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Sample records for opportunistic diet behavior

  1. Trade-off between morphological convergence and opportunistic diet behavior in fish hybrid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grey Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive Chondrostoma nasus nasus has colonized part of the distribution area of the protected endemic species Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma. This hybrid zone is a complex system where multiple effects such as inter-species competition, bi-directional introgression, strong environmental pressure and so on are combined. Why do sympatric Chondrostoma fish present a unidirectional change in body shape? Is this the result of inter-species interactions and/or a response to environmental effects or the result of trade-offs? Studies focusing on the understanding of a trade-off between multiple parameters are still rare. Although this has previously been done for Cichlid species flock and for Darwin finches, where mouth or beak morphology were coupled to diet and genetic identification, no similar studies have been done for a fish hybrid zone in a river. We tested the correlation between morphology (body and mouth morphology, diet (stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and genomic combinations in different allopatric and sympatric populations for a global data set of 1330 specimens. To separate the species interaction effect from the environmental effect in sympatry, we distinguished two data sets: the first one was obtained from a highly regulated part of the river and the second was obtained from specimens coming from the less regulated part. Results The distribution of the hybrid combinations was different in the two part of the sympatric zone, whereas all the specimens presented similar overall changes in body shape and in mouth morphology. Sympatric specimens were also characterized by a larger diet behavior variance than reference populations, characteristic of an opportunistic diet. No correlation was established between the body shape (or mouth deformation and the stable isotope signature. Conclusion The Durance River is an untamed Mediterranean river despite the presence of numerous dams that split the river from

  2. Trade-off between morphological convergence and opportunistic diet behavior in fish hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corse, Emmanuel; Costedoat, Caroline; Pech, Nicolas; Chappaz, Rémi; Grey, Jonathan; Gilles, André

    2009-10-27

    The invasive Chondrostoma nasus nasus has colonized part of the distribution area of the protected endemic species Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma. This hybrid zone is a complex system where multiple effects such as inter-species competition, bi-directional introgression, strong environmental pressure and so on are combined. Why do sympatric Chondrostoma fish present a unidirectional change in body shape? Is this the result of inter-species interactions and/or a response to environmental effects or the result of trade-offs? Studies focusing on the understanding of a trade-off between multiple parameters are still rare. Although this has previously been done for Cichlid species flock and for Darwin finches, where mouth or beak morphology were coupled to diet and genetic identification, no similar studies have been done for a fish hybrid zone in a river. We tested the correlation between morphology (body and mouth morphology), diet (stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes) and genomic combinations in different allopatric and sympatric populations for a global data set of 1330 specimens. To separate the species interaction effect from the environmental effect in sympatry, we distinguished two data sets: the first one was obtained from a highly regulated part of the river and the second was obtained from specimens coming from the less regulated part. The distribution of the hybrid combinations was different in the two part of the sympatric zone, whereas all the specimens presented similar overall changes in body shape and in mouth morphology. Sympatric specimens were also characterized by a larger diet behavior variance than reference populations, characteristic of an opportunistic diet. No correlation was established between the body shape (or mouth deformation) and the stable isotope signature. The Durance River is an untamed Mediterranean river despite the presence of numerous dams that split the river from upstream to downstream. The sympatric effect on morphology and

  3. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Whenever actors participate in transactions they expose themselves to risks of various kinds. Some of these risks are attributable to events outside the control of the participants and are unavoidable. Others originate in, or are aggrevated by, opportunistic actions undertaken by contract partners...... and other co-operators. This paper is concerned with the latter type of risk and the protection against it. Six protective mechanisms, which may serve as safeguards against opportunistic behavior, are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to reputation effects. It is noted that such effects may...... account for the lack of opportunistic behavior with which networks are often credited. No protective mechanism is, however, effective under all circumstances....

  4. Who needs the assumption of opportunistic behavior? Transaction cost economics does not!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2000-01-01

    The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...

  5. Feeding Habits And Natural Diet of the Intertidal Crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus: Opportunistic Browser or Selective Feeder?

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    Cannicci, S.; Gomei, M.; Boddi, B.; Vannini, M.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the feeding habits of the European intertidal crabPachygrapsus marmoratus . Since this species is widely distributed in southern Europe, four south-western European sites far apart from each other were selected: southern Portugal, central Portugal, central Tyrrhenian coast, Italy, and northern Adriatic coast, Istria. In summer, crabs were collected and the contents of their stomachs were assessed in the laboratory. In parallel, at each collection site the relative abundance of algae species and of sessile and slow-moving animals was assessed for comparison with the relative frequency of the same items in the P. marmoratus diet. The detailed analysis of its feeding habits showed that this species is omnivorous but that it cannot simply be considered an opportunistic feeder. In all populations, algal and animal diet components were almost equally abundant; thus these crabs actively regulate their feeding to cope with the dietary needs of their fast-moving, semi-terrestrial life-style. Descriptive and quantitative analyses showed that P. marmoratus has definite preferences for animal prey and algae. Limpets and mussels proved to be the commonest prey, followed by conspecific crabs. The highly preferred plant item was filamentous algae, although corticated macroalgae and articulated calcareous algae were also common in the diet. Cyanobacteria were preferred only at the Atlantic sites and crustose algae were represented only by Ralfsia sp., a species with high protein and lipid contents. Both univariate and multivariate statistical methods confirmed that the different populations of P. marmoratus were minimally influenced by the relative abundance of the food items within their environment and their diet composition was constant throughout the sampled area. In conclusion, the relative abundance of different ingested foods can best be explained by considering the diet of P. marmoratus to be related mainly to its population structure

  6. Research of opportunistic behavior in the market of non-standard products

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    Natalya Sergeyevna Grigoryeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the characteristic features of opportunistic behavior in the markets of complex products not subject to standardization by the example of rendering services during constructionandassembling operations. Methods analysis synthesis collection and description of empirical data. Results a significant amount of theoretical material has been analyzed budgets of constructionandassembling operations have been analyzed normative documents have been studied. A poll of quantity surveyors supervisors of constructionandassembling operations consumers of services and works have been carried out. The differences were revealed in the kinds of opportunistic behavior in the nonstandard products markets compared to the standard products markets the results of those surveys were presented in the earlier works by the author. Scientific novelty it has been shown that in case of individual elaboration of each project due to the uniqueness of the result of economic activity as a single complex the opportunistic behavior has such prerequisites as high costs for measurements and control of the quantity and quality of the rendered services and used materials lack of professional competencies of the consumers in the sphere of activity of the producer. Practical value the key provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the scientific and educational activity when viewing the issues of opportunistic revelations between economic subjects. nbsp

  7. Smartphone-Based Pedestrian’s Avoidance Behavior Recognition towards Opportunistic Road Anomaly Detection

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    Tsuyoshi Ishikawa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Road anomalies, such as cracks, pits and puddles, have generally been identified by citizen reports made by e-mail or telephone; however, it is difficult for administrative entities to locate the anomaly for repair. An advanced smartphone-based solution that sends text and/or image reports with location information is not a long-lasting solution, because it depends on people’s active reporting. In this article, we show an opportunistic sensing-based system that uses a smartphone for road anomaly detection without any active user involvement. To detect road anomalies, we focus on pedestrians’ avoidance behaviors, which are characterized by changing azimuth patterns. Three typical avoidance behaviors are defined, and random forest is chosen as the classifier. Twenty-nine features are defined, in which features calculated by splitting a segment into the first half and the second half and considering the monotonicity of change were proven to be effective in recognition. Experiments were carried out under an ideal and controlled environment. Ten-fold cross-validation shows an average classification performance with an F-measure of 0.89 for six activities. The proposed recognition method was proven to be robust against the size of obstacles, and the dependency on the storing position of a smartphone can be handled by an appropriate classifier per storing position. Furthermore, an analysis implies that the classification of data from an “unknown” person can be improved by taking into account the compatibility of a classifier.

  8. How does Diet influence Behavior and Neuroinflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bettina Merete Pyndt; Hansen, Julie Torpe; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup

    A high number of Non-responders in induced animal models of depression is a problem in research as it results in a high work load and a waste of animals. The aim of this project is to investigate the possible relationship between diet, gut microbiota (GM), low-grade inflammation in the brain......, and behavior in order to generate knowledge enabling researchers to increase the number of responders when inducing these models using environmental modulation. The hypothesis is that a diet-induced change in GM composition can induce a cytokine mediated low-grade neuroinflammation, which is also observed...... in psychiatric diseases such as depression, thereby affecting the behavior. Furthermore the role of Brain Derived Neutrophic Factor (BDNF) in depressive behavior is investigated. 42 male BALB/c mice were divided in to three groups, and fed either a high-fat/low-sugar diet, a high-sugar/low-fat diet or a control...

  9. Diet and feeding behavior of the White-naped Jay, Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821) (Aves, Passeriformes, Corvidae) in a disturbed environment in central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    RAM Barros; CA Costa; MC Pascotto

    2014-01-01

    The White-naped Jay Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821) is an omnivorous and opportunistic species, with a multifarious diet. In view of the scarcity of available data in the literature, the aim was to investigate and describe the bird's diet, location of food items, foraging tactics, actual feeding behavior and intraspecific interactions, as a means of defining the items consumed. The study was carried out in a Cerrado area in the Araguaia Campus of the Federal University of Mato Grosso ̵...

  10. Opportunistic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hachet, Martin; Kian, Arash; Berthaut, Florent; Franco, Jean-Sébastien; Desainte-Catherine, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    International audience; While mixed reality has inspired the development of many new musical instruments, few approaches explore the potential of mobile setups. We present a new musical interaction concept, called "opportunistic music". It allows musicians to recreate a hardware musical controller using any objects of their immediate environment. This approach benefits from the physical properties of real objects for controlling music. Our prototype is based on a stereo-vision tracking system...

  11. Tough decisions: Reproductive timing and output vary with individuals' physiology, behavior and past success in a social opportunistic breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Mylene M; Buchanan, Katherine L; Buttemer, William A; Careau, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Photoperiod and the hormonal response it triggers are key determinants of reproductive timing in birds. However, other cues and physiological traits may permit flexibility in the timing of breeding and perhaps facilitate adaptation to global change. Opportunistic breeders are excellent models to study the adaptive significance of this flexibility, especially at the individual level. Here, we sought to quantify whether particular male physiological and behavioral traits were linked to reproductive timing and output in wild-derived zebra finches. We repeatedly assessed male stress-induced corticosterone levels (CORT), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and activity before releasing them into outdoor aviaries and quantifying each pair's breeding timing, investment, and output over a seven-month period. Despite unlimited access to food and water, the colony breeding activity occurred in waves, probably due to interpair social stimulations. Pairs adjusted their inter-clutch interval and clutch size to social and temperature cues, respectively, but only after successful breeding attempts, suggesting a facultative response to external cues. When these effects were controlled for statistically or experimentally, breeding intervals were repeatable within individuals across reproductive attempts. In addition, males' first laying date and total offspring production varied with complex interactions between pre-breeding CORT, BMR and activity levels. These results suggest that no one trait is under selection but that, instead, correlational selection acts on hormone levels, metabolism, and behavior. Together our results suggest that studying inter-individual variation in breeding strategy and their multiple physiological and behavioral underpinnings may greatly improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the evolution of breeding decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diet influences cocaine withdrawal behaviors in the forced swimming test.

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    Loebens, M; Barros, H M T

    2003-01-01

    The effects of drugs of abuse might depend on several environmental factors, among them the individual's feeding habits. It was our objective to study the influence of the diet on cocaine acute behavioral effects and during the first 5 days of withdrawal after prolonged treatment. Rats were fed a balanced diet, high-protein diet, high-carbohydrate diet or high-fat diet from weaning to adulthood. Adult rats were injected with 15 mg/kg cocaine 24, 5 and 1 h before the forced swimming retest or the drug was administered daily during 15 days and the animals were evaluated in the forced swimming test on five daily occasions after drug withdrawal. Diets alone did not induce significant behavioral differences in locomotion, immobility, swimming, climbing or head shakes. Acute cocaine reduced immobility during the forced swimming test and increased locomotion demonstrating a nonspecific antiimmobility effect related to hyperactivity. Acute cocaine reduced head shakes of rats fed high-protein and high-carbohydrate diets. After cocaine withdrawal, head shakes were decreased for rats fed any of the diets and rats were more immobile if fed a high-fat diet and were less immobile if fed a high-protein or high-carbohydrate diet. In conclusion, differences in the amounts of macronutrients in the diet may cause different behavioral outcomes after acute cocaine and during cocaine withdrawal.

  13. Feingold Diet Effect on Reading Achievement and Classroom Behavior.

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    Chernick, Eleanor

    The effect of the Feingold diet (elimination of artificial colors, flavors, or foods with natural salicylates to reduce hyperactivity) on the reading achievement scores, behavior, and impulsivity/reflectivity of 13 children (ages 6 to 12 years) was evaluated. Six months after the experimental group adopted the Feingold diet there were no…

  14. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

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    Hertzler, D.R. (State Univ. of New York, Oswego (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  15. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2002-01-01

    4. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden CHARLOTTE MOSHØJ1,2 1University of Copenhagen Department of Population Ecology, Zoological Institute Universitetsparken 15 DK-2100 Copenhagen Denmark cmmoshoj@zi.ku.dk 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Department of Conservation Biology...... (reindeer and roe deer) comprised the greatest part of the diet, while a regional division indicated that while lynxes from northern regions had a narrower diet niche, they were in better condition than lynxes from south of the reindeer husbandry districts. Lynx gender and status also influenced diet......, predation and condition, while temporal variations in prey density and availability affected seasonal predation rates, as well as between year variations and diet composition. Variable prey species and environmental factors, such as snow and the availability of cover, furthermore affected lynx predatory...

  16. Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing castor seed meal.

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    Nicory, Isis Miranda Carvalho; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libanio; Costa-Lopes, Lívia Santos; Souza, Fábio Nicory Costa; de Oliveira Nascimento, Camila

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P  0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P time per feeding activity and on the chewing periods. Substitution of soybean meal for detoxified CSM reduces the DM intake but does not change the ingestive behavior.

  17. Middle School Students' Weight Perceptions, Dieting Behaviors, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Zullig, Keith J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous research has posited that significant relationships exist between health status and psychological measures of health (e.g., self-esteem). Less is known about the relationship between perceived quality of life (e.g., life satisfaction), weight perceptions, and dieting behaviors, particularly among middle school adolescents.…

  18. Inhibition of eating behavior: negative cognitive effects of dieting.

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    Hart, K E; Chiovari, P

    1998-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Diet and feeding behavior of Rhinopithecus brelichi at Yangaoping, Guizhou.

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    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Liang, Wen-Bin; Nie, Shuai-Guo; Li, Ming

    2012-06-01

    Expectations of increases in human population growth and accelerated habitat loss, along with the realization that efforts to provide protection for ecosystems that sustain primates have met with limited success, make it critical that conservation plans are grounded firmly in scientific observation. Studies of the diet breadth and feeding behavior of endangered species, therefore, are critical for understanding ecological adaptations and developing a conservation strategy. The diet and feeding ecology of gray snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) were studied in the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China. The monkeys were found to consume 107 different species of trees, shrubs, and ground plants from 58 genera and 28 families. Food items included young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits/seeds, buds, and insects. Among these food items, there were at least 13 evergreen species of tree and liana, 3 species of grasses, and at least 2 kinds of invertebrates collected from decayed wood. Diet varied markedly throughout different seasons. Overall, diet composition (based on feeding records) was 15.3% buds, 25.5% young leaves, 21.8% mature leaves, 9.4% flowers, 21.6% fruits/seeds, and 6.3% other items. The monkeys feed mainly on young leaves and flowers in spring, unripe fruits/seeds and young leaves in summer, ripe fruits/seeds in autumn, and mature leaves and buds in winter. We propose that when inhabiting forests of lower elevation and greater vegetation complexity, R. brelichi is characterized by expanded diet breadth and includes a greater diversity of food types and plant species in its diet. One food type that appears critical to the diet of this species, especially during the winter, are the buds of Magnolia sprengeri. To protect this resource we advocate working with local communities to limit the collection of M. sprengeri, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine and has high economic value for people in the reserve.

  20. Diet, ADHD & Behavior: A Quarter-Century Review [and] A Parent's Guide to Diet, ADHD & Behavior.

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    Jacobson, Michael F.; Schardt, David

    This report reviews 23 controlled studies of the effect of food dyes and other dietary constituents on the behavior of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or other behavioral problems. Findings indicate 17 of the 23 studies found evidence that some children's behavior significantly worsens after they consume artificial…

  1. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  2. Diet-Induced Obesity and Circadian Disruption of Feeding Behavior

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    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; Mendoza, Jorge; Garcia, Alexandra N.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior. In general, DIO may alter locomotor activity by decreasing total activity. On the other hand, DIO largely alters eating patterns, producing increased overall ingestion and number of eating bouts that can extend to the resting period. Furthermore, within the hypothalamic areas, little effect has been reported on the molecular circadian mechanism in DIO animals with ad libitum hypercaloric diets and little or no data exist so far on its effects on the reward system areas. We further discuss the possibility of an uncoupling of metabolic and reward systems in DIO and highlight a gap of circadian and metabolic research that may help to better understand the implications of obesity. PMID:28223912

  3. Candida and candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: where commensalism, opportunistic behavior and frank pathogenicity lose their borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Antonio; Cauda, Roberto

    2012-07-31

    In this era of efficacious antiretroviral therapy and consequent immune reconstitution, oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis (OPC and OEC) still remain two clinically relevant presentations in the global HIV setting. Both diseases are predominantly caused by Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus which is a commensal microbe in the healthy individual but can become an aggressive pathogen in a debilitated host. Actually, C. albicans commensalism is not the result of a benign behavior of one of the many components of human microbiota, but rather the result of host's potent innate and adaptive immune responses that restrict the growth of a potentially dangerous microrganism on the epithelia. An important asset guarding against the fungus is the Th17 functional subset of T helper cells. The selective loss of these cells with the progression of HIV infection causes the decay of fungal containment on the oral epithelium and allows C. albicans to express its pathogenic potential. An important part of this potential is represented by mechanisms to evade host immunity and enhance inflammation and immunoactivation. In C. albicans, these mechanisms are mostly incorporated into and expressed by characteristic morphogenic transitions such as the yeast-to-hyphal growth and the white-to-opaque switch. In addition, HIV infection generates an 'environment' selecting for overexpression of the virulence potential by the fungus, particularly concerning the secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps). These enzymes can degrade critical host defense components such as complement and epithelial defensive proteins such as histatin-5 and E-cadherin. It appears that part of this enhanced Candida virulence could be induced by the binding of the fungus to HIV and/or induced by HIV proteins such as GP160 and tat. Both OPC and OEC can be controlled by old and new antimycotics, but in the absence of host collaboration, anticandidal therapy may become ineffective in the long run. For these reasons

  4. Diet and behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents

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    Rune Høigaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15 − 0.55, p≤0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 − 7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 − 4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 − 0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.

  5. The Improvement of Low Salt Diet Behavior based on Theory of Planned Behavior on Elderly with Hypertension

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    Lembunai Tat Alberta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension in elderly is triggered by the thickening and stiffness of arterial wall due to ageing processes. One attempt to prevent the complications of hypertension is by change their lifestyle, such as perform a low-salt diet. The implementation of a low-salt diet on elderly should be adjusted with their behavior and habits. TPB is one of theoretical attempt to identify the relationship between elderly’s attitude and their behavior, and to emphasize the importancy of intention as determinant of behavior, focused on cognitif and rational decission making process. This study was aimed to analyze the improvement of low salt diet behavior based on TPB on elderly with hypertension. Method: This research was used descriptive design with observational analytic method. Population were elderly with hypertension recorded at Puskesmas Pucang, Kota Surabaya. Samples were 32 respondents, taken randomly. Data were collected by using questionnaires and direct interview. Data were then analyzed by using Partial Least Square (PLS. Result: The results had showed that intention to implement a low-salt diet was built by attitudes toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC on elderly with hypertension. A low-salt diet behavior was built by intention to implement a low-salt diet on elderly with hypertension. Discussion: These results can be used as a model to improve low salt diet behavior on elderly with hypertension. Keywords: low-salt diet, hypertension, elderly, TPB

  6. Unnecessary Dieting Intention and Behavior among Female Students in Naha City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Khin Zay Yar; Nonaka, Daisuke; Jimba, Masamine; Nanishi, Keiko; Poudel, Krishna Chandra; Yasuoka, Junko; Miyagi, Masaya; Shinjo, Masaki; Kobayashi, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Weight concerns and dieting are prevalent among female adolescents both in Western and Asian countries. They can result in negative psychological and physiological consequences. This study aimed to examine the relative importance of social and personal factors in the decision to diet among female adolescent students in Japan, applying the Theory of Planned Behavior. Data were collected from five junior high schools and three high schools in Naha City, Okinawa Prefecture, in 2010, through self-administered questionnaires. The data of 756 female students were assessed. The independent variables included social factor variables (norms) and personal factor variables (attitude to dieting, perceived behavior control, body esteem, body-figure discrepancy and past dieting). The dependent variables were dieting intention and behavior. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to examine three models: model 1 (age and obesity index), model 2 (social factor variables with age and obesity index) and model 3 (all variables). Although model 2 failed to explain a substantial proportion of the variance, model 3 explained approximately a half of the variance for intention (R(2) = 0.507) and more than one third of the variance for behavior (R(2) = 0.376). Past experience of dieting was the best predictor of both dieting intention and behavior. Body esteem was the second best predictor for dieting behavior. In conclusion, personal factors are more likely than social factors to drive the dieting decision. Diet education programs should consider targeting frequent dieters and those with poor body esteem.

  7. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  8. Weight Status in US Youth: The Role of Activity, Diet, and Sedentary Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Tasha; Velasco Mondragon, H. Eduardo; Rohm-Young, Deborah; Bronner, Yvonne; Hossain, Mian B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess associations of physical activity, diet, and sedentary behaviors with overweight and obesity. Methods: Analyses of the NHANES 2003-06 were conducted among 2368 US adolescents, ages 12-19. Self-reported diet and sedentary behavior measures were used; physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Results:…

  9. Weight Status in US Youth: The Role of Activity, Diet, and Sedentary Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Tasha; Velasco Mondragon, H. Eduardo; Rohm-Young, Deborah; Bronner, Yvonne; Hossain, Mian B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess associations of physical activity, diet, and sedentary behaviors with overweight and obesity. Methods: Analyses of the NHANES 2003-06 were conducted among 2368 US adolescents, ages 12-19. Self-reported diet and sedentary behavior measures were used; physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Results:…

  10. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Brady, Christy Freadreacea; Garcia, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners' body type, partners' attempts to manage respondents' eating behaviors, and partners' own health behaviors on respondents' health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p behavior modeling mechanism in obesity-related patterns of consumption and physical activity. In contrast, we find little support for the influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior.

  11. Incentive mechanisms for Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Service (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. The OCCS network may suffer from the free riding problem where members are selfish and will only want to use services on the platform without e......, incentive compatibility, allocative efficiency, robustness, and flexible to accommodate changing user behavior on the platform.......Opportunistic Cloud Computing Service (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. The OCCS network may suffer from the free riding problem where members are selfish and will only want to use services on the platform without...

  12. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Brady, Christy Freadreacea; Garcia, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners’ body type, partners’ attempts to manage respondents’ eating behaviors, and partners’ own health behaviors on respondents’ health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p obesity-related patterns of consumption and physical activity. In contrast, we find little support for the influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior. PMID:28033428

  13. Educating dental students about diet-related behavior change: does experiential learning work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George W; Stumpos, Madelyn L; Kerschbaum, Wendy; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether an experiential exercise in a nutrition class would a) increase dental students' motivation to change their own diet-related behavior, b) improve their understanding of theoretical concepts related to behavior change, and c) improve their attitudes towards educating their patients about diet-related behavior. Data were collected from 218 senior dental students in one dental school (2010: 106; 2011: 112) during their nutrition class. The students agreed at the beginning that it was important to change their own diet-related behavior. After one week, the majority agreed that they had changed how they felt and thought about the targeted behavior and what they actually did. After three weeks and at the end of the term, they rated the exercise as helpful for gaining a better understanding of health education theories. The majority indicated that the exercise had helped them understand the difficulty of diet-related behavior change and that it had increased their interest in helping patients change their diet-related behavior. In conclusion, this study suggests that experiential learning about diet-related behavior change is likely to affect students' own behavior positively and to result in increased understanding of behavior change theories and positive behavioral intentions concerning future health education efforts with patients.

  14. Evolutionary Game Analysis on Opportunistic Behavior Based on Cooperative Spillover%基于合作溢出的机会主义行为演化博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢乐斌; 王旭

    2011-01-01

    Enterprises in the market economy and knowledge society are forming strategic alliance with each other in order to obtain necessary skills and capabilities. Strategic alliance opportunities inevitably create opportunistic and self-interest behaviors, thereby resulting in disorderly competition and reduced alliance profit. It is important to learn how to develop a healthy alliance by reducing opportunism behaviors and improving alliance profits. In reality, alliance members tend to take effective supervisory and preventive measures to avoid cooperative spillover of exclusion resource, and reduce or avoid the loss of their own interests. Therefore, research of alliance stability and alliance income should be based on at least two aspects: supervisory and preventive measures, as well as cooperative spillover of exclusion resource.The current research on alliance and opportunism behaviors of alliance members is mainly based on single factor, such as information symmetry, supervision and prevention, external environment, cooperative spillover effect of exclusion resource, trust or culture. Two or more influencing factors were rarely considered at the same time. According to the evolutionary game theory, this paper uses a replicator equation as our basic model to characterize the change of opportunist proportion and mutually beneficial proportion when cooperative spillover occurs. We also analyze evolution laws under stable alliance equilibrium, and potential influence of cooperative spillover on alliance profits.In the first part we construct an alliance system that is created by many individuals. The evolutionary game model is based on exclusion resources that takes opportunist proportion in alliance and mutually beneficial proportion. In the second part, we calculate the stable alliance equilibrium point and study the evolution law of opportunistic behavior according to the Jacobin matrix. Excessive prevention cost can stop cooperative spillover of mutually beneficial

  15. Opportunistic infections following renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infection is common following renal transplantation. Prompt diagnosis and management can be life saving. Four different types of opportunistic respiratory infections diagnosed at our center during the period of January 1998 to December 2000 are discussed. Of the four cases one had Aspergillus, second had Sporothrix, third had Nocardia and fourth case Actinomyces species. Microbiologist has an important role to play by being aware of such opportunistic infections and helping the clinician to make early aetiological diagnosis.

  16. Feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing mulberry hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% of mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty four Ile de France lambs, non castrated, with 25 kg of body weight and four months old, confined, in a completely randomized design, were used. The feeding daily time (242.01 minutes, rumination (435.48 minutes and leisure (762.50 minutes, the numbers of cakes ruminated per day (658.36 and the time spent per cake (40.03 sec were not affected (P>0.05 by different levels of hay in mulberry concentrate. The dry matter voluntary intake (1.258 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber intake (0.302 kg/day, as well as the efficiency of dry matter intake and rumination (316.24 and 173.54 g/h, respectively and efficiency of neutral detergent fiber intake and rumination (75.89 and 41.68 g/h, respectively were similar in all treatments. The ruminating chew expressed in hour/day (11.29 and the number of chews expressed per cake (72.65 and per day (47.638.06, as well as the number and the feeding time (22.02 meals and 11.23 min/meal, rumination (25.95 ruminations and 17.29 min/rumination and idle (41.81 idle and 18.30 min/idle time, were also not affected (P>0.05. The inclusion of mulberry hay did not change the rumination expressed in g of DM and NDF/cake (1.91 and 0.46, respectively and min/kg of DM and NDF (361.51 and 1.505.78, respectively, as well as the total chew expressed in min/kg of DM and NDF (563.70 and 2.347.19, respectively. The use of mulberry hay partially replacing the concentrated, does not change the feeding behavior of feedlot lambs.

  17. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Alex Resende Schio; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Antônio Ferraz Porto Junior

    2014-01-01

    Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holsteinx Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin) and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 gcrude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM) in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feeding...

  18. Exercise and diet determinants of overweight women participating in an exercise and diet program: a prospective examination of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine prospectively the ability of direct and belief-based measures of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs to predict exercise and diet intention and behavior of overweight women. Participants were 117 overweight, community-dwelling women and university students enrolled in a 4-week exercise and diet program. Participants completed baseline measures of demographic characteristics and the TPB constructs. Their exercise and diet adherence were also recorded. We found that: (1) the direct measure of perceived behavioral control (PBC) predicted exercise intention, (2) the direct measures of instrumental attitude, subjective norm, and PBC predicted diet intention, and (3) none of the direct or belief-based measures of the TPB constructs predicted 4-week exercise or diet behavior. Furthermore, several beliefs were associated with the direct measures of attitude, subjective norm, PBC, and intention. Implications of these results for designing exercise and diet interventions with overweight women are discussed.

  19. Diet and feeding behavior of the White-naped Jay, Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821) (Aves, Passeriformes, Corvidae) in a disturbed environment in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, R A M; Costa, C A; Pascotto, M C

    2014-11-01

    The White-naped Jay Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821) is an omnivorous and opportunistic species, with a multifarious diet. In view of the scarcity of available data in the literature, the aim was to investigate and describe the bird's diet, location of food items, foraging tactics, actual feeding behavior and intraspecific interactions, as a means of defining the items consumed. The study was carried out in a Cerrado area in the Araguaia Campus of the Federal University of Mato Grosso - UFMT, in Pontal do Araguaia, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, from August to December, 2006, and from April to October, 2010. All the feeding events were recorded through 136 hours of animal focal sampling, whereby it was shown that these birds predominantly consume animal nutrients, replenished by vegetable items and human food-waste. Arthropods were predominant in the diet, with ants as the most abundant and frequent item. The fruits, flowers and seeds of eleven plant species were also consumed. Food-waste, representing about 1/10 of the total, was constantly consumed even when other food sources were available. Although active among the various strata, foraging is mainly on the ground. In the event of food-scarcity, the strategy employed is the hierarchical deployment of the members of various-sized groups, with the avoidance of direct competition. This versatility during all seasons, confirms total adaptation to the anthropic environment surrounded by native habitats that characterized the study site.

  20. Diet and feeding behavior of the White-naped Jay, Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821 (Aves, Passeriformes, Corvidae in a disturbed environment in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAM Barros

    Full Text Available The White-naped Jay Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821 is an omnivorous and opportunistic species, with a multifarious diet. In view of the scarcity of available data in the literature, the aim was to investigate and describe the bird's diet, location of food items, foraging tactics, actual feeding behavior and intraspecific interactions, as a means of defining the items consumed. The study was carried out in a Cerrado area in the Araguaia Campus of the Federal University of Mato Grosso – UFMT, in Pontal do Araguaia, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, from August to December, 2006, and from April to October, 2010. All the feeding events were recorded through 136 hours of animal focal sampling, whereby it was shown that these birds predominantly consume animal nutrients, replenished by vegetable items and human food-waste. Arthropods were predominant in the diet, with ants as the most abundant and frequent item. The fruits, flowers and seeds of eleven plant species were also consumed. Food-waste, representing about 1/10 of the total, was constantly consumed even when other food sources were available. Although active among the various strata, foraging is mainly on the ground. In the event of food-scarcity, the strategy employed is the hierarchical deployment of the members of various-sized groups, with the avoidance of direct competition. This versatility during all seasons, confirms total adaptation to the anthropic environment surrounded by native habitats that characterized the study site.

  1. Effects of a ketogenic diet on ADHD-like behavior in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rowena M A; Law, Tsz Hong; Davies, Emma; Zanghi, Brian; Pan, Yuanlong; Volk, Holger A

    2016-02-01

    Epilepsy in humans and rodent models of epilepsy can be associated with behavioral comorbidities including an increased prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and seizure frequency have been successfully reduced in humans and rodents using a ketogenic diet (KD). The aims of this study were (i) to describe the behavioral profile of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) while on a standardized nonketogenic placebo diet, to determine whether ADHD-like behaviors are present, and (ii) to examine the effect of a ketogenic medium chain triglyceride diet (MCTD) on the behavioral profile of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) compared with the standardized placebo control diet, including ADHD-like behaviors. A 6-month prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover dietary trial comparing the effects of the MCTD with a standardized placebo diet on canine behavior was carried out. Dogs diagnosed with IE, with a seizure frequency of at least 3 seizures in the past 3months (n=21), were fed the MCTD or placebo diet for 3months and were then switched to the alternative diet for 3months. Owners completed a validated behavioral questionnaire to measure 11 defined behavioral factors at the end of each diet period to report their dogs' behavior, with three specific behaviors hypothesized to be related to ADHD: excitability, chasing, and trainability. The highest scoring behavioral factors in the placebo and MCTD periods were excitability (mean±SE: 1.910±0.127) and chasing (mean±SE: 1.824±0.210). A markedly lower trainability score (mean±SE: 0.437±0.125) than that of previously studied canine populations was observed. The MCTD resulted in a significant improvement in the ADHD-related behavioral factor chasing and a reduction in stranger-directed fear (pdiet. The latter effect may be attributed to previously described anxiolytic effects of a KD. These data support the supposition that

  2. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  3. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  4. Self-Reported Weight Perceptions, Dieting Behavior, and Breakfast Eating among High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Keith; Ubbes, Valerie A.; Pyle, Jennifer; Valois, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating in 4597 public high school adolescents using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were constructed separately for race and gender groups via SUDAAN (Survey Data…

  5. Data Dissemination in Opportunistic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ciobanu, Radu

    2012-01-01

    Mobile devices integrating wireless short-range communication technologies make possible new applications for spontaneous communication, interaction and collaboration. An interesting approach is to use collaboration to facilitate communication when mobile devices are not able to establish direct communication paths. Opportunistic networks, formed when mobile devices communicate with each other while users are in close proximity, can help applications still exchange data in such cases. In opportunistic networks routes are built dynamically, as each mobile device acts according to the store-carry-and-forward paradigm. Thus, contacts between mobile devices are seen as opportunities to move data towards destination. In such networks data dissemination is done using forwarding and is usually based on a publish/subscribe model. Opportunistic data dissemination also raises questions concerning user privacy and incentives. Such problems are addressed di?erently by various opportunistic data dissemination techniques. ...

  6. BEHAVIORAL VARIABLES OF FEEDLOT SHEEP FED DIETS WITH BEAN RESIDUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of inclusion of bean residue to replace cottonseed meal in diets for feedlot sheep. 16 sheep males mongrel were used, with 12 months of age and weighing 30 kg. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the replacement of cottonseed meal by bean residue at 0, 11, 22 and 33% of dry matter (DM of the diets. The diets were isonitrogenous with 16% crude protein (CP, comprise 45% of forage (corn silage and 55% concentrate in the dry matter. The time spent eating were recorded, idling time of the animals by visual observation of the animals every 10 minutes over a period of 24 hours. Regardless of the treatments the power peaks are arranged in the early morning hours of 07h corresponding 9am: 50min and in the late afternoon around 16h to 18h: 50min after the intake of the animals peaks distributed its activities in idling time . A statistically significant difference (P0.05 between the periods. Sheep grazed under confinement system have daytime feeding habits and use most of the night period to ruminate and rest.

  7. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena,Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed w...

  8. Adopting a dyadic perspective to better understand the association between physical attractiveness and dieting motivations and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tania; Meltzer, Andrea L

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between women's objective physical attractiveness and their dieting motivations and behaviors may depend upon their social environment-specifically, their romantic partners' attractiveness-such that less attractive women with more attractive partners may be particularly motivated to diet. Theoretically, men's dieting motivations should not depend on their partners' attractiveness. We tested this possibility using a sample of 223 U.S. newlywed spouses. After completing measures assessing dieting motivations, each participant was photographed; we used those photographs to code spouses' objective facial and body attractiveness. Results demonstrated that own and partner attractiveness interacted to predict only women's dieting motivations and behaviors. Less attractive wives married to more (versus less) attractive husbands reported more dieting motivations and behaviors. In contrast, men's dieting motivations were not significantly associated with their own and their partners' attractiveness. These findings highlight the value of adopting a dyadic approach to understanding dieting motivations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Bráulio Rocha; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Pires, Aureliano José Viera; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Leão, André Gustavo; Rodrigues, Carlindo Santos

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15% crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65% total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100% of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals.

  10. High Fructose Diet inducing diabetes rapidly impacts olfactory epithelium and behavior in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Sébastien; Soubeyre, Vanessa; Jarriault, David; Molinas, Adrien; Léger-Charnay, Elise; Desmoulins, Lucie; Grebert, Denise; Meunier, Nicolas; Grosmaitre, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), a major public health issue reaching worldwide epidemic, has been correlated with lower olfactory abilities in humans. As olfaction represents a major component of feeding behavior, its alteration may have drastic consequences on feeding behaviors that may in turn aggravates T2D. In order to decipher the impact of T2D on the olfactory epithelium, we fed mice with a high fructose diet (HFruD) inducing early diabetic state in 4 to 8 weeks. After only 4 weeks of this diet, mice exhibited a dramatic decrease in olfactory behavioral capacities. Consistently, this decline in olfactory behavior was correlated to decreased electrophysiological responses of olfactory neurons recorded as a population and individually. Our results demonstrate that, in rodents, olfaction is modified by HFruD-induced diabetes. Functional, anatomical and behavioral changes occurred in the olfactory system at a very early stage of the disease. PMID:27659313

  11. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses,Murilo de Almeida; Silva,Fabiano Ferreira da; Schio, Alex Resende; Silva,Robério Rodrigues; Souza,Dicastro Dias de; Porto Junior,Antônio Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin) and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 g crude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM) in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feedi...

  12. Body dissatisfaction, dieting and risk behaviors for eating disorders among mothers living in Santos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi; Patrícia da Rocha Pereira; Isis de Carvalho Stelmo; Ramiro Fernandez Unsain; Paula Andrea Martins; Priscila de Morais Sato

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body dissatisfaction, dieting and risk behaviors for eating disorders among a sample of mothers living in the city of Santos. METHODS: It was conducted a cross-sectional population-based study with 453 mothers of children aged until 10 years old. The mothers answered to the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Stunkard's Figure Scale and a question about being currently dieting. RESULTS: 29.9% presented a positive score for risk behaviors for eating disorders and 21.8% w...

  13. Behavioral features of mice fed with a cholesterol-enriched diet:Deficient novelty exploration and unaltered aggressive behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ekaterina Veniaminova; Raymond Cespuglio; Nataliia Markova; Niall Mortimer; Chi Wai Cheung; Harry W Steinbusch; Klaus-Peter Lesch; Tatyana Strekalova

    2016-01-01

    Objectives:Previous studies involving mice have demonstrated that a cholesterol-enriched diet evokes liver steatosis, dystrophy, inflammation, and aspects of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These changes are accompanied by the activation of pro-inflammatory brain and liver molecular pathways, as well as anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Given previously reported evidence for the neurobiological relationship between the above-mentioned molecular changes and abnormalities in coping with environmental stimuli, such as interactions with other individuals and new environmental contexts, we hypothesized that novelty exploration and aggressive behavior are affected in a mouse NAFLD model. Methods:To test this hypothesis, young female C57BL/6J mice were fed with a regular chow or a diet containing 0.2%cholesterol for 3 weeks. The mice were then assessed for new object and novel cage exploration, and social interaction in a food competition test. Results:We found reduced object exploration in mice on the cholesterol-enriched diet. This reduction was not related to whether the new object was placed in an anxiogenic or non-anxiogenic environment. These changes were accompanied by diminished exploration of the new environment in a novel cage, and delayed approach to food after a period of food deprivation. Mice on the regular chow or cholesterol-enriched diet showed no differences in aggressive behavior towards a counter-partner in a food competition test. Food intake and body weight did not differ between the groups, thus, excluding their potential as confounders in the measured behaviors. Conclusions:We conclude that a diet enriched with cholesterol reduces novelty exploration irrespective of the anxiogenic level of the environment and does not induce aggressive behavior in female mice.

  14. Diet as a factor in behavioral radiation protection following exposure to heavy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James; Todd, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Major risks associated with radiation exposures on deep space missions include carcinogenesis due to heavy-particle exposure of cancer-prone tissues and performance decrements due to neurological damage produced by heavy particles. Because exposure to heavy particles can cause oxidative stress, it is possible that antioxidants can be used to mitigate these risks (and possibly some health risks of microgravity). To assess the capacity of antioxidant diets to mitigate the effects of exposure to heavy particles, rats were maintained on antioxidant diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to exposure to 1.5 or 2.0 Gy of accelerated iron particles at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation rats were tested on a series of behavioral tasks: amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning, operant responding and spatial learning and memory. The results indicated that the performance of the irradiated rats maintained on the antioxidant diets was, in general, significantly better than that of the control animals, although the effectiveness of the diets ameliorating the radiation-induced deterioration in performance varied as a function of both the specific diet and the specific endpoint. In addition, animals fed antioxidant diets prior to exposure showed reduced heavy particle-induced tumorigenesis one year after exposure compared to the animals fed the control diet. These results suggest that antioxidant diets have the potential to serve as part of a system designed to provide protection to astronauts against the effects of heavy particles on exploratory missions outside the magnetic field of the earth.

  15. Determinants of Dieting Behavior and Eating Disorders in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Lillian Miller

    This study examines the prevalence and intensity of dieting behavior and the development of eating disorders in a sample of 1269 high school students from ten schools in the Greater Cleveland area. The sample includes four race-sex groups: black and white male and female students. Differences in dieting behavior between these groups are examined and, within each race-sex group, dieters and non-dieters are compared to see whether they differ in such factors as current weight and personal weight history, parental weights, socioeconomic class, religion, birth order, exercise and personality factors such as self-esteem and eating disorder measures. Data were collected using both self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews with a subsample of students. The study documents a higher prevalence of dieting and purging behavior than has been reported in other research. Forty-one percent of both black and white males, 61 percent of black females, and 77 percent of white females dieted and many purged, particularly black females who tended to use laxatives and diuretics and white females and males who tended to use vomiting. Dieters and non -dieters differed significantly in past experience with being overweight and in their current weights. At the time of the study 20 to 30 percent of the dieters were classifiable as overweight. While black and white male dieters and non-dieters were in agreement about ideal body weight, white female dieters and non-dieters wanted considerably lower weights than black female dieters and non-dieters. Ethnicity, as determined by socioeconomic class and religion, was not significantly related to dieting behavior, nor was birth order, a familial factor. It appeared that pervasive cultural pressures to attain an ideal figure affected all race-sex groups and led large percentages of the students to diet, even many who were already underweight.

  16. Design of Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self reg...

  17. Internalization of the Sociocultural Ideal: Weight-Related Attitudes and Dieting Behaviors among Young Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent girls regarding body dissatisfaction, dieting, and internalization of sociocultural values, media-influenced knowledge, acceptance of varied body shapes, and media exposure. Girls understood media influence on self-image and behavior and accepted varied body shapes. Significant numbers reported dissatisfaction with weight and…

  18. Design of video games for children's diet and physical activity behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet, and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and ov...

  19. Artificial diet sandwiches reveal sub-social behavior in the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diet sandwich, consisting of coffee berry borer artificial diet within two glass panes, has been developed to elucidate the behavior of the coffee berry borer, an insect that in nature spends most of its life cycle inside the coffee berry. Various types of behavior have been observed for the first...

  20. Diet, Exercise, Behavior: The Promise and Limits of Lifestyle Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brian; Sothern, Melinda S.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalent surge in childhood and adolescent obesity within the past 3 decades poses a significant challenge for many pediatric clinicians who are charged with treating this condition. The need for comprehensive, research-based pediatric obesity treatment programs are essential in addressing this problem and preventing the transition of obesity and its many co-morbidities into adulthood. This paper will identify dietary, physical activity, and behavioral approaches to lifestyle change and describe how they are incorporated as part of multidisciplinary treatment interventions in youth. Specific tailoring of treatment programs to address age and varying degrees of overweight and obesity will also be presented along with recommendations for future research. PMID:19573757

  1. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Peter [RWTH Aachen U.; Hufnagel, Dirk [Fermilab; Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Gutsche, O. [Fermilab; Tadel, M. [UC, San Diego; Sfiligoi, I. [UC, San Diego; Letts, J. [UC, San Diego; Wuerthwein, F. [UC, San Diego; McCrea, A. [UC, San Diego; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Fajardo, E. [Andes U., Merida; Linares, L. [Andes U., Merida; Wagner, R. [TI, San Diego; Konstantinov, P. [Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res.; Blumenfeld, B. [Johns Hopkins U.; Bradley, D. [Wisconsin U., Madison

    2014-01-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  2. Weight misperception and its association with dieting methods and eating behaviors in South Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjung; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Park, Sangshin; Kim, Cho-Il; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-04-01

    There is little information on the association between weight misperception and eating behavior in Korean adolescents. Therefore, we investigated the association of food intake habits and dieting method and disturbed eating behavior (DEB) in relation to weight misperception. Data was collected by using a nationwide online panel survey from 6,943 adolescents enrolled in middle/high school. DEB was measured with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and those who scored ≥ 20 on the EAT-26 were considered to have eating disorder. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association between weight misperception based on self-reported weight status and dieting method and eating behaviors. The proportion of weight underestimation was 23.5% and that of overestimation was 24.0%. Weight overestimating girls were more likely to engage in various unhealthy dieting practices (OR = 1.69 for fasting; OR = 1.88 for laxative or diuretic use; OR = 2.05 for self-induced vomiting after meals; P eating behaviors, especially among girls, e.g.: having breakfast (OR = 0.85), high consumption of fast foods (OR = 1.28) and regular sodas (OR = 1.39), but not among boys. In both genders, weight overestimation appears to be a major risk factor for DEB (OR = 1.34 for boys and OR = 1.41 for girls; P unhealthy weight control practices and eating behaviors. We particularly found a significant association between weight overestimation and DEB among nationwide Korean adolescents.

  3. Feeding behavior of dairy cows fed different levels of castor meal in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicastro Dias de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of castor meal in the diet of lactating cows in grazing system and its implications in feeding behavior. Eight Holstein x Zebu crossbred cows, with average milk production adjusted to 300 days in the previous lactation, between 5000 and 6000 kg and 100.33 ± 13.33 days of lactation and average body weight of 509.47 ± 61.90 kg, were distributed in two 4 x 4 Latin squares, with 4 levels of castor meal inclusion in the total diet, and using Brachiaria brizantha pasture as roughage. The experiment consisted of four experimental periods, lasting 21 days each. In each trial, the roughage and supplements were collected for evaluation of chemical composition. Animals were subjected to visual observation for evaluation of feeding behavior for 24 hours, from the 20th to the 21st day of each experimental period. The observations of the activities were recorded every five minutes. We determined the number of ruminating chews and the time spent in rumination of each ruminal bolus with the use of digital stopwatch. There was a quadratic effect for the grazing time with maximum point of inclusion of castor meal at 4.61% in the diet; other variables did not differ: rumination, idleness, trough, rumination efficiency, feeding and grazing time, rumination and idleness. Castor meal can be included in the diet with levels up to 10%, for little changes in the feeding behavior of animals.

  4. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holsteinx Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 gcrude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feeding time and rumination and on decrease of idle time with the inclusion of crude glycerin levels (p 0.05. Crude glycerin did not drastically affect the feeding behavior of dairy cows.

  5. Maternal diet influences offspring feeding behavior and fearfulness in the precocial chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Aigueperse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In chicken, oils in the maternal diet confer a specific scent to the yolk. Embryos are known to perceive and memorize chemosensory signals of the surrounding environment; however, the potential impact of the maternal diet has not previously been investigated. In the present study, we hypothesized that chicken embryos memorize the chemical signals of the maternal diet and that this perceptual learning may orient subsequent feeding behavior of the hatchlings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laying hens were fed standard food enriched with 2% menhaden oil (MH group or 2% soybean oil (controls. The scent of menhaden was significantly more detected in MH egg yolks than in control yolks by a human panel. We analyzed the development and behavior of offspring towards different types of food, bearing or not bearing the menhaden scent. When chicks were exposed to a 3-min choice test between the familiar food bearing the menhaden scent and the familiar food without menhaden, no effect of treatment was observed. In a 3-min choice test with unfamiliar food (mashed cereals MH chicks showed a clear positive orientation toward the unfamiliar food bearing the menhaden scent. By contrast, control chicks showed a preference for the non-odorized unfamiliar food. MH chicks expressed higher emotional reactivity level than control chicks as expressed by food neophobia and longer immobility in a restraint test. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Chicks exposed in ovo to menhaden oil via the maternal diet preferentially oriented their feeding behavior towards food containing menhaden oil, but only when the food was unfamiliar. We propose that oil in the maternal diet engenders maternal effects and contributes to the development of behavioral phenotype in the offspring. In ovo chemosensory learning may have evolved to prepare precocial offspring for their environment. This suggests a common principle of embryonic chemosensory learning across vertebrate taxa.

  6. Fat- and fiber-related diet behavior among type 2 diabetes patients from distinct regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrychova T

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tereza Hendrychova,1 Magda Vytrisalova,1 Abdullah Alwarafi,2 Jurjen Duintjer Tebbens,3,4 Helena Vankatova,1 Sandra Leal,5 Ales Antonin Kubena,1 Alena Smahelova,6 Jiri Vlcek1 1Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic; 2Faculty of Dentistry, Ibb University, Ibb, Yemen; 3Department of Biophysics and Physical Chemics, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic; 4Institute of Computer Science, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Clinical Pharmacy, El Rio Community Health Center, Tucson, AZ, USA; 6Diabetes Center, Department of Gerontology and Metabolism, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Purpose: Diet and eating habits are of key importance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The purpose of this comparative study was to analyze fat- and fiber-related behavior (FFB in patients with T2DM from distinct cultural areas. Patients and methods: Observational study was carried out in the Czech Republic (CR (n=200, the US (n=207, and Yemen (n=200. Patients completed the Fat- and Fiber-related Diet Behavior Questionnaire (FFBQ. Results: Differences in all aspects of FFB among countries were found (P<0.05. The best fat-related behavior reported was from patients from the CR. Patients from the US showed the worst fat-related behavior in total. On the other hand, patients from the US reported the best fiber-related behavior. Patients from Yemen reached the worst scores in all fat-related domains. Patients from all studied countries reported the best results in the “modify meat” and “avoid fat as flavoring” and the worst in the “substitute high fiber” subscales. Conclusion: Professionals involved in the diet education of T2DM patients

  7. Ketogenic diets improve behaviors associated with autism spectrum disorder in a sex-specific manner in the EL mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, David N; Fortin, Jessica A; Bisnauth, Subrina N; Masino, Susan A

    2017-01-01

    The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are poorly treated with current medications. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are frequently comorbid with a diagnosis of epilepsy and vice versa. Medically-supervised ketogenic diets are remarkably effective nonpharmacological treatments for epilepsy, even in drug-refractory cases. There is accumulating evidence that supports the efficacy of ketogenic diets in treating the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders in animal models as well as limited reports of benefits in patients. This study tests the behavioral effects of ketogenic diet feeding in the EL mouse, a model with behavioral characteristics of autism spectrum disorder and comorbid epilepsy. Male and female EL mice were fed control diet or one of two ketogenic diet formulas ad libitum starting at 5weeks of age. Beginning at 8weeks of age, diet protocols continued and performance of each group on tests of sociability and repetitive behavior was assessed. A ketogenic diet improved behavioral characteristics of autism spectrum disorder in a sex- and test-specific manner; ketogenic diet never worsened relevant behaviors. Ketogenic diet feeding improved multiple measures of sociability and reduced repetitive behavior in female mice, with limited effects in males. Additional experiments in female mice showed that a less strict, more clinically-relevant diet formula was equally effective in improving sociability and reducing repetitive behavior. Taken together these results add to the growing number of studies suggesting that ketogenic and related diets may provide significant relief from the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, and suggest that in some cases there may be increased efficacy in females. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stimulating Creativity Through Opportunistic Software Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Gasevic, D.; Eliëns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Using opportunistic software development principles in computer engineering education encourages students to be creative and to develop solutions that cross the boundaries of diverse technologies. A framework for opportunistic software development education helps to create a space in which students

  9. Heart and liver lipid fatty acid and behavior changes in mice after a diet change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchell, B B

    1984-04-23

    270-Day old, male Ham/ICR mice were subjected to a diet change from high protein and carbohydrate and low fat to a diet higher in fat and lower in carbohydrate and protein. Age matched mice were maintained on laboratory rodent chow as controls. The diet change was not defined so the observed differences could not necessarily be ascribed to altered protein, carbohydrate, or fat intake. Comparison of the controls with the experimental mice revealed the " junk food" mice differed in lipid fatty acid profiles of the heart and liver and in percentage of lipid palmitic and oleic acids in these organs and also in plasma. Appearance was altered in the experimental mice which had dull, greasy coats. In addition, the experimental animals were less active, slept singly, and were slower in negotiating a three-choice maze than their comparably housed counterparts, indicating altered activity/curiosity behavior.

  10. Developmental programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet: focus on inflammatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Jessica L; Bilbo, Staci D

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is now epidemic worldwide. Beyond associated diseases such as diabetes, obesity is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Alarmingly maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption during gestation/lactation may "program" offspring longterm for increased obesity themselves, along with increased vulnerability to mood disorders. We review the evidence that programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet is propagated by inflammatory mechanisms, as obesity and high-fat diets are independently associated with exaggerated systemic levels of inflammatory mediators. Due to the recognized dual role of these immune molecules (eg, interleukin [IL]-6, 11-1β) in placental function and brain development, any disruption of their delicate balance with growth factors or neurotransmitters (eg, serotonin) by inflammation early in life can permanently alter the trajectory of fetal brain development. Finally, epigenetic regulation of inflammatory pathways is a likely candidate for persistent changes in metabolic and brain function as a consequence of the perinatal environment.

  11. Feeding behavior of sheep fed diets with Elaeis guineensis palm kernel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Damasceno Pinho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the feeding behavior of sheep fed with diets containing different levels of palm kernel meal (PKM substituted for corn silage, a metabolic assay was performed on 20 ewes (5 treatments × 4 replicates over 25 d. The animals received corn silage diets with the addition of increasing levels of PKM (0, 15, 30, 45, and 60%. The following parameters were evaluated: dry matter (DM intake, neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake, feeding time, rumination time, idle time, number of merycism mastications per bolus, time spent ruminating each bolus, DM and NDF per bolus, number of ruminated boluses per day, feeding and rumination efficiency, total chewing time, and number of merycism mastications per day. The daily intake of both DM and NDF increased linearly (P < 0.05, and when sheep were fed diets of at least 43.18 and 39.15% PKM, respectively, the consumption values were significantly different than when sheep were fed diets with 0% PKM (P < 0.05. In contrast, feeding time declined linearly, and in response to diets with at least 28.05% PKM, the sheep exhibited significantly different feeding times from those of sheep fed 0% PKM, with a reduction of 0.0613 percentage points per 1% increase in PKM. Idle time, rumination time, and rumination time per bolus each exhibited quadratic responses (P < 0.05, and the minimum rumination time per bolus was 44.37 s with 35.19% PKM. A quadratic response was also observed for total chewing time and both measures of merycism mastications (P < 0.05. Therefore, we concluded that the inclusion of PKM in the diets of sheep improves some parameters of feeding behavior, and the use of PKM is recommended at DM percentages of up to 40%.

  12. Behavioral Disturbances: An Innovative Approach to Monitor the Modulatory Effects of a Nutraceutical Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Sechi, Sara; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella

    2017-01-03

    In dogs, diets are often used to modulate behavioral disturbances related to chronic anxiety and stress caused by intense and restless activity. However, the traditional ways to monitor behavioral changes in dogs are complicated and not efficient. In the current clinical evaluation, a new, simple monitoring system was used to assess the effectiveness of a specific diet in positively modulating the intense and restless activity of 24 dogs of different ages and breeds. This protocol describes how to easily and rapidly evaluate improvement in a set of symptoms related to generalized anxiety by using a specific sensor, a mobile phone app, a wireless router, and a computer. The results showed that dogs treated with specific diets showed significant improvement in the times spent active and at rest after 10 days (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). These dogs also showed an overall significant improvement in clinical and behavioral symptoms. A specific sensor, along with its related hardware, was demonstrated to successfully monitor behavioral changes relating to movement in dogs.

  13. Multiple Behavior Change in Diet and Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial Using Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; McFadden, H.G.; Vaughn, Jocelyn; Kozak, Andrea T.; Smith, Malaina; Moller, Arlen C.; Epstein, Leonard H.; DeMott, Andrew; Hedeker, Donald; Siddique, Juned; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients exhibit multiple chronic disease risk behaviors. Research provides little information about advice that can maximize simultaneous health behavior changes. Methods To test which combination of diet and activity advice maximizes healthy change, we randomized 204 adults with elevated saturated fat and low fruit/vegetable intakes, high sedentary leisure time and low physical activity to one of four treatments: increase fruit/vegetable and physical activity; decrease fat and sedentary leisure; decrease fat and increase physical activity; increase fruit/vegetable and decrease sedentary leisure. Treatments provided three weeks of remote coaching supported by mobile decision support technology and financial incentives. During treatment, incentives were contingent on using the mobile device to self-monitor and attain behavioral targets; during follow-up they were contingent only on recording. The outcome was standardized, composite improvement on the four diet and activity behaviors at end of treatment and five month follow-up. Results Of those randomized, 200 (98%) completed follow-up. The increase fruit/vegetable and decrease sedentary leisure treatment improved more than the other 3 treatments (p<.001). Specifically, fruit/vegetables increased from 1.2 servings/day to 5.5; sedentary leisure decreased from 219.2 minutes/day to 89.3; saturated fat decreased from 12.0% of calories consumed to 9.5%. Differences between treatment groups were maintained through follow-up. Traditional dieting (decrease fat and increase physical activity) improved less than the other 3 treatments (p<.001). Conclusions Remote coaching supported by mobile technology and financial incentives holds promise to improve diet and activity. Targeting fruits/vegetables and sedentary leisure together maximizes overall adoption and maintenance of multiple healthy behavior changes. PMID:22636824

  14. Predictive behaviors for anxiety and depression in female Wistar rats subjected to cafeteria diet and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; da Silva Castro, André Luis; da Silva Torres, Iraci Lucena; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2015-11-01

    Obesity and chronic stress have been considered important public health problems that affect millions of people worldwide. Our aim was to analyze the effect of obesity associated with chronic stress on neurobehavioral parameters in female rats, considering that the association of these syndromes can enhance the negative effects on homeostasis. The animals were distributed into standard diet (Std), standard diet+stress (Std+stress), cafeteria diet (Cafe), and cafeteria diet+stress (Cafe+stress) groups. The animals of groups Std and Std+stress were fed with rodent standard feed. Groups Cafe and Cafe+stress, additionally to the standard feed, were offered palatable and calorie-rich processed food and cola-type soft drink ad libitum. From the eighth experimental week, groups Std+stress and Cafe+stress were subjected to restraint chronic stress model (50 days). After the stress protocol, predictive anxiety (open-field and elevated plus-maze tests) and depression (forced swim) were applied. The cafeteria diet was effective in inducing obesity. The ratio locomotion in the central quadrants/total locomotion evaluated during the open field test was not indicative of anxiogenic or anxiolytic effect in the animal's behavior. However, the elevated plus maze test showed that obese and stressed animals were prone to higher anxiety levels. In addition, the obese and stressed animals display less climbing behavior than all the other groups, which can be considered an indicator of depression-like behavior. Nevertheless, it is suggested that the mechanisms involved in effects of obesity associated with chronic stress be better investigated in female rats, considering the organic complexity related to these modern illnesses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavioral changes induced by cocaine in mice are modified by a hyperlipidic diet or recombinant leptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Erhardt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine if the acute behavioral effects of cocaine acutely administered intraperitoneally (ip at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg on white male CF1 mice, 90 days of age, would be influenced by leptin acutely administered ip (at doses of 5, 10 and 20 µg/kg or by endogenous leptin production enhanced by a high-fat diet. The acute behavioral effects of cocaine were evaluated in open-field, elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests. Results were compared between a group of 80 mice consuming a balanced diet and a high-fat diet, and a group of 80 mice fed a commercially available rodent chow formula (Ralston Purina but receiving recombinant leptin (rLeptin or saline ip. Both the high-fat-fed and rLeptin-treated mice showed decreased locomotion in the open-field test, spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze and showed less immobility time in the forced swimming test (F(1,68 = 7.834, P = 0.007. There was an interaction between diets and cocaine/saline treatments in locomotion (F(3,34 = 3.751, P = 0.020 and exploration (F(3,34 = 3.581, P = 0.024. These results suggest that anxiolytic effects and increased general activity were induced by leptin in cocaine-treated mice and that low leptin levels are associated with behavioral depression. Chronic changes in diet composition producing high leptin levels or rLeptin treatment may result in an altered response to cocaine in ethologic tests that measure degrees of anxiety and depression, which could be attributed to an antagonistic effect of leptin.

  16. Outage probability of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUAI Gang; ZHANG Bao-zhi; LIU Xing-mei; GAO Li

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the outage probability behavior of a relay network over Nakagami-m fading channels is analyzed. Both reactive and proactive opportunistic decode-and-forward (DAF) strategies are considered. The closed-form solutions to the outage probabilities on both opportunistic DAF strategies are derived. Simulation results conf'Lrrn the presented mathematical analysis.

  17. Ingestive behavior of Nellore steers in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the feeding behavior of Nellore beef cattle in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids. Twenty-seven animals averaging 350 ± 24 kg of body weight and 24 months of age, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T, where, T1-TDFC: total diet containing flint corn, T2-TDSFC: total diet containing semi-flint corn and T3-TDSDC: total diet containing semi-dent corn, with 9 replicates per treatment. The animals were fed ad libitum twice a day (at 8:00am and 4:00pm with a isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet, with 30% of sugar cane bagasse and 70% concentrate (88% maize, 8% soybean meal, 3% mineral and vitamin supplement and 1% urea for 95 days (14 days of adaptation and 3 experimental periods of 27 days each. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and after each period of 27 days, always in a fasting period of 16 hours. The evaluation of animals feeding behavior occurred at the last day of each period by visual observation every five minutes for full periods of 24 hours. Observations were made in four shifts: morning (06:00 to 12:00, afternoon (12:00 to 18:00, evening (18:00 to 00:00 and early morning (00:00 06:00 to determine the number of ruminal bolus, chewing time, total feeding time, total ruminating standing time, total ruminating lying time, total standing idle time and total lying idle time. During the night’s observations, the stalls received artificial illumination to facilitate the data collection and the animals were adapted with light at night for three days before observations. Animals fed with diets containing semi-dent corn had longer chew time and more ruminal bolus than those fed with flint corn, but did not differ from those that received semi-flint corn in the diet. The chewing time and number of ruminal bolus varied with the observation periods, being higher in the morning and decreasing in the

  18. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena, Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed with a positive KOH test and culture. RESULTS: 32 cases (0.76%) of onychomycosis caused by opportunistic molds were confirmed. The most affected age group ranged from 41 to 65 years (15 patients, 46.9%) and females were more commonly affected (21 cases, 65.6%) than males. Lateral and distal subungual onychomycosis (OSD-L) was detected in 20 cases (62.5%). The microscopic examination with KOH showed filaments in 19 cases (59.4%), dermatophytoma in 9 cases (28.1%), spores in 2 cases (6.25%), and filaments and spores in 2 cases (6.25%). Etiologic agents: Aspergillus sp., 11 cases (34.4%); Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, 8 cases (25.0%); Cladosporium sp., 3 cases (9.4%); Acremonium sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Paecilomyces sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Tritirachium oryzae, 2 cases (6.25%); Fusarium sp., Phialophora sp., Rhizopus sp. and Alternaria alternate, 1 case (3.1%) each. CONCLUSIONS: We found onychomycosis by opportunistic molds in 0.76% of the cases and DLSO was present in 62.5%. The most frequent isolated etiological agents were: Aspergillus sp. and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. PMID:26131862

  19. Eating behaviors, diet quality, and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Eriksen, Whitney T; Souders, Margaret C; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their caregivers face unique challenges in the children's daily eating routines and food intake patterns. The aim of this brief review is to describe eating behaviors of children with ASD, including increased food neophobia and food selectivity, and review findings on children's diet quality, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Advancing knowledge about the interrelationships between these nutrition-related domains in children with ASD is expected to have important implications for clinical nursing practice and caregiver care.

  20. Controlling Your "App"etite: How Diet and Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps Lead to Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Belvedere, Lindsay M; Andreasen, Rebecca; Frandsen, Christine; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2017-07-10

    In recent years, obesity has become a serious public health crisis in the United States. Although the problem of obesity is being addressed through a variety of strategies, the use of mobile apps is a relatively new development that could prove useful in helping people to develop healthy dietary habits. Though such apps might lead to health behavior change, especially when relevant behavior change theory constructs are integrated into them, the mechanisms by which these apps facilitate behavior change are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify which behavior change mechanisms are associated with the use of diet- and nutrition-related health apps and whether the use of diet- and nutrition-related apps is associated with health behavior change. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a total of 217 participants. Participants responded to questions on demographics, use of diet and nutrition apps in the past 6 months, engagement and likability of apps, and changes in the participant's dietary behaviors. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with reported changes in theory and separately for reported changes in actual behavior, after controlling for potential confounding variables. The majority of study participants agreed or strongly agreed with statements regarding app use increasing their motivation to eat a healthy diet, improving their self-efficacy, and increasing their desire to set and achieve health diet goals. Additionally, majority of participants strongly agreed that using diet/nutrition apps led to changes in their behavior, namely increases in actual goal setting to eat a healthy diet (58.5%, 127/217), increases in their frequency of eating healthy foods (57.6%, 125/217), and increases in their consistency of eating healthy foods (54.4%, 118/217). Participants also responded favorably to questions related to engagement and likability of diet/nutrition apps. A number of predictors were also positively

  1. Predictors of dieting and disordered eating behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Rich; Bucchianeri, Michaela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-11-01

    To identify personal and socioenvironmental factors associated with the persistence of dieting or disordered eating from adolescence to young adulthood and factors associated with the initiation of dieting or disordered eating during young adulthood. Participants (n = 4,746) completed EAT-I surveys as adolescents; EAT-III surveys were completed 10 years later by 1,902 of the original participants (1,082 females and 820 males). Study results indicate that there are personal factors, including weight concerns, weight importance, depressive symptoms and body satisfaction, present during adolescence that are predictive of an individual's engagement in dieting or disordered eating behaviors 10 years later. For example, among both males and females, weight importance was found to be predictive of continued dieting and disordered eating from adolescence through young adulthood. For example, 26.1% of males with low levels of weight concern at baseline reported engaging in persistent disordered eating as compared with 60.4% of males with high levels of weight concern at baseline (prevalence difference: 34.3; 95% confidence interval: 10.5-58.1; p adolescence were found to be predictive of both persistent dieting and disordered eating from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as initiation of these behaviors during young adulthood. In particular, weight concerns and weight importance were found to be predictive in most models providing support for inclusion of these factors in adolescent health screening. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo de Meneses, J; Junqueira Lopes, C A; Coca Velarde, L G; Teles Boaventura, G

    2011-01-01

    Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6): FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.

  3. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors The U.S. Preventive ...

  4. Effect of a diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesund, E R; Bere, E; Sagedal, L R; Vistad, I; Øverby, N C

    2016-10-01

    A mother's diet during pregnancy has the potential to influence both her own and her child's short- and long-term health. This paper reports the effects of a randomized controlled diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior post-intervention as reported in late pregnancy. The diet intervention was part of a lifestyle intervention targeting both diet and physical activity behaviors among nulliparous women participating in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study (NFFD). Eligible women were enrolled in early pregnancy from eight healthcare clinics in southern Norway between 2009 and 2013. The diet intervention was based on 10 dietary recommendations that were conveyed during two counseling sessions by phone and in a pamphlet describing the recommendations and their simplified rationale. A diet score was constructed from a 43-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and used to assess intervention effect on dietary behavior (score range 0-10). Between-group dietary differences post-intervention were estimated with analysis of covariance, with adjustment for baseline diet. A total of 508 women completed the FFQ both at baseline and post-intervention. There were no between-group differences in diet score and subscales at baseline. Post-intervention, the intervention group had higher overall diet score (control: 4.61, intervention: 5.04, P=0.013) and favorable dietary behavior in seven of the 10 dietary domains: 'consumption of water relative to total beverage consumption' (P=0.002), 'having vegetables with dinner' (P=0.027), 'choosing fruits and vegetables for between-meal snacks' (P=0.023), 'buying small portion sizes of unhealthy foods' (P=0.010), 'limiting sugar intake' (P=0.005), 'avoiding eating beyond satiety' (P=0.009) and 'reading food labels' (P=0.011). The NFFD diet intervention improved dietary behavior. Potential long-term clinical influence in mother and child will be investigated in further studies.

  5. Ketogenic diet improves behaviors in a maternal immune activation model of autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, David N.; Murphy, Michelle I.; Slade, Sierra L.; Masino, Susan A.

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal factors influence autism spectrum disorder (ASD) incidence in children and can increase ASD symptoms in offspring of animal models. These may include maternal immune activation (MIA) due to viral or bacterial infection during the first trimesters. Unfortunately, regardless of ASD etiology, existing drugs are poorly effective against core symptoms. For nearly a century a ketogenic diet (KD) has been used to treat seizures, and recent insights into mechanisms of ASD and a growing recognition that immune/inflammatory conditions exacerbate ASD risk has increased interest in KD as a treatment for ASD. Here we studied the effects of KD on core ASD symptoms in offspring exposed to MIA. To produce MIA, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were injected with the viral mimic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid; after weaning offspring were fed KD or control diet for three weeks. Consistent with an ASD phenotype of a higher incidence in males, control diet-fed MIA male offspring were not social and exhibited high levels of repetitive self-directed behaviors; female offspring were unaffected. However, KD feeding partially or completely reversed all MIA-induced behavioral abnormalities in males; it had no effect on behavior in females. KD-induced metabolic changes of reduced blood glucose and elevated blood ketones were quantified in offspring of both sexes. Prior work from our laboratory and others demonstrate KDs improve relevant behaviors in several ASD models, and here we demonstrate clear benefits of KD in the MIA model of ASD. Together these studies suggest a broad utility for metabolic therapy in improving core ASD symptoms, and support further research to develop and apply ketogenic and/or metabolic strategies in patients with ASD. PMID:28166277

  6. Diet, age, and prior injury status differentially alter behavioral outcomes following concussion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychasiuk, Richelle; Hehar, Harleen; van Waes, Linda; Esser, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion affects a large portion of the population and although many of these individuals recover completely, a small subset of people experience lingering symptomology and poor outcomes. Little is known about the factors that affect individual susceptibility or resilience to poor outcomes after mTBI and there are currently no biomarkers to delineate mTBI diagnosis or prognosis. Based upon the growing literature associated with caloric intake and altered neurological aging and the ambiguous link between repetitive mTBI and progressive neurodegeneration, the current study was designed to examine the effect of a high fat diet (HFD), developmental age, and repetitive mTBI on behavioral outcomes following a mTBI. In addition, telomere length was examined before and after experimental mTBI. Sprague Dawley rats were maintained on a HFD or standard rat chow throughout life (including the prenatal period) and then experienced an mTBI/concussion at P30, P30 and P60, or only at P60. Behavioral outcomes were examined using a test battery that was administered between P61-P80 and included; beam-walking, open field, elevated plus maze, novel context mismatch, Morris water task, and forced swim task. Animals with a P30 mTBI often demonstrated lingering symptomology that was still present during testing at P80. Injuries at P30 and P60 rarely produced cumulative effects, and in some tests (i.e., beam walking), the first injury may have protected the brain from the second injury. Exposure to the high fat diet exacerbated many of the behavioral deficits associated with concussion. Finally, telomere length was shortened following mTBI and was influenced by the animal's dietary intake. Diet, age at the time of injury, and the number of prior concussion incidents differentially contribute to behavioral deficits and may help explain individual variations in susceptibility and resilience to poor outcomes following an mTBI.

  7. Diet and behavior of the Saint-Césaire Neanderthal inferred from biogeochemical data inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, Vincent; Simon, Laurent

    2006-10-01

    Biogeochemistry is a powerful tool for dietary reconstruction, and mixing equations can be used to quantify the contribution of multiple sources to an individual's diet. The goals of this paper are: 1) to generalize the inverse method to dietary mixtures; and 2) to reconstruct the diet of the Saint-Césaire Neanderthal using Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca data of the mineral fraction of bone (hydroxylapatite), and with published delta13C and delta15N data of the associated organic fraction of bone (collagen). A new method is proposed to calculate the maximum diagenetic contribution of the Sr/Ba ratio, assuming that the soil soluble fraction is the diagenetic end-member and, for a given fraction of diagenesis, allows the restoration of the original Sr/Ba ratio. Considering the Saint-Césaire Châtelperronian mammalian assemblage as the meat source, and on the basis of available Sr, Ba, and Ca contents of plants, the results indicate that the percentage of plants in the Neanderthal's diet must have been close to zero for realistic Sr and Ba impoverishment between diet and hydroxylapatite. Contrary to previous studies, it is shown that fish could constitute a significant proportion (30%) of the diet of the Saint-Césaire Neanderthal. However, this mass balance solution is not supported by the zooarchaeological data. When the entire faunal assemblage is considered as the dietary source, the calculation shows that bovids (except reindeer) represent the greatest percentage of consumed meat (58%), followed by horses/rhinoceros (22%), reindeer (13%), and mammoths (7%). These respective percentages are in close accordance with zooarchaeological records, suggesting that the faunal assemblage associated with the Neanderthal of Saint-Césaire reliably reflects what he ate during the last few years of his life. In behavioral terms, this result supports the hypothesis that this Neanderthal carried the foodstuffs back to the Saint-Césaire shelter before their consumption.

  8. Node-Dependence-Based Dynamic Incentive Algorithm in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networks lack end-to-end paths between source nodes and destination nodes, so the communications are mainly carried out by the “store-carry-forward” strategy. Selfish behaviors of rejecting packet relay requests will severely worsen the network performance. Incentive is an efficient way to reduce selfish behaviors and hence improves the reliability and robustness of the networks. In this paper, we propose the node-dependence-based dynamic gaming incentive (NDI algorithm, which exploits the dynamic repeated gaming to motivate nodes relaying packets for other nodes. The NDI algorithm presents a mechanism of tolerating selfish behaviors of nodes. Reward and punishment methods are also designed based on the node dependence degree. Simulation results show that the NDI algorithm is effective in increasing the delivery ratio and decreasing average latency when there are a lot of selfish nodes in the opportunistic networks.

  9. OPPORTUNISTIC MICROORGANISMS IN RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Gulneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on the role of opportunistic microorganisms (OMs in rheumatic diseases (RDs. OMs are anticipated to be involved as triggers initiating the development of chronic inflammation. Along with this, OMs in autoimmune diseases may play a defensive role through the interaction with Toll-like receptors and the activation of T cells that have suppressor activity. The possible involvement of OMs in the pathogenesis of RDs provides support not only the isolation of microorganisms, but also the detection of antibacterial antibodies of different classes. Of great importance are OMs in the etiology of comorbid infections, the risk of which is due to both the presence of autoimmune RDs and the necessity of using the drugs having immunosuppressive activity. The active clinical introduction of biological agents is followed by a rise in the rate and severity of different infections, including those caused by OMs. Having a marked biological and environmental plasticity, OMs are able to persist long when there are changes in the immune defense of patients with RDs. There is evidence for the higher adhesive properties and persistent potential of the microorganisms that colonize the body of patients with RDs. In the latter, OMs that are distinguished by pronounced antibiotic polyresistance are isolated, making the treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections more difficult in rheumatology. The results of the papers analyzed in the review suggest that the study of OMs in RDs is of practical importance.

  10. Opportunistic Identification of Vertebral Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are powerful predictors of future fracture, so, their identification is important to ensure that patients are commenced on appropriate bone protective or bone-enhancing therapy. Risk factors (e.g., low bone mineral density and increasing age) and symptoms (back pain, loss of height) may herald the presence of vertebral fractures, which are usually confirmed by performing spinal radiographs or, increasingly, using vertebral fracture assessment with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanners. However, a large number (30% or more) of vertebral fractures are asymptomatic and do not come to clinical attention. There is, therefore, scope for opportunistic (fortuitous) identification of vertebral fractures from various imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and radionuclide scans) performed for other clinical indications and which include the spine in the field of view, with midline sagittal reformatted images from computed tomography having the greatest potential for such opportunistic detection. Numerous studies confirm this potential for identification but consistently find underreporting of vertebral fractures. So, a valuable opportunity to improve the management of patients at increased risk of future fracture is being squandered. Educational training programs for all clinicians and constant reiteration, stressing the importance of the accurate and clear reporting of vertebral fractures ("you only see what you look for"), can improve the situation, and automated computer-aided diagnostic tools also show promise to solve the problem of this underreporting of vertebral fractures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO

    2008-01-01

    As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.

  12. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of including of palm kernel cake on feeding behavior of lactating crossbred cows. Twelve crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares, with the following treatments: control; inclusion of 5%; inclusion of 10%; inclusion of 15% palm kernel cake in the diet dry matter. The animals were observed during four periods as to feeding behavior, 24 hours in each period. There was no effect of inclusion of palm kernel cake (p > 0.05 on time spent on eating, ruminating and idling. The feeding efficiencies of dry matter and corrected neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients, and the rumination efficiency of corrected neutral detergent fiber were not influenced (p > 0.05. There was a linear increase with the inclusion of palm kernel cake (p 0.05. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in diets for dairy cows causes no change in behavior activities and efficiencies of feeding and rumination, until the 15% level of inclusion.

  13. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  14. Behavior rather than diet mediates seasonal differences in seed dispersal by Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Weerasinghe, Udayani R; Takatsuki, Seiki; Pastorini, Jennifer; Leimgruber, Peter; Fernando, Prithiviraj; Santamaría, Luis

    2008-10-01

    Digestive physiology and movement patterns of animal dispersers determine deposition patterns for endozoochorously dispersed seeds. We combined data from feeding trials, germination tests, and GPS telemetry of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to (1) describe the spatial scale at which Asian elephants disperse seeds; (2) assess whether seasonal differences in diet composition and ranging behavior translate into differences in seed shadows; and (3) evaluate whether scale and seasonal patterns vary between two ecologically distinct areas: Sri Lanka's dry monsoon forests and Myanmar's (Burma) mixed-deciduous forests. The combination of seed retention times (mean 39.5 h, maximum 114 h) and elephant displacement rates (average 1988 m in 116 hours) resulted in 50% of seeds dispersed over 1.2 km (mean 1222-2105 m, maximum 5772 m). Shifts in diet composition did not affect gut retention time and germination of ingested seeds. Elephant displacements were slightly longer, with stronger seasonal variation in Myanmar. As a consequence, seed dispersal curves varied seasonally with longer distances during the dry season in Myanmar but not in Sri Lanka. Seasonal and geographic variation in seed dispersal curves was the result of variation in elephant movement patterns, rather than the effect of diet changes on the fate of ingested seeds.

  15. High fat diet produces brain insulin resistance, synaptodendritic abnormalities and altered behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven E; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R; Carlson, Gregory C; Browne, Caroline A; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F; Kim, Sangwon F

    2014-07-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS(616)), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors.

  16. [Weight control behaviors in dieting adolescent girls and their relation to body dissatisfaction and obsession with thinness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, M Liliana A; Morán, Javier K; Frez, Scarlett H; Lagos, Carola O; Marín, María Paz F; de los Ángeles Pinto B, María; Suzarte, Érika A

    2015-01-01

    Obsession with thinness and body dissatisfaction can lead adolescents to follow unsupervised diets, which could result in risky weight control behaviors such as fasting, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives. The aim of the current study is to examine weight control behaviors in dieting adolescents and relate them to body dissatisfaction (BD) and obsession with thinness (OT). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 439 adolescents from Valparaiso public schools to investigate risky weight control behaviors due to BD and OT scales from the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), comparing restrained eaters and non-restrained eaters. A total of 43% adolescents had followed a weight loss diet without medical supervision. The dieters had higher BD and OT values. Moderate to severe food restriction, based on expert judgment, was observed in 29.6%, and differences in the presence and severity of purging behaviors were found between the 2 groups. One third of the adolescents studied followed diets without professional supervision and had higher BD and OT values, as well as risky weight control behaviors. Overweight and obese adolescents followed more restrictive diets and developed riskier weight control behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  18. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  19. Routing Issues in Opportunistic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marco; Crowcroft, Jon; Giordano, Silvia; Hui, Pan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Passarella, Andrea

    The opportunistic networking idea stems from the critical review of the research field on Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). After more than ten years of research in the MANET field, this promising technology still has not massively entered the mass market. One of the main reasons of this is nowadays seen in the lack of a practical approach to the design of infrastructure-less multi-hop ad hoc networks [186, 185]. One of the main approaches of conventional MANET research is to design protocols that mask the features of mobile networks via the routing (and transport) layer, so as to expose to higher layers an Internet-like network abstraction. Wireless networks’ peculiarities, such as mobility of users, disconnection of nodes, network partitions, links’ instability, are seen—as in the legacy Internet—as exceptions. This often results in the design of MANET network stacks that are significantly complex and unstable [107].

  20. Design of Video Games for Children's Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self regulatory behaviors (problem solving, goal setting, goal review, decision making), rewards (e.g., points and positive statements generated by the program), immediate feedback (e.g., through characters and/or statements that appear on the computer screen at critical decision points), and personalization (e.g., tailored choices offered at critical junctures, based on responses to baselines questions related to preferences, outcome expectancies, etc). We are in the earliest stages of learning how to optimally design effective behavior change procedures for use in VG, and yet they have been demonstrated to change behavior. As we learn, VG offer more and better opportunities for obesity prevention that can adjust to individual needs and preferences.

  1. Evaluation of dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha fed different levels of concentrate at diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this research was to evaluate the dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha submitted to different levels of concentrate supplementation in the diet. Used 16 lactating cows ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, with an average of 80 ±10.14 days of lactation and body weight of 454.7 ± 54.51 kg. The animals were distributed in four treatments, using a 4x4 Latin square. The evaluation of behavior was done every ten minutes, during 24 hours on the 16th day of period. We used analysis of variance and regression probability of 0.05. The time spent grazing, ruminating and other activities, the numbers of grazing, ruminating, of bites per day and chews per cake, the grazing times, total power and total chewing, bit rate, time to swallow; time per bolus ruminated; chewing speed and power efficiency for NDF were not altered by increased levels of concentrate. The time of trough, the trough period, the bit size, the chews time for bolus, feeding efficiency for DM, NFC, and TDN and rumination efficiency linearly increased. Periods of rumination, deglutition bits, number of rumination chews per day, decreased linearly with increasing levels of concentrate. Significant quadratic effect of concentrate level on the number of periods in other activities and over time on other activities. Supplementation with 33.8% concentrate in the diet of cows grazing not promote changes in the activity of grazing, ruminating and other activities, but increases the time of trough. The increase in concentrate diet improves the efficiencies of feeding and rumination

  2. Feeding behavior of dairy cows on pasture fed detoxicated castor meal in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ferraz Porto Junior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the feeding behavior of lactating cows on pasture of Brachiaria (Urochloa decumbens fed with concentrate supplementation containing different levels of castor meal inclusion treated with calcium hydroxide Ca (OH 2, in the proportions of 0; 3.3; 6.6 to 10% of the total diet. Eight cows (degree of blood ½ to ¾ Holstein x Zebu, with previous average production of 3000-4000 kg adjusted to 300 days of lactation and average body weight of 465.16 kg ± 65.45 kg were distributed in two 4 x 4 Latin squares. The behavior was assessed every five minutes for 24 hours on the 21st day of each period. The results were tested by analysis of variance and regression at p < 0.05 probability. The time spent in grazing, rumination, idle and in the trough; total chewing time, number of cuds per day, chewing per day; chewing per cud; the number of periods of grazing, rumination, idle and in the trough; time spent by period of grazing, rumination, idle and in the trough were not different between treatments. The feed efficiency (g DM h-1; g NDFa h-1 and g TDN h-1 and time spent per cud ruminated TSR sec cud-1 were linearly reduced. It is recommended to include up to 10% castor meal treated with Ca (OH2 in the total diet.

  3. Opportunists and opportunities: the 2010 SHEA Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, David K

    2010-11-01

    My experience as a hospital epidemiologist at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center has underscored the importance of aggressively managing infection with opportunistic pathogens and of taking advantage of opportunities as they arise (most often as crises). I review selected aspects of my career and use these as examples of the opportunists and opportunities now facing healthcare epidemiology.

  4. Perceived influence and college students' diet and physical activity behaviors: an examination of ego-centric social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brook E; Forthofer, Melinda; Bantum, Erin O; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-06

    Obesity is partially a social phenomenon, with college students particularly vulnerable to changes in social networks and obesity-related behaviors. Currently, little is known about the structure of social networks among college students and their potential influence on diet and physical activity behaviors. The purpose of the study was to examine social influences impacting college students' diet and physical activity behaviors, including sources of influence, comparisons between sources' and students' behaviors, and associations with meeting diet and physical activity recommendations. Data was collected from 40 students attending college in Hawaii. Participants completed diet and physical activity questionnaires and a name generator. Participants rated nominees' influence on their diet and physical activity behaviors as well as compared nominees' behaviors to their own. Descriptive statistics were used to look at perceptions of influence across network groups. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between network variables and odds of meeting recommendations. A total of 325 nominations were made and included: family (n = 116), college friends (n = 104), high school friends (n = 87), and significant others (n = 18). Nearly half of participants were not from Hawaii. Significant others of non-Hawaii students were perceived to be the most influential (M(SD) = 9(1.07)) and high school friends the least influential (M(SD) = 1.31(.42)) network. Overall, perceived influence was highest for diet compared to physical activity, but varied based on comparisons with nominees' behaviors. Significant others were most often perceived has having similar (44 %) or worse (39 %) eating behaviors than participants, and those with similar eating behaviors were perceived as most influential (M(SD) = 9.25(1.04)). Few associations were seen between network variables and odds of meeting recommendations. Among the groups nominated, high

  5. Ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of goats fed diets containing peanut cake from biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thadeu Mariniello; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Nascimento Júnior, Nilton Guedes; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Trajano, Jaqueline da Silva; Rocha, Tiago Cunha; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Borja, Máikal Souza

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of confined goats fed peanut cake instead of soybean meal in their feed. We used 40 goats that were ¾ Boer, uncastrated, and 5 months of age on average, with an average initial weight of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. The treatments consisted of diets with different levels of peanut cake replacing soybean meal in the concentrate (0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%). The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and ten repetitions. For the evaluation of feeding behavior, single animals were observed every 5 min for 24 h on 3 days. The physiological responses (respiratory rate; heart rate; rectal temperature, obtained with a rectal thermometer; and surface temperature) of the animals were evaluated at 09:00 and 15:00 h. The replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake did not change (P > 0.05) feeding behavior. The physiological parameters of the animals (P cake can replace soybean meal at 100% without causing negative effects on the feeding behavior or physiological parameters of confined ¾ Boer goats.

  6. Behavioral characterization of a model of differential susceptibility to obesity induced by standard and personalized cafeteria diet feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, L; Kanaly, V; Ramirez, V; Teske, J A; Pinto, M P; Perez-Leighton, C E

    2015-12-01

    Despite the increase in obesity prevalence over the last decades, humans show large inter-individual variability for susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. Understanding the biological basis of this susceptibility could identify new therapeutic alternatives against obesity. We characterized behavioral changes associated with propensity to obesity induced by cafeteria (CAF) diet consumption in mice. We show that Balb/c mice fed a CAF diet display a large inter-individual variability in susceptibility to diet-induced obesity, such that based on changes in adiposity we can classify mice as obesity prone (OP) or obesity resistant (OR). Both OP and OR were hyperphagic relative to control-fed mice but caloric intake was similar between OP and OR mice. In contrast, OR had a larger increase in locomotor activity following CAF diet compared to OP mice. Obesity resistant and prone mice showed similar intake of sweet snacks, but OR ate more savory snacks than OP mice. Two bottle sucrose preference tests showed that OP decreased their sucrose preference compared to OR mice after CAF diet feeding. Finally, to test the robustness of the OR phenotype in response to further increases in caloric intake, we fed OR mice with a personalized CAF (CAF-P) diet based on individual snack preferences. When fed a CAF-P diet, OR increased their calorie intake compared to OP mice fed the standard CAF diet, but did not reach adiposity levels observed in OP mice. Together, our data show the contribution of hedonic intake, individual snack preference and physical activity to individual susceptibility to obesity in Balb/c mice fed a standard and personalized cafeteria-style diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ingestive Behavior and Nitrogen Balance of Confined Santa Ines Lambs Fed Diets Containing Soybean Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Milena Patrícia Viana; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Pires, Aureliano José Vieira; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Filho, Antônio Eustáquio; dos Santos, Edileusa de Jesus; Chagas, Daiane Maria Trindade; Barroso, Daniele Soares; Filho, George Abreu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of substituting corn with soybean hulls on the ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance of Santa Ines lambs. A total of 25 lambs with an initial body weight of 20±2 kg at approximately six months of age, sheltered individually in stalls (1.10 m×1.0 m), considering an entirely casual experimental delineation. Soybean hulls were substituted for corn at 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 g/kg of dry matter (DM). The time spent feeding, ruminating, masticating, and resting was not affected by the substitution of corn with soybean hulls. In fact, the feeding efficiency in g DM/h and the rumination efficiency in g DM/bolus increased linearly with soybean hull substitution in the feed. Although the nitrogen balance was not altered by the use of soybean hulls as a substitute for corn in the diets of Santa Ines lambs, the N ingested and N digested expressed in g/d, N retained as a percentage of that ingested, and N retained as a percentage of that digested displayed quadratic behavior. In conclusion, corn can be substituted with soybean hulls up to 1,000 g/kg of dry matter in the concentrate, without changing the ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance. PMID:25049922

  8. Mexican-origin male perspectives of diet-related behaviors associated with weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, L A; Amezquita, A; Hooker, S P; Garcia, D O

    2017-07-31

    Prevalence rates of obesity and related diseases are quickly reaching epidemic proportions among Hispanic males in the United States. Hispanic males suffer from the highest prevalence of obesity-related diseases when compared to all other racial/ethnic groups. Despite evidence showing that weight loss can significantly reduce the risk of obesity-related health implications, literature informing best practices to engage Hispanic males in weight management programs is scarce. The purpose of the current study was to engage Spanish-speaking, Mexican-origin males with overweight or obesity to examine their perspectives of diet-related behaviors related to weight management. Demographic and acculturation data were collected using questionnaires. Fourteen semistructured interviews were completed with an all-Spanish-speaking cohort of men (age: 45.0±9.8 years; BMI: 34.2±6.5 kg m(-)(2)) who were born outside of the United States. We conducted a thematic analysis using a hybrid deductive-inductive analysis strategy using a previously developed codebook that was updated during iterative analysis of interview transcripts. Participants reported that healthful eating habits were hindered, among other factors, by lack of knowledge, sociocultural norms and conceptualizations of masculinity. Viable diet-related intervention approaches also surfaced, including building consciousness, promotion of traditional knowledge and the integration of the family in interventions. Findings suggest that Spanish-speaking, Mexican-origin men have interest in actively engaging in behavior changes that improve their dietary habits and engage in weight management. Our findings yield valuable insights that can be used to formulate tailored intervention strategies to improve obesity prevention and treatment programs for this vulnerable subgroup.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 15 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.173.

  9. Diet-induced obesity exacerbates metabolic and behavioral effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Ilana B; Grayson, Bernadette E; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Seeley, Randy J

    2015-06-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age. Although a comorbidity of PCOS is obesity, many are lean. We hypothesized that increased saturated fat consumption and obesity would exacerbate metabolic and stress indices in a rodent model of PCOS. Female rats were implanted with the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or placebo pellets prior to puberty. Half of each group was maintained ad libitum on either a high-fat diet (HFD; 40% butter fat calories) or nutrient-matched low-fat diet (LFD). Irrespective of diet, DHT-treated animals gained more body weight, had irregular cycles, and were glucose intolerant compared with controls on both diets. HFD/DHT animals had the highest levels of fat mass and insulin resistance. DHT animals demonstrated increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze by decreased distance traveled and time in the open arms. HFD consumption increased immobility during the forced-swim test. DHT treatment suppressed diurnal corticosterone measurements in both diet groups. In parallel, DHT treatment significantly dampened stress responsivity to a mild stressor. Brains of DHT animals showed attenuated c-Fos activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus; irrespective of DHT-treatment, however, all HFD animals had elevated hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus c-Fos activation. Whereas hyperandrogenism drives overall body weight gain, glucose intolerance, anxiety behaviors, and stress responsivity, HFD consumption exacerbates the effect of androgens on adiposity, insulin resistance, and depressive behaviors.

  10. Changes of the hindgut microbiota due to high-starch diet can be associated with behavioral stress response in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrez, Alexandra; Grimm, Pauline; Cézilly, Frank; Julliand, Véronique

    2015-10-01

    The digestive system of horses is adapted to a high-fiber diet consumed in small amounts over a long time. However, during training, high-starch and low-fiber diets are usually fed which may induce hindgut microbial disturbances and intestinal pain. These diets can be described as alimentary stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate to what extent changes in behavior are associated with alimentary stress and microbial composition changes of the cecal or colonic ecosystem. Six fistulated horses were used. The alimentary stress was a modification of diet from a high-fiber diet (100% hay) to a progressive low-fiber and high-starch diet (from 90% hay and 10% barley to 57% hay and 43% barley in 5 days). Cecal and colonic total anaerobic, cellulolytic, amylolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria were enumerated three times (twice on high-fiber diet and once on 57% hay and 43% barley diet). The behavior of horses was assessed from continuous video recording over an 18-h time period. In addition two personality traits were measured: neophobia (assessed from the reaction to the presence of a novel object placed near a feeder in a test arena) and sociability (assessed from the reaction to an unfamiliar horse in a stall). Video recordings were analyzed by scan sampling every 10 min using the following behavioral categories: lying, resting, feeding and being vigilant. In addition, we recorded time spent feeding and time spent in vigilance during the neophobia test, and time spent in vigilance and time spent in interactions with the unfamiliar horse during the sociability test. The alimentary stress induced significant increases of colonic total anaerobic bacteria, lactate-utilizing bacteria and amylolytic bacteria concentrations. When horses were fed the 57% hay–43% barley diet, time spent in vigilance tended to be positively correlated with cecal and colonic amylolytic bacteria concentrations during the sociability test and with cecal lactate-utilizing and

  11. Effect of dieting behavior training on dieting behaviors of type Ⅱ diabetics%饮食行为训练管理模式对2型糖尿病患者饮食行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓舟; 关向东; 张得时; 张柔玲; 郑颖; 刘树妹; 李晓华; 梁云芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of dieting behavior training on dieting behaviors of type Ⅱ diabetics. Methods 80 type Ⅱ diabetics were randomized into experiment and control groups in equal number. Patients in the control group were managed by presenting lectures on diabetes and the experiment group by 5-month training of dieting behaviors. The investigations on dieting behaviors were conducted among them in the two groups before training, 3 months after training and 6 months after training. Result The experiment group took statistically better dieting behaviors 3 months, 6 months after training than before training as well as than the control group (all P < 0.05). Conclusion Dieting behavior training is effective in the improvement of the dieting behaviors of type Ⅱ diabetics.%目的 探讨饮食行为训练管理模式对2型糖尿病患者饮食行为的影响.方法 将80例2型糖尿病患者随机分为实验组和对照组,每组各40例.对照组接受传统的糖尿病知识讲座,实验组接受为期5个月的饮食行为训练管理.在管理前、管理后3个月和6个月分别对两组患者饮食行为进行调查.结果 实验组患者在管理后3个月和6个月,其主要饮食行为优于管理前和对照组,组内和组间比较,均P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义.结论 饮食行为训练管理模式能有效地改善2型糖尿病患者的饮食行为.

  12. Metabolic and behavioral effects of chronic olanzapine treatment and cafeteria diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Alexandre P; Tort, Ana H; Gnoatto, Jussânia; Moreira, Julia D; Vinadé, Elsa R; Perry, Marcos L; Souza, Diogo O; Lara, Diogo R; Portela, Luis V

    2010-10-01

    Olanzapine and highly palatable diets can alter metabolism and brain function. We investigated the interaction of chronic treatment (4 months) with olanzapine and a cafeteria diet on metabolic parameters, memory tasks (spatial and aversive), the elevated plus maze and locomotor activity induced by d-amphetamine. Male Wistar rats were separated into the following groups: standard diet vehicle, standard diet and olanzapine, cafeteria diet vehicle and cafeteria diet and olanzapine. Olanzapine was administered in the drinking water (approximately 1.5 mg/kg/day), and after 3 days of treatment, the rats exhibited an expected anxiolytic effect and reduced amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. After 4 months of treatment, cafeteria diet vehicle and cafeteria diet olanzapine rats exhibited an increased body weight and heavier fat pads compared with the standard diet groups. Olanzapine increased only the epididymal and mesenteric fat pads. The cafeteria diet and olanzapine group showed greater glucose intolerance compared with all other groups. The cafeteria diet altered the effects of chronic olanzapine on the performance in the water maze and inhibitory avoidance tasks. Chronic olanzapine treatment failed to affect amphetamine-induced locomotion and to produce anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze task, regardless of the diet. Our results suggest that chronic olanzapine caused an increase in fat pads, which is putatively involved in the etiology of many metabolic diseases. Rats on the cafeteria diet were overweight and exhibited glucose intolerance. We did not observe these effects with olanzapine treatment with the standard diet. Moreover, the chronic treatment regimen caused tolerance to the antipsychotic and anxiolytic effects of olanzapine and seemed to potentiate some of the metabolic effects of the cafeteria diet. The cafeteria diet also modified the effects of chronic treatment with olanzapine on cognitive tasks, which may represent an undesirable effect of

  13. Opportunistic Interference Alignment for Random Access Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hu; Jeon, Sang-Woon; Jung, Bang Chul

    2015-01-01

    An interference management problem among multiple overlapped random access networks (RANs) is investigated, each of which operates with slotted ALOHA protocol. Assuming that access points and users have multiple antennas, a novel opportunistic interference alignment~(OIA) is proposed to mitigate interference among overlapped RANs. The proposed technique intelligently combines the transmit beamforming technique at the physical layer and the opportunistic packet transmission at the medium acces...

  14. Evaluation and Innovation in Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The presence of an increasing number of mobile devices has prompted the demand to use them for information dispersion through opportunistic networks, which they form coincidently due to their geographic location. Opportunistic networks pose several new challenges to the current transmission protocols as they are not only capable of store and forward routing, but also lack the offline routing capability, i.e. source and destination must be connected to the network simultaneously. We can find s...

  15. Memory and learning behavior in mice is temporally associated with diet-induced alterations in gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Dowd, Scot E; Scurlock, Bobbie; Acosta-Martinez, Veronica; Lyte, Mark

    2009-03-23

    The ability of dietary manipulation to influence learning and behavior is well recognized and almost exclusively interpreted as direct effects of dietary constituents on the central nervous system. The role of dietary modification on gut bacterial populations and the possibility of such microbial population shifts related to learning and behavior is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether shifts in bacterial diversity due to dietary manipulation could be correlated with changes in memory and learning. Five week old male CF1 mice were randomly assigned to receive standard rodent chow (PP diet) or chow containing 50% lean ground beef (BD diet) for 3 months. As a measure of memory and learning, both groups were trained and tested on a hole-board open field apparatus. Following behavioral testing, all mice were sacrificed and colonic stool samples collected and analyzed by automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) approach for microbial diversity. Results demonstrated significantly higher bacterial diversity in the beef supplemented diet group according to ARISA and bTEFAP. Compared to the PP diet, the BD diet fed mice displayed improved working (P=0.0008) and reference memory (P<0.0001). The BD diet fed animals also displayed slower speed (P<0.0001) in seeking food as well as reduced anxiety level in the first day of testing (P=0.0004). In conclusion, we observed a correlation between dietary induced shifts in bacteria diversity and animal behavior that may indicate a role for gut bacterial diversity in memory and learning.

  16. Associations of body-related teasing with weight status, body image, and dieting behavior among Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.

  17. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet Office in…

  18. Association of fitness with life satisfaction, health risk behaviors, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between aerobic, musculoskeletal, and motor capacity and life satisfaction, risk behavior, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescents. A total of 1,988 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years old) participated in this cross-sectional study. Life satisfaction, risk behavior, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were measured by validated questionnaires for these ages. Aerobic, musculoskeletal muscle, and motor capacity were evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. Adolescents with low aerobic capacity had a higher risk of showing less (vs. very happy) life satisfaction (odds ratio [OR] = 1.303, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1,054-1,611). These adolescents were also more likely to report risk behaviors such as sometimes (vs. never) of smoking tobacco (OR = 1.752, 95% CI = 1,218-2,520), besides having a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet (vs. high) (OR = 1.410, 95% CI = 1,113-1,786). Adolescents with low upper-body musculoskeletal capacity showed a lower risk of reporting risk behaviors such as alcohol consumption or getting drunk occasionally (vs. never) (OR = 0.662, 95% CI = 520-843; OR = 0.561, 95% CI = 419-753, respectively). The results suggest that the aerobic capacity contributes significantly to greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet, greater life satisfaction, and lower tobacco consumption, whereas musculoskeletal capacity seems to be related to alcohol consumption.

  19. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet…

  20. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  1. Canine Food Preference Assessment of Animal and Vegetable Ingredient-Based Diets Using Single-Pan Tests and Behavioral Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan C. Callon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of canine food selection is critical for both the pet food industry and dog owners, since owners want quality foods that are palatable, while fulfilling their pet’s nutritional requirements. There are two common methods for assessing canine food preference: the two-pan test and the one-pan test. Neither test fully accounts for the complexity of the canine feeding experience nor do they provide applicable representations of canine feeding behavior in the home. The objectives of this study were to (1 determine whether dogs display a preference for animal ingredient-based diets when compared with vegetable ingredient-based diets and (2 examine whether dogs experience neophobia when presented with a novel diet. Eight adult Beagles (average age = 24 months, weighing 8–12 kg were individually fed each of four novel diets in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, with 10-d treatment periods and four dietary treatments. Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures and significance was declared when p < 0.05. The diets were: animal and vegetable ingredient-based diets, and animal- and vegetable-based ingredients diluted with anhydrous α-d-glucose. The diluted diets were used for a larger study to determine true mineral digestibility. Dogs were fed twice per day (0800 and 1300 h. Behavioral observations were made by video on the first, and last 2 days of each 10-day treatment period of both a.m. and p.m. feedings. Time to consume feed, distraction, hesitation, level of anticipation pre-consumption, and interest post-consumption were recorded. Dogs experienced initial disruptive (neophobic effects of a novel diet. Neophobia was demonstrated by a decreased (slower rate of consumption, increased distraction during consumption of the diet, and increased hesitation on the first day of each new diet (p < 0.05. The level of interest post-consumption was highest when dogs consumed the animal

  2. The opportunistic feeding and reproduction strategies of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae inhabiting ephemeral habitats on southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina da Silva Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Most Rivulidae fishes are popularly known as annual fishes which live in ephemeral environments such as pools, that obligatorily dry out seasonally causing the death of adult individuals. They have unique biological characteristics such as small body size, early sexual maturation, continuous reproduction, an elaborated courtship behavior, and a great reproductive capacity among fishes. The rivulids are widely distributed in North, Central and South America. In this study, the diet and reproductive biology of Cynopoecilus melanotaenia was analyzed. A total of 263 specimens were collected and the analysis of 233 gastrointestinal contents revealed an invertivorous diet composed mainly of small crustaceans (Cladocera, Amphipoda, and Ostracoda and immature insects (Chaoboridae, Culicidae, Syrphidae, but mainly Chironomidae larvae. Lepidophagy on male's diet was also registered. Fecundity was estimated by analyzing 59 pairs of mature ovaries and ranged from 2 to 157 oocytes (mean, 19 ± 26[SD]. The species has fractional spawning, a strategy to increase the chance of survival to prolonged depletions. This study is the first to investigate the reproductive biology of C. melanotaenia. The results confirmed the opportunistic character of the rivulid C. melanotaenia and provided unreported reproductive information that may aid conservation of the species.

  3. School promotion of healthful diet and exercise behavior: an integration of organizational change and social learning theory interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, G S; Simons-Morton, B G; O'Hara, N M; Baranowski, T; Kolbe, L J; Bee, D E

    1987-04-01

    In the Go For Health project, interventions based on organizational change and social learning theory facilitate changes in diet and exercise behavior by elementary school children. Baseline data documented the need for behavior change. Based on chemical analyses, average per meal amounts of total fat and sodium were higher than national recommendations: total fat was 29.3% higher than U.S. Dietary Goals; sodium was 107.4% greater than recommended levels. Observations of students in physical education class revealed children moved through space 50.1% of the time and moved continuously an average of 2.2 minutes per class period. These findings suggest the need for policy and practice changes in the school environment to enable children to engage in more healthful diet and exercise behavior.

  4. Glycerin levels in the diets for crossbred bulls finished in feed-lot: ingestive behavior, feeding and rumination efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Eiras, Carlos Emanuel; Marques,Jair de Araújo; Torrecilhas,Juliana Akamine; Zawadzki,Fernando; Moletta, José Luis; Prado,Ivanor Nunes do

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study corn substituting by glycerin levels on animal behavior, feeding and rumination efficiency of Purunã young bulls finished in feed-lot. It was utilized 40 bulls Purunã breed with 208.8 ± 33.3 kg and eight months old. The diets were: without glycerin - G00, 6% of glycerin - G06, 12% of glycerin - G12 and 18% of glycerin - G18. Dry matter intake was similar among diets. On the other hand, NDF intake decreased linearly with glycerin levels supplementation in the...

  5. Impact of baseline physical activity and diet behavior on metabolic syndrome in a pharmaceutical trial: results from NAVIGATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Kim M; Sun, Jie-Lena; Thomas, Laine; Bales, Connie W; Califf, Robert M; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J; Holman, Rury R; McMurray, John J V; Bethel, M Angelyn; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Haffner, Steven M; Kraus, William E

    2014-04-01

    The cardiometabolic risk cluster metabolic syndrome (MS) includes ≥3 of elevated fasting glucose, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and increased waist circumference. Each can be affected by physical activity and diet. Our objective was to determine whether determine whether baseline physical activity and/or diet behavior impact MS in the course of a large pharmaceutical trial. This was an observational study from NAVIGATOR, a double-blind, randomized (nateglinide, valsartan, both, or placebo), controlled trial between 2002 and 2004. We studied data from persons (n=9306) with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or CVD risk factors; 7118 with pedometer data were included in this analysis. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day pedometer records; diet behavior was self-reported on a 6-item survey. An MS score (MSSc) was calculated using the sum of each MS component, centered around the Adult Treatment Panel III threshold, and standardized according to sample standard deviation. Excepting HDL-c, assessed at baseline and year 3, MS components were assessed yearly. Follow-up averaged 6 years. For every 2000-step increase in average daily steps, there was an associated reduction in average MSSc of 0.29 (95% CI (-)0.33 to (-)0.25). For each diet behavior endorsed, there was an associated reduction in average MSSc of 0.05 (95% CI (-)0.08 to (-)0.01). Accounting for the effects of pedometer steps and diet behavior together had minimal impact on parameter estimates with no significant interaction. Relations were independent of age, sex, race, region, smoking, family history of diabetes, and use of nateglinide, valsartan, aspirin, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering agent. Baseline physical activity and diet behavior were associated independently with reductions in MSSc such that increased attention to these lifestyle elements provides cardiometabolic benefits. Thus, given the potential to

  6. Evaluation of Opportunistic Routing Algorithms on Opportunistic Mobile Sensor Networks with Infrastructure Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Viet-Duc; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Recently the increasing number of sensors integrated in smartphones, especially the iPhone and Android phones, has motivated the development of routing algorithms for Opportunistic Mobile Sensor Networks (OppMSNs). Although there are many existing opportunistic routing algorithms, researchers still

  7. Effects of diet & behavioral enrichment on free fatty acids in the aged canine brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigdha, Shikha; Astarita, Giuseppe; Piomelli, Daniele; Cotman, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite several recent studies suggesting that dysregulation of brain lipid metabolism might contribute to the mechanisms of aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), lipid metabolism has not been evaluated extensively in the aging brain. Here, we use a lipidomic approach to demonstrate that antioxidants plus mitochondrial cofactors treatment, either alone or in combination with behavioral enrichment, attenuates lipid abnormalities in the frontal cortices of aged canine in a manner correlated with cognitive scores. Our analyses revealed that the levels of free palmitoleic acid and nervonic acid were decreased in frontal cortices of aged dogs (n=5-6/group) treated with antioxidant compared to the control group. The monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio, also known as ‘desaturation index’ - an ex-vivo indicator of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity, was also reduced in the frontal cortex of dogs treated with antioxidants compared to control groups. Increased palmitoleic acid levels and desaturation index were positively correlated with increased reversal learning errors and decreased cognitive performance. In conclusion, our study indicates that the addition of antioxidants and mitochondrial cofactors to the regular diet alters the composition of free fatty acids in the aged brain. Together with data showing increased palmitoleic acid levels in AD patients, our data suggest that reducing palmitoleic acid levels and desaturation index in the brain may be associated with improved cognitive performance. PMID:22183056

  8. Chronic Powder Diet After Weaning Induces Sleep, Behavioral, Neuroanatomical, and Neurophysiological Changes in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Anegawa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of chronic powder diet feeding on sleep patterns and other physiological/anatomical changes in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into two groups from weaning: a group fed with solid food (SD and a group fed with powder food (PD, and sleep and physiological and anatomical changes were compared between the groups. PD exhibited less cranial bone structure development and a significant weight gain. Furthermore, these PD mice showed reduced number of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Sleep analysis showed that PD induced attenuated diurnal sleep/wake rhythm, characterized by increased sleep during active period and decreased sleep during rest period. With food deprivation (FD, PD showed less enhancement of wake/locomotor activity compared to SD, indicating reduced food-seeking behavior during FD. These results suggest that powder feeding in mice results in a cluster of detrimental symptoms caused by abnormal energy metabolism and anatomical/neurological changes.

  9. Behavior patterns of cows with Charolais or Nellore breed predominance fed diets with plant extract or monensin sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Rumpel Segabinazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the ingestive behavior of feedlot cows fed additives based on plant extracts or monensin sodium. Twenty-four Charolais and Nellore crossbred cows with age and average initial weight of 7 years and 423 kg, respectively, were used. The experimental diets were plant extracts: basal diet + 5 g/animal/day of a natural additive composed of 750 mg of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, 150 mg of garlic (Allium sativum, 250 mg of rosemary extract (Rosmarimus officinalis, 250 mg of canola oil (Brassica napus, 250 mg extract of quillaja (Quillaja saponaria, and 3350 mg of corn starch; sodium monensin: basal diet + 300 mg/monensin/animal/day; and control: basal diet without additive. The basal diet contained sorghum silage and concentrate in a 62:38 ratio. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 3 × 2 (3 diets and 2 breed predominances factorial arrangement, and means were compared using DMS test at 5% of significance. The type of additive consumed did not alter animal feeding behavior. Cows with Charolais predominance consumed more dry matter (13.78 vs. 12.38 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber (7.81 vs. 6.89 kg/day, ruminated for longer (8.47 vs. 7.82 h, spent more time chewing (13.05 vs 12.01 h, had a greater number of chews per minute (58.88 vs 53.21 and a greater number of ruminal bolus (541.43 vs. 464.09 boluses/day; however, cows with Nellore predominance had greater idling time (11.82 vs. 10.74 h.

  10. Performance analysis of opportunistic nonregenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic relaying in cooperative communication depends on careful relay selection. However, the traditional centralized method used for opportunistic amplify-and-forward protocols requires precise measurements of channel state information at the destination. In this paper, we adopt the max-min criterion as a relay selection framework for opportunistic amplify-and-forward cooperative communications, which was exhaustively used for the decode-and-forward protocol, and offer an accurate performance analysis based on exact statistics of the local signal-to-noise ratios of the best relay. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance and deduce the diversity order of our proposed scheme. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over Rayleigh fading channels, and we compare the max-min relay selection with their centralized channel state information-based and partial relay selection counterparts.

  11. Opportunistic spectrum utilization in vehicular communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    This brief examines current research on improving Vehicular Networks (VANETs), examining spectrum scarcity due to the dramatic growth of mobile data traffic and the limited bandwidth of dedicated vehicular communication bands and the use of opportunistic spectrum bands to mitigate congestion. It reviews existing literature on the use of opportunistic spectrum bands for VANETs, including licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands and a variety of related technologies, such as cognitive radio, WiFi and device-to-device communications. Focused on analyzing spectrum characteristics, designing efficient spectrum exploitation schemes, and evaluating the date delivery performance when utilizing different opportunistic spectrum bands, the results presented in this brief provide valuable insights on improving the design and deployment of future VANETs.

  12. Distance-Based Opportunistic Mobile Data Offloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Lio, Pietro; Hui, Pan

    2016-01-01

    Cellular network data traffic can be offload onto opportunistic networks. This paper proposes a Distance-based Opportunistic Publish/Subscribe (DOPS) content dissemination model, which is composed of three layers: application layer, decision-making layer and network layer. When a user wants new content, he/she subscribes on a subscribing server. Users having the contents decide whether to deliver the contents to the subscriber based on the distance information. If in the meantime a content owner has traveled further in the immediate past time than the distance between the owner and the subscriber, the content owner will send the content to the subscriber through opportunistic routing. Simulations provide an evaluation of the data traffic offloading efficiency of DOPS. PMID:27314361

  13. Effects of Lactobacillus helveticus on murine behavior are dependent on diet and genotype and correlate with alterations in the gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohland, Christina L; Kish, Lisa; Bell, Haley; Thiesen, Aducio; Hotte, Naomi; Pankiv, Evelina; Madsen, Karen L

    2013-09-01

    Modulation of the gut microbiota with diet and probiotic bacteria can restore intestinal homeostasis in inflammatory conditions and alter behavior via the gut-brain axis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the modulatory effects of probiotics differ depending on diet and mouse genotype. At weaning, wild type (WT) and IL-10 deficient (IL-10(-/-)) 129/SvEv mice were placed on a standard mouse chow or a Western-style diet (fat 33%, refined carbohydrate 49%)±Lactobacillus helveticus ROO52 (10(9)cfu/d) for 21 days. Animal weight and food eaten were monitored weekly. Intestinal immune function was analysed for cytokine expression using the Meso Scale Discovery platform. Spatial memory and anxiety-like behavior was assessed in a Barnes maze. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) was used to analyze the fecal microbiota. Both WT and IL-10(-/-) mice on a Western diet had increased weight gain along with changes in gut microbiota and cytokine expression and altered anxiety-like behavior. The ability of L. helveticus to modulate these factors was genotype- and diet-dependent. Anxiety-like behavior and memory were negatively affected by Western-style diet depending on inflammatory state, but this change was prevented with L. helveticus administration. However, probiotics alone decreased anxiety-like behavior in WT mice on a chow diet. Mice on the Western diet had decreased inflammation and fecal corticosterone, but these markers did not correlate with changes in behavior. Analysis of bacterial phyla from WT and IL-10(-/-)mice showed discrete clustering of the groups to be associated with both diet and probiotic supplementation, with the diet-induced shift normalized to some degree by L. helveticus. These findings suggest that the type of diet consumed by the host and the presence or absence of active inflammation may significantly alter the ability of probiotics to modulate host physiological function.

  14. Behavior and diet of the Critically Endangered Eulemur cinereiceps in Manombo forest, southeast Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Stevens

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Manombo Special Reserve is a parcel of rainforest along the southeastern coast of Madagascar, containing eight lemur species, including the White-collared brown lemur (Eulemur cinereiceps [Eulemur albocollaris]. Following a drastic cyclone in the region in January of 1997, the population of E. cinereiceps at Manombo was reduced by half. Results indicate that individuals of this critically endangered species at Manombo consume a total of 54 plant species belonging to 24 families, with over two - thirds of the diet comprised of ripe and unripe fruits. White - collared brown lemurs also opportunistically feed on novel food items and invasive plants in their recovering habitat. We report the first record of E. cinereiceps consuming a shelf fungus species growing on invasive trees. During feeding, lemurs tore pieces of the fungus from the trees with their hands and mouth (chewing cycle duration mean 0.28 s; SD 0.01. White - collared brown lemurs also consumed spicy fruits of a non - native plant species (Aframomum angustifolium growing in highly disturbed open areas. Feeding bouts typically began by stripping away the outer covering with the anterior dentition, with pulp and seeds then consumed (chewing cycle duration mean 0.22 s; SD 0.005. This is the first record of consumption of either of these resources for any lemur species at Manombo. Ability to feed on items like A. angustifolium may permit E. cinereiceps to avoid competition with other species in this highly degraded forest environment. RÉSUMÉ. La Réserve Spéciale de Manombo est un fragment de forêt dense humide de basse altitude et située le long de la côte Sud - est de Madagascar. Cette partie de forêt abrite au total huit espèces de lémuriens, y compris le Lémur à collier blanc (Eulemur cinereiceps [Eulemur albocollaris]. Le passage dramatique du cyclone Gretelle dans la région en janvier 1997 a réduit de moitié la taille de la population d’E. cinereiceps dans sa zone de

  15. CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS causes progressive decline in immunological response in people living with HIV/AIDS, making them susceptible to a variety opportunistic infections (OIs which are responsible for morbidity and mortality. Therefore early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections reduce the mortality and morbidity in HIV positive patients. CONTEXT : AIMS : To study the demographic variables; spectrum of opportunist ic infections and its correlation with CD4 count in HIV patients. SETTING AND DESIGN : The study was conducted on 200 HIV patients either admitted to Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital or attending ART Center, Sh y am Shah Medical College, Rewa (M.P from Januar y 2013 to October 2014. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A detailed history was recorded with emphasis on personal history, high risk behavior, history of migration, mode of transmission of infection and complete thorough clinical examination was done. Data analysis was done by calculating P value using Chi Square test. RESULTS : Out of 200 HIV patients, most of them (88% belonged to the age group 20 - 49 years, 66% were males and 34% were females. 45% were illiterates, 62% were from low socioeconomic class. Majority of patients were married (79% and 72.2% had seropositive spouse. Unprotected sexual route was the most common (85% mode of transmission; among which heterosexual route was the only mode of transmission. 59.4% of males contracted infection through unprotect ed sex with either commercial sex workers (44.8% or multiple sex partners (14.6%. 61% of patients had history of emigration. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection (51%, followed by oral candidiasis 30% and chronic diarrhea (9%.Pulmon ary Tuberculosis was the most common form of Tuberculosis (64.7%, followed by tubercular lymphadenopathy (15.7%. CONCLUSION : HIV/AIDS has no vaccine or cure, so prevention is the only

  16. Adolescent depressive symptoms and smoking behavior: The gender-specific role of weight concern and dieting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - Increased weight concern and dieting are associated with both depression and smoking among adolescents, particularly girls. This cross-sectional study examined the gender-specific role of weight concerns and dieting on the adolescent depression–smoking association. Methods - Participants

  17. Effects of Messages Emphasizing Environmental Determinants of Obesity on Intentions to Engage in Diet and Exercise Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A.; Kim, Hye Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Reducing rates of obesity will require interventions that influence both individual decisions and environmental factors through changes in public policy. Previous work indicates that messages emphasizing environmental determinants increases support for public policies, but some suspect this strategy may undermine motivation to engage in diet and exercise. Methods Study 1 involved 485 adults recruited from a shopping mall in New York. Study 2 involved 718 adult members of a Web-based national panel of US adults. Respondents in both studies were randomly assigned to read a story that emphasized environmental determinants of health or a control condition. The stories varied in the extent to which they described the story character as taking personal responsibility for weight management. Logistic regression and ordered logit models were used to test for differences in intentions to engage in diet and exercise behaviors based on which story the participant read. Analyses were also performed separately by participants’ weight status. Results In both studies, messages that acknowledged personal responsibility while emphasizing environmental causes of obesity increased intentions to engage in healthy behavior for at least 1 weight status group. Conclusion Emphasizing factors outside of personal control appears to enhance rather than undermine motivations to engage in healthy diet and exercise behavior. PMID:24331282

  18. Effects of messages emphasizing environmental determinants of obesity on intentions to engage in diet and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A; Kim, Hye Kyung

    2013-12-12

    Reducing rates of obesity will require interventions that influence both individual decisions and environmental factors through changes in public policy. Previous work indicates that messages emphasizing environmental determinants increases support for public policies, but some suspect this strategy may undermine motivation to engage in diet and exercise. Study 1 involved 485 adults recruited from a shopping mall in New York. Study 2 involved 718 adult members of a Web-based national panel of US adults. Respondents in both studies were randomly assigned to read a story that emphasized environmental determinants of health or a control condition. The stories varied in the extent to which they described the story character as taking personal responsibility for weight management. Logistic regression and ordered logit models were used to test for differences in intentions to engage in diet and exercise behaviors based on which story the participant read. Analyses were also performed separately by participants' weight status. In both studies, messages that acknowledged personal responsibility while emphasizing environmental causes of obesity increased intentions to engage in healthy behavior for at least 1 weight status group. Emphasizing factors outside of personal control appears to enhance rather than undermine motivations to engage in healthy diet and exercise behavior.

  19. Keratitis by Fusarium temperatum , a novel opportunist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah; Bonifaz, Alexandro; de Hoog, G; Vazquez-Maya, Leticia; Garcia-Carmona, Karla; Meis, Jacques F; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    Background Fusarium species are among the most common fungi present in the environment and some species have emerged as major opportunistic fungal infection in human. However, in immunocompromised hosts they can be virulent pathogens and can cause death. The pathogenesis of this infection relies on

  20. Incentive mechanisms for Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Service (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. The OCCS network may suffer from the free riding problem where members are selfish and will only want to use services on the platform without...

  1. Government Spending Cycles: Ideological or Opportunistic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractands. The time series analysis, covering the period 1953–1993, allows for different types of government spending. In general, spending is inspired by ideological and opportunistic motives: all government expenditure categories show an upward drift during election times and the partisan

  2. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni; Ruokolainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  3. Correlation between production and milk composition and feeding behavior of lactating cows fed diets containing sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Cristina dos Santos Guimarães Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the correlations between production and milk composition and feeding behavior of lactating cows. The cows had an average of 100 days of lactation and a production were arranged in two 4 x 4 Latin squares conpound of the four periods, four diets and four animals. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous with roughage: concentrate ratio of approximately 55:45. As forage, were evaluate four silages sugar cane: without additive (control, with 1% urea, with 0.5% urea + 0.5% CaO and with 1% CaO. The experimental period lasted 60 days divided into four periods of 15 days. Feeding behavior was assessed on the 13 day of each experimental period, for 24 hours, every five minutes. From the data 24 behavioral variables were determined, which were correlated with the data of production and milk composition. The behavioral variable eating and ruminating, DM intake in grams/day, rumination efficiencies in grams of DM and neutral detergent fiber were positively correlated (P<0.05 with milk production in kg/day and the production corrected for 4% fat. However, there was a negative correlation between feeding time and the milk fat percentage. Despite the low values of the correlations can be inferred from the results, the data can be used to develop models to predictyield and composition of milk from the feeding behavior variables.

  4. Effect of diet containing Zataria multiflora leaves on anxiety behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Results: The results indicated that the diet containing 10% thyme had significantly increased the presence of the animal in the open arms of maze compared to the control group (P <0.01 and also a decrease was observed in the assessment of cortisol hormone compared to the control group(p <0.05. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that diet containing thyme was effective in reducing anxiety reactions in rats.

  5. Differences of Socio-psychology, Eating Behavior, Diet Quality and Quality of Life in South Korean Women according to Their Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-07-01

    We aimed at assessing psychological variables and eating behaviors on quality of diet and life in South Korean women according to their weight status. Socio-psychology, eating behavior, quality of diet and quality of life data were assessed in 114 women (mean age: 34.5 ± 8.09 years). NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-RS) and coping styles questionnaire were used to assess socio-psychology variables, and eating behavior was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and General Food Craving Questionnaire Test (G-FCQ-T). Quality of diet was analyzed by Diet Quality Index-international (DQI-I), and obesity-related quality of life was evaluated using the Korean Obesity-related Quality of life Scale (KOQOL). Significant differences were in the psychological variables and eating behaviors in the obese group than the normal and overweight groups (p < 0.05). The overall score of DQI-I was significantly lower in the obese group than that of their counterparts (p < 0.05). BMI was positively correlated with neuroticism, emotional eating, and obesity-related quality of life, and negatively correlated with diet quality. Neuroticism was positively correlated with emotional eating and food craving. Emotional eating was positively correlated with obesity-related quality of life. In conclusion, women with a higher BMI had significantly more problematic eating behaviors, poor diet quality and quality of life.

  6. Opportunistic Interference Alignment in MIMO Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Perlaza, Samir Medina; Lasaulce, Samson; Chaufray, Jean Marie

    2008-01-01

    We present two interference alignment techniques such that an opportunistic point-to-point multiple input multiple output (MIMO) link can reuse, without generating any additional interference, the same frequency band of a similar pre-existing primary link. In this scenario, we exploit the fact that under power constraints, although each radio maximizes independently its rate by water-filling on their channel transfer matrix singular values, frequently, not all of them are used. Therefore, by aligning the interference of the opportunistic radio it is possible to transmit at a significant rate while insuring zero-interference on the pre-existing link. We propose a linear pre-coder for a perfect interference alignment and a power allocation scheme which maximizes the individual data rate of the secondary link. Our numerical results show that significant data rates are achieved even for a reduced number of antennas.

  7. Opportunistic Migration in Spatial Evolutionary Games

    CERN Document Server

    Buesser, Pierre; Antonioni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e. searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii.

  8. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context oblivious based schemes are only way to enable communication between users. As soon as users become more social, context data spreads in the network, and context based routing becomes an efficient solution. In this paper we design an integrated routing protocol that is able to use context data as soon as it becomes available and falls back to dissemination based routing when context information is not available. Then, we provide a comparison between Epidemic and PROPHET, these are representative of context oblivious and co...

  9. [Genetic virulence markers of opportunistic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V M

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of opportunistic bacteria phenotypic and genetic virulence markers indicates that pathogenicity formation is based on a structural modification of bacterial DNA which is linked with migration of interbacterial pathogenicity "islands" genetic determinants. Structural organization features of these mobile genetic elements determine high expression probability, and PCR detection of pathogenicity "islands" determinants that control adhesins, invasins, cytotoxic and cytolitic toxines synthesis may indicate etiopathogenetic significance of clinical isolates.

  10. Opportunistic Cooperation in Cognitive Femtocell Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Urgaonkar, Rahul; Neely, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate opportunistic cooperation between unlicensed secondary users and legacy primary users in a cognitive radio network. Specifically, we consider a model of a cognitive network where a secondary user can cooperatively transmit with the primary user in order to improve the latter's effective transmission rate. In return, the secondary user gets more opportunities for transmitting its own data when the primary user is idle. This kind of interaction between the primary and secondary u...

  11. Mobile opportunistic networks architectures, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denko, Mieso K

    2011-01-01

    Widespread availability of pervasive and mobile devices coupled with recent advances in networking technologies make opportunistic networks one of the most promising communication technologies for a growing number of future mobile applications. Covering the basics as well as advanced concepts, this book introduces state-of-the-art research findings, technologies, tools, and innovations. Prominent researchers from academia and industry report on communication architectures, network algorithms and protocols, emerging applications, experimental studies, simulation tools, implementation test beds,

  12. Improved Power-Delay Trade-off in Wireless Networks Using Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Won-Yong; Lee, Yong H

    2009-01-01

    We study the benefits of opportunistic routing in wireless networks by examining how the power and delay scale as the number of source-destination (S-D) pairs in the network increases. The scaling behavior of conventional multi-hop transmission that does not employ opportunistic routing is also examined for comparison. Our results indicate that opportunistic routing can exhibit a better power--delay trade-off than that of conventional routing by providing up to a logarithmic boost in the scaling law. Such a gain is possible since the receivers can tolerate more interference due to the increased received signal power provided by the multi-user diversity (MUD) gain, which means having more simultaneous transmissions is possible. Computer simulations for both routing schemes are also performed, which show trends consistent with our analytical predictions.

  13. Context sensitive trust based geographic opportunistic routing in mobile ad hoc networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A RAJESH; N MOHAN KUMAR

    2016-11-01

    Position based opportunistic routing (POR) is a stateless, robust, and reliable geographic routing protocol in Mobile AdHoc NETwork (MANET). The opportunistic routing embraces broadcast property of wireless channels and utilizes it for opportunistic forwarding. Both the malicious node behavior and the backupnodes’ behavior are equally treated as malicious in the existing misbehavior detection mechanisms. Hence, incorporating a general trust model in POR is not combative with routing attacks. It is necessary to determine whether the misbehavior is likely a result of malicious activity or due to the backup scenario of opportunistic forwarding. On the other hand, if context-sensitive trust information is available on every node, it ensures a fair decision making and also supports secured routing in an opportunistic approach. This work investigates the utilization of context attributes along with generic trust model to allow POR for secure and reliable data forwarding. This paper introduces context-sensitive trust for choosing the data forwarding node in POR (CPOR) to assist opportunistic routing in selecting the trusted optimal data forwarding node and to cope with both security and reliability of communications. The proposed work exercises both coarse- and fine-grained trust evaluation to strengthen the trustworthiness. The coarse-grained trust measure includes positive progress per hop and behavioral attribute of the nodes in terms of routing service. The fine-grained trust evaluation differs the opportunistic routing environment from the adverse scenarios and aids the source node such that it builds a highly trusted positive progress set using contextual attributes. The fine-grained trust evaluation deduces the ideal contextual information such as the link quality, battery energy, and the backup service to determine the accurate trust value of nodes. As a result, it involves optimal routes and enables CPOR to maintain the routingperformance equal to the POR even

  14. Characterization of a shortened model of diet alternation in female rats: effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant on food intake and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasio, Angelo; Rice, Kenner C; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of eating disorders and obesity in western societies is epidemic and increasing in severity. Preclinical research has focused on the development of animal models that can mimic the maladaptive patterns of food intake observed in certain forms of eating disorders and obesity. This study was aimed at characterizing a recently established model of palatable diet alternation in female rats. For this purpose, females rats were fed either continuously with a regular chow diet (Chow/Chow) or intermittently with a regular chow diet for 2 days and a palatable, high-sucrose diet for 1 day (Chow/Palatable). Following diet cycling, rats were administered rimonabant (0, 0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally) during access to either palatable diet or chow diet and were assessed for food intake and body weight. Finally, rats were pretreated with rimonabant (0, 3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and tested in the elevated plus maze during withdrawal from the palatable diet. Female rats with alternating access to palatable food cycled their intake, overeating during access to the palatable diet and undereating upon returning to the regular chow diet. Rimonabant treatment resulted in increased chow hypophagia and anxiety-like behavior in Chow/Palatable rats. No effect of drug treatment was observed on the compulsive eating of palatable food in the diet-cycled rats. The results of this study suggest that withdrawal from alternating access to the palatable diet makes individuals vulnerable to the anxiogenic effects of rimonabant and provides etiological factors potentially responsible for the emergence of severe psychiatric side-effects following rimonabant treatment in obese patients.

  15. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  16. Feeding behavior of crossbred steers fed diets containing babassu mesocarp meal and corn in kernels or ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the use of babassu mesocarp meal (BMM and corn in different physical forms on the feeding behavior of crossbred young bulls of a dairy breed. Twenty-four crossbred (Nellore vs. Holstein steers (307.35 kg were fed four experimental diets containing two levels of inclusion of the babassu mesocarp meal (0 and 412.4 g/kg and corn in two physical forms (kernels or ground for 98 days. Data was collected on three days during the finishing phase, with observations every five minutes, for 24 hours. When the activities performed by the animals were evaluated as a function of the period of the day, the physical form of the corn showed interaction with the BMM inclusion level on the time spent feeding and on other activities. When the activities were evaluated over the day, the defecation frequency was affected and decreased as BMM was included. The feeding time was longer at the moments that followed feed supply, whereas the time used for other activities increased during the morning period, regardless of the diet utilized. Rumination and idle times were affected by the period of the day and remained high during the night and morning periods. There was increase in feeding time and dry matter rumination efficiencies and neutral detergent fiber as BMM was added to the diet. The number of rumination chews per bolus, however, decreased as BMB was included. Inclusion of babassu mesocarp meal increases the animal feeding time but the physical form of corn does not change its feeding behavior.

  17. Which Diet-Related Behaviors in Childhood Influence a Healthier Dietary Pattern? From the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ah; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Se Young; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to examine how childhood dietary patterns change over the short term and which changes in diet-related behaviors influence later changes in individual dietary patterns. Using food frequency questionnaire data obtained from children at 7 and 9 years of age from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort, we examined dietary patterns by principal component analysis. We calculated the individual changes in dietary pattern scores. Changes in dietary habits such as eating a variety of food over two years were defined as “increased”, “stable”, or “decreased”. The dietary patterns, termed “healthy intake”, “animal food intake”, and “snack intake”, were similar at 7 and 9 years of age. These patterns explained 32.3% and 39.1% of total variation at the ages of 7 and 9 years, respectively. The tracking coefficient of snack intake had the highest coefficient (γ = 0.53) and that of animal food intake had the lowest (γ = 0.21). Intra-individual stability in dietary habits ranged from 0.23 to 0.47, based on the sex-adjusted weighted kappa values. Of the various behavioral factors, eating breakfast every day was most common in the “stable” group (83.1%), whereas consuming milk or dairy products every day was the least common (49.0%). Moreover, changes in behavior that improved the consumption of milk or dairy products or encouraged the consumption of vegetables with every meal had favorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores over two years. However, those with worsened habits, such as less food variety and more than two portions of fried or stir-fried food every week, had unfavorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores. Our results suggest that diet-related behaviors can change, even over a short period, and these changes can affect changes in dietary pattern. PMID:28025537

  18. Temperature : diet interactions affect survival through foraging behavior in a bromeliad-dwelling predator

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, food quantity and quality play important roles in insect growth and survival, influencing population dynamics as well as interactions with other community members. However, the interaction between temperature and diet and its ecological consequences have been poorly documented. Toxorhynchites are well-known biocontrol agents for container-inhabiting mosquito larvae. We found that Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) inhabiting water-filled rosettes of tank b...

  19. Opportunistic infections in a renal transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya V. Mysorekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the present progress in transplantation procedures, there is an improvement in patient and allograft survival. However, the immunosuppression necessary to sustain the allograft predisposes these transplant recipients to infection, which is now a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of a 30-year-old renal transplant recipient with two opportunistic infections, namely, primary cutaneous aspergillosis and intestinal tuberculosis, with terminal enterococcal pleuritis and peritonitis. Control of the degree of immunosuppression, and prompt recognition and treatment of infection are vital for successful organ transplantation.

  20. Trust Management System for Opportunistic Cloud Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We have over the past three years been working on the feasibility of Opportunistic Cloud Services (OCS) for enterprises. OCS is about enterprises strategically contributing and utilizing spare IT resources as cloud services. One of the major challenges that such a platform faces is data security...... and trust management issues. This paper presents a trust management system for OCS platforms. It models the concept of trust and applies it to OCS platforms. The trust model and the trust management system are verified through the simulation of the computation of the trust values with Infrastructure...

  1. Diet-induced obesity resistance of adult female mice selectively bred for increased wheel-running behavior is reversed by single perinatal exposure to a high-energy diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guidotti, Stefano; Meyer, Neele; Przybyt, Ewa; Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Garland Jr., Theodore; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    Female mice from independently bred lines previously selected over 50 generations for increased voluntary wheel-running behavior (S1, S2) resist high energy (HE) diet-induced obesity (DIO) at adulthood, even without actual access to running wheels, as opposed to randomly bred controls (CON). We inve

  2. Diet-induced obesity resistance of adult female mice selectively bred for increased wheel-running behavior is reversed by single perinatal exposure to a high-energy diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guidotti, Stefano; Meyer, Neele; Przybyt, Ewa; Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Garland Jr., Theodore; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    Female mice from independently bred lines previously selected over 50 generations for increased voluntary wheel-running behavior (S1, S2) resist high energy (HE) diet-induced obesity (DIO) at adulthood, even without actual access to running wheels, as opposed to randomly bred controls (CON). We

  3. Diet-induced obesity resistance of adult female mice selectively bred for increased wheel-running behavior is reversed by single perinatal exposure to a high-energy diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guidotti, Stefano; Meyer, Neele; Przybyt, Ewa; Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Garland Jr., Theodore; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    Female mice from independently bred lines previously selected over 50 generations for increased voluntary wheel-running behavior (S1, S2) resist high energy (HE) diet-induced obesity (DIO) at adulthood, even without actual access to running wheels, as opposed to randomly bred controls (CON). We inve

  4. Analysis of the Relationship Between Diet and Exercise Beliefs and Actual Behaviors Among Breast Cancer Survivors in Northwest Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G. Weiner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have shown that a diet high in fruit and vegetable intake, as well as a routine including daily exercise or physical activity, can independently affect relapse rates and survivorship in breast cancer patients. Fruits and vegetables contain powerful anti-oxidant molecules, capable of preventing tumor formation and proliferation. Exercise can lower circulating levels of estrogen, the female hormone responsible for tumor proliferation in the estrogen-sensitive form of the disease. The most beneficial results have been shown in women who exercise and consume a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. We studied the attitudes towards and behaviors related to fruit and vegetable intake and exercise in a cohort of breast cancer survivors in northwest Ohio. Materials and Methods: Data were gathered from a survey sent out by the Northwest Ohio Branch of the Susan G. Komen For the Cure Foundation. We assessed and evaluated survivors’ self-reported beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors regarding exercise and fruit and vegetable intake. Results: Nearly half of the survivors (46.5% reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Eating at least 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables per day will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 46.8% of those in agreement with the previous statement actually report eating at least 5 fruits and/or vegetables per day. With respect to exercise, 32.9% reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Engaging in regular physical activity will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 68.5% of those in agreement with the previous statement report any physical activity in the past 30 days. Conclusions: Many breast cancer survivors do not appear to be aware of the benefits of diet and exercise. Further, a large proportion of those who are aware of the benefits do not adapt a healthy diet and exercise as part of their lifestyle. A majority of these survivors

  5. Reconfigurable cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maso, Marco; Baştuğ, Ejder; Cardoso, Leonardo S.; Debbah, Mérouane; Özdemir, Özgür

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we provide the implementation and analysis of a cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks. We focus on a previously introduced dynamic spectrum access (DSA) - cognitive radio (CR) solution for primary-secondary coexistence in opportunistic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks, called cognitive interference alignment (CIA). The implementation is based on software-defined radio (SDR) and uses GNU Radio and the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) as the implementation toolkit. The proposed flexible transceiver architecture allows efficient on-the-fly reconfigurations of the physical layer into OFDM, CIA or a combination of both. Remarkably, its responsiveness is such that the uplink and downlink channel reciprocity from the medium perspective, inherent to time division duplex (TDD) communications, can be effectively verified and exploited. We show that CIA provides approximately 10 dB of interference isolation towards the OFDM receiver with respect to a fully random precoder. This result is obtained under suboptimal conditions, which indicates that further gains are possible with a better optimization of the system. Our findings point towards the usefulness of a practical CIA implementation, as it yields a non-negligible performance for the secondary system, while providing interference shielding to the primary receiver.

  6. Keratitis by Fusarium temperatum, a novel opportunist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Bonifaz, Alexandro; de Hoog, G Sybren; Vazquez-Maya, Leticia; Garcia-Carmona, Karla; Meis, Jacques F; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2014-11-12

    Fusarium species are among the most common fungi present in the environment and some species have emerged as major opportunistic fungal infection in human. However, in immunocompromised hosts they can be virulent pathogens and can cause death. The pathogenesis of this infection relies on three factors: colonization, tissue damage, and immunosuppression. A novel Fusarium species is reported for the first time from keratitis in an agriculture worker who acquired the infection from plant material of maize. Maize plants are the natural host of this fungus where it causes stalk rot and seeding malformation under temperate and humid climatic conditions. The clinical manifestation, microbiological morphology, physiological features and molecular data are described. Diagnosis was established by using polymerase chain reaction of fungal DNA followed by sequencing portions of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1 α) and beta-tubulin (BT2) genes. Susceptibility profiles of this fungus were evaluated using CLSI broth microdilution method. The analyses of these two genes sequences support a novel opportunist with the designation Fusarium temperatum. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the reported clinical isolate was nested within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. Antifungal susceptibility testing demonstrated that the fungus had low MICs of micafungin (0.031 μg/ml), posaconazole (0.25 μg/ml) and amphotericin B (0.5 μg/ml). The present case extends the significance of the genus Fusarium as agents of keratitis and underscores the utility of molecular verification of these emerging fungi in the human host.

  7. Opportunistic infections after blood and marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, J R

    1999-03-01

    Opportunistic infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality following bone marrow transplantation. Technological advances in stem cell procurement, the introduction of hematologic growth factors to speed engraftment, the development of new immunosuppressive regimens to control graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the development of technology to perform graft engineering with removal of T lymphocytes in toto or subpopulations of T lymphocytes, the use of molecular techniques to optimize donor and recipient matching, advances in blood banking, and development of international donor registries, are among the various factors that have led to tremendous changes in transplant practices. Because of such changes in transplant practices, along with the advent of new antimicrobial agents, and development of infection control measures affecting pathogen exposure, alterations in the interplay between host and potential pathogens have occurred. Shifts in the incidence and types of opportunistic pathogens are taking place. Several historically important infectious syndromes are today well controlled; others have diminished in importance early after transplant but are more problematic at a later time; new emerging pathogens are being recognized due to selection pressures from antimicrobial usage and new hosts, such as recipients of alternate donor allogeneic transplant procedures, with even more profound and prolonged immune suppression. Such shifts and new syndromes pose continuing new challenges to the transplant clinician.

  8. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior predict dietary intention and future dieting in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese veterans attending medical clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Denise N; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K

    2016-04-01

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans' numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one's weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB's ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans' facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on the Opportunistic Behavior of Manufacturer-supplier in Collaboration Product Innovation%制造商-供应商合作产品创新机会主义行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小惠; 李逍遥; 赵广强

    2015-01-01

    Opportunism behavior is one of the key factors affecting the success or failure of product in‐novation .Starting from the construction of the mathematical model of the manufacturer‐supplier in collabo‐ration product innovation ,this paper analyzed the conditions for one‐on‐one collaboration product innova‐tion and discussed the behavior choices and effects of the manufacturer‐supplier .The conclusion showed that the opportunism behavior choices were related to the dependency of node enterprise cooperation ,the quantity of invested resources and asset specificity .%机会主义行为是影响产品创新成败的关键因素之一,文章从构建制造商‐供应商合作产品创新数学模型入手,分析了制造商‐供应商一对一合作产品创新应满足的条件,探讨了产品创新中制造商‐供应商行为选择和效果,认为合作产品创新中机会主义的行为选择与节点企业合作依赖性、资源投入的相对量和绝对量、资产专用性密切相关。

  10. Cinnamon counteracts the negative effects of a high fat/high fructose diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Anderson

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance leads to memory impairment. Cinnamon (CN improves peripheral insulin resistance but its effects in the brain are not known. Changes in behavior, insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated mRNA expression in the brain were measured in male Wistar rats fed a high fat/high fructose (HF/HFr diet to induce insulin resistance, with or without CN, for 12 weeks. There was a decrease in insulin sensitivity associated with the HF/HFr diet that was reversed by CN. The CN fed rats were more active in a Y maze test than rats fed the control and HF/HFr diets. The HF/HFr diet fed rats showed greater anxiety in an elevated plus maze test that was lessened by feeding CN. The HF/HFr diet also led to a down regulation of the mRNA coding for GLUT1 and GLUT3 that was reversed by CN in the hippocampus and cortex. There were increases in Insr, Irs1 and Irs2 mRNA in the hippocampus and cortex due to the HF/HFr diet that were not reversed by CN. Increased peripheral insulin sensitivity was also associated with increased glycogen synthase in both hippocampus and cortex in the control and HF/HFr diet animals fed CN. The HF/HFr diet induced increases in mRNA associated with Alzheimers including PTEN, Tau and amyloid precursor protein (App were also alleviated by CN. In conclusion, these data suggest that the negative effects of a HF/HFr diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes were alleviated by CN suggesting that neuroprotective effects of CN are associated with improved whole body insulin sensitivity and related changes in the brain.

  11. Vertical behavior and diet of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) vary with latitude in the South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Allain, Valerie; Nicol, Simon J.; Evans, Karen J.; Hoyle, Simon D.; Dupoux, Cyndie; Vourey, Elodie; Dubosc, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) are an important upper tropic-level oceanic predator with a circum-global distribution. Little is known of the movements and diet of albacore tuna in the South Pacific Ocean and how variability in both might influence the vulnerability of albacore tuna to fisheries across their range. We coupled data derived from satellite-tagged albacore tuna with stomach samples collected from individuals at the same locations to characterize the vertical behavior, thermal and dietary habits of albacore tuna at tropical (New Caledonia and Tonga) and temperate (New Zealand) latitudes. A total of 18 pop-up satellite archival tags deployed on albacore tuna remained attached for 0-50 days. Position estimates, calculated from 11 tags, described short-term movements of predominantly less than 500 km, although one fish moved more than 1000 km over a period of 50 days. Vertical behavior and diet differed substantially between tropical and temperate latitudes. At tropical latitudes, albacore tuna showed a distinct diel pattern in vertical habitat use, occupying shallower, warmer waters above the mixed layer depth (MLD) at night, and deeper, cooler waters below the MLD during the day. In contrast, there was little evidence of a diel pattern of vertical behavior in albacore tuna at temperate latitudes, with fish limited to shallow waters above the MLD almost all of the time. Spatial patterns of species composition in stomach contents were consistent with vertical movement patterns, with significantly more deepwater prey species consumed in tropical waters than in temperate waters. Albacore in tropical waters also consumed significantly greater diversities of prey than in temperate waters, predominately preying on fish species, whereas those in temperate waters predominately preyed on crustacea. Our results indicate that the vertical distribution of albacore is constrained either by thermal preferences with diet reflecting these preferences, by the vertical

  12. Ingestive behavior of lambs or hoggets fed on high-concentrate diets of maize or sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sanches Venturini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the ingestive behaviour of lambs or hoggets, finished in confinement on high-concentrate diets based on maize or sorghum grain. A total of 32 animals were used, 16 lambs (milk teeth and 16 hoggets (2 teeth, which were distributed in a completely randomised experimental design and a 2 x 2 factorial scheme (two categories x two types of grain. In the categories under evaluation (lambs and hoggets, a significant difference (P≤0.05 was found for total chewing time, idle time and other activities (expressed in min/day and as a percentage, number of meals per day, time spent per meal and for the weight of dry matter or NDF ingested per meal (g/DM per REF and g/NDF per REF respectively. For the grain under test (maize or sorghum, significant differences (P≤0.05 were seen in feeding time, total chewing time and idle time (expressed in min/day and as a percentage and for feed efficiency (g DM/h and NDF/h. Differences in the nutritional demands of lambs and hoggets, and in the composition of high-concentrate diets of maize or sorghum, cause changes in some characteristics of the ingestive behaviour of the animals.

  13. Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut-microbiota-brain axis and diet: a systematic review for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allison; Mach, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function. The gut microbiome and its influence on host behavior, intestinal barrier and immune function are believed to be a critical aspect of the brain-gut axis. Recent evidence in murine models shows that there is a high correlation between physical and emotional stress during exercise and changes in gastrointestinal microbiota composition. For instance, induced exercise-stress decreased cecal levels of Turicibacter spp and increased Ruminococcus gnavus, which have well defined roles in intestinal mucus degradation and immune function. Diet is known to dramatically modulate the composition of the gut microbiota. Due to the considerable complexity of stress responses in elite athletes (from leaky gut to increased catabolism and depression), defining standard diet regimes is difficult. However, some preliminary experimental data obtained from studies using probiotics and prebiotics studies show some interesting results, indicating that the microbiota acts like an endocrine organ (e.g. secreting serotonin, dopamine or other neurotransmitters) and may control the HPA axis in athletes. What is troubling is that dietary recommendations for elite athletes are primarily based on a low consumption of plant polysaccharides, which is associated with reduced microbiota diversity and functionality (e.g. less synthesis of byproducts such as short chain fatty acids and neurotransmitters). As more

  14. Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Frederick L; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-02-01

    This review focuses on free-living amoebae, widely distributed in soil and water, causing opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections in humans: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. Diseases include primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (N. fowleri), granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, cutaneous and nasopharyngeal infections (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, S. diploidea), and amoebic keratitis (Acanthamoeba spp). Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, and Naegleria have been repeatedly isolated; S. diploidea has been reported only once, from a brain infection. Antimicrobial therapy for these infections is generally empirical and patient recovery often problematic. N. fowleri is highly sensitive to the antifungal agent amphotericin B, but delay in diagnosis and the fulminant nature of the disease result in few survivors. Encephalitis and other infections caused by Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia have been treated, more or less successfully, with antimicrobial combinations including sterol-targeting azoles (clotrimazole, miconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole), pentamidine isethionate, 5-fluorocytosine, and sulfadiazine. The use of drug combinations addresses resistance patterns that may exist or develop during treatment, ensuring that at least one of the drugs may be effective against the amoebae. Favorable drug interactions (additive or synergistic) are another potential benefit. In vitro drug testing of clinical isolates points up strain and species differences in sensitivity, so that no single drug can be assumed effective against all amoebae. Another complication is risk of activation of dormant cysts that form in situ in Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia infections, and which can lead to patient relapse following apparently effective treatment. This is particularly true in Acanthamoeba keratitis, a non-opportunistic infection of the cornea, which responds well to treatment with chlorhexidine gluconate and

  15. Academic performance in relation to adherence to the Mediterranean diet and energy balance behaviors in Greek primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiloudis, Ioannis; Yiannakouris, Nikolaos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Apostolopoulos, Konstantinos; Costarelli, Vassiliki

    2014-01-01

    To explore possible links between adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MeD), excess body weight, energy balance behaviors, and academic performance in Greek primary schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools in Athens, Greece. A total of 528 students (256 boys and 272 girls), 10-12 years of age, were recruited from 21 primary schools in the area of Athens, Greece. Students completed a specifically designed energy balance behaviors questionnaire together with the KIDMED index, which evaluates the degree of adherence to the MeD. The teacher assessed academic performance through a specifically designed, 5-scale questionnaire. Standard anthropometric measurements were also taken. Block stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Adherence to the MeD (β = .140; P = .001), obesity (β = -.095; P = .001), physical activity levels (β = .206; P = .001), hours of sleep (β = .100; P = .003), television viewing (β = -.068; P = .05), and global self-esteem levels (β = .122; P = .001) are significant factors in predicting academic performance in primary schoolchildren. Poor adherence to the MeD, obesity, and low physical activity levels seem to negatively affect academic performance in children. Understanding these interrelationships could facilitate the formation of policies focused on improving children's academic achievement. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Make Better Choices (MBC: Study design of a randomized controlled trial testing optimal technology-supported change in multiple diet and physical activity risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Malaina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are prevalent, co-occurring chronic disease risk factors, yet little is known about how to maximize multiple risk behavior change. Make Better Choices, a randomized controlled trial, tests competing hypotheses about the optimal way to promote healthy change in four bundled risk behaviors: high saturated fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary leisure screen time. The study aim is to determine which combination of two behavior change goals - one dietary, one activity - yields greatest overall healthy lifestyle change. Methods/Design Adults (n = 200 with poor quality diet and sedentary lifestyle will be recruited and screened for study eligibility. Participants will be trained to record their diet and activities onto a personal data assistant, and use it to complete two weeks of baseline. Those who continue to show all four risk behaviors after baseline recording will be randomized to one of four behavior change prescriptions: 1 increase fruits and vegetables and increase physical activity, 2 decrease saturated fat and increase physical activity, 3 increase fruits and vegetable and decrease saturated fat, or 4 decrease saturated fat and decrease sedentary activity. They will use decision support feedback on the personal digital assistant and receive counseling from a coach to alter their diet and activity during a 3-week prescription period when payment is contingent upon meeting behavior change goals. They will continue recording on an intermittent schedule during a 4.5-month maintenance period when payment is not contingent upon goal attainment. The primary outcome is overall healthy lifestyle change, aggregated across all four risk behaviors. Discussion The Make Better Choices trial tests a disseminable lifestyle intervention supported by handheld technology. Findings will fill a gap in knowledge about optimal goal prescription to

  17. Body image distortion in fifth and sixth grade students may lead to stress, depression, and undesirable dieting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Hee; Han, Sung Nim; Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Hong Mie

    2012-04-01

    The widespread pursuit of a thin physique may have a detrimental impact on the wellbeing of preadolescents. The influence of body image distortions on the lifestyles, dieting behaviors, and psychological factors was investigated in 631 fifth and sixth grade children in Kyeonggi-do, Korea. Children were classified into three weight groups (underweight, normal, and overweight) and three perception groups (underestimation, normal, and overestimation). Necessary information was obtained by questionnaire, and each subject's weight status was determined by the Röhrer index calculated from the annual measurement records, which were obtained from the school. According to their current weights, 57.4% of children were normal and 32.2% were overweight or obese, 16.6% of the children overestimated their body weight, and 55.2% had an undistorted body image. Overweight children had desirable lifestyles and dietary habits and presented reasonable weight control behaviors. Compared to those without distortion, the overestimated group had greater interest in weight control (P = 0.003) and dissatisfaction with their body weights (P = 0.011), presented unhealthy reasons to lose weight (P = 0.026), and had higher scores for "feeling sad when comparing own body with others" (P = 0.000) and for "easily getting annoyed and tired" (P = 0.037), even though they had similar obesity indices. More subjects from the overestimation group (P = 0.006) chose drama/movies as their favorite TV programs, suggesting a possible role for the media in body image distortion. These findings suggest that body image distortion can lead preadolescents to develop stress about obesity and unhealthy dieting practices, despite similar obesity indices to those without distorted body images. These results emphasize the importance of having an undistorted body image.

  18. Dietary Mercury Exposure Resulted in Behavioral Differences in Mice Contaminated with Fish-Associated Methylmercury Compared to Methylmercury Chloride Added to Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Bourdineaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  19. Common features of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2015-04-24

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001-2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water--not contaminants--that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control.

  20. Hybridizing Evolutionary Algorithms with Opportunistic Local Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gießen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that memetic algorithms (MAs) can outperform plain evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Recently the first runtime analyses have been presented proving the aforementioned conjecture rigorously by investigating Variable-Depth Search, VDS for short (Sudholt, 2008). Sudholt...... raised the question if there are problems where VDS performs badly. We answer this question in the affirmative in the following way. We analyze MAs with VDS, which is also known as Kernighan-Lin for the TSP, on an artificial problem and show that MAs with a simple first-improvement local search...... outperform VDS. Moreover, we show that the performance gap is exponential. We analyze the features leading to a failure of VDS and derive a new local search operator, coined Opportunistic Local Search, that can easily overcome regions of the search space where local optima are clustered. The power...

  1. Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.

  2. Opportunistic Cooperation in Cognitive Femtocell Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Urgaonkar, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    We investigate opportunistic cooperation between unlicensed secondary users and legacy primary users in a cognitive radio network. Specifically, we consider a model of a cognitive network where a secondary user can cooperatively transmit with the primary user in order to improve the latter's effective transmission rate. In return, the secondary user gets more opportunities for transmitting its own data when the primary user is idle. This kind of interaction between the primary and secondary users is different from the traditional dynamic spectrum access model in which the secondary users try to avoid interfering with the primary users while seeking transmission opportunities on vacant primary channels. In our model, the secondary users need to balance the desire to cooperate more (to create more transmission opportunities) with the need for maintaining sufficient energy levels for their own transmissions. Such a model is applicable in the emerging area of cognitive femtocell networks. We formulate the problem...

  3. Optimal Selective Feedback Policies for Opportunistic Beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Tharaka; Evans, Jamie S

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the structure of downlink sum-rate maximizing selective decentralized feedback policies for opportunistic beamforming under finite feedback constraints on the average number of mobile users feeding back. Firstly, it is shown that any sum-rate maximizing selective decentralized feedback policy must be a threshold feedback policy. This result holds for all fading channel models with continuous distribution functions. Secondly, the resulting optimum threshold selection problem is analyzed in detail. This is a non-convex optimization problem over finite dimensional Euclidean spaces. By utilizing the theory of majorization, an underlying Schur-concave structure in the sum-rate function is identified, and the sufficient conditions for the optimality of homogenous threshold feedback policies are obtained. Applications of these results are illustrated for well known fading channel models such as Rayleigh, Nakagami and Rician fading channels, along with various engineering and design insights. Rathe...

  4. Directional Navigation Improves Opportunistic Communication for Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Kokuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees.

  5. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufnagel, Dick [Fermilab

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  6. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  7. Opportunistic hearing screening in elderly inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Ramdoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients, to evaluate feasibility of opportunistic hearing screening and to determine subsequent provision of hearing aids. Materials and methods: Subjects (>65 years were recruited from five elderly care wards. Hearing loss was detected by a ward-based hearing screen comprising patient-reported assessment of hearing disability and a whisper test. Subjects failing the whisper test or reporting hearing difficulties were offered formal audiological assessment. Results: Screening was performed on 51 patients aged between 70 and 95 years. Of the patients, 21 (41% reported hearing loss and 16 (31% failed the whisper test. A total of 37 patients (73% were referred for audiological assessment with 17 (33% found to have aidable hearing loss and 11 were fitted with hearing aids (22%. Discussion: This study highlights the high prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients. Easy two-step screening can accurately identify patients with undiagnosed deafness resulting in significant proportions receiving hearing aids. Key sentences Approximately 14% of the elderly population use hearing aids despite a reported prevalence of deafness in up to 55%. The use of hearing aids is associated with an improvement in physical, emotional, mental and social well-being. An easy screening test for hearing loss consists of patient-reported hearing loss and a whisper test. Opportunistic screening of elderly inpatients resulted in referral of 73% of screened patients for formal audiology. Of the screened patients, 22% were provided with hearing aids.

  8. Weight-related concerns and diet behaviors among urban young females: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Omidvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Females are more likely than males to perceive themselves as too heavy, this has been explained in terms of the equation of “female beauty with extreme thinness.” Therefore, females are in general prone to develop unhealthy behaviors for weight management. Wrong weight control behaviors have significant health consequences. Objectives: To investigate the body weight concerns, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors among young females and their association with age and socioeconomic status (SES. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in urban areas from a major city in South India. About 650 healthy unmarried females aged 15–25 years formed the study population. Self-reporting questionnaires were used to obtain relevant data. The categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square, correlation, and regression analyses by SPSS version 16. Results: Most overweight and obese subjects perceived themselves as overweight. Adolescents were more likely to report themselves as overweight. The perceived weight, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors are influenced by weight status and age of the subjects. However, SES of the participants did not exhibit effect of others' opinion about their weight and body satisfaction as well as weight management behaviors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of weight-related concerns suggests that all females should be reached with appropriate information and interventions. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly promoted and unhealthy practices discouraged. Young females need special attention toward weight management.

  9. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior Predict Dietary Intention and Future Dieting in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Overweight and Obese Veterans Attending Medical Clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Denise N.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans’ numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one’s weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB’s ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans’ facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. PMID:26792774

  10. Where do diets, exercise, and behavior modification fit in the treatment of obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, W S; Hyder, M L; O'Byrne, K K; Foreyt, J P

    2000-10-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern that affects a growing number of people in the United States and throughout the world. While substantial advances have been made in the development of new pharmacotherapies and in understanding the biological underpinnings (e.g., genetics and physiology) of obesity, lifestyle modification, which involves the application of behavior modification principles to alter eating and activity patterns, is the foundation of any comprehensive obesity management. The purpose of this article is to provide a practical overview of the benefits of dietary and activity change and to review behavior modification principles that have been used successfully in obesity management.

  11. The effect of Emblica officinalis diet on lifespan, sexual behavior, and fitness characters in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Pankaj; Prasad, B R Guru; Murthy, N Anjaneya; Hegde, S N

    2011-04-01

    Drosophila is an excellent organism to test Ayurvedic medicines. The objective of our study was to explore the potential of Emblica officinalis drug on longevity, sexual behavior, and reproductive fitness of Drosophila melanogaster using adult feeding method. Increase in the lifespan, fecundity, fertility, ovarioles number, and developmental time was observed in both parents and F1 generation, but not in the F2 generation in experimental culture (control + E. officinalis). According to the Duncan's multiple range test and ANOVA, there is a significant difference between two cultures. It was also noticed that E. officinalis influence some fitness characters in Drosophila along with sexual behavior.

  12. Raptor Codes for Use in Opportunistic Error Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijnge, T.; Schiphorst, R.; Shao, X.; Slump, C.H.; Goseling, Jasper; Weber, Jos H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a Raptor code is developed and applied in an opportunistic error correction (OEC) layer for Coded OFDM systems. Opportunistic error correction [3] tries to recover information when it is available with the least effort. This is achieved by using Fountain codes in a COFDM system, which

  13. Health Behavior Interests of Adolescents with Unhealthy Diet and Exercise: Implications for Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunfors, Peter; Collins, Bradley N.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to determine individual factors that may influence adolescents' interests in various health behaviors and, by extension, their potential interest in programs that promote healthy lifestyles and reduce obesity. The sample consisted of 737 rural Pennsylvania (United States) middle and high school students not involved in either…

  14. Diet- and Body Size-related Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Vitamin Supplement Use in a Representative Sample of Fourth-grade Students in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to examine diet- and body size-related attitudes and behaviors associated with supplement use in a representative sample of fourth-grade students in Texas. The research design consisted of cross-sectional data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, ...

  15. Diet- and Body Size-Related Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Vitamin Supplement Use in a Representative Sample of Fourth-Grade Students in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Goldy C.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet- and body size-related attitudes and behaviors associated with supplement use in a representative sample of fourth-grade students in Texas. Design: Cross-sectional data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, a probability-based sample of schoolchildren. Children completed a questionnaire that assessed…

  16. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences

  17. [Behavior of circadian rhythm of ACTH and cortisol in 16 normal subjects after a balanced normocaloric diet and after a high protein diet (Cosinor mean method)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellini, M; Giovannini, C; Manzo, G; Barletta, C; Borboni, P

    1983-01-31

    In 16 normal subjects the circadian rhythm of ACTH has been studied during normal calories diet and after a 15 days period of high protein content diet (2 g/Kg body weight). The statistical study, according Cosinor method, has shown a significant increase of the mesor and of the amplitude, but has not shown any change of the ACTH and Cortisol rhythm, after hyperproteic diet. Data advise the increase of the tonic and fasic secretion of both hormones and shown the mantained acrophase. The action of the protein on the ACTH and Cortisol secretion does not seem related to mechanism like stress, neither to the probable mediation of intestinal like-ACTH messengers. On the contrary it seems related to a direct stimulus on the diencephalo-pituitary axis; it is possible that some amino-acids (tryptophan, arginine) act as a mediator, even if data concern just the effect of the over mentioned amino-acid in large doses.

  18. Oregano Extract Added into the Diet of Dairy Heifers Changes Feeding Behavior and Concentrate Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Jacob Kolling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to describe the effects of Oregano extract (OE inclusion into the concentrate fed to dairy heifers on physiological parameters, feeding behavior, intake, and performance. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly distributed into four treatments: C = control, without addition of OE; OE2.5 = 2.5 g; OE5.0 = 5.0 g and OE7.5 = 7.5 g of Oregano extract per heifer/day. Feeding behavior and concentrate intake were assessed individually every day and total dry matter intake (DMI was determined on the last week of the trial. Compared to control group, OE7.5 reduced by 32% the latency time to approach the feed bunk but increased by 6% the time spent eating the concentrate. Each inclusion of 2.5 grams of OE into the concentrate increased the occurrence of postingestive licking the feed bunk with abundant saliva production 1.2 times (P<0.01 and tended to increase the occurrence of sneeze events 1.2 times (P<0.10. No statistical difference was detected between treatments for total DMI, but concentrate DMI was 9% lower for OE7.5 when compared to control and OE2.5. The inclusion of 7.5 grams/day of OE causes small but negative effects in feeding behavior and concentrate intake, without change on total dry matter intake.

  19. Oregano Extract Added into the Diet of Dairy Heifers Changes Feeding Behavior and Concentrate Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Giovani Jacob; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; da Cruz, Eduardo Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This experiment aimed to describe the effects of Oregano extract (OE) inclusion into the concentrate fed to dairy heifers on physiological parameters, feeding behavior, intake, and performance. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly distributed into four treatments: C = control, without addition of OE; OE2.5 = 2.5 g; OE5.0 = 5.0 g and OE7.5 = 7.5 g of Oregano extract per heifer/day. Feeding behavior and concentrate intake were assessed individually every day and total dry matter intake (DMI) was determined on the last week of the trial. Compared to control group, OE7.5 reduced by 32% the latency time to approach the feed bunk but increased by 6% the time spent eating the concentrate. Each inclusion of 2.5 grams of OE into the concentrate increased the occurrence of postingestive licking the feed bunk with abundant saliva production 1.2 times (P < 0.01) and tended to increase the occurrence of sneeze events 1.2 times (P < 0.10). No statistical difference was detected between treatments for total DMI, but concentrate DMI was 9% lower for OE7.5 when compared to control and OE2.5. The inclusion of 7.5 grams/day of OE causes small but negative effects in feeding behavior and concentrate intake, without change on total dry matter intake. PMID:28116344

  20. Obesogenic diet intake during pregnancy programs aberrant synaptic plasticity and addiction-like behavior to a palatable food in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Alberto; Montalvo-Martinez, Larisa; Cardenas-Perez, Robbi E; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Garza-Ocañas, Lourdes

    2017-07-14

    Contextual food conditioned behaviors require plasticity of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the reward system, involving changes in the expression of including a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole 4-propionate receptors (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate 2,3 (mGlur 2,3). However, the role of changes in glutamatergic synaptic markers on energy-dense palatable food preference during development has not been described. Here, we determine the effect of nutritional programing during gestation on fat food choices using a conditioned place preference (CPP) test and an operant training response and its effect on glutamatergic markers in the nucleus accumbens (Nac) shell and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Our data showed that rats displayed preference for palatable fat food and an increase in caloric intake when compared to a chow diet. Notably, 74% of rats showing a preference for fat food intake correlate with a positive HFD-paired score whereas 26% failed to get HFD-conditioned. Also, male rats trained under an operant training response schedule (FR1, FR5 and PR) showed high and low responder groups to work for food. Notably, hypercaloric nutritional programing of female rats leads to exacerbation for reinforcers in female offspring compared to offspring from chow diet. Finally, we found that an operant training response to palatable reinforcers correlates with upregulation of mGlur 2,3 in the NAc shell and PFC of male rats and female offspring. Also, we found selective Nr1 upregulation in NAc shell and the PFC of female offspring. Our data suggest that nutritional programing by hypercaloric intake leads to incentive motivation to work for food and synaptic plasticity alteration in the mesolimbic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex and age differences in the diet and ingestive behaviors of sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) in the Tai Forest, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, W Scott; Vick, Anna E; Daegling, David J

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Cercocebus-Mandrillus clade are united by several morphological features, including expanded premolars which are argued to be associated with a preponderance of hard objects in the diet. We test the association between premolar expansion and hard object feeding by examining how different dental regions are used during food processing. We examined the diet and oral processing activities of sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) in the Ivory Coast's Tai forest from August 2008 to September 2009. In addition to compiling diet profiles, we recorded the frequency that individuals performed four activities: 1) incising, 2) canine puncturing/scraping, 3) postcanine crushing (i.e., isometric biting), and 4) routine mastication (chewing cycles). Sooty mangabeys have a relatively narrow diet that consists largely of nuts/seeds, fruits, and invertebrates. While there are age and sex differences in diet, the most frequently consumed foods are similar across age and sex classes. The most frequently consumed foods are seeds of Sacoglottis gabonensis which are the hardest items in the sooty mangabey diet. Patterns of ingestive behavior vary with food type, but adults and nonadults (excluding infants dependent on mothers) of both sexes process similar foods. Premolar expansion in Cercocebus atys is associated with powerful crushing of hard objects of specific size and durophagy is a constant feature of sooty mangabey feeding ecology throughout ontogeny.

  2. Personal and socio-environmental predictors of dieting and disordered eating behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood: 10-year longitudinal findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, K; MacLehose, R; Bucchianeri, M; Crow, S; Neumark-Stainer, D

    2015-01-01

    Aim To identify personal and socio-environmental factors associated with the persistence of dieting or disordered eating from adolescence to young adulthood, as well as factors associated with the initiation of dieting or disordered eating during young adulthood. Methods Participants (n= 4,746) completed EAT-I surveys as adolescents; EAT-III surveys were completed 10 years later by 1,902 of the original participants (1082 females and 820 males). Results Study results indicate that there are personal factors, including weight concerns, weight importance, depressive symptoms and body satisfaction, present during adolescence that are predictive of an individual's engagement in dieting or disordered eating behaviors ten years later. For example, among both males and females weight importance was found to be predictive of continued dieting and disordered eating from adolescence through young adulthood. For example, 26.1% of males with low levels of weight concern at baseline reported engaging in persistent disordered eating as compared to 60.4% of males with high levels of weight concern at baseline (Prevalence difference: 34.3, 95% CI: 10.5, 58.1; p<0.01). Parental weight concerns, peer dieting and weight teasing at baseline were not found to be predictive of dieting or disordered eating at 10-year follow-up. Conclusions Personal factors identified during adolescence were found to be predictive of both persistent dieting and disordered eating from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as initiation of these behaviors during young adulthood. In particular, weight concerns and weight importance were found to be predictive in most models providing support for inclusion of these factors in adolescent health screening. PMID:24925491

  3. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may ...

  4. Sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of tobacco, alcohol, sexual behaviors, and diet and physical activity: pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.

  5. A graph model for opportunistic network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2015-08-12

    © 2015 IEEE. Recent advancements in graph-based analysis and solutions of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) trigger the interest to extend them to more complicated opportunistic network coding (ONC) scenarios, with limited increase in complexity. In this paper, we design a simple IDNC-like graph model for a specific subclass of ONC, by introducing a more generalized definition of its vertices and the notion of vertex aggregation in order to represent the storage of non-instantly-decodable packets in ONC. Based on this representation, we determine the set of pairwise vertex adjacency conditions that can populate this graph with edges so as to guarantee decodability or aggregation for the vertices of each clique in this graph. We then develop the algorithmic procedures that can be applied on the designed graph model to optimize any performance metric for this ONC subclass. A case study on reducing the completion time shows that the proposed framework improves on the performance of IDNC and gets very close to the optimal performance.

  6. Exploiting volatile opportunistic computing resources with Lobster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Mueller, Charles; Tovar, Ben; Donnelly, Patrick; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high energy physics experiments using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be limited by availability of computing resources. As a joint effort involving computer scientists and CMS physicists at Notre Dame, we have developed an opportunistic workflow management tool, Lobster, to harvest available cycles from university campus computing pools. Lobster consists of a management server, file server, and worker processes which can be submitted to any available computing resource without requiring root access. Lobster makes use of the Work Queue system to perform task management, while the CMS specific software environment is provided via CVMFS and Parrot. Data is handled via Chirp and Hadoop for local data storage and XrootD for access to the CMS wide-area data federation. An extensive set of monitoring and diagnostic tools have been developed to facilitate system optimisation. We have tested Lobster using the 20 000-core cluster at Notre Dame, achieving approximately 8-10k tasks running simultaneously, sustaining approximately 9 Gbit/s of input data and 340 Mbit/s of output data.

  7. Impact of Strangers on Opportunistic Routing Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Yan Yuan; Hua-Dong Ma; Peng-Rui Duan

    2013-01-01

    Routing is one of the challenging tasks in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs),due to the lack of global knowledge and sporadic contacts between nodes.Most existing studies take a greedy scheme in data forwarding process,i.e.,only nodes with higher utility values than current carriers can be selected as relays.They lack an in-depth investigation on the main features of the optimal paths in Epidemic.These features are vital to any forwarding scheme that tends to make a trade-off between packet delivery delay and cost.This is mainly because Epidemic provides an upper bound on cost and a lower bound on delivery delay.Therefore,a deep understanding of these features is useful to make informed forwarding decisions.In this paper,we try to explore these features by observing the roles of different social relationships in the optimal paths through a set of real datasets.These datasets provide evidence that strangers have two sides in data forwarding process,and that the importance of strangers shows a decreasing trend along the forwarding paths.Using this heuristic knowledge,we propose STRON,a distributed and lightweight forwarding scheme.The distributed feature makes it very suitable for opportunistic scenarios and the low communication and computation features make it easy to be integrated with state-of-the-art work.The trace-driven simulations obviously confirm its effectiveness,especially in terms of packet delivery delay and cost.

  8. Efficient Online Learning for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Wenhan; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2011-01-01

    The problem of opportunistic spectrum access in cognitive radio networks has been recently formulated as a non-Bayesian restless multi-armed bandit problem. In this problem, there are N arms (corresponding to channels) and one player (corresponding to a secondary user). The state of each arm evolves as a finite-state Markov chain with unknown parameters. At each time slot, the player can select K < N arms to play and receives state-dependent rewards (corresponding to the throughput obtained given the activity of primary users). The objective is to maximize the expected total rewards (i.e., total throughput) obtained over multiple plays. The performance of an algorithm for such a multi-armed bandit problem is measured in terms of regret, defined as the difference in expected reward compared to a model-aware genie who always plays the best K arms. In this paper, we propose a new continuous exploration and exploitation (CEE) algorithm for this problem. When no information is available about the dynamics of th...

  9. Increasing sodium bicarbonate level in high-concentrate diets for heifers. II. Effects on chewing and feeding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, L A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Calsamiglia, S

    2008-05-01

    Four Holstein heifers (264 ± 12 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-day experimental periods to determine the effect of increasing levels of sodium bicarbonate (BICARB) (0%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5%, of concentrate dry matter (DM) basis) on chewing and feed intake behavior when fed high-concentrate diets. Concentrate (13.41% CP, 13.35% NDF) and barley straw were fed once a day at 0830 h ad libitum. Feed bunks placed on scales and video recording were used to measure 24-h feed intake and chewing behavior, respectively. The patterns of feeding behavior (feed intake, meal size and length) and chewing behavior (eating, ruminating and total chewing) were studied by dividing the day into 12 intervals of 2-h each, beginning at feeding (interval 1 through 12). Number of meals per day and eating rate decreased linearly with increasing buffer level, but meal length increased linearly. No treatment effects were observed in sum of daily meal lengths or average meal size. The treatment × interval interaction was significant on meal size, length and feed intake. The size and length of those meals occurring during the 4 h post-feeding increased linearly. However, meal size tended to decrease in the evening between 8 and 12 h, whereas feed intake decreased linearly from 6 to 10 h and from 12 to 14 h post-feeding. Buffer concentration did not affect the percentage of time spent ruminating, eating or drinking per day but the buffer level × interval interaction was significant. Time spent eating expressed as min per kg of DM or organic matter (OM) intake increased linearly with buffer levels. Proportion of time spent eating increased linearly during the intervals between 0 and 4 h post-feeding. Time spent ruminating decreased linearly during the 2 h post-feeding, and also in the evening from 12 to 14 h, and at night from 18 to 22 h post-feeding, but the effect was quadratic between 8 and 10 h when intermediate buffer levels showed the greatest ruminating

  10. HIV-associated opportunistic CNS infections: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lauren N; Smith, Bryan; Reich, Daniel; Quezado, Martha; Nath, Avindra

    2016-10-27

    Nearly 30 years after the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), CNS opportunistic infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Unknown HIV-positive disease status, antiretroviral drug resistance, poor drug compliance, and recreational drug abuse are factors that continue to influence the morbidity and mortality of infections. The clinical and radiographic pattern of CNS opportunistic infections is unique in the setting of HIV infection: opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients often have characteristic clinical and radiological presentations that can differ from the presentation of opportunistic infections in immunocompetent patients and are often sufficient to establish the diagnosis. ART in the setting of these opportunistic infections can lead to a paradoxical worsening caused by an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In this Review, we discuss several of the most common CNS opportunistic infections: cerebral toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), tuberculous meningitis, cryptococcal meningitis and cytomegalovirus infection, with an emphasis on clinical pearls, pathological findings, MRI findings and treatment. Moreover, we discuss the risk factors, pathophysiology and management of IRIS. We also summarize the challenges that remain in management of CNS opportunistic infections, which includes the lack of phase II and III clinical trials, absence of antimicrobials for infections such as PML, and controversy regarding the use of corticosteroids for treatment of IRIS.

  11. INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR IN HEIFERS FED DIETS CONTAINING SUGARCANE TREATED OR NOT WITH CALCIUM OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Giovani Pancoti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of 18 Holstein-Zebu heifers with average initial live weight of 250 kg, confined in Tie Stall system with individual feeders and drinkers, divided in blocks, fed with sugarcane treated or not with 1% in natural matter of calcium oxide (CaO after 24 hours of hydrolysis, at different times of administration of the mixture of urea and ammonium sulfate (zero and 24 hours. The animals were observed every ten minutes during 24 hours to determine the time (minutes spent on feeding, water drinking, ruminating and idle. Differences between means were evaluated by SNK test at 5% significance. There was increased (P

  12. Opportunistic transmitter selection for selfless overlay cognitive radios

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    We propose an opportunistic strategy to grant channel access to the primary and secondary transmitters in causal selfless overlay cognitive radios over block-fading channels. The secondary transmitter helps the primary transmitter by relaying the primary messages opportunistically, aided by a buffer to store the primary messages temporarily. The optimal channel-aware transmitter- selection strategy is the solution of the maximization of the average secondary rate under the average primary rate requirement and the buffer stability constraints. Numerical results demonstrate the gains of the proposed opportunistic selection strategy. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Carcass characteristics, meat quality, feeding behavior of Nelore heifers fed diets containing sunflower pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Regina Alves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the feeding behavior, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers fed sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal. They were used 30 heifers with average initial weight of 274 kg ± 28 kg and average age of 24 months, confined for 76 days. The design was completely randomized with five treatments (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g kg-1 DM and six replicates per treatment. By completing 24 hours after slaughter, it evaluated muscle conformation and degree of finish made the longissimus dorsi at the 13th rib. A representative sample between the 10th and 12th ribs was collected for evaluation of the physical components of carcasses. As well as the other variables, the hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass length and rib eye area were not influenced by different pie levels in feed. The mean percentage of muscle, bone and fat from the carcass were 53.45; 16.14 and 29.46%, respectively, similar among treatments. Therefore, the use of up to 600 g kg-1 of sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal as the main protein source, did not affect the carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers.

  14. Modifications in parent feeding practices and child diet during family-based behavioral treatment improve child zBMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jodi Cahill; Kolko, Rachel P; Stein, Richard I; Welch, R Robinson; Perri, Michael G; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Saelens, Brian E; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E

    2014-05-01

    To examine associations between modifications in parent feeding practices, child diet, and child weight status after treatment and to evaluate dietary mediators. Children classified as overweight or obese and 7-11 years old (N = 170) completed a 16-session family-based behavioral weight loss treatment (FBT) program. Anthropometrics (standardized body mass index (zBMI)), Child Feeding Questionnaire, and 24-hr dietary recalls were collected at baseline and post-FBT. Linear regression predicted child zBMI change. Single and multiple mediation tested child dietary modifications as mediators between change in parent feeding practices and child zBMI. Restrictive parent feeding practices significantly decreased during FBT. Reductions in parent restriction, child weight concern, child's total energy intake, and percent energy from fat, and increases in parent perceived responsibility, and child percent energy from protein, predicted reductions in child zBMI. Change in child total energy intake mediated the relation between parent restriction and child zBMI change after accounting for covariates and additional dietary mediators. FBT is associated with a decrease in parental restriction, which is associated with reductions in child relative weight, which was mediated by a decrease in child energy intake. Teaching parents to reduce children's energy intake without being overly restrictive may improve child weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  15. High-fat diet exacerbates pain-like behaviors and periarticular bone loss in mice with CFA-induced knee arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo-Pérez, Aleyda A; Montalvo-Blanco, Carlos E; Hernández-González, Luis I; Anaya-Reyes, Maricruz; Fernández Del Valle-Laisequilla, Cecilia; Reyes-García, Juan G; Acosta-González, Rosa I; Martínez-Martínez, Arisai; Villarreal-Salcido, Jaira C; Vargas-Muñoz, Virginia M; Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta; Ramírez-Rosas, Martha B; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan M

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to quantify nociceptive spontaneous behaviors, knee edema, proinflammatory cytokines, bone density, and microarchitecture in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice with unilateral knee arthritis. ICR male mice were fed either standard diet (SD) or HFD starting at 3 weeks old. At 17 weeks, HFD and SD mice received intra-articular injections either with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) or saline into the right knee joint every 7 days for 4 weeks. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors and knee edema were assessed for 26 days. At day 26 post-first CFA injection, serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and RANKL were measured by ELISA, and microcomputed tomography analysis of knee joints was performed. HFD-fed mice injected with CFA showed greater spontaneous pain-like behaviors of the affected extremity as well as a decrease in the weight-bearing index compared to SD-fed mice injected with CFA. Knee edema was not significantly different between diets. HFD significantly exacerbated arthritis-induced bone loss at the distal femoral metaphysis but had no effect on femoral diaphyseal cortical bone. HFD did not modify serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines. HFD exacerbates pain-like behaviors and significantly increases the magnitude of periarticular trabecular bone loss in a murine model of unilateral arthritis. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  16. Neurochemical and electrophysiological deficits in the ventral hippocampus and selective behavioral alterations caused by high-fat diet in female C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, S; Keralapurath, M M; Lin, Z; Wagner, J J; de La Serre, C B; Harn, D A; Filipov, N M

    2015-06-25

    Mounting experimental evidence, predominantly from male rodents, demonstrates that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and ensuing obesity are detrimental to the brain. To shed additional light on the neurological consequences of HFD consumption in female rodents and to determine the relatively early impact of HFD in the likely continuum of neurological dysfunction in the context of chronic HFD intake, this study investigated effects of HFD feeding for up to 12weeks on selected behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological parameters in adult female C57BL/6 mice; particular focus was placed on the ventral hippocampus (vHIP). Selected locomotor, emotional and cognitive functions were evaluated using behavioral tests after 5weeks on HFD or control (low-fat diet) diets. One week later, mice were sacrificed and brain regional neurochemical (monoamine) analysis was performed. Behaviorally naïve mice were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 5-6weeks at which time synaptic plasticity was determined in ex vivo slices from the vHIP. HFD-fed female mice exhibited increased: (i) locomotor activity in the open field testing, (ii) mean turn time on the pole test, (iii) swimming time in the forced swim test, and (iv) number of marbles buried in the marble burying test. In contrast, the novel object recognition memory was unaffected. Mice on HFD also had decreased norepinephrine and dopamine turnover, respectively, in the prefrontal cortex and the vHIP. HFD consumption for a total of 11-12weeks altered vHIP synaptic plasticity, evidenced by significant reductions in the paired-pulse ratio and long-term potentiation (LTP) magnitude. In summary, in female mice, HFD intake for several weeks induced multiple behavioral alterations of mainly anxiety-like nature and impaired monoamine pathways in a brain region-specific manner, suggesting that in the female, certain behavioral domains (anxiety) and associated brain regions, i.e., the vHIP, are preferentially

  17. Free-living amoebae as opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Frederick L; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-08-01

    Knowledge that free-living amoebae are capable of causing human disease dates back some 50 years, prior to which time they were regarded as harmless soil organisms or, at most, commensals of mammals. First Naegleria fowleri, then Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris, and finally Sappinia diploidea have been recognised as etiologic agents of encephalitis; Acanthamoeba spp. are also responsible for amoebic keratitis. Some of the infections are opportunistic, occurring mainly in immunocompromised hosts (Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia encephalitides), while others are non-opportunistic (Acanthamoeba keratitis, Naegleria meningoencephalitis, and cases of Balamuthia encephalitis occurring in immunocompetent humans). The amoebae have a cosmopolitan distribution in soil and water, providing multiple opportunities for contacts with humans and animals, as evidenced by antibody titers in surveyed human populations. Although, the numbers of infections caused by these amoebae are low in comparison to other protozoal parasitoses (trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, malaria, etc.), the difficulty in diagnosing them, the challenge of finding optimal antimicrobial treatments and the morbidity and relatively high mortality associated with, in particular, the encephalitides have been a cause for concern for clinical and laboratory personnel and parasitologists. This review presents information about the individual amoebae: their morphologies and life-cycles, laboratory cultivation, ecology, epidemiology, nature of the infections and appropriate antimicrobial therapies, the immune response, and molecular diagnostic procedures that have been developed for identification of the amoebae in the environment and in clinical specimens.

  18. Opportunistic quantum network coding based on quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Du, Gang; Liu, Jian-wei

    2016-04-01

    It seems impossible to endow opportunistic characteristic to quantum network on the basis that quantum channel cannot be overheard without disturbance. In this paper, we propose an opportunistic quantum network coding scheme by taking full advantage of channel characteristic of quantum teleportation. Concretely, it utilizes quantum channel for secure transmission of quantum states and can detect eavesdroppers by means of quantum channel verification. What is more, it utilizes classical channel for both opportunistic listening to neighbor states and opportunistic coding by broadcasting measurement outcome. Analysis results show that our scheme can reduce the times of transmissions over classical channels for relay nodes and can effectively defend against classical passive attack and quantum active attack.

  19. Opportunistic intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients - a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimar Almeida de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic literature review was to identify the occurrence of opportunistic enteric parasites in chronic kidney patient undergoing hemodialysis. The review consisted on searching articles published on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and PubMed databases between 1991 and 2013. A total 178 articles were identified, ten of which were considered relevant for the present study. In the referred studies, the researchers demonstrated that immunosuppressed patients undergoing hemodialysis are potentially infected by opportunistic enteric agents. Further studies are needed on this topic, as there is a growing global concern with chronic kidney diseases and the potential for these patients contracting opportunistic diseases, which, inclusively, could contaminate hospital environments with opportunistic enteric protozoa. Descriptors: Renal Dialysis; Blastocystis hominis; Cryptosporidium; Cyclospora; Isospora.

  20. Achieving fairness by aggregate power allocation in opportunistic cooperation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jianfei; Zhong Zhangdui; Ai Bo

    2009-01-01

    Within a wireless opportunistic network, one of the lucky users gets an opportunity to utilize the whole radio resource. However some of the unlucky users keep silent during an unexpected period resulting from severe wireless environment and imperfect scheduling algorithms. An opportunistic cooperation protocol is proposed that can achieve equivalent performance measured in terms of outage probability, in which scheme the opportunistic user helps to relay what need retransmitting indicated by the destination and selects the appropriate power allocation to pursue fairness. The proposed scheme deploys superposition coding and successive interference cancellation at relay and destination, respectively. To improve the spectral efficiency, the modified cooperation architecture involves two opportunistic users which work in turn. The simulation results demonstrate that the protocol obtains better performance compared with the conventional methods.

  1. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeone O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  2. Weight-related attitudes and behaviors of women who diet to lose weight: a comparison of black dieters and white dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, R H; Wilfley, D E; Caldwell, M B; Needham, M L; Brownell, K D

    1996-03-01

    Obesity is a significant health problem among black women in the United States. Black women are two to three times more likely than white women to be obese. The present study sought to examine race difference in attitudes and beliefs about dieting, motivations underlying dieting efforts, and actual dieting strategies and behaviors. To achieve this aim, a subset of female survey respondents (n = 324) was drawn from a pool of more than 20,000 subscribers to Consumer Reports. All survey respondents had made at least one dieting effort within 3 years of the time of the study. For this study, we used all black female respondents (n = 162) and a matched sample (i.e., matched on age, educational attainment, and personal income) of white women (n = 162). Black women did weigh significantly more than Caucasian women, therefore, BMI was used as a covariate in all subsequent analyses. Black and white women were significantly different in a number of domains. Compared to white women, black women experienced less social pressure about their weight, initiated dieting later in life, and were significantly less likely to diet at each developmental milestone. However, the two groups of women did not differ in reasons for undertaking their most recent dieting efforts, or in the types of weight loss strategies they had employed. Nor were there differences between the black and white women in methods for coping responses with dietary relapse or in rates of disordered eating. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for both treatment and prevention of obesity in black women.

  3. Opportunistic yeast infections: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis and geotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-González, Denisse; Perusquía-Ortiz, Ana María; Hundeiker, Max; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2013-05-01

    Opportunistic yeast infections are diseases caused by fungi which normally are saprophytic and do not cause disease in humans or animals. The prevalence of these diseases has been increasing due to immunosuppressive, corticosteroid, and long-term antibiotic treatment following organ transplantation or after serious metabolic, hematological, or immunological diseases. We review epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of the four "big" opportunistic yeast infections: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis, and geotrichosis.

  4. An Analytical Approach to Opportunistic Transmission under Rayleigh Fading Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf Bin Zikria; Sung Won Kim; Heejung Yu; Seung Yeob Nam

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive radio sensor networks, the routing methods including multiple relays have been extensively studied to achieve higher throughput and lower end-to-end delay. As one of innovative approaches, the opportunistic routing scheme was proposed. In this paper, the effectiveness of the opportunistic transmission in terms of reliability and delay of transmission is verified with an analytical way. For the analysis, we establish the probabilistic model with respect to distance and the number ...

  5. SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV-AIDS PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    S S Madkar; Ashok Jaykumar Vankudre; SL Nilekar

    2012-01-01

    Aim: AIDS is characterized by a number of opportunistic infections which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) in AIDS patients is ever-expanding. This spectrum varies from continent to continent. The aim of the present study was to document the spectrum of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Ambajogai. Material and Method: 178 HIV positive symptomatic patients, either hospitalized or coming to ART (Antiretroviral Therapy...

  6. Effects of physical examination and diet consultation on serum cholesterol and health-behavior in the Korean pilots employed in commercial airline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Ki Youn

    2013-01-01

    An objective of this study is to search how physical examination and diet consultation can influence those risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The subjects were 326 pilots of the "B" airline company in Korea whose total cholesterol values were over 220 mg/dl on their regular physical examinations from April 2006 to December 2008. They were divided into two groups, one who had diet consultation (an intervention group) and a control group. The physical examination components used to each group were body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG). The behavioral, anthropometric and biomedical measurements were collected at each visit. This study compares and investigates the changes of serum cholesterol and also the health-behavior at each physical examination. Within the intervention group significant improvements were observed for total cholesterol, BMI (body mass index) and HDL (high density lipoprotein). The normalizing rates for cholesterol level to decrease down to lower than 200 mg/dl were 17.7% in intervention group and 8.7% in control group, which is statistically significantly higher among the intervention group. The odds ratio of diet consultation was 2.80 (95% CI=1.35-5.79), which indicates that it is a significantly contributing factor to normalize the serum cholesterol value down to lower than 200 mg/dl. Based on result, it is recommended to have regular physical examination and intensive management with diet and exercise consultation.

  7. Opportunistic Wireless Relay Networks: Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff

    CERN Document Server

    Abouelseoud, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic analysis has traditionally relied on independence assumptions that break down in many interesting and useful network topologies. This paper develops techniques that expand opportunistic analysis to a broader class of networks, proposes new opportunistic methods for several network geometries, and analyzes them in the high-SNR regime. For each of the geometries studied in the paper, we analyze the opportunistic DMT of several relay protocols, including amplify-and-forward, decode-and-forward, compress-and-forward, non-orthogonal amplify-forward, and dynamic decode-forward. Among the highlights of the results: in a variety of multi-user single-relay networks, simple selection strategies are developed and shown to be DMT-optimal. It is shown that compress-forward relaying achieves the DMT upper bound in the opportunistic multiple-access relay channel as well as in the opportunistic nxn user network with relay. Other protocols, e.g. dynamic decode-forward, are shown to be near optimal in several cas...

  8. Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Achievement in Autistic Children in an Applied Behavioral Analysis Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Melissa; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study used both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet on the academic achievement of autistic children. The between-subjects analysis included data from eight autistic children (ages 5 to 7) with four on a gluten-free diet and four serving as controls. The number of attempts needed before…

  9. Feeding and lying behavior of heat-stressed early lactation cows fed low fiber diets containing roughage and nonforage fiber sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanapruthipong, J; Junlapho, W; Karnjanasirm, K

    2015-02-01

    In addition to reduced nutrient intake, an environmental thermal load may directly affect milk yield in heat-stressed dairy cows. Feeding and lying behaviors of early lactation cows fed low fiber diets containing neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from roughage and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) were investigated under summer conditions in Thailand. Immediately after calving, 30 multiparous cows (87.5% Holstein × 12.5% Sahiwal) were randomly allocated to dietary treatments for 63 d in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments contained 25% of dry matter (DM) as dietary NDF. The control diet consisted of 13.9% roughage NDF from rice straw (RS). Two additional treatments were created by replacing 3.9% of DM with NDF from either soy hulls (SH) or cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) residues (CR), so that the roughage NDF content was reduced to 10%. During the experimental period, the minimum and maximum temperature-humidity indices (THI) were 86.4±2.5 and 91.5±2.7 during the day and 74.2±2.1 and 81.0±2.5 during the night, respectively, indicating conditions appropriate for induction of extreme heat stress. The duration of feeding and lying bouts decreased linearly with increasing THI. The DM intake during the day was greater for cows fed diets containing SH and CR than for those fed the diet containing NDF from RS. The number of meals during the day and night was lower, whereas meal size and meal length during the day and night were greater for cows fed diets containing SH and CR. Cows fed diets containing SH and CR lay down less frequently and longer during the day. These results suggest that under the severe heat stress during the day, early lactation cows fed the diet containing NFFS increased DM intake by increasing meal length and meal size rather than by increasing meal frequency and they spent more time lying. Cows fed diets containing NDF from SH and CR produced more 4% fat-corrected milk, lost less body weight, and had lower rectal temperatures

  10. Nutritional limitation and resistance to opportunistic Aspergillus parasites in honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kirsten; Fazio, Géraldine; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

    2012-09-15

    Honey bees are threatened by land use changes which reduce the availability and diversity of pollen and nectar resources. There is concern that poor nutrition may be involved in recent population declines, either directly or due to indirect effects on immunocompetence. The larval stage is likely to be the most vulnerable to a poor diet, but the effects of larval nutrition on the disease susceptibility of bees are not well known. In this study we used laboratory-reared honey bee larvae to investigate the effects of diet quality on disease susceptibility to the opportunistic fungal parasites Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus phoenicis and A. fumigatus. Larvae fed on a nutritionally poor diet were found to be significantly more susceptible to A. fumigatus. Larval resistance to A. fumigatus was enhanced by feeding with a diet supplemented with either dandelion or polyfloral pollens. This indicates that dandelion and polyfloral pollens contain elements that enhance resistance to this fungal disease, illustrating an interaction between nutrition and parasitism and emphasising the benefit of diverse floral resources in the environment to maintain honey bee health.

  11. Which is the appropriate scale to assess the impact of landscape spatial configuration on the diet and behavior of spider monkeys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Gómez, José D; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Nicasio-Arzeta, Sergio; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the response of species to changes in landscape configuration is required to design adequate management and conservation strategies. Yet, the most appropriate spatial scale (i.e., landscape size) to assess the response of species to changes in landscape configuration (so-called "scale of effect") is largely unknown. In this paper, we assess the impact of landscape forest cover, forest fragmentation, edge density, and inter-patch isolation distance on the diet and behavior of six communities of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in the fragmented Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We evaluated the strength of the relationship between each landscape predictor and each response variable within ten different-sized landscapes (range = 50-665 ha) to identify the landscape size that best predicted changes in diet and behavior. The strength of most associations varied across spatial scales, with the 126-ha landscape showing the strongest relationships between landscape predictors and response variables in many cases. Yet forest cover represented the main driver of the diet and behavior of spider monkeys, being positively associated with time traveling and time feeding on wood, but negatively related to time resting and time feeding on leaves. Although weaker, the impact of edge density was opposite to forest cover for most response variables. Forest fragmentation and isolation distance showed the weakest associations with the diet and behavior of this species. Our findings thus indicate that different landscape attributes operate on different response variables at different spatial scales. Therefore, the scale of effects cannot be generalized to all response variables and to all predictors, and a multi-scale analysis will be required to accurately assess the impact of landscape configuration on species' responses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  14. Behavioral and omics analyses study on potential involvement of dipeptide balenine through supplementation in diet of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Wada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates effects of dipeptide balenine, as a major component of whale meat extract (hereafter, WME, supplementation on senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8, an Alzheimer's disease (AD model at level of learning and memory formation and brain expression profiles genome-wide in brain. Mice fed experimental balenine (+WME supplemented diet for 26 weeks were subjected to four behavioral tests – open field, Y-maze, novel object recognition, and water-filled multiple T-maze – to examine effects on learning and memory. Brain transcriptome of SAMP8 mice-fed the WME diet over control low-safflower oil (LSO diet-fed mice was delineated on a 4 × 44 K mouse whole genome DNA microarray chip. Results revealed the WME diet not only induced improvements in the learning and memory formation but also positively modulated changes in the brain of the SAMP8 mouse; the gene inventories are publically available for analysis by the scientific community. Interestingly, the SAMP8 mouse model presented many genetic characteristics of AD, and numerous novel molecules (Slc2a5, Treh, Fbp1, Aldob, Ppp1r1a, DNase1, Agxt2l1, Cyp2e1, Acsm1, Acsm2, and Pah were revealed over the SAMR1 (senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 mouse, to be oppositely regulated/recovered under the balenine (+WME supplemented diet regime by DNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses. Our present study demonstrates an experimental strategy to understand the effects of dipeptide balenine, prominetly contained in meat diet, on SAMP8, providing new insight into whole brain transcriptome changes genome-wide. The gene expression data has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE76459. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation.

  15. Effects of feeding frequency on intake, ruminal fermentation, and feeding behavior in heifers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, V; González, L A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Calsamiglia, S

    2007-10-01

    Four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 385 +/- 6.2 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to determine the effect of feeding frequency on intake, water consumption, ruminal fermentation, and feeding and animal behavior. The treatments consisted of different feeding frequencies: a) once daily (T1); b) twice daily (T2); c) 3 times daily (T3); and d) 4 times daily (T4). Heifers were offered ad libitum access to concentrate and barley straw. Feeding frequency did not affect DMI (P >0.10), but water consumption tended to increase linearly as feeding frequency increased (P = 0.08). Average ruminal pH was not affected (P >0.10) by feeding frequency, but at 12 h after feeding ruminal pH was greater for T2 than for the other treatments. Total VFA concentration and VFA proportions were not affected (P >0.10) by feeding frequency, except valerate proportion, which increased linearly (P = 0.05) as feeding frequency increased. The concentration of ammonia-N was affected (P 0.05), except for observational behavior, for which there was a linear decrease as feeding frequency increased (P = 0.02). Heifers spent the same time on chewing activities, independent of feeding frequency. However, meal criteria tended to be affected (P = 0.07) by feeding frequency, with T2 (39.4 min) showing the longest intermeal interval. Total daily meal time, meal frequency, and meal size were not affected by feeding frequency (P >0.10), whereas meal length and eating rate showed cubic tendencies (P = 0.10 and P = 0.06, respectively) as feeding frequency increased. These results suggest that in the present experimental conditions, with heifers fed high-concentrate diets and with noncompetitive feeding, a smaller range of ruminal pH values was observed when feed was offered twice daily. Although heifers spent the same time on chewing activities, more stable ruminal conditions were probably achieved by feeding twice daily due to the rumination pattern, which was more constant during

  16. SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV-AIDS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Madkar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: AIDS is characterized by a number of opportunistic infections which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs in AIDS patients is ever-expanding. This spectrum varies from continent to continent. The aim of the present study was to document the spectrum of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Ambajogai. Material and Method: 178 HIV positive symptomatic patients, either hospitalized or coming to ART (Antiretroviral Therapy centre in S.R.T.R. Medical College, Ambajogai, were included in the study for finding the spectrum of opportunistic infections. Result: The commonest opportunistic infection seen was tuberculosis (59% of patients, followed by oral candidiasis (37.6% of patients and parasitic diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum(18 % of patients. It was observed that out of 178 patients, maximum 53.3% were in the age group of 29-38 years followed by 21% in the age group of 39-48 years. It was found that 77% were males and 23% were females, with male to female ratio is 3.3:1. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that tuberculosis is the commonest opportunistic infection seen in HIV patients. Clinicians should consider HIV in the differential diagnosis and management of all persons with tuberculosis.

  17. On the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks with Opportunistic Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the capacity of hybrid wireless networks with opportunistic routing (OR. We first extend the opportunistic routing algorithm to exploit high-speed data transmissions in infrastructure network through base stations. We then develop linear programming models to calculate the end-to-end throughput bounds from multiple source nodes to single as well as multiple destination nodes. The developed models are applied to study several hybrid wireless network examples. Through case studies, we investigate several factors that have significant impacts on the hybrid wireless network capacity under opportunistic routing, such as node transmission range, density and distribution pattern of base stations (BTs, and number of wireless channels on wireless nodes and base stations. Our numerical results demonstrate that opportunistic routing could achieve much higher throughput on both ad hoc and hybrid networks than traditional unicast routing (UR. Moreover, opportunistic routing can efficiently utilize base stations and achieve significantly higher throughput gains in hybrid wireless networks than in pure ad hoc networks especially with multiple-channel base stations.

  18. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  19. GLYCERIN LEVELS IN THE DIETS FOR CROSSBRED BULLS FINISHED IN FEED-LOT: INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR, FEEDING AND RUMINATION EFFICIENCY Glycerin levels in the diets for crossbred bulls finished in feed-lot: ingestive behavior, feeding and rumination efficiency - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.19090

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Emanuel Eiras; Jair de Araújo Marques; Juliana Akamine Torrecilhas; Fernando Zawadzki; José Luis Moletta; Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study corn substituting by glycerin levels on animal behavior, feeding and rumination efficiency of Purunã young bulls finished in feed-lot. It was utilized 40 bulls Purunã breed with 208.8 ± 33.75 kg and 8 months old. The diets were: without glycerin - G00, 6% of glycerin – G06, 12% of glycerin – G12 and 18% of glycerin – G18. Dry matter intake was similar among diets. On the other hand, NDF intake decreased linearly with glycerin levels supplementation in the di...

  20. Efficient scheduling request algorithm for opportunistic wireless access

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2011-08-01

    An efficient scheduling request algorithm for opportunistic wireless access based on user grouping is proposed in this paper. Similar to the well-known opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm initially adjusts (or lowers) the threshold during a guard period if no user sends a scheduling request. However, if multiple users make requests simultaneously and therefore a collision occurs, the proposed algorithm no longer updates the threshold but narrows down the user search space by splitting the users into multiple groups iteratively, whereas the opportunistic splitting algorithm keeps adjusting the threshold until a single user is found. Since the threshold is only updated when no user sends a request, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly alleviates the burden of the signaling for the threshold distribution to the users by the scheduler. More importantly, the proposed algorithm requires a less number of mini-slots to make a user selection given a certain scheduling outage probability. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Joint opportunistic scheduling and network coding for bidirectional relay channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users\\' transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Scale-Free Opportunistic Networks: is it Possible?

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The coupling of scale-free networks with mobile unstructured networks is certainly unusual. In mobile networks, connections active at a given instant are constrained by the geographical distribution of mobile nodes, and by the limited signal strength of the wireless technology employed to build the ad-hoc overlay. This is in contrast with the presence of hubs, typical of scale-free nets. However, opportunistic (mobile) networks possess the distinctive feature to be delay tolerant; mobile nodes implement a store, carry and forward strategy that permits to disseminate data based on a multi-hop route, which is built in time, when nodes encounter other ones while moving. In this paper, we consider opportunistic networks as evolving graphs where links represent contacts among nodes arising during a (non-instantaneous) time interval. We discuss a strategy to control the way nodes manage contacts and build "opportunistic overlays". Based on such an approach, interesting overlays can be obtained, shaped following giv...

  3. Opportunistic Collaborative Beamforming with One-Bit Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Pun, Man-On; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    An energy-efficient opportunistic collaborative beamformer with one-bit feedback is proposed for ad hoc sensor networks over Rayleigh fading channels. In contrast to conventional collaborative beamforming schemes in which each source node uses channel state information to correct its local carrier offset and channel phase, the proposed beamforming scheme opportunistically selects a subset of source nodes whose received signals combine in a quasi-coherent manner at the intended receiver. No local phase-precompensation is performed by the nodes in the opportunistic collaborative beamformer. As a result, each node requires only one-bit of feedback from the destination in order to determine if it should or shouldn't participate in the collaborative beamformer. Theoretical analysis shows that the received signal power obtained with the proposed beamforming scheme scales linearly with the number of available source nodes. Since the the optimal node selection rule requires an exhaustive search over all possible subs...

  4. MOSDEN: A Scalable Mobile Collaborative Platform for Opportunistic Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Prakash Jayaraman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile smartphones along with embedded sensors have become an efficient enabler for various mobile applications including opportunistic sensing. The hi-tech advances in smartphones are opening up a world of possibilities. This paper proposes a mobile collaborative platform called MOSDEN that enables and supports opportunistic sensing at run time. MOSDEN captures and shares sensor data acrossmultiple apps, smartphones and users. MOSDEN supports the emerging trend of separating sensors from application-specific processing, storing and sharing. MOSDEN promotes reuse and re-purposing of sensor data hence reducing the efforts in developing novel opportunistic sensing applications. MOSDEN has been implemented on Android-based smartphones and tablets. Experimental evaluations validate the scalability and energy efficiency of MOSDEN and its suitability towards real world applications. The results of evaluation and lessons learned are presented and discussed in this paper.

  5. Short-Term High-Fat Diet (HFD) Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Cognitive Impairment Are Improved with Treatment by Glyburide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainey, Stephen J.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Bray, Julie K.; Pillote, Melissa M.; Tir, Vincent L.; Towers, Albert E.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated comorbidities such as cognitive impairment and anxiety are increasing public health burdens that have gained prevalence in children. To better understand the impact of childhood obesity on brain function, mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) from weaning for 1, 3 or 6 weeks. When compared to low-fat diet (LFD)-fed mice (LFD-mice), HFD-fed mice (HFD-mice) had impaired novel object recognition (NOR) after 1 week. After 3 weeks, HFD-mice had impaired NOR and object location recognition (OLR). Additionally, these mice displayed anxiety-like behavior by measure of both the open-field and elevated zero maze (EZM) testing. At 6 weeks, HFD-mice were comparable to LFD-mice in NOR, open-field and EZM performance but they remained impaired during OLR testing. Glyburide, a second-generation sulfonylurea for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, was chosen as a countermeasure based on previous data exhibiting its potential as an anxiolytic. Interestingly, a single dose of glyburide corrected deficiencies in NOR and mitigated anxiety-like behaviors in mice fed with HFD-diet for 3-weeks. Taken together these results indicate that a HFD negatively impacts a subset of hippocampal-independent behaviors relatively rapidly, but such behaviors normalize with age. In contrast, impairment of hippocampal-sensitive memory takes longer to develop but persists. Since single-dose glyburide restores brain function in 3-week-old HFD-mice, drugs that block ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels may be of clinical relevance in the treatment of obesity-associated childhood cognitive issues and psychopathologies. PMID:27563288

  6. Short-Term High-Fat Diet (HFD) Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Cognitive Impairment Are Improved with Treatment by Glyburide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainey, Stephen J; Kwakwa, Kristin A; Bray, Julie K; Pillote, Melissa M; Tir, Vincent L; Towers, Albert E; Freund, Gregory G

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated comorbidities such as cognitive impairment and anxiety are increasing public health burdens that have gained prevalence in children. To better understand the impact of childhood obesity on brain function, mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) from weaning for 1, 3 or 6 weeks. When compared to low-fat diet (LFD)-fed mice (LFD-mice), HFD-fed mice (HFD-mice) had impaired novel object recognition (NOR) after 1 week. After 3 weeks, HFD-mice had impaired NOR and object location recognition (OLR). Additionally, these mice displayed anxiety-like behavior by measure of both the open-field and elevated zero maze (EZM) testing. At 6 weeks, HFD-mice were comparable to LFD-mice in NOR, open-field and EZM performance but they remained impaired during OLR testing. Glyburide, a second-generation sulfonylurea for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, was chosen as a countermeasure based on previous data exhibiting its potential as an anxiolytic. Interestingly, a single dose of glyburide corrected deficiencies in NOR and mitigated anxiety-like behaviors in mice fed with HFD-diet for 3-weeks. Taken together these results indicate that a HFD negatively impacts a subset of hippocampal-independent behaviors relatively rapidly, but such behaviors normalize with age. In contrast, impairment of hippocampal-sensitive memory takes longer to develop but persists. Since single-dose glyburide restores brain function in 3-week-old HFD-mice, drugs that block ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels may be of clinical relevance in the treatment of obesity-associated childhood cognitive issues and psychopathologies.

  7. Visual acuity in an opportunistic raptor, the chimango caracara (Milvago chimango).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potier, Simon; Bonadonna, Francesco; Kelber, Almut; Duriez, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Raptors are always considered to have an extraordinary resolving power of their eyes (high visual acuity). Nevertheless, raptors differ in their diet and foraging tactics, which could lead to large differences in visual acuity. The visual acuity of an opportunist bird of prey, the Chimango caracara (Mivalgo chimango) was estimated by operant conditioning. Three birds were trained to discriminate two stimuli, a positive grey uniform pattern and a negative grating pattern stimulus. The visual acuity range from 15.08 to 39.83 cycles/degrees. When compared to other birds, they have a higher visual acuity than non-raptorial birds, but they have the lowest visual acuity found in bird of prey so far. We discuss this result in the context of the ecology of the bird, with special focus on it is foraging tactic.

  8. Uncommon opportunistic fungal infections of oral cavity: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of opportunistic oral mucosal fungal infections are due to Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus species. Mucor and Cryptococcus also have a major role in causing oral infections, whereas Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces and Penicillium marneffei are uncommon pathogens in the oral cavity. The broad spectrum of clinical presentation includes pseudo-membranes, abscesses, ulcers, pustules and extensive tissue necrosis involving bone. This review discusses various uncommon opportunistic fungal infections affecting the oral cavity including their morphology, clinical features and diagnostic methods.

  9. Diel diet of fantail darter in a tributary to Lake Ontario, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.

    2016-01-01

    The foraging behavior of benthic fishes in streams is seldom examined but is vital to the health of the aquatic community. We examined the feeding ecology of the fantail darter (Etheostoma flaballere) in Trout Brook, a tributary of the Salmon River in central New York, USA. Of the six time periods examined, fantail darters fed most intensely from 1600–2000 h, with ephemeropterans the major prey consumed during all time periods except for 2000 where chironomid larvae were consumed the most. Fantail darter diet composition was similar across all time periods except during the night which appeared to be uniquely different. According to the prey selection analysis, fantail darters appear to prefer dipterans and ephemeropterans but also demonstrated an opportunistic behavior feeding on what was available in the brook.

  10. Relationship of severity of subacute ruminal acidosis to rumen fermentation, chewing activities, sorting behavior, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a high-grain diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the variation in severity of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) among lactating dairy cows fed a high-grain diet and to determine factors characterizing animals that are tolerant to high-grain diets. Sixteen ruminally cannulated late-lactating dairy cows (days in milk=282 ± 33.8; body weight=601 ± 75.9 kg) were fed a high-grain diet consisting of 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix. After 17 d of diet adaptation, chewing activities were monitored for a 24-h period and ruminal pH was measured every 30s for 72 h. Acidosis index, defined as the severity of SARA (area of pH acidosis index ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 pH · min/kg of DMI. Six cows with the lowest acidosis index (0.04 ± 0.61 pH · min/kg) and 4 with the highest acidosis index (7.67 ± 0.75 pH · min/kg) were classified as animals that were tolerant and susceptible to the high-grain diet, respectively. Total volatile fatty acid concentration and volatile fatty acid profile were not different between the groups. Susceptible animals sorted against long particles, whereas tolerant animals did not (sorting index=87.6 vs. 97.9, respectively). However, the tolerant cows had shorter total chewing time (35.8 vs. 45.1 min/kg of DMI). In addition, although DMI, milk yield, and milk component yields did not differ between the groups, milk urea nitrogen concentration was higher for tolerant cows compared with susceptible cows (12.8 vs. 8.6 mg/dL), which is possibly attributed to less organic matter fermentation in the rumen of tolerant cows. These results suggest that a substantial variation exists in the severity of SARA among lactating dairy cows fed the same high-grain diet, and that cows tolerant to the high-grain diet might be characterized by less sorting behavior but less chewing time, and higher milk urea nitrogen concentration. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavior and inflammation of the rumen and cecum in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets with different concentrate presentation forms with or without straw supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devant, M; Penner, G B; Marti, S; Quintana, B; Fábregas, F; Bach, A; Arís, A

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-four individually housed Holstein bulls (395 ± 7.3 kg BW and 252 ± 3.1 d age) were exposed to a 2 × 2 factorial design (meal vs. pellets; with vs. without straw) to evaluate the effect of concentrate form and provision of straw in finishing diets on behavior and expression of rumen and cecum epithelium genes related to inflammation and behavior. Concentrate and straw consumption were recorded monthly and behavior (self-grooming, social, oral nonnutritive, tongue rolling, eating, drinking, ruminating, and lying) was recorded every two weeks. Bulls were slaughtered after 64 d of exposure to treatments, lesions on the rumen and liver were assessed, and samples of the rumen and cecum were collected. Straw supplementation tended ( = 0.08) to increase concentrate intake (8.0 vs. 7.4 ± 0.26 kg/d), increased ( straw. Provision of straw increased ruminal pH, but the magnitude of the change was greater when the concentrate was provided as meal compared with pellets (interaction, straw was not supplemented, all rumen samples had papillae fusion, whereas only 16.7% of bulls fed pellets and straw had papillae fusions (interaction, straw compared with bulls without straw. For the ruminal epithelium, straw provision tended to increase the relative expression ratio of (which stimulates peptide YY, PYY, and serotonin secretion; = 0.06) and α (which modulates immune reactions and behavior; = 0.09) and increased and (tight junction proteins; straw had increased ( straw supplementation in bulls fed high-concentrate diets modifies behavior and affects rumen macroscopic morphology and expression of epithelial genes that could be related to behavior and inflammation.

  12. Long-term postpartum anxiety and depression-like behavior in mother rats subjected to maternal separation are ameliorated by palatable high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-03-17

    While the effects of maternal separation on pups are well studied, the impact on dams has attracted little attention. The consumption of palatable food is known to dampen stress responses in animals, and emotions influence food choice in humans. Here we examined the early- and long-term impacts of maternal separation on behavioral profile of the dams, and the effects of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). After littering, Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to prolonged separation, S180 (180 min) or brief separation, S15 (15 min/day) from postnatal days (PND) 2-14. At 4 weeks postpartum, half the dams were assigned to HFD. Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were assessed pre- and post-diet. Compared to S15 dams, S180 dams consuming chow demonstrated increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim (FST) tests, respectively. These behavioral deficits were observed at 4 weeks, and persisted until 17 weeks postpartum. The S180 dams also had increased plasma corticosterone concentration compared to S15 dams, which coincided with increased hypothalamic CRH mRNA and reduced hippocampal GR mRNA expression, suggesting possible dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Interestingly, continuous provision of HFD improved the behavioral deficits observed in S180 dams with significant reduction of hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression. These data are the first to describe long-term detrimental behavioral impacts of separation in dams, suggesting this may provide a model of postpartum depression. Moreover, they support the notion of long-term beneficial effects of 'comfort food' on stress responses.

  13. Iterative group splitting algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2014-05-01

    An efficient feedback algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems based on iterative group splitting is proposed in this paper. Similar to the opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm adjusts (or lowers) the feedback threshold during a guard period if no user sends a feedback. However, when a feedback collision occurs at any point of time, the proposed algorithm no longer updates the threshold but narrows down the user search space by dividing the users into multiple groups iteratively, whereas the opportunistic splitting algorithm keeps adjusting the threshold until a single user is found. Since the threshold is only updated when no user sends a feedback, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly alleviates the signaling overhead for the threshold distribution to the users by the scheduler. More importantly, the proposed algorithm requires a less number of mini-slots than the opportunistic splitting algorithm to make a user selection with a given level of scheduling outage probability or provides a higher ergodic capacity given a certain number of mini-slots. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC WETLANDS PLANT SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

  15. a survey of opportunistic infections in hiv seropositive patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The screening for the HIV/AID was done using the Genic II HIV-1/HIV – 2 Test and the screening for opportunistic infections was done using thin and thick blood films, direct wet mount, ... infections include bacterial diseases such as those.

  16. Analysis of full-duplex relay networks with opportunistic scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This Letter addresses a two-hop decode-and-forward relay system with full-duplex relaying and opportunistic scheduling. Exact expressions for outage probability, average capacity and symbol error rate are presented in an independent identically distributed Rayleigh fading environment. Numerical and simulated results show the validity of the analytical results.

  17. Opportunistic Beacon Networks: Information Dissemination via Wireless Network Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents OBN, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model particularly intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the utilization of universally-available wireless network identifiers. As a ubiquitous

  18. Opportunistic Beacon Networks: Information Dissemination via Wireless Network Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents OBN, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model particularly intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the utilization of universally-available wireless network identifiers. As a ubiquitous

  19. Passive Multistatic Detection of Maritime Targets using Opportunistic Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    optimal configuration using MATLAB simulation. The simulation results are obtained using actual system parameters extracted from civil marine radar ...Bistatic Radar . Norwood, MA: Artech House, Technology Service Corporation, p. 1, 1995. [2] D. C. Jenn, Radar and Laser Cross Section Engineering...MULTISTATIC DETECTION OF MARITIME TARGETS USING OPPORTUNISTIC RADARS by Chong Sze Sing March 2014 Thesis Advisor: Herschel H. Loomis Co-Advisor

  20. GROWTH AND BEHAVIOR OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH Danio rerio FED A PROCESSED DIET, LIVE FOOD, OR THE COMBINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a popular and important model for scientific research, the capability to rear larval zebrafish to adulthood is of great importance. Recently research examining the effects of diet (live versus processed) have been published. In the cu...

  1. Exposure to a highly caloric palatable diet during pregestational and gestational periods affects hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid levels at birth and induces adiposity and anxiety-like behaviors in male rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa eRamírez-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and, although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory and emotions.

  2. Race/Ethnicity and gender differences in health intentions and behaviors regarding exercise and diet for adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Kathleen M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-management is the cornerstone of diabetes control and prevention of complications; however, it is undetermined whether differences in intention to adopt healthy lifestyles and actual healthy behavior exist across race/ethnic groups. This study evaluated the differences across racial-ethnic groups in self-reported medical advice received and health intentions and behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 SHIELD US survey ascertained self-reported health intentions and behaviors for regular exercise, diet, and weight management among Non-Hispanic Caucasian (n = 2526, Non-Hispanic African-American (n = 706, and Hispanic (n = 179 respondents with type 2 diabetes. Results A similar proportion of respondents from each race-gender group (43%-56% reported receiving healthcare advice to increase their exercise (P = 0.32. Significantly more minorities reported an intention to follow the exercise recommendation compared with Non-Hispanic Caucasians (P = 0.03. More Non-Hispanic African-American (29% and Hispanic (27% men reported exercising regularly compared with other race-gender groups (P = 0.02. Significantly more Non-Hispanic Caucasian women (74% and Hispanic women (79% reported trying to lose weight compared with other groups (P Conclusions Differences in health intentions and healthy behaviors were noted across race-gender groups. More Non-Hispanic African-American men reported an intention to follow advice on exercising and self-report of exercising regularly was also higher compared with other race-gender groups. More Hispanic men reported high physical activity levels than other groups. Despite an increased willingness to follow healthcare recommendations for diet, >50% of respondents were obese among all race-gender groups.

  3. Effects of a Copper-Deficient Diet on the Biochemistry, Neural Morphology and Behavior of Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognin, Silvia; Pasqualetto, Federica; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Scancar, Janez; Milacic, Radmila; Zambenedetti, Pamela; Cozzi, Bruno; Zatta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Copper dyshomeostasis has been suggested as an aetiological risk factor for some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. However, the precise mechanism at the base of this involvement is still obscure. In this work, we show the effects of a copper-deficient diet in aged CD1 mice and the influence of such a diet on: a) the concentration of various metal ions (aluminium, copper, iron, calcium, zinc) in the main organs and in different brain areas; b) the alteration of metallothioneins I-II and tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositivity in the brain; c) behavioural tests (open field, pole, predatory aggression, and habituation/dishabituation smell tests). Our data suggested that the copper-deficiency was able to produce a sort of “domino effect” which altered the concentration of the other tested metal ions in the main organs as well as in the brain, without, however, significantly affecting the animal behaviour. PMID:23071712

  4. Effects of a copper-deficient diet on the biochemistry, neural morphology and behavior of aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bolognin

    Full Text Available Copper dyshomeostasis has been suggested as an aetiological risk factor for some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the precise mechanism at the base of this involvement is still obscure. In this work, we show the effects of a copper-deficient diet in aged CD1 mice and the influence of such a diet on: a the concentration of various metal ions (aluminium, copper, iron, calcium, zinc in the main organs and in different brain areas; b the alteration of metallothioneins I-II and tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositivity in the brain; c behavioural tests (open field, pole, predatory aggression, and habituation/dishabituation smell tests. Our data suggested that the copper-deficiency was able to produce a sort of "domino effect" which altered the concentration of the other tested metal ions in the main organs as well as in the brain, without, however, significantly affecting the animal behaviour.

  5. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  6. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  7. Opportunistic filamentous mycoses: aspergillosis, mucormycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and hyalohyphomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusquía-Ortiz, Ana María; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2012-09-01

    Opportunistic filamentous mycoses are widely distributed all over the world. They are rarely observed in Europe but are common in developing countries. The most common are the aspergilloses (due to Aspergillus spp.) mostly in neutropenia and immunosuppression; the mucormycoses characterized by rapid progression in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis; the phaeohyphomycoses due to pigmented fungi causing either a mild superficial or a very serious deep disease and the hyalohyphomycoses due to hyaline filamentous fungi (Fusarium spp., Pseudallescheria spp., Scopulariopsis spp.). Cutaneous manifestations are usually secondary to dissemination from pulmonary or visceral disease; primary cases are less frequent and due to direct inoculation into the skin. We review epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic data on the four most important opportunistic filamentous mycoses: aspergillosis, mucormycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and hyalohyphomycosis.

  8. Opportunistic spectrum access in cognitive radio based on channel switching

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a cognitive radio transceiver that can monitor multiple channels and opportunistically use any one of them should it be available. In our work, we propose and compare two different opportunistic channel access schemes. The first scheme applies when the secondary user (SU) has access to only one channel. The second scheme applies when the SU has access to multiple channels but can at a given time monitor and access only one channel. Two switching strategies, namely the switch and examine and the switch and stay strategies, are proposed. For these proposed access schemes, we investigate their performance by deriving the analytical expression of the novel metric of the average access duration and the average waiting time and based on these two metrics a time average SU throughput formula is proposed to predict the performance of the secondary cognitive system. © 2012 ICST.

  9. Accurate Performance Analysis of Opportunistic Decode-and-Forward Relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Tourki, Kamel; Alouni, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path can be considered unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We first derive statistics based on exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance analysis and the diversity order is deduced. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures.

  10. Error-rate performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path can be considered unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We first derive the exact statistics of each hop, in terms of probability density function (PDF). Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation where the detector may use maximum ration combining (MRC) or selection combining (SC). Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over linear network (LN) architecture and considering Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Opportunistic Channel Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks with Queue Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Wang, Yongchao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a distributed opportunistic channel access strategy in ad hoc network is proposed. We consider the multiple sources contend for the transmission opportunity, the winner source decides to transmit or restart contention based on the current channel condition. Owing to real data assumption at all links, the decision still needs to consider the stability of the queues. We formulate the channel opportunistic scheduling as a constrained optimization problem which maximizes the system average throughput with the constraints that the queues of all links are stable. The proposed optimization model is solved by Lyapunov stability in queueing theory. The successive channel access problem is decoupled into single optimal stopping problem at every frame and solved with Lyapunov algorithm. The threshold for every frame is different, and it is derived based on the instantaneous queue information. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed strategy.

  12. New results on performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path may be unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the selected relay. We first derive the signal-to-noise (SNR) statistics for each hop, which are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation and end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance and deduce the diversity order. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over linear network architecture. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Optimality of Myopic Sensing in Multi-Channel Opportunistic Access

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Sahand H A; Javidi, Tara; Zhao, Qing; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2008-01-01

    We consider opportunistic communications over multiple channels where the state ("good" or "bad") of each channel evolves as independent and identically distributed Markov processes. A user, with limited sensing and access capability, chooses one channel to sense and subsequently access (based on the sensed channel state) in each time slot. A reward is obtained when the user senses and accesses a "good" channel. The objective is to design the optimal channel selection policy that maximizes the expected reward accrued over time. This problem can be generally cast as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) or a restless multi-armed bandit process, to which optimal solutions are often intractable. We show in this paper that the myopic policy, with a simple and robust structure, achieves optimality under certain conditions. This result finds applications in opportunistic communications in fading environment, cognitive radio networks for spectrum overlay, and resource-constrained jamming and anti-ja...

  14. Accurate performance analysis of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path may be considered unusable, and the destination may use a selection combining technique. We first derive the exact statistics of each hop, in terms of probability density function (PDF). Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance analysis and the diversity order is deduced. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. A Game Theoretic Approach to Distributed Opportunistic Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Banchs, Albert; Serrano, Pablo; Widmer, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Distributed Opportunistic Scheduling (DOS) is inherently harder than conventional opportunistic scheduling due to the absence of a central entity that has knowledge of all the channel states. With DOS, stations contend for the channel using random access; after a successful contention, they measure the channel conditions and only transmit in case of a good channel, while giving up the transmission opportunity when the channel conditions are poor. The distributed nature of DOS systems makes them vulnerable to selfish users: by deviating from the protocol and using more transmission opportunities, a selfish user can gain a greater share of the wireless resources at the expense of the well-behaved users. In this paper, we address the selfishness problem in DOS from a game theoretic standpoint. We propose an algorithm that satisfies the following properties: (i) when all stations implement the algorithm, the wireless network is driven to the optimal point of operation, and (ii) one or more selfish stations cannot...

  16. Benefits and performance of ATLAS approaches to utilizing opportunistic resources

    CERN Document Server

    Filip\\v{c}i\\v{c}, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS has been extensively exploring possibilities of using computing resources extending beyond conventional grid sites in the WLCG fabric to deliver as many computing cycles as possible and thereby enhance the significance of the Monte-Carlo samples to deliver better physics results. The difficulties of using such opportunistic resources come from architectural differences such as unavailability of grid services, the absence of network connectivity on worker nodes or inability to use standard authorization protocols. Nevertheless, ATLAS has been extremely successful in running production payloads on a variety of sites, thanks largely to the job execution workflow design in which the job assignment, input data provisioning and execution steps are clearly separated and can be offloaded to custom services. To transparently include the opportunistic sites in the ATLAS central production system, several models with supporting services have been developed to mimic the functionality of a full WLCG site. Some are e...

  17. Morganella morganii, a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhu, Junmin; Hu, Qiwen; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-09-01

    Morganella morganii belongs to the tribe Proteeae of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is considered as an unusual opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes post-operative wound and urinary tract infections. However, certain clinical M. morganii isolates present resistance to multiple antibiotics by carrying various resistant genes (such as blaNDM-1, and qnrD1), thereby posing a serious challenge for clinical infection control. Moreover, virulence evolution makes M. morganii an important pathogen. Accumulated data have demonstrated that M. morganii can cause various infections, such as sepsis, abscess, purple urine bag syndrome, chorioamnionitis, and cellulitis. This bacterium often results in a high mortality rate in patients with some infections. M. morganii is considered as a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen because of the increased levels of resistance and virulence. In this review, we summarized the epidemiology of M. morganii, particularly on its resistance profile and resistant genes, as well as the disease spectrum and risk factors for its infection.

  18. Congestion aware forwarding in delay tolerant and social opportunistic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Radenkovic, Milena; Grundy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We propose an approach for opportunistic forwarding that supports optimization of multipoint high volume data flow transfer while maintaining high buffer availability and low delays. This paper explores a number of social, buffer and delay heuristics to offload the traffic from congested parts of the network and spread it over less congested parts of the network in order to keep low delays, high success ratios and high availability of nodes. We conduct an extensive set of experiments for asse...

  19. Opportunistic Infections—Coming to the Limits of Immunosuppression?

    OpenAIRE

    Fishman, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Possible etiologies of infection in the solid organ recipient are diverse, ranging from common bacterial and viral pathogens to opportunistic pathogens that cause invasive disease only in immunocompromised hosts. The recognition of infectious syndromes in this population is limited by alterations in the clinical manifestations by immunosuppression. The risk of serious infections in the organ transplant patient is determined by the interaction between the patients’ recent and distant epidemiol...

  20. Opportunistic Third-Party Backhaul for Cellular Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Russell; Kim, Changkyu; Rangan, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    With high capacity air interfaces and large numbers of small cells, backhaul -- the wired connectivity to base stations -- is increasingly becoming the cost driver in cellular wireless networks. One reason for the high cost of backhaul is that capacity is often purchased on leased lines with guaranteed rates provisioned to peak loads. In this paper, we present an alternate \\emph{opportunistic backhaul} model where third parties provide base stations and backhaul connections and lease out exce...

  1. Relationship between lactobacilli and opportunistic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Mohammad Sabri A.; Al-Charrakh, Alaa H.; AL-Greitty, Bara Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vaginitis, is an infectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, which sometimes involves the vulva. The balance of the vaginal flora is maintained by the Lactobacilli and its protective and probiotic role in treating and preventing vaginal infection by producing antagonizing compounds which are regarded as safe for humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacilli against common bacterial opportunistic pathogens in vaginitis and study the effects of some antibiotics on Lactobacilli isolates. Materials and Methods: In this study (110) vaginal swabs were obtained from women suffering from vaginitis who admitted to Babylon Hospital of Maternity and Paediatrics in Babylon province, Iraq. The study involved the role of intrauterine device among married women with vaginitis and also involved isolation of opportunistic bacterial isolates among pregnant and non pregnant women. This study also involved studying probiotic role of Lactobacilli by production of some defense factors like hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocin, and lactic acid. Results: Results revealed that a total of 130 bacterial isolates were obtained. Intrauterine device was a predisposing factor for vaginitis. The most common opportunistic bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All Lactobacilli were hydrogen peroxide producers while some isolates were bacteriocin producers that inhibited some of opportunistic pathogens (S. aureus, E. coli). Lactobacilli were sensitive to erythromycin while 93.3% of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin and (40%, 53.3%) of them were resistant to amoxicillin and gentamycin respectively. Results revealed that there was an inverse relationship between Lactobacilli presence and organisms causing vaginitis. This may be attributed to the production of defense factors by Lactobacilli. Conclusion: The types of antibiotics used to treat vaginitis must be very

  2. Relationship between lactobacilli and opportunistic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Mohammad Sabri A; Al-Charrakh, Alaa H; Al-Greitty, Bara Hamid

    2011-04-01

    Vaginitis, is an infectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, which sometimes involves the vulva. The balance of the vaginal flora is maintained by the Lactobacilli and its protective and probiotic role in treating and preventing vaginal infection by producing antagonizing compounds which are regarded as safe for humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacilli against common bacterial opportunistic pathogens in vaginitis and study the effects of some antibiotics on Lactobacilli isolates. In this study (110) vaginal swabs were obtained from women suffering from vaginitis who admitted to Babylon Hospital of Maternity and Paediatrics in Babylon province, Iraq. The study involved the role of intrauterine device among married women with vaginitis and also involved isolation of opportunistic bacterial isolates among pregnant and non pregnant women. This study also involved studying probiotic role of Lactobacilli by production of some defense factors like hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocin, and lactic acid. Results revealed that a total of 130 bacterial isolates were obtained. Intrauterine device was a predisposing factor for vaginitis. The most common opportunistic bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All Lactobacilli were hydrogen peroxide producers while some isolates were bacteriocin producers that inhibited some of opportunistic pathogens (S. aureus, E. coli). Lactobacilli were sensitive to erythromycin while 93.3% of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin and (40%, 53.3%) of them were resistant to amoxicillin and gentamycin respectively. Results revealed that there was an inverse relationship between Lactobacilli presence and organisms causing vaginitis. This may be attributed to the production of defense factors by Lactobacilli. The types of antibiotics used to treat vaginitis must be very selective in order not to kill the beneficial bacteria

  3. Relationship between lactobacilli and opportunistic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Razzak, Mohammad Sabri A.; Alaa H. Al-Charrakh; Bara Hamid AL-Greitty

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vaginitis, is an infectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, which sometimes involves the vulva. The balance of the vaginal flora is maintained by the Lactobacilli and its protective and probiotic role in treating and preventing vaginal infection by producing antagonizing compounds which are regarded as safe for humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacilli against common bacterial opportunistic pathogens in vaginitis and study the effec...

  4. Location-Aided Reliable Routing for Opportunistic Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Yang; Zhi Ren; Jibi Li

    2012-01-01

    In our study, we investigate the problem of location-based routing in opportunistic networks. Due to the uncertainty of end-to-end paths between sources and destinations, the classical location-based ad hoc routing protocols cannot adapt to the environment of opportunistic networks, which leads to the decrease of the delivery rate of data. To address it, we propose in this paper a novel location-aided routing protocol which is suitable for opportunistic networks. In our protocol, a node can send location information on demand by using prediction mechanism, and when sending a data packet, the node chooses multiple neighbors which are closer to the destination as next hops. If the candidate neighbors do not exist, the node carries the data till it meets a proper neighbor or the destination. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that our proposed protocol outperforms DREAM (Distance Routing Effect Protocol Mobility) and one of its improved versions, BFDREAM (Boundary Forwarding DREAM), in terms of the delivery rate and overhead.

  5. Leapfrog: Optimal opportunistic Routing in Probabilistically Contacted Delay Tolerant Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jun Xiao; Liu-Sheng Huang; Qun-Feng Dong; An Liu; Zhen-Guo Yang

    2009-01-01

    Delay tolerant networks (DTNs)experience frequent and long lasting network disconnection due to various reasons such as mobility.power management.and scheduling.One primary concern in DTNs is to route messages to keep the end-to-end delivery delay as low as possible.In this paper,we study the single-copy message routing problem and propose an optimal opportunistic routing strategy--Leapfrog Routing--for probabilistically contacted DTNs where nodes encounter or contact in some fixed probabilities.We deduce the iterative computation formulate of minimum expected opportunistic delivery delay from each node to the destination and discover that under the optimal opportunistic routing strategy,messages would be delivered from high-delay node to low-delay node in the leapfrog manner.Rigorous theoretical analysis shows that such a routing strategy is exactly the optimal among all possible ones.Moreover,we apply the idea of Reverse Dijkstra algorithm to design an algorithm.When a destination iS given,this algorithm can determine for each node the routing selection function under the Leapfrog Routing strategy.The computation overhead of this algorithm is only O(n~2) where n is the number of nodes in the network.In addition,through extensive simulations based on real DTN traces,we demonstrate that our algorithm can significantly outperform the previous ones.

  6. Opportunistic Infections—Coming to the Limits of Immunosuppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Possible etiologies of infection in the solid organ recipient are diverse, ranging from common bacterial and viral pathogens to opportunistic pathogens that cause invasive disease only in immunocompromised hosts. The recognition of infectious syndromes in this population is limited by alterations in the clinical manifestations by immunosuppression. The risk of serious infections in the organ transplant patient is determined by the interaction between the patients’ recent and distant epidemiological exposures and all factors that contribute to the patient’s net state of immune suppression. This risk is altered by antimicrobial prophylaxis and changes in immunosuppressive therapies. In addition to the direct effects of infection, opportunistic infections, and the microbiome may adversely shape the host immune responses with diminished graft and patient survivals. Antimicrobial therapies are more complex than in the normal host with a significant incidence of drug toxicity and a propensity for drug interactions with the immunosuppressive agents used to maintain graft function. Rapid and specific microbiologic diagnosis is essential. Newer microbiologic assays have improved the diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections. These tools coupled with assays that assess immune responses to infection and to graft antigens may allow optimization of management for graft recipients in the future. PMID:24086067

  7. Opportunistic infections--coming to the limits of immunosuppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jay A

    2013-10-01

    Possible etiologies of infection in the solid organ recipient are diverse, ranging from common bacterial and viral pathogens to opportunistic pathogens that cause invasive disease only in immunocompromised hosts. The recognition of infectious syndromes in this population is limited by alterations in the clinical manifestations by immunosuppression. The risk of serious infections in the organ transplant patient is determined by the interaction between the patients' recent and distant epidemiological exposures and all factors that contribute to the patient's net state of immune suppression. This risk is altered by antimicrobial prophylaxis and changes in immunosuppressive therapies. In addition to the direct effects of infection, opportunistic infections, and the microbiome may adversely shape the host immune responses with diminished graft and patient survivals. Antimicrobial therapies are more complex than in the normal host with a significant incidence of drug toxicity and a propensity for drug interactions with the immunosuppressive agents used to maintain graft function. Rapid and specific microbiologic diagnosis is essential. Newer microbiologic assays have improved the diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections. These tools coupled with assays that assess immune responses to infection and to graft antigens may allow optimization of management for graft recipients in the future.

  8. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast, second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast, and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast. In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast.

  9. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Muhammad; Sher, Arshad; Abdul, Wadood; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

    2017-03-19

    In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast), second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast), and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast). In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC) is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast.

  10. From Environment to Man: Genome Evolution and Adaptation of Human Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujoulat, Fabien; Roger, Frédéric; Bourdier, Alice; Lotthé, Anne; Lamy, Brigitte; Marchandin, Hélène; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2012-01-01

    Environment is recognized as a huge reservoir for bacterial species and a source of human pathogens. Some environmental bacteria have an extraordinary range of activities that include promotion of plant growth or disease, breakdown of pollutants, production of original biomolecules, but also multidrug resistance and human pathogenicity. The versatility of bacterial life-style involves adaptation to various niches. Adaptation to both open environment and human specific niches is a major challenge that involves intermediate organisms allowing pre-adaptation to humans. The aim of this review is to analyze genomic features of environmental bacteria in order to explain their adaptation to human beings. The genera Pseudomonas, Aeromonas and Ochrobactrum provide valuable examples of opportunistic behavior associated to particular genomic structure and evolution. Particularly, we performed original genomic comparisons among aeromonads and between the strictly intracellular pathogens Brucella spp. and the mild opportunistic pathogens Ochrobactrum spp. We conclude that the adaptation to human could coincide with a speciation in action revealed by modifications in both genomic and population structures. This adaptation-driven speciation could be a major mechanism for the emergence of true pathogens besides the acquisition of specialized virulence factors. PMID:24704914

  11. SPRINT-SELF: Social-Based Routing and Selfish Node Detection in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ioan Ciobanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since mobile devices nowadays have become ubiquitous, several types of networks formed over such devices have been proposed. One such approach is represented by opportunistic networking, which is based on a store-carry-and-forward paradigm, where nodes store data and carry it until they reach a suitable node for forwarding. The problem in such networks is how to decide what the next hop will be, since nodes do not have a global view of the network. We propose using the social network information of a node when performing routing, since a node is more likely to encounter members of its own social community than other nodes. In addition, we approximate a node’s contact as a Poisson distribution and show that we can predict its future behavior based on the contact history. Furthermore, since opportunistic network nodes may be selfish, we improve our solution by adding a selfish node detection and avoidance mechanism, which can help reduce the number of unnecessary messages sent in the network, and thus avoid congestion and decrease battery consumption. We show that our algorithm outperforms existing solutions such as BUBBLE Rap and Epidemic in terms of delivery cost and hit rate, as well as the rate of congestion introduced in the network, by testing in various realistic scenarios.

  12. Opportunistic Screening for Exposure to Bullying in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Marlene; Menoch, Margaret; Chen, Charity

    2017-01-01

    To assess opportunistic screening for exposure to bullying in the pediatric emergency department (ED), an anonymous survey inquiring about exposure to physical, verbal, social, and cyber bullying behaviors was given to ED patients 5 to 18 years old. The survey asked about being the recipient, perpetrator, and/or witness of bullying; the frequency of exposure; liking school; missing school; and presenting complaint. Either the child or parent could complete the survey. A total of 909 surveys were analyzed. Exposure was 78.7%. A greater proportion of females reported being victims and witnesses. Youth who reported being both victims and witnesses represented the largest group, with witness-only the second largest. Parents reported less cyber-bullying and witness status to all types of bullying. For children who did not like school, there was a significant difference in exposure versus nonexposure. There was no association with presenting complaint. Opportunistic screening for bullying exposure in pediatric ED patients warrants consideration as it may increase detection of preclinical status and clinical sequelae.

  13. Diet behaviors of inpatients of different ages%不同年龄住院患者饮食行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昌盛; 姚子明; 赵长峰; 朱希倩; 崔敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate diet behaviors of inpatients of different ages, and provide nutrition education, guidance and therapy for them. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 208 inpatients. According to age, inpatients were divided into three groups: group 1 ( ≥44 years old), group 2 (45 to 59 years old), and group 3 (≥60 years old). Comparison was made in dietary intake among these groups, and then the acquired data was compared with the amount suggested by the balanced dietary pagoda. The data was processed by software SPSS11. 5. Results Inpatients of different ages had different diet behaviors. Females in group 3 paid more attention to self-health care and light diet, while females in group 1 preferred snacks. Males in group 2 usually had a bigger appetite at supper. Inpatients who had inadequate intake of fruit, fish and shrimp, and milk account made up a large proportion in each group. Only a few patients had inadequate intake of vegetables, poultry meat and grains. Conclusion Inpatients of different ages have different diet habits. Guidance should be given for many unreasonable diet behaviors exist.%目的 了解不同年龄住院患者饮食行为,为今后对住院患者进行营养宣传教育、营养指导及营养治疗提供依据.方法 将208名住院患者按年龄分为≤44岁组、45~59岁组,≥60岁组共3组进行问卷调查,比较3组的膳食摄入情况,并分别与平衡膳食宝塔建议量比较,采用SPSS11.5进行统计学处理.结果 不同年龄住院患者存在不同的饮食行为,女性≥60岁患者较为注重自我保健,平时喜好清淡饮食,女性≤44岁患者较爱吃零食,男性45 ~59岁患者晚餐吃得较丰盛,各组住院患者水果、鱼虾类和奶类摄入量不足的比例较大.蔬菜、禽畜肉类和谷类薯类摄入量不足的比例较小.结论 不同年龄住院患者饮食行为习惯存在较大差异,存在许多不合理的方面,需要给予正确指导.

  14. Exposures of zebrafish through diet to three environmentally relevant mixtures of PAHs produce behavioral disruptions in unexposed F1 and F2 descendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignet, Caroline; Joassard, Lucette; Lyphout, Laura; Guionnet, Tiphaine; Goubeau, Manon; Le Menach, Karyn; Brion, François; Kah, Olivier; Chung, Bon-Chu; Budzinski, Hélène; Bégout, Marie-Laure; Cousin, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    The release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment has increased very substantially over the last decades. PAHs are hydrophobic molecules which can accumulate in high concentrations in sediments acting then as major secondary sources. Fish contamination can occur through contact or residence nearby sediments or though dietary exposure. In this study, we analyzed certain physiological traits in unexposed fish (F1) issued from parents (F0) exposed through diet to three PAH mixtures at similar and environmentally relevant concentrations but differing in their compositions. For each mixture, no morphological differences were observed between concentrations. An increase in locomotor activity was observed in larvae issued from fish exposed to the highest concentration of a pyrolytic (PY) mixture. On the contrary, a decrease in locomotor activity was observed in larvae issued from heavy oil mixture (HO). In the case of the third mixture, light oil (LO), a reduction of the diurnal activity was observed during the setup of larval activity. Behavioral disruptions persisted in F1-PY juveniles and in their offspring (F2). Endocrine disruption was analyzed using cyp19a1b:GFP transgenic line and revealed disruptions in PY and LO offspring. Since no PAH metabolites were dosed in larvae, these findings suggest possible underlying mechanisms such as altered parental signaling molecule and/or hormone transferred in the gametes, eventually leading to early imprinting. Taken together, these results indicate that physiological disruptions are observed in offspring of fish exposed to PAH mixtures through diet.

  15. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into ...

  16. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  17. Mesquite pod meal in diets for Santa Inês sheep: ingestive behavior - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of sheep fed increasing levels of mesquite pod meal (0, 15, 30 and 45% in total dry matter diet, replacing grass silage elephant. Eight non-castrated Santa Inês sheep with average weight of 32 kg were divided into two 4 x 4 Latin squares, each lasting 15 days. The sheep were submitted to visual observation every ten minutes, for 24 hours, in the 13th day of each experimental period. There was no significant regression (p > 0.05 relative to the time spent on feeding, rumination and resting, depending on the levels of substitution of mesquite pod meal. The average time spent on feeding, rumination and resting was 5.64, 10.88 and 8.8h day-1, respectively. There was a positive linear effect (p

  18. Combining an antioxidant-fortified diet with behavioral enrichment leads to cognitive improvement and reduced brain pathology in aging canines: strategies for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    The number of elderly individuals in our population is rapidly rising and age-associated neurodegenerative disease is becoming more prevalent. Thus, identifying ways by which we can promote healthy aging are becoming more critical. Lifestyle factors, such as engaging in physical, intellectual, and social activities, are protective against dementia in aged individuals. Similarly, there is some evidence to suggest that antioxidants are beneficial. Observational studies in humans have been confirmed and extended in rodent model systems. We present additional evidence that, in a canine model of aging, combining an antioxidant-enriched diet and behavioral enrichment (including social, physical, and cognitive components) can lead to substantial improvements in cognition and reduced brain pathology. These results suggest that modifying lifestyle factors can have a beneficial impact on the aging process, even in aged individuals with existing cognitive decline and brain pathology.

  19. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The opportunistic feeding and reproduction strategies of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae inhabiting ephemeral habitats on southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina da Silva Gonçalves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most Rivulidae fishes are popularly known as annual fishes which live in ephemeral environments such as pools, that obligatorily dry out seasonally causing the death of adult individuals. They have unique biological characteristics such as small body size, early sexual maturation, continuous reproduction, an elaborated courtship behavior, and a great reproductive capacity among fishes. The rivulids are widely distributed in North, Central and South America. In this study, the diet and reproductive biology of Cynopoecilus melanotaenia was analyzed. A total of 263 specimens were collected and the analysis of 233 gastrointestinal contents revealed an invertivorous diet composed mainly of small crustaceans (Cladocera, Amphipoda, and Ostracoda and immature insects (Chaoboridae, Culicidae, Syrphidae, but mainly Chironomidae larvae. Lepidophagy on male's diet was also registered. Fecundity was estimated by analyzing 59 pairs of mature ovaries and ranged from 2 to 157 oocytes (mean, 19 ± 26[SD]. The species has fractional spawning, a strategy to increase the chance of survival to prolonged depletions. This study is the first to investigate the reproductive biology of C. melanotaenia. The results confirmed the opportunistic character of the rivulid C. melanotaenia and provided unreported reproductive information that may aid conservation of the species.A maioria dos peixes da família Rivulidae são popularmente conhecidos como anuais por completarem todo seu ciclo biológico em pequenos corpos de água temporários que secam obrigatoriamente em determinados períodos do ano causando a morte dos indivíduos adultos. Possuem características biológicas peculiares como pequeno porte, maturação sexual precoce, reprodução contínua, um elaborado padrão de corte e uma grande capacidade reprodutiva entre os peixes. Os rivulídeos se encontram amplamente distribuídos nas Américas do Norte, Central e Sul. Este trabalho analisou a dieta e a biologia

  1. Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, can cause systemic infections with a mortality rate of ~40%. Infections arise from colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where C. albicans is part of the normal microflora. Reducing colonization in at-risk patients using antifungal ...

  2. Dieta y comportamiento alimentario de un grupo de mico maicero Cebus apella de acuerdo a la variación en la oferta de frutos y artrópodos, en la Amazonía colombiana Diet and feeding behavior of a group of brown capuchin monkeys Cebus apella according to fruits and arthropods availability, in the Colombian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gómez-Posada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre la abundancia de artrópodos y frutos maduros, con el comportamiento alimentario y dieta de un grupo de Cebus apella en la Amazonía colombiana durante 1999. La oferta de frutos se midió por transectos fenológicos y la abundancia de artrópodos por capturas manuales. La oferta de ambos recursos varió a lo largo del año, lo que permitió establecer tres períodos de disponibilidad combinada: abundancia, oferta intermedia y escasez. Se completaron 708 horas de seguimiento al grupo y con el método de barrido lento se determinó una dieta omnívora, siendo principalmente insectívora - frugívora (48.8% - 42.9%. Los maiceros consumieron 96 especies de plantas y la diversidad mensual de frutos en la dieta, no se correlacionó con la oferta de los mismos. En los meses de abundancia de recursos, tanto frutos como artrópodos fueron consumidos en altas cantidades, y los frutos presentaron una distribución agrupada. Durante los períodos de escasez de recursos, la dieta incluyó pocas especies de frutos, considerados clave, de difícil manipulación, como Cariniana micrantha (Lecythidaceae, y fue complementada con partes vegetales. A diferencia de otros estudios, durante la escasez de frutos, no se presentó el mayor consumo de artrópodos, puesto que éstos igualmente escaseaban. Los maiceros mostraron una dieta generalista - oportunista y utilizaron los recursos en la proporción en la que estuvieron disponibles. Así por ejemplo, los valores de selectividad para frutos fueron muy bajos, y las tasas de éxito de captura de artrópodos se correlacionaron con la disponibilidad de los mismos.The relation between the abundance of fruits and arthropods, and the diet and feeding behavior of a group of Cebus apella was studied in the Colombian Amazon during 1999. Fruit availability was measured using phenological transects, and the abundance of arthropods by using manual captures. The abundance of both resources varied

  3. Research on The Influence Factors of Low -carbon Diet Behavior Intention Based on The Theory of Planned Behavior%基于计划行为理论的低碳饮食行为意向影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁承磊; 李秀荣

    2015-01-01

    饮食消费的碳排放量约占全球碳排放量的27%,因此更多的低碳饮食行为可有效降低碳排放。而要倡导人们更多地采取低碳饮食行为,明确影响低碳饮食行为意向的因素是必要的。以计划行为理论为基础构建的低碳饮食行为意向影响模型,解释了低碳饮食知识、低碳饮食态度、主观规范、知觉行为控制与低碳饮食行为意向的关系。实证研究显示,低碳饮食知识正向预测低碳饮食态度,低碳饮食态度、主观规范和知觉行为控制都正向预测低碳饮食行为意向,其中以低碳饮食态度对行为意向的解释效应最佳,其次是知觉行为控制,最后是主观规范。该理论模型对低碳饮食行为意向有较好的解释力。%Promoting low -carbon diet behavior is an important means of slowing global warming,and has a very important significance for achieving sustainable and harmonious development of man and the environment.The study constructs the theoretical model which influences the low -carbon diet behavior intention based on the theory of planned behavior,takes the way of empirical research to in-vestigate the influence of low -carbon diet knowledge,attitude,and subjective norm and perceives behavioral control on consumer low-carbon diet behavioral intention.The results of the study show that the constructed model can explain the low -carbon diet behavior intention better,and the impact of attitude on low -carbon diet behavior intention is the largest,followed by perceived behavior control and subjective norms.Governments and relevant organizations should continue to strengthen low -carbon diet education,and create a strong atmosphere low -carbon diet in the whole society,and to further reduce the cost of low -carbon diet behavior and encourage more people to engage in low -carbon diet action.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of opportunistic salpingectomy for ovarian cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Sarah E; Havrilesky, Laura J; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie; Cohn, David E; Michael Straughn, J; Caughey, Aaron B; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2017-08-01

    Data suggesting a link between the fallopian tube and ovarian cancer have led to an increase in rates of salpingectomy at the time of pelvic surgery, a practice known as opportunistic salpingectomy (OS). However, the potential benefits, risks and costs for this new practice are not well established. Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of opportunistic salpingectomy at the time of laparoscopic permanent contraception or hysterectomy for benign indications. We created two models to compare the cost-effectiveness of salpingectomy versus usual care. The hypothetical study population is 50,000 women aged 45 undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy with ovarian preservation for benign indications, and 300,000 women aged 35 undergoing laparoscopic permanent contraception. SEER data were used for probabilities of ovarian cancer cases and deaths. The ovarian cancer risk reduction, complication rates, utilities and associated costs were obtained from published literature. Sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulation were performed, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated to determine the cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. In the laparoscopic hysterectomy cohort, OS is cost saving and would yield $23.9 million in health care dollars saved. In the laparoscopic permanent contraception cohort, OS is cost-effective with an ICER of $31,432/QALY compared to tubal ligation, and remains cost-effective as long as it reduces ovarian cancer risk by 54%. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated cost-effectiveness with hysterectomy and permanent contraception in 62.3% and 55% of trials, respectively. Opportunistic salpingectomy for low-risk women undergoing pelvic surgery may be a cost-effective strategy for decreasing ovarian cancer risk at time of hysterectomy or permanent contraception. In our model, salpingectomy was cost-effective with both procedures, but the advantage greater at time of hysterectomy. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  5. Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...

  6. AnonySense: Opportunistic and Privacy-Preserving Context Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Kapadia, Apu; Cornelius, Cory

    2008-01-01

    Opportunistic sensing allows applications to "task" mobile devices to measure context in a target region. For example, one could leverage sensor-equipped vehicles to measure traffic or pollution levels on a particular street, or users' mobile phones to locate (Bluetooth-enabled) objects....... We propose AnonySense, a general-purpose architecture for leveraging users' mobile devices for measuring context, while maintaining the privacy of the users.AnonySense features multiple layers of privacy protection-a framework for nodes to receive tasks anonymously, a novel blurring mechanism based...... tessellation and clustering algorithm against real mobility traces....

  7. Immunotherapy for opportunistic infections: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Shigeo; Löffler, Jürgen; Einsele, Hermann; Kapp, Markus

    2016-11-16

    The outcome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has significantly improved during the last decades. However, opportunistic infections such as viral and mold infections are still a major obstacle for cure. Within this field, adoptive T cell therapy against pathogens is a promising treatment approach. Recently, the techniques to develop T cell products including pathogen-specific T cells have been sophisticated and are now available in accordance to good manufacturing practice (GMP). Here, we aim to summarize current knowledge about adoptive T cell therapy against viral and mold infections.

  8. Hospital Water Supply as a Potential Source of Opportunistic Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. El-Zanfaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt as well as in many other developing countries, there are no specific standards for hospital water. Even water is free from the traditional bacterial indicators, it may represent a source of health hazards especially for elderly, children and patients under dialysis due to the presence of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The study was carried out on the bacteriological water quality at the intakes as well as the end of water treatment train of two water treatment plants that supplying three hospitals located in Greater Cairo, Egypt with water that used for different purposes. Samples of the raw water supply for the two water treatment plants (Nile River water showed ranges of 102-105 cfu mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1 and 102-103 MPN 100 mL-1 for Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC bacteria, Total Coliforms (TC, Fecal Coliforms (FC and Fecal Streptococci (FS, respectively. Treated water showed considerable reduction in HPC while the other bacterial indicators reached the undetectable level. The distribution system impact on treated water quality was limited to causing an increase in HPC bacteria. A study was carried out to determine the presence of Pseudomonas aeuginosa, Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals tap water, water reservoirs, as well as water for preparation of hemodialysis fluids. Although the post-chlorinated water in both water treatment plants was free from bacterial indicators, it still contaminated with the three studied opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The detected opportunistic pathogens may be attributed to the distribution system condition and/or the presence of storage tanks. Hemodialysis water samples showed the higher percentage of P. aeruginosa isolates which represent a major source of health risk to patient’s attending dialysis process in hospitals and clinics. The presence of opportunistic bacteria in drinking water and dialysate with absence of coliform and low HPC

  9. Survey on Opportunistic Networks in Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik.C.P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Delay Tolerant Network is an emerging research field in Mobile sensor network. It use forwarding technique to transmit the message from source to destination, there is no complete path between sources to destination. Due to mobility of nodes there is frequent change in node paten and difficult to find the path, there is chance that message keep on forwarded inside the network. In this paper we made detail survey on Opportunistic Routing Protocol in mobile network, and in that node getting the message form neighbor node and moving away from Sink. We proposed a technique in Gradient based Routing Protocol to solve node moving away from sink with message.

  10. CORMEN: Coding-Aware Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Mess Network

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Jeherul

    2010-01-01

    These Network Coding improves the network operation beyond the traditional routing or store-and-forward, by mixing of data stream within a network. Network coding techniques explicitly minimizes the total no of transmission in wireless network. The Coding-aware routing maximizes the coding opportunity by finding the coding possible path for every packet in the network. Here we propose CORMEN: a new coding-aware routing mechanism based on opportunistic routing. In CORMEN, every node independently can take the decision whether to code packets or not and forwarding of packets is based on the coding opportunity available.

  11. Heterogeneous Epidemic Model for Assessing Data Dissemination in Opportunistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozanova, Liudmila; Alekseev, Vadim; Temerev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we apply a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model to analyse data dissemination in opportunistic networks with heterogeneous setting of transmission parameters, as established in author's previous paper? . We obtained the estimation of the final epidemic size assuming...... that amount of data transferred between network nodes possesses a Pareto distribution, implying scale-free properties. In this context, more heterogeneity in susceptibility means the less severe epidemic progression, and, on the contrary, more heterogeneity in infectivity leads to more severe epidemics...

  12. Opportunistic Ports and Spaces of Exchange in Late Roman Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidwanger, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Ports served not only as interfaces between land and sea, but as central gathering spaces for economic and cultural exchange. Drawing on case studies from the eastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus, this paper situates opportunistic ports lacking built facilities within a broader socioeconomic context of diverse maritime communications, expanding rural settlement, and increased agricultural productivity during late antiquity. Though simple, these sites served as active agents in the development of new maritime networks as well as local markets throughout their hinterlands, adding flexibility and dynamism to the economic ties between city, countryside, and the wider late Roman world.

  13. Hybrid-ARQ in Multihop Networks with Opportunistic Relay Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, Caleb K; Vishwanath, Sriram

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a contention-based opportunistic feedback technique towards relay selection in a dense wireless network. This technique enables the forwarding of additional parity information from the selected relay to the destination. For a given network, the effects of varying key parameters such as the feedback probability are presented and discussed. A primary advantage of the proposed technique is that relay selection can be performed in a distributed way. Simulation results find its performance to closely match that of centralized schemes that utilize GPS information, unlike the proposed method. The proposed relay selection method is also found to achieve throughput gains over a point-to-point transmission strategy.

  14. Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, or Diet?What Are the Correlates of Obesity in Polish School Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław H. Czyż; Abel L. Toriola; Wojciech Starościak; Marek Lewandowski; Yvonne Paul; Oyeyemi, Adewale L

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and its co-morbidities among children in western-high income developed countries. In the European Union, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing fastest among Polish children. Yet, there is paucity of evidence on the relationship of behavioral factors with body weight status of children in Poland. This study examined the association of obesity with physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavio...

  15. Evaluation of Diet-Related Infographics on Pinterest for Use of Behavior Change Theories: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jessica L; Strickling, Kate; Payne, Hannah E; Jensen, Kayla C; West, Joshua H

    2016-12-08

    There is increasing interest in Pinterest as a method of disseminating health information. However, it is unclear whether the health information promoted on Pinterest is evidence-based or incorporates behavior change theory. The objective of the study was to determine the presence of health behavior theory (HBT) constructs in pins found on Pinterest and assess the relationship between various pin characteristics and the likelihood of inclusion of HBT. A content analysis was conducted on pins collected from Pinterest identified with the search terms "nutrition infographic" and "healthy eating infographic." The coding rubric included HBT constructs, pin characteristics, and visual communication tools. Each HBT construct was coded as present or not present (yes=1, no=0). A total theory score was calculated by summing the values for each of the 9 constructs (range 0-9). Adjusted regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the inclusion of health behavior change theory in pins (P<.05). The mean total theory score was 2.03 (SD 1.2). Perceived benefits were present most often (170/236, 72%), followed by behavioral capability (123/238, 51.7%) and perceived severity (79/236, 33.5%). The construct that appeared the least was self-regulation/self-control (2/237, 0.8%). Pin characteristics associated with the inclusion of HBT included a large amount of text (P=.01), photographs of real people (P=.001), cartoon pictures of food (P=.01), and the presence of references (P=.001). The number of repins (P=.04), likes (P=.01), and comments (P=.01) were positively associated with the inclusion of HBT. These findings suggest that current Pinterest infographics targeting healthy eating contain few HBT elements. Health professionals and organizations should create and disseminate infographics that contain more elements of HBT to better influence healthy eating behavior. This may be accomplished by creating pins that use both text and images of people and food in

  16. Morganella morganii, a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Morganella morganii belongs to the tribe Proteeae of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is considered as an unusual opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes post-operative wound and urinary tract infections. However, certain clinical M. morganii isolates present resistance to multiple antibiotics by carrying various resistant genes (such as blaNDM-1, and qnrD1, thereby posing a serious challenge for clinical infection control. Moreover, virulence evolution makes M. morganii an important pathogen. Accumulated data have demonstrated that M. morganii can cause various infections, such as sepsis, abscess, purple urine bag syndrome, chorioamnionitis, and cellulitis. This bacterium often results in a high mortality rate in patients with some infections. M. morganii is considered as a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen because of the increased levels of resistance and virulence. In this review, we summarized the epidemiology of M. morganii, particularly on its resistance profile and resistant genes, as well as the disease spectrum and risk factors for its infection.

  17. Opportunistic spectrum sharing in software defined wireless network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yang; Yong Li; Depeng Jin; Li Su; Lieguang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the world has witnessed a rapid growth in mobile and wireless networks (MWNs) which significantly change human life. However, proliferating mobile de-mands lead to several intractable chal enges that MWN has to face. Software-defined network is expected as a promising way for future network and has captured growing attention. Network virtualization is an essential feature in software-defined wireless network (SDWN), and it brings two new entities, physical networks and virtual networks. Accordingly, efficiently assigning spectrum resource to virtual networks is one of the fundamental problems in SDWN. Directly orienting towards the spectrum resource al o-cation problem, firstly, the fluctuation features of virtual network requirements in SDWN are researched, and the opportunistic spectrum sharing method is introduced to SDWN. Then, the prob-lem is proved as NP-hardness. After that, a dynamic programming and graph theory based spectrum sharing algorithm is proposed. Simulations demonstrate that the opportunistic spectrum sharing method conspicuously improves the system performance up to around 20%–30%in SDWN, and the proposed algorithm achieves more efficient performance.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus α toxin potentiates opportunistic bacterial lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taylor S; Hilliard, Jamese J; Jones-Nelson, Omari; Keller, Ashley E; O'Day, Terrence; Tkaczyk, Christine; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Hamilton, Melissa; Pelletier, Mark; Wang, Qun; Diep, Binh An; Le, Vien T M; Cheng, Lily; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C Kendall; Sellman, Bret R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use may adversely affect a patient's beneficial microbiome and fuel cross-species spread of drug resistance. Although alternative pathogen-specific approaches are rationally justified, a major concern for this precision medicine strategy is that co-colonizing or co-infecting opportunistic bacteria may still cause serious disease. In a mixed-pathogen lung infection model, we find that the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor α toxin potentiates Gram-negative bacterial proliferation, systemic spread, and lethality by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing macrophage phagosomes, thereby reducing effective killing of both S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. Prophylaxis or early treatment with a single α toxin neutralizing monoclonal antibody prevented proliferation of co-infecting Gram-negative pathogens and lethality while also promoting S. aureus clearance. These studies suggest that some pathogen-specific, antibody-based approaches may also work to reduce infection risk in patients colonized or co-infected with S. aureus and disparate drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial opportunists.

  19. Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying: A Win-Win Spectrum Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective spectrum sharing architecture is proposed to enable the legacy noncognitive secondary system to coexist with the primary system. Specifically, we suggest to install a few intermediate nodes, namely, the cognitive relays, to conduct the spectrum sensing and coordinate the spectrum access. To achieve the goal of win-win between primary and secondary systems, the cognitive relay may act as a cooperator for both of them, and an Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying (OCR scheme is specially devised. In this scheme, the cognitive relay opportunistically switches among three different working modes, that is, Relay for Primary Link (RPL, Relay for Secondary Link (RSL, or Relay for Neither of the Links (RNL, respectively, based on the channel-dependent observation of both systems. In addition, the transmit power for cognitive relay and secondary transmitter in each mode are optimally determined by maximizing the transmission rate of secondary system while keeping or even reducing the outage probability of primary system. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed spectrum sharing scheme.

  20. Cyclostationary Beacon for Assisting Spectrum Sensing in Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kaiser

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is a promising solution to the problem of spectrum scarcity by means of allowing secondary radio networks access the spectrum opportunistically. One of the most important issues in cognitive radio is how to detect existing over-the-air signals reliably. Not a few literatures have reported that signals could be detected via their inherent or embedded properties. However, this approach may not be reliable and flexible enough for all kinds of signals with different modulation types. In this paper, we propose a type of multitone beacon signal carrying cyclostationary signatures, which is able to enhance the reliability and efficiency of signal detection at low cost of spectrum overhead. This beacon not only can indicate the presence or absence of user signal but also can reveal some other information helpful to opportunistic spectrum access through the information bits carried on its cyclostationary signatures. It could be applied to device/network identification, indication of spectrum allocation and spectrum rendezvous, both for primary and secondary users. Based on our previous work reported in [1], the generation and detection algorithm of the beacon signal are extended with improved spectral efficiency. Performance is discussed with both computer simulation and testbed validation.

  1. A Novel Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreyshi, Seyed Mohammad; Shahrabi, Alireza; Boutaleb, Tuleen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attention has recently been devoted to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) because of their capabilities in the ocean monitoring and resource discovery. UWSNs are faced with different challenges, the most notable of which is perhaps how to efficiently deliver packets taking into account all of the constraints of the available acoustic communication channel. The opportunistic routing provides a reliable solution with the aid of intermediate nodes' collaboration to relay a packet toward the destination. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol, called opportunistic void avoidance routing (OVAR), to address the void problem and also the energy-reliability trade-off in the forwarding set selection. OVAR takes advantage of distributed beaconing, constructs the adjacency graph at each hop and selects a forwarding set that holds the best trade-off between reliability and energy efficiency. The unique features of OVAR in selecting the candidate nodes in the vicinity of each other leads to the resolution of the hidden node problem. OVAR is also able to select the forwarding set in any direction from the sender, which increases its flexibility to bypass any kind of void area with the minimum deviation from the optimal path. The results of our extensive simulation study show that OVAR outperforms other protocols in terms of the packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay, hop count and traversed distance.

  2. Psychological predictors of opportunistic snacking in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Stephanie H; White, Melanie J; Finlayson, Graham; King, Neil A

    2015-08-01

    Increased frequency of eating in the absence of homeostatic need, notably through snacking, is an important contributor to overconsumption and may be facilitated by increased availability of palatable food in the obesogenic environment. Opportunistic initiation of snacking is likely to be subject to individual differences, although these are infrequently studied in laboratory-based research paradigms. This study examined psychological factors associated with opportunistic initiation of snacking, and predictors of intake in the absence of homeostatic need. Fifty adults (mean age 34.5years, mean BMI 23.9kg/m(2), 56% female) participated in a snack taste test in which they ate a chocolate snack to satiation, after which they were offered an unanticipated opportunity to initiate a second eating episode. Trait and behavioural measures of self control, sensitivity to reward, dietary restraint and disinhibited eating were taken. Results showed that, contrary to expectations, those who initiated snacking were better at inhibitory control compared with those who did not initiate. However, amongst participants who initiated snacking, intake (kcal) was predicted by higher food reward sensitivity, impulsivity and BMI. These findings suggest that snacking initiation in the absence of hunger is an important contributor to overconsumption. Consideration of the individual differences promoting initiation of eating may aid in reducing elevated eating frequency in at-risk individuals.

  3. HIV Protease Inhibitors: Effect on the Opportunistic Protozoan Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Yenisey; Monzote, Lianet

    2011-01-01

    The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the natural history of AIDS disease has been allowed to prolong the survival of people with HIV infection, particularly whose with increased HIV viral load. Additionally, the antiretroviral therapy could exert a certain degree of protection against parasitic diseases. A number of studies have been evidenced a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic parasitic infections in the era of HAART. Although these changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity, induced by either non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or HIV protease inhibitors, in combination with at least two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors included in HAART, there are evidence that the control of these parasitic infections in HIV-positive persons under HAART, is also induced by the inhibition of the proteases of the parasites. This review focuses on the principal available data related with therapeutic HIV-protease inhibitors and their in vitro and in vivo effects on the opportunistic protozoan parasites.

  4. Cooperative HARQ with Poisson Interference and Opportunistic Routing

    KAUST Repository

    Kaveh, Mostafa

    2014-01-06

    This presentation considers reliable transmission of data from a source to a destination, aided cooperatively by wireless relays selected opportunistically and utilizing hybrid forward error correction/detection, and automatic repeat request (Hybrid ARQ, or HARQ). Specifically, we present a performance analysis of the cooperative HARQ protocol in a wireless adhoc multihop network employing spatial ALOHA. We model the nodes in such a network by a homogeneous 2-D Poisson point process. We study the tradeoff between the per-hop rate, spatial density and range of transmissions inherent in the network by optimizing the transport capacity with respect to the network design parameters, HARQ coding rate and medium access probability. We obtain an approximate analytic expression for the expected progress of opportunistic routing and optimize the capacity approximation by convex optimization. By way of numerical results, we show that the network design parameters obtained by optimizing the analytic approximation of transport capacity closely follows that of Monte Carlo based exact transport capacity optimization. As a result of the analysis, we argue that the optimal HARQ coding rate and medium access probability are independent of the node density in the network.

  5. The association of body image distortion with weight control behaviors, diet behaviors, physical activity, sadness, and suicidal ideation among Korean high school students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Lee, Youngmin

    2016-01-15

    The identification of predictors for body image distortion would be an especially important first step in targeting a vulnerable population and developing a nutrition intervention program. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of body image distortion and the factors associated with body image distortion among Korean high school students. We selected 20,264 normal weight high school students from the 10(th) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey using nationally representative data in 2014. With multivariate logistic regression, we assessed the association of body image distortion with individual demographic and socio-economic factors, weight control behaviors, and mental health characteristics. The over-estimation group of body weight status, compared with the correct estimation group, was significantly more likely to be a 3(rd) year high school student [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.39], to be female [AOR: 3.52, 95% CI: 3.25-3.81], to employ unhealthy weight control behaviors [AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.37-1.72], and to have a sadness [AOR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.16-1.35] and suicidal ideation [AOR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08-1.33]. The under-estimation group, compared with the correct estimation group, was significantly less likely to be female [AOR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.21-0.25] and to employ unhealthy weight control behaviors [AOR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.43-0.59] but were more likely to have a sadness [AOR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21] and suicidal ideation [AOR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00-1.25]. Not only the over-estimation but also the under-estimation of body weight is prevalent among high school students in South Korea. Body image distortion was significantly associated with sadness and suicidal ideation.

  6. Dietary patterns in obese pregnant women; influence of a behavioral intervention of diet and physical activity in the UPBEAT randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Angela C; Seed, Paul T; Patel, Nashita; Barr, Suzanne; Bell, Ruth; Briley, Annette L; Godfrey, Keith M; Nelson, Scott M; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Robinson, Sian M; Sanders, Thomas A; Sattar, Naveed; Wardle, Jane; Poston, Lucilla; Goff, Louise M

    2016-11-29

    Understanding dietary patterns in obese pregnant women will inform future intervention strategies to improve pregnancy outcomes and the health of the child. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a behavioral intervention of diet and physical activity advice on dietary patterns in obese pregnant woman participating in the UPBEAT study, and to explore associations of dietary patterns with pregnancy outcomes. In the UPBEAT randomized controlled trial, pregnant obese women from eight UK multi-ethnic, inner-city populations were randomly assigned to receive a diet/physical activity intervention or standard antenatal care. The dietary intervention aimed to reduce glycemic load and saturated fat intake. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline (15(+0)-18(+6) weeks' gestation), post intervention (27(+0)-28(+6) weeks) and in late pregnancy (34(+0)-36(+0) weeks). Dietary patterns were characterized using factor analysis of the baseline FFQ data, and changes compared in the control and intervention arms. Patterns were related to pregnancy outcomes in the combined control/intervention cohort (n = 1023). Four distinct baseline dietary patterns were defined; Fruit and vegetables, African/Caribbean, Processed, and Snacks, which were differently associated with social and demographic factors. The UPBEAT intervention significantly reduced the Processed (-0.14; 95% CI -0.19, -0.08, P pattern scores. In the adjusted model, baseline scores for the African/Caribbean (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: OR = 2.46; 95% CI 1.41, 4.30) and Processed (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.23, 3.41) patterns in the entire cohort were associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes. In a diverse cohort of obese pregnant women an intensive dietary intervention improved Processed and Snack dietary pattern scores. African/Caribbean and Processed patterns were associated with an increased risk of gestational

  7. Smoking, Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior, and Diet Associated with Habitual Sleep Duration and Chronotype: Data from the UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Freda; Malone, Susan Kohl; Lozano, Alicia; Grandner, Michael A.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep duration has been implicated in the etiology of obesity but less is known about the association between sleep and other behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the associations among sleep duration, chronotype, and physical activity, screen-based sedentary behavior, tobacco use, and dietary intake. Methods Regression models were used to examine sleep duration and chronotype as the predictors and cardiovascular risk factors as outcomes of interest in a cross-sectional sample of 439,933 adults enrolled in the UK Biobank project. Results Short sleepers were 45 % more likely to smoke tobacco than adequate sleepers (9.8 vs. 6.9 %, respectively). Late chronotypes were more than twice as likely to smoke tobacco than intermediate types (14.9 vs. 7.4 %, respectively). Long sleepers reported 0.61 more hours of television per day than adequate sleepers. Early chronotypes reported 0.20 fewer daily hours of computer use per day than intermediate chronotypes. Early chronotypes had 0.25 more servings of fruit and 0.13 more servings of vegetables per day than late chronotypes. Conclusions Short and long sleep duration and late chronotype are associated with greater likelihood of cardiovascular risk behaviors. Further work is needed to determine whether these findings are maintained in the context of objective sleep and circadian estimates, and in more diverse samples. The extent to which promoting adequate sleep duration and earlier sleep timing improves heart health should also be examined prospectively. PMID:27056396

  8. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Mueller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. All tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids, bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8–2.4 µg C g–1 DW d–1 and nitrogen (0.2–0.8 µg N g–1 DW d–1 into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae to 35% (Artemia. De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  9. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. The tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 μg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 μg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  10. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05behavioral outcomes simultaneously) indicated significant overall effects (p=0.014), largely driven by 4-month results (p=0.005). Additional research is needed to understand effective obesity prevention among young adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes.

  11. Case-control study of disturbed eating behaviors and related psychographic characteristics in young adults with and without diet-related chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia M; McWilliams, Rita; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2012-08-01

    Young adults with diet-related chronic health conditions (DRCHCs; i.e., type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome) face challenges complying with dietary restrictions required to effectively manage their health condition. These restrictions could put them at risk for disturbed eating. The purpose of this study was to determine if young adults with and without DRCHCs differed with regard to disturbed eating behaviors and related psychographics characteristics (i.e., body image attributes, mental disorders, intrapersonal characteristics and sociocultural environment [i.e., media and family]). Each DRCHC participant (cases=166) was matched to 4 healthy participants (controls=664) based on gender and BMI (±0.50 BMI units). Conditional logistic regression analyses indicate cases were twice as likely to have been diagnosed by a healthcare provider with an eating disorder (p=0.08, OR=1.99, CI(90) [1.03-3.83]). Cases were significantly more likely to use Inappropriate Compensatory Behaviors to manage their weight, i.e., excessive exercise (p=0.04, OR=1.41, CI(95) [1.02-1.94]) and misuse medication (p=0.04, OR=1.14, CI(95) [1.00-1.29]) than controls. Depression and anxiety were significantly higher, and health status was significantly poorer in cases compared with controls. DRCHC participants were less likely to report feeling body image pressures from the media, placed a greater value on their health, used social diversion, and recalled a greater emphasis being placed on their mothers' weights and mealtimes being less structured than control participants. Findings indicate that nutrition and other healthcare professionals should incorporate screening DRCHC patients for disturbed eating behaviors and eating disorders in their standards of care.

  12. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  13. Crude glycerin in diets for lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture: ingestive behaviorGlicerina bruta na dieta de vacas lactantes mantidas em pastagem tropical: comportamento ingestivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermógenes Almeida Santana Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of lactating dairy cows grazing on tropical pasture supplemented with different levels of crude glycerin in the diet. Ten lactating cows, ¾ Gir x ¼ Holstein Dairy cows, primiparous, and 109 ± 24 days of lactation, mean age 30 ± 6 months and mean body weight of 426.2 ± 68.29 kg, distributed into five treatments, in double (5x5 Latin square design, were used. The treatments consisted of inclusion levels of crude glycerin in the diet (0.0, 4.5, 9.0, 13.5, and 18.0% dry matter basis. The behavior evaluation was performed on the 14th day of each period, with observations every five minutes for a period of 24 hours. The results were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and regression at 5% probability. For the grazing time, other activities, rumination, feeding trough, the number of grazing periods, other activities, rumination and feeding trough, as well as bit rate, number and time of chews per bolus, and efficiencies of eating and ruminating were not significant differences among crude glycerin levels in the diet (P>0.05. The inclusion of crude glycerin in diets for lactating cows in tropical pastures does not promote changes in ingestive behavior. The absence of negative effects related to the use of this byproduct in substitution of corn in these conditions allows its use in up to 18% crude glycerin in diets for dairy cows without changing the behavioral parameters related to food intake. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de vacas lactantes mantidas em pastagem tropical suplementadas com diferentes níveis de glicerina bruta na dieta. Foram utilizadas 10 vacas lactantes, ¾ Holandesa x ¼ Gir Leiteiro, primíparas, com 109 ± 24 dias de lactação, idade média de 30 ± 6 meses e peso corporal médio de 426,2 ± 68,29 kg, distribuídas em cinco tratamentos, utilizando-se dois quadrados latinos cinco por cinco (5x5, Os tratamentos

  14. Noisy mean field game model for malware propagation in opportunistic networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present analytical mean field techniques that can be used to better understand the behavior of malware propagation in opportunistic large networks. We develop a modeling methodology based on stochastic mean field optimal control that is able to capture many aspects of the problem, especially the impact of the control and heterogeneity of the system on the spreading characteristics of malware. The stochastic large process characterizing the evolution of the total number of infected nodes is examined with a noisy mean field limit and compared to a deterministic one. The stochastic nature of the wireless environment make stochastic approaches more realistic for such types of networks. By introducing control strategies, we show that the fraction of infected nodes can be maintained below some threshold. In contrast to most of the existing results on mean field propagation models which focus on deterministic equations, we show that the mean field limit is stochastic if the second moment of the number of object transitions per time slot is unbounded with the size of the system. This allows us to compare one path of the fraction of infected nodes with the stochastic trajectory of its mean field limit. In order to take into account the heterogeneity of opportunistic networks, the analysis is extended to multiple types of nodes. Our numerical results show that the heterogeneity can help to stabilize the system. We verify the results through simulation showing how to obtain useful approximations in the case of very large systems. © 2012 ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

  15. The Opportunistic House for Tehran: A Design Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Khorshidifard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an advocacy research for Tehran, promoting an implication of architectural design as a tool for citizen empowerment and positive environmental change. In the article, I am offering a fresh look at Tehran’s housing problems by speculating an “opportunistic house” typology as a residential style that would serve much more than just shelter. I am making a case for a new house prototype that applies socially-equitable solutions in design. My study finds applications and significance beyond plain housing design and, mainly, onto the design of ad hoc urban public realm spaces. This is in accord with my overarching mission of supporting new way of thinking about, and ultimately offering, welcoming, safe, and energized places for Tehran’s citizens. These will additionally have important implications for inhospitable public spaces worldwide. This research is grounded in my prior, multidisciplinary doctoral studies. The article itself is an initial step in my ongoing research design, of helping to build and revitalize a wide range of urban communities by nurturing their relationship to their built and natural environments. The article is a discussion around the following questions. How can housing design inventions empower citizens? In what manner can design offer progressive living place options whose services go beyond shelter needs? Particularly, in what ways can domestic spaces be designed to also embody other-than-living capacities, for example, for new kinds of public spaces? And eventually, what could a prototype of the opportunistic house look like in the context of a city like Tehran? The article is structured to first present a brief survey of how Tehran house forms and functions have developed historically, with more emphasis on their current state. It will then offer examples of opportunistic uses of domestic spaces in Tehran. This notion is communicated through narrative analysis and photographic vignettes from a few

  16. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ceacero

    Full Text Available Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st h (P = 0.048. Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st h and P = 0.047 from 1(st to 5(th and fat (only during the 1(st h; P = 0.036, but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st hour respect to 1(st to 5(th. Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011, suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates.

  17. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st) h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st) h and P = 0.047 from 1(st) to 5(th)) and fat (only during the 1(st) h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st) hour respect to 1(st) to 5(th)). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates.

  18. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Sinabro: A Smartphone-Integrated Opportunistic Electrocardiogram Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sungjun; Lee, Dongseok; Kim, Jeehoon; Lee, Youngki; Kang, Seungwoo; Seo, Sangwon; Park, Kwangsuk

    2016-03-11

    In our preliminary study, we proposed a smartphone-integrated, unobtrusive electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system, Sinabro, which monitors a user's ECG opportunistically during daily smartphone use without explicit user intervention. The proposed system also monitors ECG-derived features, such as heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), to support the pervasive healthcare apps for smartphones based on the user's high-level contexts, such as stress and affective state levels. In this study, we have extended the Sinabro system by: (1) upgrading the sensor device; (2) improving the feature extraction process; and (3) evaluating extensions of the system. We evaluated these extensions with a good set of algorithm parameters that were suggested based on empirical analyses. The results showed that the system could capture ECG reliably and extract highly accurate ECG-derived features with a reasonable rate of data drop during the user's daily smartphone use.

  20. Outage analysis of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a dual-hop opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying scheme where the source may or not be able to communicate directly with the destination. We first derive statistics based on exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Then, the PDFs are used to determine closed-form outage probability expression for a transmission rate R. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotic outage performance and the diversity order is deduced. Unlike existing works where the analysis focused on high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, such results are important to enable the designers to take decisions regarding practical systems that operate at low SNR regime. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results under practical assumption of unbalanced hops. © 2010 IEEE.

  1. Opportunistic microorganisms in individuals with lesions of denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Toledo, Bruna Costa; Santos, Camila Teles; Pereira Costa, Anna Carolina Borges; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Kaminagakura, Estela; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, quantify, identify, and compare opportunistic microorganisms (Candida and Staphylococcus genera and Enterobacteriaceae/Pseudomonadaceae families) from prosthesis-fitting surfaces, the hard palate, and mouth rinses of individuals wearing removable maxillary prosthesis with (50) and without (50) lesions of denture stomatitis (DS). The strains were collected and identified using phenotypic, biochemical and molecular tests. The counts of microorganisms were significantly higher in the group of individuals with DS (P < 0.05). C. albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast species in both groups, following by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Six isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were the most frequent Staphylococcus species in both groups. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant species in both groups. The association between Candida spp. and bacteria isolated in this study with DS suggests that these microorganisms may play important roles in the establishment and persistence of this disease.

  2. Optimistic Opportunistic Routing Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks: -A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Anuradha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Secure and optimistic routing is very important and significant task in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. In multi-hop communication, selection of routing path between the sensor nodes in the sensor field is essential and also important. Based on the coordination, time based, token based and network coding based techniques the data packets are forwarded from the source to the destination through the intermediate nodes in the network called Opportunistic Routing (OR. Compared with traditional routing, the OR uses the broadcast nature of transmission which greatly increases the wireless network throughput, reliability. In order to support higher node density in WSN, the selection of the most optimistic, flexible, dynamic and reliable OR mechanism and OR protocol are important. In this study the various OR mechanisms and OR protocol are identified and design issues like delivery ratio, packet transmission rate, communication pattern, reliability rate, throughput and fault tolerance are discussed and the comparative results are also tabulated.

  3. Sinabro: A Smartphone-Integrated Opportunistic Electrocardiogram Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjun Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In our preliminary study, we proposed a smartphone-integrated, unobtrusive electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring system, Sinabro, which monitors a user’s ECG opportunistically during daily smartphone use without explicit user intervention. The proposed system also monitors ECG-derived features, such as heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV, to support the pervasive healthcare apps for smartphones based on the user’s high-level contexts, such as stress and affective state levels. In this study, we have extended the Sinabro system by: (1 upgrading the sensor device; (2 improving the feature extraction process; and (3 evaluating extensions of the system. We evaluated these extensions with a good set of algorithm parameters that were suggested based on empirical analyses. The results showed that the system could capture ECG reliably and extract highly accurate ECG-derived features with a reasonable rate of data drop during the user’s daily smartphone use.

  4. Congestion Control Strategy for Opportunistic Network Based on Message Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-yin Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve the congestion problem in opportunistic networks, a congestion control strategy based on message deleting and transferring(DATM is proposed. The congested node calculates the storage value of each message according to the forwarding probability and TTL of message, then deletes the message with the minimum storage value and transfers the message with the minimum forwarding probability to neighboring nodes. The neighboring nodes calculate the receiving value of the message according to the forwarding probability and free buffer capacity of this message. The congested node transfers the message to the neighboring node with the maximum receiving value. The message will be deleted when there is no neighboring node to receive it. The algorithm is more targeted at deleting messages. Besides, it combines the strategy of transferring message. Therefore, it can deal with the congestion more efficiently. The message arrival rate is improved significantly and the end-to-end delay is also reduced to some extent.

  5. Opportunistic Cooperative Reliable Transmission Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Guo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The high reliability requirement of data transmission in wireless sensor networks has been a large challenge due to the random mobility and network topoloy instability, as well as restriction of energy consumption and system life time. In this work, the relationship matirx of distance and speed was created at first. Then the binay tree of mobility and reliabiliy was proposed based on the distance relationship matrix. The optimal relay nodes with high reliabiliy were selected by seeking the binay tree. The high reliable opportunistic cooperative data transmission scheme was presnted finally. The outcome of both mathematical analysis and NS simulation indicate that the proposed mechanism is superior to the traditional data transmission mechnism such as the reliability, system throughput and energy efficiency and so on.

  6. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Rodrigues Querido

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37ºC. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp.

  7. Distributed opportunistic spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hawa, Mohammed

    2016-05-19

    In cases where the licensed radio spectrum is underutilized, cognitive radio technology enables cognitive devices to sense and then dynamically access this scarce resource making the most out of it. In this work, we introduce a simple and intuitive, yet powerful and efficient, technique that allows opportunistic channel access in cognitive radio systems in a completely distributed fashion. Our proposed method achieves very high values of spectrum utilization and throughput. It also minimizes interference between cognitive base stations and the primary users licensed to use the spectrum. The algorithm responds quickly and efficiently to variations in the network parameters and also achieves a high degree of fairness between cognitive base stations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. DATA FORWARDING IN OPPORTUNISTIC NETWORK USING MOBILE TRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Poonguzharselvi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networks are usually formed spontaneously by mobile devices equipped with short range wireless communication interfaces. The idea is that an end-to-end connection may never be present. Designing and implementing a routing protocol to support both service discovery and delivery in such kinds of networks is a challenging problem on account of frequent disconnections and topology changes. In these networks one of the most important issues relies on the selection of the best intermediate node to forward the messages towards the destination. This paper presents a mobile trace based routing protocol that uses the location information of the nodes in the network. Using the trace information, next hop is selected to forward the packets to destination. Data forwarding is done via the selected nodes. The effectiveness is shown using simulation.

  9. Secondary metabolite arsenal of an opportunistic pathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignell, Elaine; Cairns, Timothy C; Throckmorton, Kurt; Nierman, William C; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-12-05

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a versatile fungus able to successfully exploit diverse environments from mammalian lungs to agricultural waste products. Among its many fitness attributes are dozens of genetic loci containing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) producing bioactive small molecules (often referred to as secondary metabolites or natural products) that provide growth advantages to the fungus dependent on environment. Here we summarize the current knowledge of these BGCs-18 of which can be named to product-their expression profiles in vivo, and which BGCs may enhance virulence of this opportunistic human pathogen. Furthermore, we find extensive evidence for the presence of many of these BGCs, or similar BGCs, in distantly related genera including the emerging pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome in bats, and suggest such BGCs may be predictive of pathogenic potential in other fungi.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  10. Opportunistic Sensor Data Collection with Bluetooth Low Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Sergio; Vidal, Rafael; Gomez, Carles

    2017-01-23

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained very high momentum, as witnessed by its widespread presence in smartphones, wearables and other consumer electronics devices. This fact can be leveraged to carry out opportunistic sensor data collection (OSDC) in scenarios where a sensor node cannot communicate with infrastructure nodes. In such cases, a mobile entity (e.g., a pedestrian or a vehicle) equipped with a BLE-enabled device can collect the data obtained by the sensor node when both are within direct communication range. In this paper, we characterize, both analytically and experimentally, the performance and trade-offs of BLE as a technology for OSDC, for the two main identified approaches, and considering the impact of its most crucial configuration parameters. Results show that a BLE sensor node running on a coin cell battery can achieve a lifetime beyond one year while transferring around 10 Mbit/day, in realistic OSDC scenarios.

  11. An Opportunistic Relaying Selection Scheme Based on Relay Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting An

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic relaying scheme is a single cooperative relay selection method based on Channel State Information. However, the failure probability of the best relay selection may become unacceptable when the number of relays increases. Although most of the existing solutions can reduce the failure probability of relay selection, they ignore the fairness of the relay selection. In order to improve the fairness of the relay selection without affecting the failure probability of the best relay selection, we propose a modified practical best relay selection scheme in this paper,  and by introducing proportional fair algorithm, the relay timer will be given a smaller correlation coefficient. The proposed method makes the probability of selection be improved. In the light of defined fairness factor, the relay fairness is represented. Simulation results show that the new algorithm can improve the fairness of the relay selection on the basis of maintaining the original failure probability of relay selection.

  12. Vaccination approaches against opportunistic fungal infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Utz; Herrmann, Sahra; Asif, Abdul R

    2014-01-01

    Although innate immunity primarily combats systemic infections of opportunistic fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida spp., acquired and protective immunoreactions were observed long ago in animal trials following sublethal systemic infections caused by viable fungi or after challenging animals with inactivated fungal cells. Based on these observations, fungal antigens should exist which mediate such protective immunoreactions and have in part already been identified. In this context, this review focuses primarily on the various approaches that have been used to identify protection-mediating Aspergillus-antigens and their rationale. Emphasis is placed on screening methods that have exploited genetic or proteomic approaches on the basis of the corresponding fungal genome projects. Thereby, a survey and description is given of the antigens so far known to be capable of inducing immune responses that protect animals against acquiring lethal systemic aspergillosis.

  13. The Opportunistic Transmission of Wireless Worms between Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. We show through extensive simulations that in the above scenario the resulting mass-action epidemic models remain applicable provided the contact rate is derived consistently from the underlying mobility model. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations ...

  14. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  15. Opportunistic Sensor Data Collection with Bluetooth Low Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Sergio; Vidal, Rafael; Gomez, Carles

    2017-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained very high momentum, as witnessed by its widespread presence in smartphones, wearables and other consumer electronics devices. This fact can be leveraged to carry out opportunistic sensor data collection (OSDC) in scenarios where a sensor node cannot communicate with infrastructure nodes. In such cases, a mobile entity (e.g., a pedestrian or a vehicle) equipped with a BLE-enabled device can collect the data obtained by the sensor node when both are within direct communication range. In this paper, we characterize, both analytically and experimentally, the performance and trade-offs of BLE as a technology for OSDC, for the two main identified approaches, and considering the impact of its most crucial configuration parameters. Results show that a BLE sensor node running on a coin cell battery can achieve a lifetime beyond one year while transferring around 10 Mbit/day, in realistic OSDC scenarios. PMID:28124987

  16. Exact performance analysis of decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate a dual-hop decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying scheme where the source may or may not be able to communicate directly with the destination. In our study, we consider a regenerative relaying scheme in which the decision to cooperate takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We derive an exact closed-form expression for the end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation based on the exact statistics of each hop. Unlike existing works where the analysis focused on high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, such results are important to enable the designers to take decisions regarding practical systems that operate at low SNR regime. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results.

  17. POWER CONTROL BASED COOPERATIVE OPPORTUNISTIC ROUTING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Haifeng; Zhu Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach called PC-CORP (Power Control based Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Protocol) for WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks), providing robustness to the random variations in network connectivity while ensuring better data forwarding efficiency in an energy efficient manner. Based on the realistic radio model, we combine the region-based routing, rendezvous scheme, sleep discipline and cooperative communication together to model data forwarding by cross layer design in WSN. At the same time, a lightweight transmission power control algorithm called PC-AIMD (Power Control Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease) is introduced to utilize the cooperation of relay nodes to improve the forwarding efficiency performance and increase the robustness of the routing protocol. In the simulation, the performance of PC-COPR is investigated in terms of the adaptation of variations in network connectivity and satisfying the QoS requirements of application.

  18. Optimizing Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks with Opportunistic Access

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    Optimal resource allocation for cooperative cognitive radio networks with opportunistic access to the licensed spectrum is studied. Resource allocation is based on minimizing the symbol error rate at the receiver. Both the cases of all-participate relaying and selective relaying are considered. The objective function is derived and the constraints are detailed for both scenarios. It is then shown that the objective functions and the constraints are nonlinear and nonconvex functions of the parameters of interest, that is, source and relay powers, symbol time, and sensing time. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain closed-form solutions for the optimal resource allocation. The optimization problem is then solved using numerical techniques. Numerical results show that the all-participate system provides better performance than its selection counterpart, at the cost of greater resources. © 2012 Ammar Zafar et al.

  19. A high-salt diet further impairs age-associated declines in cognitive, behavioral, and cardiovascular functions in male Fischer brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Gaurav; Asghar, Mohammad; Patki, Gaurav; Bohat, Ritu; Jafri, Faizan; Allam, Farida; Dao, An T; Mowrey, Christopher; Alkadhi, Karim; Salim, Samina

    2013-09-01

    Aging-associated declines in cognitive, emotional, and cardiovascular function are well known. Environmental stress triggers critical changes in the brain, further compromising cardiovascular and behavioral health during aging. Excessive dietary salt intake is one such stressor. Here, we tested the effect of high salt (HS) on anxiety, learning-memory function, and blood pressure (BP) in male Fischer brown Norway (FBN) rats. Adult (A; 2 mo) and old (O; 20 mo) male rats were fed normal-salt (NS; 0.4% NaCl) or HS (8% NaCl) diets for 4 wk after being implanted with telemeter probes for conscious BP measurement. Thereafter, tests to assess anxiety-like behavior and learning-memory were conducted. The rats were then killed, and samples of plasma, urine, and brain tissue were collected. We found that systolic BP was higher in O-NS (117 ± 1.2 mm Hg) than in A-NS (105 ± 0.8 mm Hg) rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, BP was higher in O-HS (124 ± 1.4 mm Hg) than in O-NS (117 ± 1.2 mm Hg) rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, anxiety-like behavior (light-dark and open-field tests) was not different between A-NS and O-NS rats but was greater in O-HS rats than in A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). Short-term memory (radial arm water maze test) was similar in A-NS and O-NS rats but was significantly impaired in O-HS rats compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, oxidative stress variables (in plasma, urine, and brain) as well as corticosterone (plasma) were greater in O-HS rats when compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). The antioxidant enzyme glyoxalase-1 expression was selectively reduced in the hippocampus and amygdala of O-HS rats compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05), whereas other antioxidant enzymes, glutathione reductase 1, manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that salt-sensitive hypertension and behavioral derangement are associated with a redox imbalance in the brain of aged FBN rats.

  20. Social problem solving training for African Americans: effects on dietary problem solving skill and DASH diet-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesley, Marsha L

    2007-01-01

    Hypertension continues to take its toll on millions of African Americans. Adhering to an eating plan called Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) can significantly lower blood pressure. This study examined whether problem solving training in addition to education on DASH is more effective than education alone to help African Americans in an urban community college setting solve their own dietary problems and change eating behaviors that could affect blood pressure. A randomized, two groups, multiple post-test design was used. All participants (N=78, 59% female) completed a Problem Solving Instrument immediately post-intervention and a follow-up Telephone Interview 2 weeks later. Fewer than half had normal blood pressure on screening. The Experimental Group identified and implemented significantly higher quality solutions to the second of their two problems than the Control Group. The intervention effect was the greatest for participants with blood pressure screenings above normal. Problem solving training combined with nutrition information may help African Americans to deal more effectively with dietary problems especially when the problems are complex or less well-defined. Dietary interventions that include a focus on everyday problem solving as well as knowledge acquisition can be developed in clinical, community health, school, and worksite settings.

  1. Effects of diets containing alfalfa hay or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage on feeding behavior, productivity, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Ali-Akbar; Sharifi, Majid; Afzalzadeh, Ahmad; Rezaeian, Mohammad

    2009-08-01

    The effects of barley flour on the fermentation parameters of alfalfa silage and on the productivity of dairy cows were investigated. Alfalfa forage was ensiled either with or without barley flour. Barley flour was soaked in water for 24 h before being mixed with alfalfa (12 kg: 100 kg dry matter bases) at ensiling. Eighteen multi-parous cows were assigned to three equal treatment groups using a completely randomized design. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous total mixed rations containing alfalfa hay, ordinary alfalfa silage or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage were then prepared. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, acetic acid and butyric acid were lower in barley flour mixed alfalfa silage compared to that in ordinary alfalfa silage but the concentration of lactic acid was lower in the ordinary alfalfa silage. Feeding behavior, milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites were measured. Although dry matter intake and milk production were not affected, the effect of preparation of alfalfa influenced feeding behavior and rumen fermentation parameters. Cows on alfalfa silage diets spent longer ruminating compared to those fed alfalfa hay. The ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea were affected by ensiling (alfalfa hay versus alfalfa silages) while both parameters were lower in cows fed on barley flour mixed alfalfa silage than those fed on ordinary silage. Although similar blood glucose was recorded for cows fed on alfalfa silages, it was higher in cows fed on alfalfa hay. It is concluded that the addition of barely flour when making alfalfa silage may improve both the fermentation process during ensilage and the ruminal ammonia nitrogen utilization with no significant effects on productivity.

  2. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  3. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving d Employer Matching Gifts d Gifts of Stock or Securities d Giving Circles Golden Circle Circle ... health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low Carb Omega- ...

  4. Positive effect of dietary lutein and cholesterol on the undirected song activity of an opportunistic breeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Casagrande

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Song is a sexually selected trait that is thought to be an honest signal of the health condition of an individual in many bird species. For species that breed opportunistically, the quantity of food may be a determinant of singing activity. However, it is not yet known whether the quality of food plays an important role in this respect. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the role of two calorie-free nutrients (lutein and cholesterol in determining the expression of a sexually selected behavior (song rate and other behaviors (locomotor activity, self-maintenance activity, eating and resting in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata. We predicted that males supplemented with lutein and cholesterol would sing at higher rates than controls because both lutein and cholesterol have important health-related physiological functions in birds and birdsong mirrors individual condition. To control for testosterone secretion that may upregulate birdsong, birds were exposed to a decreasing photoperiod. Our results showed that control males down-regulated testosterone in response to a decreasing photoperiod, while birds treated with lutein or cholesterol maintained a constant singing activity. Both lutein- and cholesterol-supplemented groups sang more than control groups by the end of the experiment, indicating that the quality of food can affect undirected song irrespective of circulating testosterone concentrations. None of the other measured behaviors were affected by the treatment, suggesting that, when individuals have full availability of food, sexually selected song traits are more sensitive to the effect of food quality than other behavioral traits. Overall the results support our prediction that undirected song produced by male zebra finches signals access to high-quality food.

  5. Positive effect of dietary lutein and cholesterol on the undirected song activity of an opportunistic breeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Rianne; Zaid, Erika; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Song is a sexually selected trait that is thought to be an honest signal of the health condition of an individual in many bird species. For species that breed opportunistically, the quantity of food may be a determinant of singing activity. However, it is not yet known whether the quality of food plays an important role in this respect. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the role of two calorie-free nutrients (lutein and cholesterol) in determining the expression of a sexually selected behavior (song rate) and other behaviors (locomotor activity, self-maintenance activity, eating and resting) in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We predicted that males supplemented with lutein and cholesterol would sing at higher rates than controls because both lutein and cholesterol have important health-related physiological functions in birds and birdsong mirrors individual condition. To control for testosterone secretion that may upregulate birdsong, birds were exposed to a decreasing photoperiod. Our results showed that control males down-regulated testosterone in response to a decreasing photoperiod, while birds treated with lutein or cholesterol maintained a constant singing activity. Both lutein- and cholesterol-supplemented groups sang more than control groups by the end of the experiment, indicating that the quality of food can affect undirected song irrespective of circulating testosterone concentrations. None of the other measured behaviors were affected by the treatment, suggesting that, when individuals have full availability of food, sexually selected song traits are more sensitive to the effect of food quality than other behavioral traits. Overall the results support our prediction that undirected song produced by male zebra finches signals access to high-quality food.

  6. Impact of ketogenic diet on emotional and social behavior in children with intractable epilepsy%生酮饮食对难治性癫痫患儿情绪和社会行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文成; 陶玺宬; 周自云; 吴德; 唐久来

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解生酮饮食( ketogenic diet,KD)对难治性癫痫患儿情绪和社会行为的影响。方法采用前瞻性病例对照研究,对66例难治性癫痫患儿,在告知相关生酮治疗疗效和不良反应后由家长选择入组,加用生酮饮食治疗的35例为生酮组,继续单用抗癫痫药物治疗的31例为对照组。研究启动前对两组患儿进行情绪和社会行为评估,生酮饮食治疗启动后,分别在第3、6、12个月再进行情绪和社会行为的评估,将评分结果转化成T分进行分析,比较生酮组和对照组之间,以及生酮组自身治疗前后患儿情绪和社会行为的改变情况。结果生酮组生酮饮食治疗后第3、6、12个月,患儿的问题维度(忧郁、焦虑、冲动性、攻击性)较对照组明显下降(P<0.05);能力维度(注意力、依从性、模仿)较对照组有明显提高(P<0.05),其中在治疗初3个月改善最为明显。结论生酮饮食能明显改善难治性癫痫患儿的情绪和社会行为,较为安全。%Objective To understand the impact of the ketogenic diet ( ketogenic diet, KD) on the emotional and social behavior in children with refractory epilepsy. Methods A prospective case-control study was performed in 66 cases of children with intractable epilepsy from June 2011 to December 2014 treated in the hospital. After the relevant ketogenic diet efficacy and adverse reactions were informed, the groups were selected by the parents(35 cases in the patient group received completely fasting ketogenic diet treatment regimen, and 31 cases in the control group continued to receive the antiepileptic drug treatment) . Before the onset of study, the motional and social behavior of two groups of children was assessed, and after the ketogenic diet treatment, the emotional and social behavior in the following 3, 6, 12 months was assessed again, then the results of the assessment were transformed into T points scoring and compared, and the changes in the

  7. Diet of bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis in the Karoo

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kuntzsch; J. A. J Nel

    1992-01-01

    The diet of bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis was studied from March 1988 to September 1989 at two sites near Beaufort West in the central Karoo. In a near-natural habitat (Karoo National Park), insects and wild fruit contributed almost equally to the diet, while more insects than plant material were consumed on a sheep farm (Saucyskuil). Adult and larval Coleoptera (KNP) and Orthoptera (Saucyskuil) were predominantly preyed upon in an opportunistic manner, influenced by food availability. A ...

  8. Opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, S N; Elshafie, A E; Victor, R; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Hinai, J A

    2011-06-01

    Household water in Oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. Water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of Muscat. The tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (GRP), polyethylene or galvanised iron (GI). Heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal coliforms and iron sulphur bacteria varied significantly in the three tanks. Yeast and mould count showed significant variations. Isolation of Aeromonas spp., fluorogenic and pathogenic Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Salmonella, Serratia and Tatumella, and Yersinia and Legionella in biofilms varied in the three tanks. The fungi isolates in the three tanks were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Nephelometric turbidity unit, threshold odour number and free chlorine varied significantly in the three tanks. True colour unit values did not show a significant difference; however, GRP tanks had algae, autotrophic and pigmented microorganisms. In addition, GI tanks had sediments and corrosion. The results of this investigation are important to evaluate the status of the present household water tanks in countries with high annual temperatures, which may affect public health.

  9. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN THE OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Blanca Sánchez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in the soil, associated with plants and animals, and in aquatic environments. It is also an opportunistic pathogen now causing an increasing number of nosocomial infections. The treatment of S. maltophilia is quite difficult given its intrinsic resistance to a number of antibiotics, and because it is able to acquire new resistances via horizontal gene transfer and mutations. Certainly, strains resistant to quinolones, cotrimoxale and/or cephalosporins - antibiotics commonly used to treat S. maltophilia infections - have emerged. The increasing number of available S. maltophilia genomes has allowed the identification and annotation of a large number of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance genes. Most encode inactivating enzymes and efflux pumps, but information on their role in intrinsic and acquired resistance is limited. Non-typical antibiotic resistance mechanisms that also form part of the intrinsic resistome have been identified via mutant library screening. These include non-typical antibiotic resistance genes, such as bacterial metabolism genes, and non-inheritable resistant phenotypes, such as biofilm formation and persistence. Their relationships with resistance are complex and require further study.

  10. Cultivation of Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Frederick L.

    2002-01-01

    Free-living amebas are widely distributed in soil and water, particularly members of the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria. Since the early 1960s, they have been recognized as opportunistic human pathogens, capable of causing infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Naegleria is the causal agent of a fulminant CNS condition, primary amebic meningoencephalitis; Acanthamoeba is responsible for a more chronic and insidious infection of the CNS termed granulomatous amebic encephalitis, as well as amebic keratitis. Balamuthia sp. has been recognized in the past decade as another ameba implicated in CNS infections. Cultivation of these organisms in vitro provides the basis for a better understanding of the biology of these amebas, as well as an important means of isolating and identifying them from clinical samples. Naegleria and Acanthamoeba can be cultured axenically in cell-free media or on tissue culture cells as feeder layers and in cultures with bacteria as a food source. Balamuthia, which has yet to be isolated from the environment, will not grow on bacteria. Instead, it requires tissue culture cells as feeder layers or an enriched cell-free medium. The recent identification of another ameba, Sappinia diploidea, suggests that other free-living forms may also be involved as causal agents of human infections. PMID:12097243

  11. Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin Sebastian E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. This paper proposes a Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol (LOR to addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner.This protocol takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. By utilizing such in-the-air backup, communication is maintained without being interrupted. The additional latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. Simulation results on NS2 verified the effectiveness of the proposed protocol with improvement in throughput by 28%.

  12. The opportunistic transmission of wireless worms between mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, C. J.; Nekovee, M.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. The model uses straight-line motion to achieve population, though it is recognised that this is a highly simplified representation of human mobility patterns. We show that the contact rate can be derived from the underlying mobility model and, through extensive simulation, that mass-action epidemic models remain applicable to worm spreading in the low density regime studied here. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations of worm spread can be developed and tested.

  13. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Anazi Awadh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI opportunistic infections (OIs are commonly encountered at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. In view of the suppressive nature of the virus and the direct contact with the environment, the GI tract is readily accessible and is a common site for clinical expression of HIV. The subject is presented based on information obtained by electronic searches of peer-reviewed articles in medical journals, Cochrane reviews and PubMed sources. The spectrum of GI OIs ranges from oral lesions of Candidiasis, various lesions of viral infections, hepatobiliary lesions, pancreatitis and anorectal lesions. The manifestations of the disease depend on the level of immunosuppression, as determined by the CD4 counts. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the pattern of presentation, resorting mainly to features of antimicrobial-associated colitis and side effects of antiretroviral drugs. The diagnosis of GI OIs in HIV/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is usually straightforward. However, subtle presentations require that the physicians should have a high index of suspicion when given the setting of HIV infection.

  14. Effect of threshold quantization in opportunistic splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses algorithms to find the optimal threshold and also investigates the impact of threshold quantization on the scheduling outage performance of the opportunistic splitting scheduling algorithm. Since this algorithm aims at finding the user with the highest channel quality within the minimal number of mini-slots by adjusting the threshold every mini-slot, optimizing the threshold is of paramount importance. Hence, in this paper we first discuss how to compute the optimal threshold along with two tight approximations for the optimal threshold. Closed-form expressions are provided for those approximations for simple calculations. Then, we consider linear quantization of the threshold to take the limited number of bits for signaling messages in practical systems into consideration. Due to the limited granularity for the quantized threshold value, an irreducible scheduling outage floor is observed. The numerical results show that the two approximations offer lower scheduling outage probability floors compared to the conventional algorithm when the threshold is quantized. © 2006 IEEE.

  15. 西安社区168名儿童饮食行为调查分析%Analysis of diet behavior of 168 children in two communities of Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小棉; 冯德鸿; 张欢; 杨玉凤

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解西安社区7个月~4岁儿童饮食行为问题情况,为地段儿童不良饮食行为的指导提供依据.[方法]随机抽取西安两个社区7个月~4岁儿童168名,以家长自填问卷的方式进行调查.内容包括:儿童背景资料儿童饮食行为特点、家长的喂养行为及家长对儿童饮食行为问题的应对. [结果]儿童饮食行为问题的检出情况:正常组儿童仅11人(占6.5%),未检出饮食行为问题,检出存在饮食行为问题组儿童157人(占93.4%);男女童之间差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.128,P>0.05);城区儿童与郊区儿童饮食行为问题检出差异无统计学意义(χ2=3.665,P>0.05);总检出问题7项,其中进食时间过长78人,对食物不感兴趣85人,拒绝某种食物38人,不愿尝试新食物56人,强烈偏爱某些食物人81人,进餐分心101人,进餐地点不同定77人,两组差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01). [结论]应加强对儿童饮食行为问题的高度重视,及对抚养人科学育儿知识的宣教,促进儿童健康成长.%[Objective]To investigate the diet behavior of children aged 7 months~4 years in 2 communities of Xi'an city, and to provide the guidelines in unhealthy diet behavior in territorial children.[Method]Randomly selected 168 children aged 7 months~4 years in 2 communities of Xi'an city, to investigate via parents-filled at questionnaire, including children personal background, characteristics of diet behavior in children, feeding-up behavior in parents and management of children diet behavior.[Results]Situation of children diet behavior: 11 children(6.5%) in normal group showed none of diet misbehavior; 157 children(93.4%) existed diet misbehavior; none of significant difference between gender or between urban and outskirts children could be found.7 total detection problem, 78 children eating time too long, 85 children were not interested in food, 38 children refused to certain food, 56 children did not want to trying new

  16. Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Kontogianni, Meropi; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective.

  17. Toward distributed relay selection for opportunistic amplify-and-forward transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-05-01

    Opportunistic relaying in cooperative communication depends on careful relay selection. However the traditional centralized method used for opportunistic Amplify-and-Forward (OAF) protocols requires precise measurements of channel state information (CSI) at the destination (CSI-OAF). In this paper, we propose a distributed relay selection framework for opportunistic AF (D-OAF) cooperative communications and offer an accurate performance analysis based on exact statistics of the local signalto- noise ratios of the best relay. Furthermore, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures, and we compare our new results with their CSI-based counterparts. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Characterization of a shortened model of diet alternation in female rats: effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant on food intake and anxiety-like behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Blasio, Angelo; Rice, Kenner C.; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of eating disorders and obesity in Western societies is epidemic and increasing in severity. Preclinical research focused on the development of animal models which can mimic the maladaptive patterns of food intake observed in certain forms of eating disorders and obesity. This study was aimed at characterizing a recently established model of palatable diet alternation in female rats. For this purpose, females rats were fed either continuously with a regular chow diet (Chow/Chow...

  19. Label-free molecular imaging of bacterial communities of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Nameera; Polisetti, Sneha; Morales-Soto, Nydia; Dunham, Sage J. B.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Shrout, Joshua D.; Bohn, Paul W.

    2016-09-01

    Biofilms, such as those formed by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are complex, matrix enclosed, and surface-associated communities of cells. Bacteria that are part of a biofilm community are much more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than their free-floating counterparts. P. aeruginosa biofilms are associated with persistent and chronic infections in diseases such as cystic fibrosis and HIV-AIDS. P. aeruginosa synthesizes and secretes signaling molecules such as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) which are implicated in quorum sensing (QS), where bacteria regulate gene expression based on population density. Processes such as biofilms formation and virulence are regulated by QS. This manuscript describes the powerful molecular imaging capabilities of confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in conjunction with multivariate statistical tools such as principal component analysis (PCA) for studying the spatiotemporal distribution of signaling molecules, secondary metabolites and virulence factors in biofilm communities of P. aeruginosa. Our observations reveal that the laboratory strain PAO1C synthesizes and secretes 2-alkyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxides and 2-alkyl-4-hydroxyquinolones in high abundance, while the isogenic acyl homoserine lactone QS-deficient mutant (ΔlasIΔrhlI) strain produces predominantly 2-alkyl-quinolones during biofilm formation. This study underscores the use of CRM, along with traditional biological tools such as genetics, for studying the behavior of microbial communities at the molecular level.

  20. Regular habitat switch as an important feeding strategy of an opportunistic seabird species at the interface between land and sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Philipp; Garthe, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    During deteriorated prey availability, purely pelagic, specialised seabird species have to alter their feeding strategy by extending foraging radii and/or time spent at sea or reducing feeding intervals of chicks. In contrast, more generalised species such as the opportunistic black-headed gull ( Larus ridibundus) breeding at the German North Sea coast, can be assumed to react on prey shortages by switching foraging habitats. The coastal zone of the German North Sea provides a rich habitat mosaic consisting of the offshore zone, tidal flats and terrestrial habitats. Thus, we expected distinct temporal and spatial patterns of habitat switch in accordance with prey availability and environmental constraints. We carried out ship-based and aerial surveys as well as dietary analyses and observations on flight activity. We found a significant switch from terrestrial to marine feeding sites both on a daily basis (related to tidal cycle) and over the whole breeding season. Most likely, the latter switch is the result of lower prey availability in the terrestrial habitats and an increasing quality (in terms of prey abundance and energy intake) of the marine area. While there was only moderate variability in habitat use among different years, we revealed significant differences in the diet of birds from different colonies. The high dietary plasticity and flexible feeding strategy, switching between terrestrial and marine prey is certainly of major importance for the success of an opportunistic avian top predator in a complex coastal zone. It is suggested that - compared to situations elsewhere - the number of breeding pairs of black-headed gulls in the German North Sea coast are still stable due to the switch of foraging habitats performed by individuals in this region.

  1. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  2. Non-Orthogonal Opportunistic Beamforming: Performance Analysis and Implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2012-04-01

    Aiming to achieve the sum-rate capacity in multi-user multi-antenna systems where $N_t$ antennas are implemented at the transmitter, opportunistic beamforming (OBF) generates~$N_t$ orthonormal beams and serves $N_t$ users during each channel use, which results in high scheduling delay over the users, especially in densely populated networks. Non-orthogonal OBF with more than~$N_t$ transmit beams can be exploited to serve more users simultaneously and further decrease scheduling delay. However, the inter-beam interference will inevitably deteriorate the sum-rate. Therefore, there is a tradeoff between sum-rate and scheduling delay for non-orthogonal OBF. In this context, system performance and implementation of non-orthogonal OBF with $N>N_t$ beams are investigated in this paper. Specifically, it is analytically shown that non-orthogonal OBF is an interference-limited system as the number of users $K \\\\to \\\\infty$. When the inter-beam interference reaches its minimum for fixed $N_t$ and~$N$, the sum-rate scales as $N\\\\ln\\\\left(\\\\frac{N}{N-N_t}\\ ight)$ and it degrades monotonically with the number of beams $N$ for fixed $N_t$. On the contrary, the average scheduling delay is shown to scale as $\\\\frac{1}{N}K\\\\ln{K}$ channel uses and it improves monotonically with $N$. Furthermore, two practical non-orthogonal beamforming schemes are explicitly constructed and they are demonstrated to yield the minimum inter-beam interference for fixed $N_t$ and $N$. This study reveals that, if user traffic is light and one user can be successfully served within a single transmission, non-orthogonal OBF can be applied to obtain lower worst-case delay among the users. On the other hand, if user traffic is heavy, non-orthogonal OBF is inferior to orthogonal OBF in terms of sum-rate and packet delay.

  3. An ad-hoc opportunistic dissemination protocol for smartphone-based participatory traffic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Seraj, Fatjon; Scholten, Hans; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces an ad-hoc opportunistic data dissemination protocol, called VADISS, that facilitates participatory traffic monitoring applications with smartphones. As a ubiquitous alternative to existing vehicular networking methods, VADISS uses the default WiFi interfaces universally adopted

  4. Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015 (NCEI Accession 0142326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  5. Exploiting Opportunistic Resources for ATLAS with ARC CE and the Event Service

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    With ever-greater computing needs and fixed budgets, big scientific experiments are turning to opportunistic resources as a means to add much-needed extra computing power. These resources can be very different in design from the resources that comprise the Grid computing of most experiments, therefore exploiting these resources requires a change in strategy for the experiment. The resources may be highly restrictive in what can be run or in connections to the outside world, or tolerate opportunistic usage only on condition that tasks may be terminated without warning. The ARC CE with its non-intrusive architecture is designed to integrate resources such as High Performance Computing (HPC) systems into a computing Grid. The ATLAS experiment developed the Event Service primarily to address the issue of jobs that can be terminated at any point when opportunistic resources are needed by someone else. This paper describes the integration of these two systems in order to exploit opportunistic resources for ATLAS in...

  6. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  7. Exploiting Opportunistic Resources for ATLAS with ARC CE and the Event Service

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Guan, Wen

    2017-01-01

    With ever-greater computing needs and fixed budgets, big scientific experiments are turning to opportunistic resources as a means to add much-needed extra computing power. These resources can be very different in design from the resources that comprise the Grid computing of most experiments, therefore exploiting these resources requires a change in strategy for the experiment. The resources may be highly restrictive in what can be run or in connections to the outside world, or tolerate opportunistic usage only on condition that tasks may be terminated without warning. The ARC CE with its non-intrusive architecture is designed to integrate resources such as High Performance Computing (HPC) systems into a computing Grid. The ATLAS experiment developed the Event Service primarily to address the issue of jobs that can be terminated at any point when opportunistic resources are needed by someone else. This paper describes the integration of these two systems in order to exploit opportunistic resources for ATLAS in...

  8. Scaling up ATLAS Event Service to production levels on opportunistic computing platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, D.; Caballero, J.; Ernst, M.; Guan, W.; Hover, J.; Lesny, D.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Tsulaia, V.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniachine, A.; Wang, F.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Continued growth in public cloud and HPC resources is on track to exceed the dedicated resources available for ATLAS on the WLCG. Examples of such platforms are Amazon AWS EC2 Spot Instances, Edison Cray XC30 supercomputer, backfill at Tier 2 and Tier 3 sites, opportunistic resources at the Open Science Grid (OSG), and ATLAS High Level Trigger farm between the data taking periods. Because of specific aspects of opportunistic resources such as preemptive job scheduling and data I/O, their efficient usage requires workflow innovations provided by the ATLAS Event Service. Thanks to the finer granularity of the Event Service data processing workflow, the opportunistic resources are used more efficiently. We report on our progress in scaling opportunistic resource usage to double-digit levels in ATLAS production.

  9. Special issue Oceans and Humans Health: the ecology of marine opportunists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Colleen A; Kim, Catherine J S; Lyles, Jillian M; Harvell, C Drew

    2013-05-01

    Opportunistic marine pathogens, like opportunistic terrestrial pathogens, are ubiquitous in the environment (waters, sediments, and organisms) and only cause disease in immune-compromised or stressed hosts. In this review, we discuss four host-pathogen interactions within the marine environment that are typically considered opportunistic: sea fan coral-fungus, eelgrass-Labyrinthula zosterae, sea fan-Labyrinthulomycetes, and hard clam-Quahog Parasite Unknown with particular focus on disease ecology, parasite pathology, host response, and known associated environmental conditions. Disease is a natural part of all ecosystems; however, in some cases, a shift in the balance between the host, pathogen, and the environment may lead to epizootics in natural or cultured populations. In marine systems, host-microbe interactions are less understood than their terrestrial counterparts. The biological and physical changes to the world's oceans, coupled with other anthropogenic influences, will likely lead to more opportunistic diseases in the marine environment.

  10. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  11. Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens Legionella pneumophila and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in hospital plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens Legionella pneumophila and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in hospital plumbing systems Jill Hoelle, Michael Coughlin, Elizabeth Sotkiewicz, Jingrang Lu, Stacy Pfaller, Mark Rodgers, and Hodon Ryu U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati...

  12. AFSC/NMML: Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  13. Scaling up ATLAS Event Service to production levels on opportunistic computing platforms

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00066086; The ATLAS collaboration; Caballero, Jose; Ernst, Michael; Guan, Wen; Hover, John; Lesny, David; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wang, Fuquan; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-01-01

    Continued growth in public cloud and HPC resources is on track to exceed the dedicated resources available for ATLAS on the WLCG. Examples of such platforms are Amazon AWS EC2 Spot Instances, Edison Cray XC30 supercomputer, backfill at Tier 2 and Tier 3 sites, opportunistic resources at the Open Science Grid (OSG), and ATLAS High Level Trigger farm between the data taking periods. Because of specific aspects of opportunistic resources such as preemptive job scheduling and data I/O, their efficient usage requires workflow innovations provided by the ATLAS Event Service. Thanks to the finer granularity of the Event Service data processing workflow, the opportunistic resources are used more efficiently. We report on our progress in scaling opportunistic resource usage to double-digit levels in ATLAS production.

  14. Scaling up ATLAS Event Service to production levels on opportunistic computing platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration; Ernst, Michael; Guan, Wen; Hover, John; Lesny, David; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wang, Fuquan; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-01-01

    Continued growth in public cloud and HPC resources is on track to overcome the dedicated resources available for ATLAS on the WLCG. Example of such platforms are Amazon AWS EC2 Spot Instances, Edison Cray XC30 supercomputer, backfill at the Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, opportunistic resources at the Open Science Grid, and ATLAS High Level Trigger farm between the data taking periods. Because of opportunistic resources specifics such as preemptive job scheduling and data I/O, their efficient usage requires workflow innovations provided by the ATLAS Event Service. Thanks to the finer granularity of the Event Service data processing workflow, the opportunistic resources are used more efficiently. We report on our progress in scaling opportunistic resource usage to double-digit levels in ATLAS production.

  15. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  16. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho Ingestive behavior in dairy cows fed sugar cane or corn silage based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro de Souza Mendonça

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Doze vacas da raça Holandesa, puras e mestiças, foram distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 X 4, balanceados de acordo com o período de lactação, com o objetivo de avaliar parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo. As dietas experimentais foram à base de silagem de milho com relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40, com base na matéria seca, ou à base de cana-de-açúcar, com relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40 ou 50:50. As vacas foram submetidas à observação visual para avaliação do comportamento ingestivo. Os animais foram observados a cada dez minutos, durante 24 horas, para determinação do tempo despendido em alimentação, ruminação e ócio. Não houve diferença para os tempos médios despendidos com alimentação e ruminação entre as dietas experimentais. Entretanto, na dieta à base de silagem de milho, os animais ficaram menos tempo no ócio, quando comparados àqueles alimentados com cana-de-açúcar. Com relação à eficiência de alimentação, expressa em gFDN/h, não houve diferença entre as dietas experimentais. A eficiência de ruminação, expressa em gMS/h, foi semelhante para as diferentes dietas. A eficiência de ruminação, expressa em gFDN/h (ERU FDN foi maior para a dieta à base de silagem de milho. Não houve diferença na ERU FDN entre dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar. Vacas alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar apresentaram maior tempo despendido em ócio e menor consumo de MS, quando comparadas àquelas alimentadas com dietas à base de silagem de milhoTwelve purebred and crossbred Holstein cows were assigned to three Latin squares 4 X 4, balanced according to the lactating period, to evaluate the ingestive behavior parameters. The experimental diets were based on corn silage with 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio, in dry matter (DM basis, or based on sugar cane with 60:40 or 50:50 forage:concentrate. The cows were submitted to visual observation for ingestive behavior evaluation

  17. Spectrum Of Opportunistic Infections In Aids Cases In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Hari Shanker Joshi; Rabindranath Das; Arun Kumar Agnihotri; Subba, Sonu H; Ramnesh Murthy; S B Dabral

    2006-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out, 404 clinically suspected cases attending AIDS clinic at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal to assess an occurance of opportunistic infections in AIDS cases. Study reveals that Tuberculosis (60%), Cryptospridiosis (13.33%) and candidasis (11.11%) are the predominant opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the Pokharo village. Next common pathogen was found an ubiquitous yeast. Candida obtained from skin, oral cavity, oesophagus, sputum and ...

  18. Low-energy-density diets are associated with higher diet quality and higher diet costs in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo; Maillot, Matthieu; Darmon, Nicole

    2007-06-01

    Low-energy-density diets are often recommended for weight control. Such diets have a higher nutrient content than do high-energy-density diets. This study tested the hypothesis that energy-dense diets have a relatively low monetary cost, whereas less energy-dense diets are more expensive. In this cross-sectional study, dietary intakes of 1,474 French adults (672 men, 802 women), aged 15 to 92 years, were assessed using 7-day diet records. Dietary energy density (kcal/g) was calculated by dividing total dietary energy by the edible weight of foods and caloric beverages consumed. Diet cost ($/7 days or $/2,000 kcal) was estimated using mean national food prices for 895 foods. The relationship between dietary energy density and diet cost was examined in a linear regression model. Within each quintile of energy intakes, the more energy-dense diets were associated with lower diet quality and with lower diet costs (r(2)=0.38 to 0.44). In a regression model, the more energy-dense diets cost less, whereas low-energy-density diets cost substantially more, adjusting for energy intakes, sex, and age. The finding that energy-dense diets cost less per 2,000 kcal may help explain why the highest rates of obesity are observed among groups of limited economic means. The finding that low-energy-density diets are associated with higher diet costs suggests that lasting improvements in diet quality may require economic as well as behavioral interventions.

  19. “Company & Peasant-household”Research on the Forms and Origin of the Opportunistic Behaviors in the Compact Agricultural Trade Relations%“公司+农户”契约型农产品交易关系中机会主义行为的表现形式与成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹艳爱

    2013-01-01

    “公司+农户”模式是我国农业产业化采用率最高的经营模式之一,但实践中,违约和敲竹杠等机会主义行为屡见不鲜。归纳起来,“公司+农户”模式中的机会主义行为主要有基于信息不对称的“逆向选择”和“道德风险”行为、基于资产专用性投资的“敲竹杠”行为、基于集体行动的“搭便车”行为和基于博弈次数(交易频率)的短期化行为等四种类型。导致机会主义行为产生的原因主要有有限理性、信息不完全和不对称、资产的专用性和行为的短期化。%“Company & Peasant-household” is one of the highest agricultural industrialization rate of business model in China. But, there are much opportunism behaviors in this mode, such as break the contract, “hold-up” and so on. There are four types of opportunism behaviors in the “Company & Peasant-household” mode. The first is “adverse selection” and “moral hazard” which is mainly based on the information asymmetry. The second is “hold-up” based on asset specificity investment. The third is “free-rider” behavior based on the collective action. The forth is the short-term act based on the game number of times (frequency). The origin of the opportunism in the compact agricultural trade relations mainly are, bounded rationality, incomplete information and information asymmetry, asset specificity and short-term behavior.

  20. Lower Bound of Energy-Latency Tradeoff of Opportunistic Routing in Multihop Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorce Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networking aims at exploiting sporadic radio links to improve the connectivity of multihop networks and to foster data transmissions. The broadcast nature of wireless channels is an important feature that can be exploited to improve transmissions by using several potential receivers. Opportunistic relaying is thus the first brick for opportunistic networking. However, the advantage of opportunistic relaying may be degraded due to energy increase related to having multiple active receivers. This paper proposes a thorough analysis of opportunistic relaying efficiency under different realistic radio channel conditions. The study is intended to find the best tradeoff between two objectives: energy and latency minimizations, with a hard reliability constraint. We derive an optimal bound, namely, the Pareto front of the related optimization problem, which offers a good insight into the benefits of opportunistic routings compared with classical multihop routing schemes. Meanwhile, the lower bound provides a framework to optimize the parameters at the physical layer, MAC layer, and routing layer from the viewpoint of cross layer during the design or planning phase of a network.

  1. Does Long-Term High Fat Diet Always Lead to Smaller Hippocampi Volumes, Metabolite Concentrations, and Worse Learning and Memory? A Magnetic Resonance and Behavioral Study in Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Setkowicz

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with more than 600 million affected individuals. Human studies have demonstrated some alterations in brains of otherwise healthy obese individuals and elevated risk of neurodegenerative disease of old age; these studies have also pointed to slightly diminished memory and executive functions among healthy obese individuals. Similar findings were obtained in animal models of obesity induced by high fat diet. On the other hand, low carbohydrate high fat diets are currently promoted for losing weight (e.g., Atkin's style diets. However, the long-term effects of such diets are not known. Additionally, high fat diets leading to (mild ketonemia were shown to improve brain function in elderly humans and in some animal models.To evaluate the hypothesis that long-term use of a high fat diet was associated with decreases in spatial memory, smaller hippocampi and hippocampi metabolite concentrations in Wistar rats.Twenty five male Wistar rats were put on high fat diet (HFD; 60% calories from fat, 30% from carbohydrates on their 55th day of life, while 25 control male rats (CONs remained on chow. Adequate levels of essential nutrients were provided. Both groups underwent memory tests in 8-arm radial maze at 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th month. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to measure concentrations of tNAA (marker of neuronal integrity at one month and one year, whereas MRI was used to evaluate hippocampal volumes.Obese rats (OBRs consumed similar amount of calories as CONs, but less proteins. However, their protein intake was within recommended amounts. Throughout the experiment OBRs had statistically higher concentrations of blood ketone bodies than CONs, but still within normal values. At post-mortem assessment, OBRs had 38% larger fat deposits than CONs (p<0.05, as evaluated by volume of epididymis fat, an acknowledged marker of fat deposits in rats. Contrary to our expectations, OBRs had better scores of

  2. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  3. Diet and Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have Spondylitis? Treatment Information Medications Exercise & Posture Diet & Nutrition Medication & Diet Dietary Supplements Changing Your Diet The London AS / Low Starch Diet Complementary Treatments Possible Complications Iritis or Anterior Uveitis Fatigue in Spondylitis Pain in ...

  4. Social Simulation Analysis of Government Opportunistic Behavior in the Emergency Disposal of the Unexpected Mass Incidents%群体性突发事件应急处置中政府机会主义行为的社会仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静锋; 苏烨; 柴瑞瑞; 刘德海

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, through the comprehensive application of evolutionary game theory modeling and multi-agent social simulation experiments, we study the influence of local government opportunism behaviors in unexpected mass incidents. First, we establish the evolutionary game model between the government and the social vulnerable groups, then the results show that the local government opportunism behaviors lead to an expansive trend of emergency. Second, based on the evolution process of Kunming Luoshi Bay merchants gathered event, we use the multi-agent social simulation test method to test the analysis results of the evolutionary game theory model, and the simulation results verify the conclusions of theoretical analysis well. Therefore, the conclusion of the evolutionary game theory analysis and the social simulation results show that the local governmental opportunism behaviors not only directly lead to the expansion of the situation, but also delay the best time to handle event.%运用演化博弈理论建模与多主体社会仿真实验,分析研究了群体性突发事件中地方政府机会主义行为对事态演变的影响。首先,构建了地方政府部门与社会弱势群体间的演化博弈模型,模型结果表明了地方政府部门机会主义行为将导致群体性突发事件不断扩大的趋势;其次,基于昆明螺蛳湾商户聚集事件事态的演变过程,运用多主体社会仿真方法检验演化博弈理论模型的分析结果,仿真结果较好地验证了理论分析和案例结论。将社会仿真实验方法应用于演化博弈理论分析的研究结论表明,地方政府机会主义行为直接导致了事态扩大趋势,同时也延误了事件处理的最佳时机。

  5. Diet and ADHD, Reviewing the Evidence: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses of Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trials Evaluating the Efficacy of Diet Interventions on the Behavior of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelsser, Lidy M.; Frankena, Klaas; Toorman, Jan; Rodrigues Pereira, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a debilitating mental health problem hampering the child’s development. The underlying causes include both genetic and environmental factors and may differ between individuals. The efficacy of diet treatments in ADHD was recently evaluated in three reviews, reporting divergent and confusing conclusions based on heterogeneous studies and subjects. To address this inconsistency we conducted a systematic review of meta-analyses of double-blind placebo-controlled trials evaluating the effect of diet interventions (elimination and supplementation) on ADHD. Methods Our literature search resulted in 14 meta-analyses, six of which confined to double-blind placebo-controlled trials applying homogeneous diet interventions, i.e. artificial food color (AFC) elimination, a few-foods diet (FFD) and poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation. Effect sizes (ES) and Confidence intervals (CI) of study outcomes were depicted in a forest plot. I2 was calculated to assess heterogeneity if necessary and additional random effects subgroup meta-regression was conducted if substantial heterogeneity was present. Results The AFC ESs were 0.44 (95% CI: 0.16–0.72, I2 = 11%) and 0.21 (95% CI: -0.02–0.43, I2 = 68%) [parent ratings], 0.08 (95% CI: -0.07–0.24, I2 = 0%) [teacher ratings] and 0.11 (95% CI: -0.13–0.34, I2 = 12%) [observer ratings]. The FFD ESs were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.41–1.19, I2 = 61%) [parent ratings] and 0.51 (95% CI: -0.02–1.04, I2 = 72%) [other ratings], while the PUFA ESs were 0.17 (95% CI: -0.03–0.38, I2 = 38%) [parent ratings], -0.05 (95% CI: -0.27–0.18, I2 = 0%) [teacher ratings] and 0.16 (95% CI: 0.01–0.31, I2 = 0%) [parent and teacher ratings]. Three meta-analyses (two FFD and one AFC) resulted in high I2 without presenting subgroup results. The FFD meta-analyses provided sufficient data to perform subgroup analyses on intervention type, resulting in a decrease of heterogeneity to 0

  6. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  7. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  8. [Osteoporosis diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, B; Neuenschwander, B; Perrelet, R; Lippuner, K

    2000-03-01

    Bone requires a wide variety of nutrients to develop normally and to maintain itself after growth. Most important--in the sense that bony abnormalities are associated with their deficiencies--are protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, C and K, zinc, manganese and copper. The nutrients most likely to be deficient in citizens of industrialized countries are calcium and vitamin D. In this review of the current literature about nutritional aspects of osteoporosis, we have focused on factors influencing calcium requirement: the principal interacting nutrients are sodium, protein, caffeine, fiber, oxalate, phytate, and the acid/alkaline ash character of the overall diet. Fiber and caffeine decrease calcium absorption from the gut and typically exert relatively minor effects, while sodium, protein and the acid/alkaline balance of the diet increase urinary excretion of calcium and are of much greater significance for the calcium homeostasis. Alkali buffers, whether vegetables or fruits reverse this urinary calcium loss. As long as accompanied by adequate calcium intake, protein-rich diet is not deleterious to bone: a calcium-to-protein ratio of 20:1 (mg calcium/g protein) is recommended. Whether a nutrition-based therapeutic approach to osteoporosis is feasible in the near future is yet unclear: at least there are some recent promising data from in-vitro as well as from rat studies showing that extracts taken from various vegetables, mainly from the onion family inhibit bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Learning in Autistic Children in an Applied Behavioral Analysis Program: Summary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontino, Jamie Lyn; Schaal, Kelly; Chambliss, Catherine

    This summary analysis discusses a series of studies that used both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet on the academic achievement of children with autism. In the first study, the between-subjects analysis included data from eight children with autism (ages 5-7), with four on a gluten-free…

  10. Early infant diet and the omega 3 fatty acid DHA: effects on resting cardiovascular activity and behavioral development during the first half-year of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    The course of postnatal maturation of cardiac control has implications for cognitive development, but the influence of early nutrition on underlying processes is still being defined. This investigation evaluated the effects of different diets on interactions among these variables during the first ha...

  11. 学龄儿童心理行为特点与饮食行为关系多元线性回归分析%Multiple linear regression analysis of the correlation between psychological behaviors characteristics and diet behavior in the school-age children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈洁; 张朋; 刘福康; 王婷婷; 孙桂菊; 刘江红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of behavior characteristics of children on diet behavior, providing scientific knowledge for nutrition instruction. Methods A total of 302 fifth-grade primary school children from Jintan were selected. A questionnaire survey on nutritional behavior and psychological behavior was conducted among them from June to July 2010. The effect factors of diet behavior were analyzed with univariate linear regression. The variable (P < 0.05 in univariate regression model) was selected to establish multivariate regression model. Results The univariate linear regression analysis showed that anxious/depressed, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, aggressive behavior score and total score in boys and girls were negatively correlated with diet behavior score. Multiple linear regressions showed that attention problem scores in boys and thougHt problem scores in girls were negatively correlated with diet behavior score. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that psychological behaviors of school-age children are closely associated with diet behaviors. It is necessary to add health-related curriculum on risk behaviors prevention into quality education, carry out comprehensive behavior surveillance on psychology, nutrition and diet, and conduct early intervention in adolescents.%目的 分析学龄儿童心理行为特点对其饮食行为的影响,为有针对性地对其进行营养教育提供科学依据.方法 选择江苏省金坛市302名五年级儿童作为研究对象,于2010年5月至6月对其进行饮食行为和心理行为问题的问卷调查.利用单因素线性回归分析饮食行为的影响因素,从单因素分析结果中选择P< 0.05的变量建立多元线性回归模型.结果 单因素线性回归分析显示,不同性别间焦虑抑郁、社交问题、思维问题、注意缺陷、攻击行为因子分及总分与饮食量表得分负相关;多元线性回归分析显示,男性儿童注意缺陷

  12. Awareness and behavior for low-salt diets and related influencing factors in patients with hypertension%高血压患者低盐饮食认知行为调查及影响因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和秀娟

    2016-01-01

    Objective Τo investigate the awareness and behavior for low-salt diets in patients with hypertension and related influencing factors, and to provide a reference for related intervention measures. Methods A total of 133 patients with hypertension who were managed by our district from June 2013 to June 2014 were enrolled as study subjects. A questionnaire was used to investigate their awareness and behavior for low-salt diets. Results Τhe results of the investigation showed that the awareness score for low-salt diets was (4.21±2.99) with a scoring rate of 43.9%, and the behavioral score was (5.66±2.70) with a scoring rate of 57.8%.Τhe lowest scoring rates for awareness of the physiological effect of sodium salt and the behavior of quantification of daily salt intake with fixed utensils were 27.8% and 37.6%, respectively. Τhe results of the multivariate regression analysis showed that the patients' occupation and education level were the major factors affecting their awareness and behavior for low-salt diets (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with hypertension have a medium level of awareness of low-salt diets, and health education for these patients should be enhanced with reference to their occupation and education level to improve their awareness and behavior.%目的:调查高血压患者低盐饮食认知行为情况,分析相关影响因素,从而为相关干预措施提供可参考的依据。方法选取我区2013年6月-2014年6月管理的133例高血压患者作为研究对象,采用问卷调查法对其低盐饮食认知行为情况进行调查。结果经调查后的结果显示,患者低盐饮食认知部分得分为(4.21±2.99)分,得分率为43.9%,行为部分得分为(5.66±2.70)分,得分率为57.8%;钠盐生理作用认知与日食盐摄入量固定器具量化行为得分率分别以27.8%、37.6%为最低;经多元性回归后的结果显示,患者的职业与文化程度是影响其低盐饮食认

  13. Equivalent intraperitoneal doses of ibuprofen supplemented in drinking water or in diet: a behavioral and biochemical assay using antinociceptive and thromboxane inhibitory dose–response curves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda A.M. Salama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ibuprofen is used chronically in different animal models of inflammation by administration in drinking water or in diet due to its short half-life. Though this practice has been used for years, ibuprofen doses were never assayed against parenteral dose–response curves. This study aims at identifying the equivalent intraperitoneal (i.p. doses of ibuprofen, when it is administered in drinking water or in diet. Methods. Bioassays were performed using formalin test and incisional pain model for antinociceptive efficacy and serum TXB2 for eicosanoid inhibitory activity. The dose–response curve of i.p. administered ibuprofen was constructed for each test using 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.. The dose–response curves were constructed of phase 2a of the formalin test (the most sensitive phase to COX inhibitory agents, the area under the ‘change in mechanical threshold’-time curve in the incisional pain model and serum TXB2 levels. The assayed ibuprofen concentrations administered in drinking water were 0.2, 0.35, 0.6 mg/ml and those administered in diet were 82, 263, 375 mg/kg diet. Results. The 3 concentrations applied in drinking water lay between 73.6 and 85.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 58.9 and 77.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 71.8 and 125.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. The 3 concentrations administered in diet lay between 67.6 and 83.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 52.7 and 68.6 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 63.6 and 92.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. Discussion. The increment in pharmacological effects of different doses of continuously administered ibuprofen in drinking water or diet do not parallel those of i.p. administered ibuprofen. It is therefore difficult to assume the equivalent parenteral daily doses based on mathematical calculations.

  14. Equivalent intraperitoneal doses of ibuprofen supplemented in drinking water or in diet: a behavioral and biochemical assay using antinociceptive and thromboxane inhibitory dose-response curves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Raghda A M; El Gayar, Nesreen H; Georgy, Sonia S; Hamza, May

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ibuprofen is used chronically in different animal models of inflammation by administration in drinking water or in diet due to its short half-life. Though this practice has been used for years, ibuprofen doses were never assayed against parenteral dose-response curves. This study aims at identifying the equivalent intraperitoneal (i.p.) doses of ibuprofen, when it is administered in drinking water or in diet. Methods. Bioassays were performed using formalin test and incisional pain model for antinociceptive efficacy and serum TXB2 for eicosanoid inhibitory activity. The dose-response curve of i.p. administered ibuprofen was constructed for each test using 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The dose-response curves were constructed of phase 2a of the formalin test (the most sensitive phase to COX inhibitory agents), the area under the 'change in mechanical threshold'-time curve in the incisional pain model and serum TXB2 levels. The assayed ibuprofen concentrations administered in drinking water were 0.2, 0.35, 0.6 mg/ml and those administered in diet were 82, 263, 375 mg/kg diet. Results. The 3 concentrations applied in drinking water lay between 73.6 and 85.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 58.9 and 77.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 71.8 and 125.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. The 3 concentrations administered in diet lay between 67.6 and 83.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 52.7 and 68.6 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 63.6 and 92.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. Discussion. The increment in pharmacological effects of different doses of continuously administered ibuprofen in drinking water or diet do not parallel those of i.p. administered ibuprofen. It is therefore difficult to assume the equivalent parenteral daily doses based on mathematical calculations.

  15. Opportunistic illnesses in Brazilian children with AIDS: results from two national cohort studies, 1983-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heukelbach Jorg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HAART has significantly reduced AIDS-related morbidity in children. However, limited evidence is available from developing countries regarding patterns of opportunistic illnesses. We describe these events and their associated factors in children with AIDS in Brazil. Methods This study is based on two representative retrospective multi-center cohorts including a total 1,859 children with AIDS, infected via mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, between 1983-2002. Opportunistic illnesses were described and analyzed over time. The association of demographic, clinical and operational data with the occurrence of opportunistic diseases was assessed. Results In total, 1,218 (65.5% had at least one event of an opportunistic disease. Variables significantly associated with occurrence of these events included: region of residence (OR 2.68-11.33, as compared to the Northern region, age Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (21.9 vs. 13.2%; p Conclusions Despite the significant reduction in recent years, opportunistic illnesses are still common in Brazilian children with AIDS in the HAART era, especially bacterial diseases. The data reinforce the need for scaling up prevention of MTCT, early diagnosis of infection, and improvement of comprehensive pediatric care.

  16. Analysing the Behaviour and Performance of Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Highly Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun G Menon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wireless networks have enabled us to deploy and use mobile ad hoc networks for communication between the rescue officers in disaster recovery and reconstruction operations. This highly dynamic network does not require any infrastructure or centralized control. As the topology of the network remain dynamic, severe performance limitations incur with traditional routing strategies. Recently a new routing paradigm known as opportunistic routing protocols have been proposed to overcome these limitations and to provide efficient delivery of data in these highly dynamic ad hoc networks. Using the broadcasting nature of the wireless medium, this latest routing technique tries to address two major issues of varying link quality and unpredictable node mobility in ad hoc networks. Unlike conventional IP forwarding, where an intermediate node looks up a forwarding table for a suitable next hop, opportunistic routing brings in opportunistic data forwarding that allows multiple candidate nodes in the forwarding area to act on the broadcasted data packet. This increases the reliability of data delivery in the network with reduced delay. One of the most important issues that have not been studied so far is the varying performance of opportunistic routing protocols in wireless networks with highly mobile nodes. This research paper analyses and compares the various advantages, disadvantages and the performance of the latest opportunistic routing protocols in wireless ad hoc networks with highly mobile nodes.

  17. 糖耐量减低患者饮食治疗认知行为干预效果分析%Analysis of the cognitive behavioral intervention result with the diet therapy for the patients with impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳

    2012-01-01

      目的:探讨饮食治疗认知行为干预对糖耐量减低(IGT)患者的效果.方法:将92例 IGT 患者随机分为干预组(46例)与对照组(46例).对干预组进行为期12个月的饮食治疗认知行为干预,对照组患者进行常规门诊治疗.比较干预前、后两组患者饮食治疗知识知晓率、糖尿病年转化率和血糖指标的差异.结果:干预12个月后干预组患者的饮食治疗知识知晓率高于对照组,糖尿病年转化率、血糖值明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.01).结论:饮食治疗认知行为干预对降低患者糖尿病的发生有一定效果.%  Objective: To explore the result of the diet therapy cognitive behavioral intervention for the patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Method:92 cases of IGT were divided into the intervention group (46 cases ) and the control group(46 cases ) at random. The intervention group received the dietary treatment of the cognitive behavioral intervention for 12 months and the control group was treated with the general out-patient service. The difference of the diet therapy knowledge awareness and diabetes annual conversion rate and the glycemic index was compared before and after the two groups’ intervention. Result: After 12 months the diet therapy knowledge awareness of the intervention group was higher than that of the control group. The diabetes annual conversion rate and blood glucose levels were obviously lower than those of the control group, whose difference had statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusion: The diet therapy cognitive behavioral intervention has certain effect to reduce the occurrence of the diabetes.

  18. Optimising social information by game theory and ant colony method to enhance routing protocol in opportunistic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Prabha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data loss and disconnection of nodes are frequent in the opportunistic networks. The social information plays an important role in reducing the data loss because it depends on the connectivity of nodes. The appropriate selection of next hop based on social information is critical for improving the performance of routing in opportunistic networks. The frequent disconnection problem is overcome by optimising the social information with Ant Colony Optimization method which depends on the topology of opportunistic network. The proposed protocol is examined thoroughly via analysis and simulation in order to assess their performance in comparison with other social based routing protocols in opportunistic network under various parameters settings.

  19. Joint Network Coding and Opportunistic Scheduling for the Bidirectional Relay Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-05-27

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users’ transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited.

  20. Opportunistic Routing with Congestion Diversity in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bhorkar, Abhijeet; Javidi, Tara

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of routing packets across a multi-hop network consisting of multiple sources of traffic and wireless links while ensuring bounded expected delay. Each packet transmission can be overheard by a random subset of receiver nodes among which the next relay is selected opportunistically. The main challenge in the design of minimum-delay routing policies is balancing the trade-off between routing the packets along the shortest paths to the destination and distributing traffic according to the maximum backpressure. Combining important aspects of shortest path and backpressure routing, this paper provides a systematic development of a distributed opportunistic routing policy with congestion diversity ({D-ORCD}). {D-ORCD} uses a measure of draining time to opportunistically identify and route packets along the paths with an expected low overall congestion. {D-ORCD} is proved to ensure a bounded expected delay for all networks and under any admissible traffic. Furthermore, this paper proposes a p...

  1. 高血压患者不遵医饮食行为的原因分析和对策%Cause analysis and countermeasures of non follow with medical diet behavior of patients with hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓晖

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨高血压患者不遵医饮食行为的原因及对策。方法:收治高血压患者200例,采用自制调查问卷,包括基本情况,接受健康教育情况及遵医饮食情况以及不遵医饮食原因。结果:遵医饮食16例(8.0%),不遵医饮食184例(92.0%)。不遵医饮食原因:对护士的指导抱怀疑或不信任态度157例(85.3%),不良饮食习惯140例(76.1%),无系统高血压饮食知识147例(79.9%),缺乏自控能力158例(85.9%),家庭成员不配合饮食调理101例(54.9%),认为改变饮食对血压影响不大,不重视合理膳食40例(21.7%),不知道饮食不当是高血压潜在危险因素30例(16.3%),不知道高血压造成疾病负担166例(90.2%),不知道肥胖是高血压危险因素30例(16.3%)。结论:提高患者对高血压疾病的认知程度、提高医护人员宣教水平、指导患者重建健康的生活方式、提高患者家属重视高血压疾病的防治理念、建立社区高血压防治网络是改善高血压患者不遵医饮食行为的主要措施。%Objective:To explore the causes and countermeasures of non follow with medical diet behavior of patients with hypertension.Methods:200 patients with hypertension were selected.We used self made questionnaire,including the basic situation, taking health education situation,follow with medical diet situation and the causes of non follow with medical diet.Results:16 cases(8.0%) were follow with medical diet,184 cases(92.0%) were non follow with medical diet.The causes of non follow with medical diet:157 cases(85.3% ) doubted or mistrusted the guidance of nurses,140 cases(76.1% ) were bad eating habit,147 cases(79.9%) were no system hypertension diet knowledge,158 cases(85.9%) were lack of self-control,101 cases(54.9%) were family members doing not cooperate with diet adjustment,40 cases(21.7%) thought that changing diet had a little effects on blood pressure and did not take the reasonable diet,30 cases

  2. Epidemiology of opportunistic invasive fungal infections in China: review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yong; CHEN Min; Thomas Hartmann; YANG Rong-ya; LIAO Wan-qing

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summarize the recent findings on the epidemiology of medically important,opportunistic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in China and discuss the relevant social,economical reasons and medical factors.Data sources We performed a comprehensive search of both English and Chinese literatures of opportunistic IFIs from China up to April 2012.Study selection Relevant literatures involving researches and cases/case series were identified,retrieved and reviewed.Results The incidence of opportunistic IFIs in China was steadily increasing.The incidence and mortality of IFIs were different in patients with various underlying conditions/diseases,from 4.12% to 41.18% and 9.8% to 60.0%,respectively.Candida species,Aspergillus species and Cryptococcus neoformans species complex were the most frequent isolated pathogens.Other uncommon opportunistic IFIs were also been reported,including trichosporonosis,mucormycosis,hyalohyphomycosis (hyaline hyphomycetes) and phaeohyphomycosis (dematiaceous hyphomycetes).Reports of Chinese patients differed from those of many other countries as there were a higher number of patients without identifiable underlying diseases/conditions.Conclusions Because of the rapid economic development,changing population structure and a growing number of immunocompromised hosts with risk factors,today opportunistic IFIs in China have a significant impact on public health,associated with high morbidity/mortality and higher care costs.Now information related to the epidemiology of opportunistic IFIs in China is still sparse,so we need more organized groups of clinical scientists performing related researches to help the clinicians to obtain more accurate epidemiological characteristics.

  3. Dual roles of an algal farming damselfish as a cultivator and opportunistic browser of an invasive seaweed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A Peyton

    Full Text Available Herbivory is a fundamental process determining reef resilience, and while algal farming damselfishes can help shape benthic assemblages, an understanding of their contribution to areas outside of defended territories is relatively unexplored. Here, we demonstrate how the farming damselfish Stegastes marginatus plays a dual role in benthic structuring by 1 contributing to persistence of the invasive macroalga Acanthophora spicifera within a Hawaiian marine protected area, where the macroalga occurred exclusively inside Stegastes territories, and 2 behaving as an opportunistic browser of the exotic alga outside their territorial borders. Greater than 50% of the biomass of tethered A. spicifera was consumed within one-hour when placed outside Stegastes territories, compared to <5% lost from tethers within territories or herbivore exclusion cages. In situ remote video revealed that tethered A. spicifera located outside territories was grazed primarily by the surgeonfish Acanthurus nigrofuscus (∼68% of total bites and, surprisingly, by S. marginatus (∼27% of total bites that left their territories to feed on this resource on 107 occasions during 400 min of filming. Further, for over half of those occurrences where S. marginatus grazed on the tethered macroalga outside of territories, they fed alongside conspecifics and other species, displaying little of the aggressiveness that characterizes this damselfish. These results show that S. marginatus plays a wider role in determining benthic assemblages than previously recognized, acting both as cultivators of a canopy-forming invasive macroalga within their territories, and as opportunistic browsers in neighboring sites. Consequently, S. marginatus can affect benthic species composition across their territory borders. These results provide a rare example of interspecific facilitation of an exotic alga by an indigenous marine fish. Accounting for fish behaviors more broadly is important to further our

  4. Cooperative Optimization QoS Cloud Routing Protocol Based on Bacterial Opportunistic Foraging and Chemotaxis Perception for Mobile Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to strengthen the mobile Internet mobility management and cloud platform resources utilization, optimizing the cloud routing efficiency is established, based on opportunistic bacterial foraging bionics, and puts forward a chemotaxis perception of collaborative optimization QoS (Quality of Services cloud routing mechanism. The cloud routing mechanism is based on bacterial opportunity to feed and bacterial motility and to establish the data transmission and forwarding of the bacterial population behavior characteristics. This mechanism is based on the characteristics of drug resistance of bacteria and the structure of the field, and through many iterations of the individual behavior and population behavior the bacteria can be spread to the food gathering area with a certain probability. Finally, QoS cloud routing path would be selected and optimized based on bacterial bionic optimization and hedge mapping relationship between mobile Internet node and bacterial population evolution iterations. Experimental results show that, compared with the standard dynamic routing schemes, the proposed scheme has shorter transmission delay, lower packet error ratio, QoS cloud routing loading, and QoS cloud route request overhead.

  5. Performance analysis of adaptive modulation for cognitive radios with opportunistic access

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei

    2011-06-01

    The performance of adaptive modulation for cognitive radio with opportunistic access is analyzed by considering the effects of spectrum sensing and primary user traffic for Nakagami-m fading channels. Both the adaptive continuous rate scheme and the adaptive discrete rate scheme are considered. Numerical results show that spectrum sensing and primary user traffic cause considerable degradation to the bit error rate performance of adaptive modulation in a cognitive radio system with opportunistic access to the licensed channel. They also show that primary user traffic does not affect the link spectral efficiency performance of adaptive modulation, while the spectrum sensing degrades the link spectral efficiency performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Switch Based Opportunistic Spectrum Access for General Primary User Traffic Model

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-18

    This letter studies cognitive radio transceiver that can opportunistically use the available channels of primary user (PU). Specifically, we investigate and compare two different opportunistic channel access schemes. The first scheme applies when the secondary user (SU) has access to only one channel. The second scheme, based on channel switching mechanism, applies when the SU has access to multiple channels but can at a given time monitor and access only one channel. For these access schemes, we derive the exact analytical results for the novel performance metrics of average access time and average waiting time under general PU traffic models.

  7. Opportunistic relaying in multipath and slow fading channel: Relay selection and optimal relay selection period

    KAUST Repository

    Sungjoon Park,

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present opportunistic relay communication strategies of decode and forward relaying. The channel that we are considering includes pathloss, shadowing, and fast fading effects. We find a simple outage probability formula for opportunistic relaying in the channel, and validate the results by comparing it with the exact outage probability. Also, we suggest a new relay selection algorithm that incorporates shadowing. We consider a protocol of broadcasting the channel gain of the previously selected relay. This saves resources in slow fading channel by reducing collisions in relay selection. We further investigate the optimal relay selection period to maximize the throughput while avoiding selection overhead. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Cutaneous Aspergillus ustus in a lung transplant recipient: emergence of a new opportunistic fungal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagefi, Parsia A; Cosimi, A Benedict; Ginns, Leo C; Kotton, Camille N

    2008-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections remain a significant complication in immunosuppressed patients, especially those having undergone solid-organ transplantation. We report a 39-year-old patient who represents the second case of cutaneous Aspergillus ustus infection in a solid-organ transplant recipient, and the first documented case after lung transplantation. The patient's cutaneous lower extremity aspergillosis responded to a combination of intravenous liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin and topical terbinafine cream, with a concomitant reduction in immunosuppression. A. ustus is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen in transplant recipients.

  9. Spectrum Of Opportunistic Infections In Aids Cases In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Shanker Joshi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was carried out, 404 clinically suspected cases attending AIDS clinic at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal to assess an occurance of opportunistic infections in AIDS cases. Study reveals that Tuberculosis (60%, Cryptospridiosis (13.33% and candidasis (11.11% are the predominant opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the Pokharo village. Next common pathogen was found an ubiquitous yeast. Candida obtained from skin, oral cavity, oesophagus, sputum and stool. The least common documented documented infection was pneumocystis carini pneumonia (2.22%.

  10. Plumbing of hospital premises is a reservoir for opportunistically pathogenic microorganisms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Armbruster, Catherine R; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Several bacterial species that are natural inhabitants of potable water distribution system biofilms are opportunistic pathogens important to sensitive patients in healthcare facilities. Waterborne healthcare-associated infections (HAI) may occur during the many uses of potable water in the healthcare environment. Prevention of infection is made more challenging by lack of data on infection rate and gaps in understanding of the ecology, virulence, and infectious dose of these opportunistic pathogens. Some healthcare facilities have been successful in reducing infections by following current water safety guidelines. This review describes several infections, and remediation steps that have been implemented to reduce waterborne HAIs.

  11. [Diabetes and diet revisited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; Gagliardi, L

    2006-01-01

    In the treatment of diabetes the diet has an important role complementary to the pharmaceutical treatment. The diet must provide the right amount of nutrients and calories in order for the individual to reach and maintain the ideal weight, stabilize the blood glucose levels close to the norm, and attain an optimal lipid profile. The daily caloric intake is represented by 55-60% of carbohydrates with a preference for nutrients rich in fiber and with a low blood glucose index. Of the daily caloric intake 10% may include sucrose as long as it is consumed in the context of a balanced meal. A moderate use of fructose is allowed, and an increased intake of fiber is encouraged. The consumption of proteins represents about 10-15% of the daily caloric intake. A consumption close to the lower limits of the range (about 0,8 gr/kg of body weight) is required for diabetes patients with nephropathy, while a daily intake of 0,6 gr/kg of body weight is considered to be the malnutrition risk factor for lower levels. The total intake of fats required is or = 100mg/dl and other cardiovascular risk factors), the polyunsaturated fatty acids less than 10%, and the monounsaturated fatty acids at 10-15% of the total caloric intake. The intake of cholesterol through the diet should be high levels of LDL cholesterol. Multivitamin supplements are recommended only for certain categories of diabetic patients that may be at risk of micronutrient deficiency. A moderate quantity of alcohol (5-15 gr/die) is allowed in the case of stabilized diabetes and lack of hypertrigliceridemia. Although the diet may determine a ponderal decrease of up to 10% of the initial weight, it is good to insert a correct nutritional program into a well defined behavioral program that, other than a reduced caloric intake, takes into consideration an increased energetic expenditure through physical activity.

  12. [Study on health support strategies by analyzing the diet, alcohol intake, and smoking behavior of university students: examination of non-communicable disease risk factors according to their sex, age and living arrangement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamaki, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the diet, drinking, and smoking behaviors of university students and to analyze the health behaviors that could be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in order to contribute to the promotion of NCD prevention in youth. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions including items about health behaviors. The subjects surveyed were students of 10 universities on the main island of Japan (1,196 valid responders). The score for the nutritional balance was significantly low in the group living alone for both students in their teens and 20s. For the frequency of not eating breakfast, results suggest that living alone and increase in age are related to the lack of breakfast for both males and females. Teenage males living alone tended to lack in consideration for the intake of animal fat than those not living alone. The females showed a higher tendency to eat sweets and snacks during the day than the males. For the males who living alone, results suggest that they tended to have a higher or equal alcohol intake to females in their 20s and males in their 20s not living alone even when they are underage. Males in their 20s tended to have a higher amount and frequency of smoking than other groups regardless of their living arrangement. Accumulation of health behavior that could be a risk for NCDs was found in some of the groups, such as males living alone.

  13. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth > For Teens > Are Detox Diets Safe? ... las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that anything ...

  14. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  15. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  16. The Role of Golem, Pygmalion, and Galatea Effects on Opportunistic Behavior in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, W. Glenn; O'Brien, James

    2002-01-01

    Applying transaction cost and agency theories to the classroom suggests that some students may engage in opportunism. Preventive practices may create a "Golem" effect of negative self-fulfilling prophecies. By creating an atmosphere of trust, teachers may engender the Pygmalion effect of positive self-fulfilling prophecies. (Contains 20…

  17. The Role of Golem, Pygmalion, and Galatea Effects on Opportunistic Behavior in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, W. Glenn; O'Brien, James

    2002-01-01

    Applying transaction cost and agency theories to the classroom suggests that some students may engage in opportunism. Preventive practices may create a "Golem" effect of negative self-fulfilling prophecies. By creating an atmosphere of trust, teachers may engender the Pygmalion effect of positive self-fulfilling prophecies. (Contains 20…

  18. 高血压患者低盐饮食认知行为调查及影响因素分析%Cognition and Behavior of Low-salt Diet in Patients with Hypertension and Its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费红; 汝惠萍; 朱翠清; 吴引娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the cognition and behavior of low-salt diet in patients with hypertension, to identify its influencing factors, and to provide a basis for health education conducted by clinical nurses. Methods A self-designed questionnaire was applied to survey 133 patients with hypertension. Results The cognition score of low-salt diet was (4.39 ±3.03) with a scoring rate of 43.91% and the score of behavior (5.78±2.59) with a scoring rate of 57.82%. Of the total, the cognition of physiological role of sodium and behavior of daily salt intake by constant appliances were the lowest which were 27.82% and 37.59% respectively. The patients' education background and occupations were the major influencing factors of cognition and behavior of low-salt diet (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion The patients with high blood pressure are in low levels of cognition on low-salt diet, and in middle level of behavior. It is recommended that more health education should be promoted to improve patient' s knowledge based on patient' s education background and occupations.%目的 了解高血压患者低盐饮食的认知及行为状况,探讨其影响因素,为临床护士实施健康教育提供依据.方法 采用自行设计的调查问卷,对133例高血压患者低盐饮食认知及行为状况进行调查.结果 患者低盐饮食认知部分(4.39±3.03)分,得分率43.91%,行为部分(5.78±2.59)分,得分率57.82%;其中对钠盐生理作用的认知及每日食盐摄入量用固定器具量化的行为得分率最低,分别为27.82%、37.59%.多元线性回归分析结果显示:患者文化程度和职业是影响其低盐饮食认知及行为的主要因素(P<0.01 或P<0.05).结论 高血压患者对低盐饮食的认知水平偏低,行为处于中等水平.应加大健康教育深度和广度,提升患者的认知水平及行为能力,并根据患者的文化程度、职业状况,实施相应的健康教育方式.

  19. Men, food, and prostate cancer: gender influences on men's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Lawrence W; Chapman, Gwen E; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2011-03-01

    Although healthy eating might enhance long-term survival, few men with prostate cancer make diet changes to advance their well-being. Men's typically poor diets and uninterest in self-health may impede nutrition interventions and diet change. Food choice behavior is complex involving many determinants, including gender, which can shape men's health practices, diets, and prostate cancer experiences. Developing men-centered prostate cancer nutrition interventions to engage men (and where appropriate their partners) in promoting healthy diets can afford health benefits. This article presents an overview and synthesis of current knowledge about men's food practices and provides an analysis of diet and diet change behaviors for men with prostate cancer. Masculinity and gender relations theory are discussed in the context of men's food practices, and suggestions for future applications to nutrition and prostate cancer research and diet interventions are made.

  20. Trophic ecology and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo B. Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in diet composition and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825, as well as measurement of the foraging intensity (number of moves, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on prey items in a caatinga patch on the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hymenoptera/Formicidae and Isoptera predominated in the diet of both species during the dry season. Opportunistic predation on lepidopteran larvae, coleopteran larvae and adults, and orthopteran nymphs and adults occurred in the wet season; however, hymenopterans/Formicidae were the most important prey items. The number of food items was similar between lizard species in both seasons; however the overlap for number of prey was smaller in the wet season. Preys ingested by T. hispidus during the wet season were also larger than those consumed by T. semitaeniatus. Seasonal comparisons of foraging intensity between the two species differed, mainly in the wet season, when T. hispidus exhibited less movement and fewer attacks on prey, and more time spent stationary if compared to T. semitaeniatus. Although both lizards are sit-and-wait foragers, T. semitaeniatus is more active than T. hispidus. The diet and foraging behavior of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus overlap under limiting conditions during the dry season, and are segregative factors that may contribute to the coexistence of these species in the wet season.

  1. Red knots scavenging on large, dying cockles : Opportunistic feeding by a sensory specialized mollusc-crushing shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, Martin J M; Roelen, Bernard A J; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Despite their specializations, shorebirds can be opportunistic foragers during the non-breeding season. We describe how a highly specialized probe-feeding shorebird, the Red Knot Calidris canutus, suddenly ignored its shallow buried hard-shelled mollusc prey and opportunistically shifted to an unusu

  2. Red knots scavenging on large, dying cockles : Opportunistic feeding by a sensory specialized mollusc-crushing shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, Martin J M; Roelen, Bernard A J; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Despite their specializations, shorebirds can be opportunistic foragers during the non-breeding season. We describe how a highly specialized probe-feeding shorebird, the Red Knot Calidris canutus, suddenly ignored its shallow buried hard-shelled mollusc prey and opportunistically shifted to an

  3. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  4. Opportunistic feeding behaviour of rough-toothed dolphins Steno bredanensis off Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, M.J.; Smeenk, C.

    2001-01-01

    A small group of rough-toothed dolphins Steno bredanensis was observed at the outer edge of the Banc d’Arguin, Mauritania. The animals were feeding opportunistically around a trawling research vessel. Hunting behaviour and mother-calf interactions are described

  5. Non-Orthogonal Random Access in MIMO Cognitive Radio Networks: Beamforming, Power Allocation, and Opportunistic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huifa; Shin, Won-Yong

    2017-01-01

    We study secondary random access in multi-input multi-output cognitive radio networks, where a slotted ALOHA-type protocol and successive interference cancellation are used. We first introduce three types of transmit beamforming performed by secondary users, where multiple antennas are used to suppress the interference at the primary base station and/or to increase the received signal power at the secondary base station. Then, we show a simple decentralized power allocation along with the equivalent single-antenna conversion. To exploit the multiuser diversity gain, an opportunistic transmission protocol is proposed, where the secondary users generating less interference are opportunistically selected, resulting in a further reduction of the interference temperature. The proposed methods are validated via computer simulations. Numerical results show that increasing the number of transmit antennas can greatly reduce the interference temperature, while increasing the number of receive antennas leads to a reduction of the total transmit power. Optimal parameter values of the opportunistic transmission protocol are examined according to three types of beamforming and different antenna configurations, in terms of maximizing the cognitive transmission capacity. All the beamforming, decentralized power allocation, and opportunistic transmission protocol are performed by the secondary users in a decentralized manner, thus resulting in an easy implementation in practice.

  6. Cocoon: A lightweight opportunistic networking middleware for community-oriented smart mobile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Modern society is surrounded by an ample spectrum of smart mobile devices. This ubiquity forms a high potential for community-oriented opportunistic ad hoc networking applications. Nevertheless, today’s smart mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, and wristbands are still onerous to automatica

  7. Opportunistic Interference Mitigation Achieves Optimal Degrees-of-Freedom in Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Bang Chul; Shin, Won-Yong

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an opportunistic interference mitigation (OIM) for cellular networks, where a user scheduling strategy is utilized in uplink $K$-cell environments with time-invariant channel coefficients and base stations (BSs) having $M$ receive antennas. In the OIM scheme, each BS opportunistically selects a set of users who generate the minimum interference to the other BSs. We consider two OIM protocols according to the number $S$ of simultaneously transmitting users per cell: an opportunistic interference nulling (OIN) and an opportunistic interference alignment (OIA). Then, their performance is analyzed in terms of degrees-of-freedom (DoFs). It is shown that $KM$ DoFs are achievable under the OIN protocol with $M$ selected users per cell, while the OIA scheme with $S$ selected users (smaller than $M$) achieves $KS$ DoFs. Assuming that $N$ denotes the total number of users in a cell, we also analyze the scaling condition between system parameters $K$, $M$, $N$, $S$, and the received signal-to-noise ratio su...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus xylosus HKUOPL8, a Potential Opportunistic Pathogen of Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Angel Po Yee; Jiang, Jingwei; Tun, Hein Min; Mauroo, Nathalie France; Yuen, Chan San; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2014-07-24

    We report here the first complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus xylosus strain HKUOPL8, isolated from giant panda feces. The whole genome sequence of this strain will provide an important framework for investigating the genes responsible for potential opportunistic infections with this species, as well as its survival in various environments. Copyright © 2014 Ma et al.

  9. From Spectrum Pooling to Space Pooling: Opportunistic Interference Alignment in MIMO Cognitive Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Perlaza, S M; Lasaulce, S; Debbah, M

    2009-01-01

    We describe a non-cooperative interference alignment (IA) technique which allows an opportunistic multiple input multiple output (MIMO) link (secondary) to harmlessly coexist with another MIMO link (primary) in the same frequency band. We assume perfect channel knowledge in the primary receiver and transmitter such that capacity is achieved by transmiting along the spatial directions (SD) associated with the singular values of its channel matrix using a water-filling power allocation (PA) scheme. Often, power limitations lead the primary transmitter to leave some of its SD unused. We show that the opportunistic link can transmit its own data if it is possible to align the interference produced on the primary link with such unused SDs. We provide both a processing scheme to perform IA and a PA scheme which maximizes the transmission rate of the opportunistic link. We determine the asymptotes of the achievable transmission rates of the opportunistic link in the regime of large numbers of antennas to show that d...

  10. Public policy and regulatory implications for the implementation of Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services for Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning; Henten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. This paper discusses how public policy and regulations will impact on OCCS implementation. We rely on documented publicly available government...

  11. Danish General Practitioners' Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Opportunistic Screening for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kasper; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt;

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of prostate-specific antigen test has markedly increased in Danish general practice in the last decade. Despite the national guidelines advice against PSA screening, opportunistic screening is supposed to be the primary reason for this increased number of PSA tests performed. ...

  12. Shared Physiological Traits of Exophiala Species in Cold-Blooded Vertebrates, as Opportunistic Black Yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; de Hoog, G Sybren; Gomes, Renata Rodrigues; Furuie, Jason Lee; Gelinski, Jane Mary Lafayette; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Boeger, Walter Antonio Pereira; Vicente, Vania Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Several species of the genus Exophiala are found as opportunistic pathogens on humans, while others cause infections in cold-blooded waterborne vertebrates. Opportunism of these fungi thus is likely to be multifactorial. Ecological traits [thermotolerance and pH tolerance, laccase activity, assimila

  13. Performance of systematic and non-systematic ('opportunistic') screening mammography: a comparative study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihrmann, Kristine; Jensen, Allan; Olsen, Anne Helene;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation and comparison of the performance of organized and opportunistic screening mammography. METHODS: Women attending screening mammography in Denmark in 2000. The study included 37,072 women attending organized screening. Among these, 320 women were diagnosed with breast cancer...

  14. Opportunistic error correction for mimo-ofdm: from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Xiaoying; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic error correction based on fountain codes is especially designed for the MIMOOFDM system. The key point of this new method is the tradeoff between the code rate of error correcting codes and the number of sub-carriers in the channel vector to be discarded. By transmitting one fountain-e

  15. Loss of competition in the outside host environment generates outbreaks of environmental opportunist pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Anttila

    Full Text Available Environmentally transmitted pathogens face ecological interactions (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism in the outside-host environment and host immune system during infection. Despite the ubiquitousness of environmental opportunist pathogens, traditional epidemiology focuses on obligatory pathogens incapable of environmental growth. Here we ask how competitive interactions in the outside-host environment affect the dynamics of an opportunist pathogen. We present a model coupling the classical SI and Lotka-Volterra competition models. In this model we compare a linear infectivity response and a sigmoidal infectivity response. An important assumption is that pathogen virulence is traded off with competitive ability in the environment. Removing this trade-off easily results in host extinction. The sigmoidal response is associated with catastrophic appearances of disease outbreaks when outside-host species richness, or overall competition pressure, decreases. This indicates that alleviating outside-host competition with antibacterial substances that also target the competitors can have unexpected outcomes by providing benefits for opportunist pathogens. These findings may help in developing alternative ways of controlling environmental opportunist pathogens.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Rodent Opportunistic Pathogen Pasteurella pneumotropica ATCC 35149T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiraku; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Asano, Ryoki; Ueshiba, Hidehiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Boot, Ron; Kawamoto, Eiichi

    2014-08-07

    Pasteurella pneumotropica is an opportunistic pathogen in rodents that is commonly isolated from upper respiratory tracts in laboratory rodents. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the P. pneumotropica type strain ATCC 35149, which was first isolated and characterized as biotype Jawetz. Copyright © 2014 Sasaki et al.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Rodent Opportunistic Pathogen Pasteurella pneumotropica ATCC 35149T

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Hiraku; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Asano, Ryoki; Ueshiba, Hidehiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Boot, Ron; Kawamoto, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella pneumotropica is an opportunistic pathogen in rodents that is commonly isolated from upper respiratory tracts in laboratory rodents. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the P. pneumotropica type strain ATCC 35149, which was first isolated and characterized as biotype Jawetz.

  18. Yield of opportunistic targeted screening for type 2 diabetes in primary care: the diabscreen study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Woolthuis, E.P.; Grauw, W.J.C. de; Gerwen, W.H.E.M. van; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Metsemakers, J.F.M.; Weel, C. van

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: In screening for type 2 diabetes, guidelines recommend targeting high-risk individuals. Our objectives were to assess the yield of opportunistic targeted screening for type 2 diabetes in primary care and to assess the diagnostic value of various risk factors. METHODS: In 11 family practices

  19. Opportunistic feeding behaviour of rough-toothed dolphins Steno bredanensis off Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, M.J.; Smeenk, C.

    2001-01-01

    A small group of rough-toothed dolphins Steno bredanensis was observed at the outer edge of the Banc d’Arguin, Mauritania. The animals were feeding opportunistically around a trawling research vessel. Hunting behaviour and mother-calf interactions are described

  20. Channel access delay and buffer distribution of two-user opportunistic scheduling schemes in wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hossain, Md Jahangir

    2010-07-01

    In our earlier works, we proposed rate adaptive hierarchical modulation-assisted two-best user opportunistic scheduling (TBS) and hybrid two-user scheduling (HTS) schemes. The proposed schemes are innovative in the sense that they include a second user in the transmission opportunistically using hierarchical modulations. As such the frequency of information access of the users increases without any degradation of the system spectral efficiency (SSE) compared to the classical opportunistic scheduling scheme. In this paper, we analyze channel access delay of an incoming packet at the base station (BS) buffer when our proposed TBS and HTS schemes are employed at the BS. Specifically, using a queuing analytic model we derive channel access delay as well as buffer distribution of the packets that wait at BS buffer for down-link (DL) transmission. We compare performance of the TBS and HTS schemes with that of the classical single user opportunistic schemes namely, absolute carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)-based single user scheduling (ASS) and normalized CNR-based single user scheduling (NSS). For an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading environment, our proposed scheme can improve packet\\'s access delay performance compared to the ASS. Selected numerical results in an independent but non-identically distributed (i.n.d.) fading environment show that our proposed HTS achieves overall good channel access delay performance. © 2010 IEEE.

  1. Friend-to-friend short message service with opportunistic Wi-Fi beacons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces Oppline, an ad hoc opportunistic short message service that can be collaboratively used by everyone who has a smart mobile device. The data exchange method of Oppline is built on top of the universal Wi-Fi standard, thus expedites platform-independent integration of related

  2. Identification of quorum-sensing regulated proteins in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arevalo-Ferro, C.; Hentzer, Morten; Reil, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen which is responsible for severe nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients and is the major pathogen in cystic fibrosis. The bacterium utilizes two interrelated quorum-sensing (QS) systems, which rely...

  3. Plasticity in the diet of Astyanax taeniatus in a coastal stream from south-east Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR. Manna

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to characterise the diet of Astyanax taeniatus (Jenyns 1842 (Characiformes, Characidae along the Mato Grosso stream and we hypothesised that the diet of this species would vary according to spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic differences. Specimens were collected every second month at three sites with different physical attributes. The feeding habits of 651 specimens were analysed using the Alimentary Index (IAi. Analysis of the diet showed an effect of spatial, temporal and ontogenetic factors. Vegetal allochthonous items were more important in the diet of Astyanax taeniatus in upstream sites while animal autochthonous items were more important downstream. Ontogenetic differences in the diet were significant only in upstream sites, where adults consumed a greater amount of vegetal matter than juveniles. These results reinforce the idea that Astyanax species are opportunistic and show trophic plasticity.

  4. Behavioral determinants of physical activity across the life course: a "DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity" (DEDIPAC) umbrella systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condello, Giancarlo; Puggina, Anna; Aleksovska, Katina; Buck, Christoph; Burns, Con; Cardon, Greet; Carlin, Angela; Simon, Chantal; Ciarapica, Donatella; Coppinger, Tara; Cortis, Cristina; D'Haese, Sara; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Hansen, Sylvia; Iacoviello, Licia; Issartel, Johann; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Kanning, Martina; Kennedy, Aileen; Ling, Fiona Chun Man; Luzak, Agnes; Napolitano, Giorgio; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Perchoux, Camille; Pesce, Caterina; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Sannella, Alessandra; Schulz, Holger; Sohun, Rhoda; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Walter; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Capranica, Laura; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-05-02

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) are a global concern and increasing PA engagement is becoming a priority in current public health policies. Despite the large number of studies and reviews available, the evidence regarding the behavioral determinants of PA is still inconclusive. Thus, the aim of this umbrella systematic literature review (SLR) was to summarize the evidence on the behavioral determinants of PA across the life course. A systematic online search was conducted on MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases. The search was limited to studies published in English from January, 2004 to April, 2016. SLRs and meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies that investigated the behavioral determinants of PA were considered eligible. The extracted data were assessed based on the importance of the determinants, the strength of evidence, and the methodological quality. The full protocol is available from PROSPERO (PROSPERO 2014:CRD42015010616). Seventeen reviews on 35 behavioral determinants of PA were eligible for this umbrella SLR. Regardless of age, the most investigated determinants were those related with 'screen use' and 'smoking'. For youth, probable positive evidence emerged for 'previous PA' and 'independent mobility and active transport' among children and adolescents. For the adult population, 'transition to university' and 'pregnancy/having a child' showed probable negative associations. Although the majority of the evidence was limited and most of the determinants were not associated with PA, this umbrella SLR provided a comprehensive overview of the associations between behavioral determinants and PA. Youth should be physically active in the early years and increase active transportation to/from school, independent mobility, and 'free-range activities' without adult supervision, whilst adult PA behaviors are mostly influenced by the life events. Finally, more research is needed that incorporates prospective study designs

  5. Public health implications of Acanthamoeba and multiple potential opportunistic pathogens in roof-harvested rainwater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, K A; Ahmed, W; Palmer, A; Sidhu, J P S; Hodgers, L; Toze, S; Haas, C N

    2016-10-01

    A study of six potential opportunistic pathogens (Acanthamoeba spp., Legionella spp., Legionella longbeachae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare) and an accidental human pathogen (Legionella pneumophila) in 134 roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) tank samples was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR). All five opportunistic pathogens and accidental pathogen L. pneumophila were detected in rainwater tanks except Legionella longbeachae. Concentrations ranged up to 3.1×10(6) gene copies per L rainwater for Legionella spp., 9.6×10(5) gene copies per L for P. aeruginosa, 6.8×10(5) gene copies per L for M. intracellulare, 6.6×10(5) gene copies per L for Acanthamoeba spp., 1.1×10(5) gene copies per L for M. avium, and 9.8×10(3) gene copies per L for L. pneumophila. Among the organisms tested, Legionella spp. (99% tanks) were the most prevalent followed by M. intracellulare (78%). A survey of tank-owners provided data on rainwater end-uses. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were enumerated using culture-based methods, and assessed for correlations with opportunistic pathogens and L. pneumophila tested in this study. Opportunistic pathogens did not correlate well with FIB except E. coli vs. Legionella spp. (tau=0.151, P=0.009) and E. coli vs. M. intracellulare (tau=0.14, P=0.015). However, M. avium weakly correlated with both L. pneumophila (Kendall's tau=0.017, P=0.006) and M. intracellulare (tau=0.088, P=0.027), and Legionella spp. also weakly correlated with M. intracellulare (tau=0.128, P=0.028). The presence of these potential opportunistic pathogens in tank water may present health risks from both the potable and non-potable uses documented from the current survey data.

  6. Predictor of Mortality in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients with Central Nervous System Opportunistic Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Lestari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia’s increase of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS cases is one of the fastest. Mortality cases of AIDS also increase per year. Central nervous system (CNS opportunistic infection is one of the most likely manifestations on advanced stage of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS patients. Common CNS opportunistic infections are toxoplasma infection and tuberculous meningitis (TBM. The study aimed to analyze the predictor of mortality in AIDS patients with CNS opportunistic infections. Methods: This study reviewed 151 medical records from AIDS patients with CNS opportunistic infection admitted to the Department of Neurology, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung from 2007-2012. This study was conducted from April to November 2013. Patients’ clinical manifestations (seizure, headache, altered consciousness, laboratory examination (CD4+ level count and treatment history (antiretroviral or ART and cotrimoxazole were collected. Chi-square and logistic regression test were used to determine the mortality predictor in patients. Results: Mortality rate was 37.7%. Clinical manifestations from patients were seizure 29.8%, altered consciousness 66.2%, and headache 88.7%. Patients had cotrimoxazole treatment 44.4% and 38.4% patients had ART. CD4+ level count data from 86 patients were obtained, 94% had CD4+ level count ≤200. Bivariate analysis showed altered consciousness had significant mortality predictor (Odd ratio (OR: 29.944; 95% Confidence interval (CI 6.9–129.945; p<0,0. Multivariate analysis showed ART had highest predictive mortality value (OR: 2.968; 95% CI 1.236–7.126; p=0.015. Conclusions: Altered consciousness and no antiretroviral treatment are mortality predictors in AIDS patients with CNS opportunistic infections.

  7. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD...... modifications of the diet are needed in order to make this food concept beneficial regarding phosphorus absorption....

  8. Cinnamon counteracts the negative effects of a high fat/high fructose diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin resistance leads to memory impairment. Cinnamon (CN) improves whole body insulin resistance but its effects in the brain are not known. Changes in behavior, insulin signaling, and Alzheimer-associated gene expression in the brain were measured in male Wistar rats fed a high fat/high fructose...

  9. Effects of nutrient dilution and nonstarch polysaccharide concentration in rearing and laying diets on eating behavior and feather damage of rearing and laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with 768 non-cage-housed ISA Brown pullets, of which 576 hens were followed during the laying period, to investigate the separate effects of dietary energy dilution and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) concentration (oat hulls as NSP source) on eating behavior and feather

  10. Effects of nutrient dilution and nonstarch polysaccharide concentration in rearing and laying diets on eating behavior and feather damage of rearing and laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with 768 non-cage-housed ISA Brown pullets, of which 576 hens were followed during the laying period, to investigate the separate effects of dietary energy dilution and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) concentration (oat hulls as NSP source) on eating behavior and feather

  11. Opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Gabon following the administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okome-Nkoumou, Madeleine; Guiyedi, Vincent; Ondounda, Magloire; Efire, Nora; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Dibo, Mireille; Dzeing-Ella, Arnaud

    2014-02-01

    Opportunistic diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) leading to immune reconstitution is the most effective treatment of preventing opportunistic diseases. This retrospective study established an epidemiologic profile of opportunistic diseases 10 years after the introduction of HAART. The HIV antiretroviral therapy-naive patients matching inclusion criteria were included. The primary outcome was the prevalence of opportunistic diseases. From January 1, 2002 to September 30, 2010, 654 opportunistic diseases were identified in 458 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis, herpes zoster, cerebral toxoplasmosis, oral candidiasis, and severe pneumonia accounted for 22.05%, 15.94%, 14.19%, 14.19%, and 9.39%, respectively. Cryptococcal meningitis and pneumocystosis accounted for 0.44% and 0.21%, respectively. The prevalence of opportunistic diseases in Gabon remains high. New guidelines emphasize the importance of initiating antiretroviral therapy early to reconstitute the immune system, and reduce disease risk, and treat the primary opportunistic infection of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  12. Depression-like behaviors in mice subjected to co-treatment of high-fat diet and corticosterone are ameliorated by AICAR and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weina; Zhai, Xiaofeng; Li, Haipeng; Ji, Liu

    2014-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly co-morbid, and there may be a bi-directional connection between the two. Herein, we have described a mouse model of a depression-like and insulin-resistant (DIR) state induced by the co-treatment of high-fat diet (HFD) and corticosterone (CORT). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d- ribofuranoside (AICAR), a pharmacological activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), was originally used to improve insulin resistance (IR). Interestingly, our results show a clear potential for AICAR as a putative antidepressant with a chronic action on the DIR mice. In contrast to the traditional antidepressants, AICAR as a promising antidepressant avoids reducing insulin actions of skeletal muscle in the context of long-term HFD. Exercise also produced antidepressant effects. Our data suggest that the effects of AICAR and exercise on DIR may further increase our understanding on the link between depression and diabetes.

  13. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurants in the CARDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Rummo, Pasquale E.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Shikany, James M.; Guilkey, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=−0.68 (95% CI: (−0.85, −0.51); 1st tertile: β=−0.22 (95% CI: −0.42, −0.02) ; p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=−1.34 (95% CI: −1.54, −1.14); 1st tertile: β=−0.45 (95% CI: −0.66, −0.25); p-interaction<0.001], but not insulin resistance [3rd tertile: β=− 0.07 (95% CI: −0.24, 0.09); 1st tertile: β=0.09 (95% CI: −0.08, 0.26); p-interaction=0.40]. We observed no modification of fast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels. PMID:26319447

  14. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: Differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurant availability in the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Meyer, Katie A; Green Howard, Annie; Shikany, James M; Guilkey, David K; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-09-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=-0.68 (95% CI: (-0.85, -0.51); 1st tertile: β=-0.22 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.02); p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=-1.34 (95% CI: -1.54, -1.14); 1st tertile: β=-0.45 (95% CI: -0.66, -0.25); p-interaction<0.001], but not insulin resistance [3rd tertile: β=-0.07 (95% CI: -0.24, 0.09); 1st tertile: β=0.09 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.26); p-interaction=0.40]. We observed no modification of fast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels.

  15. 学龄前儿童行为问题与家庭环境及饮食关系的探讨%Preschool Behavior Problems and the Relationship with Family Environment and Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程宇; 仇君; 孙要武; 蒋勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨家庭环境及饮食对儿童行为的影响.方法 采用Achenbach儿童行为量表与食物频率调查表对齐齐哈尔市702名4-6岁儿童的家长进行调查.结果 儿童行为问题检出率为16.67%(男童18.56%、女童14.66%).家庭经济收入、居住面积、家庭类型、父母受教育程度与儿童行为问题的检出率有关.多因素Logistic逐步回归分析显示非独生子女、含糖饮料和高能量零食及红肉类摄入频次多是行为问题的危险因素;动物内脏摄人频次多、母亲受教育程度高则为保护因素.结论 齐齐哈尔市4~6岁儿童行为问题检出率较高;母亲受教育程度可通过多种家庭环境因素影响儿童行为;饮食对儿童行为的影响可能与铅的毒性作用及能量和多种营养素有关.%Objective To evaluate the impact of the family environment and diet on children.Methods Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and the food frequency questionnaire were used to investigate 702 children aged 4 to 6 parents in Qiqihar City.Results The detection rate of child behavior problems was 16.67% ( 18.56% boys and girls 14.66% ) .Family income , living area,family type , parental level of education and child behavior problems were related to the detection rate.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non single child , sugary drinks and high - energy snacks and red meat intake frequency were risk factors of behavior problems.The frequency of intake of animal organs, high educated mothers were protective factor.Conclusion Behavior problems of 4 - 6 years old child in Qiqihar City had a higher detection rate.Mother,level of education can influence child behavior prohlems by a variety of children a family environment.Effect of diet on children's behavior may be related to the toxic effects of lead and the energy and nutrients.

  16. Diet of bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis in the Karoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuntzsch

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet of bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis was studied from March 1988 to September 1989 at two sites near Beaufort West in the central Karoo. In a near-natural habitat (Karoo National Park, insects and wild fruit contributed almost equally to the diet, while more insects than plant material were consumed on a sheep farm (Saucyskuil. Adult and larval Coleoptera (KNP and Orthoptera (Saucyskuil were predominantly preyed upon in an opportunistic manner, influenced by food availability. A higher volume of Isoptera was consumed at Saucyskuil, suggesting higher availability in the farming area.

  17. Comportamento e dieta alimentar de uma espécie de Latrodectus do grupo Mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae em cativeiro Behavior and diet supply of Latrodectus group Mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima da Rocha Dias

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Latrodectus gr. mactans is responsible for 28% of ali accidents provoked by spiders in state of Bahia, Brazil (1980-1990, which makes necessary the study of its manejament. The spiders were captured in Ondina, Salvador, and in Baxio, Esplanada (Bahia, Brazil; they were mantained in captivity, with food supply weekly (Atta sp., larva of Tenebrio sp. and Drosophila melanogaster with three hours/ offers observation time, during march/95 to april/96. In captivity, the spiders accepted two kinds of food: Atta sp., which seems to be the major item of its diet in natural conditions, and larva of Tenebrio sp., which is not available in natural conditions. Drosophila melanogaster was systematically rejected. The feeding behavior iscomposed by four distinct steps: (1 imrnobilization, (2 inoculation, (3 second immobilization and (4 ingestion. Two kinds of social alimentary behavior are descri-bed. The results indicated that larvae of Tenebrio sp. can be an alternative supply for successfull maintenance of this specie in captivity.

  18. Ketogenic diet improves core symptoms of autism in BTBR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, David N; Svedova, Julia; Cote, Jessica L; Sandau, Ursula; Rho, Jong M; Kawamura, Masahito; Boison, Detlev; Masino, Susan A

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders share three core symptoms: impaired sociability, repetitive behaviors and communication deficits. Incidence is rising, and current treatments are inadequate. Seizures are a common comorbidity, and since the 1920's a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet has been used to treat epilepsy. Evidence suggests the ketogenic diet and analogous metabolic approaches may benefit diverse neurological disorders. Here we show that a ketogenic diet improves autistic behaviors in the BTBR mouse. Juvenile BTBR mice were fed standard or ketogenic diet for three weeks and tested for sociability, self-directed repetitive behavior, and communication. In separate experiments, spontaneous intrahippocampal EEGs and tests of seizure susceptibility (6 Hz corneal stimulation, flurothyl, SKF83822, pentylenetetrazole) were compared between BTBR and control (C57Bl/6) mice. Ketogenic diet-fed BTBR mice showed increased sociability in a three-chamber test, decreased self-directed repetitive behavior, and improved social communication of a food preference. Although seizures are a common comorbidity with autism, BTBR mice fed a standard diet exhibit neither spontaneous seizures nor abnormal EEG, and have increased seizure susceptibility in just one of four tests. Thus, behavioral improvements are dissociable from any antiseizure effect. Our results suggest that a ketogenic diet improves multiple autistic behaviors in the BTBR mouse model. Therefore, ketogenic diets or analogous metabolic strategies may offer novel opportunities to improve core behavioral symptoms of autism spectrum disorders.

  19. Ketogenic diet improves core symptoms of autism in BTBR mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Ruskin

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders share three core symptoms: impaired sociability, repetitive behaviors and communication deficits. Incidence is rising, and current treatments are inadequate. Seizures are a common comorbidity, and since the 1920's a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet has been used to treat epilepsy. Evidence suggests the ketogenic diet and analogous metabolic approaches may benefit diverse neurological disorders. Here we show that a ketogenic diet improves autistic behaviors in the BTBR mouse. Juvenile BTBR mice were fed standard or ketogenic diet for three weeks and tested for sociability, self-directed repetitive behavior, and communication. In separate experiments, spontaneous intrahippocampal EEGs and tests of seizure susceptibility (6 Hz corneal stimulation, flurothyl, SKF83822, pentylenetetrazole were compared between BTBR and control (C57Bl/6 mice. Ketogenic diet-fed BTBR mice showed increased sociability in a three-chamber test, decreased self-directed repetitive behavior, and improved social communication of a food preference. Although seizures are a common comorbidity with autism, BTBR mice fed a standard diet exhibit neither spontaneous seizures nor abnormal EEG, and have increased seizure susceptibility in just one of four tests. Thus, behavioral improvements are dissociable from any antiseizure effect. Our results suggest that a ketogenic diet improves multiple autistic behaviors in the BTBR mouse model. Therefore, ketogenic diets or analogous metabolic strategies may offer novel opportunities to improve core behavioral symptoms of autism spectrum disorders.

  20. Bryophyte-Feeders in a Basal Brachyceran Lineage (Diptera: Rhagionidae: Spaniinae): Adult Oviposition Behavior and Changes in the Larval Mouthpart Morphology Accompanied with the Diet Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Dipteran larval morphology exhibits overwhelming variety, affected by their diverse feeding habits and habitat use. In particular, larval mouthpart morphology is associated with feeding behavior, providing key taxonomic traits. Despite most larval Brachycera being carnivorous, a basal brachyceran family, Rhagionidae, contains bryophyte-feeding taxa with multiple feeding habits. To elucidate the life history, biology, and morphological evolution of the bryophyte-feeding rhagionids, the larval feeding behavior and morphology, and the adult oviposition behavior of four species belonging to three genera of Spaniinae (Spania Meigen, Litoleptis Chillcott and Ptiolina Zetterstedt) are described. Moreover, changes of the larval morphology associated with the evolution of bryophyte-feeding are traced by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Spania and Litoleptis (thallus-miners of thallose liverworts) share a toothed form of apical mandibular sclerite with an orifice on its dorsal surface, which contrasts to those of the other members of Rhagionidae possessing a blade-like mandibular hook with an adoral groove; whereas, Ptiolina (stem borer of mosses) exhibits a weak groove on the adoral surface of mandible and highly sclerotized maxilla with toothed projections. Based on the larval feeding behavior of the thallus-miners, it is inferred that the toothed mandibles with the dorsal orifice facilitate scraping plant tissue and then imbibing it with a great deal of the sap. A phylogeny indicated that the bryophyte-feeding genera formed a clade with Spaniopsis and was sister to Symphoromyia, which presumably are detritivores. This study indicates that the loss or reduction of adoral mandibular groove and mandibular brush is coincident with the evolution of bryophyte-feeding, and it is subsequently followed by the occurrence of dorsal mandibular orifice and the loss of creeping welts accompanying the evolution of thallus-mining. PMID:27812169

  1. Optimality of Multichannel Myopic Sensing in the Presence of Sensing Error for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization problem for the performance of opportunistic spectrum access is considered in this study. A user, with the limited sensing capacity, has opportunistic access to a communication system with multiple channels. The user can only choose several channels to sense and decides whether to access these channels based on the sensing information in each time slot. Meanwhile, the presence of sensing error is considered. A reward is obtained when the user accesses a channel. The objective is to maximize the expected (discounted or average reward accrued over an infinite horizon. This problem can be formulated as a partially observable Markov decision process. This study shows the optimality of the simple and robust myopic policy which focuses on maximizing the immediate reward. The results show that the myopic policy is optimal in the case of practical interest.

  2. Cloud Platform Based on Mobile Internet Service Opportunistic Drive and Application Aware Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the static cloud platform cannot satisfy the diversity of mobile Internet service and inefficient data mining problems, we presented a reliable and efficient data mining cloud platform construction scheme based on the mobile Internet service opportunistic driving and application perception. In this scheme, first of all data selection mechanism was established based on mobile Internet service opportunistic drive. Secondly, through the cloud platform different cloud and channel aware, nonlinear mapping from the service to a data set of proposed perceptual model is applied. Finally, on the basis of the driving characteristics and extraction of perceptual features, the cloud platform would be constructed through the service opportunities of mobile Internet applications, which could provide robust and efficient data mining services. The experimental results show that the proposed mechanism, compared to the cloud platform based on distributed data mining, has obvious advantages in system running time, memory usage, and data clustering required time, as well as average clustering quality.

  3. An opportunistic routing mechanism combined with long-term and short-term metrics for WMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weifeng; Wang, Haotian; Piao, Xianglan; Qiu, Tie

    2014-01-01

    WMN (wireless mesh network) is a useful wireless multihop network with tremendous research value. The routing strategy decides the performance of network and the quality of transmission. A good routing algorithm will use the whole bandwidth of network and assure the quality of service of traffic. Since the routing metric ETX (expected transmission count) does not assure good quality of wireless links, to improve the routing performance, an opportunistic routing mechanism combined with long-term and short-term metrics for WMN based on OLSR (optimized link state routing) and ETX is proposed in this paper. This mechanism always chooses the highest throughput links to improve the performance of routing over WMN and then reduces the energy consumption of mesh routers. The simulations and analyses show that the opportunistic routing mechanism is better than the mechanism with the metric of ETX.

  4. A Restless Bandit Formulation of Multi-channel Opportunistic Access: Indexablity and Index Policy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Keqin

    2008-01-01

    We focus on an opportunistic communication system consisting of multiple independent channels with time-varying states. With limited sensing, a user can only sense and access a subset of channels and accrue rewards determined by the states of the sensed channels. We formulate the problem of optimal sequential channel selection as a restless multi-armed bandit process, for which a powerful index policy--Whittle's index policy--can be implemented based on the indexability of the system. Exploiting the underlying structure of the multi-channel opportunistic access problem, we establish the indexability and obtain Whittle's index in closed-form for both discounted reward and average reward criteria. These results lead to the direct implementation of Whittle's index policy with remarkably low complexity. Furthermore, we develop a simple approach to evaluate the optimal performance under a relaxed constraint on sensing actions, which provides an upper bound of the optimal performance of the original restless multi-...

  5. Buffer Management and Hybrid Probability Choice Routing for Packet Delivery in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daru Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the features of long connection delays, frequent network partitions, and topology unsteadiness, the design of opportunistic networks faces the challenge of how to effectively deliver data based only on occasional encountering of nodes, where the conventional routing schemes do not work properly. This paper proposes a hybrid probability choice routing protocol with buffer management for opportunistic networks. A delivery probability function is set up based on continuous encounter duration time, which is used for selecting a better node to relay packets. By combining the buffer management utility and the delivery probability, a total utility is used to decide whether the packet should be kept in the buffer or be directly transmitted to the encountering node. Simulation results show that the proposed routing outperforms the existing one in terms of the delivery rate and the average delay.

  6. A non-digging zoobenthivorous fish attracts two opportunistic predatory fish associates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sazima

    Full Text Available Following behaviour among reef fishes involves mostly a digging nuclear species while foraging, which attracts opportunistic followers preying on the exposed organisms. The flying gurnard Dactylopterus volitans preys on benthic animals, mostly crustaceans and small fishes, scratching and probing the bottom with the inner rays of its pectoral fins. We recorded the flying gurnard being followed by two opportunistic predators, the yellow jack Caranx bartholomaei and the coney Cephalopholis fulva at Fernando de Noronha, off northeast Brazil. Albeit not actually digging the substrate, the flying gurnard acts as a nuclear species by exploring algae tufts and by its wandering near the boulders and ledges, disturbing and flushing out hidden animals which thus become available to predation.

  7. Seasonal neuroplasticity of the song control system in tropical, flexibly, and opportunistically breeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Thomas W; Moore, Ignacio T

    2009-09-01

    The avian song control system is one of the primary models used to study neuroplasticity and neurogenesis in the adult vertebrate brain. A great deal of progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms controlling seasonal neuroplasticity of the song control system. However, relatively little work has been done to identify how prevalent this phenomenon is and if a diversity of environmental cues can regulate it. Photoperiod is the primary environmental cue used by mid- to high-latitude seasonally breeding birds to time growth of the song control system but many birds display flexible or opportunistic breeding patterns that are less reliant on photoperiodic cues. In addition, approximately 75% of birds are tropical and in only one such species has neuroplasticity of the song control system been studied. Our goal is to outline some of what is known and expand on the ways that studying tropical, flexibly, and opportunistically breeding birds can advance our understanding of plasticity in the song bird brain.

  8. Opportunistic Scheduling and Beamforming for MIMO-OFDMA Downlink Systems with Reduced Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Pun, Man-On; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Opportunistic scheduling and beamforming schemes with reduced feedback are proposed for MIMO-OFDMA downlink systems. Unlike the conventional beamforming schemes in which beamforming is implemented solely by the base station (BS) in a per-subcarrier fashion, the proposed schemes take advantages of a novel channel decomposition technique to perform beamforming jointly by the BS and the mobile terminal (MT). The resulting beamforming schemes allow the BS to employ only {\\em one} beamforming matrix (BFM) to form beams for {\\em all} subcarriers while each MT completes the beamforming task for each subcarrier locally. Consequently, for a MIMO-OFDMA system with $Q$ subcarriers, the proposed opportunistic scheduling and beamforming schemes require only one BFM index and $Q$ supportable throughputs to be returned from each MT to the BS, in contrast to $Q$ BFM indices and $Q$ supportable throughputs required by the conventional schemes. The advantage of the proposed schemes becomes more evident when a further feedback ...

  9. Characterization and Identification of Two Opportunistic Human Bacterial Pathogens in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yuan-chan; XIE Guan-lin; ZHANG Li-xin; AN Gilmyong; FANG Yuan; LUO Jin-yan; HAO Xiao-juan; ZHAO Si-feng

    2006-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia (Bc) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) are both biocontrol agents in agriculture and opportunistic human pathogens in hospitals. Effective management and utilization practice is needed to understand their characteristics and distribution in rice. During the last decade, the two opportunistic human pathogens were detected in 631 samples of rice seed and 117 samples of rice plant in plain, highland and mountainous rice growing areas of China. Bc and Pa were primarily differentiated by common bacteriological characteristics and pathogenic tests and then identified into species by Biolog and FAME tests. However,the genotypes of Bc still could not be distinguished. It has been noted that the Bc and Pa mainly existed in rice root with the highest distribution frequency in plain areas ( 6.1% and 16.1%) and lowest in the mountainous areas (1.0% and 7.8%).

  10. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  11. Indoor Positioning Using Opportunistic Multi-Frequency RSS With Foot-Mounted INS

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate positioning systems are expected to significantly improve the safety for first responders and enhance their operational efficiency. To be effective, a first responder positioning systemmust provide room level accuracy during extended time periods of indoor operation. This thesis presents a system which combines a zero-velocity-update (ZUPT) aided inertial navigation system (INS), using a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU), with the use of opportunistic multi-fr...

  12. Heuristic Approach to Select Opportunistic Routing Forwarders (HASORF) to Enhance Throughput for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf Bin Zikria; Summera Nosheen; Jin-Ghoo Choi; Sung Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    Biological schemes provide useful resources for designing adaptive routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The key idea behind using bioinspired routing is to find the optimal path to the destination. Similarly, the idea of opportunistic routing (OR) is to find the least number of hops to deliver the data to the destination. Numerous routing schemes have been proposed in WSNs while targeting various performance goals, such as throughput, delay, and link quality. Rec...

  13. Analytical evaluation of adaptive-modulation-based opportunistic cognitive radio in nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei

    2012-09-01

    The performance of adaptive modulation for cognitive radio with opportunistic access is analyzed by considering the effects of spectrum sensing, primary user (PU) traffic, and time delay for Nakagami- m fading channels. Both the adaptive continuous rate scheme and the adaptive discrete rate scheme are considered. Numerical examples are presented to quantify the effects of spectrum sensing, PU traffic, and time delay for different system parameters. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  14. Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Spyros Foteinis; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G.; Costas Synolakis

    2013-01-01

    The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) system. Heavy metal point sources included (i) the effluents of small industries (tanneries), (ii) wastewater treatment plan...

  15. Look-Ahead Techniques for Micro-Opportunistic Job Shop Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    throughout all these years; My advisor, Mark Fox , for his guidance, enthusiasm and unfailing support; The other members of my thesis committee, Tom Mitchell...about the same time, the ISIS factory scheduling system developed by Mark Fox and his team first demonstrated the potential of AI modeling and...Katia Sycara, Steve Roth, and Mark Fox . LOOK-AHEAD TECHNIQUES FOR MICRO-OPPORTUNISTIC JOB SHOP SCHEDULING 155 Appendix A Counting the Number of

  16. Opportunistic Infections and Complications in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Children: Correlation with immune status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaivinder Yadav

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to ascertain the correlation between various opportunistic infections and complications in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected children and the immune status of these patients, evaluated by absolute cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 count and CD4 percentage. Methods: This study was conducted from January 2009 to June 2010 at the Antiretroviral Treatment Centre of the Pt. B.D. Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care hospital in Rohtak, Haryana, in northern India. A total of 20 HIV-1-infected children aged 4–57 months were studied. Demographic and baseline investigations were performed prior to the start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. A fixed-dose combination of HAART was given based on the patient’s weight. Baseline investigations were repeated after six months of HAART. Results: There was a significant increase in the patients’ haemoglobin, weight, height and CD4 count after six months of HAART. Significant improvements (P <0.05 were also noted in the patients’ immune status, graded according to the World Health Organization. Conclusion: This study observed that the severity and frequency of opportunistic complications in paediatric patients with HIV-1 increased with a fall in the CD4 count. The treatment of opportunistic infections, along with antiretroviral therapy, may lead to both clinical and immunological recovery as well as a decreased incidence of future opportunistic infections. The CD4 count may give treating physicians an initial idea about the immune status of each child and could also be used as a biological marker of HAART efficacy. Patient compliance must be ensured during HAART as this is a key factor in improving outcomes.

  17. Low-Feedback Opportunistic Scheduling Schemes for Wireless Networks with Heterogenous Users

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-07-01

    Efficient implementation of resource sharing strategies in a multi-user wireless environment can improve the performance of a network significantly. In this thesis we study various scheduling strategies for wireless networks and handle the problem of opportunistically scheduling transmissions using channel aware schemes. First we propose a scheme that can handle users with asymmetric channel conditions and is opportunistic in the sense that it exploits the multi-user diversity of the network. The scheme requires the users to have a priori knowledge of their channel distributions. The associated overhead is limited meaning it offers reduced feedback load, that does not scale with the increasing number of users. The main technique used to shrink the feedback load is the contention based distributed implementation of a splitting algorithm that does not require explicit feedback to the scheduler from every user. The users find the best among themselves, in a distributed manner, while requiring just a ternary broadcast feedback from the scheduler at the end of each mini-slot. In addition, it can also handle fairness constraints in time and throughput to various degrees. Next we propose another opportunistic scheduler that offers most of the benefits of the previously proposed scheme but is more practical because it can also handle heterogenous users whose channel distributions are unknown. This new scheme actually reduces the complexity and is also more robust for changing traffic patterns. Finally we extend both these schemes to the scenario where there are fixed thresholds, this enables us to handle opportunistic scheduling in practical systems that can only transmit over finite number of discrete rates with the additional benefit that full feedback session, even from the selected user, is never required.

  18. Species Diversity and Polymorphism in the Exophiala spinifera Clade Containing Opportunistic Black Yeast-Like Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A monophyletic group of black yeast-like fungi containing opportunistic pathogens around Exophiala spinifera is analyzed using sequences of the small-subunit (SSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of ribosomal DNA. The group contains yeast-like and annellidic species (anamorph genus Exophiala) in addition to sympodial taxa (anamorph genera Ramichloridium and Rhinocladiella). The new species Exophiala oligosperma, Ramichloridium basitonum, and Rhinocladiella similis are introduced...

  19. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Singh I; Mishra A; Kushwaha RKS

    2009-01-01

    Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection) ITCC 5266 , A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi) GPCK 1137 , Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081 , ...

  20. Exploration of an Opportunistic Overlaid Paradigm for Complex Networks via Stochastic Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Cui, “A Selection Region Based Routing Protocol for Ran- dom Mobile ad hoc Networks,” Proceedings: IEEE GLOBECOM Workshop on Heterogeneous, Multi...opportunistically to limit the interference to the primary tier. Based on the assumption that the secondary tier is allowed to route the packets for the...the framework of distributed Kalman filtering. It is shown that, in a weakly connected communica- tion network, there exist (randomized) gossip based