trial of parent training and stimulant medication for 3 weeks. Participants failing to show optimal clinical response were randomly assigned to Basic or Augmented therapy for an additional 6 weeks. Compared with Basic therapy, children receiving Augmented therapy experienced greater reduction in parent-rated ODD severity (p = .002, Cohen's d = 0.27) and peer aggression (p = .02, Cohen's d = 0.32) but not ADHD or CD symptoms. Fewer children receiving Augmented (16%) than Basic (40%) therapy were rated by their parents as impaired by ODD symptoms at week 9/endpoint (p = .008). Teacher ratings indicated greater reduction in ADHD severity (p = .02, Cohen's d = 0.61) with Augmented therapy, but not for ODD or CD symptoms or peer aggression. Although both interventions were associated with marked symptom reduction, a relatively large percentage of children were rated as impaired for at least 1 targeted disorder at week 9/endpoint by parents (Basic 47%; Augmented 27%) and teachers (Basic 48%; Augmented 38%). Augmented therapy was superior to Basic therapy in reducing severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms, peer aggression, and symptom-induced impairment, but clinical improvement was generally context specific, and effect sizes ranged from small to moderate. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00796302

  12. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ODD/CD, studies were classified in hot and cool executive functioning (EF). Both the meta-analytic and narrative reviews showed evidence of smaller brain structures and lower brain activity in individuals with ODD/CD in mainly hot EF-related areas: bilateral amygdala, bilateral insula, right striatum, left medial/superior frontal gyrus, and left precuneus. Evidence was present in both structural and functional studies, and irrespective of the presence of ADHD comorbidity. There is strong evidence that abnormalities in the amygdala are specific for ODD/CD as compared to ADHD, and correlational studies further support the association between abnormalities in the amygdala and ODD/CD symptoms. Besides the left precuneus, there was no evidence for abnormalities in typical cool EF related structures, such as the cerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Resulting areas are associated with emotion-processing, error-monitoring, problem-solving and self-control; areas associated with neurocognitive and behavioural deficits implicated in ODD/CD. Our findings confirm the involvement of hot, and to a smaller extent cool, EF associated brain areas in ODD/CD, and support an integrated model for ODD/CD (e.g. Blair, Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 865-891, 2005).

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type: evidence for an association with COMT but not MAOA in a Chinese sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu-Feng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are three childhood disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, and conduct disorder (CD. The most common comorbid disorder in ADHD is ODD. DSM-IV describes three ADHD subtypes: predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-IA, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-HI, and combined type (ADHD-C. Prior work suggests that specific candidate genes are associated with specific subtypes of ADHD in China. Our previous association studies between ADHD and functional polymorphisms of COMT and MAOA, consistently showed the low transcriptional activity alleles were preferentially transmitted to ADHD-IA boys. Thus, the goal of the present study is to test the hypothesis that COMT Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR jointly contribute to the ODD phenotype among Chinese ADHD boys. Methods 171 Chinese boys between 6 and 17.5 years old (mean = 10.3, SD = 2.6 with complete COMT val158met and MAOA-uVNTR genotyping information were studied. We used logistic regression with genotypes as independent variables and the binary phenotype as the dependent variable. We used p Results Our results highlight the potential etiologic role of COMT in the ADHD with comorbid ODD and its predominately inattentive type in male Chinese subjects. ADHD with comorbid ODD was associated with homozygosity of the high-activity Val allele, while the predominantly inattentive ADHD subtype was associated with the low-activity Met allele. We found no evidence of association between the MAOA-uVNTR variant and ADHD with comorbid ODD or the ADHD-IA subtype. Conclusion Our study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type highlights the potential etiologic role of COMT for ADHD children in China. But we failed to observe an interaction between COMT and MAOA, which suggests that epistasis between COMT and MAOA genes does not

  14. Canadian guidelines on pharmacotherapy for disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or conduct disorder.

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    Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2015-02-01

    To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone's major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use.

  15. Canadian Guidelines on Pharmacotherapy for Disruptive and Aggressive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. Method: A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). Results: For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone’s major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. Conclusion: When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use. PMID:25886657

  16. Impaired functional but preserved structural connectivity in limbic white matter tracts in youth with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits.

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    Finger, Elizabeth Carrie; Marsh, Abigail; Blair, Karina Simone; Majestic, Catherine; Evangelou, Iordanis; Gupta, Karan; Schneider, Marguerite Reid; Sims, Courtney; Pope, Kayla; Fowler, Katherine; Sinclair, Stephen; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Pine, Daniel; Blair, Robert James

    2012-06-30

    Youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and psychopathic traits (CD/ODD+PT) are at high risk of adult antisocial behavior and psychopathy. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate functional abnormalities in orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala in both youths and adults with psychopathic traits. Diffusion tensor imaging in psychopathic adults demonstrates disrupted structural connectivity between these regions (uncinate fasiculus). The current study examined whether functional neural abnormalities present in youths with CD/ODD+PT are associated with similar white matter abnormalities. Youths with CD/ODD+PT and comparison participants completed 3.0 T diffusion tensor scans and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Diffusion tensor imaging did not reveal disruption in structural connections within the uncinate fasiculus or other white matter tracts in youths with CD/ODD+PT, despite the demonstration of disrupted amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity in these youths. These results suggest that disrupted amygdala-frontal white matter connectivity as measured by fractional anisotropy is less sensitive than imaging measurements of functional perturbations in youths with psychopathic traits. If white matter tracts are intact in youths with this disorder, childhood may provide a critical window for intervention and treatment, before significant structural brain abnormalities solidify. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Common Versus Specific Correlates of Fifth-Grade Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms: Comparison of Three Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Elliott, Marc N; McLaughlin, Katie A; Banspach, Stephen W; Tortolero, Susan; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    The extent to which risk profiles or correlates of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms overlap among youth continues to be debated. Cross-sectional data from a large, representative community sample (N = 4,705) of African-American, Latino, and White fifth graders were used to examine overlap in correlates of CD and ODD symptoms. About 49 % of the children were boys. Analyses were conducted using negative binomial regression models, accounting for several confounding factors (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms), sampling weights, stratification, and clustering. Results indicated that CD and ODD symptoms had very similar correlates. In addition to previously established correlates, several social skills dimensions were significantly related to ODD and CD symptoms, even after controlling for other correlates. In contrast, temperamental dimensions were not significantly related to CD and ODD symptoms, possibly because more proximal correlates (e.g., social skills) were also taken into account. Only two factors (gender and household income) were found to be specific correlates of CD, but not ODD, symptoms. The pattern of common and specific correlates of CD and ODD symptoms was replicated fairly consistently across the three racial/ethnic subgroups. Implications of these findings for further research and intervention efforts are discussed.

  18. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The Possible Effect of Methylphenidate Treatment on Empathy in Children Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Both With and Without Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubchik, Pavel; Weizman, Abraham

    2017-06-01

    To assess the Empathizing Quotient (EQ) of patients diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only or comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and compare the two groups' responses to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment. Fifty-two children (8-18 years) diagnosed with ADHD, 26 of whom were also diagnosed with comorbid ODD (ADHD/ODD), were treated with MPH for 12 weeks. The level of EQ was assessed with the Children's version of the Empathizing Quotient (EQ-C) and the severity of ADHD symptoms with the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Assessments were done at baseline and at end point. A significant increase in EQ scores was obtained in both groups following MPH treatment (p = 0.003 for ADHD/ODD; p = 0.002 for ADHD). Significant correlation was found in the ADHD group between the changes in ADHD-RS and those in EQ, following MPH treatment (p = 0.015), but not in the ADHD/ODD group (p = 0.48). A correlation exists between MPH-related improvement in ADHD symptoms and between more empathy in children with ADHD not comorbid with ODD.

  20. A pilot study of a school-based prevention and early intervention program to reduce oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Jo; Carlsson, Anthony; Vance, Alasdair

    2014-05-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) occurs when children's disruptive and antisocial behaviours start to interfere with their academic, emotional and/or social development. Recently, there has been a considerable investment to implement national school-based early intervention programs to help prevent the onset of ODD/CD. This paper describes the delivery of the Royal Children's Hospital, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service and Schools Early Action Program: a whole school, multi-level, multidisciplinary approach to address emerging ODD/CD and pre- versus post-delivery assessment in 40 schools over a 4-year period (2007-2010). All children from preparatory to grade 3 (ages 4-10 years) were screened for conduct problems (n = 8546) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Universal, targeted and indicated interventions were delivered in school settings. In total, 304 children participated in the targeted group program where the Child Behaviour Checklist was used as a pre- and post-intervention measure. Cohen's d effect sizes and a reliability change index were calculated to determine clinical significance. Significant reductions in both parent- and teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms were noted. Parent, teacher and child feedback were very positive. A future randomized controlled trial of the program would address potential placebo and selection bias effects. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. The Associations Between Pre- and Postnatal Maternal Symptoms of Distress and Preschooler's Symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendiksen, Bothild; Aase, Heidi; Diep, Lien My; Svensson, Elisabeth; Friis, Svein; Zeiner, Pål

    2015-12-07

    The objective of this article is to examine the associations between pre- and postnatal maternal distress and preschooler's symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and anxiety, by timing and gender. Children, aged 3.5 years (N = 1,195), recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, were assessed with a semistructured parental psychiatric interview. Perinatal maternal symptoms of distress were assessed by Symptom Checklist (SCL-5); Poisson regression was used to examine the associations. Mid-gestational maternal distress significantly increased the average number of child symptoms, ranging between 3.8% for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) and 8.7% for anxiety. The combination of high maternal scores of distress both pre- and postnatally were associated with increased risk of child symptoms of anxiety (relative risk [RR] = 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.43, 3.07]), CD (RR = 1.83; 95% CI = [1.33, 2.51]), and ODD (RR = 1.30; 95% CI = [1.03, 1.64]), with minor sex differences. Maternal distress during mid-gestation was associated with ADHD, behavioral, and emotional symptoms in preschool children. Continued exposure into the postnatal period may further increase these risk associations . © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Neurobiological stress responses predict aggression in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder: a 1-year follow-up intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-07-01

    To improve outcome for children with antisocial and aggressive behavior, it is important to know which individual characteristics contribute to reductions in problem behavior. The predictive value of a parent training (Parent Management Training Oregon; PMTO), parenting practices (monitoring, discipline, and punishment), and child neurobiological function (heart rate, cortisol) on the course of aggression was investigated. 64 boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (8-12 years) participated; parents of 22 boys took part in PMTO. All data were collected before the start of the PMTO, and aggression ratings were collected three times, before PMTO, and at 6 and 12 month follow-up. Parent training predicted a decline in aggression at 6 and 12 months. Child neurobiological variables, i.e., higher cortisol stress reactivity and better cortisol recovery, also predicted a decline in aggression at 6 and 12 months. Heart rate and parenting practices were not related to the course of aggression. These results indicate that child neurobiological factors can predict persistence or reduction of aggression in boys with ODD/CD, and have unique prognostic value on top of the parent training effects.

  3. The long-term longitudinal course of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in ADHD boys: findings from a controlled 10-year prospective longitudinal follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J; Petty, C R; Dolan, C; Hughes, S; Mick, E; Monuteaux, M C; Faraone, S V

    2008-07-01

    A better understanding of the long-term scope and impact of the co-morbidity with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth has important clinical and public health implications. Subjects were assessed blindly at baseline (mean age=10.7 years), 1-year (mean age=11.9 years), 4-year (mean age=14.7 years) and 10-year follow-up (mean age=21.7 years). The subjects' lifetime diagnostic status of ADHD, ODD and CD by the 4-year follow-up were used to define four groups (Controls, ADHD, ADHD plus ODD, and ADHD plus ODD and CD). Diagnostic outcomes at the 10-year follow-up were considered positive if full criteria were met any time after the 4-year assessment (interval diagnosis). Outcomes were examined using a Kaplan-Meier survival function (persistence of ODD), logistic regression (for binary outcomes) and negative binomial regression (for count outcomes) controlling for age. ODD persisted in a substantial minority of subjects at the 10-year follow-up. Independent of co-morbid CD, ODD was associated with major depression in the interval between the 4-year and the 10-year follow-up. Although ODD significantly increased the risk for CD and antisocial personality disorder, CD conferred a much larger risk for these outcomes. Furthermore, only CD was associated with significantly increased risk for psychoactive substance use disorders, smoking, and bipolar disorder. These longitudinal findings support and extend previously reported findings from this sample at the 4-year follow-up indicating that ODD and CD follow a divergent course. They also support previous findings that ODD heralds a compromised outcome for ADHD youth grown up independently of the co-morbidity with CD.

  4. Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and the Relation with Comorbid Autism Traits and Attention Deficit Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantiene Schoorl

    Full Text Available Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD, children with other psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have emotion regulation difficulties too. On a behavioral level some overlap exists between these disorders and comorbidity is high. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1 to examine emotion regulation difficulties in 65 boys with ODD/CD in comparison to a non-clinical control group (NC of 38 boys (8-12 years using a performance measure (Ultimatum Game, parent report and self-report, and 2 to establish to what extent emotion regulation in the ODD/CD group was correlated with severity of autism and/or attention deficit traits. Results on the Ultimatum Game showed that the ODD/CD group rejected more ambiguous offers than the NC group, which is seen as an indication of poor emotion regulation. Parents also reported that the ODD/CD group experienced more emotion regulation problems in daily life than the NC group. In contrast to these cognitive and behavioral measures, self-reports did not reveal any difference, indicating that boys with ODD/CD do not perceive themselves as having impairments in regulating their emotions. Emotional decision making within the ODD/CD group was not related to variation in autism or attention deficit traits. These results support the idea that emotion dysregulation is an important problem within ODD/CD, yet boys with ODD/CD have reduced awareness of this.

  5. Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and the Relation with Comorbid Autism Traits and Attention Deficit Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD), children with other psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have emotion regulation difficulties too. On a behavioral level some overlap exists between these disorders and comorbidity is high. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1) to examine emotion regulation difficulties in 65 boys with ODD/CD in comparison to a non-clinical control group (NC) of 38 boys (8-12 years) using a performance measure (Ultimatum Game), parent report and self-report, and 2) to establish to what extent emotion regulation in the ODD/CD group was correlated with severity of autism and/or attention deficit traits. Results on the Ultimatum Game showed that the ODD/CD group rejected more ambiguous offers than the NC group, which is seen as an indication of poor emotion regulation. Parents also reported that the ODD/CD group experienced more emotion regulation problems in daily life than the NC group. In contrast to these cognitive and behavioral measures, self-reports did not reveal any difference, indicating that boys with ODD/CD do not perceive themselves as having impairments in regulating their emotions. Emotional decision making within the ODD/CD group was not related to variation in autism or attention deficit traits. These results support the idea that emotion dysregulation is an important problem within ODD/CD, yet boys with ODD/CD have reduced awareness of this.

  6. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Pharmacological Management of Oppositional Behaviour, Conduct Problems, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Part 2: Antipsychotics and Traditional Mood Stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses in childhood. Aggression and conduct problems are a major source of disability and a risk factor for poor long-term outcomes. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotics, lithium, and anticonvulsants for aggression and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. Each medication was given an overall quality of evidence rating based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results: Eleven RCTs of antipsychotics and 7 RCTs of lithium and anticonvulsants were included. There is moderate-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate-to-large effect on conduct problems and aggression in youth with subaverage IQ and ODD, CD, or disruptive behaviour disorder not otherwise specified, with and without ADHD, and high-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate effect on disruptive and aggressive behaviour in youth with average IQ and ODD or CD, with and without ADHD. Evidence supporting the use of haloperidol, thioridazine, quetiapine, and lithium in aggressive youth with CD is of low or very-low quality, and evidence supporting the use of divalproex in aggressive youth with ODD or CD is of low quality. There is very-low-quality evidence that carbamazepine is no different from placebo for the management of aggression in youth with CD. Conclusion: With the exception of risperidone, the evidence to support the use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers is of low quality. PMID:25886656

  8. The pharmacological management of oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 2: antipsychotics and traditional mood stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-02-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses in childhood. Aggression and conduct problems are a major source of disability and a risk factor for poor long-term outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotics, lithium, and anticonvulsants for aggression and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. Each medication was given an overall quality of evidence rating based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Eleven RCTs of antipsychotics and 7 RCTs of lithium and anticonvulsants were included. There is moderate-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate-to-large effect on conduct problems and aggression in youth with subaverage IQ and ODD, CD, or disruptive behaviour disorder not otherwise specified, with and without ADHD, and high-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate effect on disruptive and aggressive behaviour in youth with average IQ and ODD or CD, with and without ADHD. Evidence supporting the use of haloperidol, thioridazine, quetiapine, and lithium in aggressive youth with CD is of low or very-low quality, and evidence supporting the use of divalproex in aggressive youth with ODD or CD is of low quality. There is very-low-quality evidence that carbamazepine is no different from placebo for the management of aggression in youth with CD. With the exception of risperidone, the evidence to support the use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers is of low quality.

  9. Oppositional defiant- and conduct disorder-like problems: neurodevelopmental predictors and genetic background in boys and girls, in a nationwide twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, Nóra; Lundström, Sebastian; Chang, Zheng; Tajnia, Armin; Jern, Patrick; Lichtenstein, Paul; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems-ODD/CD-like problems-and the neurodevelopmental disorders-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-and to investigate underlying genetic effects. Methods. 17,220 twins aged 9 or 12 were screened using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory. The main covariates of ODD- and CD-like problems were investigated, and the relative importance of unique versus shared hereditary and environmental effects was estimated using twin model fitting. Results. Social interaction problems (one of the ASD subdomains) was the strongest neurodevelopmental covariate of the behavioural problems in both genders, while ADHD-related hyperactivity/impulsiveness in boys and inattention in girls stood out as important covariates of CD-like problems. Genetic effects accounted for 50%-62% of the variance in behavioural problems, except in CD-like problems in girls (26%). Genetic and environmental effects linked to ADHD and ASD also influenced ODD-like problems in both genders and, to a lesser extent, CD-like problems in boys, but not in girls. Conclusions. The gender-specific patterns should be considered in the assessment and treatment, especially of CD.

  10. Oppositional defiant- and conduct disorder-like problems: neurodevelopmental predictors and genetic background in boys and girls, in a nationwide twin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kerekes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD. The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems–ODD/CD-like problems–and the neurodevelopmental disorders–attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, autism spectrum disorder (ASD–and to investigate underlying genetic effects.Methods. 17,220 twins aged 9 or 12 were screened using the Autism–Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory. The main covariates of ODD- and CD-like problems were investigated, and the relative importance of unique versus shared hereditary and environmental effects was estimated using twin model fitting.Results. Social interaction problems (one of the ASD subdomains was the strongest neurodevelopmental covariate of the behavioural problems in both genders, while ADHD-related hyperactivity/impulsiveness in boys and inattention in girls stood out as important covariates of CD-like problems. Genetic effects accounted for 50%–62% of the variance in behavioural problems, except in CD-like problems in girls (26%. Genetic and environmental effects linked to ADHD and ASD also influenced ODD-like problems in both genders and, to a lesser extent, CD-like problems in boys, but not in girls.Conclusions. The gender-specific patterns should be considered in the assessment and treatment, especially of CD.

  11. Differences in functional activity between boys with pure oppositional defiant disorder and controls during a response inhibition task: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Ying, Kui; Wang, Ji; Su, Linyan; Chen, Jingyuan; Lin, Fan; Cai, Dongyang; Zhou, Ming; Wu, Daxing; Guo, Courtney; Wang, Shi

    2014-12-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of inhibitory control has only been investigated in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of functional areas associated with inhibitory control between boys with pure oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and controls during a response inhibition task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven boys with pure ODD and ten control boys, aged 10 to 12, performed a GoStop response inhibition task in this study. The task has a series of "go" trials to establish a pre-potent response tendency and a number of "stop" trials to test subjects' ability to withhold their responses. During the GoStop task, greater activation in the dorsolateral parts of the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus (lMFG) and right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG) activation was seen in the ODD boys. Additionally, reduced activation in regions of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was seen in the ODD boys in comparison with the control group. The results may suggest that the higher activation in areas adjacent to the rIFG could be the cause of reduced activation in the rIFG; although this is speculative and requires additional supporting evidence. The findings further suggest that ODD is a less pronounced functional disorder compared to ADHD and CD.

  12. Symptoms of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and callous-unemotional traits as unique predictors of psychosocial maladjustment in boys: advancing an evidence base for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A; Fite, Paula J

    2010-11-01

    The incremental utility of symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits for predicting psychosocial outcomes across multiple domains was examined in a community sample of 1,517 boys. Several outcomes were assessed semiannually across a 2-year follow-up, including antisocial behavior, internalizing problems, peer conflict, and academic difficulties. Official criminal charges were also examined across adolescence. CD symptoms emerged as the most robust predictor of future antisocial outcomes. However, ODD symptoms predicted later criminal charges and conduct problems, and CU traits were robustly associated with serious and persistent criminal behavior in boys. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms predicted increases in oppositional defiant behavior and conduct problems over time and were uniquely related to future academic difficulties. Both ADHD and ODD symptoms predicted social and internalizing problems in boys, whereas CU traits were associated with decreased internalizing problems over time. The current findings have implications for revisions being considered as part of the DSM-V. Specifically, incorporating CU traits into the diagnostic criteria for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) may help to further delineate boys at risk for severe and persistent delinquency. Although currently prohibited, allowing a diagnosis of ODD when CD is present may provide unique prognostic information about boys who are at risk for future criminal behavior, social problems, and internalizing problems. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional impairment associated with symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder in preschool and early school boys and girls from the general population

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    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore whether the symptoms and diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD, as defined in the DSM-IV, are equally impairing for girls and boys from the general population in the early school years. Method: A sample of 852 three to seven-year-old schoolchildren were screened out for a double-phase design. A total of 251 families were assessed with a diagnostic interview and with measures of functional impairment. Results: ODD symptoms and diagnosis were equally prevalent in boys and girls, but three to five-year-old girls had a higher prevalence of subthreshold ODD. There were no significant differences between boys and girls in the impact on use of services, treatment received and family burden associated with ODD symptoms and diagnosis. Although diagnosis of ODD was not associated with higher functional impairment by sex, individual symptoms and subthreshold diagnosis were more impairing for boys than for girls. Conclusion: Oppositionality may be measuring different things for boys and girls, and this possibility must be taken into account with a view to the correct identification of this problem in each sex.

  14. Psychometric properties of a German parent rating scale for oppositional defiant and conduct disorder (FBB-SSV) in clinical and community samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Ise, Elena; Hautmann, Christopher; Walter, Daniel; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-08-01

    The Fremdbeurteilungsbogen für Störungen des Sozialverhaltens (FBB-SSV) is a commonly used DSM- and ICD-based rating scale for disruptive behaviour problems in Germany. This study examined the psychometric properties of the FBB-SSV rated by parents in both a clinical sample (N = 596) and a community sample (N = 720) of children aged 4-17 years. Results indicate that the FBB-SSV is internally consistent (α = .69-.90). Principal component analyses produced two-factor structures that are largely consistent with the distinction between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Diagnostic accuracy was examined using receiver operating characteristic analyses, which showed that the FBB-SSV is excellent at discriminating children with ODD/CD from those in the community sample (AUC = .91). It has satisfactory diagnostic accuracy for detecting ODD/CD in the clinical sample (AUC = .76). Overall, the results show that the FBB-SSV is a reliable and valid instrument. This finding provides further support for the clinical utility of DSM- and ICD-based rating scales.

  15. Atomoxetine hydrochloride in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder: A placebo-controlled Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnello, Grazia; Maschietto, Dino; Bravaccio, Carmela; Calamoneri, Filippo; Masi, Gabriele; Curatolo, Paolo; Besana, Dante; Mancini, Francesca; Rossi, Andrea; Poole, Lynne; Escobar, Rodrigo; Zuddas, Alessandro

    2009-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of atomoxetine in improving ADHD and ODD symptoms in paediatric patients with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), non-responders to previous psychological intervention with parent support. This was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial conducted in patients aged 6-15 years, with ADHD and ODD diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria by a structured clinical interview (K-SADS-PL). Only subjects who are non-responders to a 6-week standardized parent training were randomised to atomoxetine (up to 1.2 mg/kg/day) or placebo (in a 3:1 ratio) for the following 8-week double blind phase. Only 2 of the 156 patients enrolled for the parent support phase (92.9% of males; mean age: 9.9 years), improved after the parent training program; 139 patients were randomised for entering in the study and 137 were eligible for efficacy analysis. At the end of the randomised double blind phase, the mean changes in the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Rating Scale-Revised (SNAP-IV) ADHD subscale were -8.1+/-9.2 and -2.0+/-4.7, respectively in the atomoxetine and in the placebo group (patomoxetine group (median change at endpoint: -1.0) compared to no changes in the placebo group (patomoxetine, were found in the CHIP-CE scores for risk avoidance domain, emotional comfort and individual risk avoidance subdomains. An improvement in all the subscales of Conners Parents (CPRS-R:S) and Teacher (CTRS-R:S) subscales was observed with atomoxetine, except in the cognitive problems subscale in the CTRS-R:S. Only 3 patients treated with atomoxetine discontinued the study due to adverse events. No clinically significant changes of body weight, height and vital signs were observed in both groups. Treatment with atomoxetine of children and adolescents with ADHD and ODD, who did not initially respond to parental support, was associated with improvements in symptoms of ADHD and ODD, and general health status. Atomoxetine

  16. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  17. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.

  18. Maltreatment and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Chinese Children With and Without Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Mediating Role of the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfeng; Lin, Xiuyun; Chi, Peilian; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fang, Xiaoyi; Du, Hongfei; Wang, Zhonghui

    2016-11-01

    Maltreatment has negative effects on the parent-child relationship and the emotional and behavioral development of children. The current study aimed to examine the associations among maltreatment, parent-child relationship, and emotional and behavioral problems in Chinese children with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Participants in the study included 259 children with ODD and their 269 non-ODD counterparts from northern, eastern, and southwestern China. We also collected data from their teachers and fathers or mothers. The results showed that ODD children suffered more maltreatment and had more emotional and behavioral problems than their non-ODD peers. For all children (both ODD and non-ODD children), emotional abuse predicted emotional problems but not behavioral problems. Physical abuse predicted behavioral problems but not emotional problems. Parent-child relationship mediated the effects of emotional abuse and physical abuse on emotional problems among ODD children but not among non-ODD children. Implications for prevention of emotional and physical abuse and ODD in the Chinese cultural context are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Developmental continuity of oppositional defiant disorder subdimensions at ages 8, 10, and 13 years and their distinct psychiatric outcomes at age 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Yvonne M; Stringaris, Argyris; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D

    2013-09-01

    To test the developmental continuity, interrelationships, and predictive associations of the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subdimensions of irritable, headstrong, and hurtful. Data were collected from 6,328 mother-child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (United Kingdom). Developmental continuity for each subdimension was strong and interrelationships indicated that headstrong was associated mainly with irritable, whereas irritable did not cross associate with other ODD subdimensions; and hurtful was associated with lower levels of headstrong. With regard to associations at age 16 years, irritable at age 13 years was associated with depression, whereas headstrong at 13 was associated with delinquency and callous attitude; at age 13, hurtful failed to associate with any of the 3 age 16 outcomes. The results suggest that the ODD headstrong and irritable subdimensions are developmentally distinct, with small cross-over (i.e., headstrong to irritable), and are associated with unique outcomes. Hurtful does not appear to be associated with future maladjustment in children. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided. PMID:29104548

  1. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD. Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.

  2. START NOW - a comprehensive skills training programme for female adolescents with oppositional defiant and conduct disorders: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Linda; Prätzlich, Martin; Mannstadt, Sandra; Ackermann, Katharina; Kohls, Gregor; Oldenhof, Helena; Saure, Daniel; Krieger, Katrin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Popma, Arne; Freitag, Christine M; Trestman, Robert L; Stadler, Christina

    2016-12-01

    In Europe, the number of females exhibiting oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is growing. Many of these females live in youth welfare institutions. Consequently, there is a great need for evidence-based interventions within youth welfare settings. A recently developed approach targeting the specific needs of girls with ODD and CD in residential care is START NOW. The aim of this group-based behavioural skills training programme is to specifically enhance emotional regulation capacities to enable females with CD or ODD to appropriately deal with daily-life demands. It is intended to enhance psychosocial adjustment and well-being as well as reduce oppositional and aggressive behaviour. We present the study protocol (version 4.1; 10 February 2016) of the FemNAT-CD intervention trial titled 'Group-Based Treatment of Adolescent Female Conduct Disorders: The Central Role of Emotion Regulation'. The study is a prospective, confirmatory, cluster-randomised, parallel-group, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial with 128 institutionalised female adolescents who fulfil the diagnostic criteria of ODD and/or CD. Institutions/wards will be randomised either to provide the 12-week skills training as an add-on intervention or to provide treatment as usual. Once the first cycle is completed, each institution will run a second cycle with the opposite condition. Primary endpoints are the pre-post change in number of CD/ODD symptoms as assessed by a standardised, semi-structured psychiatric interview (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime, CD/ODD section) between baseline and the end of intervention, as well as between baseline and a 3-month follow-up point. Secondary objectives include pre-post change in CD/ODD-related outcome measures, most notably emotional regulation on a behavioural and neurobiological level after completion of START NOW compared with treatment as usual. To our

  3. Effectiveness of Group Play Therapy on Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Among Children

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    Narges Morshed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With regard to the prevalence of Oppositional-Defiant Disorder in children and converting to the other disorders, if left untreated, this research aims to investigate the effectiveness of group play therapy on oppositional-defiant disorder symptoms among children. Materials and Methods: This study is interventional and quasi-experimental research. In this study based on cluster sampling method, 30 participants were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The tools discussed here included Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Raven's Progressive Matrixes, Teacher Report Form (TRF as well as a clinical interview with parents. Play therapy was provided weekly by group for the participants, in sixty-minute eight sessions. Participants were assessed in three stages of pre- interference post- interference and after two month intervals from completing sessions. SPSS18 and multi-variables covariance analysis method were used for analyzing data. Results: The results obtained by Mancova analysis showed that there was a significant decrease in oppositional defiant-disorder symptoms in comparison with control group reporting by parents and teacher (P < 0.001. In addition, the results indicated the same effect after two months. Conclusions: The results indicated the efficiency of group play therapy on decrease of oppositional defiant disorder symptoms among children. Accordingly using this treatment method on children was recommended to the therapists.

  4. Impact of oppositional defiant disorder dimensions on the temporal ordering of conduct problems and depression across childhood and adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie; Feng, Xin; Burke, Jeff; Battista, Deena R; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about the role of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions on the temporal unfolding of conduct disorder (CD) and depression in girls between childhood and adolescence. The year-to-year associations between CD and depressive symptomatology were examined using nine waves of annually collected data (ages 8 through 16 years) from 1215 participants of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. A series of autoregressive path models were tested that included ODD-Emotion Dysregulation (ODD-ED) and ODD-Defiance, as time-varying covariates on CD predicting depression severity in the following year, and vice versa. Conduct problems, depression, and ODD dimensions were relatively stable throughout childhood and adolescence, and a moderate degree of covariance was observed between these variables. Path analyses showed that CD often preceded depression across this developmental period, although the effect sizes were small. There was less consistent prediction from depression to CD. The overlap between ODD-ED and CD partially explained the prospective relations from CD to depression, whereas these paths were fully explained by the overlap between ODD-ED and depression. The overlap between ODD-Defiance and CD did not account for the prospective relations from CD to depression. In contrast, the overlap between ODD-Defiance and depression accounted for virtually all paths from CD to depression. Accounting for the overlap between ODD dimensions and both CD and depression eliminated all significant predictive paths. Symptoms of CD tend to precede depression in girls during childhood and adolescence. However, covariance between depression and both ODD-ED and ODD-Defiance accounts for these prospective relations. ODD dimensions should be assessed when evaluating risk for comorbid depression in girls with conduct problems, and emotion dysregulation and defiance aspects of ODD should be identified as targets for treatment in order to prevent depression in the future. © 2011 The

  5. Maltreatment and Affective and Behavioral Problems in Emerging Adults With and Without Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms: Mediation by Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Stearns, Melanie; Szkody, Erica

    2018-03-01

    The current study examined the indirect effect of maternal and paternal emotional and physical maltreatment on affective and behavioral symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) through parent-child relationship quality; gender and overall ODD symptoms were examined as moderators. Participants included 2,362 emerging adults who completed questionnaires about parental emotional and physical maltreatment, parent-child relationship quality, and affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. These characteristics were compared across parent and child gender (i.e., maternal and paternal effects as well as male and female differences) as well as participants reporting high and low ODD symptoms. In the low ODD group, indirect effects of emotional maltreatment occurred in all parent-child dyads except the mother-son dyad, whereas in the high ODD group, indirect effects occurred only in the father-son dyad. Indirect effects of physical maltreatment occurred only in the father-son dyad in the low ODD group, and only in the mother-daughter dyad on behavioral ODD symptoms in the high ODD group. The results suggest that specific parent-child gender dyads respond differently, warranting further investigation of gender effects. Moreover, emerging adults in the low ODD symptoms group demonstrated a positive association between parental maltreatment and ODD symptoms and a negative association between parent-child relationship quality and ODD symptoms, whereas those high in the high ODD symptoms group did not demonstrate these associations. That is, emerging adults reporting high ODD symptoms demonstrated no relationship between their ODD symptoms and harsh parenting, suggesting an ineffective coercive process.

  6. Pregnancy risk factors in relation to oppositional-defiant and conduct disorder symptoms in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisch, I Hyun; Buitelaar, Jan K; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Dietrich, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    Pregnancy factors have been implicated in offspring oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Literature still holds notable limitations, such as studying only a restricted set of pregnancy factors, use of screening questionnaires which assess broadly defined outcome measures, and lack of control for disruptive behavior comorbidity and genetic confounds. We aimed to address these gaps by prospectively studying a broad range of pregnancy factors in relation to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parent and Children. Outcomes were ODD and CD symptom scores at age 7;9 years using the Development and Well-Being Assessment interview. We analyzed maternal (N ≈ 6300) and teacher ratings (N ≈ 4400) of ODD and CD scores separately using negative binomial regression in multivariable models. Control variables included comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, ODD or CD symptoms as appropriate, and genetic risk scores based on an independent CD genome-wide association study. Higher ODD symptom scores were linked to paracetamol use (IRR = 1.24 [98.3% confidence interval 1.05-1.47], P = 0.002, teacher ratings) and life events stress (IRR = 1.22 [1.07-1.39], P = 0.002, maternal ratings) during pregnancy. Higher CD symptom scores were linked to maternal smoking (IRR = 1.33 [1.18-1.51], P < 0.001, maternal ratings), life events stress (IRR = 1.24 [1.11-1.38], P < 0.001, maternal ratings) and depressive symptoms (IRR = 1.14 [1.01-1.30], P = 0.006, maternal ratings) during pregnancy. Common and potentially preventable pregnancy risk factors were independently related to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in children from the general population. Future studies should further address genetic confounds and confounding by environmental factors later in life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study of attachment relationships in young children with symptoms of externalizing disorders: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Najafi Shoar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the relationship of attachment between children with externalizing disorder (ADHD and less conflict and conduct disorder was performed with normal children. And the correlation was causalcomparative research design. The study population included all male students in Year 94 was 12.7 years in Tabriz To this aim, and to a multi-stage random sampling method, a sample of 200 (150 patients with symptoms and 50 normal KCAQ people were selected and CSI-4 was performed on them. The data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results showed that children with externalizing disorders and normal children in terms of attachment there is a significant difference (P <0/005. So that children with attention disorders and children with the disorder more or less active and less conflict in relationships have insecure attachment styles. Another finding of the study showed that children with conduct disorder, avoidant, ambivalent insecure attachment relationships are the common children are secure attachment relationships. Thus, the results of this study have practical implications in clinical areas to the extent that the design of such attachment-based interventions are necessary.

  8. Conduct behaviors and oppositional defiant behaviors in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    There is controversy about the association among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder behaviors, and oppositional defiant behaviors. This study examines whether different subcategories of conduct behaviors co-occur in children with ADHD, and investigates the association of conduct behaviors with ADHD symptoms and oppositional defiant behavior, considering the covariant factors of parental age and educational level. A total of 441 children and adolescents with ADHD participated in this study - 342 (77.6%) boys and 99 girls (22.4%). Their mean age was 9.1 (standard deviation = 2.2) years. They came from families with 1 to 8 children. There were statistically significant correlations among different subcategories of conduct disorder (p Oppositional behavior scores were associated with all 4 subcategories of conduct behaviors. The severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity was associated with the subcategory of "destruction of property." The inattentiveness score was associated with "aggression to people and animals." The current results do not suggest that conduct behaviors exclude oppositional defiant behaviors. The subcategories of conduct behaviors occur in a cluster rather than as a solitary behavior. Larger family size and lower educational level of the father increase the risk of aggression to people and animals in children with ADHD.

  9. Polygenic inheritance of Tourette syndrome, stuttering, attention deficit hyperactivity, conduct, and oppositional defiant disorder: The additive and subtractive effect of the three dopaminergic genes - DRD2, D{beta}H, and DAT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comings, D.E.; Wu, S.; Chiu, C.; Ring, R.H.; Gade, R.; Ahn, C.; Dietz, G.; Muhleman, D. [Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-31

    Polymorphisms of three different dopaminergic genes, dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (DRD2), dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase (D{beta}H), and dopamine transporter (DAT1), were examined in Tourette syndrome (TS) probands, their relatives, and controls. Each gene individually showed a significant correlation with various behavioral variables in these subjects. The additive and subtractive effects of the three genes were examined by genotyping all three genes in the same set of subjects. For 9 of 20 TS associated comorbid behaviors there was a significant linear association between the degree of loading for markers of three genes and the mean behavior scores. The behavior variables showing the significant associations were, in order, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stuttering, oppositional defiant, tics, conduct, obsessive-compulsive, mania, alcohol abuse, and general anxiety - behaviors that constitute the most overt clinical aspects of TS. For 16 of the 20 behavior scores there was a linear progressive decrease in the mean score with progressively lesser loading for the three gene markers. These results suggest that TS, ADHD, stuttering, oppositional defiant and conduct disorder, and other behaviors associated with TS, are polygenic, due in part to these three dopaminergic genes, and that the genetics of other polygenic psychiatric disorders may be deciphered using this technique. 144 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  11. Medication refusal in children with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder and comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medication history and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidovich, Mark; Kolko, David J; Bukstein, Oscar G; Hart, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Objective: This study examines the characteristics of 96 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families who refused a recommendation for medication as part of their treatment for disruptive disorders. The ADHD cases were taken from a sample of 139 youth (age 6-11) who were recruited for a clinical trial that compared the administration of a modular psychosocial treatment in an outpatient clinic or community settings. Medication management was an optional treatment module for children with ADHD in both conditions. Children who were (vs. were not) taking medication at intake, and children who accepted (vs. refused) medication recommendations during the study were compared on diagnostic and clinical measures related to child, school, parent, and family domains of functioning. Parents of 30% of the children refused study medication for ADHD. Parental medication acceptability and intake correlated highly with both medication history and study refusal of medication. Increased parental self-efficacy and emotional support for their youth correlated with medication refusal. No demographics and few child or school factors were associated with medication refusal. Medication use was associated with reductions in some key ADHD symptoms, but did not affect disruptive behaviors as did the psychosocial interventions. Medication refusers remain poorly understood but certain correlates, such as parental self-efficacy, parental emotional support for their youth, and medication acceptability, warrant further evaluation.

  12. The pharmacological management of oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 1: psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-02-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression. These symptoms vary in severity, and may be related to a comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Critical evaluation of the efficacy of ADHD medications may guide the clinician regarding the usefulness of medications for these symptoms. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. The quality of evidence for medications was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Two systematic reviews and 20 randomized controlled trials were included. There is high-quality evidence that psychostimulants have a moderate-to-large effect on oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is very-low-quality evidence that clonidine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is moderate-quality evidence that guanfacine has a small-to-moderate effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD. There is high-quality evidence that atomoxetine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. Evidence indicates that psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine can be beneficial for disruptive and aggressive behaviours in addition to core ADHD symptoms; however, psychostimulants generally provide the most benefit.

  13. Memory consolidation of socially relevant stimuli during sleep in healthy children and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: What you can see in their eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Förster, Alexandra; Siebenhühner, Nadine; Gesch, Maxime; Wiesner, Christian D; Baving, Lioba

    2017-02-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display deficits in sleep-dependent memory consolidation, and being comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), results in deficits in face processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sleep in recognizing faces in children with ADHD+ODD. Sixteen healthy children and 16 children diagnosed with ADHD+ODD participated in a sleep and a wake condition. During encoding (sleep condition at 8p.m.; wake condition at 8a.m.) pictures of faces were rated according to their emotional content; the retrieval session (12h after encoding session) contained a recognition task including pupillometry. Pupillometry and behavioral data revealed that healthy children benefited from sleep compared to wake with respect to face picture recognition; in contrast recognition performance in patients with ADHD+ODD was not improved after sleep compared to wake. It is discussed whether in patients with ADHD+ODD social stimuli are preferentially consolidated during daytime. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trastornos de personalidad en padres de adolescentes violentos con diagnóstico de trastorno negativista desafiante y trastorno disocial Personality disorders in parents of violent adolescents diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Quiroga

    2009-12-01

    Defiant Disorder and a Conduct Disorder. The Inventory of Personality Organization - IPO (Clarkin, J.; Foelsch, P. y Kernberg, O., 2001; Argentine Adaptation: Quiroga, 2003 was used with a sample of 60 parents (52 mothers and 8 fathers of early violent adolescents. The preliminary results show that most of the parents get scores which are higher that the cut-off point established in the non-clinical population in the first three primary IPO scales (Primitive Defenses, Identity Diffusion and Reality Testing.

  15. Transtorno de oposição e desafio e transtorno de conduta: os desfechos no TDAH em adultos Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: their outcomes into adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Horacio Grevet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores examinam a influência dos transtornos de oposição e desafio (TOD, de conduta (TC e de personalidade anti-social (TPAS ao longo da vida do indivíduo com TDAH. Os principais achados mostram que o TDAH é modulado por essas comorbidades e que seu prognóstico é modificado dependendo da presença ou não desses transtornos. O transtorno de oposição e desafio intensificaria as características de impulsividade e isolacionismo do TDAH, porém não acarretaria em um aumento na incidência de TPAS na vida adulta. Já o TC associado ao TDAH implica um aumento significativo na impulsividade e agressividade, estando associado significativamente a TPAS e um pior prognóstico. A diferenciação entre os diferentes transtornos e seu correto diagnóstico é essencial para o tratamento adequado do TDAH. Futuros estudos precisam determinar se o tratamento do TDAH produziria uma mudança significativa no prognóstico desse grupo de pacientes.The authors examine the influence of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, conduct disorder (CD and anti-social personality disorder (ASPD on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD across life span. The findings showed that ADHD is modulated by this comorbidities and ADHD prognosis is modified depending on the presence or the absence of those disorders. ODD intensifies ADHD impulsivity and isolationism, but does not lead to an increase in the prevalence of ASPD in adulthood. Otherwise, CD associated with ADHD increases significantly the levels of impulsivity and aggressiveness, is associated with ASPD and a poor outcome. The appropriate approach to ADHD must be based on the correct diagnosis of different comorbidities to predict the outcomes. Further studies are needed to investigate if the treatment of ADHD can produce a significant improvement on the outcomes of this group of patients.

  16. Effect of atomoxetine on quality of life and family burden: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in children and adolescents with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeier, Peter M; Schacht, Alexander; Dittmann, Ralf W; Helsberg, Karin; Schneider-Fresenius, Christian; Lehmann, Martin; Bullinger, Monika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine on quality of life (QoL) and family burden in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). This secondary analysis was based on a randomized, double-blind, 9-week study of atomoxetine (target dose 1.2 mg/kg body weight) versus placebo. The study included 180 patients (atomoxetine 121, placebo 59), aged 6-17 years. QoL was measured using the KINDL-R questionnaire. The total score encompasses six dimensions (or subscales) measuring QoL in terms of "physical well-being", "emotional well-being", "self-esteem", "friends", "family", and "school". Family burden of illness was measured using the FaBel questionnaire. With atomoxetine, the KINDL-R total score improved significantly (P = 0.021) more than with placebo. This improvement also applied to the subscales except for "physical well-being" (opposite effect) and "school" (no effect). No significant treatment group differences were seen on the FaBel questionnaire. No differences were found between the fast and slow titration groups in terms of ADHD, ODD, and disruptive behavior severity. Furthermore, no such differences were observed for QoL and family burden. This study suggests positive effects of atomoxetine on quality of life, as measured by the KINDL-R scores on emotional well-being, self-esteem, friends and family, in children and adolescents with ADHD and comorbid ODD/CD. No significant treatment effects were seen on family burden, as measured by FaBel total score.

  17. Transtorno desafiador de oposição: uma revisão de correlatos neurobiológicos e ambientais, comorbidades, tratamento e prognóstico Oppositional defiant disorder: a review of neurobiological and environmental correlates, comorbidities, treatment and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Serra-Pinheiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Transtorno desafiador de oposição (TDO é uma entidade diagnóstica independente, mas é freqüentemente estudada em conjunto com transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH ou com transtorno de conduta (TC. O objetivo deste artigo é o de fazer uma revisão das evidências existentes, obtidas por meio da base de dados PubMed, sobre achados neurobiológicos no transtorno desafiador de oposição, funcionamento familiar e escolar, comorbidades, prognóstico e opções terapêuticas para transtorno desafiador de oposição. A evidência de correlatos hormonais, genéticos e neurofuncionais de transtorno desafiador de oposição, a conexão com a família, as relações e desempenho escolares, a associação com transtornos do humor, ansiosos e disruptivos, o risco de evolução para transtorno de conduta e de persistência de sintomas de transtorno desafiador de oposição são descritos. Uma revisão do efeito da Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental e tratamento farmacológico é apresentada. A análise das evidências disponíveis mostra que o impacto de transtorno desafiador de oposição não deve ser ignorado e que o transtorno desafiador de oposição deve ser devidamente abordado. O impacto do tratamento de transtorno desafiador de oposição no prognóstico de longo prazo dos pacientes ainda precisa ser determinado.Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD is an independent diagnostic entity but it is frequently studied in conjunction with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD or Conduct Disorder (CD. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant evidence, through the PubMed database, on the neurobiological correlates of oppositional defiant disorder and also describe the familiar and school functioning, comorbidities, prognosis and therapeutic options for oppositional defiant disorder. Evidence of hormonal, genetic and neurofunctional findings in oppositional defiant disorder, correlation with the family, school relations

  18. Emotional Abilities in Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): Impairments in Perspective-Taking and Understanding Mixed Emotions are Associated with High Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kearney, Richard; Salmon, Karen; Liwag, Maria; Fortune, Clare-Ann; Dawel, Amy

    2017-04-01

    Most studies of emotion abilities in disruptive children focus on emotion expression recognition. This study compared 74 children aged 4-8 years with ODD to 45 comparison children (33 healthy; 12 with an anxiety disorder) on behaviourally assessed measures of emotion perception, emotion perspective-taking, knowledge of emotions causes and understanding ambivalent emotions and on parent-reported cognitive and affective empathy. Adjusting for child's sex, age and expressive language ODD children showed a paucity in attributing causes to emotions but no other deficits relative to the comparison groups. ODD boys with high levels of callous-unemotional traits (CU) (n = 22) showed deficits relative to low CU ODD boys (n = 25) in emotion perspective-taking and in understanding ambivalent emotions. Low CU ODD boys did not differ from the healthy typically developing boys (n = 12). Impairments in emotion perceptive-taking and understanding mixed emotions in ODD boys are associated with the presence of a high level of CU.

  19. Telomere length is associated with oppositional defiant behavior and maternal clinical depression in Latino preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, J M; Heyman, M B; Elwan, D; Shiboski, S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Epel, E

    2015-06-16

    Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression from birth to the age of 5 years and child behavior from ages 3-5 years in a cohort of Latino children in relation to child leukocyte TL at ages 4 and 5 years. Children who had oppositional defiant behavior at 3, 4 or 5 years had shorter TL than those without by ~450 base pairs (P maternal clinical depression at 3 years of age (β = -363.99, 95% CI -651.24 to 764.74; P = 0.01), shorter maternal TL (β = 502.92, 95% CI 189.21-816.63) and younger paternal age at the child's birth (β = 24.63, 95% CI 1.14-48.12). Thus, exposure to maternal clinical depression (versus depressive symptoms) in early childhood was associated with deleterious consequences on child cellular health as indicated by shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age. Similarly, children with oppositional defiant behavior also had shorter TL, possibly related to early exposures to maternal clinical depression. Our study is the first to link maternal clinical depression and oppositional defiant behavior with shorter TL in the preschool years in a relatively homogenous population of low-income Latino children.

  20. Family Correlates of Oppositional and Conduct Disorders in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; McBurnett, Keith; Rathouz, Paul J.; Judice, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Comorbidities among children with ADHD are key determinants of treatment response, course, and outcome. This study sought to separate family factors (parental psychopathology and parenting practices) associated with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) from those associated with Conduct Disorder (CD) among children with Attention…

  1. The effectiveness of parent management training in a Brazilian sample of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder A eficácia de treinamento de pais em grupo para pacientes com transtorno desafiador de oposição: um estudo piloto

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    Maria Antonia Serra-Pinheiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD is considered a hard to treat condition. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parent management training (PMT on the symptoms of ODD and conduct disorder (CD in Brazilian children with ODD. METHODS: We conducted a clinical evaluation in which data was analyzed from parents of five patients with ODD who participated in a PMT group. The ODD and CD symptoms were assessed before and at least a month after they started participating in the group. The outcome measures were rating scales based on the DSM-IV criteria for ODD and CD. RESULTS: Most patients continued to fulfill criteria for ODD, but the severity of their ODD symptoms was reduced 48,75%. The difference between the means on the severity scale of ODD symptoms was statistically significant (p= 0,031 The fulfillment of criteria for CD was largely diminished. CONCLUSIONS: PMT was effective for the reduction of ODD and CD symptoms in patients with ODD. PMT may represent a valuable therapeutic option for patients with ODD in different cultures.INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno desafiador de oposição (TDO é considerado uma condição de difícil tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de um programa em grupo de treinamento de pais (TP na redução dos sintomas de TDO e transtorno de conduta (TC em crianças brasileiras com TDO. MÉTODO: conduziu-se um estudo naturalístico em que se analisou dados dos pais de cinco pacientes com TDO que participaram de um grupo de TP. Os sintomas de TDO e TC foram avaliados antes e pelo menos um mês depois de iniciarem a participação no grupo. As medidas utilizadas foram escalas baseadas nos critérios da DSM-IV para TDO e TC. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes continuou preenchendo critérios para TDO, mas a gravidade dos seus sintomas de TDO diminuiu 48,75%. A diferença entre as médias na escala de gravidade de sintomas desafiadores-opositivo foi estatisticamente significativa (p

  2. Three dimensions of oppositionality in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Roughan, Laura; Skuse, David

    2014-02-01

    In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common but poorly understood. DSM-5 has adopted a tripartite model of ODD, parsing its features into 'angry and irritable symptoms' (AIS), 'argumentative and defiant behavior' (ADB) and 'vindictiveness'. This was based on findings in non-autistic populations that each of these dimensions of oppositionality has a distinct constellation of associations with internalising and externalising psychopathology. We applied the tripartite DSM-5 ODD model to ASD to test its generalisability beyond non-ASD populations; and to elucidate the nature of ODD symptoms in ASD. Participants were 216 verbally-fluent young people (mean age = 9.6 years, range 3.0 to 16.2 years, 82 % male) with ASD. Cross-sectional parent-and teacher-report data were analysed using bootstrap multiple regression to test the following predictions, derived from studies of non-ASD young people: (1) AIS will be the main predictor of internalising problems; (2) ADB will be the main predictor of ADHD symptoms; (3) all ODD traits will independently predict conduct disorder symptoms; (4) vindictiveness will be the main predictor of aggressive conduct problems. Our findings using both parent and teacher data were consistent with the non-ASD ODD literature. AIS were associated with internalising but not externalising problems; ADB and vindictiveness were associated with externalising but not internalising problems; and vindictiveness was the main predictor of aggression. The DSM-5 tripartite model of ODD appears to be generalisable to ASD: for people with an autistic disorder, AIS, ADB and vindictive dimensions of oppositionality have distinct associations with concurrent psychopathology, suggesting the need to assess them as separate constructs.

  3. 伴有对立违抗障碍注意缺陷多动障碍患儿智力和行为特征及与血清 5- 羟色胺水平的关系%Intellectual and behavioral characteristics and their relations with serum 5 hydroxytryptamine level in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder complicated by oppositional defiant disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪屏; 苏林雁; 谢光荣; 黄春香; 李雪荣

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Oppositional defiant disorder(ODD) often occurs as a comorbid condition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD),characterized by defiant behaviors.ADHD children with ODD have more extensive impairments than those with ADHD alone. Some studies suggest that decreased serum 5 hydroxytryptamine(5 HT) level is related to aggressive behavior in ADHD, but no relevant report is available in China. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical features of ADHD with ODD,and their relations with serum 5 HT. DESIGN:A randomized case controlled study taking the ADHD children with or without ODD as the subjects for study. SETTING:Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital. PARTICIPANTS:Sixty one ADHD children(53 boys and 8 girls) aged 7 to 14 years visiting the Children's Clinic of Mental Health Institute of Central South University from June 2002 to May 2003 were recruited and divided into two groups based on the symptomatic criteria of ODD recommended by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder(DSM Ⅳ ):ADHD group(n=33,without ODD) and ADHD+ ODD group(n=28). INTERVENTIONS:The parents of the enrolled children(n=61) were asked to complete the Achenbach child behavior checklist (CBCL),and the teachers(n=31) completed the teacher's report form (TRF).Two milliliters of fasting venous blood was drawn from these children and the serum separated by centrifugation for quantification of 5 HT using external standard method,and whole blood 5 HT was analyzed by LD 10AD high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Scores of CBCL,TRF and Chinese Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(C WISC) and serum 5 HT levels. RESULTS:In the ADHD+ ODD group,the scores of CBCL and TRF for externalizing, aggressive behaviors and total scores for behavioral problems rated by the parents and teachers were significantly higher than those of the ADHD group(t=2.28 to 3.76,P< 0.05 to 0.01);the former group also had significantly higher scores of

  4. The Family Psychosocial Characteristics of Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional or Conduct Problems in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the correlates of family psychosocial characteristics among Japanese children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ according to the comorbid condition of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Three groups of children (12 ADHD, 15 ADHD + ODD/ CD, and 14 control) were compared on…

  5. Inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional-defiant symptoms and school failure Desatenção, hiperatividade, sintomas de oposição e desafio e fracasso escolar

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    Maria Antonia Serra-Pinheiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is associated with school failure. Inattention has been mainly implicated for this association. Oppositional-defiant disorder's (ODD impact on academic performance remains controversial, because of the high comorbidity between ODD and ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To understand the role of inattention (IN, hyperactivity (H/I and ODD in school failure. METHOD: Parents and teachers filled out SNAP-IV questionnaires for 241 / 6th grade students. The associations of the scores of oppositional-defiant (OP, H/I and IN symptoms with school year failure were calculated. RESULTS: IN was strongly correlated with school failure. H/I and OP were not associated with school failure, when controlled for IN. CONCLUSION: OP and H/I symptoms do not play an important role in school failure, when controlled for IN symptoms. Our study supports the cross-cultural role of IN as a major predictor of school failure.Transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH está fortemente correlacionado a fracasso escolar. Desatenção (DA parece ser primordialmente responsável por essa associação. A influência de transtorno desafiador de oposicão (TDO sobre o desempenho acadêmico continua a ser controversa, principalmente devido à alta comorbidade entre TDO e TDAH. OBJETIVO: Entender melhor o papel da DA, hiperatividade/impulsividade (H/I e sintomas opositivo-desafiadores (OP no fracasso escolar. MÉTODO: Duzentos e quarenta e um estudantes da 6ª série foram avaliados com os questionários de Swanson, Nolan e Pelham (SNAP-IV, preenchidos pelos pais e professores. As associações entre as sub-escalas de OP, H/I e DA, com o número de notas "I" ("insuficiente" e com reprovação escolar foram calculadas. RESULTADOS: Sintomas OP não foram correlacionados com o número de notas "I", após o controle para a sua associação com H/I e DA. DA se associou com fracasso escolar. H/I não se correlacionou com fracasso

  6. Observed parenting behaviors interact with a polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene to predict the emergence of oppositional defiant and callous-unemotional behaviors at age 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Propper, Cathi B; Waschbusch, Daniel A

    2013-11-01

    Using the Durham Child Health and Development Study, this study (N = 171) tested whether observed parenting behaviors in infancy (6 and 12 months) and toddlerhood/preschool (24 and 36 months) interacted with a child polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene to predict oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors at age 3 years. Child genotype interacted with observed harsh and intrusive (but not sensitive) parenting to predict ODD and CU behaviors. Harsh-intrusive parenting was more strongly associated with ODD and CU for children with a methionine allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene. CU behaviors were uniquely predicted by harsh-intrusive parenting in infancy, whereas ODD behaviors were predicted by harsh-intrusive parenting in both infancy and toddlerhood/preschool. The results are discussed from the perspective of the contributions of caregiving behaviors as contributing to distinct aspects of early onset disruptive behavior.

  7. Efficacy of an individualized social competence training for children with Oppositional Defiant Disorders/Conduct Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz-Dorten, Anja; Benesch, Christina; Hautmann, Christopher; Berk-Pawlitzek, Emel; Faber, Martin; Lindenschmidt, Timo; Stadermann, Rahel; Schuh, Lioba; Doepfner, Manfred

    2017-05-01

    Group-based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of children with aggressive behavior has resulted in significant reductions of behavior problems with small to medium effect sizes. We report the efficacy of an individualized Treatment Program for Children with Aggressive Behavior. A within-subject design with two phases (waiting, treatment) was chosen. Sixty boys aged 6-12 years with peer-related aggressive behavior were included. The course of the outcome measures (growth rates) during a 6-week waiting phase was compared with those in the subsequent treatment phase (24 weekly child sessions together with an average of 8 parent contacts) by multilevel modeling. Primary outcome was peer-related aggressive behavior rated by parents. Further outcome measures included parent ratings and patient self-reports of aggressive and prosocial behavior. During the treatment, growth rates for all parent-rated outcome measures were significant (p children with peer-related aggressive behavior.

  8. Oppositionality and socioemotional competence: interacting risk factors in the development of childhood conduct disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Skuse, David; Steer, Colin; St Pourcain, Beate; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2013-07-01

    Oppositional behavior in childhood is a probabilistic risk factor for the subsequent development of more serious conduct problems characteristic of conduct disorder (CD). The capacity to understand the subjective states of others (socioemotional competence) helps regulate antisocial behavior in typical development. We hypothesized that socioemotional competence moderates the developmental relationship between oppositionality and CD symptoms, such that oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms pose the greatest risk for subsequent CD symptoms in children with poor socioemotional competence. Parent-report data were collected for 6,218 children at 7 and 10 years of age. Bootstrap multiple regression predicting CD symptoms at age 10 was used to test for an interaction between socioemotional competence and ODD symptoms, while also accounting for direct effects and controlling for sex, maternal education, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and CD symptoms at 7 years. We further tested whether the interaction applied to both males and females, and to both aggressive and rule-breaking CD symptoms. A significant interaction was found between ODD and socioemotional competence: the association between oppositionality at 7 years and CD traits at 10 years was strongest for children with poor socioemotional capacities. As predicted, this moderation effect was significant in a model predicting aggression, but it was not significant for rule-breaking CD symptoms. Socioemotional competence moderates the developmental relationship between mid-childhood oppositionality and more serious conduct problems in later childhood. A capacity to understand the subjective states of others may buffer the risk posed by oppositionality for later CD symptoms, including aggression. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dimensions of Oppositionality in a Brazilian Community Sample: Testing the "DSM-5" Proposal and Etiological Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Fernanda Valle.; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Goodman, Robert; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Salum, Giovanni; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro; Stahl, Daniel; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Investigating dimensions of oppositional symptoms may help to explain heterogeneity of etiology and outcomes for mental disorders across development and provide further empirical justification for the "DSM-5"-proposed modifications of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). However, dimensions of oppositionality have not…

  10. Oppositional behavior and longitudinal predictions of early adulthood mental health problems in chronic tic disorders.

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    Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Bécue, Jean-Cyprien; Lespérance, Paul; Chouinard, Sylvain; Rouleau, Guy A; Richer, Francois

    2018-03-16

    Chronic tic disorders (TD) are associated with a number of psychological problems such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) as well as anxious and depressive symptoms. ODD is often considered a risk factor for many psychological symptoms and recent work suggests that different ODD dimensions show independent predictions of later psychological problems. This study examined the longitudinal predictions between ODD dimensions of Irritability and Defiance and the most frequent comorbidities in TD from childhood to early adulthood. From an initial sample of 135, parent reports were obtained on 58 participants with TD using standard clinical questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Defiance symptoms decreased from baseline to follow-up whereas Irritability symptoms were more stable over time. In multiple regressions, Irritability in childhood predicted anxiety and OCB in early adulthood while Defiance in childhood predicted ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms in early adulthood. No developmental link was found for depressive symptoms. Results indicate that ODD dimensions are developmentally linked to both internalizing and externalizing adult mental health symptoms in TD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Clinical Reasoning in the Assessment and Planning for Intervention for Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Gabrielle; Heudes, Alethea

    2017-01-01

    Clinical reasoning requires thoughtful consideration of a variety of factors that contribute to the conceptualization of a case such as the reason for referral, school information, home environment, assessment outcomes, and behavioural observations made during assessments. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with insight into the…

  12. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  13. Comorbidity as a predictor and moderator of treatment outcome in youth with anxiety, affective, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and oppositional/conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Jarrett, Matthew A; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Hovey, Laura D; Wolff, Jennifer C

    2008-12-01

    In the present review, we examine one of the critical issues that have been raised about evidence-based treatments and their portability to real-world clinical settings: namely, the presence of comorbidity in the participants who have been treated in these studies and whether the presence of comorbidity predicts or moderates treatment outcomes. In doing so, we examine treatment outcomes for the four most commonly occurring childhood psychiatric disorders: Anxiety disorders, affective disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). For each of these disorders, we first review briefly the prevalence of comorbidity in epidemiological and clinical samples and then highlight the evidence-based treatments for these disorders. We next determine the effects of comorbidity on treatment outcomes for these disorders. For the most part, comorbidity in the treated samples is the rule, not the exception. However, the majority of studies have not explored whether comorbidity predicts or moderates treatment outcomes. For the not insignificant number of studies that have examined this issue, comorbidity has not been found to affect treatment outcomes. Notable exceptions are highlighted and recommendations for future research are presented.

  14. The Prospective Links Between Hyperactive/Impulsive, Inattentive, and Oppositional-Defiant Behaviors in Childhood and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: The Moderating Influence of Gender and the Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-12-01

    We prospectively investigated the effect of child hyperactive/impulsive, inattentive, and oppositional/defiant behaviors on the development of youth antisocial behaviors, and the moderating influence of gender and the parent-child relationship quality in a normative sample. Participants (N = 673, 50 % girls) were assessed at 10 years of age (parent reports) and at age 15 (parent and adolescent reports). Using latent change models, we found that initial levels of, as well as increases in, hyperactivity/impulsivity and oppositional behaviors and initial levels of inattention behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors. The increase in oppositional behaviors was predictive of youth antisocial behaviors in girls only. Child hyperactive/impulsive behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors only in children for whom the quality of the parent-child relationship deteriorated from childhood to adolescence. Thus, both initial levels of and increases in disruptive behaviors as well as gender are important for understanding the development of antisocial behaviors in adolescence. We received partial support for the hypothesized, moderating role of a high-quality parent-child relationship.

  15. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this

  16. Gender Differences in the Effects of Oppositional Behavior on Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A.; King, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child…

  17. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adult ADHD and Impact on Emotional and Oppositional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Barrie K.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Robison, Reid J.; Olsen, John L.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This trial evaluated the effect of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the full spectrum of adult symptoms (attention-disorganization, hyperactivity-impulsivity, emotional dysregulation [ED], and oppositional-defiant disorder [ODD]) found in this disorder. Method: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, flexible-dose, crossover…

  18. Conduct Disorder and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Nicole D.; Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1999-01-01

    Provides critical examination of research published during past ten years addressing Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and internalizing disorders. Concludes comorbidity varies with age, gender, informant, diagnostic criteria, and nature of the sample. Implications of comorbidity…

  19. Psychiatric Disorders and Treatments: A Primer for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.; Walker, Hill M.; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    This article for teachers provides basic information on psychiatric disorders and treatments. It covers oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression or other mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, and autistic spectrum disorders. Insets provide additional…

  20. How Oppositionality, Inattention, and Hyperactivity Affect Response to Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Pooled Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Gregory W.; Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Granger, Renee E.; Walton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess how threshold oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity affect the response to atomoxetine versus methylphenidate. Method: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs; greater than or equal to 6 weeks follow-up). The primary measure was core symptom response--greater than or…

  1. Anxiety and oppositional behavior profiles among youth with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Rachele A; Kearney, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a debilitating condition in which a child does not speak in social situations where speech is expected. The clinical conceptualization of SM has been debated historically, with evidence pointing partly to anxious and oppositional behavior profiles. Behavioral characteristics were examined in a clinical sample of 57 youth formally diagnosed with selective mutism. Parents rated children across internalizing and externalizing behaviors on the Child Behavior Checklist. Eighteen highly rated items were subjected to exploratory and then confirmatory factor analysis. Anxiety and oppositional behavior factors were derived. The anxious behavior profile was associated with social anxiety disorder symptoms, social problems, and aggressive behaviors but not oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. The oppositional behavior profile was associated with aggressive behaviors, oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, social problems, and inversely to social anxiety disorder symptoms. Results are consistent with emerging research regarding subgroups of children with SM. Behavior profiles are discussed as well with respect to assessment and treatment implications. Readers will learn about the nature of children with selective mutism as well as behaviors that differentiate anxious and oppositional behavior profiles. Items that comprise anxious and oppositional behavior profiles are presented. These item profiles may have ramifications for assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Substance use disorders in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a 4-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, A.P.; Oosterlaan, J.; Rommelse, N.; Franke, B.; Roeyers, H.; Oades, R.D.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Faraone, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between a childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) and the development of later alcohol/drug use disorder [psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD)] and nicotine

  3. Substance use disorders in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a 4-year follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, A.P.; Oosterlaan, J.; Rommelse, N.; Franke, B.; Roeyers, H.; Oades, R.D.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.; Faraone, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between a childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) and the development of later alcohol/drug use disorder [psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD)] and nicotine

  4. Childhood Psychiatric Disorders as Risk Factor for Subsequent Substance Abuse : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, Annabeth P.; Janssen, Tieme W. P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Objective: To assess the prospective risk of developing substance-related disorders after childhood mental health disorders (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD], anxiety disorder, and depression) using meta-analysis.

  5. The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Jessica Marie

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to…

  6. Comorbid Psychiatric Diagnoses in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kristen; Anderson, Bryan; Paparella, Tanya; Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Forness, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Although comorbid or co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, and oppositional defiant or conduct disorders have been well studied in children or adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very little research is available on preschool samples. The current study…

  7. A Closer Examination of Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.

    2005-01-01

    Children who present with severe behavioral concerns may be diagnosed as having other commonly diagnosed childhood disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and/or conduct disorder, among others, when they may be suffering from early-onset bipolar disorder. Awareness of the symptoms of early-onset…

  8. Clinical Precursors of Adolescent Conduct Disorder in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittinger, Naureen S.; Langley, Kate; Fowler, Tom A.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine precursors of adolescent conduct disorder (CD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), investigating the significance of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and ADHD. Method: A total of 151 children with ADHD recruited from child psychiatric and pediatric clinics were assessed through…

  9. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  10. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  11. The Treatment of Maladaptive Shame in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of "Opposite Action"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to pilot test a short-term intervention for maladaptive shame in borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on the skill of "opposite action" from dialectical behavior therapy. Five women with BPD were treated with the intervention using a single-subject, multiple-baseline design. Results indicate that, although state ratings of…

  12. Parent- and Self-Reported Dimensions of Oppositionality in Youth: Construct Validity, Concurrent Validity, and the Prediction of Criminal Outcomes in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) have been found as valid predictors of further mental health problems and antisocial behaviors in youth. The present study aimed at testing the construct, concurrent, and predictive validity of ODD dimensions derived from parent- and self-report measures. Method: Confirmatory…

  13. Internalizing/Externalizing Symptomatology in Subtypes of Attention-Deficit Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jose J.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    When children with Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) with and without hyperactivity (total n=28) were compared for behavior, results differentiate the two ADD subtypes into a more externalizing dimension (ADD-hyperactivity with and without conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder) at school or home and a more internalizing disorder (ADD…

  14. Common Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Preschool Children: Presentation, Nosology, and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen Link; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    We review recent research on the presentation, nosology and epidemiology of behavioral and emotional psychiatric disorders in preschool children (children ages 2 through 5 years old), focusing on the five most common groups of childhood psychiatric disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, oppositional defiant and conduct disorders,…

  15. School Counselors Serving Students with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    School counselors are in a prime position to collaborate with school and community stakeholders to both prevent and respond to the challenges experienced and exhibited by students with one or more disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In this article, the DBDs discussed include conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive…

  16. Case Study: Camptocormia, a Rare Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, Velayudhan; Thomas, Biju; Sreekumar, Kumaran

    2004-01-01

    Camptocormia is a condition characterized by severe frontal flexion of the spinal cord and knees, with passive drooping of both arms. It occurs as a form of conversion disorder. Some cases are associated with behavioral problems. A case of camptocormia of 2-year duration in a south Indian adolescent girl with oppositional defiant disorder and…

  17. Trastorno oposicional desafiante: enfoques diagnóstico y terapéutico y trastornos asociados Oppositional defiant disorder: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and associated disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Juan David Palacio Ortiz; Carlos Alberto Giraldo Giraldo; Blair Ortiz Giraldo

    2008-01-01

    Se define el trastorno oposicional desafiante (TOD) como un patrón recurrente de conducta negativista, desafiante, desobediente y hostil, dirigido a los padres y a las figuras de autoridad. Los estudios en países desarrollados han identificado factores cognitivos y conductuales errados, como los principales determinantes de una actitud negativa, opuesta y contraria a las normas establecidas; mientras que en países en vías de desarrollo, como Colombia, se destacan los factores ambientales como...

  18. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan L.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n = 476) with prenatal drug exposures documented…

  19. Lifetime Prevalence of DSM-IV Mental Disorders Among New Soldiers in the U.S. Army: Results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    attention - deficit / hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ). The SUD assessment included not only illicit drugs but also...oppositional defiant disorder ; SUD, substance use disorder ; ADHD , attention - deficit / hyperactivity disorder . ∗Significant difference between the NSS Regular...total number of years since onset. bPersistence of attention - deficit / hyperactivity disorder is not assessed by the CIDI screening scales and is

  20. Actigraphic and parental reports of sleep difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan; Bilenberg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe actigraphically detected and parent-reported sleep problems in nonmedicated children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); to clarify whether or not comorbid oppositional defiant disorder contributes to sleep difficulties; and to compare objectively measured...... subjects. Average sleep onset latencies were 26.3 minutes in the ADHD group, 18.6 minutes in the psychiatric control group, and 13.5 minutes in the healthy reference group. There was no apparent relationship between sleep problems and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. We found discrepancies between...... the objectively measured sleep variables and those reported by parents, who overestimated sleep onset latency. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study allow us to conclude that some children with ADHD have impaired sleep that cannot be referred to comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. However, it is important...

  1. How Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Co-Occur with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go unrecognized or are misdiagnosed as a mental illness or brain injury. Individuals with an FASD may also receive multiple diagnoses, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),oppositional defiant disorder, and anxiety disorder. Therefore, it is important to determine whether ...

  2. Child and Adolescent Behaviorally Based Disorders: A Critical Review of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder (ADHD) among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... amongst school children, 1.5% amongst children from the general population between 45.5% to 100.0% amongst special populations of children with possible organic brain pathology. Common associated co-morbid conditions were oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder as well as anxiety/depressive symptoms.

  4. Understanding Desisting and Persisting Forms of Delinquency: The Unique Contributions of Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Interpersonal Callousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Amy L.; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While associations between conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and interpersonal callousness (IC) symptoms and delinquency onset are well established, less is known about whether these characteristics differentiate desisting and persisting delinquency. The current…

  5. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of D-Cycloserine for the Enhancement of Social Skills Training in Pervasive Development Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, schizophrenia, ASD, social anxiety disorder, and major depression ). The child’s appropriateness for...4):958-964. 31. Hardan AY, Fung LK, Libove RA, et al. A randomized controlled pilot trial of oral N- acetylcysteine in children with autism. Biological

  6. Trajectories of Symptom Reduction and Engagement during Treatment for Childhood Behavior Disorders: Differences across Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined trajectories of symptom reduction and family engagement during the modular treatment phase of a clinical trial for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders that was applied either in community settings or a clinic. Participants (N = 139) were 6-11 year-old children with diagnoses of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)…

  7. Behavior of conduct disordered children in interaction with each other and with normal peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MATTHYS, W; VANLOO, P; PACHEN, [No Value; de Vries, Han; VANHOOFF, JARAM; VANENGELAND, H

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the behavior of children with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder (CD/ODD) in interaction with each other and with normal control (NC) children in a semi-standardized setting over a period of 25 minutes. This short time turned out to be sufficient to demonstrate

  8. Childhood Psychiatric Disorders as Risk Factor for Subsequent Substance Abuse: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenman, Annabeth P; Janssen, Tieme W P; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prospective risk of developing substance-related disorders after childhood mental health disorders (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD], anxiety disorder, and depression) using meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo were searched for relevant longitudinal studies that described childhood (Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Is ADHD a Risk Factor Independent of Conduct Disorder for Illicit Substance Use? A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.; Souza, Isabella S.; Pinna, Camilla; Fortes, Didia; Araujo, Catia; Szobot, Claudia M.; Rohde, Luis A.; Mattos, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate meta-analytically if the association between ADHD and illicit substance use (ISU) is maintained when controlling for conduct disorder/oppositional-defiant disorder (CD/ODD). Method: A systematic literature review was conducted through Medline from 1980 to 2008. Data extracted and selections made by one author were…

  10. CBCL Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Profile and ADHD: Comorbidity and Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; McCracken, James T.; Dang, Jeffery; Clark, Shaunna; Nelson, Stanley F.; Smalley, Susan L.

    2008-01-01

    The pediatric bipolar disorder profile of the Child Behavior checklist is used to differentiate patterns of comorbidity and to search for quantitative trait loci in multiple affected ADHD sibling pairs. The CBCL-PBD profiling identified 8 percent of individuals with severe psychopathology and increased rates of oppositional defiant, conduct and…

  11. Co-morbidity in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, P; Srinath, S; Girimaji, S; Seshadri, S; Sagar, J V

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at a tertiary care child and adolescent psychiatry centre. A total of 63 children and adolescents who were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were comprehensively assessed for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities. The tools used included the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS), Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. All except 1 subject had neurodevelopmental and / or psychiatric disorder co-morbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; 66.7% had both neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Specific learning disability was the most common co-existing neurodevelopmental disorder and oppositional defiant disorder was the most common psychiatric co-morbidity. The mean baseline ADHD-RS scores were significantly higher in the group with psychiatric co-morbidities, especially in the group with oppositional defiant disorder. Co-morbidity is present at a very high frequency in clinic-referred children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric co-morbidity, specifically oppositional defiant disorder, has an impact on the severity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Co-morbidity needs to be explicitly looked for during evaluation and managed appropriately.

  12. The discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5 -DSM5 scales to identify disruptive and internalizing disorders in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Osa, Nuria de la

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5 (Manual for the ASEBA Preschool-Age Forms & Profiles, University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families, Burlington, 2000) DSM5 scales attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety and depressive problems for detecting the presence of DSM5 (DSM5 diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, APA, Arlington, 2013) disorders, ADHD, ODD, Anxiety and Mood di...

  13. Gender differences in the effects of oppositional behavior on teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A; King, Alan R

    2004-04-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child exhibiting unremarkable behavior) suggested that oppositional tendencies inflated teacher ratings of ADHD for boys. The term "halo effect" has been used in the literature to refer to the impact of one class of behavior on the perception of another. This study replicated this procedure using identical scripts with both male and female child models. Oppositional behavior was associated with higher teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Portrayals of behavior associated with ADHD generated higher teacher ratings of oppositional conduct. This bidirectional effect differed in magnitude as a function of child gender. The boy actor exhibiting oppositional behavior received teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattention that were roughly half of those elicited by his portrayal of ADHD itself. The girl actor portraying ADHD generated oppositional defiant ratings that were roughly two thirds of those elicited from her performance as a child with ODD. These teacher rating tendencies could contribute to higher diagnostic rates of ADHD among boys and ODD among girls. Available epidemiologic data indicate a much higher rate of ADHD among boys and prevalence differentials for ODD (girls initially lower) that disappear by adolescence. Future research will be required to determine the extent to which these teacher response sets generalize to other evaluators such as parents, physicians and mental health professionals.

  14. Comorbid ADHD and mental health disorders: are these children more likely to develop reading disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Florence; Young, Deidra J; Bennett, Kelly S; Martin, Neilson C; Hay, David A

    2013-03-01

    While attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with both internalizing and externalizing childhood behaviour disorders, the specific relationship of these comorbid disorders to ADHD and reading problems is less well defined. The present study analysed data from the Australian Twin ADHD Project, which utilized DSM-IV-based ratings of ADHD, separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder for twins and siblings aged 6 to 18 years. While differences between children with and without ADHD were demonstrated for those with separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and a reading disorder, for all age groups, regression analysis of ADHD diagnostic subtypes by age and reading disorder showed that only generalized anxiety disorder remained significant after controlling for ADHD subtypes. Analysis of the mean reading disorder scores in children with and without ADHD showed that children with conduct disorder had significantly more reading problems, as did children with multiple comorbid disorders. In summary, both age and ADHD diagnosis were associated with variations in these comorbid disorders, and multiple comorbid disorders were associated with greater reading impairment.

  15. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Brendan F. Andrade; Dillon T. Browne; Rosemary Tannock

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) refer...

  16. Using mobile health technology to improve behavioral skill implementation through homework in evidence-based parenting intervention for disruptive behavior disorders in youth: study protocol for intervention development and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Chacko, Anil; Isham, Andrew; Cleek, Andrew F.; McKay, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) (oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD)) are prevalent, costly, and oftentimes chronic psychiatric disorders of childhood. Evidence-based interventions that focus on assisting parents to utilize effective skills to modify children?s problematic behaviors are first-line interventions for the treatment of DBDs. Although efficacious, the effects of these interventions are often attenuated by poor implementation of the skills ...

  17. Prevalence of the Wish to be of the Opposite Gender in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Miesen, Anna I R; Hurley, Hannah; Bal, Anneloes M; de Vries, Annelou L C

    2018-05-07

    Several studies have suggested an overrepresentation of (symptoms of) autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among individuals with gender dysphoria. Three studies have taken the inverse approach in children with ASD and showed increased parent report of the wish to be of the opposite gender in this group. This study compared the self-reported wish to be of the opposite gender (one item of the Youth Self-Report [YSR] and the Adult Self-Report [ASR]) of 573 adolescents (469 assigned boys and 104 assigned girls) and 807 adults (616 assigned males and 191 assigned females) with ASD to 1016 adolescents and 846 adults from the general population. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured by the DSM-oriented scales of the YSR and ASR. In addition, the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire and the Adult Social Behavior Questionnaire were used to measure specific subdomains of the ASD spectrum to test whether specific subdomains of ASD were particularly involved. Significantly more adolescents (6.5%) and adults (11.4%) with ASD endorsed this item as compared to the general population (3-5%). In adolescents, assigned girls endorsed this item more than assigned boys. No significant gender differences were found in the adults with ASD. In addition, on all DSM-oriented scales of both the YSR and ASR, adolescents and adults with ASD who endorsed the gender item had significantly higher scores compared to those without. There were no significant associations between endorsement of the gender item and any specific subdomain of ASD, providing no evidence for a sole role of one of the ASD subdomains and endorsement of the wish to be the opposite gender.

  18. Behavioral symptoms and sleep problems in children with anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kamei, Yuichi; Usami, Masahide; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kyota; Kodaira, Masaki; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disorders are frequently associated with childhood behavioral problems and mental illnesses such as anxiety disorder. To identify promising behavioral targets for pediatric anxiety disorder therapy, we investigated the associations between specific sleep and behavioral problems. We conducted retrospective reviews of 105 patients aged 4-12 years who met the DSM-IV criteria for primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 33), separation anxiety disorder (n = 23), social phobia (n = 21), or obsessive compulsive disorder (n = 28). Sleep problems were evaluated using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and behavioral problems by the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI), and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children. Depressive behavior was weakly correlated with CSHQ subscores for sleep onset delay and night waking but not with total sleep disturbance. Anxiety was correlated with bedtime resistance, night waking, and total sleep disturbance score. Oppositional defiance was correlated with bedtime resistance, daytime sleepiness, sleep onset delay, and most strongly with total sleep disturbance. On multiple regression analysis ODBI score had the strongest positive association with total sleep disturbance and the strongest negative association with total sleep duration. Sleep problems in children with anxiety disorders are closely related to anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Characterizing psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder receiving publicly funded mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Ganger, William

    2017-09-01

    Publicly funded mental health programs play a significant role in serving children with autism spectrum disorder. Understanding patterns of psychiatric comorbidity for this population within mental health settings is important to implement appropriately tailored interventions. This study (1) describes patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder who present to mental health services with challenging behaviors and (2) identifies child characteristics associated with comorbid conditions. Data are drawn from baseline assessments from 201 children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in a community effectiveness trial across 29 publicly funded mental health programs. Non-autism spectrum disorder diagnoses were assessed using an adapted Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, parent version. Approximately 92% of children met criteria for at least one non-autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (78% attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 58% oppositional defiant disorder, 56% anxiety, 30% mood). Logistic regression indicated that child gender and clinical characteristics were differentially associated with meeting criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, an anxiety, or a mood disorder. Exploratory analyses supported a link between challenging behaviors and mood disorder symptoms and revealed high prevalence of these symptoms in this autism spectrum disorder population. Findings provide direction for tailoring intervention to address a broad range of clinical issues for youth with autism spectrum disorder served in mental health settings.

  20. Personality Disorder in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Attrition and Change During Long-term Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Thomas E; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly found in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. To assess the impact of PDs or personality traits on retention rates in ADHD trials and whether treating ADHD affects the expression of PD, data were analyzed from 2 methylphenidate trials. Assessment of PDs and personality traits included using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Personality Disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were evaluated using the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Major findings were that subjects with cluster A, cluster B, passive-aggressive, or more than 1 PD showed more attrition. Subjects dropping out also had more schizoid and narcissistic traits. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (p Disorders Inventory IV items that improved most, 8 resembled ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

  1. Opposite brain emotion-regulation patterns in identity states of dissociative identity disorder : A PET study and neurobiological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Antje A. T. S.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; den Boer, Johan A.; Vos, Herry P. J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Loewenstein, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Imaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown differing neural network patterns between hypo-aroused/dissociative and hyper-aroused subtypes. Since dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves different emotional states, this study tests whether DID fits aspects of the

  2. Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children 0 to 6 Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Mini; Giedinghagen, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), specifically oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, are common, serious, and treatable conditions among preschoolers. DBDs are marked by frequent aggression, deceitfulness, and defiance, and often persist through the lifespan. Exposure to harsh or inconsistent parenting, as frequently seen with parental depression and stress, increases DBD risk. Candidate genes that may increase DBD risk in the presence of childhood adversity have also been identified, but more research is needed. Neurophysiologic and structural correlates with DBD also exist. Parent management training programs, focusing on increasing parenting competence and confidence, are the gold standard treatment of preschool DBDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining the Proposed Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Diagnosis in Children in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David; Findling, Robert L.; Fristad, Mary A.; Kowatch, Robert A.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Arnold, L. Eugene; Frazier, Thomas W.; Ryan, Neal; Demeter, Christine; Gill, Mary Kay; Hauser-Harrington, Jessica C.; Depew, Judith; Kennedy, Shawn M.; Gron, Brittany A.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Birmaher, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the proposed disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnosis in a child psychiatric outpatient population. Evaluation of DMDD included 4 domains: clinical phenomenology, delimitation from other diagnoses, longitudinal stability, and association with parental psychiatric disorders. Method Data were obtained from 706 children aged 6–12 years who participated in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study (sample was accrued from November 2005 to November 2008). DSM-IV criteria were used, and assessments, which included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures, were performed at intake and at 12 and 24 months of follow-up. For the current post hoc analyses, a retrospective diagnosis of DMDD was constructed using items from the K-SADS-PL-W, a version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, which resulted in criteria closely matching the proposed DSM-5 criteria for DMDD. Results At intake, 26% of participants met the operational DMDD criteria. DMDD+ vs DMDD– participants had higher rates of oppositional defiant disorder (relative risk [RR] = 3.9, P conduct disorder (RR = 4.5, P oppositional defiant disorder (rate and symptom severity P values conduct disorder (rate, P disorders or in severity of inattentive, hyperactive, manic, depressive, or anxiety symptoms. Most of the participants with oppositional defiant disorder (58%) or conduct disorder (61%) met DMDD criteria, but those who were DMDD+ vs DMDD– did not differ in diagnostic comorbidity, symptom severity, or functional impairment. Over 2-year follow-up, 40% of the LAMS sample met DMDD criteria at least once, but 52% of these participants met criteria at only 1 assessment. DMDD was not associated with new onset of mood or anxiety disorders or with parental psychiatric history. Conclusions In this clinical sample, DMDD could not be delimited from oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, had limited

  4. Opposite brain emotion-regulation patterns in identity states of dissociative identity disorder: a PET study and neurobiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Antje A T S; Willemsen, Antoon T M; den Boer, Johan A; Vos, Herry P J; Veltman, Dick J; Loewenstein, Richard J

    2014-09-30

    Imaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown differing neural network patterns between hypo-aroused/dissociative and hyper-aroused subtypes. Since dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves different emotional states, this study tests whether DID fits aspects of the differing brain-activation patterns in PTSD. While brain activation was monitored using positron emission tomography, DID individuals (n=11) and matched DID-simulating healthy controls (n=16) underwent an autobiographic script-driven imagery paradigm in a hypo-aroused and a hyper-aroused identity state. Results were consistent with those previously found in the two PTSD subtypes for the rostral/dorsal anterior cingulate, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala and insula, respectively. Furthermore, the dissociative identity state uniquely activated the posterior association areas and the parahippocampal gyri, whereas the hyper-aroused identity state uniquely activated the caudate nucleus. Therefore, we proposed an extended PTSD-based neurobiological model for emotion modulation in DID: the hypo-aroused identity state activates the prefrontal cortex, cingulate, posterior association areas and parahippocampal gyri, thereby overmodulating emotion regulation; the hyper-aroused identity state activates the amygdala and insula as well as the dorsal striatum, thereby undermodulating emotion regulation. This confirms the notion that DID is related to PTSD as hypo-aroused and hyper-arousal states in DID and PTSD are similar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental rating of sleep in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan; Bilenberg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sleep problems have often been associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents of those with ADHD and children with ADHD report sleep difficulties more frequently than healthy children and their parents. The primary objective of this paper is to describe sleep...... regarding numbers of awakenings per night and total sleep time per night. Comorbid oppositional defiant disorder appeared not to have an added effect on problematic behaviour around bedtime. CONCLUSION: Parents of children with ADHD report that their children do not sleep properly more often than other...

  6. Study to Determine Whether There Are Any Cognitive or Motor Effects From Taking the Medicine Risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder; Conduct Disorder; Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Intermittent Explosive Disorder; Impulse-Control Disorders; Adjustment Disorder; Bipolar Disorder; Pervasive Developmental Disorder

  7. Multiple Family Group Service Model for Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Child Outcomes at Post-Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia; Dean-Assael, Kara; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Hoagwood, Kimberly; McKay, Mary

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of a multiple family group (MFG) service delivery model compared with services as usual (SAU) in improving the functioning of youth with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder in families residing in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Participants included 320 youth aged 7 to 11 and their families who were referred to participating outpatient clinics. Participants were assigned to the MFG or the SAU condition, with parent report of child oppositional behavior, social competence, and level of youth impairment as primary outcomes at post-treatment. Family engagement to MFG was measured by attendance to each group session. Caregivers of youth in the MFG service delivery model condition reported significant improvement in youth oppositional behavior and social competence compared with youth in the SAU condition. Impairment improved over time for both groups with no difference between treatment conditions. The MFG led to greater percentage of youth with clinically significant improvements in oppositional behavior. Attendance to the MFG was high, given the high-risk nature of the study population. The MFG service delivery model offers an efficient and engaging format to implement evidence-based approaches to improving functioning of youth with oppositional defiant and/or conduct disorder in families from socioeconomically disadvantaged communities.

  8. Reciprocity Between Parental Psychopathology and Oppositional Symptoms From Preschool to Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Zayra; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2018-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a common disorder in preschool children. Evidence indicates that maternal and paternal psychopathology, particularly aggressive behavior and anxious and depressed symptoms, contributes to the development of this disorder. The latest research also suggests that ODD symptoms may exacerbate the mental health problems of parents. Our aim was to establish the existence of a reciprocal association between paternal and maternal psychopathology (aggression, depression, and anxiety) and child ODD at ages 3 and 8, using a longitudinal design in a community sample of preschoolers. The sample included 331 children evaluated at ages 3 and 8 through questionnaires and a semistructured diagnostic interview with parents. Parents also informed about their own psychopathology. At 3 years of age, higher levels of ODD symptoms in girls were concurrently associated with maternal anxious and depressed symptoms and paternal aggressive behavior, and higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys were concurrently associated with maternal aggressive behavior. Longitudinally, for boys, higher levels of maternal anxious and depressed symptoms at child age 3 predicted increases in ODD symptoms from 3 to 8 years of age. In addition, higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys aged 3-8 years predicted increases in fathers' anxious and depressive symptoms. Children with ODD should be evaluated and treated promptly, but efforts should be extended to their parents. Mothers' and fathers' mental health must be explored because the psychopathologies of children and parents reciprocally affect each other. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The opposite end of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder continuum: genetic and environmental aetiologies of extremely low ADHD traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Corina U; Merwood, Andrew; van der Meer, Jolanda M J; Haworth, Claire M A; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2016-04-01

    Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to reflect a continuously distributed quantitative trait, it is assessed through binary diagnosis or skewed measures biased towards its high, symptomatic extreme. A growing trend is to study the positive tail of normally distributed traits, a promising avenue, for example, to study high intelligence to increase power for gene-hunting for intelligence. However, the emergence of such a 'positive genetics' model has been tempered for ADHD due to poor phenotypic resolution at the low extreme. Overcoming this methodological limitation, we conduct the first study to assess the aetiologies of low extreme ADHD traits. In a population-representative sample of 2,143 twins, the Strength and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal behaviour (SWAN) questionnaire was used to assess ADHD traits on a continuum from low to high. Aetiological influences on extreme ADHD traits were estimated using DeFries-Fulker extremes analysis. ADHD traits were related to behavioural, cognitive and home environmental outcomes using regression. Low extreme ADHD traits were significantly influenced by shared environmental factors (23-35%) but were not significantly heritable. In contrast, high-extreme ADHD traits showed significant heritability (39-51%) but no shared environmental influences. Compared to individuals with high extreme or with average levels of ADHD traits, individuals with low extreme ADHD traits showed fewer internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems, better cognitive performance and more positive behaviours and positive home environmental outcomes. Shared environmental influences on low extreme ADHD traits may reflect passive gene-environment correlation, which arises because parents provide environments as well as passing on genes. Studying the low extreme opens new avenues to study mechanisms underlying previously neglected positive behaviours. This is different from the current deficit-based model of

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Mini; Pergjika, Alba

    2017-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by age-inappropriate deficits in attention or hyperactivity/impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development. It is highly correlated with other disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and mood symptoms. The etiology is multifactorial, and neuroimaging findings are nonspecific. Although assessment tools exist, there is variability among them, and historically, parent-teacher agreement has not been consistent. Treatment algorithm for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschoolers includes behavioral interventions first followed by psychopharmacologic treatment when behavioral therapies fail. Other nonpharmacologic and nonbehavioral interventions are discussed including the role of exercise and nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sad mood induction has an opposite effect on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, Jiri; Mikolas, Pavol; Tintera, Jaroslav; Novak, Tomas; Palenicek, Tomas; Brunovsky, Martin; Höschl, Cyril; Alda, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Aberrant amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli represents a candidate factor predisposing patients with bipolar disorder (BD) to relapse, but it is unclear to what extent amygdala reactivity is state-dependent. We evaluated the modulatory influence of mood on amygdala reactivity and functional connectivity in patients with remitted BD and healthy controls. Amygdala response to sad versus neutral faces was investigated using fMRI during periods of normal and sad mood induced by autobiographical scripts. We assessed the functional connectivity of the amygdala to characterize the influence of mood state on the network responsible for the amygdala response. We included 20 patients with remitted BD and 20 controls in our study. The sad and normal mood exerted opposite effects on the amygdala response to emotional faces in patients compared with controls (F1,38 = 5.85, p = 0.020). Sad mood amplified the amygdala response to sad facial stimuli in controls but attenuated the amygdala response in patients. The groups differed in functional connectivity between the amygdala and the inferior prefrontal gyrus (p ≤ 0.05, family-wise error-corrected) of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) corresponding to Brodmann area 47. The sad mood challenge increased connectivity during the period of processing sad faces in patients but decreased connectivity in controls. Limitations to our study included long-term medication use in the patient group and the fact that we mapped only depressive (not manic) reactivity. Our results support the role of the amygdala-vlPFC as the system of dysfunctional contextual affective processing in patients with BD. Opposite amygdala reactivity unmasked by the mood challenge paradigm could represent a trait marker of altered mood regulation in patients with BD.

  12. Reliability and Validity of the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-13

    Major Depression; Mania; Anxiety Disorders; Psychotic Disorder; Alcohol Dependence; Drug Dependence; Eating Disorders; Suicidality; Dysthymia; ADHD; Tourettes Disorder; Conduct Disorder; Oppositional Defiant Disorder; Pervasive Developmental Disorder

  13. Irritable and Defiant Sub-Dimensions of ODD: Their Stability and Prediction of Internalizing Symptoms and Conduct Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research has identified sub-dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder – irritability and defiance -that differentially predict internalizing and externalizing symptoms in preschoolers, children, and adolescents. Using a theoretical approach and confirmatory factor analyses to distinguish between irritability and defiance, we investigate the associations among these dimensions and internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing problems (conduct problems) within and across time in a community-based sample of 662 youth (342 females) spanning ages 12 to 18 years old at baseline. On average, irritability was stable across assessment points and defiance declined. Within time, associations of irritability with internalizing were consistently stronger than associations of irritability with conduct problems. Defiance was similarly associated within time with both internalizing and conduct problems in mid-adolescence, but was more highly related to internalizing than to conduct problems by early adulthood (ages 18 to 25). Over time, increasing irritability was related to changes in both internalizing and conduct problems; whereas increases in defiance predicted increases in conduct problems more strongly than internalizing symptoms. Increases in both internalizing and conduct problems were also associated with subsequent increases in both irritability and defiance. Sex differences in these associations were not significant. PMID:25028284

  14. Differential neuropsychological functioning between adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and/or conduct disorder (CD and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. Methods: Adolescents aged 11–18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to confirm their previous and current ADHD status and other psychiatric diagnoses. The performance of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery was compared among four groups: (1 ADHD with CD (ADHD+CD, regardless of ODD; (2 ADHD with ODD (ADHD+ODD without CD; (3 ADHD without ODD/CD (ADHD-only; and (4 typically developing controls. Mediation effects of neuropsychological functioning were tested. Results: All three ADHD groups had impaired spatial working memory and short-term memory. Deficits in verbal memory and response inhibition were found in ADHD+ODD, but not in ADHD-only. ADHD+CD did not differ from typically developing controls in verbal working memory, signal detectability, and response inhibition. Spatial working memory partially mediated the association between ADHD and CD symptoms and alerting/signal detectability of arousal partially mediated the association between ADHD and ODD symptoms. Conclusion: There were both common and distinct neuropsychological deficits between adolescents with ADHD who developed ODD only and who developed CD. ADHD comorbid with CD may be a different disease entity and needs different treatment strategies in addition to treating ADHD, while ADHD+ODD may be a severe form of ADHD and warrants intensive treatment for ADHD symptoms. Keywords: arousal, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, mediator

  15. Mars at Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  16. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  17. Comparative study of children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder + ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder + ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; DeVincent, Carla J; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-03-01

    Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. All three groups were highly similar in severity of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms; however, the ASD+ADHD group generally exhibited the most severe anxiety, although the CMTD+ADHD group had the most severe generalized anxiety. The two comorbid groups had the most involved medical histories and the greatest likelihood of a family history of psychopathology. Groups differed in clinically meaningful ways, and the apparent association between tics and anxiety may explain in part the elevated levels of anxiety in both comorbid groups. Collectively, results suggest that ADHD may be better conceptualized as a family of interrelated syndromes defined in part by comorbid conditions and that continued research is clearly warranted.

  18. [Family violence and aggressive and oppositional behavior in childhood: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Renata

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of the world literature about two important subjects: family violence and problems of aggressive behavior and oppositional defiant disorder in childhood. We opted for publications that had used the CBCL- Child Behavior Checklist for investigating behavior problems in children. This instrument is internationally recognized for its reliability and validity, considered an efficient tool for identifying behavior problems in children. Our findings showed that marital violence predominated in the studies as kind of familiar violence able to cause problems of aggressiveness and transgression in children. Another point discussed was the lack of consensus on the terms used in the articles to refer to such behavior problems. The review showed the need for in-depth studies into this subject, mainly in the sense of thinking about prevention and health promotion in childhood and adolescence. Aggressive behavior in children tends to remain and increase over time, a fact that points to the need for strategies for preventing these problems in the school, familiar and health environments.

  19. Prevalence of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 outpatient children and adolescents who were selected by convenient sampling. The data were collected using the questionnaire, designed by authors, and were analyzed through descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The prevalence of comorbid disorders were as follows: anxiety disorders (48.3%; depression (20.33%; bipolar disorder (17.79%; obsessive-compulsive (47.45%; tic and tourette (35.59%, oppositional defiant disorder (43.22%; conduct disorder (11.01%; urinary incontinence (58.47%; communication disorder (9.32%; and learning disorder (21.18%. There was no significant difference between females and males with respect to the prevalence of comorbid disorders. Conclusions Similar to previous studies, we found some comorbid psychiatric disorders with ADHD. The treatment of the disorder can be improved, by more attention to comorbid psychiatric disorders, early diagnosis of them, and using distinct and specific treatment for everyone.

  20. Disruptive behavior disorders in offspring of parents with major depression: associations with parental behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Petty, Carter; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Park, Jennifer; Beilin, Ari; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Although the offspring of parents with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk to develop disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in addition to MDD, it remains unclear whether this heightened risk is due to MDD or to comorbid DBD in the parents. In a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from offspring at risk for MDD and panic disorder and comparison children, we stratified 169 children of parents who had been treated for MDD based upon presence (n=50) or absence (n=119) of parental history of DBD (ADHD, oppositional disorder, and conduct disorder) and contrasted them with children of parents with DBD but without MDD (n=19) and children whose parents had neither MDD nor DBD (n=106). The children had been assessed in middle childhood using structured diagnostic interviews. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD had significantly higher rates of MDD, DBD in general, and ADHD in particular, compared with offspring of parents with MDD alone. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD also had higher rates of mania than controls. Both parental MDD and DBD conferred independent risk for MDD and DBD in the offspring. However, only parental DBD conferred independent risk for conduct disorder and ADHD and only parental MDD conferred independent risk for oppositional defiant disorder. Elevated rates of DBD in the offspring of parents with MDD appear to be due in part to the presence of DBD in the parents. Further studies of samples not selected on the basis of parental panic disorder are needed to confirm these results.

  1. Are Trauma and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Connected to Psychiatric Comorbidity in Danish Pre-schoolers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schandorph Løkkegaard, Sille; Bonnemann Egebæk, Sarah Agnethe; Elklit, Ask

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the onset of seven psychiatric disorders and the amount of functional impairment in 80 preschool children (ages 1–6 years) following different kinds of traumatic events. Assessed via caregiver reports from an age-modified diagnostic interview, 46.3% of the children were...... identified as suffering from PTSD. Of those children, 78.3% had at least one comorbid disorder with oppositional defiant disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and major depression disorder being the most common. The prevalence of the disorders was significantly higher compared to the group of children...... without diagnosed PTSD. Furthermore, all the children displayed a wide range of symptomatology with profound functional impairment in different domains such as interpersonal relations with caregivers, siblings, and peers. These findings provide empirical support for assessing trauma related symptoms...

  2. Lessons learned from the study of masturbation and its comorbidity with psychiatric disorders in children: The first analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashakori, Ashraf; Safavi, Atefeh; Neamatpour, Sorour

    2017-04-01

    The main source of information about children's masturbation is more on the basis of case reports. Due to the lack of consistent and accurate information. This study aimed to determine prevalence and underlying factors of masturbation and its comorbidity with psychiatric disorders in children. In this descriptive-analytical study, among the children referred to the Pediatrics Clinic of Psychiatric Ward, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Southwest Iran, 98 children were selected by convenience sampling in 2014. Disorders were diagnosed by clinical interview based on the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Psychiatric Disorders (DSM-IV) and the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4). We also used a questionnaire, containing demographic information about the patient and their family and also other data. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test with SPSS software version 16. Of the children who participated in this study (most of whom were boys), 31.6% suffered from masturbation. The phobias (p=0.002), separation anxiety disorder (p=0.044), generalized anxiety disorder (p=0.037), motor tics (p=0.033), stress disorder (p=0.005), oppositional defiant disorder (p=0.044), thumb sucking (p=0.000) and conduct disorder (p=0.001) were associated with masturbation. Masturbation was common in children referred to psychiatric clinic, and may be more associated with oppositional defiant disorder, or conduct disorder, some anxiety disorders, motor tics and other stereotypical behavior. Authors recommended more probing for psychiatric disorders in children with unusual sexual behavior.

  3. Psychiatric comorbidities of adults with early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the psychiatric comorbidities in adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a function of recalled symptom onset before and after the age of 7 years and whether the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were associated with psychiatric comorbidities. In all, 214 adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 174 non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls (aged 17-40 years) received psychiatric interviews to confirm their previous and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder status and other psychiatric diagnoses. Demographics and risks of lifetime psychiatric disorders were compared among three groups: (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset between 7 and 12 years (late-onset) and (3) non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls. We also tested the effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on the risk of later psychiatric comorbidities by Cox regression analyses. Regardless of the age of onset, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. There were similar comorbid patterns between early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, increased severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was associated with higher risks of oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, dysthymia and sleep disorder but not major depression, which was associated with the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Our findings suggest that elevating the threshold of age of onset to 12 years in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition would not

  4. Psychiatric disorders and symptoms severity in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, E; Catal, F; Soylu, N; Ozcan, O O; Celiksoy, M H; Babayiğit, A; Erge, D; Karakoç, H T E; Sancak, R

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are seen frequently in atopic diseases. The present study aims to evaluate the frequency of psychiatric disorders and the severity of psychiatric symptoms in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy. The parents of the pre-school children with cow's milk allergy were interviewed in person and asked to fill out the Early Childhood Inventory-4 form. The cow's milk allergy group included 40 children (27 male, 13 female) with mean age, 44.5±14.7 months, and the control group included 41 children (25 male, 16 female) with mean age, 47.6±15.2 months. It was established that 65% of the group with cow's milk allergy received at least one psychiatric diagnosis, while 36.6% of the control group received at least one psychiatric diagnosis, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.02). Within the psychiatric disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (odds ratio: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.472-16.856, p=0.006), oppositional defiant disorder (odds ratio: 5.6, 95% CI: 1.139-28.128, p=0.026), and attachment disorder (odds ratio: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.747-13.506, p=0.004) were found significantly higher compared with the healthy control group. When the groups were compared in terms of psychiatric symptom severity scores, calculated by using the Early Childhood Inventory-4 form, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders severity (p=0.006) and oppositional defiant disorder severity (p=0.037) were found to be higher in the cow's milk allergy group. Psychiatric disorders are frequent and severe in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

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    Melanie C. Morse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. Method A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, M age = 20 from a large public university completed an online survey. Results Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. Conclusion Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use.

  6. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

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    Browne, Dillon T.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors. PMID:25083349

  7. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Brendan F; Browne, Dillon T; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors.

  8. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan F. Andrade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate, or influence (i.e., moderate, peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors.

  9. Intellectual disability in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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    Ahuja, Alka; Martin, Joanna; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Anita

    2013-09-01

    To determine whether children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mild intellectual disability (ID) are a clinically distinct ADHD subgroup. This was a cross-sectional study comparing clinical characteristics (ADHD subtypes, total number of symptoms, and rates of common comorbidities) between children with ADHD and mild ID and those with ADHD and IQ test scores >70, and also between children with ADHD and ID and a general population sample of children with ID alone. The sample comprised a clinical sample of children with ADHD with ID (n = 97) and without ID (n = 874) and a general population sample of children with ID and without ADHD (n = 58). After correcting for multiple statistical tests, no differences were found between the 2 ADHD groups on any measure except the presence of conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses. Children with ADHD and ID had higher rates of both (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.71-3.32 and OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.69-4.28, respectively). Furthermore, children with ADHD and ID had significantly higher rates of oppositional defiant disorder (OR, 5.54; 95% CI, 2.86-10.75) and CD (OR, 13.66; 95% CI, 3.25-57.42) symptoms and a higher incidence of oppositional defiant disorder diagnoses (OR, 30.99; 95% CI, 6.38-150.39) compared with children with ID without ADHD. Children with ADHD and mild ID appear to be clinically typical of children with ADHD except for more conduct problems. This finding has implications for clinicians treating these children in terms of acknowledging the presence and impact of ADHD symptoms above and beyond ID and dealing with a comorbid CD. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings.

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    Dichter, Gabriel S; Damiano, Cara A; Allen, John A

    2012-07-06

    This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders), neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette's syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder), and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome). We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  11. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

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    Dichter Gabriel S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder, and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome. We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  12. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders amongst Adolescents in Tehran

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    Zahra Shahrivar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among 12 to 17 years old adolescents in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: In this study, 1105 adolescents (12 -17 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method. After responding to the Farsi version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report version, the Farsi version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL was administered to 273 adolescents and their families. The prevalence of adolescent psychiatric disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "nResults: There were not any statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of psychiatric disorders except for ADHD which was observed more frequently in boys. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders and separation anxiety disorder. "nConclusion: The frequency of psychiatric disorders among the adolescents in Tehran's urban areas was comparable to the reports from other countries. However, using methods to deal with missing data makes these prevalence rates somehow higher.

  13. Quetiapine monotherapy in adolescents with bipolar disorder comorbid with conduct disorder.

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    Masi, Gabriele; Pisano, Simone; Pfanner, Chiara; Milone, Annarita; Manfredi, Azzurra

    2013-10-01

    Bipolar Disorders (BD) are often comorbid with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) (oppositional-defiant disorder or conduct disorder), with negative implications on treatment strategy and outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy in adolescents with BD comorbid with conduct disorder (CD). A consecutive series of 40 adolescents (24 males and 16 females, age range 12-18 years, mean age 14.9 ± 2.0 years), diagnosed with a clinical interview (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version [K-SADS-PL]) according to American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria were included. All the patients were treated with quetiapine monotherapy (mean final dose 258 ± 124 mg/day, range 100-600 mg/day). At the end-point (3 months), 22 patients (55.0%) were responders (Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement [CGI-I] score of 1 or 2 and CGI-Severity [CGI-S] ≤ 3 and improvement of at least 30% Children's Global Assessment Scale [C-GAS] during 3 consecutive months). Both CGI-S and C-GAS significantly improved (pdisorder (ADHD) comorbidity. Eight patients (20.0%) experienced moderate to severe sedation and eight (20.0%) experienced increased appetite and weight gain. In these severely impaired adolescents, quetiapine monotherapy was well tolerated and effective in>50% of the patients.

  14. Significance of borderline personality-spectrum symptoms among adolescents with bipolar disorder.

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    Fonseka, Trehani M; Swampillai, Brenda; Timmins, Vanessa; Scavone, Antonette; Mitchell, Rachel; Collinger, Katelyn A; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding correlates of borderline personality-spectrum symptoms (BPSS) among adolescents with bipolar disorder (BP). Participants were 90 adolescents, 13-19 years of age, who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR criteria for BP using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. BPSS status was ascertained using the Life Problems Inventory which assessed identity confusion, interpersonal problems, impulsivity, and emotional lability. Analyses compared adolescents with "high" versus "low" BPSS based on a median split. Participants with high, relative to low, BPSS were younger, and had greater current and past depressive episode severity, greater current hypo/manic episode severity, younger age of depression onset, and reduced global functioning. High BPSS participants were more likely to have BP-II, and had higher rates of social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, homicidal ideation, assault of others, non-suicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation, and physical abuse. Despite greater illness burden, high BPSS participants reported lower rates of lithium use. The most robust independent predictors of high BPSS, identified in multivariate analyses, included lifetime social phobia, non-suicidal self-injury, reduced global functioning, and conduct and/or oppositional defiant disorder. The study design is cross-sectional and cannot determine causality. High BPSS were associated with greater mood symptom burden and functional impairment. Presence of high BPSS among BP adolescents may suggest the need to modify clinical monitoring and treatment practices. Future prospective studies are needed to examine the direction of observed associations, the effect of treatment on BPSS, and the effect of BPSS as a moderator or predictor of treatment response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Substance use disorders in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a 4-year follow-up study.

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    Groenman, Annabeth P; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Rommelse, Nanda; Franke, Barbara; Roeyers, Herbert; Oades, Robert D; Sergeant, Joseph A; Buitelaar, Jan K; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-08-01

    To examine the relationship between a childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) and the development of later alcohol/drug use disorder [psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD)] and nicotine dependence in a large European sample of ADHD probands, their siblings and healthy control subjects. Subjects (n = 1017) were participants in the Belgian, Dutch and German part of the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. IMAGE families were identified through ADHD probands aged 5-17 years attending out-patient clinics, and control subjects from the same geographic areas. After a follow-up period (mean: 4.4 years) this subsample was re-assessed at a mean age of 16.4 years. PSUD and nicotine dependence were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Drug Abuse Screening Test and Fagerström test for Nicotine Dependence. The ADHD sample was at higher risk of developing PSUD [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-3.00] and nicotine dependence (HR = 8.61, 95% CI = 2.44-30.34) than healthy controls. The rates of these disorders were highest for ADHD youth who also had CD, but could not be accounted for by this comorbidity. We did not find an increased risk of developing PSUD (HR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.62-2.27) or nicotine dependence (HR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.46-7.77) among unaffected siblings of ADHD youth. A childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a risk factor for psychoactive substance use disorder and nicotine dependence in adolescence and comorbid conduct disorder, but not oppositional defiant disorder, further increases the risk of developing psychoactive substance use disorder and nicotine dependence. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

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    Parvin Safavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotics is common in child psychiatry, there has been little research on this issue. To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders comorbid with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Randomized clinical trial conducted in a university-affiliated child psychiatry clinic in southwest Iran. Forty 3-6-year-old children, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with ADHD, were randomized to an 8-week trial of treatment with risperidone or aripiprazole (20 patients in each group. Assessment was performed by Conners′ rating scale-revised and clinical global impressions scale, before treatment, and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Mean scores between the two groups were compared by analysis of variance and independent and paired t-test. Mean scores of Conners rating scales were not different between two groups in any steps of evaluation. Both groups had significantly reduced scores in week 2 of treatment (P = 0.00, with no significant change in subsequent measurements. Rates of improvement, mean increase in weight (P = 0.894, and mean change in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.671 were not significantly different between two groups. Mean serum prolactin showed a significant increase in risperidone group (P = 0.00. Both risperidone and aripiprazole were equally effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and relatively safe, but high rates of side effects suggest the cautious use of these drugs in children.

  17. Which dimension of parenting predicts the change of callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Lai, Elisa; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Righini, Elisabetta; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    Several studies suggested that in addition to child-driven factors (i.e., temperamental style), parenting behavior can, at least in part, influence the maintenance of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in children; however, more information is needed to distinguish which styles (negative parenting or lack of positive parenting) predict increased levels of CU traits. The aim of the present treatment study was to examine which components of parenting are longitudinally associated with levels of CU traits in children with a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. The current study examined cross-lagged reciprocal effects models between positive and negative parenting practices, and the levels of child CU traits over three time points, including both positive and negative dimensions of parenting in the same model. Participants were 126 Italian children with diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder), 113 boys and 13 girls, 110 Caucasian, 48 with conduct disorder, and 78 with oppositional defiant disorder, treated with a multi-component intervention, based on cognitive behavioral principles and practices. Participants were all 9-10 years of age at the beginning of the study, and were followed-up until the age of 11-12 years (24 months in total, the first 12 under treatment) using parent report (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire and Child Behavior Check List) and child report (Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits) measures. No significant cross-lagged path was found between negative parenting and CU traits; these two variables were also unrelated when positive parenting was considered in the same model. In contrast, reciprocal effects between positive parenting and CU were found: higher levels of positive parenting predicted lower levels of CU traits. The current findings suggest that the positive dimension of parenting may need to be targeted in the treatment of DBD children with higher CU traits. Copyright © 2016

  18. Vote No! Managing Organized Opposition

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    Lifto, Don E.; Senden, J. Bradford

    2008-01-01

    Organized opposition from A to Z symbolizes both the breadth and the core values of organized opposition groups that have emerged across the nation in recent years. Technological advances have expanded the reach and impact of oppositional messages. Anti-public school websites, group e-mail, the mushrooming blogosphere and web-based marketing…

  19. Time perception and reproduction in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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    Barkley, R A; Murphy, K R; Bush, T

    2001-07-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 104) were compared with a control group (n = 64) on time estimation and reproduction tasks. Results were unaffected by ADHD subtype or gender. The ADHD group provided larger time estimations than the control group, particularly at long intervals. This became nonsignificant after controlling for IQ. The ADHD group made shorter reproductions than did the control group (15- and 60-s intervals) and greater reproduction errors (12-, 45-, 60-s durations). These differences remained after controlling for IQ and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, depression, and anxiety. Only the level of anxiety contributed to errors (at 12-s duration) beyond the level of ADHD. Results extended findings on time perception in ADHD children to adults and ruled out comorbidity as the basis of the errors.

  20. Prevention of serious conduct problems in youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodas, Miguel T; Pfiffner, Linda J; McBurnett, Keith

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss issues in the prevention of serious conduct problems among children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors began by reviewing research on the common genetic and environmental etiological factors, developmental trajectories, characteristics and impairments associated with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Next, the authors presented empirically based models for intervention with children and adolescents with ADHD that are at risk of developing serious conduct problems and detailed the evidence supporting these models. Researchers have demonstrated the utility of medication and psychosocial intervention approaches to treat youth with these problems, but current evidence appears to support the superiority of multimodal treatments that include both approaches. Future directions for researchers are discussed.

  1. Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children of Parents With/Without Bipolar Disorders: A Case Control Study

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    Shamsaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Children of parents with bipolar disorder appear to have an increased risk of early-onset Bipolar Disorder (BP, mood disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the mental health of school-age children of parents, with/without bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods This case-control study included one hundred children aged six to twelve years, who had parents with bipolar disorder and 200 children of 163 demographically-matched control parents. Parents with bipolar disorder were recruited from Farshchian Psychiatric Hospital of Hamadan, Iran, during year 2014. The parent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Mean comparisons were performed using Student’s t test while effect sizes were estimated by Cohen’s d coefficient. The Chi-square test was used to assess significant differences between frequency distribution of demographic variables in both groups. The significance level was considered less than 0.05. Results There were statistically significant differences between children of parents with and those without bipolar disorder regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct, generalized anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, separation anxiety (P< 0.001 and social phobia (P < 0.05. Children of parents with BP are at high risk for psychiatric disorders. Conclusions These findings support that the careful evaluation and prospective following of the psychopathology of children of parents with bipolar disorder are critical for early identification and treatment.

  2. Biases in Understanding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Japan

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    Mami Miyasaka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown high rates of comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD and difficulties regarding differential diagnosis. Unlike those in Western countries, the Japanese ADHD prevalence rate is lower relative to that of ASD. This inconsistency could have occurred because of cultural diversities among professionals such as physicians. However, little is known about attitudes toward ADHD and ASD in non-Western cultural contexts. We conducted two experiments to identify biases in ASD and ADHD assessment. In Study 1, we examined attitudes toward these disorders in medical doctors and mental health professionals, using a web-based questionnaire. In Study 2, medical doctors and clinical psychologists assessed four fictional cases based on criteria for ADHD, ASD, oppositional defiant disorder, and disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED. Diagnosis of ASD was considered more difficult relative to that of ADHD. Most participants assessed the fictional DSED case as ASD, rather than DSED or ADHD. The results provide evidence that Japanese professionals are more likely to attribute children’s behavioral problems to ASD, relative to other disorders. Therefore, Japanese therapists could be more sensitive to and likely to diagnose ASD, relative to therapists in other countries. These findings suggest that cultural biases could influence clinicians’ diagnosis of ADHD and ASD.

  3. The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey 1999: the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tamsin; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard

    2003-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and comorbidity in a large population-based sample of British children and adolescents. Using a one-phase design, 10,438 children were assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), a structured interview with verbatim reports reviewed by clinicians so that information from parents, teachers, and children was combined in a manner that emulated the clinical process. The authors' analysis examined comorbidity and the influence of teacher reports. The overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders was 9.5% (95% confidence interval 8.8-10.1%), but 2.1% of children were assigned "not otherwise specified" rather than operationalized diagnoses. After adjusting for the presence of a third disorder, there was no longer significant comorbidity between anxiety and conduct disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or between depression and oppositional defiant disorder. A comparison of the disorders in children with and without teacher reports suggested that the prevalence of conduct disorders and ADHD would be underestimated in the absence of teacher information. Roughly 1 in 10 children have at least one DSM-IV disorder, involving a level of distress or social impairment likely to warrant treatment. Comorbidity reported between some childhood diagnoses may be due to the association of both disorders with a third. Diagnoses of conduct disorder and ADHD may be missed if information is not sought from teachers about children's functioning in school.

  4. Methylphenidate and comorbid anxiety disorder in children with both chronic multiple tic disorder and ADHD.

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    Gadow, Kenneth D; Nolan, Edith E

    2011-04-01

    To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial with rating scales and laboratory measures. The +ANX group obtained more severe parent, teacher, and child ratings of anxiety and more severe parent ratings of depression, tics, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and peer aggression than the -ANX group. Treatment with short-term MPH-IR was associated with improvement in ADHD, ODD, and peer aggression in the +ANX group. When controlling for ODD severity, there were no apparent group differences in therapeutic response to MPH-IR in children ±ANX. There was little evidence that MPH-IR contributed to improvement in anxiety or depression symptoms in the +ANX group. There was some indication that children with comorbid anxiety may differentially experience greater increase in systolic blood pressure (0.5 mg/kg of MPH-IR > placebo). Findings suggest that the co-occurrence of diagnosed CMTD+ADHD+ANX represents a particularly troublesome clinical phenotype, at least in the home setting. Comorbid anxiety disorder was not associated with a less favorable response to MPH-IR in children with ADHD+CMTD, but replication with larger samples is warranted before firm conclusions can be drawn about potential group differences.

  5. Risk factors for secondary substance use disorders in people with childhood and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder: opportunities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneson, Aileen; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Maisto, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Compared to other mental illnesses, bipolar disorder is associated with a disproportionately high rate of substance use disorders (SUDs), and the co-occurrence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of primary bipolar disorder may provide opportunities for SUD prevention, but little is known about the risk factors for secondary SUD among individuals with bipolar disorder. The purposes of this study were to describe the population of people with childhood and adolescent-onset primary bipolar disorder, and to identify risk factors for secondary SUD in this population. Using data collected from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication study, we identified 158 individuals with childhood-onset (adolescent-onset (13-18 years) primary bipolar disorder (I, II or subthreshold). Survival analysis was used to identify risk factors for SUD. Compared to adolescent-onset, people with childhood-onset bipolar disorder had increased likelihoods of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (adjusted odds ratio=2.81) and suicide attempt (aOR=3.61). Males were more likely than females to develop SUD, and did so at a faster rate. Hazard ratios of risk factors for SUD were: lifetime oppositional defiant disorder (2.048), any lifetime anxiety disorder (3.077), adolescent-onset bipolar disorder (1.653), and suicide attempt (15.424). SUD was not predicted by bipolar disorder type, family history of bipolar disorder, hospitalization for a mood episode, ADHD or conduct disorder. As clinicians struggle to help individuals with bipolar disorder, this study provides information that might be useful in identifying individuals at higher risk for SUD. Future research can examine whether targeting these risk factors may help prevent secondary SUD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders among a community sample of adolescents: 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Arribas, Pilar; Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; García-Blanco, Ana; Vaz-Leal, Francisco; Luisa Vila, María; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2015-05-30

    The previous literature about comorbidity between eating disorders (ED) and other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in adolescence has employed cross-sectional studies with clinical samples, where the comorbid disorders were diagnosed retrospectively. The present study aims to overcome these limitations by the analysis of comorbidity in a community population during 2-year follow-up. A semi-structured interview was applied to a teenager sample. Firstly, a cross-sectional and non-randomized study on psychiatric morbidity was conducted with 993 teenagers between the ages of 12 and 16 from five schools. Secondly, 326 students between 14 and 17 years old of one school were reassessed 2 years later in order to detect ED new cases and find associations with previous psychiatric disorders. The ED prevalence was 3.6%. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that 62.9% of individuals with an ED had comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (51.4%), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (31.4%), oppositional defiant disorder (11.4%), and obsessive compulsive disorder (8.6%). Prospective longitudinal analysis showed an ED incidence rate of 2.76% over the course of 2 years. 22.2% of new cases had received previous psychiatric diagnoses, of which all were anxiety disorders. Thus, ED exhibited a high comorbidity rate among adolescent populations and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents as a possible symptom of different mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents are manifold with exogenous and endogenous factors such as personality traits, temperament, family, socio-cultural, economic and financial factors closely intertwined. Aggressive behaviour, however, can also be associated with mental disorders and this is the topic discussed by the present article. Isolated and occasional outbursts of anger, aggressiveness and rage in children and adolescents can often be confused with conduct disorder. However, conduct disorder is characterised by a stable aggressive behavioural pattern, recurrently violating either the basic rights of the others or of the generally accepted social norms. Aggressive behaviour can also be present in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD, Attention Deficit Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD, affective and psychotic disorders, autistic spectrum disorders and in some other developmental neurological disorders including intellectual disability ‒ but only as a possible and not a typical symptom. Child and adolescent psychiatrist can mainly help with aggressive behaviour associated with mental disorders. In all other possible causes of aggressive behaviour, child and adolescent psychiatry has neither the possibility/capacity nor the authority to intervene.  

  8. A case-control study of the difficulties in daily functioning experienced by children with depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahide; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Kyota; Ushijima, Hirokage; Kodaira, Masaki; Okada, Takashi; Sasayama, Daimei; Sugiyama, Nobuhiro; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-01

    The parent-assessed children-with-difficulties questionnaire (Questionnaire-Children with Difficulties; QCD) is designed to evaluate a child׳s difficulties in functioning during specific periods of the day. This study aimed to use the QCD to evaluate the difficulties in daily functioning experienced by children with depressive disorders. A case-control design was used. The cases comprised 90 junior high school students with depressive disorder, whereas a community sample of 363 junior high school students was enrolled as controls. Behaviors were assessed using the QCD, Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS), Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-rating scale (ADHD-RS), and Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI). We then analyzed the effects of sex and diagnosis on the QCD scores as well as the correlation coefficients between the QCD and the other questionnaires. We included 90 cases (33 boys, 57 girls) with depressive disorders and 363 controls (180 boys, 183 girls). The QCD scores for the children with depressive disorders were significantly lower compared with those from the community sample (Pdepressive disorders and truancy problems than for those with depressive disorders alone (Pdepressive disorders experienced greater difficulties in completing basic daily activities compared with community controls. These difficulties were dependent on sex, symptoms, and the time of day. The use of QCD to assess children with depressive disorders enables clinicians to clarify the time periods at which the children face difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. OPPOSITIONS CREATING HOMOUR IN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umral Deveci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human beings, who perceive the reality of death however who do not know when it will happen, begin their life with this deficiency. Therefore, throughout their lives, they struggle to consummate and make up for the things that they perceive as deficiency or shortcomings through different ways. Humor is one of these means. The fact that deficiencies are eliminated results in superiority and relaxation. The sense of humor and relaxation simultaneously provide laughter. When theories of humor such as superiority, incongruous and relief are taken into consideration, it seems that these theories are related and support each other. Each text is whole with its form and content, which should be evaluated as a whole as much as possible. Hence this study dwells on shortcomings in jokes and in the lights of these shortcomings and theories of humor, it is intended tomake humor in stories, in terms of structural and semantic context, more concrete. Five stories/jokes randomly selected through samples are analyzed in this article. There are two basic types of opposition. The firstone is opposition that creates situation, the second one is thatcreates laughter. The first opposition depicts the shortcomings of knowledge, skill, patience arrogance and jealousyand prepares the second opposition. The opposition that creates laughter make up for shortcomings through cause and effect relationship and laughter comes out.

  10. Suicide ideation and attempts in children with psychiatric disorders and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson Mayes, Susan; Calhoun, Susan L; Baweja, Raman; Mahr, Fauzia

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for suicide behavior. This is the first study to compare frequencies of suicide ideation and attempts in children and adolescents with specific psychiatric disorders and typical children while controlling for comorbidity and demographics. Mothers rated the frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 1,706 children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders and typical development, 6-18 years of age. For the typical group, 0.5% had suicide behavior (ideation or attempts), versus 24% across the psychiatric groups (bulimia 48%, depression or anxiety disorder 34%, oppositional defiant disorder 33%, ADHD-combined type 22%, anorexia 22%, autism 18%, intellectual disability 17%, and ADHD-inattentive type 8%). Most alarming, 29% of adolescents with bulimia often or very often had suicide attempts, compared with 0-4% of patients in the other psychiatric groups. It is important for professionals to routinely screen all children and adolescents who have psychiatric disorders for suicide ideation and attempts and to treat the underlying psychiatric disorders that increase suicide risk.

  11. Shared genetic and environmental influences on early temperament and preschool psychiatric disorders in Hispanic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Judy L; Gillespie, Nathan; Moore, Ashlee A; Eaves, Lindon J; Bates, John; Aggen, Steven; Pfister, Elizabeth; Canino, Glorisa

    2015-04-01

    Despite an increasing recognition that psychiatric disorders can be diagnosed as early as preschool, little is known how early genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders during this very early period of development. We assessed infant temperament at age 1, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) at ages 3 through 5 years in a sample of Hispanic twins. Genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects were estimated for each temperamental construct and psychiatric disorder using the statistical program MX. Multivariate genetic models were fitted to determine whether the same or different sets of genes and environments account for the co-occurrence between early temperament and preschool psychiatric disorders. Additive genetic factors accounted for 61% of the variance in ADHD, 21% in ODD, and 28% in SAD. Shared environmental factors accounted for 34% of the variance in ODD and 15% of SAD. The genetic influence on difficult temperament was significantly associated with preschool ADHD, SAD, and ODD. The association between ODD and SAD was due to both genetic and family environmental factors. The temperamental trait of resistance to control was entirely accounted for by the shared family environment. There are different genetic and family environmental pathways between infant temperament and psychiatric diagnoses in this sample of Puerto Rican preschool age children.

  12. Fifty Strategies for Counseling Defiant, Aggressive Adolescents: Reaching, Accepting, and Relating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Fred J.; Hanna, Constance A.; Keys, Susan G.

    1999-01-01

    Takes a transtheoretical approach using ideas from cognitive behavioral, existential, Gestalt, psychodynamic, and multicultural therapies to describe both new and established strategies for relationships building with defiant youth. Arranges strategies in three categories: reaching, accepting, and relating. Suggestions for counselors when working…

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence predicts onset of major depressive disorder through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Michael C; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Seeley, John R; Gau, Jeff M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waxmonsky, James G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in mid-adolescence and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) through early adulthood in a large school-based sample. A secondary aim was to examine whether this relationship was robust after accounting for comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. One thousand five hundred seven participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project completed rating scales in adolescence and structured diagnostic interviews up to four times from adolescence to age 30. Adolescents with a lifetime history of ADHD were at significantly higher risk of MDD through early adulthood relative to those with no history of ADHD. ADHD remained a significant predictor of MDD after controlling for gender, lifetime history of other psychiatric disorders in adolescence, social and academic impairment in adolescence, stress and coping in adolescence, and new onset of other psychiatric disorders through early adulthood (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04, 3.06). Additional significant, robust predictors of MDD included female gender, a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder, and poor coping skills in mid-adolescence, as well as the onset of anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance-use disorder after mid-adolescence. A history of ADHD in adolescence was associated with elevated risk of MDD through early adulthood and this relationship remained significant after controlling for psychosocial impairment in adolescence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms of risk and to inform depression prevention programs for adolescents with ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anxiety and depression symptoms and response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Nolan, Edith E; Sverd, Jeffrey; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schwartz, Joseph

    2002-06-01

    This study examined response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic multiple tic disorder. The primary goal was to determine if children with anxiety or depression symptoms showed a less favorable response to treatment. Subjects were 38 prepubertal children who participated in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, methylphenidate crossover evaluation. Treatment effects were assessed with direct observations of child behavior in public school and clinic settings; rating scales completed by parents, teachers, and clinicians; and laboratory analogue tasks. There was little evidence (group data) that children with anxiety or depression symptoms responded in a clinically different manner to methylphenidate than youngsters who did not exhibit these symptoms, particularly in school observations of the core features of ADHD. Seeming differences between children with and without comorbid anxiety or depression symptoms and drug response are likely explained by differences in pretreatment levels of negativistic behaviors (i.e., symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder). Methylphenidate appears to be effective for the management of ADHD behaviors in children with mild to moderate anxiety or depression symptoms; nevertheless, much research remains to be performed in this area.

  15. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  16. No objectively measured sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Catharina E; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to gain more insight into sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, using objective measures of sleep quality and quantity. The evidence for sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder thus far is inconsistent, which might be explained by confounding influences of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems and low socio-economic status. We therefore investigated the mediating and moderating role of these factors in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep problems. To control for the effects of stimulant medication use, all participants were tested free of medication. Sixty-three children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 61 typically developing children, aged 6-13 years, participated. Sleep was monitored for one to three school nights using actigraphy. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behaviour, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Results showed no differences between the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing group in any sleep parameter. Within the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was not related to sleep quality or quantity. Moderation analyses in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group showed an interaction effect between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behaviour on total sleep time, time in bed and average sleep bout duration. The results of our study suggest that having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not a risk factor for sleep problems. Internalizing and externalizing behaviour moderate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep, indicating a complex interplay between psychiatric symptoms and sleep.

  17. Adolescent callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder in adoptees exposed to severe early deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsta, Robert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Rutter, Michael

    2012-03-01

    There is a debate over whether disruptive behaviour should be regarded as a central component of, or rather as an epiphenomenon with little diagnostic value for, psychopathy. To test whether callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder can be dissociated in the English and Romanian Adoptee Study, a prospective longitudinal study of adopted individuals with a history of severe early institutional deprivation. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment was used to establish DSM-IV diagnoses for conduct disorder (and also oppositional defiant disorder) at the 15-year follow-up stage. The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits questionnaire was administered to assess psychopathy traits. There was no significant association between callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder, both according to parent and youth self-report assessed categorically and dimensionally after controlling for confounds. The majority of individuals with high callous-unemotional traits did not show conduct disorder in this special sample of children. This supports the view that, while common, an overlap between these aspects of psychopathology is not inevitable and so provides evidence for the dissociation of these two concepts. In terms of classification, we argue for a diagnostic scheme where psychopathy can be diagnosed independently of conduct disorder.

  18. Irritable mood and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safer Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The terms 'irritable mood' and 'irritability' have been applied to describe and define a variety of different categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM. More precise diagnostic terms and concepts are needed. Methods A concise critical historical review of DSM categories characterized by irritability, anger, and aggression is presented followed by recommendations. Results This analysis describes the broad ranging and imprecise use of the term irritability since the first DSM in 1952. A more age-appropriate and functional realignment of psychiatric categories linked to dysfunctional anger is suggested. Among other recommendations, this realignment would remove irritability as a problematic definer in the present DSM mood categories: expand oppositional defiant disorder to include adults; link the callous unemotional subtype of conduct disorder in adolescents to antisocial personality disorder; move intermittent explosive disorder to an appropriate category: and expand the term 'mood' to apply also to dysfunctional anger and anxiety. Conclusion The non-specific term 'irritability' commonly used in the DSM has had an adverse effect on diagnostic specificity and thereby on treatment. Dysfunctional anger is a major mood disorder which merits a more prominent and better defined representation in psychiatric nomenclature.

  19. Does collateral retrospective information about childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms assist in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults? Findings from a large clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Vitor; Rovaris, Diego Luiz; Vitola, Eduardo Schneider; Mota, Nina Roth; Blaya-Rocha, Paula; Salgado, Carlos Alberto Iglesias; Victor, Marcelo Moraes; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Karam, Rafael Gomes; Silva, Katiane Lilian; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Bau, Claiton Henrique Dotto; Grevet, Eugenio Horacio

    2016-06-01

    In accordance with consolidated clinical practice, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition suggests a key role of collateral information in the evaluation of retrospective childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adults despite poor evidence supporting its use. This study aims to assess the incremental value of collateral information on the presence of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms when evaluating adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 449) and non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects (n = 143) underwent an extensive clinical assessment based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria. For patients, retrospective collateral information regarding childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was obtained and used to sort them into two groups: agreement (n = 277) and disagreement (n = 172) between self- and collateral reports. We compared demographic, clinical and response to treatment profiles among groups to test the relevance of collateral information on the specific issue of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder groups had higher rates of several comorbidities (oppositional defiant, conduct, substance use and bipolar disorders; all p attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms occurred in 38% of patients. Overall, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder disagreement and agreement groups had similar profiles in response to treatment and comorbidity, and the few differences detected in impairment measures were of small magnitude (Eta(2) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, it has no incremental value in the evaluation of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adults with a self-reported history of attention

  20. Service utilization by children with conduct disorders: findings from the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivram, Raghuram; Bankart, John; Meltzer, Howard; Ford, Tamsin; Vostanis, Panos; Goodman, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Children with conduct disorders (CD) and their families are in contact with multiple agencies, but there is limited evidence on their patterns of service utilization. The aim of this study was to establish the patterns, barriers and correlates of service use by analysing the cohort of the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey (N = 7,977). Use of social services was significantly higher by children with CD than emotional disorders (ED) in the absence of co-morbidity, while use of specialist child mental health and paediatric was significantly higher by children with hyperkinetic disorders (HD) than CD. Children who had comorbid physical disorders used more primary healthcare services compared to those without physical disorders. Utilization of specialist child mental heath and social services was significantly higher among children with unsocialized CD than socialized CD and oppositional defiant disorders. Services utilization and its correlates varied with the type of service. Overall, specialist services use was associated with co-morbidity with learning disabilities, physical and psychiatric disorders. Several correlates of services use in CD appeared non-specific, i.e. associated with use of different services indicating the possibility of indiscriminate use of different types of services. The findings led to the conclusion that there is the need for effective organization and co-ordination of services, and clear care pathways. Involvement of specialist child mental health services should be requested in the presence of mental health co-morbidity.

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other disruptive behavior disorders are risk factors for recurrent epistaxis in children: A prospective case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Erdoğan; Aksu, Hatice; Gürbüz-Özgür, Börte; Başak, Hatice Sema; Eskiizmir, Görkem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other disruptive behavior disorders in children with recurrent epistaxis (RE). Children aged between 6-11 years were enrolled according to presence (n=34) and absence (n=103) of RE. Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale was applied to parents. Moreover, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version was performed. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and ADHD were determined in 17.6% and 32.4% of patients, respectively. When psychiatric diagnoses between both groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found in terms of ADHD and ODD (p=0.028 and p=0.003). In children with RE, the frequency of ADHD and ODD are higher than children without RE. A referral to a child psychiatrist should be considered, if a child with RE also has symptoms of increased activity, inattention and/or body-injurious behaviors.

  2. Success of opposition against Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollmann, A.

    1989-01-01

    A first success for the anti-nuclear movement emerges: the Czechoslovakian government renounces of blocks 3 and 4, 1000 MW each, in Temelin. Although lack of money is admitted as a partial cause, the main cause is the broad opposition of the population, especially in Austria, says the author. Therefore the author appeals to the coworkers to double their efforts in the signature collection against Temelin. The slogan is: we shall make Temelin too. (qui)

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen L; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lam, Siu M

    2016-04-01

    We examined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents with epilepsy and the association with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. Strengths and Weakness of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behaviors rating scale was administered to 122 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Twenty-nine (23.7%) adolescents with epilepsy compared with five (10%) with asthma had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P = 0.037). Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly higher score in the inattention subscale when compared with those with asthma (-0.25 ± 1.2 vs -0.64 ± 1.07, P = 0.049). Combined subtype was most frequent in the epilepsy group. Oppositional defiant disorders were more prevalent in those having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric assistance had only been provided to one third of our patients with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the time of study. There was a negative correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores and age of seizure onset. A positive correlation was observed between the number of antiepileptic drugs and the inattentive subscale score. The impact of various correlates on individual subtypes was not identical. Independent risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were medical comorbidities (odds ratio = 12.82, 95% confidence interval 4.44, 37.03, P Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is overrepresented in adolescents with epilepsy; screening for its symptoms should be an integral part of management in adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender Differences in ADHD Subtype Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.; Bennett, Kellie S.; McStephen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ("ADHD") symptom comorbidity with "oppositional defiant disorder", "conduct disorder", "separation anxiety disorder", "generalized anxiety disorder", speech therapy, and remedial reading in children. Method: From…

  5. Influence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders on Academic Performance and School Functions of Youths with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Yu; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Kao, Wei-Chih; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-12-01

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) are associated with negative school outcomes. The study aimed to examine the impact of ADHD and ODD/CD on various school functions. 395 youths with ADHD (244 with ADHD + ODD/CD and 151 with ADHD only) and 156 controls received semi-structured psychiatric interviews. School functions were assessed and compared between each group with a multiple-level model. The results showed that youths with ADHD had poorer performance across different domains of school functioning. Youths with ADHD + ODD/CD had more behavioral problems but similar academic performance than those with ADHD only. The multiple linear regression models revealed that ADHD impaired academic performance while ODD/CD aggravated behavioral problems. Our findings imply that comorbid ODD/CD may specifically contribute to social difficulties in youths with ADHD. Measures of early detection and intervention for ODD/CD should be conducted to prevent adverse outcomes.

  6. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders: A meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battagliese, Gemma; Caccetta, Maria; Luppino, Olga Ines; Baglioni, Chiara; Cardi, Valentina; Mancini, Francesco; Buonanno, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Externalizing disorders are the most common and persistent forms of maladjustment in childhood. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to reduce externalizing symptoms in two disorders: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositive Defiant Disorder (ODD). The efficacy of CBT to improve social competence and positive parenting and reduce internalizing behaviors, parent stress and maternal depression was also explored. The database PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the biggest improvement, after CBT, was in ODD symptoms (-0.879) followed by parental stress (-0.607), externalizing symptoms (-0.52), parenting skills (-0.381), social competence (-0.390) and ADHD symptoms (-0.343). CBT was also associated with improved attention (-0.378), aggressive behaviors (-0.284), internalizing symptoms (-0.272) and maternal depressive symptoms (-0.231). Overall, CBT is an effective treatment option for externalizing disorders and is also associated with reduced parental distress and maternal depressive symptoms. Multimodal treatments targeting both children and caregivers' symptoms (e.g. maternal depressive symptoms) appear important to produce sustained and generalized benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Disentangling the relative contribution of parental antisociality and family discord to child disruptive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A; Blazei, Ryan; Malone, Stephen H; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2013-07-01

    A number of familial risk factors for childhood disruptive disorders have been identified. However, many of these risk factors often co-occur with parental antisociality, which by itself may account for both the familial risk factors and the increased likelihood of offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). The current study aimed to examine the association of parenting behaviors, marital conflict, and divorce with child DBDs while accounting for (a) coparent parenting behaviors, and (b) parental adult antisocial behavior (AAB). A series of regressions tested the association between family-level variables (namely, parent-child relationship quality, parental willingness to use physical punishment, marital adjustment, and history of divorce) and DBDs (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder) alone and after statistically adjusting for coparent variables and parental AAB. Results indicated that parents with AAB were more likely to engage in various forms of maladaptive parenting, to divorce, and to have conflictual marriages. Maladaptive parenting, marital conflict, and divorce were associated with heightened rates of child DBDs, and these associations persisted after adjusting for coparent parenting and parental AAB. Finally, the mother's parenting behaviors had a higher impact on child DBDs than the father's parenting behaviors. Thus, familial variables continue to have an effect on childhood DBDs even after accounting for confounding influences. These variables should be a focus of research on etiology and intervention.

  8. The Necessary Unity of Opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    and `suprahistorical' alternative. As Graham points out, much of Frye's thought is focused on secular concerns, and, within that context, his dialectical and `suprahistorical' thinking is `post-partisan,' a feature which also signifies and explains Frye's appeal. Graham contends it is the thinking of William Blake......, specifically his conceptions of innocence and experience, which provides the inspiration for Frye's dialectical thinking. Graham systematically addresses the main areas of Frye's work: Blake's poetry, secular literature, education and work, politics, and Scripture. In following each of these themes......, The Necessary Unity of Opposites expertly clarifies Frye's dialectical thinking, while drawing attention to its structural connection to Blake, Frye's great preceptor....

  9. Impact of Gender, Age at Onset, and Lifetime Tic Disorders on the Clinical Presentation and Comorbidity Pattern of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanidir, Canan; Adaletli, Hilal; Gunes, Hatice; Kilicoglu, Ali Guven; Mutlu, Caner; Bahali, Mustafa Kayhan; Aytemiz, Tugce; Uneri, Ozden Sukran

    2015-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous disorder; therefore, there is a need for identifying more homogeneous subtypes. This study aimed to examine the clinical characteristics and comorbidity pattern of a large sample of pediatric OCD subjects, and to examine the impact of gender, age at onset, and lifetime tic disorders on the clinical presentation and comorbidity pattern. A total of 110 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD were assessed using the Kiddle Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) for psychiatric comorbidity, and a clinical data form was filled out. The cutoff for differentiating prepubertal from adolescent onset was 11 years of age. A total of 83.6% of the subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. Oppositional defiant disorder and contamination/somatic obsessions were significantly higher in males (p=0.036 and p=0.03, respectively) than in females. Depressive disorders and religious obsessions were significantly higher in the adolescent-onset group (p=0.02, p=0.05, respectively) whereas disruptive behavior disorders were higher in the prepubertal-onset group (p=0.037). Disruptive behavior disorders were significantly more frequent in the tic (+) group than in tic (-) group (p=0.021). There were differences in the comorbidity pattern and clinical expression between genders and between prepubertal and adolescent-onset cases. Findings of this study supported the introduction of tic-related OCD as a specifier in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5), and the necessity of a detailed assessment of other psychiatric disorders in youth with OCD.

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder characteristics: II. Clinical correlates of irritable mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Paul J.; Bennett, David S.; Elia, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Background This study describes the relationship of irritable mood (IRR) with affective disorders in youths with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Five hundred ADHD subjects were assessed with the childhood version of the Schedule for Affective Disorder & Schizophrenia. Subjects were in a genetic ADHD protocol and limited to those of Caucasian/European descent. Results The most prevalent concurrent diagnoses were oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (43.6%), minor depression/dysthymic disorder (MDDD) (18.8%), and generalized anxiety (13.2%)/overanxious disorder (12.4%). IRR subjects (21.0%) compared to the non-IRR (NIRR) group had higher rates of all affective disorders (76.2% vs. 9.6%) and ODD (83.8% vs. 32.9%) but lower rates of hyperactive ADHD (1.9% vs. 8.9%). Among those without comorbidities, 98.3% were NIRR. Logistic regression found IRR mood significantly associated with major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR]: 33.4), MDDD (OR: 11.2), ODD (OR: 11.6), and combined ADHD (OR: 1.7) but not with anxiety disorders. Among symptoms, it associated IRR mood with a pattern of dysthymic and ODD symptoms but with fewer separation anxiety symptoms. Diagnostic and symptomatic parameters were unaffected by demographic variables. Limitations Potential confounders influencing these results include patient recruitment from only one clinical service; a cohort specific sample effect because some presumed affective disorders and non-Caucasians were excluded; and the young mean age (10.2 years) limiting comorbid patterns. Conclusions The prominence of an MDDD pattern suggests this IRR group is appropriate in the DSM V's proposed chronic depressive disorder, possibly with or without temper dysregulation. A new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder may be unwarranted. PMID:22868057

  11. Association between infection early in life and mental disorders among youth in the community: a cross-sectional study

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    Goodwin Renee D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the association between infection early in life and mental disorders among youth in the community. Methods Data were drawn from the MECA (Methods in Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent psychopathology, a community-based study of 1,285 youth in the United States conducted in 1992. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between parent/caregiver-reported infection early in life and DSM/DISC diagnoses of mental disorders at ages 9-17. Results Infection early in life was associated with a significantly increased odds of major depression (OR = 3.9, social phobia (OR = 5.8, overanxious disorder (OR = 6.1, panic disorder (OR = 12.1, and oppositional defiant disorder (OR = 3.7. Conclusions These findings are consistent with and extend previous results by providing new evidence suggesting a link between infection early in life and increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders among youth. These results should be considered preliminary. Replication of these findings with longitudinal epidemiologic data is needed. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  12. Preliminary data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Brazilian male and female juvenile delinquents

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    Andrade R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to study the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a sample of delinquent adolescents of both genders and to compare the prevalence between genders. A total of 116 adolescents (99 males and 17 females aged 12 to 19 on parole in the State of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed using the screening interview based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime (KSADS-PL. Data were collected between May 2002 and January 2003. Of 373 male and 58 female adolescents present in May 2002 in the largest institution that gives assistance to adolescents on parole in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 119 subjects were assessed (three of them refused to participate. Their average age was 16.5 years with no difference between genders. The screening interview was positive for psychopathology for most of the sample, with the frequencies of the suggested more prevalent psychiatric disorders being 54% for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 77% for conduct disorder, 41% for oppositional defiant disorder, 57% for anxiety disorder 57, 60% for depressive disorder 60, 63% for illicit drug abuse, and 58% for regular alcohol use. Internalizing disorders (depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and phobias were more prevalent in the female subsample. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of illicit drug abuse between genders. There were more male than female adolescents on parole and failure to comply with the sentence was significantly more frequent in females. The high prevalence of psychopathology suggested by this study indicates the need for psychiatric treatment as part of the prevention of juvenile delinquency or as part of the sentence. However, treatment had never been available for 93% of the sample in this study.

  13. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  14. Differential neuropsychological functioning between adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and/or conduct disorder (CD) and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. Adolescents aged 11-18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to confirm their previous and current ADHD status and other psychiatric diagnoses. The performance of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery was compared among four groups: (1) ADHD with CD (ADHD+CD), regardless of ODD; (2) ADHD with ODD (ADHD+ODD) without CD; (3) ADHD without ODD/CD (ADHD-only); and (4) typically developing controls. Mediation effects of neuropsychological functioning were tested. All three ADHD groups had impaired spatial working memory and short-term memory. Deficits in verbal memory and response inhibition were found in ADHD+ODD, but not in ADHD-only. ADHD+CD did not differ from typically developing controls in verbal working memory, signal detectability, and response inhibition. Spatial working memory partially mediated the association between ADHD and CD symptoms and alerting/signal detectability of arousal partially mediated the association between ADHD and ODD symptoms. There were both common and distinct neuropsychological deficits between adolescents with ADHD who developed ODD only and who developed CD. ADHD comorbid with CD may be a different disease entity and needs different treatment strategies in addition to treating ADHD, while ADHD+ODD may be a severe form of ADHD and warrants intensive treatment for ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Decreased Callosal Thickness in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Phillips, Owen R.; Thompson, Paul M.; Valle, Jessica S.; Del'Homme, Melissa; Strickland, Tony; McCracken, James T.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed structural abnormalities in the brains of affected individuals. One of the most replicated alterations is a significantly smaller corpus callosum (CC), for which conflicting reports exist with respect to the affected callosal segments. Methods We applied novel surface-based geometrical modeling methods to establish the presence, direction, and exact location of callosal alterations in ADHD at high spatial resolution. For this purpose, we calculated the thickness of the CC at 100 equidistant midsagittal points in an age-matched male sample of 19 individuals with ADHD and 19 typically developing control subjects. Results In close agreement with many prior observations, the CC was shown to be significantly thinner in ADHD subjects in anterior and, particularly, posterior callosal sections. Covarying for intelligence did not significantly alter the observed ADHD effects. However, group differences were no longer present in anterior sections when covarying for brain volume and after excluding ADHD subjects comorbid for oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusions Decreased callosal thickness may be associated with fewer fibers or a decrease in the myelination of fibers connecting the parietal and prefrontal cortices. This might affect interhemispheric communication channels that are necessary to sustain attention or motor control, thus contributing to symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, or inattention, observed in ADHD. Future studies are necessary to determine whether callosal abnormalities reflect maturational delays or persist into adulthood. PMID:18842255

  16. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Coskun Murat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD (n=15; 60.0%, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (n=12; 48.0%, and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%. Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD.

  17. Comparing the DSM-5 construct of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and ICD-10 Mixed Disorder of Emotion and Conduct in the UK Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (UK-LAMS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar-Ouriaghli, I; Milavic, G; Barton, R; Heaney, N; Fiori, F; Lievesley, K; Singh, J; Santosh, Paramala

    2018-05-05

    It is important to understand new diagnostic entities in classifications of psychopathology such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) (code F34.8) construct of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) and to compare it with possible equivalent disorders in other classificatory systems such as the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10), which has a category that superficially appears similar, that is, Mixed Disorder of Emotion and Conduct (MDEC) (code F92). In this study, the United Kingdom (UK) arm (UK-LAMS) of the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) supported Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) multi-site study was used to evaluate and retrospectively construct DMDD and MDEC diagnoses in order to compare them and understand the conditions they co-occur with, in order to improve the clinical understanding. In particular, the phenomenology of UK-LAMS participants (n = 117) was used to determine whether DMDD is a unique entity within the DSM-5. The findings showed that 24 of 68 participants with either DMDD or MDEC (35.3%) fulfilled both diagnostic criteria for DMDD and MDEC, suggesting that these entities do contain overlapping features, particularly symptoms relating to Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)/Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)/Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD) and/or an anxiety disorder. The data also showed that most of the participants who met DMDD criteria also fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for ODD/CD, ADHD, followed by an anxiety disorder. In this context, this raises the issue whether DMDD is a unique construct or whether the symptomology for DMDD can be better explained as a specifier for ODD/CD and ADHD. Unlike DMDD, MDEC clearly specifies that the label should only be used if emotional and conduct disorders co-exist.

  18. Frequency of Psychological Disorders amongst Children in Urban Areas of Tehran

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    Narges Joshaghani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of different psychiatric disorders among 7 to 12 years old children in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: A sample of 799 children (6 to 11 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method from 250 clusters from the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran. . After responding to a Persian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ parent-report form, the Persian version of Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL was administered to 241 children and their families. The frequency of child psychological disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "n Results:The overall frequency of any psychological disorders in the sample of children was 17.9 percent. Among the interviewed children childrenwho were interviewed, the most prevalent diagnoses were Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD (8.6 percent8.6%, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD (7.3 percent7.3%, and separation anxiety disorder (SAD (5.9 percent5.9%. There were not any statistically significant differences between sexes in the frequency of psychological disorders except enuresis that was more frequent in the boys and anorexia nervosa that was observed more frequently in the girls . "nConclusion:Higher frequency of ADHD and ODD and SAD among the studied children warrantswarrants more specific evaluation of frequency and possible causes of these high frequency rates. The frequency of psychological disorders in the studied children was comparable to the that of other studies.

  19. The validity and reliability of the diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorders in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Vinkel Koch, S; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet

    2016-01-01

    were used to validate the diagnosis. Patient files were systematically scored for the presence of ICD-10 criteria for HD and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD; F91). Further to this, an inter-rater reliability study was also conducted, whereby two experienced child and adolescent......OBJECTIVE: To validate the diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorders (HD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry (DPCRR) for children and adolescents aged 4 to 15 given in the years 1995 to 2005. METHOD: From a total of 4568 participants, a representative random subsample of n=387 patients...... it was not possible to reach a conclusion for 5.1% of the cases, 3.8% of the diagnoses were registration errors, and in 4.3% of the files the diagnosis had to be rejected. Inter-rater agreement was high (κ=0.83, z=10.9, Pvalidity of hyperkinetic disorders, unspecified (F90.9) was lower and comorbid CD...

  20. [Self-esteem of boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachno, Magdalena; Kołakowski, Artur; Wójtowicz, Stanisław; Wolańczyk, Tomasz; Bryńska, Anita; Pisula, Agnieszka; Złotkowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    To compare the self concept of boys with ADHD and health subjects; to determine which symptoms ofADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) have the greatest impact on self-concept. Polish version of The Harter Self-Esteem Questionnaire (HSEQ) was filled by boys with ADHD and control group. In addition, a diagnosis of ODD and CD was made in ADHD group. A significant difference was observed between boys with ADHD and control group on the following scales of HSEQ: Global Self-Esteem Subscale, Social Acceptance Subscale and Scholastic Performance Subscale. No significant influence of the quantity and intensity of ADHD and ODD symptoms on self-esteem was found. A significant correlation was indicated between all scales of HSEQ and quantity and intensity of symptoms ofADHD. Boys with ADHD have lower self-esteem than their healthy peers and their global self-esteem, social acceptance and school skills are most affected. The presence of conduct disorder (CD) had the greatest impact on the decrease of self esteem in ADHD group.

  1. Effectiveness of Behavioral Parent Therapy in Preschool Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Huei-Lin Huang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a behavioral parent therapy (BPT program in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using multidimensional evaluations, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and the Teacher Report Form (TRF. Between 2001 and 2005, the parents of 21 preschool children with ADHD were divided into six groups and participated in a series of 11 BPT sessions. Before and after BPT, the parents completed the CBCL, and the teachers completed the TRF. The behavioral and emotional problems of the children showed improvement after the BPT sessions, specifically for the following categories: internalizing problems, anxious/depressed syndromes, somatic complaints, externalizing problems, rule-breaking behaviors, aggressive behaviors, social problems, thought problems, and attention problems. In the DSM-oriented scale of the CBCL, affective problems, anxiety problems, somatic problems, ADHD problems, oppositional defiant disorder problems, and conduct disorder problems showed significant improvements. On the DSM scale of the TRF, Inattention syndrome improved significantly after the BPT sessions, while other syndromes showed non-significant changes. We conclude that the BPT program significantly improved the children's behavioral problems at home and inattention problems at school.

  2. Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: subtype differences in comorbidity, educational, and clinical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin R; Barkley, Russell A; Bush, Tracie

    2002-03-01

    The present study sought to examine subtype differences in comorbidity and in antisocial, educational, and treatment histories among young adults (ages 17-27) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparisons were made between ADHD Combined Type (ADHD-C; N = 60) and Predominantly Inattentive Type (ADHD-I; N = 36) relative to each other and to a community control group of 64 adults. Both ADHD groups had significantly less education, were less likely to have graduated from college, and were more likely to have received special educational placement in high school. Both groups also presented with a greater likelihood of dysthymia, alcohol dependence/abuse, cannabis dependence/abuse, and learning disorders, as well as greater psychological distress on all scales of the SCL-90-R than the control group. Both ADHD groups were more likely to have received psychiatric medication and other mental health services than control adults. In comparison with ADHD-I, adults with ADHD-C differed in only a few respects. The C-type adults were more likely to have oppositional defiant disorder, to experience interpersonal hostility and paranoia, to have attempted suicide, and to have been arrested than the ADHD-I adults. These results are generally consistent with previous studies of ADHD in children, extend these findings to adults with ADHD, and suggest that the greater impulsivity associated with the ADHD-C subtype may predispose toward greater antisocial behavior and its consequences than does ADHD-I type in adults.

  3. Merely Misunderstood? Receptive, Expressive, and Pragmatic Language in Young Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremillion, Monica L.; Martel, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) often seem to have poorer language skills compared to same-age peers; however, language as an early risk factor for DBD has received little empirical attention. The present study provides an empirical examination of associations between normal language variation and DBD by investigating receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language skills and preschool DBD symptoms. The sample consisted of 109 preschoolers ages 3 to 6 (M = 4.77 years, SD = 1.10, 59% boys; 73% with DBD, including oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) along with their primary caregivers, who completed a clinician-administered interview, symptom questionnaires, and a questionnaire measure of pragmatic language, and teacher and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires. Children completed objective tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary. Preschoolers with DBD showed poorer receptive, expressive, and pragmatic skills compared to preschoolers without DBD. Preschoolers with ADHD-only or ADHD+ODD exhibited poorer language skills, compared to ODD and non-DBD groups. Specificity analyses suggested that parent-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity were particularly associated with poorer language skills. Thus, preschoolers with DBD exhibited poorer language skills compared to preschoolers without DBD, and preschoolers with increased hyperactivity-impulsivity exhibited particular problems with language skills. This work suggests the need for early assessment of language in preschoolers, particularly those with ADHD, as well as the possible utility of tailored interventions focused on improving language skills, particularly for those with high hyperactivity-impulsivity. PMID:23924073

  4. ODD irritability is associated with obsessive-compulsive behavior and not ADHD in chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Lespérance, Paul; Achim, André; Tellier, Geneviève; Diab, Sabrina; Rouleau, Guy A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Richer, Francois

    2014-12-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are often associated with a variety of behavioral comorbidities including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and temper outbursts. ODD is often associated with ADHD but its links to other symptoms of TS/CT is not as clear. This study examined whether the various symptoms of ODD were differentially linked to the various comorbidities in TS. A clinical sample of 135 children diagnosed with TS was evaluated through parent questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Regressions and structural equation modeling confirmed that ODD is multidimensional in a TS/CT sample and showed that OCB was associated with the irritability symptoms of ODD whereas ADHD was associated with the Headstrong symptoms of ODD. Results suggest that increased attention to the different facets of ODD may help improve our understanding of emotional symptoms in TS/CT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Association Between Parenting Styles and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çöp, Esra; Çengel Kültür, S Ebru; Şenses Dinç, Gülser

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to study characteristics of child and mother reported parenting styles of children with Attention Deficit Hyperacitivity Disorder (ADHD) and association of parenting styles of mothers with demographic and clinical variables like ADHD symptoms, sex, age, ADHD subtype, and comorbidity. 58 children with ADHD and 30 healthy children were included in this study. All children were assessed by The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children- Present and Lifetime Version. ADHD symptom severity was assessed by The Conners Parent Rating Scale and The Conners Teacher Rating Scale. The Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and The Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) were used to assess parenting styles of mothers. ADHD group had lower scores on two subscales of PSI (acceptance/involvement and strictness/supervision) and democratic attitude and equality subscale of PARI and higher scores on strict discipline subscale of PARI compared to control group. In ADHD group, higher symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder were associated with higher mother's strict discipline scores and lower child reported mother's acceptance/involvement scores. Our findings supported the idea that there may be an association between parenting attitudes and ADHD symptoms in families having a child with ADHD. These results indicated the importance of integrated approach to ADHD diagnosis and treatment and evaluating the child with ADHD in the context of family environment.

  6. Age of onset, symptom threshold, and expansion of the nosology of conduct disorder for girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Wroblewski, Kristen; Hipwell, Alison; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2010-11-01

    The study of conduct disorder (CD) in girls is characterized by several nosologic controversies that center on the most common age of onset, the most valid symptom threshold, and the possible inclusion of other manifestations of antisocial behavior and dimensions of personality as part of the definition of CD. Data from a prospective, longitudinal study of a community sample of 2,451 racially diverse girls were used to empirically inform these issues. Results revealed that adolescent-onset CD is rare in girls. There was mixed support for the threshold at which symptoms are associated with impairment: Parent-reported impairment provided the clearest evidence of maintaining the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) threshold of 3 symptoms. The impact of callousness and relational aggression on impairment varied by informant, with small effects for parent- and youth-reported impairment and larger effects for teacher-rated impairment relative to the effects for CD. These results support arguments for revising the typical age of onset of CD for girls but for maintaining the current symptom threshold. The results also suggest the need to consider subtyping according to the presence or absence of callousness. Given its content validity, relational aggression requires further study in the context of oppositional defiant disorder and CD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Evaluation of Improvement in Externalizing Behaviors and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder: A 1-Year Follow Up Clinic-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Milone, Annarita; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Lambruschi, Furio; Masi, Gabriele; Lochman, John E

    2017-07-01

    Multi-component interventions based on cognitive behavioral principles and practices have been found effective in reducing behavioral problems in children with disruptive behavior disorders (oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder). However, it is still unclear if these interventions can affect children's callous-unemotional traits, which are predictive of subsequent antisocial behavior. Furthermore, it could be important to identify empirically supported treatment protocols for specific disorders addressed by child mental health services. The present study aimed to test the following two hypotheses: first, the Coping Power (CP) treatment program is able to reduce externalizing behaviors in children with disruptive behavior disorders treated in a mental health care unit; second, the CP program can reduce children's callous unemotional traits. The sample included 98 Italian children, 33 treated with the CP program; 37 with a less focused multi-component intervention, and 28 with child psychotherapy. The results showed that the CP program was more effective than the other two treatments in reducing aggressive behaviors. Furthermore, only the CP program was associated with a decrease in children's callous unemotional traits. The CP program was also associated with lower rate of referrals to mental health services at one-year follow-up. These findings support the importance of disseminating manualized and focused intervention programs in mental health services.

  8. Emotional memory in ADHD patients with and without comorbid ODD/CD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krauel, Kerstin; Duzel, Emrah; Hinrichs, Hermann; Rellum, Thomas; Santel, Stephanie; Baving, Lioba

    The present study investigated whether children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) show a memory bias for negative emotional pictures. Subjects participated in an incidental memory paradigm

  9. The discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales to identify disruptive and internalizing disorders in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Trepat, Esther; Domenech, Josep Maria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5 (Manual for the ASEBA Preschool-Age Forms & Profiles, University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families, Burlington, 2000) DSM5 scales attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety and depressive problems for detecting the presence of DSM5 (DSM5 diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, APA, Arlington, 2013) disorders, ADHD, ODD, Anxiety and Mood disorders, assessed through diagnostic interview, in children aged 3-5. Additionally, we compare the clinical utility of the CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales with respect to analogous CBCL/1½-5 syndrome scales. A large community sample of 616 preschool children was longitudinally assessed for the stated age group. Statistical analysis was based on ROC procedures and binary logistic regressions. ADHD and ODD CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales achieved good discriminative ability to identify ADHD and ODD interview's diagnoses, at any age. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 Anxiety scale discriminative capacity was fair for unspecific anxiety disorders in all age groups. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 depressive problems' scale showed the poorest discriminative capacity for mood disorders (including depressive episode with insufficient symptoms), oscillating into the poor-to-fair range. As a whole, DSM5-oriented scales generally did not provide evidence better for discriminative capacity than syndrome scales in identifying DSM5 diagnoses. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales discriminate externalizing disorders better than internalizing disorders for ages 3-5. Scores on the ADHD and ODD CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales can be used to screen for DSM5 ADHD and ODD disorders in general populations of preschool children.

  10. Serious child and adolescent behaviour disorders; a valuation study by professionals, youth and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Karin M; Jansen, Daniëlle E M C; Buskens, Erik; Knorth, Erik J; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-06-02

    In child and youth care, quantitative estimates of the impact of serious behaviour problems have not yet been made. Such input is needed to support decision making on investments in treatment. The aim of this paper was to elicit valuations of social and conduct disorders in children and adolescents from three different perspectives: professionals, youth, and parents. We obtained valuations from 25 youth care professionals, 50 children (age 9-10) without serious behaviour problems and 36 adolescents (age 16-17) with and without serious behaviour disorders, and 46 parents with children in the aforementioned age categories. Valuations were estimated from 18 descriptions of behaviour disorders in youth aged 9 and 15 years. Descriptions included Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD). Comorbid conditions were Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and substance abuse. Valuations were obtained with the EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D-3 L) and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Valuations were generally severe; problems were by and large reported to worsen quality of life by 50% compared to being fully healthy. Professionals regarded DBD with substance abuse as most severe (VAS values 0.41 for children, and 0.43 for adolescents, i.e. less than half of normal). They rated ODD as least severe (VAS values 0.58 for children, 0.59 for adolescents). Children, adolescents and parents gave lower valuations than professionals, and had a wider range of scores, particularly at the lower end of the scale. Behaviour disorders pose a formidable burden from the perspectives of professionals as well as children, adolescents and parents. These results may support medical decision making to set priorities with regard to prevention and treatment based on perceived severity.

  11. Neuropsychological profiles correlated with clinical and behavioral impairments in a sample of Brazilian children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli eRizzutti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ADHD is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that implies several-step process and there is no single test to diagnose both ADHD and associated comorbidities such as oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety disorder, depression and certain types of learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to examine correlations between behavioral and clinical symptoms by administering an extensive neuropsychological battery to a sample of children and adolescents from a developing country. The sample was divided into three groups: non-ADHD; ADHD-non-comorbid; and ADHD+comorbidity. A full neuropsychological battery and clinical assessment found that 105 children met DSM-5 criteria, of whom 46.6% had the predominantly inattentive presentation, 37.3% had combined presentation and 16% were predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation. The internal correlation between neuropsychological tests did not reach statistical significance in the comparison between ADHD and non-ADHD cases (p<0.17. Clinical ADHD cases, including both +comorbidity and non-comorbid groups, performed substantially worse on CPT, working memory. Comparing ADHD-non-comorbid and ADHD+comorbidity groups, the latter did significantly worse on inhibitory control, time processing and the level of perseveration response on CPT indexes, as well as on working memory performance and CBCL tests particularly the CBCL-DESR (deficient emotional self-regulation test in the ADHD+comorbidity group. Children diagnosed as oppositional-defiant (ODD or with conduct disorder (CD showed close correlations between clinical CBCL profiles and externalized symptoms. Our findings suggest that ADHD+comorbidity and ADHD non-comorbid cases may be differentiated by a number of neuropsychological measures, such as processing speed, inhibitory control and working memory, that may reflect different levels of involvement of the hot and cool executive domains, which are more impaired in cases of severe

  12. Behavioural and emotional disorders in childhood: A brief overview for paediatricians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Michael O

    2018-01-01

    Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents. DSM-5 and ICD-10 are the universally accepted standard criteria for the classification of mental and behaviour disorders in childhood and adults. The age and gender prevalence estimation of various childhood behavioural disorders are variable and difficult to compare worldwide. A review of relevant published literature was conducted, including published meta-analyses and national guidelines. We searched for articles indexed by Ovid, PubMed, PubMed Medical Central, CINAHL, EMBASE, Database of Abstracts and Reviews, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews and other online sources. The searches were conducted using a combination of search expressions including “childhood”, “behaviour”, “disorders” or “problems”. Childhood behaviour and emotional problems with their related disorders have significant negative impacts on the individual, the family and the society. They are commonly associated with poor academic, occupational, and psychosocial functioning. It is important for all healthcare professionals, especially the Paediatricians to be aware of the range of presentation, prevention and management of the common mental health problems in children and adolescents. PMID:29456928

  13. Road trauma in teenage male youth with childhood disruptive behavior disorders: a population based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Redelmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teenage male drivers contribute to a large number of serious road crashes despite low rates of driving and excellent physical health. We examined the amount of road trauma involving teenage male youth that might be explained by prior disruptive behavior disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of consecutive male youth between age 16 and 19 years hospitalized for road trauma (cases or appendicitis (controls in Ontario, Canada over 7 years (April 1, 2002 through March 31, 2009. Using universal health care databases, we identified prior psychiatric diagnoses for each individual during the decade before admission. Overall, a total of 3,421 patients were admitted for road trauma (cases and 3,812 for appendicitis (controls. A history of disruptive behavior disorders was significantly more frequent among trauma patients than controls (767 of 3,421 versus 664 of 3,812, equal to a one-third increase in the relative risk of road trauma (odds ratio  =  1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.54, p<0.001. The risk was evident over a range of settings and after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.56, p<0.001. The risk explained about one-in-20 crashes, was apparent years before the event, extended to those who died, and persisted among those involved as pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS: Disruptive behavior disorders explain a significant amount of road trauma in teenage male youth. Programs addressing such disorders should be considered to prevent injuries.

  14. Child behavior checklist dysregulation profile in children with disruptive behavior disorders: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Pisano, Simone; Milone, Annarita; Muratori, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    A Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profile defined as Dysregulation Profile (DP) (scores 2 standard deviations or more in anxiety/depression, aggression, attention subscales) has been correlated to poor emotional and behavioral self-regulation. The clinical meaning and the prognostic implications of CBCL-DP are still debated, although it seems associated with severe psychopathology and poor adjustment. In the present study, we used the CBCL-DP score to examine the adolescent outcomes (psychiatric diagnosis, substance use, psychiatric hospitalization) in 80 referred children with disruptive behavior disorders -DBD- (Oppositional Defiant Disorder or conduct disorder), aged 8-9 years, 72 males (90%) and 8 females (10%), followed-up until the age of 14-15 years. Children with higher score on the CBCL-DP profile were at increased risk for presenting ADHD and mood disorders in adolescence. While ADHD in adolescence was predicted also by an ADHD diagnosis during childhood, CBCL-DP score was the only significant predictor of a mood disorder at 14-15 years. On the contrary, CBCL-DP score was not associated with a higher risk of conduct disorder, substance use and hospitalizations in adolescence. A cost-effective and reliable diagnostic measure such as the CBCL may be a part of the diagnostic procedure aimed to capture these at-risk children, to monitor their natural history up to adolescence, and to prevent the risk of a full-blown mood disorder. The small sample size and a selection bias of severe patients with DBD limit the generalization of the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trauma Exposure and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescents: Results From the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Hannah; Gary, Dahsan; McLaughlin, Katie A; Keyes, Katherine M

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to violence and other forms of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) are common among youths with externalizing psychopathology. These associations likely reflect both heightened risk for the onset of externalizing problems in youth exposed to PTEs and elevated risk for experiencing PTEs among youth with externalizing disorders. In this study, we disaggregate the associations between exposure to PTEs and externalizing disorder onset in a population-representative sample of adolescents. We analyzed data from 13- to 18-year-old participants in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) (N = 6,379). Weighted survival models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for onset of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance use disorders (SUDs) associated with PTEs, and for exposure to PTEs associated with prior-onset externalizing disorders. Multiplicative interaction terms tested for effect modification by sex, race/ethnicity, and household income. All types of PTEs were associated with higher risk for SUD (HRs = 1.29-2.21), whereas only interpersonal violence (HR = 2.49) was associated with onset of CD and only among females. No associations were observed for ODD. Conversely, ODD and CD were associated with elevated risk for later exposure to interpersonal violence and other/nondisclosed events (HRs = 1.45-1.75). Externalizing disorders that typically begin in adolescence, including SUDs and CD, are more likely to emerge in adolescents with prior trauma. ODD onset, in contrast, is unrelated to trauma exposure but is associated with elevated risk of experiencing trauma later in development. CD and interpersonal violence exposure exhibit reciprocal associations. These findings have implications for interventions targeting externalizing and trauma-related psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prior exposure to interpersonal violence and long-term treatment response for boys with a disruptive behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Dorn, Lorah D; Kolko, David J; Rausch, Joseph R; Insana, Salvatore P

    2014-10-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is common in children with a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and increases the risk for greater DBD symptom severity, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and neuroendocrine disruption. Thus, IPV may make it difficult to change symptom trajectories for families receiving DBD interventions given these relationships. The current study examined whether IPV prior to receiving treatment for a DBD predicted trajectories of a variety of associated outcomes, specifically DBD symptoms, CU traits, and cortisol concentrations. Boys with a DBD diagnosis (N = 66; age range = 6-11 years; 54.5% of whom experienced IPV prior to treatment) of either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder participated in a randomized clinical trial and were assessed 3 years following treatment. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that prior IPV predicted smaller rates of change in DBD symptoms, CU traits, and cortisol trajectories, indicating less benefit from intervention. The effect size magnitudes of IPV were large for each outcome (d = 0.88-1.07). These results suggest that IPV is a predictor of the long-term treatment response for boys with a DBD. Including trauma-focused components into existing DBD interventions may be worth testing to improve treatment effectiveness for boys with a prior history of IPV. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. [Girls detained under civil and criminal law in juvenile detention centres; psychiatric disorders, trauma and psychosocial problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlynck, S M J J; Doreleijers, Th A H; Vermeiren, R R J M; Cohen-Kettenis, P T

    2009-01-01

    As from 2008, juveniles sentenced under civil law and juveniles sentenced under criminal law can no longer be assigned to the same juvenile detention centres. The reasoning runs as follows: the centres are unlikely to provide adequate treatment for the 'civil' group, and the 'criminal' group may exert a negative influence on the 'civil' group. Hitherto, there has been no research into the question of whether the problems and treatment requirements of girls in the two categories call for detention in the same detention centres or in different ones. The aim of this study is to investigate differences between the two groups of girls with regard to offence history, sociodemographic characteristics, contact with the social services, psychiatric disorders and trauma. Investigation of a representative sample of 211 female minors in three juvenile detention centres using standard instruments. results 82% of the girls were detained under civil law, 18% under criminal law. There were strong similarities between the groups. However, the 'criminal' group more often had a violent history of delinquency and a non-Dutch background, whereas the 'civil' group more often had a background of residential placements, oppositional-defiant disorder, suicidality and self-harm. Girls detained under civil and under criminal law differed in characteristics such as criminal record, but there were striking similarities in the girls' behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders. It is argued that assignment to a particular type of detention centre should depend on treatment requirements rather than on measures imposed by civil or criminal law.

  18. Short-term effect of American summer treatment program for Japanese children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yushiro; Mukasa, Akiko; Honda, Yuko; Anai, Chizuru; Kunisaki, Chie; Koutaki, Jun-ichi; Motoyama, Satoko; Miura, Naoki; Sugimoto, Ami; Ohya, Takashi; Nakashima, Masayuki; Nagamitsu, Shin-ichiro; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Greiner, Andrew R; Pelham, William E; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2010-02-01

    We reported the results of the 3-week summer treatment program (STP) for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 2006. The STP was based on methods established by Professor Pelham in Buffalo, NY and has been used in a number of studies and at a number of sites in the U.S. This is the first STP outside North America. Thirty-six children age 6-12 years with ADHD participated. The collection of evidence-based behavioral modification techniques that comprises the STP's behavioral program (e.g., point system, daily report card, positive reinforcement, time out) was used. Most children showed positive behavioral changes in multiple domains of functioning, demonstrated by significant improvement in points earned daily, which reflect behavior frequencies. Only one child with ADHD co-morbid with pervasive developmental disorder required an individualized program for excessive time outs. The ADHD rating scale, symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and hyperactivity/inattention in Strength and Difficulties Questionnaires evaluated by parents significantly improved after STP. Although the 3-week STP was much shorter than most STPs run in the U.S., the program is more intensive than typical outpatient treatment, providing 105h of intervenion in 3 weeks. The short-term effect of the STP was demonstrated for Japanese children with ADHD. 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition

    CERN Document Server

    Béziau, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    aiThe theory of oppositions based on Aristotelian foundations of logic has been pictured in a striking square diagram which can be understood and applied in many different ways having repercussions in various fields: epistemology, linguistics, mathematics, psychology. The square can also be generalized in other two-dimensional or multi-dimensional objects extending in breadth and depth the original theory of oppositions of Aristotle. The square of opposition is a very attractive theme which has been going through centuries without evaporating. Since 10 years there is a new growing interest for

  20. Familial clustering of epilepsy and behavioral disorders: Evidence for a shared genetic basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Caplan, Rochelle; Berg, Anne T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether family history of unprovoked seizures is associated with behavioral disorders in epilepsy probands, thereby supporting the hypothesis of shared underlying genetic susceptibility to these disorders. Methods We conducted an analysis of the 308 probands with childhood onset epilepsy from the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy with information on first degree family history of unprovoked seizures and of febrile seizures whose parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at the 9-year follow-up. Clinical cut-offs for CBCL problem and DSM-Oriented scales were examined. The association between first degree family history of unprovoked seizure and behavioral disorders was assessed separately in uncomplicated and complicated epilepsy and separately for first degree family history of febrile seizures. A subanalysis, accounting for the tendency for behavioral disorders to run in families, adjusted for siblings with the same disorder as the proband. Prevalence ratios were used to describe the associations. Key findings In probands with uncomplicated epilepsy, first degree family history of unprovoked seizure was significantly associated with clinical cut-offs for Total Problems and Internalizing Disorders. Among Internalizing Disorders, clinical cut-offs for Withdrawn/Depressed, and DSM-Oriented scales for Affective Disorder and Anxiety Disorder were significantly associated with family history of unprovoked seizures. Clinical cut-offs for Aggressive Behavior and Delinquent Behavior, and DSM-Oriented scales for Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder were significantly associated with family history of unprovoked seizure. Adjustment for siblings with the same disorder revealed significant associations for the relationship between first degree family history of unprovoked seizure and Total Problems and Agressive Behavior in probands with uncomplicated epilepsy; marginally significant results were seen for Internalizing Disorder

  1. Parenting Stress of Parents of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Biondic, Daniella; Grimbos, Teresa; Herbert, Monique

    2016-04-01

    This study examined parenting stress among parents of adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 138 adolescents (84 ADHD, 52 boys, 32 girls; 54 non-ADHD, 24 boys, 30 girls) age 13 to 18 and their parents. Mothers (n = 135) and fathers (n = 98) of participating teens completed the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents. Mothers and fathers of adolescents with ADHD reported more stress than parents of adolescents without ADHD with regard to their children's challenging behaviors (Adolescent domain stress). Mothers of adolescents with ADHD also reported that they experienced elevated levels of stress in terms of role restrictions, feelings of social alienation, conflict with their partner, feelings of guilt and incompetence (Parent domain stress), and relationship with their children (Adolescent-Parent Relationship domain stress; APR). The extent to which clinical levels of adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms or externalizing behavior in general were associated with parenting stress depended on the rater of these behaviors. Parenting stress was associated with higher levels of ODD and other externalizing behaviors when these behaviors were rated by parents but not when they were rated by teachers. In addition, over and above adolescent ADHD classification, mothers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with higher parenting stress in the Adolescent and Parent domains, and fathers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with lower APR stress. The results suggest directions that should be considered for addressing parenting stress when designing interventions for families of adolescents with ADHD.

  2. Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder presenting with school truancy in an adolescent: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Wan Ismail, Wan Salwina; Tan, Chai Eng; Jaffar, Aida; Sharip, Shalisah; Omar, Khairani

    2011-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric illness commonly diagnosed during the early years of childhood. In many adolescents with undiagnosed ADHD, presentation may not be entirely similar to that in younger children. These adolescents pose significant challenges to parents and teachers coping with their disability. Often adolescents with behavioural problems are brought to medical attention as a last resort. This case describes an adolescent who presented to a primary care clinic with school truancy. He was initially treated for depression with oppositional defiant disorder and sibling rivalry. Only following a careful detailed history and further investigations was the diagnosis of ADHD made. He showed a positive improvement with the use of methylphenidate for his ADHD and escitalopram for his depression. The success of his management was further supported by the use of behavioural therapy and parenting interventions. There is a need to increase public awareness of ADHD, especially among parents and teachers so that early intervention can be instituted in these children.

  3. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders as a Risk Factor of Suicide and Homicide among Patients with ADHD: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    To discuss the role of substance-related and addictive disorders (SRAD) that lead patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to suicide and homicide. Relevant articles were searched via PubMed using several keywords related to this issue. Most of the articles included in this review were published after 2000. Patients with ADHD often fall into crises of catastrophic life events such as suicide or homicide. SRAD play an important role in leading ADHD patients to such events. Because ADHD is characterized by inattentiveness and impulsivity, any kinds of substances, legal or illegal, can deteriorate ADHD symptoms, leading ADHD patients to such catastrophic events. There are several pathways that connect ADHD with SRAD, which are roughly divided into two ways: internalizing mental disorders and externalizing mental disorders. The former includes depression and anxiety disorders characterized by self-inhibition or withdrawal. The latter typically includes conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder, as well as antisocial personality disorder, characterized by aggressive or antisocial behaviors or emotions towards others. These comorbid psychiatric disorders are apt to lead ADHD patients to SRAD, and once these patients suffer from SRAD, risk of catastrophic life events seems to increase due to the irreversibility of their adverse mentality. Comorbid mental disorders with ADHD can act, at least partially, as mediators from ADHD to SRAD. SRAD can be a critical risk factor of suicide and homicide among patients with ADHD. Early interventions for families with ADHD and psychiatric comorbidities may work as effective preventive strategies against such events. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Reasons for opposition to the breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timbal-Duclaux, Louis

    1979-01-01

    The author gives a sociological analysis of the opposition to breeder reactors in France, stressing that the antinuclear groups main thrust of protest against the Super-Phenix has dimished since its apex two years ago [fr

  5. Opposition-Based Adaptive Fireworks Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chibing Gong

    2016-01-01

    A fireworks algorithm (FWA) is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm that is inspired by observing fireworks explosions. An adaptive fireworks algorithm (AFWA) proposes additional adaptive amplitudes to improve the performance of the enhanced fireworks algorithm (EFWA). The purpose of this paper is to add opposition-based learning (OBL) to AFWA with the goal of further boosting performance and achieving global optimization. Twelve benchmark functions are tested in use of an opposition-based a...

  6. [Children's oppositional behaviour, practice of parental authority and temporal anomie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeau, L

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the relationship between children's oppositional behaviour and the exercise of parental authority. It seeks to explore the value of a heuristic approach to psychic temporality in exercising parental authority. The study aims to better understand the role of psychic temporality in operations producing symbolic law. It goes on to describe a disorder of temporality, known as temporal anomie, which may be involved in a child's oppositional disorders. Psychiatric or psychological consultations motivated by oppositional disorders in children have increased steadily in the past fifteen years in France. The primary reason for consultation is in the form of difficulties for children in accepting the social rules or constraints, but also the difficulties of parenting while coping with the opposition of their children. This increase is made in connection with the works analysing the social and psychological effects imposed by modernity and its acceleration. Correspondingly, we find that some parents do not prioritize their educational requirements, do not know when or how to frustrate their child, or even if it is legitimate to expect from him/her a certain type of behaviour. They seem more preoccupied with the fear of not being loved by their child more than their duty to educate. A general trend suggests an alteration of psychological time, characterized by: a) a disinvestment of links between present and past for the enjoyment of the moment and its extension in the immediate future ; b) a difficulty in supporting educational responses causing frustration for the child ; c) a lack of continuity and constancy in educational requirements. The author proposes to define temporal anomie as the psychical time that weakens the consistency of educational responses. A link between psychological temporality and the symbolic law is discussed. Specifically, the study notes that: in intersubjective relations, mastery of psychological time by parents is an

  7. The prevalence and burden of psychiatric disorders in primary health care visits in Qatar: Too little time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, somatization, obsessive compulsive, and bipolar disorders are recognized as causing the biggest burden of disease worldwide. Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and burden of common mental disorders at Primary Health Care Centers (PHCC using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI in the Qatari population, aged 18-65 who attended Primary Health Care (PHC settings. Design: A prospective cross-sectional study conducted during November 2011 to October 2012. Setting: Primary Health Care Centers of the Supreme Council of Health, Qatar. Subjects: A total of 2,000 Qatari subjects aged 18-65 years were approached; 1475 (73.3% agreed to participate. Methods: Prevalence and severity of International Classification of Disease-10 disorders were assessed with the WHO-CIDI (Version 3.0. Results: Of the 1475 participants, 830 (56.3% were females and 645 (43.7% was males. One-third were aged 35-49 years 558 (37.8%. The three most common disorders were major depression disorders (18.31%, any anxiety disorders (17.3%, any mood disorders (16.95%, followed by separation anxiety disorders (15.25%, personality disorder (14.1%. In the present study, prevalence in women was significantly higher than men for the most common psychiatric disorders, specifically generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobias, obsessive compulsive disorders, posttraumatic disorder, somatization, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, dysthymia, and oppositional defiant disorder. Of the total 20% had only one psychiatric diagnosis and 12% had two disorders, 9.7% respondents with three diagnoses, and finally 4.3% of respondents had four or more diagnoses. Conclusion: One-fifth of all adults who attended the PHCC (20% had at least one psychiatric diagnosis. The CIDI is a useful instrument for psychiatric diagnosis in community

  8. [Psychiatric comorbidity related to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at schools in Sfax, Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemakhem, K; Ayedi, H; Moalla, Y; Yaich, S; Hadjkacem, I; Walha, A; Damak, J; Ghribi, F

    2015-02-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent behavioral disorder particularly noticed among school children. It is often associated with other psychological troubles at the origin of an additional difficulty that has to be overcome. Our research's aim was to study the comorbidity of school-aged children diagnosed with ADHD in Sfax, Tunisia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from 1st April 2008 to 1st October 2008. Five hundred and thirteen pupils aged between 6 and 12, from primary arbitrarily chosen schools from Sfax were subjected to this study. Measurements were carried out in two steps: parents and teachers of each child filled in separately Conners questionnaire, then children with a score in subscales inattention, hyperactivity impulsivity higher than 70 were selected for psychiatric interview that was intended to confirm or to invalidate the ADHD diagnosis and the possible comorbid diagnosis. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV-TR. We have noticed that 109 pupils exhibited at least one pathological score on the Conners questionnaire. After interviewing these 109 pupils, the results have shown that 51 among them fulfilled criteria of ADHD. Prevalence of ADHD was found to be 9.94 %. About 72.54 % of children with ADHD had one or more comorbid disorder: learning disabilities (23.52 % of cases), anxiety disorder (31.37 % of cases), oppositional defiant disorder in (15.68 % of cases), mood disorder (3.92 % of cases), enuresis (13.72 % of cases) and slight mental retardation (1.95 % of cases). We can say that this study has shown that ADHD school children's psychiatric comorbidity is similar to any other previous study. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Aggression control therapy for violent forensic psychiatric patients: method and clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Hollin, C.R.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2008-01-01

    Aggression control therapy is based on Goldstein, Gibbs, and Glick's aggression replacement training and was developed for violent forensic psychiatric in- and outpatients (adolescents and adults) with a (oppositional-defiant) conduct disorder or an antisocial personality disorder. First, the

  10. Social Maladjustment and Emotional Disturbance: Problems and Positions I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1992-01-01

    Several controversies surround differentiation between socially maladjusted and seriously emotionally disturbed. Central to controversy is interpretation of social maladjustment as restricted to include socialized aggressive and adjudicated delinquents or broadened to include Conduct Disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and antisocial…

  11. Associations between high callous-unemotional traits and quality of life across youths with non-conduct disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpers, Pierre C M; Klip, Helen; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Greven, Corina U; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2016-05-01

    Research regarding callous-unemotional (CU) traits in non-conduct disorder (CD) diagnoses is sparse. We investigated the presence of high CU traits and their associations with quality of life (QoL) in a clinically referred sample of youths with non-CD diagnoses. Parents of 1018 children referred to a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic and rated their child's CU traits and QoL. Experienced clinicians derived DSM-IV-TR diagnoses based on systematic clinical evaluations of these children. High CU traits compared to low CU traits were present in 38.5 % of the sample, and more often in boys than girls (69.4 vs. 30.6 %, p = .004), and were associated with more police contacts (12.2 vs. 3.5 %, p disorder (odds ratio; OR = 1.61; 95 % CI 1.24-2.09; p disorder not otherwise specified/oppositional defiant disorder (OR = 4.98; 95 % CI 2.93-8.64; p disorder (OR = 1.01; 95 % CI .79-1.31; p = .94), were more likely to have high than low CU traits. Those with anxiety/mood disorders were more likely to have low than high CU traits (OR = .59; 95 % CI .42-82; p = .002). In all diagnostic groups, high CU compared to low CU traits were associated with significantly lower QoL, while controlling for gender, age, and comorbidity. As such, high CU traits significantly modify QoL in non-CD disorders.

  12. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and irritability: results from the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD (MTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Simonoff, Emily; McGough, James J; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Arnold, L Eugene; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Clinically impairing irritability affects 25% to 45% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); yet, we know little about what interventions are effective in treating children with ADHD and co-occurring irritability. We used data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA) to address 3 aims: to establish whether irritability in children with ADHD can be distinguished from other symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); to examine whether ADHD treatment is effective in treating irritability; and to examine how irritability influences ADHD treatment outcomes. Secondary analyses of data from the MTA included multivariate analyses, and intent-to-treat random-effects regression models were used. Irritability was separable from other ODD symptoms. For treating irritability, systematic stimulant treatment was superior to behavioral management but not to routine community care; a combination of stimulants and behavioral treatment was superior to community care and to behavioral treatment alone, but not to medication alone. Irritability did not moderate the impact of treatment on parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms in any of the 4 treatment groups. Treatments targeting ADHD symptoms are helpful for improving irritability in children with ADHD. Moreover, irritability does not appear to influence the response to treatment of ADHD. Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00000388. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychaitry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients.

  15. A Flow Chart of Behavior Management Strategies for Families of Children with Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Jeffrey S

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral parent training is an evidence-based treatment for problem behavior described as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. However, adherence to treatment fidelity and parent performance of the management skills remains an obstacle to optimum outcome. One variable that may limit the effectiveness of the parent training is that demanding behavior management procedures can be deceptively complicated and difficult to perform. Based on outcome research for families of children with co-occurring ADHD and conduct problem behavior, an example of a visual behavior management flow chart is presented. The flow chart may be used to help teach specific behavior management skills to parents. The flow chart depicts a chain of behavior management strategies taught with explanation, modeling, and role-play with parents. The chained steps in the flow chart are elements common to well-known evidence-based behavior management strategies, and perhaps, this depiction well serve as a setting event for other behavior analysts to create flow charts for their own parent training, Details of the flow chart steps, as well as examples of specific applications and program modifications conclude.

  16. The processing of animacy information is disrupted as a function of callous-unemotional traits in youth with disruptive behavior disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Thornton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical amygdala responses to emotional stimuli have been consistently reported in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs; Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder. However, responding to animacy stimuli has not been systematically investigated. Yet, the amygdala is known to be responsive to animacy stimuli and impairment in responsiveness to animacy information may have implications for social cognitive development. Twenty-nine youth with DBDs and 20 typically developing youth, matched for IQ, age (Mage = 14.45, SD = 2.05 and gender, completed a dot probe task during fMRI. Stimuli consisted of negative/faces, negative/objects, neutral/faces and neutral/objects images. Youth with DBDs, relative to typically developing youth, showed: i reduced amygdala and lateral temporal cortex responses to faces relative to objects. Moreover, within the group of youth with DBDs, increasing callous-unemotional traits were associated with lesser amygdala responses to faces relative to objects. These data suggest that youth with DBDs, particularly those with high levels of CU traits exhibit dysfunction in animacy processing in the amygdala. This dysfunction may underpin the asociality reported in these youth.

  17. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its relation to social skills and leadership evaluated with an evaluation system of the behavior of children and adolescents (BASC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel M; López-Arribas, Sonia; García-Savaté, Carolina; Muñiz-Borrega, Blanca; Pardos-Véglia, Alexandra; Prados-Parra, Baldomero; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show a low social competence. To compare the symptomatic severity of ADHD, as well as associations to different subtypes, sex and comorbidities, with social functioning ("ability" and "leadership") estimated through a Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) for parents and teachers. We have retrospectively analyzed 170 patients with ADHD, diagnosed between 2007 and 2010. Social "ability," "leadership," "hyperactivity" and "attention deficit" sections of BASC and cardinal symptoms of ADHD measured through a Spanish scale for de evaluation of DHD (E-DHD) were registered. Results of these variables are analyzed according to the normative data by age and sex, and processed in Z values. The ratings for social skills were significantly lower in patients with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder as informed by parents (pleadership" as parents and teachers. Intensity of attention deficit was the only variable that showed a significant relation with the social skills and leadership according to the BASC scores, independently of the informer.

  18. Sleep problems predict comorbid externalizing behaviors and depression in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2015-08-01

    Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience high rates of sleep problems and are also at increased risk for experiencing comorbid mental health problems. This study provides an initial examination of the 1-year prospective association between sleep problems and comorbid symptoms in youth diagnosed with ADHD. Participants were 81 young adolescents (75 % male) carefully diagnosed with ADHD and their parents. Parents completed measures of their child's sleep problems and ADHD symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and general externalizing behavior problems at baseline (M age = 12.2) and externalizing behaviors were assessed again 1 year later. Adolescents completed measures of anxiety and depression at both time-points. Medication use was not associated with sleep problems or comorbid psychopathology symptoms. Regression analyses indicated that, above and beyond demographic characteristics, ADHD symptom severity, and initial levels of comorbidity, sleep problems significantly predicted greater ODD symptoms, general externalizing behavior problems, and depressive symptoms 1 year later. Sleep problems were not concurrently or prospectively associated with anxiety. Although this study precludes making causal inferences, it does nonetheless provide initial evidence of sleep problems predicting later comorbid externalizing behaviors and depression symptoms in youth with ADHD. Additional research is needed with larger samples and multiple time-points to further examine the interrelations of sleep problems and comorbidity.

  19. Youth Gang Members: Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert John Sargent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately 260,000 of youth in the United States are gang-affiliated. There is a paucity of data available to identify the prevalence of mental health disorders in this population. Gang members share many of the features of “at risk” or juvenile justice involved youth who deny gang membership. The authors identified rates of psychiatric disorders within a juvenile justice population delineated in three categories: gang members, friends of gang members, and non-gang members. Methods: A retrospective review of records obtained by a juvenile probation department. A large detention center conducted mental health screenings on 7,615 youth aged 13–17. The mental health screenings were performed by either a master level or doctoral level mental health professional. Odds ratios were computed as an effect size for gender, race/ethnic differences, and gang-membership associations with self-reported psychiatric and substance use disorders. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders among gang-members and friends of gang members. Diagnostic information was generated through a clinical interview and flexible battery. Results: Of the 7,615 youth in this study, ~50% had contact with gangs; 11% were self-identified gang-members, and 38% acknowledged having at least one friendship with a gang member. Similar to other studies, being male was a risk-factor for gang-membership (2.31 odds. In this multi-racial and ethnic study, Latinos had a greater affiliation with gang membership and association with gang members as friends (1.44 odds. Gang members were found to have increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (1.77 odds, current substance abuse (2.58 odds, oppositional defiant disorder, (1.24 odds and conduct disorder (4.05 odds; however, they were less likely to have an adjustment disorder than non-gang members (0.70 odds. Conclusions: Juveniles who received a mental health assessment

  20. No Tryptophan, Tyrosine and Phenylalanine Abnormalities in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Elisabeth Bergwerff

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to explore the role of aromatic amino acids (AAAs in blood in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Given their impact on the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine, decreased concentrations of the AAAs tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine in blood may contribute to the expression of ADHD symptoms. Decreased AAA blood concentrations, in turn, may be related to lowered dietary protein intake or to abnormal AAA catabolism, as evidenced by increased urinary AAA concentrations.Eighty-three children with ADHD (75% males and 72 typically developing (TD children (51% males, aged 6 to 13 years, participated in the study. AAA concentrations were assessed in blood spots and an 18-hour urinary sample. A nutritional diary was filled out by parents to calculate dietary protein intake. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and autism spectrum disorder.Children with ADHD showed normal AAA concentrations in blood spots and urine, as well as normal protein intake compared to controls. No associations between AAA concentrations and symptoms of ADHD or comorbid psychiatric disorders were found.This study is the first to explore AAA metabolism in children with ADHD using a well-defined and relatively large sample. We found that AAA deficiencies are not related to ADHD. The results do not support treatment with AAA supplements in children with ADHD. Future studies regarding the cause of serotonin and dopamine alterations in ADHD should focus on other explanations, such as effects of altered transport of AAAs.

  1. Understanding opposition in green advertising: The opposite does not always attract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana; Hubner, Arlette; Fenko, Anna; Warlop, L.; Muylle, S.

    2015-01-01

    Opposition (contrasting images and/or verbal cues) is acknowledged as a powerful tool to increase ads recall. Yet, no evidence exists whether opposition may be efficiently used in green advertising. The current study addresses this issue. European consumers (N=120) were exposed to print ads. Type of

  2. Interaction between opposite river bank dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonilla Porras, J.A.; Crosato, A.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies regarding bank erosion  and accretion can be found in the literature, it is  not common to find works studying the interaction  between opposite banks. Some existing  morphodynamic models describe bank erosion as  an event that depends on

  3. Synchronized SETI-The Case for "Opposition"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.

    2003-06-01

    If the signals being sought in search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) programs exist but are brief (for example, they are produced intermittently to conserve energy), then it is essential to know when these signals will arrive at the Earth. Different types of transmitter/receiver synchronization schemes are possible, which vary in the relative amount of effort required by the transmitter and the receiver. The case is made for a scheme that is extremely simple for the receiver: Make observations of a target when it is at maximum angular distance from the Sun (i.e., "opposition"). This strategy requires that the transmitter has accurate knowledge of the distance and proper motion of the Sun and the orbit of the Earth. It is anticipated that within the next 10-20 years it will be possible to detect directly nearby extrasolar planets of approximately terrestrial mass. Since extraterrestrial transmitters are expected to have significantly more advanced technology, it is not unreasonable to expect that they would be able to detect the presence of the Earth and measure its orbit at even greater distances. This strategy is simple to implement, and opposition is also typically the time when observations are easiest to make. Limited opposition surveys contained in a number of all-sky surveys have already been performed. However, full-sky opposition surveys are best suited to detectors with very large fields of view.

  4. What is the opposite of cat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Leron, Uri

    2016-01-01

    the open and interactive teaching approach needed to achieve students' active participation and reflection. To demonstrate these challenges, and our experience of trying to cope with them, we have chosen the concept of "inverses" as used in group theory, and its common sense precursor "opposites". We...

  5. Oppositional Decoding as an Act of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Argues that contributors to the "No Comment" feature of "Ms." magazine are engaging in oppositional decoding and speculates on why this is a satisfying group process. Also notes such decoding presents another challenge to the idea that mass media has the same effect on all audiences. (SD)

  6. [Prevalence and Associated Factors of Mental Disorders in Colombian Child Population, the 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Aulí, Javier; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Gil, Fabián; Garzón, Daniel; Casas, Germán

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey aimed to expand our knowledge about the real mental state of children in Colombia, taking into account the fact that most mental disorders in adults begin during childhood or adolescence. It is essential to have an improved knowledge of the magnitude of this issue and to design timely interventions that reduce long term complications. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the disorders in the last 12 months and 30 days according to the DSM-IV, as well as to collect data about social and demographic variables. The structured Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-P), which provides DSM-IV diagnoses, was applied to carers of non-institutionalised children between 7 and 11 years old. The disorders evaluated included: major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in its three kinds (mixed, inattentive, and hyperactive), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. The instrumentation was computer-assisted. Prevalences of the disorders are present both in the last 30 days and in the last 12 months. In general, there is a prevalence of any of the disorders of 3% (95% CI, 2.2-4.0) in the last 30 days, and 4.7% (95% CI, 3.6-6.2) in the last 12 months. When evaluated individually, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most frequent disorder, with a prevalence of 2.3% and 3.0% in the last 30 days and the last 12 months, respectively. In addition, the disorders that are known to frequently begin during childhood are the most common disorders in the age group studied, with a prevalence of 2.5% in the last 30 days and 3.2% in the last year. The 2015 National Mental Health Survey provides precise information about the real mental situation in children between the ages of 7 and 11 years in Colombia, compared with past epidemiological studies in the country, which were restricted to specific populations. By

  7. Psychiatric comorbidity distribution and diversities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüce M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Murat Yüce,1 Süleyman Salih Zoroglu,2 Mehmet Fatih Ceylan,3 Hasan Kandemir,4 Koray Karabekiroglu5 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical Faculty of Istanbul, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Dr Sami Ulus Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey; 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: We aimed to determine distribution and diversities of psychiatric comorbidities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in terms of age groups, sex, and ADHD subtype. Materials and methods: The sample included 6–18 year old children and adolescents from Turkey (N=108; 83 boys, 25 girls diagnosed with ADHD. All comorbid diagnoses were determined based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version assessment. Results: 96.3% of the cases were found to have at least one psychiatric comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent psychiatric comorbid disorder was oppositional defiant disorder (69.4% followed by anxiety disorders (49% and elimination disorders (27.8%. Disruptive behavior disorders were more common in ADHD-combined type. Depression and anxiety disorders were more common in girls. Separation anxiety disorder and elimination disorder were more common in children, whereas depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and social phobia were more common in the adolescents. Conclusion: According to our results, when a diagnostic tool was used to assess the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, almost all cases had at least one

  8. Opposition-Based Adaptive Fireworks Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibing Gong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A fireworks algorithm (FWA is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm that is inspired by observing fireworks explosions. An adaptive fireworks algorithm (AFWA proposes additional adaptive amplitudes to improve the performance of the enhanced fireworks algorithm (EFWA. The purpose of this paper is to add opposition-based learning (OBL to AFWA with the goal of further boosting performance and achieving global optimization. Twelve benchmark functions are tested in use of an opposition-based adaptive fireworks algorithm (OAFWA. The final results conclude that OAFWA significantly outperformed EFWA and AFWA in terms of solution accuracy. Additionally, OAFWA was compared with a bat algorithm (BA, differential evolution (DE, self-adapting control parameters in differential evolution (jDE, a firefly algorithm (FA, and a standard particle swarm optimization 2011 (SPSO2011 algorithm. The research results indicate that OAFWA ranks the highest of the six algorithms for both solution accuracy and runtime cost.

  9. Political opposition in patriarchal East London

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, D

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban administration. Patriarchalism, as a system, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuan...

  10. Telepsychiatrists' Medication Treatment Strategies in the Children's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Telemental Health Treatment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Yuet Juhn; Fesinmeyer, Megan D.; Garcia, Jessica; Myers, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the prescribing strategies that telepsychiatrists used to provide pharmacologic treatment in the Children's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Telemental Health Treatment Study (CATTS). Methods: CATTS was a randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the superiority of a telehealth service delivery model for the treatment of ADHD with combined pharmacotherapy and behavior training (n=111), compared with management in primary care augmented with a telepsychiatry consultation (n=112). A diagnosis of ADHD was established with the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (CDISC), and comorbidity for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and anxiety disorders (AD) was established using the CDISC and the Child Behavior Checklist. Telepsychiatrists used the Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project (TCMAP) for ADHD to guide pharmacotherapy and the treat-to-target model to encourage their assertive medication management to a predetermined goal of 50% reduction in ADHD-related symptoms. We assessed whether telepsychiatrists' decision making about making medication changes was associated with baseline ADHD symptom severity, comorbidity, and attainment of the treat-to-target goal. Results: Telepsychiatrists showed high fidelity (91%) to their chosen algorithms in medication management. At the end of the trial, the CATTS intervention showed 46.0% attainment of the treat-to-target goal compared with 13.6% for the augmented primary care condition, and significantly greater attainment of the goal by comorbidity status for the ADHD with one and ADHD with two comorbidities groups. Telepsychiatrists' were more likely to decide to make medication adjustments for youth with higher baseline ADHD severity and the presence of disorders comorbid with ADHD. Multiple mixed methods regression analyses controlling for baseline ADHD severity and comorbidity status indicated that the telepsychiatrists

  11. Association of nail biting and psychiatric disorders in children and their parents in a psychiatrically referred sample of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanizadeh Ahmad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nail biting (NB is a very common unwanted behavior. The majority of children are motivated to stop NB and have already tried to stop it, but are generally unsuccessful in doing so. It is a difficult behavior to modify or treat. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of children with NB who present at a child and adolescent mental healthcare outpatient clinic and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method A consecutive sample of 450 referred children was examined for NB and 63 (14% were found to have NB. The children and adolescents with nail biting and their parents were interviewed according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. They were also asked about lip biting, head banging, skin biting, and hair pulling behaviors. Results Nail biting is common amongst children and adolescents referred to a child and adolescent mental health clinic. The most common co-morbid psychiatric disorders in these children were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (74.6%, oppositional defiant disorder (36%, separation anxiety disorder (20.6%, enuresis (15.6%, tic disorder (12.7% and obsessive compulsive disorder (11.1%. The rates of major depressive disorder, mental retardation, and pervasive developmental disorder were 6.7%, 9.5%, 3.2%, respectively. There was no association between the age of onset of nail biting and the co-morbid psychiatric disorder. Severity and frequency of NB were not associated with any co-morbid psychiatric disorder. About 56.8% of the mothers and 45.9% of the fathers were suffering from at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric disorder found in these parents was major depression. Conclusion Nail biting presents in a significant proportion of referrals to a mental healthcare clinic setting. Nail biting should be routinely looked for and asked for in the child and adolescent mental healthcare setting

  12. Relationships between behavioral symptoms of non-medicated Chinese children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and parenting stress: Comparison of different subtypes and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Jiang, Wen-Qing; Du, Ya-Song; Coghill, David

    2016-06-01

    To identify the characteristics of behavior problems among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their relation with parenting stress. The Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI) were used to assess the symptoms and parenting stress of 132 non-medicated children with ADHD as compared with 88 healthy controls. Every PSQ factor of ADHD children was higher than in the control group; children with the combined subtype of ADHD had the highest scores in conduct and learning problems, impulsivity/hyperactivity, and overall hyperactivity index; the PSI total stress, child domain, and parent domain scores were all higher in the ADHD group than in the control group; children with the combined subtype of ADHD had the highest score in the competence subscale of the parent domain, whereas the PSI total stress score of parents of children with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) was higher than that of parents of children with only ADHD. The PSI total stress score was positively correlated with all PSQ factor scores. The PSQ factors of conduct problems and learning problems were found to be significant predictors in a regression analysis. The children with ADHD exhibited abnormal parenting stress compared with healthy controls, which was much more pronounced when the children had comorbid ODD. Furthermore, parenting stress was related with the severity of ADHD symptoms, suggesting that children with the combined subtype of ADHD require particular attention in the future. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Cognitive and affective empathy in children with conduct problems: additive and interactive effects of callous-unemotional traits and autism spectrum disorders symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J

    2014-11-30

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms are characterized by problems in empathy; however, these behavioral features are rarely examined together in children with conduct problems. This study investigated additive and interactive effects of CU traits and ASD symptoms in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in a non-ASD clinic-referred sample. Participants were 134 children aged 3 to 9 years (M=5.60; 79% boys) with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder, and their parents. Clinicians, teachers, and parents reported on dimensions of child behavior, and parental reports of family dysfunction and direct observations of parental warmth/responsiveness assessed quality of family relationships. Results from multiple regression analysis showed that, over and above the effects of child conduct problem severity and quality of family relationships, both ASD symptoms and CU traits were uniquely associated with deficits in cognitive empathy. Moreover, CU traits demonstrated an independent association with affective empathy, and this relationship was moderated by ASD symptoms. That is, there was a stronger negative association between CU traits and affective empathy at higher versus lower levels of ASD symptoms. These findings suggest including both CU traits and ASD-related social impairments in models delineating the atypical development of empathy in children with conduct problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbid psychiatric and behavioral problems among primary school students in western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten N. AlZaben

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, subtypes of ADHD, and psychiatric, academic, and behavioral comorbidity in public primary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. A simple random sample of 6 primary government schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was identified (3 male, 3 female, and a random sample of classes in each of grades 1-6 were selected. Between July and November 2016, teachers in these classes were asked to complete the Vanderbilt ADHD scale on all students in their classes. Results: A total of 929 students were screened. The overall prevalence of ADHD was 5% (5.3% in girls, 4.7% in boys. The most prevalent subtype of ADHD was combined type (2.7%, followed by hyperactive type (1.2%, and inattentive type (1.1%. The highest prevalence of ADHD overall was in grade 3 (7.1% and the lowest prevalence in grade 6 (3.4%. Among students with ADHD, prevalence of comorbid psychiatric, academic, and behavioral problems was widespread (56.5% oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder, 54.4% impaired academic performance, 44.4% classroom behavioral problems, 41.3% depression/anxiety. Comorbid problems were especially prevalent in combined ADHD subtype and in boys. Conclusions: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is common in primary school children in Jeddah, and is associated with widespread psychiatric, academic, and behavioral problems, especially in boys. These findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this serious neurobehavioral disorder.

  15. Risk factors for the existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamanna AL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna Linda Lamanna, Francesco Craig, Emilia Matera, Marta Simone, Maura Buttiglione, Lucia Margari Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy Abstract: Over the years, several authors have reported symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; however, studies on the risk factors of ADHD symptoms in children with ASD are lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the risk factors for the development of ADHD symptoms in children with ASD. The sample consisted of 67 children with ASD who were assessed with Conner’s Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R, and with a semi-structured detailed interview administered to parents, to collect a series of clinical data such as coexisting somatic and neuropsychiatric problems and familial and pre/peri/postpartum risk factors. We found that 55% of ASD children exceeded the cut-off of CPRS-R Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV, total scale. The univariate analyses showed that children’s age (P=0.048, motor delay (P=0.039, enuresis (P=0.014, allergies (P<0.01, comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (P=0.026 and intellectual disabilities comorbidities (P=0.034 were associated to the CPRS-R DSM-IV total score. Some familial predictors such as neuropsychiatric family history of intellectual disabilities (P=0.003 and psychosis (P=0.039 were related to the CPRS-R DSM-IV total score. In particular, a model including allergies (P=0.000 and family history of psychosis (P=0.03 explained 25% (corrected R2=0.25 of the variance of the DSM-IV ADHD score. In conclusion, we identified some risk factors associated with the development of ADHD symptoms in ASD children that need to be studied further. Keywords: neurodevelopmental disorders, autism spectrum disorders, ASD, attention deficit hyperactivity

  16. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder in a Community Mental Health Clinic: Prevalence, Comorbidity and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Youngstrom, Jennifer K; Findling, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) added a new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) to depressive disorders. This study examines the prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of the new disorder, with a particular focus on its overlap with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), with which DMDD shares core symptoms. Data were obtained from 597 youth 6-18 years of age who participated in a systematic assessment of symptoms offered to all intakes at a community mental health center (sample accrued from July 2003 to March 2008). Assessment included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures. DMDD was diagnosed using a post-hoc definition from item-level ratings on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children that closely matches the DSM-5 definition. Caregivers rated youth on the Child Behavior Checklist. Approximately 31% of youth met the operational definition of DMDD, and 40% had Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) diagnoses of ODD. Youth with DMDD almost always had ODD (odds ratio [OR] = 53.84) and displayed higher rates of comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder than youth without DMDD. Caregivers of youth with DMDD reported more symptoms of aggressive behavior, rule-breaking, social problems, anxiety/depression, attention problems, and thought problems than all other youth without DMDD. Compared with youth with ODD, youth with DMDD were not significantly different in terms of categorical or dimensional approaches to comorbidity and impairment. The new diagnosis of DMDD might be common in community mental health clinics. Youth with DMDD displayed more severe symptoms and poorer functioning than youth without DMDD. However, DMDD almost entirely overlaps with ODD and youth with DMDD were not significantly different than youth with ODD. These findings raise concerns

  17. Oppositely charged colloids out of equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, T.

    2010-11-01

    Colloids are particles with a size in the range of a few nanometers up to several micrometers. Similar to atomic and molecular systems, they can form gases, liquids, solids, gels and glasses. Colloids can be used as model systems because, unlike molecules, they are sufficiently large to be studied directly with light microscopy and move sufficiently slow to study their dynamics. In this thesis, we study binary systems of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) colloidal particles suspended in low-polar solvent mixtures. Since the ions can still partially dissociate, a surface charge builds up which causes electrostatic interactions between the colloids. By carefully tuning the conditions inside the suspension, we make two kinds of particles oppositely charged. To study our samples, we use Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The positively and negatively charged particles can be distinguished by a different fluorescent dye. Colloids constantly experience a random motion resulting from random kicks of surrounding solvent molecules. When the attractions between the oppositely charged particles are weak, the particles can attach and detach many times and explore a lot of possible configurations and the system can reach thermodynamic equilibrium. For example, colloidal ‘ionic’ crystals consisting of thousands to millions of particles can form under the right conditions. When the attractions are strong, the system can become kinetically trapped inside a gel-like state. We observe that when the interactions change again, crystals can even emerge again from this gel-like phase. By using local order parameters, we quantitatively study the crystallization of colloidal particles and identify growth defects inside the crystals. We also study the effect of gravity on the growth of ionic crystals by using a rotating stage. We find that sedimentation can completely inhibit crystal growth and plays an important role in crystallization from the gel-like state. The surface

  18. Psychometric properties of the Farsi translation of the kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia-present and lifetime version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semi-structural clinical interviews are very important in the area of mental health research and services. There were no studies of the reliability and validity of the Farsi (Persian version of Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL in Iran. This study compares the results of face-to-face, semi-structural interview and clinical interview by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. Method Subjects were 109 children and adolescents recruited to the child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic of Hafez Hospital. Order of interview (in-psychiatrist or the semi-structural interview was determined using random assignment within a counterbalanced framework. After, translation and back translation of K-SADS-PL, the Farsi version of K-SADS-PL was provided and used in the study. The interviewer was unaware of the child and adolescent psychiatrist diagnosis at the time of making the interview. Consensual validity, test-retest and inter-rater reliability, sensitivity, specifity, positive and negative predictive validity for the disorders were studied. Results Consensual validity of all of the psychiatric disorders was good to excellent. It was highest for panic disorder, conduct disorder, and simple phobia. Consensual validity of anorexia nervosa was 0.49. There was sufficient validity and test-retest and inter-rater reliability and good to excellent sensitivity and specifity and positive and negative predictive validity for nearly all of the disorders. Test-retest reliabilities of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, and tic disorder were 0.81, 0.67, and 0.56; respectively. Inter-rater reliabilities of ADHD, and ODD were 0.69 and 0.69. Tic disorder, post traumatic disorder, panic disorder, and ADHD had the highest positive predictive validities. Conclusion The Farsi version of K-SADS-PL is a valid and reliable interview instrument

  19. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among School Children and Associated Co-morbidities - A Hospital Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, H; Pokharel, A

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the most common neuro- developmental disorders of childhood characterized by the core symptoms including inattentiveness and distractibility and frequently involve impairments in executive functioning, increased impulsivity, and restlessness. Objective To find out the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among school aged children Presented to Pediatric clinic and also to investigate associated comorbidities. Method This study was conducted at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar during April 2014 - March 2015. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was diagnosed by the developmental Pediatrician after taking relevant history and the clinical assessment using Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder rating scale with diagnostic criteria consistent with Diagnostic Statistical Manual - IV classification. Spence anxiety scale child and parent rated version and Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire were also used. Result Result showed the yearly prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder being 41(11.7%) with male: female ratio of 4:1. The study reported that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined type was the commonest type that was 26(63%) cases followed by Inattentive type 9(22%) cases and 6(15%) were hyperactive type. The mean age for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was 7 years and 5 months. The most common co-morbidities were sleep problem 12(29.3%), Learning difficulty 10(24.4%), Anxiety disorder 10(24.4), Oppositional Defiant Disorder 9(22%), Autism Spectrum Disorder 5(12%), speech delay 6(14.6%), and 4(10%) had associated tics. There was abnormal SDQ prevalence of 29.3% across the area of emotional distress. The mean abnormal SDQ score in total difficulty area 8 (20.7%), socializing with peer 9(22%), behavioral difficulty 11(26.8%), hyperactivity/inattention 23(56.1%) and impact of difficulties in young person's life being 5(12.2%). Conclusion There is

  20. Research Review: Test-retest reliability of standardized diagnostic interviews to assess child and adolescent psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laura; Comeau, Jinette; Wang, Li; Vitoroulis, Irene; Boyle, Michael H; Bennett, Kathryn

    2018-02-19

    A better understanding of factors contributing to the observed variability in estimates of test-retest reliability in published studies on standardized diagnostic interviews (SDI) is needed. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to estimate the pooled test-retest reliability for parent and youth assessments of seven common disorders, and to examine sources of between-study heterogeneity in reliability. Following a systematic review of the literature, multilevel random effects meta-analyses were used to analyse 202 reliability estimates (Cohen's kappa = ҡ) from 31 eligible studies and 5,369 assessments of 3,344 children and youth. Pooled reliability was moderate at ҡ = .58 (CI 95% 0.53-0.63) and between-study heterogeneity was substantial (Q = 2,063 (df = 201), p reliability varied across informants for specific types of psychiatric disorder (ҡ = .53-.69 for parent vs. ҡ = .39-.68 for youth) with estimates significantly higher for parents on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and the broad groupings of externalizing and any disorder. Reliability was also significantly higher in studies with indicators of poor or fair study methodology quality (sample size reliability of SDIs and the usefulness of these tools in both clinical and research contexts. Potential remedies include the introduction of standardized study and reporting requirements for reliability studies, and exploration of other approaches to assessing and classifying child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in patients with common comorbidities in children, adolescents and adults: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Shari L.; Ghuman, Jaswinder K.; Ghuman, Harinder S.; Karpov, Irina; Schuster, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and is associated with higher incidence of comorbid oppositional or conduct, mood, anxiety, pervasive developmental, and substance-use disorders. Comorbid mental health conditions may alter the presence of symptoms and treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD, may be prescribed for individuals with ADHD and comorbid conditions despite some risk for certain undesirable side effects and lower effectiveness for the treatment of ADHD than stimulants. In this paper, we review studies utilizing randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) as well as within-subject designs to determine the effectiveness of ATX in the treatment of children and adults with ADHD and comorbid conditions. The current review uses an expanded methodology beyond systematic review of randomized controlled trials in order to improve generalizability of results to real-world practice. A total of 24 articles published from 2007 to 2015 were reviewed, including 14 RCTs: n = 1348 ATX, and n = 832 placebo. The majority of studies show that ATX is effective in the treatment of ADHD symptoms for individuals with ADHD and comorbid disorders. Cohen’s d effect sizes (ES) for improvement in ADHD symptoms and behaviors range from 0.47 to 2.21. The effectiveness of ATX to improve symptoms specific to comorbidity varied by type but appeared to be most effective for diminishing the presence of symptoms for those with comorbid anxiety, ES range of 0.40 to 1.51, and oppositional defiant disorder, ES range of 0.52 to 1.10. There are mixed or limited results for individuals with ADHD and comorbid substance-use disorders, autism spectrum disorders, dyslexia or reading disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and Tourette syndrome. Results from this review suggest that ATX is effective in the treatment of some youth and adults with ADHD and comorbid disorders

  2. Childhood ADHD is strongly associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders during adolescence: a population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J; Colligan, Robert C; Voigt, Robert G; Killian, Jill M; Weaver, Amy L; Katusic, Slavica K

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we identified 379 ADHD incident cases and 758 age-gender matched non-ADHD controls, passively followed to age 19 years. All psychiatric diagnoses were identified and abstracted, but only those confirmed by qualified medical professionals were included in the analysis. For each psychiatric disorder, cumulative incidence rates for subjects with and without ADHD were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Corresponding hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for gender and mother's age and education at the subject's birth. The association between ADHD and the likelihood of having an internalizing or externalizing disorder was summarized by estimating odds ratios (OR). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was associated with a significantly increased risk of adjustment disorders (HR = 3.88), conduct/oppositional defiant disorder (HR = 9.54), mood disorders (HR = 3.67), anxiety disorders (HR = 2.94), tic disorders (HR = 6.53), eating disorders (HR = 5.68), personality disorders (HR = 5.80), and substance-related disorders (HR = 4.03). When psychiatric comorbidities were classified on the internalization-externalization dimension, ADHD was strongly associated with coexisting internalizing/externalizing (OR = 10.6), or externalizing-only (OR = 10.0) disorders. This population-based study confirms that children with ADHD are at significantly increased risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Besides treating the ADHD, clinicians should identify and provide appropriate treatment for psychiatric comorbidities. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

  3. A serious game for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Who benefits the most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Maras, Athanasios

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to identify which subgroups of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) benefitted the most from playing a Serious Game (SG) intervention shown in a randomized trial to improve behavioral outcomes. Method Pre-intervention characteristics [i.e., gender, age, intellectual level of functioning, medication use, computer experience, ADHD subtype, severity of inattention problems, severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity problems, comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) symptoms] were explored as potential moderators in a Virtual Twins (VT) analysis to identify subgroups for whom the SG intervention was most effective. Primary outcome measures were parent-reported time management, planning/organizing and cooperation skills. Results Two subgroups were identified. Girls (n = 26) were identified as the subgroup that was most likely to show greater improvements in planning/organizing skills as compared to the estimated treatment effect of the total group of participants. Furthermore, among the boys, those (n = 47) with lower baseline levels of hyperactivity and higher levels of CD symptoms showed more improvements in their planning/organizing skills when they played the SG intervention as compared to the estimated treatment effect of the total group of participants. Conclusion Using a VT analysis two subgroups of children with ADHD, girls, and boys with both higher levels of CD and lower levels of hyperactivity, were identified. These subgroups mostly benefit from playing the SG intervention developed to improve ADHD related behavioral problems. Our results imply that these subgroups have a higher chance of treatment success. PMID:29543891

  4. Effect of OROS methylphenidate on encopresis in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Savaş; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Hergüner, Sabri

    2014-04-01

    Although encopresis shows a high rate of comorbidity in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the etiologic origin of this relationship and the effect of ADHD drugs on encopresis are unclear. In this chart review, we explored the effect of OROS long-acting methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on encopresis in children with ADHD. We also evaluated the relationship between the clinical variables of ADHD and encopresis. The sample consisted of 21 children and adolescents (20 boys and 1 girl) with encopresis and coexisting ADHD 7-15 years of age. Their clinical characteristics and baseline (visit 1) and end of the second months' (visit 2) Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) subscores were recorded. Retrospective clinician determinations were made using the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity subscale (CGI-S) for encopresis severity and the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement subscale (CGI-I) for encopresis response. According to the CGI-I, 14 subjects (71.4 %) showed much or very much improvement in their encopresis at the second visit. All of the CPRS scores showed a significant reduction during the second visit. No association was found between the CGI-I score and the changes in any of the CPRS scores. Baseline oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) scores were correlated with the CGI-S score; however, no association was found between core ADHD symptom severity and the CGI-S score. With regard to the encopresis outcome, the baseline CD score was negatively correlated with the CGI-I score, and the baseline ODD score was prone to show a negative correlation with the CGI-I score. These results suggest that coexisting behavioral problems may be a vulnerability factor based on the severity of encopresis, and that MPH treatment may have a positive effect on encopresis in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  5. Disrupted expected value signaling in youth with disruptive behavior disorders to environmental reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F; Fowler, Katherine A; Sinclair, Stephen; Schechter, Julia C; Majestic, Catherine M; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, R James

    2014-05-01

    Youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), including conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), have difficulties in reinforcement-based decision making, the neural basis of which is poorly understood. Studies examining decision making in youth with DBD have revealed reduced reward responses within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex/orbitofrontal cortex (vmPFC/OFC), increased responses to unexpected punishment within the vmPFC and striatum, and reduced use of expected value information in the anterior insula cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during the avoidance of suboptimal choices. Previous work has used only monetary reinforcement. The current study examined whether dysfunction in youth with DBD during decision making extended to environmental reinforcers. A total of 30 youth (15 healthy youth and 15 youth with DBD) completed a novel reinforcement-learning paradigm using environmental reinforcers (physical threat images, e.g., striking snake image; contamination threat images, e.g., rotting food; appetitive images, e.g., puppies) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behaviorally, healthy youth were significantly more likely to avoid physical threat, but not contamination threat, stimuli than youth with DBD. Imaging results revealed that youth with DBD showed significantly reduced use of expected value information in the bilateral caudate, thalamus, and posterior cingulate cortex during the avoidance of suboptimal responses. The current data suggest that youth with DBD show deficits to environmental reinforcers similar to the deficits seen to monetary reinforcers. Importantly, this deficit was unrelated to callous-unemotional (CU) traits, suggesting that caudate impairment may be a common deficit across youth with DBD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The clinical presentation of attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanna; Thapar, Anita; Owen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in children with 22q11.2DS, it remains unclear whether its clinical presentation is similar to that in children with idiopathic ADHD. The aim of this study is to compare the ADHD phenotype in children with and without 22q11.2DS by examining ADHD symptom scores, patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, IQ and gender distribution. Methods: Forty‐four children with 22q11.2DS and ADHD (mean age = 9.6), 600 clinic children (mean age = 10.8) and 77 children with ADHD from a population cohort (mean age = 10.8) participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed using parent‐report research diagnostic instruments. Results: There was a higher proportion of females in the 22q11.2DS ADHD sample in relation to the clinical sample (χ2 = 18.2, P ADHD inattentive subtype (χ2 = 114.76, P ADHD group parents reported fewer oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms (z = 6.33, P ADHD sample had received ADHD treatment. The results were similar when the 22q11.2 ADHD group was compared to the population cohort ADHD group. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of ADHD and patterns of co‐morbidity in 22q11.2DS is different from that in idiopathic ADHD. This could lead to clinical under‐recognition of ADHD in this group. Examining psychopathology in 22q11.2DS can provide insights into the genetic origins of psychiatric problems with implications beyond the 22q11.2DS population. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26400629

  7. The Loyal Opposition & The Practice of Aikido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Miller-Lane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussions regarding martial arts often focus on the unique manner in which different styles respond to a set of common attacks. Indeed, it is in these unique responses that most martial arts distinguish themselves. However, this paper examines the role of the aggressor during training; specifically, in the martial art of Aikido and draws an analogy between the role of an aggressor during Aikido practice and the actions of a member of the loyal opposition in a democracy. A commitment to a set of rules that govern and protect the participants and a commitment to maintain a rich, creative tension mark both the vibrant interactions of an Aikido dojo and democratic life in a multicultural society.

  8. Repulsion between oppositely charged planar macroions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongSeok Jho

    Full Text Available The repulsive interaction between oppositely charged macroions is investigated using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of an unrestricted primitive model, including the effect of inhomogeneous surface charge and its density, the depth of surface charge, the cation size, and the dielectric permittivity of solvent and macroions, and their contrast. The origin of the repulsion is a combination of osmotic pressure and ionic screening resulting from excess salt between the macroions. The excess charge over-reduces the electrostatic attraction between macroions and raises the entropic repulsion. The magnitude of the repulsion increases when the dielectric constant of the solvent is lowered (below that of water and/or the surface charge density is increased, in good agreement with experiment. Smaller size of surface charge and the cation, their discreteness and mobility are other factors that enhance the repulsion and charge inversion phenomenons.

  9. Prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Elementary-School Students of Khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa Namdari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Namdari P1, Nazari H2 1. Instructor, Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Abstract Background: Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders starting from childhood and is considered an important mental health problem of the society. DBDs may have distractive effects on the social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationships of people in their childhood and adulthood. The present research was done to determine the prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in elementary school students of Khorramabad in 2005. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studying in grades one to five at elementary schools in Khorramabad (N = 943. Sixteen state and private schools (8 for girls and 8 for boys were selected in a cluster and multi–stage sampling method. The standardized questionnaire of Child Symptoms Inventories (CSI-4 was used to collect data on the prevalence of children’s psychiatric disorders. The results ware analyzed using descriptive statistic and Chi-square test. Results: The total sample included 943 children. There was 21.4% DBD behavior (17.7% oppositional defiant disorder and, 3.7% conduct disorder. The number of the boys was twice as that of the girls (28.7% vs. 14.4%. The students in grade 2 showed the lowest, and those in grade 3, 4 and 5 the highest prevalence rate of DBD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s grade (P= 0.02, parent’s education (P=0.005, P=0.006, Mother’s job (P= 0.03, income (P = 0.005 and DBD. However no significant relationship between father’s job, educational level of the students and parent’s mental problems and Disruptive Behavior Disorders was found. Conclusion: Due to the high

  10. The square of opposition a cornerstone of thought

    CERN Document Server

    Basti, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    This is a collection of new investigations and discoveries on the theory of opposition (square, hexagon, octagon, polyhedra of opposition) by the best specialists from all over the world. The papers range from historical considerations to new mathematical developments of the theory of opposition including applications to theology, theory of argumentation and metalogic.

  11. The ESSENCE in Child Psychiatry: Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Co-existence of disorders--including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, tic disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and autism spectrum disorder--and sharing of symptoms across disorders (sometimes referred to as comorbidity) is the rule rather than the exception in child psychiatry and developmental…

  12. Efficacy and safety limitations of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder pharmacotherapy in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigal, Sharon B

    2009-01-01

    stimulants. This is especially important for patients who have comorbidities that are contraindicated for stimulant use based on medical issues and/or risk for stimulant abuse. Typical psychiatric comorbidities in patients with ADHD include oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety, substance abuse disorder, tic disorder, and Tourette's syndrome. Although relatively safe, both stimulants and atomoxetine have class-related warnings and contraindications and are associated with adverse effects that require consideration when prescribing. Polypharmacy is a common psychiatric approach to address multiple symptoms or emergent adverse effects of necessary treatments. Future research may provide an improved understanding of polypharmacy and better characterization of the factors that influence the diagnosis and successful treatment of patients with ADHD.

  13. Opposition to nuclear power in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1977-01-01

    The opposing factions to nuclear energy in Europe are composed of groups establishing themselves as distinct political forces. The author describes specifically the anti-nuclear movements in West Germany, Sweden, England, and France. The new government in Sweden, swept to power on a wave of anti-nuclear and anti-big government sentiment on September 19, 1976, has put tight restrictions on reactor construction. In Great Britain, economic crisis, North Sea oil, new coal discoveries, and political confusion concerning choice of technology have sufficed to bring new nuclear construction to a halt. The German government, under pressure from a complex coalition of groups exploiting every available means of protest, has stalled on a waste-management issue. While the French opposition has had little success in blocking nuclear construction, the movement is increasingly broad-based; it has managed to make certain issues the subject of a national debate with elections scheduled for March 1978. It is concluded that whatever the outcome, there is no assurance that it will be favorable from the point of view of weapons proliferation

  14. Windpower opposition : notify, consult, engage or partnership?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prier, P.G. [Stantec Consulting, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the methods that can be used to understand and defuse opposition to wind power projects. The presentation discussed the actual empowerment of communities and citizens as opposed to the token gestures often used by large organizations to placate and manipulate stakeholders. Stakeholders were defined as regulatory authorities, directly and indirectly affected landowners, non-government organizations, First Nations groups, and anyone in or outside the study area with an interest in the prospective development. The consultation scope should reflect the significance of potential effects and be conducted early in the decision-making process. The design of the project and its implementation should be transparent, and operators should be responsive to all concerns and questions. A range of consultation techniques should be used to reflect the nature of different stakeholders. Community engagement should support mutual respect of values in order to create an authentic decision-making partnership. Communities should be notified when routine operational or maintenance activities are being conducted. Consultations are required for increases in nameplate capacity of less than 25 percent. Community engagement is required for the development of greenfield wind farms greater than 20 MW. tabs., figs.

  15. Opposition to legal abortion: challenges and questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the Roman Catholic Church's arguments against abortion rights suggests that its opposition is grounded more in outmoded views regarding women's roles than in concern for protecting fetal life. The 1st argument raised by Catholics and other anti-abortion forces is that abortion represents the unjustifiable destruction of a human life. A 2nd argument focuses on the status of the fetus as a person from the moment of conception, making abortion murder. A 3rd equates the fetus's potential for personhood with the pregnant woman's actual personhood. Despite the vehement sentiments expressed by Catholic leaders against abortion, the majority of Catholics support legal abortion. The assignment of personhood status to the fetus is contraindicated by actual practice in the Church, where aborted or miscarried products of early pregnancy are not baptized. Also, the Church does not forbid the taking of human life in war or to preserve political freedom. Finally, in countries such as Poland where abortion has been made illegal through religious pressure, there have been drastic cuts in health care and child care programs.

  16. What time periods of the day are concerning for parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Usami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: The questionnaire-children with difficulties (QCD is a parent-assessed questionnaire designed to evaluate a child's difficulties in functioning during specific time periods of the day. In this study, the QCD was applied to determine the time periods of the day that are concerning for the parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The results were compared with those for a community sample. METHODS: Elementary and junior high school students with ADHD (243 boys, 55 girls and a community sample of children (518 boys, 618 girls were enrolled in this study. Their behaviors were assessed by the QCD, the ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS, and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI. The effects of gender (boy/girl and diagnosis (ADHD/community sample on the total QCD score were analyzed across each school grade (elementary/junior high school. Correlation coefficients between QCD and ADHD-RS/ODBI scores were analyzed. RESULTS: The QCD score for the ADHD group was significantly lower than that for the community sample (P 0.41, P 0.40, P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Parents reported that children with ADHD faced greater difficulties in completing basic daily activities compared with the community controls, particularly in the evening. Furthermore, these difficulties were related to the severity of ADHD symptoms. The parents' perceptions depended on the gender, ADHD and oppositional symptoms, and the time period of the day. This study determined that children with ADHD face greater difficulties in daily functioning compared with community sample children, that these difficulties are time-dependent, and that these difficulties were particularly experienced in the evening.

  17. Understanding the relative contributions of direct environmental effects and passive genotype-environment correlations in the association between familial risk factors and child disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, M A; Cummings, J R; Hunt, E; Blazei, R; Malone, S; Iacono, W G

    2014-03-01

    Previous work reports an association between familial risk factors stemming from parental characteristics and offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). This association may reflect (a) the direct effects of familial environment and (b) a passive gene-environment correlation (r(GE)), wherein the parents provide both the genes and the environment. The current study examined the contributions of direct environmental influences and passive r(GE) by comparing the effects of familial risk factors on child DBDs in genetically related (biological) and non-related (adoptive) families. Participants were 402 adoptive and 204 biological families. Familial environment was defined as maternal and paternal maladaptive parenting and antisociality, marital conflict and divorce; offspring DBDs included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Mixed-level regressions estimated the main effects of familial environment, adoption status and the familial environment by adoption status interaction term, which tested for the presence of passive r(GE). There was a main effect of maternal and paternal maladaptive parenting and marital discord on child DBDs, indicating a direct environmental effect. There was no direct environmental effect of maternal or paternal antisociality, but maternal and paternal antisociality had stronger associations with child DBDs in biological families than adoptive families, indicating the presence of a passive r(GE). Many familial risk factors affected children equally across genetically related and non-related families, providing evidence for direct environmental effects. The relationship of parental antisociality and offspring DBDs was best explained by a passive r(GE), where a general vulnerability toward externalizing psychopathology is passed down by the parents to the children.

  18. Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice-versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Methods Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Results Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other “externalizing” disorders and some “internalizing” disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conclusions CD is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed

  19. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Common Psychopathologies of Childhood and Adolescence: A Study of Twins and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehringer, Marissa A.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.

    2006-01-01

    We report findings based on analyses of self-reports of six common adolescent psychopathologies (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; conduct disorder, CD; oppositional defiant disorder, ODD; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; separation anxiety disorder, SAD; and major depressive disorder, MDD) in a sample of 1,162 male and female…

  20. Counseling the Conduct-Disordered Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Cindy

    Conduct disorder (CD), primarily a childhood disorder, is associated with oppositional defiance disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Differentiating between the disorders requires a preview of the intensity of the disorder. There are many approaches to treating CD. The traditional approach has been psychoanalytically oriented…

  1. Annual research review: phenotypic and causal structure of conduct disorder in the broader context of prevalent forms of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D

    2012-05-01

    A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other 'externalizing' disorders and some 'internalizing' disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conduct disorder is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed by studying CD in the context of

  2. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Gersing, Kenneth R.; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S.; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N=4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1–90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ≥2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

  3. Objectifying the Adjacent and Opposite Angles: A Cultural Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Musallam, Nadera

    2018-01-01

    The angle topic is central to the development of geometric knowledge. Two of the basic concepts associated with this topic are the adjacent and opposite angles. It is the goal of the present study to analyze, based on the cultural historical semiotics framework, how high-achieving seventh grade students objectify the adjacent and opposite angles'…

  4. Oppositional Culture Theory and the Delusion of Colorblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowitz, Marvin J.; Hutchins, Brandi N.; Jenkins, Derrick J.; Mussman, Mark P.; Schneider, Carri A.

    2006-01-01

    Oppositional culture theory is a widely accepted explanation for disparities in academic performance between middle class Whites and middle class African Americans. The authors make the case that oppositional culture theory has its roots in cultural deficit theory popularized in the early 1960s and present a significant body of evidence to refute…

  5. Sex and Age Differences in Attitude toward the Opposite Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rawley

    1997-01-01

    Examines fantasies about the opposite sex expressed by 116 children, adolescents, and adults responding to the Drawing from Imagination task of the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and Emotion. Results indicate that both males and females expressed more negative than positive feelings toward subjects of the opposite sex. Males were more negative.…

  6. Effectiveness of a telehealth service delivery model for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a community-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kathleen; Vander Stoep, Ann; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A; Katon, Wayne

    2015-04-01

    To test the effectiveness of a telehealth service delivery model for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that provided pharmacological treatment and caregiver behavior training. The Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study (CATTS) was a randomized controlled trial with 223 children referred by 88 primary care providers (PCPs) in 7 communities. Children randomized to the experimental telehealth service model received 6 sessions over 22 weeks of combined pharmacotherapy, delivered by child psychiatrists through videoconferencing, and caregiver behavior training, provided in person by community therapists who were supervised remotely. Children randomized to the control service delivery model received treatment with their PCPs augmented with a telepsychiatry consultation. Outcomes were diagnostic criteria for ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and role performance on the Vanderbilt ADHD Rating Scale (VADRS) completed by caregivers (VADRS-Caregivers) and teachers (VADRS-Teachers) and impairment on the Columbia Impairment Scale-Parent Version (CIS-P). Measures were completed at 5 assessments over 25 weeks. Children in both service models improved. Children assigned to the telehealth service model improved significantly more than children in the augmented primary care arm for VADRS-Caregiver criteria for inattention (χ(2)[4] = 19.47, p ADHD (χ(2)[4] = 14.90, p = .005), ODD (χ(2)[4] = 10.05, p = .04), and VADRS-Caregiver role performance (χ(2) [4] = 12.40, p = .01) and CIS-P impairment (χ(2)[4] = 20.52, p ADHD (χ(2)[4] = 9.72, p = .045). The CATTS trial demonstrated the effectiveness of a telehealth service model to treat ADHD in communities with limited access to specialty mental health services. Clinical trial registration information-Children's Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) Telemental Health Treatment Study; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00830700. Copyright © 2015 American

  7. Comorbilidad del trastorno de hiperactividad con déficit de atención (THDA en una muestra poblacional de niños y adolescentes escolares, Sabaneta, Colombia, 2001 Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a childhood and adolescent student population based sample, Colombia, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carrizosa Moog

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el THDA coexiste frecuentemente con diferentes entidades como el trastorno desafiante oposicional, alteraciones de la conducta o del afecto, ansiedad, dislexia y síndrome de Gilles de la Tourette. Una adecuada comprensión de esta asociación es fundamental para orientar un tratamiento exitoso, lo cual influye y mejora el pronóstico. La prevalencia en nuestro medio es del 15%. Constituye el más importante problema comportamental del escolar. OBJETIVO: determinar la frecuencia de la comorbilidad del THDA. METODOLOGÍA: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Muestra representativa, al azar, polietápica, proporcional al tamaño de los grupos de escolares entre 4 y 17 años. Medición en dos etapas: inicialmente aplicación de formulario de tamización según criterios del DSM-IV. Luego entrevista estructurada, pruebas de Conners y nivel de inteligencia. La entrevista incluye los criterios diagnósticos para las diferentes comorbilidades según elementos diagnósticos del DSM-IV. RESULTADOS: la evaluación especializada permitió encontrar las dificultades del aprendizaje (15,1% como la comorbilidad más frecuente, seguida por el trastorno desafiante-posicional (5,0%, ansiedad generalizada (2,7%, trastorno de la conducta (2,7%, fobias (2,3%, depresión (1,8%, trastorno bipolar (1,8%, trastorno obsesivo (0,9% y epilepsia (0,9%. CONCLUSIONES: el trastorno más frecuentemente asociado al THDA fue dificultades del aprendizaje - TA- (15.1%. La búsqueda sistemática de esta comorbilidad representa un elemento central en el abordaje exitoso del niño con THDA. THDA is frequently accompanied by comorbid conditions like oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, affective disorders, dyslexia and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. A comprehensive evaluation of these associations is important to guide the treatment and has relevance in the prognosis. The prevalence in Sabaneta, Colombia, is 15%. It makes THDA the most frequent

  8. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  9. Executive Function Deficits in Preschool Children with ADHD and DBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impairments in executive functions (EF) are consistently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to a lesser extent, with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), that is, oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in school-aged children. Recently, larger numbers of children with these disorders are…

  10. Moderators, mediators, and other predictors of risperidone response in children with autistic disorder and irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L Eugene; Farmer, Cristan; Kraemer, Helena Chmura; Davies, Mark; Witwer, Andrea; Chuang, Shirley; DiSilvestro, Robert; McDougle, Christopher J; McCracken, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G; Scahill, Lawrence; Posey, David J; Swiezy, Naomi B

    2010-04-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network found an effect size of d = 1.2 in favor of risperidone on the main outcome measure in an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for irritability in autistic disorder. This paper explores moderators and mediators of this effect. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were conducted with suspected moderators and mediators entered into the regression equations. MacArthur Foundation Network subgroup guidelines were followed in the evaluation of the results. Only baseline severity moderated treatment response: Higher severity showed greater improvement for risperidone but not for placebo. Weight gain mediated treatment response negatively: those who gained more weight improved less with risperidone and more with placebo. Compliance correlated with outcome for risperidone but not placebo. Higher dose correlated with worse outcome for placebo, but not risperidone. Of nonspecific predictors, parent education, family income, and low baseline prolactin positively predicted outcome; anxiety, bipolar symptoms, oppositional-defiant symptoms, stereotypy, and hyperactivity negatively predicted outcome. Risperidone moderated the effect of change in 5'-nucleotidase, a marker of zinc status, for which decrease was associated with improvement only with risperidone, not with placebo. The benefit-risk ratio of risperidone is better with greater symptom severity. Risperidone can be individually titrated to optimal dosage for excellent response in the majority of children. Weight gain is not necessary for risperidone benefit and may even detract from it. Socioeconomic advantage, low prolactin, and absence of co-morbid problems nonspecifically predict better outcome. Mineral interactions with risperidone deserve further study.

  11. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD and ODD in a Pediatric Population in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michanie, Claudio; Kunst, Gabriel; Margulies, Daniel S.; Yakhkind, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of DSM III-R symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in an outpatient pediatric population; to compare oppositional behavior and grade retention rates; and to establish local means and standard deviations (SD) for the ADHD rating scale. Method: 300…

  12. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths.

  13. Learning preferences from paired opposite-based semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Montero, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Preference semantics examine the meaning of the preference predicate, according to the way that alternatives can be understood and organized for decision making purposes. Through opposite-based semantics, preference structures can be characterized by their paired decomposition of preference...... on the character of opposition, the compound meaning of preference emerges from the fuzzy reinforcement of paired opposite concepts, searching for significant evidence for affirming dominance among the decision objects. Here we propose a general model for the paired decomposition of preference, examining its...

  14. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes [Vissers et al., Soft Matter 7, 2352 (2011), 10.1039/c0sm01343a]. This phenomenon can be reproduced by two-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations of model particles [Dzubiella et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.021402]. Here we use computer simulation to assess the generality of lane formation with respect to variation of particle type and dynamical protocol. We find that laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with the Péclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics over a range of model parameters. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely driven nonattractive colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas [Katz, Leibowitz, and Spohn, J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1984), 10.1007/BF01018556]. These features include long-ranged correlations in the disordered regime, a critical regime characterized by a change in slope of the particle current with the Péclet number, and fluctuations that grow with system size. By analogy, we suggest that lane formation in the driven colloid system is a phase transition in the macroscopic limit, but that macroscopic phase separation would not occur in finite time upon starting from disordered initial conditions.

  15. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (ORE; Caldara et al., 2004, little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection. The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21 and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24 had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  16. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Martin, Eleonora; Zani, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (Caldara et al., 2004), little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women) who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection). The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP) to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA) showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21) and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24) had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  17. Objectifying the adjacent and opposite angles: a cultural historical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Musallam, Nadera

    2018-02-01

    The angle topic is central to the development of geometric knowledge. Two of the basic concepts associated with this topic are the adjacent and opposite angles. It is the goal of the present study to analyze, based on the cultural historical semiotics framework, how high-achieving seventh grade students objectify the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts. We videoed the learning of a group of three high-achieving students who used technology, specifically GeoGebra, to explore geometric relations related to the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts. To analyze students' objectification of these concepts, we used the categories of objectification of knowledge (attention and awareness) and the categories of generalization (factual, contextual and symbolic), developed by Radford. The research results indicate that teacher's and students' verbal and visual signs, together with the software dynamic tools, mediated the students' objectification of the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts. Specifically, eye and gestures perceiving were part of the semiosis cycles in which the participating students were engaged and which related to the mathematical signs that signified the adjacent and the opposite angles. Moreover, the teacher's suggestions/requests/questions included/suggested semiotic signs/tools, including verbal signs that helped the students pay attention, be aware of and objectify the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts.

  18. Twenty years of environmental opposition in the electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molocchi, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    This article aims to provide a framework for analysing social opposition In Italy against the construction and management of electric power plants (nuclear and thermoelectric) and big electricity power lines in the past twenty years. First The author provide a history of social environmental opposition in the electric sector. This is followed by a typology of reason for opposition in terms of risk perception, which has been applied to about forty cases of social opposition against electric plants. This study an original experimental methodology which could also yield useful results when applied to other complex social phenomena. In the third phase of the study the author analyse the various roles of the social and institutional actors involved in the opposition, and the obstacles to future consensus building. The most interesting result of the study is the not only social but political nature opposition. This factor necessitates integration of the traditional individual risk perception approach with an approach which analyses political and social action of NGO's

  19. Sluggish cognitive tempo and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention in the home and school contexts: Parent and teacher invariance and cross-setting validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G Leonard; Becker, Stephen P; Servera, Mateu; Bernad, Maria Del Mar; García-Banda, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention (IN) symptoms demonstrated cross-setting invariance and unique associations with symptom and impairment dimensions across settings (i.e., home SCT and ADHD-IN uniquely predicting school symptom and impairment dimensions, and vice versa). Mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers rated SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, academic impairment, social impairment, and peer rejection dimensions for 585 Spanish 3rd-grade children (53% boys). Within-setting (i.e., mothers, fathers; primary, secondary teachers) and cross-settings (i.e., home, school) invariance was found for both SCT and ADHD-IN. From home to school, higher levels of home SCT predicted lower levels of school ADHD-HI and higher levels of school academic impairment after controlling for home ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of home ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of school ADHD-HI, ODD, anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and peer rejection after controlling for home SCT. From school to home, higher levels of school SCT predicted lower levels of home ADHD-HI and ODD and higher levels of home anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment after controlling for school ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of school ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of home ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment after controlling for school SCT. Although SCT at home and school was able to uniquely predict symptom and impairment dimensions in the other setting, SCT at school was a better predictor than ADHD-IN at school of psychopathology and impairment at home. Findings provide additional support for SCT's validity relative to ADHD-IN. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  1. A Comparison of Pure and Comorbid CD/ODD and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Domenech, Josep M.; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Background: We studied the symptomatology of conduct/oppositional defiant disorder and major depression/dysthymic disorder in "pure" and comorbid presentations. Method: The sample comprised 382 children of 8 to 17 years of age attending for psychiatric outpatient consultation. Ninety-two had depressive disorders without conduct disorders, 165…

  2. The Brief Child and Family Phone Interview (BCFPI): 2. Usefulness in Screening for Child and Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael H.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Georgiades, Katholiki; Cullen, John; Racine, Yvonne; Pettingill, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the use of the Brief Child and Family Phone Interview (BCFPI) to screen for childhood psychiatric disorder based on Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV) classifications of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD),…

  3. Onset and Progression of Disruptive Behavior Problems among Community Boys and Girls: A Prospective Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jaelyn R.; Nicholson, Jody S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder are the most common forms of psychopathology seen among community youth. This study investigated prospective symptomatology of these disruptive behavior disorders from ages 5 though 14 in an at-risk community-based sample of 170 boys and girls born to…

  4. Two years of admissions to Natal's first inpatient child mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost one-third of the children were diagnosed as having disruptive behaviour disorders, including conduct disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Parent-child problems were also very prevalent. While a variety of therapeutic modalities were employed, behavioural management ...

  5. Intellectual Disability Modifies Gender Effects on Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Gray, Kylie M.; Ellis, Louise A.; Taffe, John; Emerson, Eric; Tonge, Bruce J.; Horstead, Sian K.

    2010-01-01

    In typically developing children, boys are more commonly diagnosed than girls with disruptive behavior disorders, namely, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. For children with intellectual disability (ID), the evidence for this gender effect is less clear. In this report we examine gender…

  6. Executive Functions in Preschool Children with ADHD and DBD: Assessment, Development and Role of Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, K.

    2013-01-01

    Impairments in executive functions (EF) are consistently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to a lesser extent, with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), i.e., oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in school-aged children. Recently, larger numbers of

  7. [From conduct disorder in childhood to psychopathy in adult life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Ch; Armenaka, M

    2012-06-01

    were children, without diagnosis of Psychopathic Personality, as such a diagnosis is not appropriate at early childhood or adolescence. Psychopathic or/and antisocial tendencies sometimes are recognized in children and early adolescent age. Such behaviors lead usually to the diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in early years of life and increase the possibility to have a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathic Personality as an adult. There are many studies on the underlying risk factors for Psychopathic Personality, focusing in genetic, neurobiological, developmental, environmental, social and other factors. There is no effective treatment for Psychopathic Personality in adult life. Children with a specific neurobiological profile or behavioral disturbances that increase the risk of developing a Psychopathic Personality in adult life, have better chances to respond in exceptionally individualized interventions, depending on the character of the child. The parents are educated to supervise their children, to overlook annoying behaviors and to encourage the positive ones. It appears that the punishment does not attribute, on the contrary it strengthens undesirable behaviors. Use of reward appears to have better results. Programs of early highly focused therapeutic interventions in vulnerable members of the population are our best hope for the reduction of fully blown psychopaths in the general adult population.

  8. Response inhibition deficits in externalizing child psychiatric disorders: An ERP-study with the Stop-task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hartmut

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that impaired motor response inhibition may be common to several externalizing child psychiatric disorders, although it has been proposed to be the core-deficit in AD/HD. Since similar overt behaviour may be accompanied by different covert brain activity, the aim of this study was to investigate both brain-electric-activity and performance measures in three groups of children with externalizing child psychiatric disorders and a group of normal controls. Methods A Stop-task was used to measure specific aspects of response inhibition in 10 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD, 8 children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD, 11 children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD and 11 normal controls. All children were between 8 and 14 years old. Event-related potentials and behavioural responses were recorded. An initial go-signal related microstate, a subsequent Stop-signal related N200, and performance measures were analyzed using ANCOVA with age as covariate. Results Groups did not differ in accuracy or reaction time to the Go-stimuli. However, all clinical groups displayed reduced map strength in a microstate related to initial processing of the Go-stimulus compared to normal controls, whereas topography did not differ. Concerning motor response inhibition, the AD/HD-only and the ODD/CD-only groups displayed slower Stop-signal reaction times (SSRT and Stop-failure reaction time compared to normal controls. In children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD, Stop-failure reaction-time was longer than in controls, but their SSRT was not slowed. Moreover, SSRT in AD/HD+ODD/CD was faster than in AD/HD-only or ODD/CD-only. The AD/HD-only and ODD/CD-only groups displayed reduced Stop-N200 mean amplitude over right-frontal electrodes. This effect reached only a trend for comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD. Conclusion Following similar attenuations in initial processing of the Go

  9. The clinical presentation of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchou, Maria; Martin, Joanna; Thapar, Anita; Owen, Michael J; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2015-12-01

    Although attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in children with 22q11.2DS, it remains unclear whether its clinical presentation is similar to that in children with idiopathic ADHD. The aim of this study is to compare the ADHD phenotype in children with and without 22q11.2DS by examining ADHD symptom scores, patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, IQ and gender distribution. Forty-four children with 22q11.2DS and ADHD (mean age = 9.6), 600 clinic children (mean age = 10.8) and 77 children with ADHD from a population cohort (mean age = 10.8) participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed using parent-report research diagnostic instruments. There was a higher proportion of females in the 22q11.2DS ADHD sample in relation to the clinical sample (χ(2)  = 18.2, P ADHD inattentive subtype (χ(2)  = 114.76, P hyperactive-impulsive symptoms compared to the clinical group (z = 8.43, P ADHD group parents reported fewer oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms (z = 6.33, P disorder (χ(2)  = 4.56, P = 0.03) in relation to the clinical group. Two percent of the 22q11.2 DS ADHD sample had received ADHD treatment. The results were similar when the 22q11.2 ADHD group was compared to the population cohort ADHD group. The clinical presentation of ADHD and patterns of co-morbidity in 22q11.2DS is different from that in idiopathic ADHD. This could lead to clinical under-recognition of ADHD in this group. Examining psychopathology in 22q11.2DS can provide insights into the genetic origins of psychiatric problems with implications beyond the 22q11.2DS population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The irresistible fascination of medical theories about opposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, L R; Frati, L

    1989-01-01

    Theurgical medicine was a part of the eternal fight between good and evil and health was reconciliation with the gods. This duality characterized ancient medicine, i.e. Greek medicine after the Homeric age or Chinese traditional medicine. In the passage to medicine of observation due to the School of Cos duel between good and evil becomes substrate of new medicine and the balances between*opposites represented by elements and qualities were the fundaments of the humoralism. Fascination of opposites continues for centuries up to now, both in western and far eastern medicine: yin/yang, antibody/antigen, cAMP/cGMP, oncogene/antioncogene are examples of this attractive theory. Although fundaments of biological and medical observations are the basis of theories of opposites, the trend is to overcome reality and today represents, following idealism in the 19th century, an inconscious ancestral reminiscence of theurgical philosophy and medicine.

  11. Symmetry breaking in clogging for oppositely driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Tobias; Wittkowski, Raphael; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-11-01

    The clogging behavior of a symmetric binary mixture of colloidal particles that are driven in opposite directions through constrictions is explored by Brownian dynamics simulations and theory. A dynamical state with a spontaneously broken symmetry occurs where one species is flowing and the other is blocked for a long time, which can be tailored by the size of the constrictions. Moreover, we find self-organized oscillations in clogging and unclogging of the two species. Apart from statistical physics, our results are of relevance for fields like biology, chemistry, and crowd management, where ions, microparticles, pedestrians, or other particles are driven in opposite directions through constrictions.

  12. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Yoon Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain.

  13. Fatal attraction: the intuitive appeal of GMO opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Jaeger, Geert; Braeckman, Johan; Van Montagu, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Public opposition to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains strong. By contrast, studies demonstrate again and again that GM crops make a valuable contribution to the development of a sustainable type of agriculture. The discrepancy between public opinion and the scientific evidence requires an explanation. We argue that intuitive expectations about the world render the human mind vulnerable to particular misrepresentations of GMOs. We explain how the involvement of particular intuitions accounts for the popularity, persistence, and typical features of GM opposition and tackle possible objections to our approach. To conclude, we discuss the implications for science education, science communication, and the environmental movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Receptivity to sexual invitations from strangers of the opposite gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Hogh-Olesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the primary conclusion from Clark and Hatfield's often cited field experiment ``Consent to Sex with a Stranger'' that men agree to sexual invitations from moderately attractive strangers of the opposite gender more readily than women do. In addition, this study investigated...... whether rates of consent are influenced by a subject's age, relationship status, rating of confederate attractiveness, and type of sexual invitation. A number of moderately attractive confederates of the opposite gender individually approached 173 men and 216 women. After a standard introduction...

  15. Peculiarities of functioning of opposition political parties in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Malyavin

    2017-07-01

    It has been proven that the political opposition does not take into account the mentality of Russians, their aspiration not to the mild model of Western democracy but to the host leader, the defender of the Motherland from external threat. Whereas, the ruling elite and its leader successfully and effectively implement this image in practice, and despite the deterioration of economic indicators, they get the support among the population. Consequently, the political opposition of Russia is immature and primary controlled by the current government.

  16. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun; Cha, Yoon Ki

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain

  17. Grey Wisdom? : Philosophical Reflections on Conformity and Opposition between Generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Ernst; Goor, van Roel

    2006-01-01

    Should 'new' generations act in conformity with, or in opposition to 'older' generations? This can be regarded as a central question in the philosophical study of education. This question has practical implications. Should it be our main concern to initiate children into our traditions, or should we

  18. Challenging Social Hierarchy: Playing with Oppositional Identities in Family Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Shoraka, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how bilingual family members use language choice and language alternation as a local scheme of interpretation to distinguish different and often contesting social identities in interaction. It is argued that the playful creation of oppositional identities in interaction relieves the speakers from responsibility and creates a…

  19. Dynamic force spectroscopy of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, E.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Gucht, van der J.

    2010-01-01

    Ion pairing is the main driving force in the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes, which find widespread use in micellar assemblies, drug carriers, and coatings. In this paper we examine the actual ion pairing forces in a polyelectrolyte complex between two oppositely charged polyelectrolyte

  20. Colloids from oppositely charged polymers: reversibility and surface activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofs, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns the formation, solution properties, and adsorption of polyelectrolyte complexes composed of at least one diblock copolymer with a neutral and a charged block and either an oppositely charged homopolyelectrolyte or a diblock copolymer, with a neutral

  1. Will the Real Tunisian Opposition Please Stand Up?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Cavatorta, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This contribution examines the reasons behind the failure of Tunisia’s opposition to forge effective coordination and collaborative links during Ben Ali’s reign, focusing specifically on the inability and unwillingness of political parties to act in concert in order to challenge his auth...

  2. Paired fuzzy sets and other opposite-based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Gómez, Daniel; Tinguaro Rodríguez, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we stress the relevance of those fuzzy models that impose a couple of simultaneous views in order to represent concepts. In particular, we point out that the basic model to start with should contain at least two somehow opposite valuations plus a number of neutral concepts that are ...

  3. Assassinating political opposition: An "Albatross" and aberration-the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logicians, though they are not mathematicians, do challenge mathematicians to prove that one plus one is equal to two; so also it appeals to governance and especially the democratic system, where the judiciary and legislature act as watch dogs to the executive; so is the opposition party to the ruling party. This is what the ...

  4. Opposition to nuclear power: a review of international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrey, J; Huggett, C

    1976-12-01

    This paper examines the rise of opposition to nuclear power in the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Sweden, and Japan. It explores the course that opposition has taken, the issues on which it has focused, the factors that have influenced it, and the problems it poses for public decision making. Opinions differ about the causes of nuclear opposition. Indeed, it is probable that a variety of factors have contributed, including cultural and political values regarding continued economic and energy growth and fears of deliberate large-scale violence with the spread of radioactive materials, the protest movements against nuclear weapons testing, the upsurge in environmental concern in the 1960s, the movement towards greater social responsibility in science, and a growing distrust of ''the Establishment''--particularly in the USA because of Watergate. The upsurge in concern was reflected in greater attention to environmental matters in the mass media, schools, universities, and the international agencies. It is important to recognize that this concern cuts across conventional left-right divisions of politics. Radicals, communists, and conservatives can be found among both the proponents and the critics. These difficulties facing the policy maker are accentuated by the amorphous nature both of the opposition and the issues which have received attention and by the evidence of many opinion surveys: that more people are in favor of nuclear power than oppose it, but the majority are uncertain and do not understand the issues. For purposes of analysis it is useful to distinguish between three types of opposition--nuclear-specific, site-specific, and that related to planning and consent procedures. (MCW)

  5. Treatment of Moderately Intellectually Disabled Delinquent Youth in a Dutch Juvenile Justice Facility with Closed and Open Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewijks, Henny P. B.

    2011-01-01

    This article will focus on a juvenile justice facility in the Netherlands, targeted at moderately intellectually disabled juveniles, who are sentenced because of serious crimes. All of the juveniles have a disruptive disorder (conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder) and 70% have comorbid psychiatric classifications. Treatment amounts to…

  6. Stability and Change of ODD, CD and ADHD Diagnosis in Referred Preschool Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, Tessa L.; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim

  7. A Common Genetic Factor Explains the Covariation among ADHD ODD and CD Symptoms in 9-10 Year Old Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Zheng, Mo; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies examining the covariation among Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) have yielded inconsistent results. Some studies have concluded that the covariation among these symptoms is due to common genetic influences, whereas others have found a common…

  8. Which Better Predicts Conduct Problems? The Relationship of Trajectories of Conduct Problems with ODD and ADHD Symptoms from Childhood into Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Pol A. C.; van der Ende, Jan; Koot, Hans M.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: To assess the co-occurrence in deviant trajectories of parent-rated symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from age 4 to 18 years old in a general population sample of Dutch children. Methods: Developmental trajectories of CD, ODD, and ADHD were…

  9. Comorbidity of Anxiety and Conduct Problems in Children: Implications for Clinical Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Given the relative lack of research on the comorbidity of anxiety disorders (ADs) and conduct problems (oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder) in youth, we examine this comorbidity from both basic and applied perspectives. First, we review the concept of comorbidity and provide a framework for understanding issues pertaining to…

  10. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if…

  11. Callous-unemotional traits, proactive aggression, and treatment outcomes of aggressive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blader, Joseph C; Pliszka, Steven R; Kafantaris, Vivian; Foley, Carmel A; Crowell, Judith A; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Sauder, Colin L; Margulies, David M; Sinha, Christa; Sverd, Jeffrey; Matthews, Thomas L; Bailey, Brigitte Y; Daviss, W Burleson

    2013-12-01

    Stimulant treatment improves impulse control among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Decreased aggression often accompanies stimulant pharmacotherapy, suggesting that impulsiveness is integral to aggressive behavior in these children. However, children with high callous-unemotional (CU) traits and proactive aggression may benefit less from ADHD pharmacotherapy, because their aggressive behavior seems more purposeful and deliberate. This study's objective was to determine whether pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression affect treatment outcomes among aggressive children with ADHD receiving stimulant monotherapy. We implemented a stimulant optimization protocol with 160 children 6 to 13 years of age (mean [SD] age of 9.31 [2.02] years; 78.75% male) with ADHD, oppositional defiant or conduct disorder, and significant aggressive behavior. Family-focused behavioral intervention was provided concurrently. The primary outcome was the Retrospective Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Aggression Scale, also completed by parents, measured CU traits and proactive aggression, respectively. Analyses examined moderating effects of CU traits and proactive aggression on outcomes. In all, 82 children (51%) experienced remission of aggressive behavior. Neither CU traits nor proactive aggression predicted remission (CU traits: odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.80-1.11; proactive aggression, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.86-1.29). Children whose overall aggression remitted showed decreases in CU traits (effect size = -0.379, 95% CI = -0.60 to -0.16) and proactive aggression (effect size = -0.463, 95% CI = -0.69 to -0.23). Findings suggest that pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression do not forecast worse outcomes for aggressive children with ADHD receiving optimized stimulant pharmacotherapy. With such treatment, CU traits and proactive aggression may decline alongside other behavioral improvements

  12. Six months methylphenidate treatment improves emotion dysregulation in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzer Gamli I

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ipek Suzer Gamli,1 Aysegul Yolga Tahiroglu2 1Sanliurfa Education and Research Hospital, Eyyubiye, Sanliurfa, Turkey; 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Cukurova University School of Medicine, Saricam, Adana, Turkey Purpose: Individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD may suffer from emotional dysregulation (ED, although this symptom is not listed among the diagnostic criteria. Methylphenidate (MPH is useful in reducing emotional symptoms in ADHD. The aim of the present study was to determine both psychosocial risk factors and presence of ED in adolescents with ADHD before and after MPH treatment. Participants and methods: Eighty-two patients aged 12–18 years with ADHD were included as participants. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, sociodemographic form, and the Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury were administered. Results were compared before and after 6 months MPH treatment. Results: A significant improvement was detected on DERS for impulsivity (15.9±6.8 initial vs 14.2±6.5 final test, p<0.01 and total score (88.4±23.3 initial vs 82.4±2.7 final test, p<0.05 across all patients taking MPH regardless of subtype and sex. Despite treatment, a significant difference remained for impulsivity, strategies, and total score in patients with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD compared with those without ODD, but no difference was detected for conduct disorder comorbidity. In patients who self-harm, scores for goals, impulsivity, strategies, clarity, and total score were higher before treatment: furthermore, impulsivity and total score remained high after treatment. In maltreated patients, goals, impulsivity, strategies, and total scores were significantly higher before treatment; however, their symptoms were ameliorated after treatment with MPH. Conclusion: Individuals with

  13. EDITORIAL: Opposites attract: nanomagnetism in theory and practice Opposites attract: nanomagnetism in theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-09-01

    authors describe the system in terms of a magnetic monopole—a notorious theoretical element yet to make the transition to experimental observations. Yet the description works well and as the authors claim, 'The magnetic resolution comes remarkably close to the maximum reported value and can still be improved by choosing iron-filled carbon nanotubes with optimized dimensions'. Artificial atoms, or superatoms, were used in the 1970s as theoretical constructs to investigate molecular structures [6]. Later studies of fullerenes [7, 8] and then other semiconductor artificial atom systems [9] rooted the concept firmly in experimental physics. The electronic behavior in these systems has inspired some fascinating technological developments [10]. Artificial atom quantum dots are small enough to be considered zero-dimensional, giving rise to quantum confinement effects: electrons added to quantum dots occupy discrete quantum levels, and spin-paired electrons can produce spin-zero electron states. The systems have demonstrated great promise for potential qubits for quantum computers. Silicon has a number of advantages for these applications including scalability and long spin coherence times. However, progress has been hindered in practice by difficulties in creating devices with sufficiently low disorder particularly at the Si/SiO2 interface. Researchers at the University of New South Wales in Australia have overcome these fabrication challenges and demonstrated a low-disorder silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot where the number of electrons can be tuned between 0 and 27 [11]. In this issue R-G Dengel, A Frey, K Brunner, C Gould and L W Molenkamp from Universität Würzburg in Germany create magnetic artificial atoms by replacing the traditionally used GaAs-based heterostructure with a ZnSe-based system where doping the quantum well with Mn gives it magnetic properties [1]. As they point out, 'From the fabrication point of view, three technical issues make this

  14. Concerns Expressed by Parents of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders for Different Time Periods of the Day: A Case–Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshinori; Usami, Masahide; Sasayama, Daimei; Okada, Takashi; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Kyota; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Maiko; Tanaka, Hiromi; Kodaira, Masaki; Sugiyama, Nobuhiro; Sawa, Tetsuji; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim The Questionnaire: Children with Difficulties (QCD) is a parent-assessed questionnaire designed to evaluate child’s difficulties in functioning during specific periods of the day. This study aimed to evaluate difficulties in daily functioning of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) using the QCD. Results were compared with those for a community sample. Methods A case–control design was used. The cases comprised elementary school students (182 males, 51 females) and junior high school students (100 males, 39 females) with PDD, whereas a community sample of elementary school students (568 males, 579 females) and junior high school students (180 males, 183 females) was enrolled as controls. Their behavior was assessed using the QCD, the Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS), the ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS), and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI) for elementary and junior high school students, respectively. Effects of gender and diagnosis on the QCD scores were analyzed. Correlation coefficients between QCD and TABS, ADHD-RS, and ODBI scores were analyzed. Results The QCD scores for the children with PDD were significantly lower compared with those from the community sample (P < 0.001). Significantly strong correlations were observed in more areas of the ADHD-RS and ODBI scores compared with the TABS scores. Conclusions Children with PDD experienced greater difficulties in completing basic daily activities; moreover, their QCD scores revealed stronger associations with their ADHD-RS and ODBI scores in comparison with their TABS scores. The difficulties of PDD, ADHD and OBDI symptoms combined in children makes it necessary to assess all diagnoses before any therapy for PDD is initiated in order to be able to evaluate its results properly. PMID:25898260

  15. Anorexia and bulimia nervosa in same-sex and opposite-sex twins: lack of association with twin type in a nationwide study of Finnish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hoek, Hans W; Sihvola, Elina; Rissanen, Aila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2008-12-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that either prenatal feminization or masculinization hormone influences in utero or later socialization affects the risk for anorexia and bulimia nervosa and disordered eating in members of opposite-sex twin pairs. Finnish twins (N=2,426 women, N=1,962 men with known zygosity) from birth cohorts born 1974-1979 were assessed at age 22 to 28 years with a questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms. Based on the questionnaire screen, women (N=292), men (N=53), and their cotwins were interviewed to assess diagnoses of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (per DSM-IV and broad criteria). In women from opposite-sex twin pairs, the prevalence of DSM-IV or broad anorexia nervosa was not significantly different than that of women from monozygotic pairs or same-sex dizygotic pairs. Of the five male anorexia nervosa probands, only one was from an opposite-sex twin pair. Bulimia nervosa in men was too rare to be assessed by zygosity; the prevalence of DSM-IV or broad bulimia nervosa did not differ in women from opposite- versus same-sex twin pairs. In both sexes, the overall profile of indicators on eating disorders was rather similar between individuals from opposite- and same-sex pairs. The authors found little evidence that the risk for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or disordered eating was associated with zygosity or sex composition of twin pairs, thus making it unlikely that in utero femininization or masculinization or socialization effects of growing up with an opposite-sex twin have a major influence on the later development of eating disorders.

  16. Two opposite hysteresis curves in semiconductors with mobile dopants

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Shin Buhm; Kahng, Byungnam; Noh, Tae Won

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental researches on semiconductors with mobile dopants (SMD) have reported unconventional hysteretic current-voltage (I-V) curves, which form dynamically in either one of the two opposite directions, the counter-figure-eight and figure-eight ways. However the fundamental theory for the formation of the two directions is still absent, and this poses a major barrier for researches oriented to applications. Here, we introduce a theoretical model to explain the origin of the two dir...

  17. Examining ISIS Support and Opposition Networks on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Examining ISIS Support and Opposition Networks on Twitter Elizabeth Bodine-Baron, Todd C. Helmus, Madeline Magnuson, Zev Winkelman C O R P O R A T...Syria (ISIS), like no other terrorist organization before, has used Twitter and other social media channels to broadcast its message, inspire followers...and recruit new fighters. Though much less heralded, ISIS opponents have also taken to Twitter to cas- tigate the ISIS message. This report draws on

  18. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulty being comforted preoccupied and/or defiant behavior inhibition or hesitancy in social interactions being too close ... donating to the Campaign for America’s Kids . Your support will help us continue to produce and distribute ...

  19. Parent ratings of executive function in young preschool children with symptoms of attention-deficit/-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogan, Annette Holth; Zeiner, Pål; Egeland, Jens; Urnes, Anne-Grethe; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Aase, Heidi

    2015-04-15

    Recent research has demonstrated that deficits in basic, self-regulatory processes, or executive function (EF), may be related to symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) already during the preschool period. As the majority of studies investigating these relations in young children have been based primarily on clinically administered tests, it is not clear how early symptoms of ADHD may be related to observations of EF in an everyday context. The preschool version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-P) was developed to provide information about EF through observable, behavioral manifestations of self-regulation, and is the most commonly used rating scale for EF assessment in children. Relations between symptoms of ADHD reported in the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview (PAPA), and EF as measured by the BRIEF-P (parent form), were investigated in a large, nonreferred sample of preschool children (37-47 months, n = 1134) recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The inventory's discriminative ability was examined in a subsample consisting of children who met the diagnostic criteria for either ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or anxiety disorder, and typically developing controls (n = 308). The four groups were also compared with regard to patterns of EF difficulties reported in the BRIEF-P. Of the five BRIEF-P subscales, Inhibit and Working Memory were the two most closely related to ADHD symptoms, together explaining 38.5% of the variance in PAPA symptom ratings. Based on their scores on the Inhibit and Working Memory subscales (combined), 86.4% of the children in the ADHD and TD groups were correctly classified. ADHD symptoms were associated with more severe difficulties across EF domains, and a different EF profile in comparison to children with other symptoms (anxiety, ODD) and to typically developing controls. Early

  20. Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa in Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Twins : Lack of Association With Twin Type in a Nationwide Study of Finnish Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hoek, Hans W.; Sihvola, Elina; Rissanen, Aila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors tested the hypothesis that either prenatal feminization or masculinization hormone influences in utero or later socialization affects the risk for anorexia and bulimia nervosa and disordered eating in members of opposite-sex twin pairs. Method: Finnish twins (N=2,426 women,

  1. Consolidity: Moving opposite to built-as-usual systems practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the recent uncovering of the mystery of consolidity as an inner property of systems, it is demonstrated that this notion is an indispensable pillar of systems modeling, analysis, design and building. Based on the opposite mathematical relation between consolidity versus stability and controllability, a new conceptual life cycle (change pathway graph for natural and man-made built-as-usual systems is presented and thoroughly discussed. For the conceptual cycle development progress, it is logically conceived that system behavior changes rate has not accidentally happened, but is relatively influenced at the point of progress by the associated direct system consolidity index corresponding to the acting on-the-spot varying environments or effects. Such conceptual graph represents a real research advancement indicating that we have to move opposite to current systems building practices for solving many real life enigmatic problems. It is illustrated using stabilization of inverted pendulum problem that it is amenable by cleverly manipulating systems structure and parameters to attain new designed systems with aggregates of superiority of consolidity, stability and controllability principle. It is recommended that we have to seek new generation of innovative non-conventional systems structures moving opposite to conventional built-as-usual system practices that can enable providing directly such three aggregates of superiority requirements as their built-in self property. This will open the door towards solving many real life challenging dilemmas in various sciences and disciplines, such as engineering, space sciences, medicine, pharmacology, biology, ecology, life sciences, economy, operations research, humanities and social sciences that are believed to be attributed due to their systems inferior consolidity.

  2. Paired structures and other opposite-based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    , that we will assume dependent on a specific negation, previously determined. In this way we can define a paired fuzzy set as a couple of opposite valuation fuzzy sets. Then we shall explore what kind of new valuation fuzzy sets can be generated from the semantic tension between those two poles, leading...... to a more complex valuation structure that still keeps the essence of being paired. In this way several neutral fuzzy sets can appear, in particular indeterminacy, ambivalence and conflict. Two consequences are then presented: on one hand, we will show how Atanassov´s Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets can be viewed...

  3. Clinical Utility of Vanderbilt Adhd Parent Rating Scale for Comorbidity in Children with Tic Disorder%V anderbilt 父母评定量表在儿童抽动障碍共患病诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖智辉; 周克英; 陈言钊

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate the diagnostic value of Vanderbilt parent ADHD rating scale (VAD‐PRS) for comorbidities in children with tic disorder (TD) .[Methods] VADPRS was used for screening co‐morbidities in 136 children during a second visit in 2 weeks .And TD was diagnosed during the first visit .The DSM‐Ⅳ standard was used for confirming the diagnosis and the diagnostic differences of comorbidities between two visits were compared .[Results]VADPRS in 136 children with TD showed that there were 71(52 .21% ) children with co‐morbid ADHD ,43(31 .62% )oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and 29(21 .32% )emotional disorders (ED) .And the differences were significant compared with comorbidities diagnosed during the first visit (χ2 =16 .672 ,P 0 .05) .The VADPRS performance part showed that significant difference existed in to‐tal impairment score .[Conclusion] VADPRS is helpful for the diagnosis of comorbidities in TD children .%【目的】探讨儿童抽动障碍(T D )共患病的诊断方法。【方法】对136例初诊为T D于2周内复诊的患儿,先采用Vanderbilt父母评定量表(Vanderbilt ADHD Parent Rating Scale ,VADPRS)进行共患病筛查,然后用DSM‐Ⅳ标准确定诊断,观察其共患病漏诊情况。【结果】136例TD患儿VADPRS筛查显示:共患注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorders ,ADHD)占52.21%(71/136)、对立违抗性障碍(opposi‐tional defiant disorder ,ODD)占31.62%(43/136)、情绪障碍(emotional disorders ,ED)占21.32%(29/136),与初次诊断结果差异有显著性(χ2=16.672,P <0.05;χ2=8.002,P <0.05;χ2=10.806,P <0.05)。共患品行障碍(conduct disorder ,CD)占17.65%(24/136),与初次诊断结果差异无显著性(χ2=2.425,P >0.05)。量表筛查结果与按DSM‐Ⅳ标准确定诊断差异无显著性。量表表现部分结果显示:有共

  4. Opposite brain laterality in analogous auditory and visual tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltedal, Leif; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2017-11-01

    Laterality for language processing can be assessed by auditory and visual tasks. Typically, a right ear/right visual half-field (VHF) advantage is observed, reflecting left-hemispheric lateralization for language. Historically, auditory tasks have shown more consistent and reliable results when compared to VHF tasks. While few studies have compared analogous tasks applied to both sensory modalities for the same participants, one such study by Voyer and Boudreau [(2003). Cross-modal correlation of auditory and visual language laterality tasks: a serendipitous finding. Brain Cogn, 53(2), 393-397] found opposite laterality for visual and auditory language tasks. We adapted an experimental paradigm based on a dichotic listening and VHF approach, and applied the combined language paradigm in two separate experiments, including fMRI in the second experiment to measure brain activation in addition to behavioural data. The first experiment showed a right-ear advantage for the auditory task, but a left half-field advantage for the visual task. The second experiment, confirmed the findings, with opposite laterality effects for the visual and auditory tasks. In conclusion, we replicate the finding by Voyer and Boudreau (2003) and support their interpretation that these visual and auditory language tasks measure different cognitive processes.

  5. Emerging and continuing trends in vaccine opposition website content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Sandra J

    2011-02-24

    Anti-vaccination websites appeal to persons searching the Internet for vaccine information that reinforces their predilection to avoid vaccination for themselves or their children. Few published studies have systematically examined these sites. The aim of this study was to employ content analysis as a useful tool for examining and comparing anti-vaccination websites for recurring and changing emphases in content, design, and credibility themes since earlier anti-vaccination website content analyses were conducted. Between February and May 2010, using a commonly available search engine followed by a deep web search, 25 websites that contained anti-vaccination content were reviewed and analyzed for 24 content, 14 design, and 13 credibility attributes. Although several content claims remained similar to earlier analyses, two new themes emerged: (1) the 2009 H1N1 epidemic threat was "manufactured," and (2) the increasing presence of so-called "expert" testimony in opposing vaccination. Anti-vaccination websites are constantly changing in response to the trends in public health and the success of vaccination. Monitoring the changes can permit public health workers to mount programs more quickly to counter the opposition arguments. Additionally, opposition claims commonly appeal to emotions whereas the supporting claims appeal to reason. Effective vaccine support may be better served by including more emotionally compelling content. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Moscow and St. Petersburgpsychological schools: from opposition to friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Allakhverdov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to summarize the interaction of the two largest schools of psychology in Russia: the psychological schools of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The paper is a sketch dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the psychological faculties of Moscow and St. Petersburg, and should not be appreciated as a historical treatise. Tense ties between the psychological schools, that originate in the distant past, have gone through different historical stages. Slavophilevs Westernizer traditions affected the initial difference in these schoolsemerging into the opposition: either the human being is studied entirety with his/her vast subjective experience, but losing the reliability of our statements (peculiarity of Moscow school, or we study the human being accurately using objective methods, but losing the integrity of our ideas (peculiarity of St.-Petersburg school. Both psychological schools, having gone through the ups and downs, have retained their identity and their emphasis on research. Moscow scholars in their studies are aimed to larger issues and still rely on large-scale Vygotsky-Leontiev approach. Scholars of St.-Petersburgtouch upon more specific issues using empirical methods, but still continue with nostalgia and hope making plans about creating a common concept of human individual according to Ananiev. Nowadays between the two schools there is no opposition, but only one mutual love.

  7. The parakeet protectors: Understanding opposition to introduced species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Sarah L; Hinchliffe, Steve; McDonald, Robbie A

    2018-01-02

    The surveillance and control of introduced and invasive species has become an increasingly important component of environmental management. However, initiatives targeting 'charismatic' wildlife can be controversial. Opposition to management, and the subsequent emergence of social conflict, present significant challenges for would-be managers. Understanding the substance and development of these disputes is therefore vital for improving the legitimacy and effectiveness of wildlife management. It also provides important insights into human-wildlife relations and the 'social dimensions' of wildlife management. Here, we examine how the attempted eradication of small populations of introduced monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) from England has been challenged and delayed by opposition from interested and affected communities. We consider how and why the UK Government's eradication initiative was opposed, focusing on three key themes: disagreements about justifying management, the development of affective attachments between people and parakeets, and the influence of distrustful and antagonistic relationships between proponents and opponents of management. We draw connections between our UK case and previous management disputes, primarily in the USA, and suggest that the resistance encountered in the UK might readily have been foreseen. We conclude by considering how management of this and other introduced species could be made less conflict-prone, and potentially more effective, by reconfiguring management approaches to be more anticipatory, flexible, sensitive, and inclusive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Community vs. Clinic-Based Modular Treatment of Children with Early-Onset ODD or CD: A Clinical Trial with 3-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Pardini, Dustin; Holden, Elizabeth A.; Hart, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the treatment outcomes of 139, 6-11 year-old, clinically referred boys and girls diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) or Conduct Disorder (CD) who were randomly assigned to a modular-based treatment protocol that was applied by research study clinicians either in the community (COMM) or a clinic office (CLINIC).…

  9. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  10. Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female…

  11. I I I I I I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deficit hyperacti- vity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Parent-child probleIDs were also very prevalent. While a variety of therapeutic IDodalities were. eIDployed, behavioural IDanageIDent for=ed the. IDainstay of the treatIDent ...

  12. The Comorbidity of ADHD in the General Population of Saudi Arabian School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate comorbidity of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), anxiety, and depression and to investigate the impaired social and academic developments among children with ADHD in primary school settings in Saudi Arabia. Method: Data for the purpose of this study are obtained from parent and teachers of 652…

  13. Pharmacological Management of Treatment-Induced Insomnia in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Lake, Marybeth; Pliszka, Steven R.; Walkup, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined subtype, and oppositional defiant disorder presents with a complaint of marked insomnia. Her parents describe 60 to 90 minutes of nightly initial insomnia that began with the initiation of 36 mg OROS methylphenidate (Concerta) 2 months ago. Behavioral interventions…

  14. A randomized controlled pilot study into the effects of a restricted elimination diet on family structure in families with ADHD and ODD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, L.M.; Steijn, van D.J.; Frankena, K.; Toorman, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural improvements of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) following a restricted elimination diet (RED), may be due to concurrent changes in family environment. Methods: Twenty-four children with ADHD, were randomized to either

  15. Transported Versus Homegrown Parenting Interventions for Reducing Disruptive Child Behavior : A Multilevel Meta-Regression Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Melendez-Torres, G.J.; Knerr, W.; Gardner, F.

    OBJECTIVE: Children's disruptive behavior problems place children at high risk for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and carry a high burden for individuals and society. Policy makers and service providers aiming to reduce children's disruptive behavior problems must often choose

  16. Augmented Self-Modeling as an Intervention for Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Byer-Alcorace, Gabriel F.; Theodore, Lea A.; Kovac, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Selective mutism is a rare disorder that is difficult to treat. It is often associated with oppositional defiant behavior, particularly in the home setting, social phobia, and, at times, autism spectrum disorder characteristics. The augmented self-modeling treatment has been relatively successful in promoting rapid diminishment of selective mutism…

  17. Testing Developmental Pathways to Antisocial Personality Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the development of antisocial personality problems (APP) in young adulthood from disruptive behaviors and internalizing problems in childhood and adolescence. Parent ratings of 507 children's (aged 6-8 years) symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and anxiety, were linked to…

  18. Encopresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Starting toilet training when the child was too young Emotional problems, such as oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder Whatever the cause, the child may feel shame, guilt, or low self-esteem, and may hide signs of encopresis. Factors that ...

  19. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7–9-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, Muirne; Haraldsen, Ira R.; Breivik, Kyrre; Butcher, Phillipa R.; Hellem, Froydis M.; Stormark, Kjell M.

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between

  20. One-Year Follow-Up of Combined Parent and Child Intervention for Young Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    Efficacies of the Incredible Years (IY) interventions are well-established in children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) but not among those with a primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to evaluate 1-year follow-up outcomes among young children with ADHD who were treated with the IY interventions.…

  1. Social Information Processing of Positive and Negative Hypothetical Events in Children with ADHD and Conduct Problems and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Brendan F.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Doucet, Amelie; King, Sara; MacKinnon, Maura; McGrath, Patrick J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Corkum, Penny

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined social information processing (SIP) of events with varied outcomes in children with ADHD and conduct problems (CPs; defined as oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD]) and controls. Method: Participants were 64 children (46 boys, 18 girls) aged 6 to 12, including 39 with ADHD and 25 controls.…

  2. The Structure of Childhood Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica; Roberts, Bethan; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) frequently co-occur. Comorbidity of these 2 childhood disruptive behavior domains has not been satisfactorily explained at either a structural or etiological level. The current study evaluated a bifactor model, which allows for a "g" factor in addition to…

  3. Physical properties of the Saturn's rings with the opposition effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deau, E.

    2012-04-01

    We use the Cassini/ISS images from the early prime mission to build lit phase curves data from 0.01 degrees to 155 degrees at a solar elevation of 23-20 degrees. All the main rings exhibit on their phase curves a prominent surge at small phase angles. We use various opposition effect models to explain the opposition surge of the rings, including the coherent backscattering, the shadow hiding and a combination of the two (Kawata & Irvine 1974 In: Exploration of the planetary system Book p441; Shkuratov et al. 1999, Icarus, 141, p132; Poulet et al. 2002 Icarus, 158, p224 ; Hapke et al. 2002 Icarus, 157, p523). Our results show that either the coherent backscattering alone or a combination of the shadow hiding and the coherent backscattering can explain the observations providing physical properties (albedo, filling factor, grain size) consistent with previous other studies. However, they disagree with the most recent work of Degiorgio et al. 2011 (EPSC-DPS Abstract #732). We think that their attempt to use the shadow hiding alone lead to unrealistic values of the filling factor of the ring particles layer. For example they found 10^-3 in one of the thickest regions of the C ring (a plateau at R=88439km with an optical depth tau=0.22). We totally disagree with their conclusions stating that these values are consistent for the C ring plateaux and did not found any references that are consistent with theirs, as they claimed. We believe that their unrealistic values originated from the assumptions of the models they used (Kawata & Irvine and Hapke), which are basically an uniform size distribution. Any model using an uniform size distribution force the medium to be very diluted to reproduce the opposition surge. Our modeling that uses a power law size distribution provides realistic values. All these results have been already published previously (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........25D) and are summarized in a forthcoming manuscript submitted to publication so

  4. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Mingtian; Li, Baohui; Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai

    2015-01-01

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG) 5 /(KGKG) 5 , (EEGG) 5 /(KKGG) 5 , and (EEGG) 5 /(KGKG) 5 , in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order of the apparent weight

  5. The problem of social opposition to industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malocchi, Andrea

    1996-01-01

    The problem of social opposition to the localization, construction and operation of industrial plants is a major social issue in many industrialized countries where environmental consciousness has rooted deeply in society. This paper proposes a general model for the analysis of the social conflict against the localization and operation of industrial plants. The paper investigates the difference between the 'risk analysis' approach and the 'social acceptability' approach in order to demonstrate the major influence of information and communication between industry and society on social consensus (rather than ordinary technological and environmental factors). In a second part the paper analyses a limit of social acceptability approach highlighting the role of environmental NGO's in the promotion and diffusion of the social protest. As a result of the analysis, a general model for the management of social consensus by companies and public authorities is provided

  6. Speciation and gene flow between snails of opposite chirality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Davison

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in snails is intriguing because individuals of opposite chirality are either unable to mate or can only mate with difficulty, so could be reproductively isolated from each other. We have therefore investigated chiral evolution in the Japanese land snail genus Euhadra to understand whether changes in chirality have promoted speciation. In particular, we aimed to understand the effect of the maternal inheritance of chirality on reproductive isolation and gene flow. We found that the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of Euhadra is consistent with a single, relatively ancient evolution of sinistral species and suggests either recent "single-gene speciation" or gene flow between chiral morphs that are unable to mate. To clarify the conditions under which new chiral morphs might evolve and whether single-gene speciation can occur, we developed a mathematical model that is relevant to any maternal-effect gene. The model shows that reproductive character displacement can promote the evolution of new chiral morphs, tending to counteract the positive frequency-dependent selection that would otherwise drive the more common chiral morph to fixation. This therefore suggests a general mechanism as to how chiral variation arises in snails. In populations that contain both chiral morphs, two different situations are then possible. In the first, gene flow is substantial between morphs even without interchiral mating, because of the maternal inheritance of chirality. In the second, reproductive isolation is possible but unstable, and will also lead to gene flow if intrachiral matings occasionally produce offspring with the opposite chirality. Together, the results imply that speciation by chiral reversal is only meaningful in the context of a complex biogeographical process, and so must usually involve other factors. In order to understand the roles of reproductive character displacement and gene flow in the chiral evolution of Euhadra, it will be

  7. Continuity of aggressive antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood: The question of phenotype definition.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofvander, Björn; Ossowski, Daniel; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to clarify the adult phenotype of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), the empirical literature on its childhood background among the disruptive behaviour disorders, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), or hyperkinetic conduct disorder (HKCD), was reviewed according to the Robins and Guze criteria for nosological validity. At least half of hyperactive children develop ODD and about a third CD (i.e. AD/H...

  8. Is There an Oppositional Culture among Immigrant Adolescents in the Netherlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tubergen, Frank; van Gaans, Milou

    2016-01-01

    This study examines oppositional culture among immigrant and majority adolescents in the Netherlands. Oppositional culture theory expects that immigrant adolescents would uphold positive attitudes towards education. The social exclusion theory predicts instead that immigrant adolescents develop an oppositional culture, particularly in ethnically…

  9. Opposite effects of ketamine and deep brain stimulation on rat thalamocortical information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Sofya P; Tolmacheva, Elena A; Anderson, Paul; Gaudias, Julien; Adams, Brendan E; Zheng, Thomas; Pinault, Didier

    2012-11-01

    Sensory and cognitive deficits are common in schizophrenia. They are associated with abnormal brain rhythms, including disturbances in γ frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations (GFO) in cortex-related networks. However, the underlying anatomofunctional mechanisms remain elusive. Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that these deficits result from a hyporegulation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Here we modeled these deficits in rats with ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist and a translational psychotomimetic substance at subanesthetic doses. We tested the hypothesis that ketamine-induced sensory deficits involve an impairment of the ability of the thalamocortical (TC) system to discriminate the relevant information from the baseline activity. Furthermore, we wanted to assess whether ketamine disrupts synaptic plasticity in TC systems. We conducted multisite network recordings in the rat somatosensory TC system, natural stimulation of the vibrissae and high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the thalamus. A single systemic injection of ketamine increased the amount of baseline GFO, reduced the amplitude of the sensory-evoked TC response and decreased the power of the sensory-evoked GFO. Furthermore, cortical application of ketamine elicited local and distant increases in baseline GFO. The ketamine effects were transient. Unexpectedly, HFS of the TC pathway had opposite actions. In conclusion, ketamine and thalamic HFS have opposite effects on the ability of the somatosensory TC system to discriminate the sensory-evoked response from the baseline GFO during information processing. Investigating the link between the state and function of the TC system may conceptually be a key strategy to design innovative therapies against neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Comorbidades do transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade em crianças escolares Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity in a school sample of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne de Aguiar Possa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência de transtorno de conduta (TC, transtorno desafiador opositivo (TDO e transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC em crianças com transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH. MÉTODO: Estudo realizado em crianças de 7 a 11 anos com TDAH conforme critérios do DSM-IV (n=35, exame neurológico normal e exame neurológico evolutivo (ENE segundo Lefèvre alterado. Os responsáveis responderam a questionários contendo os critérios do DSM-IV para TDAH e para comorbidades. RESULTADOS: TDAH do tipo combinado foi o mais prevalente (51,4%. Quatorze crianças (40,0% apresentaram TC, incluindo duas que apresentaram TC e TOC. Cinco (14,2% apresentaram apenas TDO e uma (2,8% apresentou apenas TOC. Onze das quatorze crianças (78,5% com TC tinham TDAH do tipo combinado (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of conduct disorder (CD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. METHOD: This study was performed with children between 7 and 11 years old who fit the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria (n=35 to ADHD, normal neurologic examination and abnormal evolutionary neurological examination (ENE by Lefèvre. Parents answered a questionnaire with DSM-IV criteria to ADHD and comorbidities. RESULT: ADHD combined subtype was the most prevalent (51.4%. Fourteen (40% had CD, including two with both CD and OCD. Five (14.2% had only ODD and one (2.8% only OCD. Eleven of fourteen children (78.5% with CD had also ADHD combined subtype, with significant statistical difference (p<0.05. Eleven of fifteen children (73.3% without comorbidity had inattentive or hyperactive subtype (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The frequency of association between CD and ADHD was high, much more in combined subtype.

  11. Using mobile health technology to improve behavioral skill implementation through homework in evidence-based parenting intervention for disruptive behavior disorders in youth: study protocol for intervention development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Isham, Andrew; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) (oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD)) are prevalent, costly, and oftentimes chronic psychiatric disorders of childhood. Evidence-based interventions that focus on assisting parents to utilize effective skills to modify children's problematic behaviors are first-line interventions for the treatment of DBDs. Although efficacious, the effects of these interventions are often attenuated by poor implementation of the skills learned during treatment by parents, often referred to as between-session homework. The multiple family group (MFG) model is an evidence-based, skills-based intervention model for the treatment of DBDs in school-age youth residing in urban, socio-economically disadvantaged communities. While data suggest benefits of MFG on DBD behaviors, similar to other skill-based interventions, the effects of MFG are mitigated by the poor homework implementation, despite considerable efforts to support parents in homework implementation. This paper focuses on the study protocol for the development and preliminary evaluation of a theory-based, smartphone mobile health (mHealth) application (My MFG) to support homework implementation by parents participating in MFG. This paper describes a study design proposal that begins with a theoretical model, uses iterative design processes to develop My MFG to support homework implementation in MFG through a series of pilot studies, and a small-scale pilot randomised controlled trial to determine if the intervention can demonstrate change (preliminary efficacy) of My MFG in outpatient mental health settings in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. This preliminary study aims to understand the implementation of mHealth methods to improve the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions in routine outpatient mental health care settings for youth with disruptive behavior and their families. Developing methods to augment the benefits of evidence

  12. Complexation of Polyelectrolyte Micelles with Oppositely Charged Linear Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogirou, Andreas; Gergidis, Leonidas N; Miliou, Kalliopi; Vlahos, Costas

    2017-03-02

    The formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPECs) from linear AB diblock copolymer precursor micelles and oppositely charged linear homopolymers is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. All beads of the linear polyelectrolyte (C) are charged with elementary quenched charge +1e, whereas in the diblock copolymer only the solvophilic (A) type beads have quenched charge -1e. For the same Bjerrum length, the ratio of positive to negative charges, Z +/- , of the mixture and the relative length of charged moieties r determine the size of IPECs. We found a nonmonotonic variation of the size of the IPECs with Z +/- . For small Z +/- values, the IPECs retain the size of the precursor micelle, whereas at larger Z +/- values the IPECs decrease in size due to the contraction of the corona and then increase as the aggregation number of the micelle increases. The minimum size of the IPECs is obtained at lower Z +/- values when the length of the hydrophilic block of the linear diblock copolymer decreases. The aforementioned findings are in agreement with experimental results. At a smaller Bjerrum length, we obtain the same trends but at even smaller Z +/- values. The linear homopolymer charged units are distributed throughout the corona.

  13. Infrared photometric behavior and opposition effect of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, S.; Bibring, J-P.; Drossart, P.

    1992-01-01

    Although the instrument wasn't designed for this purpose, data from the imaging spectrometer ISM may be used for studying photometric variations of Mars reflectance, that are related to the surface materials and aerosols physical properties. ISM flew aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft which orbited Mars from January to March, 1989. About 40,000 spectra were acquired in 128 channels ranging from 0.76 to 3.16 micro-m, with a spatial resolution of 25 km and a signal-to-noise ratio ranging up to 1000. Analysis of the results leads to the following conclusions: width variations of the opposition surge can be related to differences in porosity or grain size distribution on the various domains, with little or no effect from suspended dust. As the biggest effects are observed on dark and bright materials, intermediate behaviors on average-bright regions cannot result from a mixing process, but are more likely to come from either cementation processes or modification of the grain size distribution under the influence of wind, which under Martian conditions preferentially removes the biggest particles. Thus, a surface dust consisting in big bright and small dark grains could explain the observations.

  14. Dynamic evolution process of turbulent channel flow after opposition control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Mingwei; Tian, De; Yongqian, Liu, E-mail: gmwncepu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources (North China Electric Power University), Beijing102206 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Dynamic evolution of turbulent channel flow after application of opposition control (OC), together with the mechanism of drag reduction, is studied through direct numerical simulation (DNS). In the simulation, the pressure gradient is kept constant, and the flow rate increases due to drag reduction. In the transport of mean kinetic energy (MKE), one part of the energy from the external pressure is dissipated by the mean shear, and the other part is transported to the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) through a TKE production term (TKP). It is found that the increase of MKE is mainly induced by the reduction of TKP that is directly affected by OC. Further analysis shows that the suppression of the redistribution term of TKE in the wall normal direction plays a key role in drag reduction, which represses the wall normal velocity fluctuation and then reduces TKP through the attenuation of its main production term. When OC is suddenly applied, an acute imbalance of energy in space is induced by the wall blowing and suction. Both the skin-friction and TKP terms exhibit a transient growth in the initial phase of OC, which can be attributed to the local effect of 〈 v ′ v ′〉 and 〈− u ′ v ′〉 in the viscous sublayer. (paper)

  15. Opposition to gender-sensitive development. Learning to answer back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwe, S H

    1995-02-01

    Opposition to gender-sensitive development policies can arise within the very development agencies charged with implementing the policies. Agencies may maintain that policies on equality for women are unnecessary because development is concerned with improving welfare in general. This can be refuted by referring to the literature which points out that failure to address the specific needs of women means their exclusion from the development process. Agencies may argue that women's equality is a political rather than a developmental issue. This is countered by the fact that the "Forward-Looking Strategies" define women's development, equality, and empowerment as intertwined processes. Agencies may say that promoting women's equality constitutes undue interference in a country's internal affairs. This is wrong because aid programs should not be supported in countries which do not support women's rights. Agencies may claim that they must work within the existing laws and policies of a developing country. This is partly correct, but the point must be limited because policies and laws may be "given," but they are not fixed. An agency may state that they have no business seeking or promoting change in existing social and customary practices. This is wrong where such practices stand in the way of development and because any development project is by definition a social and economic intervention. Agencies may consider their policy on women an inappropriate imposition of Western ideas. This is wrong because international conventions place a concern for women's rights on a level with a concern for human rights. Finally, agencies may maintain that women in developing countries do not desire equality with men. While it may be true that women accept their subordinate position, this does not offset issues of human rights and equal development. Oppressed women may be very silent; given the opportunity, they generally have a great deal to say.

  16. Postcolonial Powers of Opposition in Octavia Butler’s Kindred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Amer JubouriAl_Ogaili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will examine postcolonial powers of opposition in Octavia Butler’s Kindred (1979; through Homi Bhabha’s concept of ambivalence and Edward Said’s self-other relationship. By using these concepts, this research aims to unravel how the colonized and the colonizer perceive each in the selected works. It will offer an in-depth analysis of the thematic and ideological characteristics of selected works. Thus, the focus will mainly be on the theme of the mutual relationship between the colonized and the colonizer in the selected works. This relationship is specified to the concept of ambivalence. This concept incarnates the dual, yet, uncontrolled relationship between the colonized and the colonizer. Nevertheless, the colonized considers the colonizer as oppressive but an envious power; and the colonizer judges the colonized as inferior but indigenous. The colonial relationship will also be revealed by using the concept of self-other. Such concept scrutinizes the way the colonized and the colonizer perceive and resist each other. Accordingly, the research’s main focus point is the power relationship developed in the light of colonial ambivalence and self-other continuum. The research’s methodology relies on Bhabha’s concept of ambivalence and Edward Said’s self-other relationship.  In The Location of Culture (1994, Bhabha maintains that the concept of ambivalence conveys “the exercise of colonialist authority, however, requires the production of differentiations, individuations, identity effects through which discriminatory practices can map out subject populations that are tarred with the visible and transparent mark of power” (111. Edward Said, in his discussion of self-other relationship in Orientalism (1979, argues that self-other relationship is “the vacillation [inconstancy] between the familiar [self] and the alien [other]” (72.

  17. [Is emotional dysregulation a component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemonteix, T; Purper-Ouakil, D; Romo, L

    2015-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents. It is characterized by age-inappropriate inattention/impulsiveness and/or hyperactivity symptoms. ADHD shows a high comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), a disorder that features symptoms of emotional lability. Due to this comorbidity, emotional lability was long considered a secondary consequence of ADHD, which could arise under the influence of environmental factors such as inefficient parenting practices, as part of an ODD diagnosis. In this model of heterotypic continuity, emotional lability was considered not to play any causal role regarding ADHD symptomatology. As opposed to this view, it is now well established that a large number of children with ADHD and without any comorbid disorder exhibit symptoms of emotional lability. Furthermore, recent studies have found that negative emotionality accounts for significant unique variance in ADHD symptom severity, along with motor-perceptual and executive function deficits. Barkley proposed that ADHD is characterized by deficits of executive functions, and that a deficiency in the executive control of emotions is a necessary component of ADHD. According to this theory, the extent to which an individual with ADHD displays a deficiency in behavioral inhibition is the extent to which he or she will automatically display an equivalent degree of deficiency in emotional inhibition. However, not all children with ADHD exhibit symptoms of emotional lability, and studies have found that the association between emotional lability and ADHD was not mediated by executive function or motivational deficits. Task-based and resting state neuroimaging studies have disclosed an altered effective connectivity between regions dedicated to emotional regulation in children with ADHD when compared to typically developing children, notably between the amygdala, the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus and

  18. Measurement and Structural Invariance of Parent Ratings of ADHD and ODD Symptoms across Gender for American and Malaysian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement (configural, metric, scalar, and residual) and structural (factor variance, factor covariance, and factor means) invariance of parent ratings of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-inattention (ADHD-IN), ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (ADHD-HI), and oppositional defiant disorder…

  19. [Tourette syndrome--in the borderland between neurology and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Henning; Elvén, Bo

    2014-09-23

    Tourette syndrome is a hereditary tic disorder. The symptoms consist of compulsory movements and vocalizations. Stress has an aggravating effect on tics. Unfortunately tics are easily mistaken for oppositional and defiant behavior. Tourette syndrome is most frequently seen with psychiatric comorbidity. Tics are best treated with low arousal techniques, which may be supplemented with pharmacotherapy.

  20. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  1. ADHD Preschoolers with and without ODD: Do They Act Differently Depending on Degree of Task Engagement/Reward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopin, Chaya B.; Berwid, Olga; Marks, David J.; Mlodnicka, Agnieska; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of reinforcement on reaction time (RT) and RT variability (RT standard deviation [RTSD]) in preschoolers with ADHD with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and a typically developing (TD) comparison group. Method: Participants were administered a computerized task consisting of two conditions: simple…

  2. Related factors of early adulthood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%持续到成人早期的注意缺陷多动障碍的相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常卫利; 李岳玲; 钱秋谨; 唐宏宇; 王玉凤

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)持续到成人早期的相关因素.方法:对192名符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版( DSM-Ⅳ)中ADHD标准的儿童进行随访研究.随访时,根据Conners’成人ADHD诊断会谈定式问卷评定成人早期ADHD情况.将各候选因素在成人ADHD组与成人期功能缓解之间组进行组间比较,对差异有统计学意义的因素进行logistic回归分析.结果:根据DSM-Ⅳ诊断标准,98名(51%)儿童ADHD持续到成人早期.共患ODD [OR=3.14 (1.33 ~7.40),P<0.01]和接受治疗[ OR =9.56(2.09~43.67),P<0.01]的患者,ADHD更容易持续到成人早期.结论:本研究提示童年期共患对立违抗性障碍的患者与未共患对立违抗性障碍的患者相比,注意缺陷多动障碍持续到成人早期的比率更高;童年期ADHD需要持续治疗者发展为成人ADHD的风险可能更高.%Objective: To explore the related factors to persistence of children attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) into early adulthood. Methods: A total of 192 ADHD children meeting the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) were followed-up into young adulthood. The Conners'Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview was used as the diagnostic instruments during the follow-up period and the related factors were analyzed. Results: According to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, 98 (51%) children continued to adult ADHD. The patients who comorbided ODD[ OR = 3. 14(1.33-7.40), P < 0.01] and received treatment [OR =9.56 (2.09-43.67), P<0.01 ] were more likely to have adult ADHD. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the childhood ADHD patients with oppositional defiant disorder and those who need treatment may have higher risk for adult ADHD.

  3. Linguistic Representation of the Category of Oppositeness in English Folk Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Владимировна Соловьева

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study manifestations of the category of oppositeness at all language levels in order to establish a classification of textual oppositions found in folktales. Achieving this goal requires using integrated multi-disciplinary research methods such as hypothetical-deductive, inductive, descriptive, comparative and classification methods. The study also involves specifically linguistic research procedures: the method of phonological oppositions which served as the methodological basis for further research into morphological and grammatical oppositions, transformational and component analyses to describe the semantic content of the considered language units, the logical and semantic procedures in text analysis. English is used as the basis for the research, the theoretical principles are illustrated by the data included in The Oxford Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, The Merriam-Webster Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, and The Collins Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, the collection of folktales edited by J. Jacobs serves as the material for the empirical analysis. The category of oppositeness is seen as a phenomenon represented by phonological, semantic and grammatical oppositions and their subclasses. The textual oppositions under consideration are based on semantic and grammatical oppositions and represent the opposed spatial images, the opposed characters and the opposed beginning and ending of a folktale. The phenomenon of neutralization, which is the removal of the opposition in certain positions, is found at all levels of the language system, manifesting itself on the textual level in the ambivalent nature and the contradictory functional roles of certain folktale characters.

  4. The effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on emotional dysregulation, oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in ADHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ruth E; Tye, Charlotte; Kuntsi, Jonna; Vassos, Evangelos; Asherson, Philip

    2016-01-15

    A number of randomised controlled trials report a beneficial effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on emotional lability (EL) and related domains (e.g. oppositional behaviour, conduct problems). Given that n-3 PUFA supplementation shows a significant effect on reducing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and that EL and related behaviours commonly co-occurs with ADHD, it is important that there is a more conclusive picture as to the effect of n-3 PUFA on these co-occurring clinical domains. Databases (Ovid Medline, Embase, Psychinfo) were searched for trials assessing the effects of n-3 PUFA on EL, oppositional behaviour, aggression and conduct problems. We included trials in children who had ADHD or a related neurodevelopmental disorder. Of the 1775 identified studies, 10 were included in the meta-analysis. In the primary analyses n-3 PUFA supplementation did not show improvements in measures of EL, oppositional behaviour, conduct problems or aggression. However subgroup analyses of higher quality studies and those meeting strict inclusion criteria found a significant reduction in EL and oppositional behaviour. A number of treatment effects may have failed to reach statistical significance due to small sample sizes and within and between study heterogeneity in terms of design and study participants. These results exclude the possibility of moderate to large effects. They provide suggestive evidence of small effects of n-3 PUFA on reducing EL and oppositional behaviour in subgroups of children with ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Women from Opposite-Sex Twin Pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, E.A.M.; Vink, J.M.; Lambalk, C.B.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Intrauterine androgens of a male fetus may influence the female fetus in opposite-sex twin pairs. Because female intrauterine overexposure to androgens could lead to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the prevalence of PCOS should be higher in women from opposite-sex twin pairs.

  6. Impulsore Chresto. Opposition to Christianity in the Roman Empire c. 50-250 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jakob

    in context as the most dramatic aspect of a spectrum of opposition including rumors, polemic, harassment and accusations. Such opposition was taken for granted and rarely described. But studying the preserved texts on trials against Christians it appears that even here the roles of relatives, plaintiffs...

  7. Influence Of Opposition On Ball Velocity In The Handball Jump Throw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilla-Garcia, Jesús; Grande, Ignacio; Sampedro, Javier; Van Den Tillaar, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of different degrees of opposition on ball velocity in the jump throw in elite, amateur and adolescent team handball players. Thus, one hundred and nineteen elite, amateur and under 18 team handball players performed jump throws under three different conditions: 1) without opposition, 2) with the opposition of the goalkeeper and 3) with the opposition of the goalkeeper and a defensive player. The degree of opposition was found to have a negative effect on ball velocity in all three groups (p handball players in the jump throw. It indicated that an increase of external stimuli influences the execution of throwing. Experience does not seem to be a factor that can reduce the influence of these external stimuli. PMID:24150629

  8. In Defense of Tradition: Religiosity, Conservatism, and Opposition to Same-Sex Marriage in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Toorn, Jojanneke; Jost, John T; Packer, Dominic J; Noorbaloochi, Sharareh; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2017-10-01

    Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In five studies conducted in the United States and Canada (combined N = 1,673), we observed that religious opposition to same-sex marriage was explained, at least in part, by conservative ideology and linked to sexual prejudice. In Studies 1 and 2, we discovered that the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage was mediated by explicit sexual prejudice. In Study 3, we saw that the mediating effect of sexual prejudice was linked to political conservatism. Finally, in Studies 4a and 4b we examined the ideological underpinnings of religious opposition to same-sex marriage in more detail by taking into account two distinct aspects of conservative ideology. Results revealed that resistance to change was more important than opposition to equality in explaining religious opposition to same-sex marriage.

  9. [Symptomatology and psychosocial adaptation in adolescents with depressive disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin, Jean; Le Corff, Yann; Pauzé, Robert

    2008-01-01

    To describe symptomatology and specific psychological, social, and academic adaptation in adolescents with depressive disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder, as well as their family situation. Using binomial logistic regressions, this study compares adolescents with depressive disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder (n=25) with adolescents with the same behaviour problems but no comorbid depressive disorder (n=99). Sex-specific interaction impacts are examined. While both groups have several similar characteristics, youth with a dual diagnosis have more oppositional symptoms and poorer self-esteem. Analyses show no interaction impact from sex variable. Adolescents in both groups would benefit from similar interventions regarding disruptive behaviour disorders and some related problems, such as using psychoactive drugs, socializing with delinquent peers, and difficulty functioning in school. Adolescents with a comorbid depressive disorder need special attention, given the more significant oppositional symptomatology and the poorer self-esteem.

  10. Sex differences in the pathways to major depression: a study of opposite-sex twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Gardner, Charles O

    2014-04-01

    The authors sought to clarify the nature of sex differences in the etiologic pathways to major depression. Retrospective and prospective assessments of 20 developmentally organized risk factors and the occurrence of past-year major depression were conducted at two waves of personal interviews at least 12 months apart in 1,057 opposite-sex dizygotic twin pairs from a population-based register. Analyses were conducted by structural modeling, examining within-pair differences. Sixty percent of all paths in the best-fit model exhibited sex differences. Eleven of the 20 risk factors differed across sexes in their impact on liability to major depression. Five had a greater impact in women: parental warmth, neuroticism, divorce, social support, and marital satisfaction. Six had a greater impact in men: childhood sexual abuse, conduct disorder, drug abuse, prior history of major depression, and distal and dependent proximal stressful life events. The life event categories responsible for the stronger effect in males were financial, occupational, and legal in nature. In a co-twin control design, which matches sisters and brothers on genetic and familial-environmental background, personality and failures in interpersonal relationships played a stronger etiologic role in major depression for women than for men. Externalizing psychopathology, prior depression, and specific "instrumental" classes of acute stressors were more important in the etiologic pathway to major depression for men. The results are consistent with previously proposed typologies of major depression that suggest two subtypes that differ in prevalence in women (deficiencies in caring relationships and interpersonal loss) and men (failures to achieve expected goals, with lowered self-worth).

  11. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registry Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students Patients & Families Mental Health Disorders/Substance Use Find a Psychiatrist Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ADHD Anxiety Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder Bipolar Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive ...

  12. Mental