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Sample records for opp-ow common effects

  1. Effect of Common Visual Dysfunctions on Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Brian P.

    1985-01-01

    Six common visual dysfunctions are briefly explained and their relationships to reading noted: (1) ametropia, refractive error; (2) inaccurate saccades, the small jumping eye movements used in reading; (3) inefficient binocularity/fusion; (4) insufficient convergence/divergence; (5) heterophoria, imbalance in extra-ocular muscles; and (6)…

  2. Effect of montmorillonite on arsenic accumulation in common carp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... The effect of montmorillonite (MMT) on dietary arsenic (As(III)) accumulation in tissues of common carp ..... by clay minerals has been primarily attributed to the .... Trace elements (Cu or Zn) concentration in sampled tissues of common carp after .... interactions among mixtures of lead, cadmium and arsenic.

  3. Cerebral effects of commonly used vasopressor-inotropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Gitte Holst; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Petersen, Sandra Meinich

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread use in sick infants, it is still debated whether vasopressor-inotropes have direct cerebral effects that might affect neurological outcome. We aimed to test direct cerebrovascular effects of three commonly used vasopressor-inotropes (adrenaline, dopamine and noradrenaline...

  4. Overcoming the ten most common barriers to effective team communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Communication is at the heart of medical practice management. Yet there are many barriers to effective communication that can interfere with the smooth running of the practice. This article describes the 10 most common barriers to effective medical practice team communication and offers six steps the practice manager can take to break them down. This article also suggests that the practice develop a team communication strategy. It suggests 10 communication principles readers can share directly with their teams and describes three hallmarks of effective team communication. Finally, this article provides a list of 25 practical questions practice managers can use to improve their team's communication.

  5. Ecotoxicological study of insecticide effects on arthropods in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Ventura, Hudson Vaner; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Pereira, Renata Ramos; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    Arthropods are an important group of macroorganisms that work to maintain ecosystem health. Despite the agricultural benefits of chemical control against arthropod pests, insecticides can cause environmental damage. We examined the effects of one and two applications of the insecticides chlorfenapyr (0.18 liters a.i. ha-1) and methamidophos (0.45 liters a.i. ha-1), both independently and in combination, on arthropods in plots of common bean. The experiment was repeated for two growing seasons. Principal response curve, richness estimator, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index analyses were performed. The insecticides generally affected the frequency, richness, diversity, and relative abundance of the arthropods. In addition, the arthropods did not experience recovery after the insecticide applications. The results suggest that the insecticide impacts were sufficiently drastic to eliminate many taxa from the studied common bean plots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. The combined antiandrogenic effects of five commonly used pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Jarfelt, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    In this study, mixture effects of five dissimilarly acting pesticides were analyzed for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, simazine, and tribenuron-methyl are all commonly used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Concentration-response curves...... for the inhibition of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro of each pesticide alone and in an equimolar mixture were obtained. The IC25 values for deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, and the mixture were 5.8, 5.8, 3.5, and 7.5 muM, respectively. Simazine and tribenuron...... of the pesticides in vitro. In vivo, each of the five pesticides and a mixture of the pesticides were tested for antiandrogenic effects in castrated testosterone-treated Wistar rats. The mixture induced a significant change of weights of the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle and adrenal glands. Changes in gene...

  7. Erosive effects of common beverages on extracted premolar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, W K; Thong, K M

    2005-09-01

    Dental erosion is highly prevalent today, and acidic drinks are thought to be an important cause. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the erosive potential of a range of common beverages on extracted human teeth. The beverages were tested for their individual pHs using a pH meter. The clinical effects of the most erosive beverages were determined by the degree of etching and Vickers microhardness of enamel. The results showed that many common beverages have pHs sufficiently low to cause enamel erosion. Lime juice concentrate (pH 2.1) had the lowest pH, followed by Coca-cola and Pepsi (both with pH 2.3) and Lucozade (pH 2.5). The erosive potential of these beverages was demonstrated by the deep etching of the enamel after five minutes. The Vickers Hardness of enamel was reduced by about 50 per cent in the case of lime juice (p case of Coca-cola (p Coca-cola completely reversed the erosive effects on the enamel. Although only a few of the beverages with the lowest pHs were tested, the present study showed that the most acidic drinks had the greatest erosive effects on enamel. While saliva was protective against erosion, relatively large volumes were required to neutralize the acidity.

  8. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-10-10

    In this study, we established a simple method for evaluating the PCR compatibility of various common materials employed when fabricating microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most cases, adding bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, although they noticeably interacted with the polymerase. We provide a simple method of performing PCR-compatibility testing of materials using inexpensive instrumentation that is common in molecular biology laboratories. Furthermore, our method is direct, being performed under actual PCR conditions with high temperature. Our results provide an overview of materials that are PCR-friendly for fabricating microfluidic devices. The PCR reaction, without any additives, performed best with pyrex glass, and it performed worst with PMMA or acrylic glue materials.

  9. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Xiao, Kang; Wu, Jinbo; Yi, Xin; Gong, Xiuqing; Foulds, Ian G.; Wen, Weijia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we established a simple method for evaluating the PCR compatibility of various common materials employed when fabricating microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most cases, adding bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, although they noticeably interacted with the polymerase. We provide a simple method of performing PCR-compatibility testing of materials using inexpensive instrumentation that is common in molecular biology laboratories. Furthermore, our method is direct, being performed under actual PCR conditions with high temperature. Our results provide an overview of materials that are PCR-friendly for fabricating microfluidic devices. The PCR reaction, without any additives, performed best with pyrex glass, and it performed worst with PMMA or acrylic glue materials.

  10. Regional Welfare Effects of the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger ELSHOLZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework to analyseregional welfare effects of EU’s Common Agricultural Policy. Given the mix ofagricultural policy measures on the one hand and the differences in the agriculturalproduction structure on the other hand the question how regions are affected iscrucial for analysing the overall welfare effects arising from the CAP. For thisreason the composition of transfers, the program design and the financing of themeasures are on the focus of this paper for regions in the federal state of Hesse,Germany. The analysis wants to contribute to the relevant literature in a twofoldway. Firstly, the federal structure of Germany is taken into account explicitly. Thishas important aspects in regard to the different co-financing rules as well as to thefinancing of the measures or funds. Secondly, much smaller regions – the Hessiancommunities – are considered in this study to obtain exact welfare effects at theregional level. The theoretical framework of this study shows that for rural regionsthe overall CAP generates positive welfare effects while it generates negativeeffects for urban regions.

  11. Effects of dietary selenium exposure in captive American common eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Perry, M.C.; Bochsler, V.S.; Finley, D.L.; Flint, Paul L.; Hollmen, T.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted two studies of Se exposure in captive common eiders (Somateria mollissima). In Study 1, eiders were fed diets with added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 ppm to 80 ppm. In Study 2, eiders received control, low exposure (20 ppm Se), and high exposure (60 ppm Se) diets. One duck in the high exposure group in Study 2 died after 36 days. Remaining high exposure ducks in Study 2 and ducks in Study 1 were euthanized after losing 25-30% of their body weight, which occurred after 41 days and 60-78 days, respectively. Body weights did not differ between control and low exposure ducks in Study 2. At the end of Study 1, the mean Se concentration in blood was 32 ppm wet weight (ww). In Study 2, mean blood Se reached 14 ppm ww in the low exposure group and 17 ppm ww in high exposure ducks. Mean Se concentrations in liver were 1252 ppm dry weight (dw) in Study 1, and 351 and 735 ppm dw, respectively, in the low and high exposure groups of Study 2. Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism, but not entirely in the same manner as with previous laboratory studies in mallards. In plasma, activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase increased with time. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, oxidized glutathione, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. Total and protein bound sulfhydryl concentrations, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver were negatively correlated with Se concentrations in the liver. In Study 2, spleen weights were significantly lower in ducks receiving 60 ppm Se than in those receiving 20 ppm. Gross lesions associated with high Se exposure included emaciation, absence of thymus, loss of nails from digits, and alopecia. Microscopic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather

  12. Dietary effects on fatty acid metabolism of common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csengeri, I

    1996-01-01

    The paper summarises experimental data demonstrating effects of various dietary factors exerting changes in the fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Among the dietary factors (1) supplementary feeding in fish ponds, (2) absence of essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, (3) starvation, and (4) ration level were studied. It was concluded that supplementary feeding in carp rearing ponds is frequently excessive in the Hungarian carp culture practice, inducing slight EFA-deficiency and enhancing de novo fatty acid synthesis. This latter caused enlarged fat depots with high oleic acid contents in the fish organs and tissues. EFA-deficient diets enhanced the synthesis of oleic acid except when high rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis was suppressed by dietary fatty acids. Feeding EFA-deficient diets caused gradual decrease in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and gradual increase in that of Mead's acid: 20:3(n-9), an indicator of the EFA-deficiency. At prolonged starvation, polyunsaturated fatty acids of the structural lipids were somehow protected and mainly oleic acid was utilised for energy production. At high ration levels, excessive exogenous polyunsaturates were decomposed, and probably converted to oleic acid or energy. Starvation subsequent to the feeding the fish at various ration levels, reflected adaptive changes in the fatty acid metabolism: Below and above the ration level required for the most efficient feed utilisation for growth, decomposition processes of the fatty acid metabolism were accelerated.

  13. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2012-02-20

    compatibility of various materials commonly used while producing microfluidic devices is also pertinent and beneficial to other enzymatic reactions in microfluidic devices. Most PCR-friendly materials exhibit similar signals regardless of the inclusion or not of BSA in the PCR mixture; these materials are PP, PTFE, PDMS, wax (Tm 80°C), SiO2 quartz, pyrex and soda-lime glasses, NOA68, and mineral oil. Our results showed that there was near total adsorption of template DNA when the wax (Tm 60°C) was used (RBI = 9.2×101). In contrast, when NOA61, mineral oil and acrylic glue materials were employed, significant adsorption occurred (RBI < 1.5×103). The polymerase-inhibition experiments indicate that following materials do not have strong effects (RBI > 1.1×103) on polymerase: PC, PP, PTFE, PDMS, silicon with a layer of 560 nm SiO2, SiO2 quartz, pyrex, and soda-lime glass. Slight polymerase inhibition (RBI < 9.2×102) was observed with PMMA, PVC, waxes (Tm 56°C and 80°C), silicon, and NOA68. A very strong or near total inhibition (RBI < 1.8×102) was observed with wax (Tm 60°C), ITO glass, SU-8, NOA61, metal tubes, mineral oil, epoxy, and the acrylic glues. \\tOur results show that material selection for microfluidic PCR chips, which are characterized by large SAVR, is a vital part of optimizing PCR outcome. This study of the inhibitory effect of various common microfluidics materials has provided a new rapid testing method using only a PCR cycler, and it has confirmed and expanded the list of tested materials. The type of PCR compatibility test enables the most effectual choice of materials for use in biology-related experiments.

  14. The effect of the glycaemic response of three commonly consumed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-30

    Jun 30, 2015 ... classifying glycaemic response to carbohydrate-containing foods. The GI is defined as ... of conducting this study was to evaluate the glycaemic response of some commonly ... basis was determined according to the Association of Analytic ... medical laboratory scientist using the glucose oxidation method.

  15. Effects of Common Cause Failure on Electrical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The essential electrical systems of reactor designs have developed progressively with an increased focus on the use of redundant, segregated and independent safety system equipment 'trains'. In this arrangement, essential safety functions associated with safe shutdown and cooling of the reactor are replicated on near identical electrical systems with each of the trains of safety system equipment supported by a fully rated standby generator. Development in designs has seen the number of trains increased to enable maintenance to be undertaken with reactors at power, improving the economics of the units whilst maintaining nuclear safety. This paper provides a background to common cause failure and provides examples where supporting guidance and international experience is available. It also highlights the regulatory guidance available to UK licensees. Recent examples of common cause failures on plant in the UK are presented together with an issue identified during the recent Generic Design Assessment review of new reactor designs within the UK. It was identified that one design was claiming a very low probability of failure associated with the loss of a single break and no-break voltage level, orders of magnitude below the target figure within ONR's Safety Assessment Principles. On closer scrutiny it was established that a significant safety function provided from identical low voltage switchboards would be lost in the event of a common cause failure affecting these boards. The paper will explain the action that has been taken by the requesting party to improve the resilience of the design and how this impacts on the ONR reliability targets for reactor designs within the UK. (authors)

  16. Maximize O ampersand M effectiveness with creative engineering, common sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretz, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Typically, powerplant operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) practices are governed by three things: policies of the owner/operator and regulatory authorities; the type of equipment in place; and the level of experience in the engineering, operations, and maintenance departments at both the plant and the electric utility's headquarters staff. Yet, regardless of the type of plant involved - nuclear, hydroelectric, gas-turbine-based, fossil-fired steam/electric - creative engineering coupled with common sense provides the backdrop of many, if not most, solutions to O ampersand M problems. Some examples of creative engineering are cited. 3 figs

  17. Positive expiratory pressure - Common clinical applications and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Lannefors, Louise; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    Breathing out against resistance, in order to achieve positive expiratory pressure (PEP), is applied by many patient groups. Pursed lips breathing and a variety of devices can be used to create the resistance giving the increased expiratory pressure. Effects on pulmonary outcomes have been discussed in several publications, but the expected underlying physiology of the effect is seldom discussed. The aim of this article is to describe the purpose, performance, clinical application and underlying physiology of PEP when it is used to increase lung volumes, decrease hyperinflation or improve airway clearance. In clinical practice, the instruction how to use an expiratory resistance is of major importance since it varies. Different breathing patterns during PEP increase or reduce expiratory flow, result in movement of EPP centrally or peripherally and can increase or decrease lung volume. It is therefore necessary to give the right instructions to obtain the desired effects. As the different PEP techniques are being used by diverse patient groups it is not possible to give standard instructions. Based on the information given in this article the instructions have to be adjusted to give the optimal effect. There is no consensus regarding optimal treatment frequency and number of cycles included in each treatment session and must also be individualized. In future research, more precise descriptions are needed about physiological aims and specific instructions of how the treatments have been performed to assure as good treatment quality as possible and to be able to evaluate and compare treatment effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioprotective effects of some commonly used calcium blockers (deltiazem, nifidine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alya, G.

    2002-11-01

    The main aim of this study is looking for other radio protectors less or non-toxic with a favorable therapeutic index and good tolerance in human body. Wistar rats of both sexes were used; control animals were irradiated (total body irradiation) in perforated plexiglas by using the 60 Co source. Dose of irradiation was 9 Gy (lethal dose of 100% of animals-LD 1 00) and dose rate was 80-85 rad/min -1 . Irradiated animals have been monitored for two weeks and percentage of survival has been calculated. Different concentrations of deltiazem and nifidine were used at 15 or 30 minutes before the time of irradiation. Irradiation and treated animals have been monitored for 30 days post-irradiation and the percentage of survival has been calculated. The results showed that the Ca 2+ antagonists in question could be used as radio protectors. moreover, results of this undertaken study revealed that deltiazem is more effective than nifidine, survival rates of deltiazem-treated animals were, significantly, higher than those, which were treated with nifidine. The radio protective effects of these drugs vary according to animals' sex and age. Drugs concentration and time of administration play an important role in their radioprotective effects. These drugs can attenuate radiation injuries and thus they can protect animals from radiation syndromes, especially bone marrow syndrome and gastrointestinal syndrome the matter that causes decreasing in lethality induced by lethal doses of gamma radiation. (author)

  19. EFFECTS OF BASKETBALL GAMES ON COMMON ABILITIES OF ASSOCIATES INVOLVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budimir Bijelić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Basketball is a sports discipline and activity distinguished by a number of advan- tages and therefore it is suitable to be included in different SPORT FOR ALL organiza- tion. This Paper has dealt with research of the effects of basketball games on certain motor and function abiliteies of associates regularly involved. 53 male associates, age 35-50, have undergone testing for seven motor variables where 2 km long walking activity (fitness index = general motor ability mean criteria variable. Systems of predictive motr and criteria variables have been tested in complian- ce with the methodology of Eurofit battery for adults. Based on the results obtained therein and related statistical analysis it has been found that 61 % of variability for criteria variable can be explained by the system of six predictive variables: lying - rising up in sitting position; leaning up forward in sitting position; standing on one leg - “flamingo”; jumping up; hand tapping and flexible han- ging down in bending motions. This statistical effect (at the level of p =.00 has accomplished the overall system of predictive motor variables, but not a snigle variable could have any special statistical effects on criteria variable UKK-2 km

  20. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: "No evidence of effect" versus "evidence of no effect"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first in a series exploring common pitfalls in statistical analysis in biomedical research. The power of a clinical trial is the ability to find a difference between treatments, where such a difference exists. At the end of the study, the lack of difference between treatments does not mean that the treatments can be considered equivalent. The distinction between "no evidence of effect" and "evidence of no effect" needs to be understood.

  1. Link Data to Learning Goals: Common District Assessments Connect Teaching Effectiveness to Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…

  2. A Serious Adverse Effect of Pseudoephedrine Used For Common Cold Treatment : Ventricular Arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Aypak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common cold is one of the frequently seen disease in childhood. Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH is a sympathomimetic drug which is widely used for treatment of common cold as a decongestant on children. The aim of this case report is, to draw attention to serious adverse effects of PEH treatment. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 506-510

  3. Effect of Pleurotus eryngii Mushroom β-Glucan on Quality Characteristics of Common Wheat Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SunHee; Lee, Jo-Won; Heo, Yena; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of β-glucan-rich fractions (BGRFs) from Pleurotus eryngii mushroom powder on the quality, textural properties, and sensory evaluation of common wheat pasta. Pasta was prepared from semolina flour and common wheat flour by replacing common wheat flour at 2%, 4%, and 6% with BGRFs. Semolina flour showed significantly higher viscosities than common wheat flour samples. However, all viscosities, except the breakdown viscosity, were reduced with increasing percentages of BGRFs. Replacement of the common wheat flour with BGRFs resulted in a reddish brown colored pasta with a lower L* value and a higher a* value. The common wheat pastas containing up to 4% BGRFs were not significantly different from semolina pasta with regard to cooking loss. Addition of up to 2% BGRFs had no significant impact on swelling index and water absorption. The addition of BGRFs in common wheat flour had a positive effect on the quality of common wheat pasta and resulted in hardness values similar to those of semolina pasta. In a sensory evaluation, cooked pasta with 2% BGRFs had the highest overall acceptability score. In summary, the results showed that common wheat flour containing 4% BGRFs could be used to produce pasta with an improved quality and texture properties similar to semolina pasta. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Common carp disrupt ecosystem structure and function through middle-out effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaemingk, Mark A.; Jolley, Jeffrey C.; Paukert, Craig P.; Willis, David W.; Henderson, Kjetil R.; Holland, Richard S.; Wanner, Greg A.; Lindvall, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Middle-out effects or a combination of top-down and bottom-up processes create many theoretical and empirical challenges in the realm of trophic ecology. We propose using specific autecology or species trait (i.e. behavioural) information to help explain and understand trophic dynamics that may involve complicated and non-unidirectional trophic interactions. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) served as our model species for whole-lake observational and experimental studies; four trophic levels were measured to assess common carp-mediated middle-out effects across multiple lakes. We hypothesised that common carp could influence aquatic ecosystems through multiple pathways (i.e. abiotic and biotic foraging, early life feeding, nutrient). Both studies revealed most trophic levels were affected by common carp, highlighting strong middle-out effects likely caused by common carp foraging activities and abiotic influence (i.e. sediment resuspension). The loss of water transparency, submersed vegetation and a shift in zooplankton dynamics were the strongest effects. Trophic levels furthest from direct pathway effects were also affected (fish life history traits). The present study demonstrates that common carp can exert substantial effects on ecosystem structure and function. Species capable of middle-out effects can greatly modify communities through a variety of available pathways and are not confined to traditional top-down or bottom-up processes.

  5. Effect of a certain class of potential common mode failures on the reliability of redundant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, G.E.

    1975-11-01

    This is a theoretical investigation of the importance of common mode failures on the reliability of redundant systems. These failures are assumed to be the result of fatal shocks (e.g., from earthquakes, explosions, etc.) which occur at a constant rate. This formulation makes it possible to predict analytically results obtained in the past which showed that the probability of a common mode failure of the redundant channels of the protection system of a typical nuclear power plant was orders of magnitude larger than the probability of failure from chance failures alone. Furthermore, since most reliability analyses of redundant systems do not include potential common mode failures in the probabilistic calculations, criteria are established which can be used to decide either that the common-mode-failure effects are indeed insignificant or that such calculations are meaningless, and more sophisticated methods of analysis are required, because common mode failures cannot be ignored

  6. Common metrics. Comparing the warming effect of climate forcers in climate policy; Common metrics. Laempenemiseen vaikuttavien paeaestoejen yhteismitallistaminen ilmastopolitiikassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, T. J.; Ekholm, T.; Savolainen, I.

    2012-11-15

    Climate policy needs a relatively simple method to compare the warming effect of different greenhouse gases (GHGs). Otherwise it would be necessary to negotiate a different reduction target for each gas. At the moment, Global Warming Potential (GWP) concept is used to compare different GHGs. Numerical values of GWP factors have been updated alongside with scientific understanding and majority seems content to the GWP. From 2005 onwards there have been many proposals of optional metrics. The most well known is Global Temperature change Potential (GTP) concept which measures the change of temperature as does global climate policies. The decision between metrics is a multicriteria decision which should include at least the coherence with climate policy and cost efficiency. The GWP concept may be a little more difficult to understand than the GTP but it is more cost efficient. Alongside with new metrics, scientists and politicians have started to discuss of new emission which have an effect on warming. These Short Lived Climate Forcers (SLCFs) have either warming or cooling effect. Their effect can be presented with GWP and GTP but the uncertainties in the emission factors are large. In total, SLCFs reduce overall emissions of EU approximately 1% in year 2000. NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} (cooling) and black carbon (warming) emissions were the biggest factors. EU is planning to reduce the SLCF emissions to achieve health and environmental benefits, but at the same time this reduces the effect of EU's climate policies by approximately 10%. Uncertainties in the estimates are large. (orig.)

  7. Contents and effects of contracts - Lessons to learn from the Common European Sales Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombi Ciacchi, Aurelia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a critical analysis of the rules on the contents and effects of contracts included in the proposal for a Common European Sales Law (CESL). The European Commission published this proposal in October 2011 and then withdrew it in December 2014, notwithstanding the support the

  8. Effective doses associated with the common hybrid scans performed in nuclear medicine to adult patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho Lopez, C.; Garcia Martinez, M. T.; Martin Vidal, J. F.; Falgas Lacuela, M.; Vercher Conejero, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to outline the effective dose (E) that can be taught in hybrid SPECT-CT scans and PET-CT performed more common in adult patients. E is expressed as the Natural Radiation Equivalent Time (TERN) and consider, for each scan, the percentage of the total dose due to TC.

  9. Phase Noise Effect on MIMO-OFDM Systems with Common and Independent Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Wang, Hua; Fan, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of oscillator phase noises (PNs) on multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems are studied. It is shown that PNs of common oscillators at the transmitter and at the receiver have the same influence on the performance ...

  10. On the common mechanism for initiation of different effects of low doses of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehjdus, L.Kh.

    1996-01-01

    Main regularities of different endpoints of ionizing radiation low dose effects (adaptive response, stimulation of proliferation, special radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells, and others) have been examined. It has been shown that these endpoints have a commonness for the dose interval, the shape of the dose-response curve, the reverse effect of dose rate, non-specificity toward initiating agents, and others. An explanation is suggested for the common mechanism of the initiation of all the studied low dose effects, basing on the theory of the non-specific reaction of cell to external influences. It is concluded that initiation of the low dose effects is conditioned by radiation induced damage of functions of plasmic and internal membranes

  11. Effects of the Formula for Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base Apportionment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available For solving the existing difficulties in corporate income taxation, the European Commission proposed the introduction of measures for coordination, solution contested by some Member States but supported by most professionals and many organizations representing the interests of European employers. Disputes in connection with the introduction of the “Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base” system are determined by the uncertainty regarding its effects. In this context, we intend to present and analyze some effects of applying the EU formula apportionment.

  12. Effects of bifenthrin on some haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velisek, J; Svobodova, Z; Machova, J

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bifenthrin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The 96-h LC50 value of Talstar EC 10 (active substance 100 g l(-1) bifenthrin) was found to be 57.5 microg l(-1). Examination of haematological and biochemical profiles and histological tissue examination was performed on common carp after 96 h of exposure to Talstar EC 10 (57.5 microg l(-1)). The experimental group showed significantly higher (P bifenthrin-based Talstar EC 10 pesticide preparation was classified as a substance strongly toxic for fish.

  13. Toxic effects of chromic sulphate on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H.; Lau, W.M.; Tong, T.Y.; Liu, W.K.; Luk, K.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of chromic sulphate, which is commonly used in the tanning of leather, on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio and the bighead, Aristichthys nobilis, were studied. C. carpio was found to be more susceptible than A. nobilis to chromic sulphate at the lowest concentration tested (100 mg/l) whereas results obtained at other concentration were similar for both species. Damage to the gills, liver and intestine was observed by histopathological examination. A wide range of chemicals is used in the different stages of treating leather and a possible treatment of the effluent from the tanneries is suggested.

  14. Effects of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Feed on Immunological Parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bitsayah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxin contamination is a common natural phenomenon that is difficult to avoid or control and it can occur during pre and post-harvest periods under high humidity and temperature conditions, and are potentially dangerous to fish. In the present study, a feeding trial evaluated the effects of diets contaminated with aflatoxin on certain immunological parameters of common carp. Methods: The immunotoxicity assessment of juvenile common carp was performed on 180 fish divided into five groups with triplicate: Control group received normal feed (Group I; group II was fed diets contaminated with extraction solution (methanol, acetone and diluted water as a positive control. Group III-V was respectively fed diets contaminated with 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 feed for 3 wk. Results: Lysozyme activities, total immunoglobulin contents, complement C3 and C4 activities in plasma of common carp fed with different concentrations of aflatoxins significantly decreased when compared to that of the control fish. Although plasma ACH50 contents remained unchanged in 0.5 mg kg-1 aflatoxins, ACH50 contents decreased in 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 groups after 21 d of aflatoxin treatment. No significant changes were observed in immunological parameters between the control positive and control groups throughout the experimental periods. Conclusion: Oral exposure to aflatoxin (0.5 mg kg-1≤ could adversely affect immunological parameters of common carp.

  15. Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis in the Estimates of Common Environmental Effects Affecting GPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszczynska, Marta; Rosat, Severine; Klos, Anna; Gruszczynski, Maciej; Bogusz, Janusz

    2018-03-01

    We described a spatio-temporal analysis of environmental loading models: atmospheric, continental hydrology, and non-tidal ocean changes, based on multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA). We extracted the common annual signal for 16 different sections related to climate zones: equatorial, arid, warm, snow, polar and continents. We used the loading models estimated for a set of 229 ITRF2014 (International Terrestrial Reference Frame) International GNSS Service (IGS) stations and discussed the amount of variance explained by individual modes, proving that the common annual signal accounts for 16, 24 and 68% of the total variance of non-tidal ocean, atmospheric and hydrological loading models, respectively. Having removed the common environmental MSSA seasonal curve from the corresponding GPS position time series, we found that the residual station-specific annual curve modelled with the least-squares estimation has the amplitude of maximum 2 mm. This means that the environmental loading models underestimate the seasonalities observed by the GPS system. The remaining signal present in the seasonal frequency band arises from the systematic errors which are not of common environmental or geophysical origin. Using common mode error (CME) estimates, we showed that the direct removal of environmental loading models from the GPS series causes an artificial loss in the CME power spectra between 10 and 80 cycles per year. When environmental effect is removed from GPS series with MSSA curves, no influence on the character of spectra of CME estimates was noticed.

  16. [Asymmetric effect of in-group social values on identity with common-identity and common-bond in-groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Isobe, Chikae; Toshihiko, Souma; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Moderating effects of group type on the relationship between in-group social values and group identity were investigated. Previous research has indicated that values attached to the in-group, such as its status, privileges, and power, lead to increased group identity. However, these studies have not investigated the role of the type of in-groups on this effect. We conducted an experiment that manipulated the in-group type. In the common-identity type of in-group condition, formation of in- and out-groups on the basis of social categorization was established. In the common-bond type of in-group condition, interactions between the group members were conducted. Results indicated that in the former condition, the degree of in-group social values affected group identity; however, this effect was not found in the latter condition. These results suggest that social values of the in-group have an asymmetric effect on group identity, depending upon the in-group type as a common-identity or common-bond group.

  17. Ecologically relevant levels of multiple, common marine stressors suggest antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rolanda; Marshall, Dustin

    2017-07-24

    Stressors associated with global change will be experienced simultaneously and may act synergistically, so attempts to estimate the capacity of marine systems to cope with global change requires a multi-stressor approach. Because recent evidence suggests that stressor effects can be context-dependent, estimates of how stressors are experienced in ecologically realistic settings will be particularly valuable. To enhance our understanding of the interplay between environmental effects and the impact of multiple stressors from both natural and anthropogenic sources, we conducted a field experiment. We explored the impact of multiple, functionally varied stressors from both natural and anthropogenic sources experienced during early life history in a common sessile marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina. Natural spatial environmental variation induced differences in conspecific densities, allowing us to test for density-driven context-dependence of stressor effects. We indeed found density-dependent effects. Under high conspecific density, individual survival increased, which offset part of the negative effects of experiencing stressors. Experiencing multiple stressors early in life history translated to a decreased survival in the field, albeit the effects were not as drastic as we expected: our results are congruent with antagonistic stressor effects. We speculate that when individual stressors are more subtle, stressor synergies become less common.

  18. Phase Noise Effect on MIMO-OFDM Systems with Common and Independent Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of oscillator phase noises (PNs on multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems are studied. It is shown that PNs of common oscillators at the transmitter and at the receiver have the same influence on the performance of (single-stream beamforming MIMO-OFDM systems, yet different influences on spatial multiplexing MIMO-OFDM systems with singular value decomposition (SVD based precoding/decoding. When each antenna is equipped with an independent oscillator, the PNs at the transmitter and at the receiver have different influences on beamforming MIMO-OFDM systems as well as spatial multiplexing MIMO-OFDM systems. Specifically, the PN effect on the transmitter (receiver can be alleviated by having more transmit (receive antennas for the case of independent oscillators. It is found that the independent oscillator case outperforms the common oscillator case in terms of error vector magnitude (EVM.

  19. Antivirulence effects of pomegranate peel extracts on most common urinary tract infection pathogens in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Wafaa Sadeq Al-Wazni; Bashair Sami Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study includes the investigation of antibacterial and antivirulence activities of three types of pomegranate peel extracts and then determines the interaction between the extracts and antibiotic in vitro. Methods The ability of most common isolated bacteria from urinary tract infection (UTI) to produce different virulence factors were tested and the effect of plant extracts on virulence factors were determined; in addition the correlation between extracts and antibioti...

  20. Assessing and mitigating the effects of windblown soil on rare and common vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Sean M; Faucette, Dave T; Toyofuku, Mai M; Torres, Carlos A; Bagley, Calvin F

    2007-12-01

    Acting under the auspices of the US Endangered Species Act, we quantified wind erosion and its effects on rare and common plant species on a semi-arid military installation in Hawaii. Our goal was to develop management strategies, based on local data, to aid the conservation of rare and common indigenous plants and their habitats. We collected windblown soil coming off of roads and other disturbed soils to assess likely impacts to plants occurring at certain heights and distances from disturbed surfaces. We then subjected plants in a glasshouse to windblown dust treatments, designed from our field data to simulate erosion events, and evaluated the effect of these treatments on photosynthesis and survival. We also designed several field experiments to examine the in-situ effects of windblown soil and soil substrate on germination, growth rate, and survival of indigenous and nonindigenous plants. We conclude from these experiments that most direct effects of windblown soil to plants can be effectively mitigated by locating roads and training areas at least 40 m from sensitive plant habitats and through vegetation management to maintain at least 11% aerial cover on disturbed surfaces. Effects of soil type on germination, growth, and survival was species-specific, emphasizing the importance of species trials prior to, or during, rehabilitation efforts.

  1. Dose rate effects on survival of two insect species which commonly infest stored corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adem, E.; Uribe, R.M.; Watters, F.L.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the dose rate effects on survival of two species of insects which commonly infest commercial maize in Mexico was undertaken using 60 Co γ radiation and 1.0 MeV electrons, to determine whether an optimum dose rate exists for the irradiation of grain infested with these insects. Experiments have shown that the effectiveness of γ and electron irradiation were not influenced by dose rates from 10 to 120 Gy/min for 60 Co and 35 to 300 Gy/min for electrons when the insects were irradiated at 2500 Gy. Survival curves for each species are presented for both types of radiation. (author)

  2. Effects of common chronic medical conditions on psychometric tests used to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M M; Poulsen, L; Rasmussen, C K

    2016-01-01

    Many chronic medical conditions are accompanied by cognitive disturbances but these have only to a very limited extent been psychometrically quantified. An exception is liver cirrhosis where hepatic encephalopathy is an inherent risk and mild forms are diagnosed by psychometric tests. The preferred...... diagnostic test battery in cirrhosis is often the Continuous Reaction Time (CRT) and the Portosystemic Encephalopathy (PSE) tests but the effect on these of other medical conditions is not known. We aimed to examine the effects of common chronic (non-cirrhosis) medical conditions on the CRT and PSE tests. We...

  3. Effect of breastfeeding on common pediatric infections: a 5-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Cüneyt; Yavuz, Erdinç

    2018-04-01

    The studies conducted revealed that breastfeeding duration has a reducing effect on common infectious diseases in the children during breastfeeding period. The aim of the present study was to address the association between breastfeeding duration and common infectious diseases in the children until 5 years of age to show long-term protective effects of the breast milk. The study included 411 infants who were born in Rize (Turkey) between January 2011 and December 2011. The present prospective-cohort study lasted for 5 years and 11 interviews were conducted with each mother of the infants during this period. The infants were divided into two groups as those who were breastfed more and less than 12 months and the association between breastfeeding and infections such as acute otitis media, acute gastroenteritis, acute respiratory tract infections and acute urinary system infections was investigated. Of 270 infants 193 (71.5%) were breastfed longer than 12 months and 77 (28.5%) were breastfed less than 12 months. Infants in the first group had less acute otitis media and acute gastroenteritis (n= 77, 28.52%) when compared with the infants breastfed less than 12 months during 5-year period (p <0.05). The present study detected that breastfeeding duration longer than 12 months significantly reduces the common childhood infections such as otitis media and gastroenteritis during the first 5 years of life. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  4. Effect of different nitrogen sources on plant characteristics and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luqueño, F; Reyes-Varela, V; Martínez-Suárez, C; Salomón-Hernández, G; Yáñez-Meneses, J; Ceballos-Ramírez, J M; Dendooven, L

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater sludge can be used to fertilize crops, especially after vermicomposting (composting with earthworms to reduce pathogens). How wastewater sludge or vermicompost affects bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth is still largely unknown. In this study the effect of different forms of N fertilizer on common bean plant characteristics and yield were investigated in a Typic Fragiudepts (sandy loam) soil under greenhouse conditions. Beans were fertilized with wastewater sludge, or wastewater sludge vermicompost, or urea, or grown in unamended soil, while plant characteristics and yield were monitored (the unamended soil had no fertilization). Yields of common bean plants cultivated in unamended soil or soil amended with urea were lower than those cultivated in wastewater sludge-amended soil. Application of vermicompost further improved plant development and increased yield compared with beans cultivated in wastewater amended soil. It was found that application of organic waste products improved growth and yield of bean plants compared to those amended with inorganic fertilizer.

  5. Acute effect of copper exposure on serum biochemical characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melika Ghelichpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ambient copper was investigated on serum stress markers, sodium and enzyme levels in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. over a 14-d exposure period. Fish were exposed to 0, 25 and 100 μg L-1 copper (as copper sulfate and blood was sampled at 0, 3, 7 and 14 d after exposure. Serum profile was significantly affected by copper concentration, sampling time and their interaction. Increase in serum levels of cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decrease in serum sodium levels were observed in both copper-exposed groups, 3 d after copper exposure, which lasted until the end of the experiment. It is concluded that copper exposure causes stress response and sodium loss in common carp. Likewise alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increase after exposure which might be as results of either tissue damage or stress.

  6. The effect of social networks and social support on common mental disorders following specific life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Eaton, W W; Bradshaw, C P

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the association between life events and common mental disorders while accounting for social networks and social supports. Participants included 1920 adults in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Cohort who were interviewed in 1993-1996, of whom 1071 were re-interviewed in 2004-2005. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Social support from friends, spouse or relatives was associated with significantly reduced odds of panic disorder and psychological distress, after experiencing specific life events. Social networks or social support had no significant stress-buffering effect. Social networks and social support had almost no direct or buffering effect on major depressive disorder, and no effect on generalized anxiety disorder and alcohol abuse or dependence disorder. The significant association between social support and psychological distress, rather than diagnosable mental disorders, highlights the importance of social support, especially when the severity of a mental health related problem is low.

  7. The Effect of Aromatherapy on Insomnia and Other Common Symptoms Among Patients With Acute Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Lisa; Achor, Sara; Allen, Betty; Bauchmire, Nicole; Dunnington, Danielle; Klisovic, Rebecca; Naber, Steven; Roblee, Kirsten; Samczak, Angela; Tomlinson-Pinkham, Kelly; Chipps, Esther

    2017-07-01

    To determine if the use of aromatherapy improves insomnia and other common symptoms in hospitalized patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. A randomized, crossover, washout trial. An inpatient acute leukemia unit at the Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard L. Solove Research Institute of the Wexner Medical Center at Ohio State University in Columbus. 50 patients who were newly diagnosed with acute leukemia and hospitalized to receive their initial four weeks of intensive induction chemotherapy. Patients were offered a choice of three scents to be used during the trial: lavender, peppermint, or chamomile. Each patient was randomized to receive either the chosen aromatherapy intervention or a placebo intervention during alternate weeks, with a washout period in between. Sleep quality and other common symptoms were measured. Aromatherapy, sleep, insomnia, pain, tiredness, drowsiness, nausea, lack of appetite, shortness of breath, depression, anxiety, and well-being. Most patients reported poor quality sleep at baseline, but aromatherapy had a statistically significant positive impact. Improvements were noted in tiredness, drowsiness, lack of appetite, depression, anxiety, and well-being because of aromatherapy. Aromatherapy is a viable intervention for improving insomnia and other symptoms commonly experienced by patients with acute leukemia. Oncology nurses can employ aromatherapy safely and inexpensively, and with minimal training, as an effective tool in decreasing many symptoms that plague patients with leukemia. Patients can exercise a greater sense of control over their treatment environments through the use of aromatherapy.

  8. Effects of common mental disorders and physical conditions on role functioning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaglia, Gabriela; Duran, Núria; Vilagut, Gemma; Forero, Carlos García; Haro, Josep Maria; Alonso, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of common mental disorders and physical conditions on role functioning in Spain. Cross-sectional study of the general adult population of Spain (n = 2,121). Non-psychotic mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) and physical conditions with a checklist. The role functioning dimension of the WHO-Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) was used to asses the number of days in the past month in which respondents were fully or partially limited to perform daily activities. Generalized linear models were used to estimate individual-level associations of specific conditions and role functioning, controlling for co-morbidity. Societal level estimates were calculated using population attributable risk proportions (PARP). Mental disorders and physical conditions showed similar number of days with full role limitation (about 20 days per year); in contrast mental disorders were responsible for twice as many days with partial role limitation than physical conditions (42 vs 21 days, respectively). If the population were entirely unexposed to mental and physical conditions, days with full limitation would be reduced by 73% and days with partial limitation by 41%. Common health conditions in Spain are associated with considerably more days with role limitation than other Western countries. There is need of mainstreaming disability in the Spanish public health agenda in order to reduce role limitation among individuals with common conditions. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Adverse Effects with Ambulatory Intravenous Immunoglobulin Administration in Adult Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Alicia Rodríguez-Mireles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common variable immunode ciency (CVID is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, affecting 1:25,000- 75,000 people. It is characterized by the absence or decrease antibody production. Treatment for CVID consists on human immunoglobulin administration, and the intravenous route is the most common route for administration, at 400-800 mg/kg of weight every 3-4 weeks. Adverse effects associated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg use occur in 25% of all infusions, with severe adverse reactions presenting in less than 1% of all patients. Acute renal failure can occur as a severe adverse reaction, which presents 1-10 days after starting IVIg treatment. In our center we implemented an ambulatory scheme for IVIg administration, which allows its administration in an average of 3 hours, without severe adverse effects. Objectives: To describe adverse effects and to evaluate the frequency of renal failure secondary to ambulatory IVIg administration in patients with common variable immunode ciency. Material and method: A descriptive and prospective study was done including adult patients con de nitive diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency, receiving IVIg at replacement dose every 3 weeks. All patients were evaluated with clinical exploration, somatometry, serum creatinine, albumin and urea determination, 24 hours creatinine clearance, glomerular ltration rate with CKD-EPI, and immediate renal function associated with accumulated IVIg. Results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results: We determined adverse effects in 25 patients with common variable immunode ciency (15 women and 10 men, average age 36.7 years, during a 10 months period (January-September 2013. During this period 284 IVIg infusions were administered using our scheme, frequency of adverse effects were 12.9%, with 5.2% of early adverse effects and 7.7% late adverse effects, all being mild to moderate, in some cases required analgesic and

  10. Effects of beta-blockers and nicardipine on oxotremorine-induced tremor in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuda, M; Nomoto, M; Iwata, S

    1999-10-01

    Effects of beta-blockers (propranolol, arotinolol and nipradilol) and a Ca2+ channel blocker (nicardipine) on oxotremorine-induced tremor were studied in common marmosets. Generalized tremor was elicited by an intraperitoneal administration of 0.25 mg/kg oxotremorine. Intensity of the tremor was classified into 7 degrees, and it was evaluated every 10 min. The total intensity of oxotremorine-induced tremor for each drug was expressed as "points", which were the sum of tremor intensity scores evaluated every 10 min up to 190 min following the administration of oxotremorine. Beta-blockers significantly suppressed the tremor. On the other hand, the Ca2+ channel blocker exacerbated the tremor.

  11. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  12. Assessing Granger Causality in Electrophysiological Data: Removing the Adverse Effects of Common Signals via Bipolar Derivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongnetrpunya, Amy; Nandi, Bijurika; Kang, Daesung; Kocsis, Bernat; Schroeder, Charles E; Ding, Mingzhou

    2015-01-01

    Multielectrode voltage data are usually recorded against a common reference. Such data are frequently used without further treatment to assess patterns of functional connectivity between neuronal populations and between brain areas. It is important to note from the outset that such an approach is valid only when the reference electrode is nearly electrically silent. In practice, however, the reference electrode is generally not electrically silent, thereby adding a common signal to the recorded data. Volume conduction further complicates the problem. In this study we demonstrate the adverse effects of common signals on the estimation of Granger causality, which is a statistical measure used to infer synaptic transmission and information flow in neural circuits from multielectrode data. We further test the hypothesis that the problem can be overcome by utilizing bipolar derivations where the difference between two nearby electrodes is taken and treated as a representation of local neural activity. Simulated data generated by a neuronal network model where the connectivity pattern is known were considered first. This was followed by analyzing data from three experimental preparations where a priori predictions regarding the patterns of causal interactions can be made: (1) laminar recordings from the hippocampus of an anesthetized rat during theta rhythm, (2) laminar recordings from V4 of an awake-behaving macaque monkey during alpha rhythm, and (3) ECoG recordings from electrode arrays implanted in the middle temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex of an epilepsy patient during fixation. For both simulation and experimental analysis the results show that bipolar derivations yield the expected connectivity patterns whereas the untreated data (referred to as unipolar signals) do not. In addition, current source density signals, where applicable, yield results that are close to the expected connectivity patterns, whereas the commonly practiced average re-reference method

  13. Is there a common mechanism underlying genomic instability, bystander effects and other nontargeted effects of exposure to ionizing radiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    A number of nontargeted and delayed effects associated with radiation exposure have now been described. These include radiation-induced genomic instability, death-inducing and bystander effects, clastogenic factors and transgenerational effects. It is unlikely that these nontargeted effects are directly induced by cellular irradiation. Instead, it is proposed that some as yet to be identified secreted factor can be produced by irradiated cells that can stimulate effects in nonirradiated cells (death-inducing and bystander effects, clastogenic factors) and perpetuate genomic instability in the clonally expanded progeny of an irradiated cell. The proposed factor must be soluble and capable of being transported between cells by cell-to-cell gap junction communication channels. Furthermore, it must have the potential to stimulate cellular cytokines and/or reactive oxygen species. While it is difficult to imagine a role for such a secreted factor in contributing to transgenerational effects, the other nontargeted effects of radiation may all share a common mechanism.

  14. Assessing the cumulative environmental effects of marine renewable energy developments: Establishing common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsteed, Edward; Gill, Andrew B; Birchenough, Silvana N R; Jude, Simon

    2017-01-15

    Assessing and managing the cumulative impacts of human activities on the environment remains a major challenge to sustainable development. This challenge is highlighted by the worldwide expansion of marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) in areas already subject to multiple activities and climate change. Cumulative effects assessments in theory provide decision makers with adequate information about how the environment will respond to the incremental effects of licensed activities and are a legal requirement in many nations. In practise, however, such assessments are beset by uncertainties resulting in substantial delays during the licensing process that reduce MRED investor confidence and limit progress towards meeting climate change targets. In light of these targets and ambitions to manage the marine environment sustainably, reducing the uncertainty surrounding MRED effects and cumulative effects assessment are timely and vital. This review investigates the origins and evolution of cumulative effects assessment to identify why the multitude of approaches and pertinent research have emerged, and discusses key considerations and challenges relevant to assessing the cumulative effects of MREDs and other activities on ecosystems. The review recommends a shift away from the current reliance on disparate environmental impact assessments and limited strategic environmental assessments, and a move towards establishing a common system of coordinated data and research relative to ecologically meaningful areas, focussed on the needs of decision makers tasked with protecting and conserving marine ecosystems and services. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Are effects of common ragwort in the Ames test caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovee, Toine F H; Helsdingen, Richard J R; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; de Nijs, Monique W C M; Liu, Xiaojie; Vrieling, Klaas; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Mulder, Patrick P J

    2015-08-01

    It has previously been demonstrated by others that acetone extracts of Senecio jacobaea (syn. Jacobaea vulgaris, common or tansy ragwort) test positive in the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test (Ames test). Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are thought to be responsible for these mutagenic effects. However, it was also observed that the major PA present in common ragwort, jacobine, produced a negative response (with and without the addition of rat liver S9) in Salmonella test strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537. To investigate which compounds in the plant extracts were responsible for the positive outcome, the present study investigated the contents and mutagenic effects of methanol and acetone extracts prepared from dried ground S. jacobaea and Senecio inaequidens (narrow-leafed ragwort). Subsequently, a fractionation approach was set up in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis of the fractions. It was shown that the positive Ames test outcomes of S. jacobaea extracts are unlikely to be caused by PAs, but rather by the flavonoid quercetin. This study also demonstrates the importance of identifying compounds responsible for positive test results in bioassays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Aging and Priming on Physiological and Biochemical Traits of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman AMANPOUR-BALANEJI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging and deterioration (artificial aging are the most effective factors on the seed vigour. In order to study the changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics of common bean under aging and priming treatments a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design conducted with three replications. Seed aging (control, 90 and 80% of control germination and seed invigoration with priming including control, hydro (distilled water, osmo (PEG 6000, hormone (gibberellic acid and halo (NaCl priming were considered as experimental factors. Results showed that osmo-priming had the ability to relatively ameliorate the aging effect and recover some of the seed aspects like germination rate, protein and phytin content for invigorate germination and seedling establishment. Priming indirectly increased seed vigour via germination rate and it can provide homogeny of emergence in the field and obtaining appropriate plant population.

  17. Analytical Study of Common Rigid Steel Connections under the Effect of Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohola Rahnavard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important members of steel structure’s connection region is beam-to-column connection. Rigid connection in steel moment frame has special role in the behavior of these structures and the fire resistance of these connections can be important. In this paper the behaviors of three common types of rigid connections in Iran under the effect of heat were studied by the use of numerical finite element methods through ABAQUS software. The models were verified by the use of an experimental model through elastic and plastic amplitudes up to collapse and during numerical results, and the effect of large deformation in the nonlinear region has also been considered. The results show that the connection with the end plate had a better performance against heat than other connections. Also reduced stiffness and lateral buckling in this connection were less than other connections.

  18. ξ common cause failure model and method for defense effectiveness estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhaohuan

    1991-08-01

    Two issues have been dealt. One is to develop an event based parametric model called ξ-CCF model. Its parameters are expressed in the fraction of the progressive multiplicities of failure events. By these expressions, the contribution of each multiple failure can be presented more clearly. It can help to select defense tactics against common cause failures. The other is to provide a method which is based on the operational experience and engineering judgement to estimate the effectiveness of defense tactics. It is expressed in terms of reduction matrix for a given tactics on a specific plant in the event by event form. The application of practical example shows that the model in cooperation with the method can simply estimate the effectiveness of defense tactics. It can be easily used by the operators and its application may be extended

  19. Effects of two commonly used fungicides on the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hung T; Keough, Michael J; Long, Sara M; Pettigrove, Vincent J

    2017-03-01

    Fungicides are used widely in agriculture and have been detected in adjacent rivers and wetlands. However, relatively little is known about the potential effects of fungicides on aquatic organisms. The present study investigated the effects of 2 commonly used fungicides, the boscalid fungicide Filan ® and the myclobutanil fungicide Systhane ™ 400 WP, on life history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction) and energy reserves (lipid, protein, and glycogen content) of the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis under laboratory conditions, at concentrations detected in aquatic environments. Amphipods were exposed to 3 concentrations of Filan (1 μg active ingredient [a.i.]/L, 10 μg a.i./L, and 40 μg a.i./L) and Systhane (0.3 μg a.i./L, 3 μg a.i./L, and 30 μg a.i./L) over 56 d. Both fungicides had similar effects on the amphipod at the organism level. Reproduction was the most sensitive endpoint, with offspring produced in controls but none produced in any of the fungicide treatments, and total numbers of gravid females in all fungicide treatments were reduced by up to 95%. Female amphipods were more sensitive than males in terms of growth. Systhane had significant effects on survival at all concentrations, whereas significant effects of Filan on survival were observed only at 10 μg a.i./L and 40 μg a.i./L. The effects of fungicides on energy reserves of the female amphipod were different. Filan significantly reduced amphipod protein content, whereas Systhane significantly reduced the lipid content. The present study demonstrates wide-ranging effects of 2 common fungicides on an ecologically important species that has a key role in trophic transfer and nutrient recycling in aquatic environments. These results emphasize the importance of considering the long-term effects of fungicides in the risk assessment of aquatic ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:720-726. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. Effects of edge reconstruction on the common groups terminated zigzag phosphorene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Huaping; Guo, Sumei; Zhang, Chunxiao; He, Chaoyu; Zhong, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Edge configuration plays an important role in the electronic properties of nano-structures. In this work, we perform first-principles calculations to study the effects of the cooperation between neighbor groups on the edge configuration and the electronic properties of zigzag-PNRs (ZPNRs) terminated by common groups H, F, O, S and OH. We find that the cooperation has little effect on the H(F)-terminated ZPNRs, but gives rise to an edge reconstruction for the O(S)-terminated ZPNRs. The edge reconstruction derives from the repulsion between neighbor O atoms and the distortion of the P skeleton induced by the p state coupling among the edge, second edge and third edge P atoms. In comparison to the H-terminated ZPNRs, O-terminated ZPNRs are also a semiconductor and enlarge the band gap, but bring about an extra transport channel for the charge transport at the edge and decreases the effective mass of the electron and hole. OH-terminated ZPNRs also undergo a doubling of the unit cell (UC) along the periodic direction because of the different directions of the neighbor O–H bonds. In comparison with the H-terminated ZPNRs, OH-terminated ZPNRs show a similar band gap and electronic effective mass, but increase the effective mass of the hole. (paper)

  1. Distinct biological effects of different nanoparticles commonly used in cosmetics and medicine coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Julia X

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal oxides in nanoparticle form such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide now appear on the ingredient lists of household products as common and diverse as cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpaste, and medicine. Previous studies of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide in non-nanoparticle format using animals have found few adverse effects. This has led the FDA to classify zinc oxide as GRAS (generally recognized as safe for use as a food additive. However, there is no regulation specific for the use of these chemicals in nanoparticle format. Recent studies, however, have begun to raise concerns over the pervasive use of these compounds in nanoparticle forms. Unfortunately, there is a lack of easily-adaptable screening methods that would allow for the detection of their biological effects. Results We adapted two image-based assays, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based caspase activation assay and a green fluorescent protein coupled-LC3 assay, to test for the biological effects of different nanoparticles in a high-throughput format. We show that zinc oxide nanoparticles are cytotoxic. We also show that titanium dioxide nanoparticles are highly effective in inducing autophagy, a cellular disposal mechanism that is often activated when the cell is under stress. Conclusion We suggest that these image-based assays provide a method of screening for the biological effects of similar compounds that is both efficient and sensitive as well as do not involve the use of animals.

  2. Adverse Effects of Common Sports and Recreational Activities on Male Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panara, Kush; Masterson, John M; Savio, Luis F; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2018-05-03

    Male factor infertility plays a significant role in infertility. Many factors have been associated with male infertility; however, the link between many sports and recreational factors and male reproduction remains poorly characterized. To evaluate the current literature regarding the impact of many common sports and recreational factors on male reproduction. A comprehensive PubMed and Embase search for relevant articles published between 1970 and 2017 was performed by combining the following search terms: male, sports (including individual sports), traumatic brain injury, sauna, hot tub, fertility, erectile dysfunction, varicocele, environment, cell phone, and laptop computer. Hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction can be associated with sports with high rates of head injuries, such as American football. Although early reports linked other sports, such as bicycling, to erectile dysfunction, subsequent studies isolated these associations to sports cycling rather than recreational cycling. Certain sports (football, basketball, handball, and volleyball) were linked to increasing prevalence and severity of varicocele, offering a potential link to male infertility. In addition, recreational activities such as sauna, hot tubs, Jacuzzis, heated car seats, and laptop use were associated with high testicular temperature, which can impair spermatogenesis. Radio frequency electromagnetic waves from cell phones and laptops have also been shown to have deleterious effects on sperm viability and motility. Many common sports and daily activities represent potential sources of male infertility. Clinicians should be aware of these associations in explaining idiopathic infertility in males. Male infertility is an often overlooked component of a couple's inability to conceive. We outline many common and often overlooked sports and recreational exposures that have been associated with male infertility. Copyright © 2018 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Creating a Common Data Model for Comparative Effectiveness with the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzHenry, F; Resnic, F S; Robbins, S L; Denton, J; Nookala, L; Meeker, D; Ohno-Machado, L; Matheny, M E

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of a common data model across health systems is a key infrastructure requirement to allow large scale distributed comparative effectiveness analyses. There are a growing number of common data models (CDM), such as Mini-Sentinel, and the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) CDMs. In this case study, we describe the challenges and opportunities of a study specific use of the OMOP CDM by two health systems and describe three comparative effectiveness use cases developed from the CDM. The project transformed two health system databases (using crosswalks provided) into the OMOP CDM. Cohorts were developed from the transformed CDMs for three comparative effectiveness use case examples. Administrative/billing, demographic, order history, medication, and laboratory were included in the CDM transformation and cohort development rules. Record counts per person month are presented for the eligible cohorts, highlighting differences between the civilian and federal datasets, e.g. the federal data set had more outpatient visits per person month (6.44 vs. 2.05 per person month). The count of medications per person month reflected the fact that one system's medications were extracted from orders while the other system had pharmacy fills and medication administration records. The federal system also had a higher prevalence of the conditions in all three use cases. Both systems required manual coding of some types of data to convert to the CDM. The data transformation to the CDM was time consuming and resources required were substantial, beyond requirements for collecting native source data. The need to manually code subsets of data limited the conversion. However, once the native data was converted to the CDM, both systems were then able to use the same queries to identify cohorts. Thus, the CDM minimized the effort to develop cohorts and analyze the results across the sites.

  4. Effects of three commonly-used diuretics on the urinary proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xundou; Zhao, Mindi; Li, Menglin; Jia, Lulu; Gao, Youhe

    2014-06-01

    Biomarker is the measurable change associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood which has mechanisms to keep the internal environment homeostatic, urine is more likely to reflect changes of the body. As a result, urine is likely to be a better biomarker source than blood. However, since the urinary proteome is affected by many factors, including diuretics, careful evaluation of those effects is necessary if urinary proteomics is used for biomarker discovery. Here, we evaluated the effects of three commonly-used diuretics (furosemide, F; hydrochlorothiazide, H; and spirolactone, S) on the urinary proteome in rats. Urine samples were collected before and after intragastric administration of diuretics at therapeutic doses and the proteomes were analyzed using label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Based on the criteria of P≤0.05, a fold change ≥2, a spectral count ≥5, and false positive rate (FDR) ≤1%, 14 proteins (seven for F, five for H, and two for S) were identified by Progenesis LC-MS. The human orthologs of most of these 14 proteins are stable in the healthy human urinary proteome, and ten of them are reported as disease biomarkers. Thus, our results suggest that the effects of diuretics deserve more attention in future urinary protein biomarker studies. Moreover, the distinct effects of diuretics on the urinary proteome may provide clues to the mechanisms of diuretics. Copyright © 2014. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effects of Three Commonly-used Diuretics on the Urinary Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xundou Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker is the measurable change associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood which has mechanisms to keep the internal environment homeostatic, urine is more likely to reflect changes of the body. As a result, urine is likely to be a better biomarker source than blood. However, since the urinary proteome is affected by many factors, including diuretics, careful evaluation of those effects is necessary if urinary proteomics is used for biomarker discovery. Here, we evaluated the effects of three commonly-used diuretics (furosemide, F; hydrochlorothiazide, H; and spirolactone, S on the urinary proteome in rats. Urine samples were collected before and after intragastric administration of diuretics at therapeutic doses and the proteomes were analyzed using label-free liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS. Based on the criteria of P ⩽ 0.05, a fold change ⩾2, a spectral count ⩾5, and false positive rate (FDR ⩽1%, 14 proteins (seven for F, five for H, and two for S were identified by Progenesis LC–MS. The human orthologs of most of these 14 proteins are stable in the healthy human urinary proteome, and ten of them are reported as disease biomarkers. Thus, our results suggest that the effects of diuretics deserve more attention in future urinary protein biomarker studies. Moreover, the distinct effects of diuretics on the urinary proteome may provide clues to the mechanisms of diuretics.

  6. A common signal detection model accounts for both perception and discrimination of the watercolor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2012-03-21

    Establishing the relation between perception and discrimination is a fundamental objective in psychophysics, with the goal of characterizing the neural mechanisms mediating perception. Here, we show that a procedure for estimating a perceptual scale based on a signal detection model also predicts discrimination performance. We use a recently developed procedure, Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS), to measure the perceptual strength of a long-range, color, filling-in phenomenon, the Watercolor Effect (WCE), as a function of the luminance ratio between the two components of its generating contour. MLDS is based on an equal-variance, gaussian, signal detection model and yields a perceptual scale with interval properties. The strength of the fill-in percept increased 10-15 times the estimate of the internal noise level for a 3-fold increase in the luminance ratio. Each observer's estimated scale predicted discrimination performance in a subsequent paired-comparison task. A common signal detection model accounts for both the appearance and discrimination data. Since signal detection theory provides a common metric for relating discrimination performance and neural response, the results have implications for comparing perceptual and neural response functions.

  7. Effects of food store quality on hibernation performance in common hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Siutz

    Full Text Available Hibernating animals can adjust torpor expression according to available energy reserves. Besides the quantity, the quality of energy reserves could play an important role for overwintering strategies. Common hamsters are food-storing hibernators and show high individual variation in hibernation performance, which might be related to the quality of food hoards in the hibernacula. In this study, we tested the effects of food stores high in fat content, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, on hibernation patterns under laboratory conditions. Control animals received standard rodent pellets only, while in the other group pellets were supplemented with sunflower seeds. We recorded body temperature during winter using subcutaneously implanted data loggers, documented total food consumption during winter, and analysed PUFA proportions in white adipose tissue (WAT before and after the winter period. About half of the individuals in both groups hibernated and torpor expression did not differ between these animals. Among the high-fat group, however, individuals with high sunflower seeds intake strongly reduced the time spent in deep torpor. PUFA proportions in WAT decreased during winter in both groups and this decline was positively related to the time an individual spent in deep torpor. Sunflower seeds intake dampened the PUFA decline resulting in higher PUFA levels in animals of the high-fat group after winter. In conclusion, our results showed that common hamsters adjusted torpor expression and food intake in relation to the total energy of food reserves, underlining the importance of food hoard quality on hibernation performance.

  8. Long term effects of crude oil on common murres (Uria aalge) following rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.A.; Ryan, P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil spilled or discharged at sea is known to contaminate and cause mortality in seabirds and in some instances, these losses can be substantial as reported recently following an oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaskan waters. Crude petroleum alters the arrangement of the feather barbules causing a loss of buoyancy and hypothermia. Attempts to rehabilitate birds with light to moderate amounts of oil exposure have met with modest success. Following cleaning and release, many of these birds never recovered and little is known of their survival rate in nature subsequently. A number of oiled sea birds, primarily common murres (Uria aalge), were retrieved recently by the Canadian Coast Guard and attempts to rehabilitate them were conducted. Since the majority of birds were retained longer than the usual 4 to 5 days recommended by the Bird Rescue International Centre after retrieval, it soon became apparent that many were suffering from problems other than diet or thermoregulation. Following autopsy/necropsy, extensive organ damage was observed in all of the birds. The purpose of this communication is to report the long term effects of crude oil on common murres

  9. Effect of three diets in the experimental culture of the common snook (Centropomus undecimalis Bloch, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Polonía R

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of three diets on the growth of juvenile common snook (Centropomus undecimalis maintained in freshwater ponds Materials and methods. 108 juvenile of common snook were homogenous and randomly distributed in a pond, divided into 9 corrals of 50 m2. Three diets were applied (D1: commercial food for trout, 45% protein; D2: commercial food for cobia, 50% protein and D3: fresh fish, 17.52% protein. The experimental treatments were assigned in triplicate and diets were supplied in two daily doses. Biometrics were performed every 20 days to assess: weight, size, Length-Weight correlation, Feed Conversion Factor (FCA, Condition Factor (K, Specific Growth Rate (SGR and survival; during 120 days. The results were evaluated with a one-way ANOVA, when differences (p<0.05 were found the means were compared by test Median Mood, otherwise a pos-hoc test was performed (Tukey HSD. Results. Applying the test of Mood Median significant differences were found, showing the highest growth with D2, where values of SGR=0.65±0.09 g/day; FCA=3.76 and K=0.81±0.06. Survival was D1=51.4%, D2=50% and D3=77.8% without inferring statistically among the different diets. Conclusions. The culture of this species in freshwater ponds with commercial food for cobia, is viable in terms of growth and weight gain.

  10. Effects of common groundwater ions on chromate removal by magnetite: importance of chromate adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Amanda H; Arai, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Reductive precipitation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) with magnetite is a well-known Cr(VI) remediation method to improve water quality. The rapid (important as the reductive precipitation of Cr(III) in describing the removal of Cr(VI) by magnetite, and these interfacial adsorption processes could be impacted by common groundwater ions like sulfate and nitrate. The results of this study highlight new information about the large quantity of adsorbed Cr(VI) surface complexes at the magnetite-water interface. It has implications for predicting the long-term stability of Cr at the magnetite-water interface.Graphical abstractEffects of background anions (sulfate and nitrate) on the Cr(VI) surface coverage at the magnetite-water interface at pH 4 and 9.

  11. Investigation into the effect of common factors on rolling resistance of belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since indentation rolling resistance accounts for the major part of total resistance of belt conveyor, it is important to compute it using a proper method during the design and application study of the belt conveyor. First, an approximate formula for computing the indentation rolling resistance is offered. In this formula, a one-dimensional Winkler foundation and a three-parameter viscoelastic Maxwell solid model of the belt backing material are used to determine the resistance to motion of a conveyor belt over idlers. With the help of this formula, the authors analyze the effect of common factors on the rolling resistance. Finally, experiments are carried out under certain condition compared with theoretical analysis. A reasonable correlation exists between the experimental results and the theoretical formulae.

  12. Effects of Common Factors on Dynamics of Stocks Traded by Investors with Limited Information Capacity

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    Songtao Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An artificial stock market with agent-based model is built to investigate effects of different information characteristics of common factors on the dynamics stock returns. Investors with limited information capacity update their beliefs based on the information they have obtained and processed and optimize portfolios based on beliefs. We find that with changing of concerned information characteristics the uncertainty of stock price returns rises and is higher than the uncertainty of intrinsic value returns. However, this increase is constrained by the limited information capacity of investors. At the same time, we also find that dependence between returns of stock prices also increased with the changing information environment. The uncertainty and dependency pertaining to prices show a positive relationship. However, the positive relationship is weakened when taking into account the features of intrinsic values, based on which prices are generated.

  13. EVALUATION OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2 EFFECT ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABI DUMITRESCU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the scientific researches performed during the last years are focused on the determination of the negative effects caused by natural and antropogeneous chemical compounds on aquatic species; these species are more exposed to most pollutants than the land species, for the simple reason that the aquatic environment is the last destination for most residues. Our research team proposed to test the toxic effect caused by ethinylestradiol on embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Common carp embryos were purchased from the fish farm S.C. Acva Prod S.R.L. Cefa, Bihor County these were obtained by artificial reproduction. After taking and selection, the fecundated spawns were introduced in 10 Nunk culture plates of 45 ml, where we introduced 40 ml water, too. We created 3 batches, with two replications, namely: batch 1 – control, batch 2 – in water, we added ethinylestradiol (EE2 in concentration of 1.5 ng L-1 and batch 3 – we added in water a concentration of 7 ng L-1 EE2. During the incubation, the Nunk plates were kept in breeding aquariums, at a temperature of 24°C. Successive to the supervision of embryos in batch 3, 48 hours post-fecundation, we could observe evolution stagnations, 70% of them being in the stage of 40 somites of the segmentation period. At the same age, 100% of the control batch- embryos entered the stage of advanced faringula, and in batch 2 all embryos were in the stage of incipient faringula. 60-72 hours post-fecundation, all embryos in the batch 3 died, 90% in the 40 somite stage of the segmentation period and 10% in the stage of incipient faringula. 85 hours post-fecundation, all embryos belonging to the control batch were in the larva stage, while in batch 2, 90% were in the larva stage and 10% died in the stage of advanced faringula.

  14. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperature effects on snapping performance in the common snapper Chelydra serpentina (Reptilia, Testudines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervust, Bart; Brecko, Jonathan; Herrel, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the effect of temperature on whole-animal performance traits other than locomotion are rare. Here we investigate the effects of temperature on the performance of the turtle feeding apparatus in a defensive context. We measured bite force and the kinematics of snapping in the Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina) over a wide range of body temperatures. Bite force performance was thermally insensitive over the broad range of temperatures typically experienced by these turtles in nature. In contrast, neck extension (velocity, acceleration, and deceleration) and jaw movements (velocity, acceleration, and deceleration) showed clear temperature dependence with peak acceleration and deceleration capacity increasing with increasing temperatures. Our results regarding the temperature dependence of defensive behavior are reflected by the ecology and overall behavior of this species. These data illustrate the necessity for carefully controlling T(b) when carrying out behavioral and functional studies on turtles as temperature affects the velocity, acceleration, and deceleration of jaw and neck extension movements. More generally, these data add to the limited but increasing number of studies showing that temperature may have important effects on feeding and defensive performance in ectotherms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. How well do commonly used data presentation formats support comparative effectiveness evaluations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James G; Qian, Feng; Veazie, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Good decisions depend on an accurate understanding of the comparative effectiveness of decision alternatives. The best way to convey data needed to support these comparisons is unknown. To determine how well 5 commonly used data presentation formats convey comparative effectiveness information. The study was an Internet survey using a factorial design. Participants consisted of 279 members of an online survey panel. Study participants compared outcomes associated with 3 hypothetical screening test options relative to 5 possible outcomes with probabilities ranging from 2 per 5000 (0.04%) to 500 per 1000 (50%). Data presentation formats included a table, a "magnified" bar chart, a risk scale, a frequency diagram, and an icon array. Outcomes included the number of correct ordinal judgments regarding the more likely of 2 outcomes, the ratio of perceived versus actual relative likelihoods of the paired outcomes, the intersubject consistency of responses, and perceived clarity. The mean number of correct ordinal judgments was 12 of 15 (80%), with no differences among data formats. On average, there was a 3.3-fold difference between perceived and actual likelihood ratios (95% confidence interval = 3.0-3.6). Comparative judgments based on flowcharts, icon arrays, and tables were all significantly more accurate and consistent than those based on risk scales and bar charts (P charts, and flow diagrams. None of the data presentation formats studied can reliably provide patients, especially those with low subjective numeracy, with an accurate understanding of comparative effectiveness information.

  17. The effectiveness of common thermo-regulatory behaviours in a cool temperate grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural thermoregulation has the potential to alleviate the short-term impacts of climate change on some small ectotherms, without the need for changes to species distributions or genetic adaptation. We illustrate this by measuring the effect of behaviour in a cool temperate species of grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum) over a range of spatial and temporal scales in laboratory and natural field experiments. Microhabitat selection at the site scale was tested in free-ranging grasshoppers and related to changing thermal quality over a daily period. Artificial warming experiments were then used to measure the temperature at which common thermoregulatory behaviours are initiated and the subsequent reductions in body temperature. Behavioural means such as timing of activity, choice of substrates with optimum surface temperatures, shade seeking and postural adjustments (e.g. stilting, vertical orientation) were found to be highly effective at maintaining preferred body temperature. The maximum voluntarily tolerated temperature (MVT) was determined to be 44°C±0.4°C, indicating the upper bounds of thermal flexibility in this species. Behavioural thermoregulation effectively enables small ectotherms to regulate exposure to changing environmental temperatures and utilize the spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments they occupy. Species such as the wingless grasshopper, although adapted to cool temperate conditions, are likely to be well equipped to respond successfully to coarse scale climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Active Sting Damping on Common Research Model Data Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Michael J.; Balakrishna, S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent tests using the Common Research Model (CRM) at the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF) and the Ames 11-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel (11' TWT) produced large sets of data that have been used to examine the effects of active damping on transonic tunnel aerodynamic data quality. In particular, large statistically significant sets of repeat data demonstrate that the active damping system had no apparent effect on drag, lift and pitching moment repeatability during warm testing conditions, while simultaneously enabling aerodynamic data to be obtained post stall. A small set of cryogenic (high Reynolds number) repeat data was obtained at the NTF and again showed a negligible effect on data repeatability. However, due to a degradation of control power in the active damping system cryogenically, the ability to obtain test data post-stall was not achieved during cryogenic testing. Additionally, comparisons of data repeatability between NTF and 11-ft TWT CRM data led to further (warm) testing at the NTF which demonstrated that for a modest increase in data sampling time, a 2-3 factor improvement in drag, and pitching moment repeatability was readily achieved not related with the active damping system.

  19. Effects of methyl mercury exposure on the growth of juvenile common loons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, K.P.; Gutreuter, S.; Hines, R.K.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a dose-response laboratory study to quantify the level of mercury exposure associated with negative effects on the development of common loon chicks reared in captivity from hatch to 105 days. A dose regimen was implemented that provided exposure levels that bracketed relevant exposure levels of methyl mercury found in loon chicks across North America. We observed no overt signs of mercury toxicosis and detected no significant effect of dietary mercury exposure on growth or food consumption. However, asymptotic mass was lower in chicks that hatched from eggs collected from nests on low pH lakes relative to eggs from neutral pH lakes. Rapid excretion of methyl mercury during feather growth likely provides loon chicks protection from methyl mercury toxicity and may explain the lack of convincing toxicological findings in this study. Lake-source effects suggest that in ovo exposure to methyl mercury or other factors related to lake pH have consequences on chick development.

  20. Common Vocal Effects and Partial Glottal Vibration in Professional Nonclassical Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffier, Philipp P; Ibrahim Nasr, Ahmed; Ropero Rendon, Maria Del Mar; Wienhausen, Sascha; Forbes, Eleanor; Seidner, Wolfram; Nawka, Tadeus

    2018-05-01

    To multidimensionally investigate common vocal effects in experienced professional nonclassical singers, to examine their mechanism of production and reproducibility, to demonstrate the existence of partial glottal vibration, and to assess the potential of damage to the voice from nonclassical singing. Individual cohort study. Ten male singers aged between 25 and 46 years (34 ± 7 years [mean ± SD]) with different stylistic backgrounds were recruited (five pop/rock/metal, five musical theater). Participants repeatedly presented the usual nonclassical vocal effects and techniques in their repertoire. All performances were documented and analyzed using established instruments (eg, auditory-perceptual assessment, videolaryngostroboscopy, electroglottography, voice function diagnostics). The vocal apparatus of all singers was healthy and capable of high performance. Typical nonclassical vocal effects were breathy voice, creaky voice, vocal fry, grunting, distortion, rattle, belt, and twang. All effects could be easily differentiated from each other. They were intraindividually consistently repeatable and also interindividually produced in a similar manner. A special feature in one singer was the first evidence of partial glottal vibration when belting in the high register. The unintended transition to this reduced voice quality was accompanied by physical fatigue and inflexible respiratory support. The long-lasting use of the investigated nonclassical vocal effects had no negative impact on trained singers. The possibility of long-term damage depends on the individual constitution, specific use, duration, and extent of the hyperfunction. The incidence of partial glottal vibration and its consequences require continuing research to learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in nonclassical singing. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effective atomic numbers and effective electron densities for trommel sieve waste and some commonly used building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurudirek, M.; Canimkurbey, B.; Coban, M.; Ayguen, M.; Erzeneoglu, S. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Trommel sieve waste and some commonly used building materials (Portland cement, lime and pointing) have been investigated in terms of effective atomic numbers (Z e ff) and effective electron densities (N e ) by using X- and γ- rays at 22.1, 25 and 88 keV photon energies. A high resolution Si(Li) detector was employed to detect X- and/or γ- radiation coming through in a narrow beam good geometry set-up. Chemical compositions of the materials used in the present study were determined using a wave length dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRFS). The variations in photon interaction parameters were discussed regarding the photon energy and chemical composition. The experimental values of effective atomic numbers and effective electron densities were compared with the ones obtained from theory.

  2. Comparative Rates of Mortality and Serious Adverse Effects Among Commonly Prescribed Opioid Analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David L; Lebin, Jacob A; Severtson, Stevan G; Olsen, Heather A; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Dart, Richard C

    2018-03-26

    The epidemic of prescription opioid overdose and mortality parallels the dispensing rates of prescription opioids, and the availability of increasingly potent opioid analgesics. The common assumption that more potent opioid analgesics are associated with higher rates of adverse outcomes has not been adequately substantiated. We compared the rate of serious adverse events among commonly prescribed opioid analgesics of varying potency. Serious adverse events (SAEs; defined as death, major medical effect, or hospitalization) resulting from exposure to tablets containing seven opioid analgesics (oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, tapentadol, and tramadol) captured by the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS ® ) System Poison Center Program were evaluated from 2010 through 2016. Rates of SAEs were adjusted for availability through outpatient dispensing data and regressed on morphine milligram equivalents (MME). There were 19,480 cases of SAE during the 7-year study period. Hydrocodone and oxycodone contributed to 77% of SAE cases. Comparing rates of outcome by relative potency, a hierarchy was observed with hydromorphone (8.02 SAEs/100 kg) and tapentadol (0.27 SAE/100 kg) as the highest and lowest rates, reflecting a 30-fold difference among individual opioid products. SAE rate and potency were related linearly-SAEs increased 2.04 per 100 kg drug dispensed for each 1-unit rise in MME (p = 0.004). Linear regression of SAE/100 kg drug dispensed and drug potency identified that MME comprised 96% of the variation observed. In contrast, potency did not explain variation seen using other study denominators (prescriptions dispensed, dosage units dispensed, and the number of individuals filling a prescription). Potency of a prescription opioid analgesic demonstrates a significant, highly positive linear relationship with exposures resulting in SAEs per 100 kg drug dispensed reported to poison centers

  3. Chronic effects of tributyltin on multiple biomarkers responses in juvenile common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the chronic toxic effects of tributyltin (TBT), an antifouling paints commonly present in surface and ground water, on morphological indices, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and ATPase activity and heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 protein in tissues (liver, gill, and white muscle) of common carp were investigated. Fish were exposed at sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L, and 7.5 μg/L) for 60 days. When compared with the control, there was significant lower condition factor in fish exposed at the higher concentration of TBT. ROS levels in three tissues increased significantly at higher TBT concentrations (0.75 and 7.5 μg/L). The hepatic antioxidant enzymes (total antioxidative capacity and superoxide dismutase) activities were induced at higher concentrations (0.75 μg/L) of TBT. When compared with the hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities in fish exposed to 0.75 μg/L of TBT, there was a decreasing trend in those exposed to TBT with a concentration of 7.5 μg/L. However, all the antioxidant enzymes activities were significantly inhibited in gill and muscle of fish exposed to higher TBT concentrations (0.75 and 7.5 μg/L). Moreover, there was significant lower Na-K-ATPase in three tissues after long-term exposure to higher concentration of TBT, but a significant higher Hsp70 protein levels was observed. In short, environmental concentrations of TBT could not induce obvious impacts on fish, but long-term exposure to higher concentrations of TBT could affect seriously the health status of fish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 937-944, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dithiocarbamates have a common toxic effect on zebrafish body axis formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, Fred; La Du, Jane K.; Vue, Meng; Alzarban, Noor; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    We previously determined that the dithiocarbamate pesticide sodium metam (NaM) and its active ingredient methylisothiocyanate (MITC) were developmentally toxic causing notochord distortions in the zebrafish. In this study, developing zebrafish were exposed to isothiocyanates (ITCs), dithiocarbamates (DTCs) and several degradation products to determine the teratogenic relationship of these chemical classes at the molecular level. All dithiocarbamates tested elicited notochord distortions with notochord NOELs from 2 ), a common DTC degradate, also caused distortions at concentrations >200 times the DTCs. Whole mount in situ hybridization of developmental markers for collagen (collagen2a1), muscle (myoD), and body axis formation (no tail) was perturbed well after cessation of treatment with pyrolidine-DTC (PDTC), dimethyl-DTC (DMDTC), NaM, MITC, and CS 2 . Therefore, distinct albeit related chemical classes share a common toxic effect on zebrafish notochord development. To test the responsiveness of the distortion to metal perturbation, five metal chelators and 2 metals were studied. The membrane permeable copper chelator neocuproine (NCu) was found to cause notochord distortions similar to DTC-related molecules. DMDTC and NCu treated animals were protected with copper, and collagen 2a1 and no tail gene expression patterns were identical to controls in these animals. PDTC, NaM, MITC, and CS 2 were not responsive to copper indicating that the chelation of metals is not the primary means by which these molecules elicit their developmental toxicity. Embryos treated with DMDTC, NaM, and NCu were rescued by adding triciaine (MS-222) which abolishes the spontaneous muscle contractions that begin at 18 hpf. In these animals, only collagen 2a1 expression showed a similar pattern to the other notochord distorting molecules. This indicates that the perturbation of no tail expression is in response to the muscle contractions distorting the notochord, while collagen 2a1 is

  5. Effects of methylmercury exposure on the immune function of juvenile common loons (Gavia immer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, K.P.; Grasman, K.A.; Hines, R.K.; Meyer, M.W.; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.; Spalding, M.G.; Gray, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a dose-response laboratory study to quantify the level of exposure to dietary Hg, delivered as methylmercury chloride (CH3HgCl), that is associated with suppressed immune function in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks. We used the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test to assess T-lymphocyte function and the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination test to measure antibody-mediated immunity. The PHA stimulation index among chicks receiving dietary Hg treatment did not differ significantly from those of chicks on the control diet (p = 0.15). Total antibody (immunoglobulin [Ig] M [primary antibody] + IgG [secondary response]) production to the SRBC antigen in chicks treated with dietary methylmercury (MeHg), however, was suppressed (p = 0.04) relative to chicks on control diets. Analysis indicated suppression of total Ig production (p = 0.025 with comparisonwise ?? level = 0.017) between control and 0.4 ??g Hg/g wet food intake treatment groups. Furthermore, the control group exhibited a higher degree of variability in antibody response compared to the Hg groups, suggesting that in addition to reducing the mean response, Hg treatment reduced the normal variation attributable to other biological factors. We observed bursal lymphoid depletion in chicks receiving the 1.2 ??g Hg/g treatment (p = 0.017) and a marginally significant effect (p = 0.025) in chicks receiving the 0.4 ??g Hg/g diet. These findings suggest that common loon chick immune systems may be compromised at an ecologically relevant dietary exposure concentration (0.4 ??g Hg/g wet wt food intake). We also found that chicks hatched from eggs collected from low-pH lakes exhibited higher levels of lymphoid depletion in bursa tissue relative to chicks hatched from eggs collected from neutral-pH lakes. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  6. The Effect of Endovascular Revascularization of Common Iliac Artery Occlusions on Erectile Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, Serkan; Ozkan, Uğur; Onder, Hakan; Tekbas, Güven; Oguzkurt, Levent

    2013-01-01

    To determine the incidence of erectile dysfunction in patients with common iliac artery (CIA) occlusive disease and the effect of revascularization on erectile function using the sexual health inventory for males (SHIM) questionnaire. All patients (35 men; mean age 57 ± 5 years; range 42–67 years) were asked to recall their sexual function before and 1 month after iliac recanalization. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine variables effecting improvement of impotence. The incidence of impotence in patients with CIA occlusion was 74% (26 of 35) preoperatively. Overall 16 (46%) of 35 patients reported improved erectile function after iliac recanalization. The rate of improvement of impotence was 61.5% (16 of 26 impotent patients). Sixteen patients (46%), including seven with normal erectile function before the procedure, had no change. Three patients (8%) reported deterioration of their sexual function, two of whom (6%) had normal erectile function before the procedure. The median SHIM score increased from 14 (range 4–25) before the procedure to 20 (range 1–25) after the procedure (P = 0.005). The type of recanalization, the age of the patients, and the length of occlusion were related to erectile function improvement in univariate analysis. However, these factors were not independent factors for improvement of erectile dysfunction in multivariate analysis (P > 0.05). Endovascular recanalization of CIA occlusions clearly improves sexual function. More than half of the patients with erectile dysfunction who underwent endovascular recanalization of the CIA experienced improvement.

  7. Biochemical and Hematological Profiles of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio under Sublethal Effects of Trivalent Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Abedi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In natural waters and/or aquaculture facilities, fish are often exposed to chromium waste and demonstrate cumulative deleterious effects. To our knowledge, there are no studies concerning the effects of trivalent Cr on C. carpio hematology. This study presents hematological and some biochemical parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, affected by sublethal concentration of trivalent chromium. Methods: The fish in the experimental aquaria (three replicates each were exposed to a sublethal chromium chloride concentration of 2 mg L−1, which was prepared as stock solution and added depending on the volume of the aquaria to obtain the required concentration. After a period of 28 days, parameters such as hematocrit (Hct, hemoglobin (Hb, lymphocytes (Lym, neutrophils (Neu, total protein (TP, albumin, immunoglobulin M (IgM, glucose, red and white blood cells (RBC and WBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were examined. Results: Chromium exposure for 28 days significantly (P0.05 between the Cr-exposed fish and the control. Conclusion: Hematological indices of fish, caused by chromium toxicity to C. carpio, can be secondary responses to toxicants, including exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals, which reflect the launch of stress reaction in the affected fish.

  8. The Effect of Endovascular Revascularization of Common Iliac Artery Occlusions on Erectile Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Serkan, E-mail: mserkangur@yahoo.com [Sifa Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Ozkan, Ugur [Baskent University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Onder, Hakan; Tekbas, Gueven [Dicle University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Oguzkurt, Levent [Baskent University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    To determine the incidence of erectile dysfunction in patients with common iliac artery (CIA) occlusive disease and the effect of revascularization on erectile function using the sexual health inventory for males (SHIM) questionnaire. All patients (35 men; mean age 57 {+-} 5 years; range 42-67 years) were asked to recall their sexual function before and 1 month after iliac recanalization. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine variables effecting improvement of impotence. The incidence of impotence in patients with CIA occlusion was 74% (26 of 35) preoperatively. Overall 16 (46%) of 35 patients reported improved erectile function after iliac recanalization. The rate of improvement of impotence was 61.5% (16 of 26 impotent patients). Sixteen patients (46%), including seven with normal erectile function before the procedure, had no change. Three patients (8%) reported deterioration of their sexual function, two of whom (6%) had normal erectile function before the procedure. The median SHIM score increased from 14 (range 4-25) before the procedure to 20 (range 1-25) after the procedure (P = 0.005). The type of recanalization, the age of the patients, and the length of occlusion were related to erectile function improvement in univariate analysis. However, these factors were not independent factors for improvement of erectile dysfunction in multivariate analysis (P > 0.05). Endovascular recanalization of CIA occlusions clearly improves sexual function. More than half of the patients with erectile dysfunction who underwent endovascular recanalization of the CIA experienced improvement.

  9. A Review of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Five Commonly Used Herbal Food Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ruitang

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a pathological condition associated with prediabetes and diabetes. The incidence of prediabetes and diabetes is increasing and imposes great burden on healthcare worldwide. Patients with prediabetes and diabetes have significantly increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and other complications. Currently, management of hyperglycemia includes pharmacological interventions, physical exercise, and change of life style and diet. Food supplements have increasingly become attractive alternatives to prevent or treat hyperglycemia, especially for subjects with mild hyperglycemia. This review summarized current patents and patent applications with relevant literature on five commonly used food supplements with claims of hypoglycemic effects, including emblica officinalis (gooseberry), fenugreek, green tea, momordica charantia (bitter melon) and cinnamon. The data from human clinical studies did not support a recommendation for all five supplements to manage hyperglycemia. Fenugreek and composite supplements containing emblica officinalis showed the most consistency in lowering fasting blood sugar (FBS) or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in diabetic patients. The hypoglycemic effects of cinnamon and momordica charantia were demonstrated in most of the trials with some exceptions. However, green tea exhibited limited benefits in reducing FBS or HbA1c levels and should not be recommended for managing hyperglycemia. Certain limitations are noticed in a considerable number of clinical studies including small sample size, poor experimental design and considerable variations in participant population, preparation format, daily dose, and treatment duration. Future studies with more defined participants, standardized preparation and dose, and improved trial design and size are warranted. PMID:22329631

  10. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  11. Effects of short term bioturbation by common voles on biogeochemical soil variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Wilske

    Full Text Available Bioturbation contributes to soil formation and ecosystem functioning. With respect to the active transport of matter by voles, bioturbation may be considered as a very dynamic process among those shaping soil formation and biogeochemistry. The present study aimed at characterizing and quantifying the effects of bioturbation by voles on soil water relations and carbon and nitrogen stocks. Bioturbation effects were examined based on a field set up in a luvic arenosol comprising of eight 50 × 50 m enclosures with greatly different numbers of common vole (Microtus arvalis L., ca. 35-150 individuals ha-1 mth-1. Eleven key soil variables were analyzed: bulk density, infiltration rate, saturated hydraulic conductivity, water holding capacity, contents of soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (N, CO2 emission potential, C/N ratio, the stable isotopic signatures of 13C and 15N, and pH. The highest vole densities were hypothesized to cause significant changes in some variables within 21 months. Results showed that land history had still a major influence, as eight key variables displayed an additional or sole influence of topography. However, the δ15N at depths of 10-20 and 20-30 cm decreased and increased with increasing vole numbers, respectively. Also the CO2 emission potential from soil collected at a depth of 15-30 cm decreased and the C/N ratio at 5-10 cm depth narrowed with increasing vole numbers. These variables indicated the first influence of voles on the respective mineralization processes in some soil layers. Tendencies of vole activity homogenizing SOC and N contents across layers were not significant. The results of the other seven key variables did not confirm significant effects of voles. Thus overall, we found mainly a first response of variables that are indicative for changes in biogeochemical dynamics but not yet of those representing changes in pools.

  12. Effects of Insecticides and Fungicides Commonly Used in Tomato Production on Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phtyoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditillo, J L; Kennedy, G G; Walgenbach, J F

    2016-12-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of tomatoes in North Carolina. Resident populations of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis have recently been detected on field-grown tomatoes in central North Carolina, and potentially can be a useful biological control agent against T. urticae Laboratory bioassays were used to assess lethal and reproductive effects of 10 insecticides and five fungicides commonly used in commercial tomato production (chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, permethrin, imidacloprid, dimethoate, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, boscalid, cyazofamid, and mancozeb) on P. persimilis adult females and eggs. Insecticides were tested using concentrations equivalent to 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1× of the recommended field rates. Fungicides were tested at the 1× rate only. Dimethoate strongly impacted P. persimilis with high adult mortality, reduced fecundity, and reduced hatch of eggs laid by treated adults, particularly at high concentrations. The pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and fenpropathrin were associated with repellency and reproductive effects at high concentrations. Bifenthrin additionally caused increased mortality at high concentrations. Chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and permethrin did not significantly affect mortality or reproduction. Imidacloprid significantly reduced fecundity and egg viability, but was not lethal to adult P. persimilis Thiamethoxam negatively impacted fecundity at the 1× rate. There were no negative effects associated with fungicide exposure with the exception of mancozeb, which impacted fecundity. Field trials were conducted to explore the in vivo impacts of screened insecticides on P. persimilis populations in the field. Field trials supported the incompatibility of dimethoate with P. persimilis populations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  13. Effects of the oral, direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran on five common coagulation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas L; Baghaei, Fariba; Blixter, Inger Fagerberg; Gustafsson, Kerstin M; Stigendal, Lennart; Sten-Linder, Margareta; Strandberg, Karin; Hillarp, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Dabigatran is an oral, reversible thrombin inhibitor that has shown promising results in large clinical trials. Laboratory monitoring is not needed but the effects on common coagulation assays are incompletely known. Dabigatran was added to plasma from healthy subjects in the concentration range 0-1,000 μg/l and analysed using several reagents for activated thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen, antithrombin, and activated protein C resistance. Typical trough concentrations are about 50 μg/l, peak concentrations 100-300 μg/l. At 100 μg/l all APTT-results were prolonged. The concentration required to double APTT ranged between 227 and 286 μg/l, the responses for all five reagents were similar. PT-reagents were much less affected with almost no samples above INR 1.2 at 100 μg/l. The effect was sample dilution dependent with PT Quick type more sensitive than PT Owren type methods. If a patient on dabigatran has prolonged APTT, >90 seconds, and Quick PT INR>2 or Owren PT INR>1.5 over-dosing or accumulation of dabigatran should be considered. Two of four fibrinogen reagents underestimated the fibrinogen concentration considerably at expected peak concentration. Methods based on inhibition of thrombin over-estimated the antithrombin concentration, but not Xa-based. The APC-resistance methods over-estimated the APC-ratio, which may lead to miss-classification of factor V Leiden patients as being normal. Different coagulation assays, and even different reagents within an assay group, display variable effects at therapeutic concentrations of dabigatran. Some of these assay variations are of clinical importance, thus knowledge is needed for a correct interpretation of results.

  14. Effects of nitrogen availability and spore concentration on the biocontrol activity of Ascochyta caulina in common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorbani, R.; Scheepens, P.C.; Zweerde, van der W.; Leifert, C.; McDonald, A.J.S.; Seel, W.

    2002-01-01

    Common lambsquarters is an annual weed of many important crops. Ascochyta caulina is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes necrotic lesions on the leaves and stems of common lambsquarters. The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of plant N supply on the biocontrol activity of

  15. Temperature Effects on Adhesive Bond Strengths and Modulus for Commonly Used Spacecraft Structural Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Cassandra E.; Oakes, Eric J.; Hill, Jennifer R.; Aldi, Dominic; Forsberg, Gustaf A.

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed to observe how changes in temperature and substrate material affected the strength and modulus of an adhesive bondline. Seven different adhesives commonly used in aerospace bonded structures were tested. Aluminum, titanium and Invar adherends were cleaned and primed, then bonded using the manufacturer's recommendations. Following surface preparation, the coupons were bonded with the adhesives. The single lap shear coupons were then pull tested per ASTM D 1002 Standard Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single- Lap-Joint over a temperature range from -150 deg C up to +150 deg C. The ultimate strength was calculated and the resulting data were converted into B-basis design allowables. Average and Bbasis results were compared. Results obtained using aluminum adherends are reported. The effects of using different adherend materials and temperature were also studied and will be reported in a subsequent paper. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to study variations in adhesive modulus with temperature. This work resulted in a highly useful database for comparing adhesive performance over a wide range of temperatures, and has facilitated selection of the appropriate adhesive for spacecraft structure applications.

  16. Effect of dietary lipid levels on body compositions, digestive ability and antioxidant parameters of common carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinhui; Fan, Ze; Chen, Chunxiu; Li, Jinghui; Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Yang; Qiao, Xiuting

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary lipid level on body composition, and digestive ability of common carp with initial average weight (36.12 ± 1.18)g. Five experimental diets with increasing lipid levels of 2.1%, 4.0%, 5.8%, 7.6%, 9.4% were fed to triplicate groups of fish for 9 weeks. The results showed that lipid content of whole body and muscle increased in parallel with the increase of dietary lipid levels. Protein content of muscle decreased with the increase of dietary lipid levels, and the lowest muscle protein content was observed in fish fed 9.4% lipid diet. Lipaseactivity was significantly affected by dietary lipid levels in hepatopancreas andintestine (P fish fed at 5.8% lipid level group was significantly higher than others inhepatopancreas (P 0.05). The results suggested that the most excellentdigestive ability and antioxidant parameters were obtained at 7.6% lipid level group.

  17. Effects of high ammonium level on biomass accumulation of common duckweed Lemna minor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguo; Yang, Chuang; Tang, Xiaoyu; Gu, Xinjiao; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; Ma, Danwei

    2014-12-01

    Growing common duckweed Lemna minor L. in diluted livestock wastewater is an alternative option for pollutants removal and consequently the accumulated duckweed biomass can be used for bioenergy production. However, the biomass accumulation can be inhibited by high level of ammonium (NH4 (+)) in non-diluted livestock wastewater and the mechanism of ammonium inhibition is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of high concentration of NH4 (+) on L. minor biomass accumulation was investigated using NH4 (+) as sole source of nitrogen (N). NH4 (+)-induced toxicity symptoms were observed when L. minor was exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) after a 7-day cultivation. L. minor exposed to the NH4 (+)-N concentration of 840 mg l(-1) exhibited reduced relative growth rate, contents of carbon (C) and photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. Ammonium irons were inhibitory to the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused C/N imbalance in L. minor. These symptoms could further cause premature senescence of the fronds, and restrain their reproduction, growth and biomass accumulation. L. minor could grow at NH4 (+)-N concentrations of 7-84 mg l(-1) and the optimal NH4 (+)-N concentration was 28 mg l(-1).

  18. The effects of 3-methylcholanthrene on lymphocyte proliferation in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Deschaux, P.

    2005-01-01

    The sensitivity of lymphocyte proliferation as bioindicator of pollution stress was evaluated in the common carp (Cyrinus carpio L.). The time course response of peripheral blood leukocyte proliferation in response or not to mitogens was measured from 1 to 7 days after peritoneal injection of 3-methylcholantrene (3-MC), and compared to the time course response of a highly sensitive biomarker, induction of cytochrome P450. 3-Methylcholanthrene (40 mg kg -1 ) inhibited both B- and T-lymphocyte proliferation in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (Con A). Studies with α-naphtofiavone, suggest the lack of metabolic processes. 3-Methylcholanthrene alone strongly stimulated resting peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) proliferation. This effect was not transient. The induction of lymphocyte proliferation paralleled the increase in cytochrome P450 content in the liver. The specificity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced lymphocyte proliferation suggests that this immune activity may be an early marker of exposure to PAHs in aquatic environments. The capacity of 3-MC to induce rapid lymphocyte proliferation may be related to PAH-induced rapid clonal expansion in mammals. These results strongly suggested that the underlying mechanism might be the same in both models. More studies are needed in fish to explain this phenomenon and may be helpful in understanding the occurrence of neoplastic epizootics in fish associated with PAH exposition

  19. Effects of Common Structural Rules on hull-girder reliability of an Aframax oil tanker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parunov, Josko; Guedes Soares, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the changes in notional reliability levels that result from redesigning an existing Aframax tanker to comply with the Common Structural Rules (CSR) for double-hull oil tankers. The probability of structural failure is calculated using the first-order reliability method. The evaluation of the wave-induced load effects that occur during long-term operation of the ship in the seaway is carried out in accordance with the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS)-recommended procedure, while transfer functions are calculated using the sink-source 3D linear method. The still-water loads are defined on the basis of a statistical analysis of loading conditions from the loading manual. The ultimate collapse bending moment of the midship cross section, which is used as the basis for the reliability formulation, is evaluated by progressive collapse analysis and by a single-step procedure according to CSR. The reliability assessment is performed for 'as-built' and 'corroded' states of the existing ship and a reinforced ship complying with CSR. It is shown that the hull-girder failure probability of an Aframax tanker is reduced several times due to the reinforcements according to CSR. Sensitivity analysis and a parametric study are performed to investigate the variability of results with the change of parameters of pertinent random variables within their plausible ranges. Finally, differences between load combination approaches by Ferry-Borges and Castanheta method and Turkstra's rule are investigated

  20. Site, year and cultivar effects on relationships between periderm nutrient contents and common scab severity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištůfek, Václav; Diviš, J.; Omelka, M.; Kopecký, J.; Ságová-Marečková, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 4 (2015), s. 473-482 ISSN 1099-209X R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1210359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : common potato scab * Streptomyces scabies * micronutrients * common scab resistance Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.159, year: 2015

  1. Effects of commonly used food preservatives on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Follo, Marie; Braun, Gabriele; Hellwig, Elmar; Arweiler, Nicole Birgit

    2008-08-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB), potassium sorbate (PS) and sodium nitrite (SN) are commonly used food preservatives. In this in vitro study, the effects of these substances on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans were analysed. In addition to the microtiter plate test (MPT), a biofilm reactor containing bovine enamel slabs (BES) was used to study the influence of food preservatives on biofilm formation in 5 independent periods of 4 days each. These included one period with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) as a positive control as well as a period with growth medium alone as a negative control. The vitality of the biofilm on BES was detected using live/dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Additionally, the number of colony forming units (CFU) was determined. In MPT 0.12% SN significantly reduced the biofilm formation. PS at a concentration of 0.4% tended to inhibit biofilm formation, whereas the inhibition for 0.8% PS was significant. Less inhibition was caused by 0.8% SB. In the biofilm reactor 0.06% of SN, 0.1% of SB and 0.1% PS significantly reduced the covering grade as well as the CFU of the biofilm. Biofilm vitality was reduced significantly by CHX to a level of 32.5% compared to the control. Only SB reduced the vitality to a level of 19.1%. SN and PS showed no influence on biofilm vitality. This study indicates the potential of food preservatives as inhibitory agents in S. mutans biofilm formation, which should be kept in mind when studying the effects of conserved food on dental plaque biofilm in situ.

  2. The effect of fatigue on the corrosion resistance of common medical alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prima, Matthew; Gutierrez, Erick; Weaver, Jason D

    2017-10-01

    The effect of mechanical fatigue on the corrosion resistance of medical devices has been a concern for devices that experience significant fatigue during their lifespan and devices made from metallic alloys. The Food and Drug Administration had recommended in some instances for corrosion testing to be performed on post-fatigued devices [Non-clinical tests and recommended labeling for intravascular stents and associated delivery systems: guidance for industry and FDA staff. 2005: Food and Drug Administration, Center for Devices and Radiological Health], although the need for this has been debated [Nagaraja S, et al., J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 2016, 8.] This study seeks to evaluate the effect of fatigue on the corrosion resistance of 5 different materials commonly used in medical devices: 316 LVM stainless steel, MP35N cobalt chromium, electropolished nitinol, mechanically polished nitinol, and black oxide nitinol. Prior to corrosion testing per ASTM F2129, wires of each alloy were split into subgroups and subjected to either nothing (that is, as received); high strain fatigue for less than 8 min; short-term phosphate buffered saline (PBS) soak for less than 8 min; low strain fatigue for 8 days; or long-term PBS soak for 8 days. Results from corrosion testing showed that the rest potential trended to an equilibrium potential with increasing time in PBS and that there was no statistical (p > 0.05) difference in breakdown potential between the fatigued and matching PBS soak groups for 9 out of 10 test conditions. Our results suggest that under these nonfretting conditions, corrosion susceptibility as measured by breakdown potential per ASTM F2129 was unaffected by the fatigue condition. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2019-2026, 2017. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Common effects of amnestic mild cognitive impairment on resting-state connectivity across four independent studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eTam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional connectivity is a promising biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease. However, previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in Alzheimer’s disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have shown limited reproducibility as they have had small sample sizes and substantial variation in study protocol. We sought to identify functional brain networks and connections that could consistently discriminate normal aging from aMCI despite variations in scanner manufacturer, imaging protocol, and diagnostic procedure. We therefore combined four datasets collected independently, including 112 healthy controls and 143 patients with aMCI. We systematically tested multiple brain connections for associations with aMCI using a weighted average routinely used in meta-analyses. The largest effects involved the superior medial frontal cortex (including the anterior cingulate, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and middle temporal lobe. Compared with controls, patients with aMCI exhibited significantly decreased connectivity between default mode network nodes and between regions of the cortico-striatal-thalamic loop. Despite the heterogeneity of methods among the four datasets, we identified common aMCI-related connectivity changes with small to medium effect sizes and sample size estimates recommending a minimum of 140 to upwards of 600 total subjects to achieve adequate statistical power in the context of a multisite study with 5-10 scanning sites and about 10 subjects per group and per site. If our findings can be replicated and associated with other established biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (e.g. amyloid and tau quantification, then these functional connections may be promising candidate biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease.

  4. Cerebral effects of commonly used vasopressor-inotropes: a study in newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte H Hahn

    Full Text Available Despite widespread use in sick infants, it is still debated whether vasopressor-inotropes have direct cerebral effects that might affect neurological outcome. We aimed to test direct cerebrovascular effects of three commonly used vasopressor-inotropes (adrenaline, dopamine and noradrenaline by comparing the responses to those of nonpharmacologically induced increases in blood pressure. We also searched for reasons for a mismatch between the response in perfusion and oxygenation.Twenty-four piglets had long and short infusions of the three vasopressor-inotropes titrated to raise mean arterial blood pressure (MAP 10 mmHg in random order. Nonpharmacological increases in MAP were induced by inflation of a balloon in the descending aorta. We measured cerebral oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy, perfusion (laser-Doppler, oxygen consumption (co-oximetry of arterial and superior sagittal sinus blood, and microvascular heterogeneity (side stream dark field video microscopy.Vasopressor-inotropes increased cerebral oxygenation significantly less (p≤0.01 compared to non-pharmacological MAP increases, whereas perfusion was similar. Furthermore, cerebral total hemoglobin concentration increased significantly less during vasopressor-inotrope infusions (p = 0.001. These physiologic responses were identical between the three vasopressor-inotropes (p>0.05. Furthermore, they induced a mild, although insignificant increase in cerebral metabolism and microvascular heterogeneity (p>0.05. Removal of the scalp tissue did not influence the mismatch (p>0.05.We demonstrated a moderate vasopressor-inotrope induced mismatch between cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Scalp removal did not affect this mismatch, why vasopressor-inotropes appear to have direct cerebral actions. The statistically nonsignificant increases in cerebral metabolism and/or microvascular heterogeneity may explain the mismatch. Alternatively, it may simply reflect a vasopressor

  5. EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED COOKING PRACTICES ON TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH AND THEIR IMPACT ON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmenta...

  6. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of four commonly used biocides on the conjugative transfer of Tn916 in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie; Jasni, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Large amounts of biocides are used to reduce and control bacterial growth in the healthcare sector, food production and agriculture. This work explores the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of four commonly used biocides (ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine digluconate...

  7. Understanding the Effects of Users' Behaviors on Effectiveness of Different Exogenous Regulatory Common Pool Resource Management Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Dinar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tragedy of the commons is generally recognized as one of the possible destinies for common pool resources (CPRs). To avoid the tragedy of the commons and prolonging the life of CPRs, users may show different behavioral characteristics and use different rationales for CPR planning and management. Furthermore, regulators may adopt different strategies for sustainable management of CPRs. The effectiveness of different regulatory exogenous management institutions cannot be evaluated through conventional CPR models since they assume that either users base their behavior on individual rationality and adopt a selfish behavior (Nash behavior), or that the users seek the system's optimal solution without giving priority to their own interests. Therefore, conventional models fail to reliably predict the outcome of CPR problems in which parties may have a range of behavioral characteristics, putting them somewhere in between the two types of behaviors traditionally considered. This work examines the effectiveness of different regulatory exogenous CPR management institutions through a user-based model (as opposed to a system-based model). The new modeling framework allows for consideration of sensitivity of the results to different behavioral characteristics of interacting CPR users. The suggested modeling approach is applied to a benchmark groundwater management problem. Results indicate that some well-known exogenous management institutions (e.g. taxing) are ineffective in sustainable management of CPRs in most cases. Bankruptcy-based management can be helpful, but determination of the fair level of cutbacks remains challenging under this type of institution. Furthermore, some bankruptcy rules such as the Constrained Equal Award (CEA) method are more beneficial to wealthier users, failing to establish social justice. Quota-based and CPR status-based management perform as the most promising and robust regulatory exogenous institutions in prolonging the CPR's life and

  8. The Effect of PSII Inhibitors on Kautsky Curve and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Common Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. and Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Chitband

    2016-03-01

    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Spraying was performed by overhead trolley sprayer (Matabi 121030 Super Agro 20 litre sprayer, 8002 flat-fan nozzle at 300 kPa and a spray volume of 200 Lha-1. The plants were treated at 21 days (at the four- to six-true leaf stage after planting. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were carried out on dark-adapted leaves at the same stages of development among pots. Fluorescence emissions were measured using a portable chlorophyll fluorometer (Handy-PEA, which emits light of 650 nm wavelength with an intensity of 3000 µmol photons m−2 s−1 for 10s. Leaves were dark adapted for a minimum of 30 min prior to measurement. The fluorescence measurements were taken 4 hours after spraying (HAS for common lambsquarters and common purslane and again at 24, 48, 72 and 168 HAS. The Kautsky curves were visually examined for the effects of time and dose by the BIOLYZER program with OJIP steps as fix points. Results Discussion: The results showed that the parameters of measured had different sensitivity to the herbicides application, So that, four hours after desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate application on weeds mentioned, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm, did not show any change whereas the relative change in J stage fluorescence (Fvj and the area between the curve and Kautsky (Area Fm strongly reduced during this period, but chloridazon usage was not changes on Kautsky curve and their parameters during this period due to lower solubility, and sediment deposition in the sprayer tank mix. Common purslane was more affected by desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate application because of sponge leaves and stems while common lambsquarters had lesser sensitivity to both of herbicides application due to powdery and white cover over leaves and stems. Among chlorophyll fluorescence parameters measured, Fvj was appropriate parameter and quicker to detect the herbicides effects on both of experiments plants. Conclusion: In

  9. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian González-Segura

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the common carp. Eight injections of reserpine alone, at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/ml/kg of body weight and at intervals of 48 hours, caused an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells. The dose 0.5 mg/ml/kg, presented an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 382% and 123%, respectively, above the control group. The dose 1.0 mg/ml/kg, showed an enhanced number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 704% and 152%, respectively. With the dose 1.5 mg/ml/kg increase in number (171% and volume (106% of gonadotrophic cells was lower. The gonads of the experimental groups had an abundance of advanced states of spermatogenesis. Our results show that eight intraperitoneal injections of reserpine were responsible for an increase in gonadodrophic cell, number and volumeLa secreción de gonadotropinas (GtHs en pez dorado y carpas, es estimulada por la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH e inhibida por la dopamina. Trabajos previos con antidopaminérgicos demostraron ser efectivos para estimular la espermiación y ovulación, en varias especies de teleósteos. La reserpina, una sustancia que desaparece catecolaminas, se ha probado con éxito para estimular la espermiación en la carpa común. En este trabajo, reportamos los efectos de la reserpina en el número y volúmen de células gonadotropas en la carpa común. Se aplicaron ocho inyecciones de reserpina a dosis de 0.5, 1.0, y 1.5 mg/ml/kg de peso corporal, a intervalos de 48 horas

  10. Lipidemic effects of common edible oils and risk of atherosclerosis in diabetic Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olulola Olutoyin Oladapo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic state potentiates atherosclerosis and the type of edible oil consumed by the individual may affect this further. This study aimed to determine if the common edible oils in Nigeria have any effects on the lipid profiles and arteries of alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of normal control, diabetic control, animals on diet enriched with refined, bleached deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO, animals on diet enriched with soya oil, and animals on diet enriched with olive oil. At the end of 8 weeks, the lipid profiles of the animals were determined before sacrificing them. Their aortas were subsequently harvested for histological examination. RESULTS: The olive oil fed group had the highest level of total cholesterol (TC, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C, lowest HDL-C, and highest artherogenic index (AI. Diabetic animals fed on RBD-PO had a lower non-HDL-C, higher HDL-C, and lower AI than diabetic animals fed on olive oil or soya oil. However, the diabetic animals fed on RBD-PO had the highest triglyceride level. When the aortas were examined histologically, there were no atherosclerotic lesions in all the control and experimental groups except those fed on 10% soya oil enriched diet that had type II atherosclerotic lesions according to American Heart Association (AHA. CONCLUSION: The result of our study showed that RBD-PO appears to offer a better lipid profile in the diabetic animals compared with olive oil and soya oil. Soya oil appears to cause the development of atherosclerosis in diabetic state.   

  11. Common effects of lithium and valproate on mitochondrial functions: protection against methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Rosilla F; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Li, Xiaoxia; Alesci, Salvatore; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A series of studies was undertaken to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondrial function, and against mitochondrially mediated neurotoxicity. We found that long-term treatment with lithium and valproate (VPA) enhanced cell respiration rate. Furthermore, chronic treatment with lithium or VPA enhanced mitochondrial function as determined by mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial oxidation in SH-SY5Y cells. In-vivo studies showed that long-term treatment with lithium or VPA protected against methamphetamine (Meth)-induced toxicity at the mitochondrial level. Furthermore, these agents prevented the Meth-induced reduction of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity. Oligoarray analysis demonstrated that the gene expression of several proteins related to the apoptotic pathway and mitochondrial functions were altered by Meth, and these changes were attenuated by treatment with lithium or VPA. One of the genes, Bcl-2, is a common target for lithium and VPA. Knock-down of Bcl-2 with specific Bcl-2 siRNA reduced the lithium- and VPA-induced increases in mitochondrial oxidation. These findings illustrate that lithium and VPA enhance mitochondrial function and protect against mitochondrially mediated toxicity. These agents may have potential clinical utility in the treatment of other diseases associated with impaired mitochondrial function, such as neurodegenerative diseases and schizophrenia.

  12. What is common becomes normal: the effect of obesity prevalence on maternal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkin, N; Spinelli, A; Baglio, G; Lamberti, A

    2013-05-01

    This analysis investigates the poorly-known effect of local prevalence of childhood obesity on mothers' perception of their children's weight status. In 2008, a national nutritional survey of children attending the third grade of elementary school was conducted in Italy. Children were measured and classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese, using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for body mass index (BMI). A parental questionnaire included parental perception of their child's weight status (underweight, normal, a little overweight and a lot overweight). Regions were classified by childhood obesity prevalence (maternal perception and regional obesity prevalence, and maternal and child characteristics were examined using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Complete data were available for 37 590 children, of whom 24% were overweight and 12% obese. Mothers correctly identified the status of 84% of normal weight, 52% of overweight and 14% of obese children. Among overweight children, factors associated with underestimation of the child's weight included lower maternal education (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.4), residence in a high-obesity region (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.9-2.6), male gender (aOR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.6) and child's BMI. Higher regional obesity prevalence is associated with lower maternal perception, suggesting that what is common has a greater likelihood of being perceived as normal. As perception is a first step to change, it may be harder to intervene in areas with high-obesity prevalence where intervention is most urgent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A review of the effects on IRT item parameter estimates with a focus on misbehaving common items in test equating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis P Michaelides

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the topic of change or drift in item parameter estimates in the context of Item Response Theory. Content effects, such as instructional variation and curricular emphasis, as well as context effects, such as the wording, position, or exposure of an item have been found to impact item parameter estimates. The issue becomes more critical when items with estimates exhibiting differential behavior across test administrations are used as common for deriving equating transformations. This paper reviews the types of effects on IRT item parameter estimates and focuses on the impact of misbehaving or aberrant common items on equating transformations. Implications relating to test validity and the judgmental nature of the decision to keep or discard aberrant common items are discussed, with recommendations for future research into more informed and formal ways of dealing with misbehaving common items.

  14. A Review of the Effects on IRT Item Parameter Estimates with a Focus on Misbehaving Common Items in Test Equating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Michalis P

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the topic of change or drift in item parameter estimates in the context of item response theory (IRT). Content effects, such as instructional variation and curricular emphasis, as well as context effects, such as the wording, position, or exposure of an item have been found to impact item parameter estimates. The issue becomes more critical when items with estimates exhibiting differential behavior across test administrations are used as common for deriving equating transformations. This paper reviews the types of effects on IRT item parameter estimates and focuses on the impact of misbehaving or aberrant common items on equating transformations. Implications relating to test validity and the judgmental nature of the decision to keep or discard aberrant common items are discussed, with recommendations for future research into more informed and formal ways of dealing with misbehaving common items.

  15. Effective and organ doses from common CT examinations in one general hospital in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramian, Daryoush; Hashemi, Bijan

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: It is well known that the main portion of artificial sources of ionizing radiation to human results from X-ray imaging techniques. However, reports carried out in various countries have indicated that most of their cumulative doses from artificial sources are due to CT examinations. Hence assessing doses resulted from CT examinations is highly recommended by national and international radiation protection agencies. The aim of this research has been to estimate the effective and organ doses in an average human according to 103 and 60 ICRP tissue weighting factor for six common protocols of Multi-Detector CT (MDCT) machine in a comprehensive training general hospital in Tehran/Iran. Methods: To calculate the patients' effective dose, the CT-Expo2.2 software was used. Organs/tissues and effective doses were determined for about 20 patients (totally 122 patients) for every one of six typical CT protocols of the head, neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis, pelvis and spine exams. In addition, the CT dosimetry index (CTDI) was measured in the standard 16 and 32 cm phantoms by using a calibrated pencil ionization chamber for the six protocols and by taking the average value of CT scan parameters used in the hospital compared with the CTDI values displayed on the console device of the machine. Results: The values of the effective dose based on the ICRP 103 tissue weighting factor were: 0.6, 2.0, 3.2, 4.2, 2.8, and 3.9 mSv and based on the ICRP 60 tissue weighting factor were: 0.9, 1.4, 3, 7.9, 4.8 and 5.1 mSv for the head, neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis, pelvis, spine CT exams respectively. Relative differences between those values were -22, 21, 23, -6, -31 and 16 percent for the head, neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis, pelvis, spine CT exams, respectively. The average value of CTDIv calculated for each protocol was: 27.32 ± 0.9, 18.08 ± 2.0, 7.36 ± 2.6, 8.84 ± 1.7, 9.13 ± 1.5, 10.42 ± 0.8 mGy for the head, neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis and spine CT exams, respectively

  16. Effects of Traditional Versus Horizontal Inertial Flywheel Power Training on Common Sport-Related Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Hoyo Moisés

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5-8 sets with 8 repetitions and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m, countermovement jump height (CMJH, 20 m change of direction ability (COD and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004 was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: −0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: −0.11 0.10 s, CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N in both groups (p < 0.05. However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (−0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04. In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance.

  17. Evaluation of the toxicological effects of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, P.T.; Dongen, W. van; Esmans, E.L.; Blust, R.; Coen, W.M. de

    2003-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the toxicological effects of a scarcely documented environmental pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), on selected biochemical endpoints in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Juvenile organisms were exposed to PFOS through a single intraperitoneal injection (liver concentrations ranging from 16 to 864 ng/g after 5 days of exposure) and after 1 and 5 days effects were assessed in liver and serum of the exposed organisms. The investigation of the hepatotoxicity of PFOS included the determination of the peroxisome proliferating potential (peroxisomal palmitoyl CoA oxidase and catalase activity) and the compounds influence on the average DNA basepair length (ABPL) by agarose gel electrophoresis. Total antioxidant activity (TAA), cholesterol and triglyceride levels were monitored in the serum. After 1 day of exposure the ABPL was significantly increased in the 270 and 864 ng/g treatment groups. After 5 days of exposure significant increases relative to the control were observed for the 16, 270 and 864 ng/g treatment groups. Enzyme leakage from the liver was investigated by measurement of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the serum. At 561, 670 and 864 ng/g PFOS a significant increase in serum ALT activity became apparent after 5 days of exposure with values ranging from 159 to 407% relative to the control. For serum AST activity a significant increase for the 864 ng/g treatment group was observed with a value of 112% relative to the control. Determination of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration into liver tissue as assessed through myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in liver, was used as an indicator for inflammation. It appeared that inflammation was not involved in the observed membranous enzyme leakage for the 561, 670 and 864 ng/g PFOS treatment groups. The results of this study suggest that PFOS induces inflammation-independent enzyme leakage through liver cell membranes

  18. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  19. A differential nursery for testing nodulation effectiveness of rhizobium strains in common beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Central America are produced on soils having low nitrogen (N) and phosphorous content. The small-scale farmers do not have resources to use fertilizers or implement soil management practices. Strategies to improve the adaptation of beans to low N soils in...

  20. Effect of selenium treatment on biomass production and mineral content in common bean varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral selenium is important to human health. The goal of the research was to evaluate common bean cultivars for their responses to and abilities to accumulate selenium. The experimental design was completely randomized and the treatments consisted of control (in modified Hoagland and Arnon's s...

  1. Tracking progress toward EU Biodiversity Strategy targets: EU policy effects in preserving its common farmland birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gamero, A.; Brotons, L.; Brunner, A.; Foppen, R.; Fornasari, L.; Gregory, R. D.; Herrando, S.; Hořák, D.; Jiguet, F.; Kmecl, P.; Lehikoinen, A.; Lindström, Å.; Paquet, J. Y.; Reif, J.; Sirkiä, P. M.; Škorpilová, J.; van Strien, A.; Szép, T.; Telenský, Tomáš; Teufelbauer, N.; Trautmann, S.; Van Turnhout, C. A. M.; Vermouzek, Z.; Vikstrøm, T.; Voříšek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2017), s. 395-402 ISSN 1755-263X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Agricultural intensification * Agrienvironmental schemes * Bird monitoring * Birds directive * Common agriculture policy * Natura 2000 * SPA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 7.020, year: 2016

  2. Effect of deltamethrin on haematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Z.; Lusková, Věra; Drastichová, J.; Svoboda, M.; Žlábek, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2003), s. 79-85 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : pyrethroids * acute toxicity * common carp Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2003 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol72/pdf/72_079.pdf

  3. The effect of diazinon on haematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, M.; Lusková, Věra; Drastichová, J.; Žlábek, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2001), s. 457-465 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 162700004 Keywords : common carp * acute toxicity * haematology Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2001 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol70/pdf/70_457.pdf

  4. Endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Henrik Loft; Vilmann, Peter; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Management strategy for common bile duct (CBD) stones is controversial with several treatment options if stones in the CBD are recognized intraoperatively. The aim of this study was to report our experience with same-session combined endoscopic-laparoscopic treatment of gallbladder and CBD stones...

  5. Survival and bioturbation effects of common marine macrofauna in coastal soils newly flooded with seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Quintana, Cintia Organo; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe

    Low-lying coastal soils are at risk of being permanently flooded due to global sea level rise, but how will these areas develop as habitat for marine species? We conducted an experiment to evaluate the habitat quality of flooded soils for common marine polychaetes (Marenzelleria viridis, Nereis d...

  6. Effect of cadmium on hematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drastichová, J.; Svobodová, Z.; Lusková, Věra; Máchová, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 4 (2004), s. 725-732 ISSN 0007-4861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : common carp * haematology * cadmium Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2004 http://www.springerlink.com/content/k1165kk79hdjfqjf/fulltext.pdf

  7. Zinc and selenium accumulation and their effect on iron bioavailability in common bean seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important legume crop. It represents a major source of micronutrients and has been targeted for essential trace mineral enhancement (i.e. biofortification). The aim of the study was to investigate whether it is possible to biofortify seeds with multi-micr...

  8. The effect of Chaetoceros calcitrans extract on hematology common carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected by Aeromonas salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftuch; Wulan, N. D. A.; Suprastyani, H.; Wijayanto, E.; Noercholis, M.; Prihanto, A. A.; Kurniawan, A.

    2018-04-01

    The application of C. calcitrans extract in carp (C. carpio) is expected to inhibit the growth of A. salmonicida. A. salmonicida-infected common carp (C. carpio) were treated with the extract of C. calcitrans. Hematology, erythrocyte, leukocyte, hematocrit and hemoglobin test analysis was observed. The result indicated that the extract can be used to treat the infected fish. The best dose was treatment of D with 45.3 ppm.

  9. Natural antioxidant activity of commonly consumed plant foods in India: effect of domestic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramulu, D; Reddy, C V K; Chauhan, Anitha; Balakrishna, N; Raghunath, M

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals protect against oxidative stress which in turn helps in maintaining the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. In recent times natural antioxidants are gaining considerable interest among nutritionists, food manufacturers, and consumers because of their perceived safety, potential therapeutic value, and long shelf life. Plant foods are known to protect against degenerative diseases and ageing due to their antioxidant activity (AOA) attributed to their high polyphenolic content (PC). Data on AOA and PC of Indian plant foods is scanty. Therefore we have determined the antioxidant activity in 107 commonly consumed Indian plant foods and assessed their relation to their PC. Antioxidant activity is presented as the range of values for each of the food groups. The foods studied had good amounts of PC and AOA although they belonged to different food groups. Interestingly, significant correlation was observed between AOA (DPPH and FRAP) and PC in most of the foods, corroborating the literature that polyphenols are potent antioxidants and that they may be important contributors to the AOA of the plant foods. We have also observed that common domestic methods of processing may not affect the PC and AOA of the foods studied in general. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results of the kind in commonly consumed Indian plant foods.

  10. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF COMMON BEAN FLOUR ON THE COOKING QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CHARACTERISTICS OF SPAGHETTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasta is a nutritionally unbalanced food, due to its low fat and fiber and low value of its protein. It is considered an adequate vehicle for food supplementation with minerals, proteins and other healthy components such as bioactive compounds present in common beans. The effect of composite pasta (wheat – common bean; 30 % w/w on the cooking quality (optimal cooking time, cooking loss, weight loss, firmness, color, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ORAC assays and phenolic acid profile was investigated. According to the quality parameters, pasta added with bean flour was less hard with respect to the pasta made from durum wheat. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ORAC assays were higher in the pasta with common bean flour than in the pasta control. Also, more phenolic acids were identified in cooked pasta containing common bean flour as analyzed by HPLC.

  11. The Effects of Scripted Peer Tutoring and Programming Common Stimuli on Social Interactions of a Student with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Anna-Lind; McComas, Jennifer; McMaster, Kristen; Horner, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of scripted peer-tutoring reading activities, with and without programmed common play-related stimuli, on social interactions between a kindergartner with autism spectrum disorder and his typically developing peer-tutoring partners during free play. A withdrawal design with multiple baselines across peers showed no effects of peer tutoring on social interactions. A withdrawal design with 1 peer and continuing baselines across the other 2 peers showed that adding play-related common stimuli to the peer-tutoring activity increased social interactions during free play. PMID:17624077

  12. Structural insight to mutation effects uncover a common allosteric site in class C GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Boesgaard, Michael W; Munk, Christian

    2017-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate important physiological functions and allosteric modulators binding to the transmembrane domain constitute an attractive and, due to a lack of structural insight, a virtually unexplored potential for therapeutics and the food industry....... Combining pharmacological site-directed mutagenesis data with the recent class C GPCR experimental structures will provide a foundation for rational design of new therapeutics. RESULTS: We uncover one common site for both positive and negative modulators with different amino acid layouts that can...

  13. The Effect of Cirata Reservoir Sediment on Early Developmental Stage of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Pujihastuti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation at Cirata reservoir may directly and indirectly influence fish particularly fish which have an adhesive characteristic at its early developmental stage such as common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Sample of sediment was collected from Cirata reservoir using Eikmand dredge at a depth of 80 m. The sample was subsequently centrifuged at 5500 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant obtained was then used for toxicity test on common carp at early developmental stage. In this test, four treatments were applied based on the concentration of sediment supernatant, namely: 0, 8.33, 16.60 and 24.90 %. The results showed that a higher sediment supernatant concentration resulted in lower egg yolk absorption rate, lower relative growth rate in length, lower egg yolk efficiency and higher egg and larval abnormality.  Higher sediment supernatant concentration also resulted in lower hatching percentage of common carp larva. The damage of eggs and larval morphologies in treatments with sediment supernatant was likely caused by the presence Pb and organic matters which act in synergy. Keywords :  sediment, Cirata, embryo, common carp   ABSTRAK Sedimentasi di Waduk Cirata secara langsung dan tidak langsung akan berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan ikan khususnya tahap awal perkembangan ikan yang bersifat adhesiveseperti ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio.  Sampel sedimen waduk Cirata diambil dengan Eikmand dredge pada kedalaman 80 m.  Hasil ekstrak di sentrifugasi dengan kecepatan 5500 rpm selama 10 menit untuk diambil air pori sedimennya.  Air pori digunakan sebagai bahan uji toksisitas terhadap perkembangan awal ikan mas dengan perlakuan 0; 8,33; 16,60 dan 24,90 %. Hasil uji toksisitas diperoleh bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi air pori dari sediment maka semakin rendah laju penyerapan kuning telur Laju pertumbuhan relatif panjang embrio pada berbagai konsentrasi juga diperoleh bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi air sedimen maka semakin rendah laju pertumbuhan relatif

  14. Common Sense in Choice: The Effect of Sensory Modality on Neural Value Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Although it is well established that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) represents value using a common currency across categories of rewards, it is unknown whether the vmPFC represents value irrespective of the sensory modality in which alternatives are presented. In the current study, male and female human subjects completed a decision-making task while their neural activity was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging. On each trial, subjects chose between a safe alternative and a lottery, which was presented visually or aurally. A univariate conjunction analysis revealed that the anterior portion of the vmPFC tracks subjective value (SV) irrespective of the sensory modality. Using a novel cross-modality multivariate classifier, we were able to decode auditory value based on visual trials and vice versa. In addition, we found that the visual and auditory sensory cortices, which were identified using functional localizers, are also sensitive to the value of stimuli, albeit in a modality-specific manner. Whereas both primary and higher-order auditory cortices represented auditory SV (aSV), only a higher-order visual area represented visual SV (vSV). These findings expand our understanding of the common currency network of the brain and shed a new light on the interplay between sensory and value information processing. PMID:29619408

  15. Common Sense in Choice: The Effect of Sensory Modality on Neural Value Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Anastasia; Levy, Dino J

    2018-01-01

    Although it is well established that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) represents value using a common currency across categories of rewards, it is unknown whether the vmPFC represents value irrespective of the sensory modality in which alternatives are presented. In the current study, male and female human subjects completed a decision-making task while their neural activity was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging. On each trial, subjects chose between a safe alternative and a lottery, which was presented visually or aurally. A univariate conjunction analysis revealed that the anterior portion of the vmPFC tracks subjective value (SV) irrespective of the sensory modality. Using a novel cross-modality multivariate classifier, we were able to decode auditory value based on visual trials and vice versa. In addition, we found that the visual and auditory sensory cortices, which were identified using functional localizers, are also sensitive to the value of stimuli, albeit in a modality-specific manner. Whereas both primary and higher-order auditory cortices represented auditory SV (aSV), only a higher-order visual area represented visual SV (vSV). These findings expand our understanding of the common currency network of the brain and shed a new light on the interplay between sensory and value information processing.

  16. Effects of Commonly Used Pesticides in China on the Mitochondria and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tingting; Tan, Jieqiong; Wan, Zhengqing; Zou, Yongyi; Kessete Afewerky, Henok; Zhang, Zhuohua; Zhang, Tongmei

    2017-01-01

    Evidence continues to accumulate that pesticides are the leading candidates of environmental toxins that may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. The mechanisms, however, remain largely unclear. According to epidemiological studies, we selected nine representative pesticides (paraquat, rotenone, chlorpyrifos, pendimethalin, endosulfan, fenpyroximate, tebufenpyrad, trichlorphon and carbaryl) which are commonly used in China and detected the effects of the pesticides on mitoch...

  17. Surveying for "artifacts": the susceptibility of the OCB-performance evaluation relationship to common rater, item, and measurement context effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Whiting, Steven W; Welsh, David T; Mai, Ke Michael

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increased attention paid to biases attributable to common method variance (CMV) over the past 50 years, researchers have only recently begun to systematically examine the effect of specific sources of CMV in previously published empirical studies. Our study contributes to this research by examining the extent to which common rater, item, and measurement context characteristics bias the relationships between organizational citizenship behaviors and performance evaluations using a mixed-effects analytic technique. Results from 173 correlations reported in 81 empirical studies (N = 31,146) indicate that even after controlling for study-level factors, common rater and anchor point number similarity substantially biased the focal correlations. Indeed, these sources of CMV (a) led to estimates that were between 60% and 96% larger when comparing measures obtained from a common rater, versus different raters; (b) led to 39% larger estimates when a common source rated the scales using the same number, versus a different number, of anchor points; and (c) when taken together with other study-level predictors, accounted for over half of the between-study variance in the focal correlations. We discuss the implications for researchers and practitioners and provide recommendations for future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Ophthalmic effects of petroleum dispersant exposure on common murres (Uria aalge): An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V; Freeman, Kate; Elias, Becky A; Whitmer, Emily; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2016-12-15

    The safety of chemical dispersants used during oil spill responses is largely unknown in birds. We captured common murres in Monterey Bay, CA and exposed them to Corexit EC9500a, crude oil, or a combination in artificial seawater. We performed ophthalmic examinations and measured intraocular pressures and tear production before and after exposure. Loglinear analysis found that exposure to oil or dispersant was related to the development of conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers. Odds ratios for birds exposed to oil or dispersant were positive and significant for the development of conjunctivitis, while odds ratios for the development of corneal ulcers were positive and significant only for birds exposed to a high concentration of oil. Ocular exposure to dispersants and petroleum in seabirds may cause conjunctivitis and may play a role in the development of corneal ulcers. These results have implications for policymakers who develop protocols for the use of dispersants during marine oil spills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical anisotropy of non-common-atom quantum wells and dots: effects of interface symmetry reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropov, A.A.; Sorokin, S.V.; Shubina, T.V.; Nekrutkina, O.V.; Solnyshkov, D.D.; Ivanov, S.V.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the investigations of in-plane optical anisotropy in non-common-atom heterostructures: ZnSe/BeTe perfect quantum wells (QWs) and CdSe/BeTe rough QWs and quantum dots. A noticeable linear polarization of photoluminescence (PL) with respect to the in-plane [1-10] and [110] crystal axes was observed in the ZnSe/BeTe QWs with equivalent ZnTe-type interfaces due to the reduction of QW symmetry, induced by unintentional formation of BeSe chemical bonds at a ''BeTe-ZnSe'' interface. The BeSe bond concentration and, hence, the polarization degree depend on the Te/Be flux ratio during molecular beam epitaxy growth of the samples. Strongly linearly polarized (up to 80%) PL was detected in the CdSe/BeTe structures, evidencing QW-like flat symmetry of the emitting sites of carrier localization. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Henrik Loft; Vilmann, Peter; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Management strategy for common bile duct (CBD) stones is controversial with several treatment options if stones in the CBD are recognized intraoperatively. The aim of this study was to report our experience with same-session combined endoscopic-laparoscopic treatment of gallbladder and CBD stones....... We retrospectively evaluated 31 patients with cholecystolithiasis and CBD stones undergoing same-session combined endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and endoscopic stone extraction and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Same-session ERCP and sphincterotomy were...... performed in all patients, and stone extraction was successfully performed in 29 patients (93%) with 2 failures (7%) due to impacted stones. In 8 patients (26%), the laparoscopic procedure was converted to open cholecystectomy because of dense adhesions or unclear anatomy. Two patients (7%) developed mild...

  1. A microcontroller system for investigating the catch effect: functional electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, D J; Taylor, P N; Chappell, P H; Wood, D E

    2006-06-01

    Correction of drop foot in hemiplegic gait is achieved by electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve with a series of pulses at a fixed frequency. However, during normal gait, the electromyographic signals from the tibialis anterior muscle indicate that muscle force is not constant but varies during the swing phase. The application of double pulses for the correction of drop foot may enhance the gait by generating greater torque at the ankle and thereby increase the efficiency of the stimulation with reduced fatigue. A flexible controller has been designed around the Odstock Drop Foot Stimulator to deliver different profiles of pulses implementing doublets and optimum series. A peripheral interface controller (PIC) microcontroller with some external circuits has been designed and tested to accommodate six profiles. Preliminary results of the measurements from a normal subject seated in a multi-moment chair (an isometric torque measurement device) indicate that profiles containing doublets and optimum spaced pulses look favourable for clinical use.

  2. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Brkić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

  3. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brkić, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-10-27

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

  4. Effect of Common Neuropathologies on Progression of Late Life Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Boyle, Patricia A.; Leurgans, Sue; Schneider, Julie A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Brain pathologies of Alzheimer’s, cerebrovascular and Lewy body diseases are common in old age, but the relationship of these pathologies with progression from normal cognitive function to the various stages of cognitive impairment is unknown. In this study, we fit latent Markov models from longitudinal cognitive data to empirically derive three latent stages corresponding to no impairment, mild impairment, and moderate impairment; then, we examined the associations of common neuropathologies with the rates of transition among these stages. Cognitive and neuropathological data were available from 653 autopsied participants in two ongoing cohort studies of aging who were cognitively healthy at baseline (mean baseline age 79.1 years) and had longitudinal cognitive data. On average, participants in these analyses developed mild impairment 5 years after enrollment, progressed to moderate impairment after an additional 3.4 years, and stayed impaired for 2.8 years until death. AD and chronic macroscopic infarcts were associated with a higher risk of progression to mild impairment and subsequently to moderate impairment. By contrast, Lewy bodies were associated only with progression from mild to moderate impairment. The 5-year probability of progression to mild or moderate impairment was 20% for persons without any of these three pathologies, 38% for AD only, 51% for AD and macroscopic infarcts, and 56% for AD, infarcts and Lewy bodies. Thus, the presence of AD pathology alone nearly doubles the risk of developing cognitive impairment in late life, and the presence of multiple pathologies further increases this risk over multiple years prior to death. PMID:25976345

  5. Common Modality Effects in Immediate Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 2 and 12 words for either immediate free recall (IFR) or immediate serial recall (ISR). Auditory recall advantages at the end of the list (modality effects) and visual recall advantages early in the list (inverse modality effects) were observed in both tasks and the extent and…

  6. An in vitro Study of the Effect of Some Commonly Used Antacids on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This study reports on the effect of magnesium oxide, magnesium trisilicate, aluminium hydroxide ... characteristics of commercial paracetamol and metronidazole tablets. The effect of salt on the interaction between the drugs and the antacids was also studied. The ... Most antacids, except sodium bicarbonate, may decrease ...

  7. Effect of terbutryn at environmental concentrations on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velíšek, J.; Stará, A.; Máchová, J.; Dvořák, P.; Zusková, E.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Svobodová, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2012), s. 102-108 ISSN 0048-3575 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Triazine * Embryo–larval toxicity test * Lowest observed-effect concentration * No observed-effect concentration * Early development * Malformation Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2012

  8. Do effects of common case-mix adjusters on patient experiences vary across patient groups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Dolf; van der Hoek, Lucas; Rademakers, Jany; Delnoij, Diana; van den Berg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Many survey studies in health care adjust for demographic characteristics such as age, gender, educational attainment and general health when performing statistical analyses. Whether the effects of these demographic characteristics are consistent between patient groups remains to be determined. This

  9. Do effects of common casemix adjusters on patient experiences vary across patient groups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, D. de; Hoek, L. van der; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Berg, M. van den

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many survey studies in health care adjust for demographic characteristics such as age, gender, educational attainment and general health when performing statistical analyses. Whether the effects of these demographic characteristics are consistent between patient groups remains to be

  10. Effect of nitrite on early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupová, H.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Mácová, S.; Peňáz, Milan; Baruš, Vlastimil; Novotný, L.; Máchová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2010), s. 535-540 ISSN 0730-7268. [International Workshop on Aquatic Toxicology and Biomonitoring /1./. Vodňany, 27.08.2008-29.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Embryo–larval toxicity test * Lowest-observed-effect concentration * No-observed-effect concentration * Early development * Histopathology Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.026, year: 2010

  11. Histochemical Effects of “Verita WG” on Glycogen and Lipid Storage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in the present work is to study the effects of fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide (“Verita WG” on glycogen storage and expression of lipid droplets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. liver. Concentrations of the test chemical were 30 mg/L, 38 mg/L and 50 mg/L under laboratory conditions. We used PAS-reaction for detection of glycogen storage and Sudan III staining for detection of lipid droplets in common carp hepatocytes. Hence, we found that the amount of glycogen and the fat storage in the liver increased proportionally with the increased fungicide concentrations. We also found conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes at all used concentrations. Overall, the results demonstrated enhanced glyconeogenesis and fat accumulation in the common carp liver, exposed to the test chemical.

  12. The effects of diffusion in hot subdwarf progenitors from the common envelope channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Conor M.; Jeffery, C. Simon; Tout, Christopher A.; Hu, Haili

    2018-04-01

    Diffusion of elements in the atmosphere and envelope of a star can drastically alter its surface composition, leading to extreme chemical peculiarities. We consider the case of hot subdwarfs, where surface helium abundances range from practically zero to almost 100 percent. Since hot subdwarfs can form via a number of different evolution channels, a key question concerns how the formation mechanism is connected to the present surface chemistry. A sequence of extreme horizontal branch star models was generated by producing post-common envelope stars from red giants. Evolution was computed with MESA from envelope ejection up to core-helium ignition. Surface abundances were calculated at the zero-age horizontal branch for models with and without diffusion. A number of simulations also included radiative levitation. The goal was to study surface chemistry during evolution from cool giant to hot subdwarf and determine when the characteristic subdwarf surface is established. Only stars leaving the giant branch close to core-helium ignition become hydrogen-rich subdwarfs at the zero-age horizontal branch. Diffusion, including radiative levitation, depletes the initial surface helium in all cases. All subdwarf models rapidly become more depleted than observations allow. Surface abundances of other elements follow observed trends in general, but not in detail. Additional physics is required.

  13. Optical anisotropy of non-common-atom quantum wells and dots: effects of interface symmetry reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropov, A.A.; Sorokin, S.V.; Shubina, T.V.; Nekrutkina, O.V.; Solnyshkov, D.D.; Ivanov, S.V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Waag, A. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Landwehr, G. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    We report on the investigations of in-plane optical anisotropy in non-common-atom heterostructures: ZnSe/BeTe perfect quantum wells (QWs) and CdSe/BeTe rough QWs and quantum dots. A noticeable linear polarization of photoluminescence (PL) with respect to the in-plane [1-10] and [110] crystal axes was observed in the ZnSe/BeTe QWs with equivalent ZnTe-type interfaces due to the reduction of QW symmetry, induced by unintentional formation of BeSe chemical bonds at a ''BeTe-ZnSe'' interface. The BeSe bond concentration and, hence, the polarization degree depend on the Te/Be flux ratio during molecular beam epitaxy growth of the samples. Strongly linearly polarized (up to 80%) PL was detected in the CdSe/BeTe structures, evidencing QW-like flat symmetry of the emitting sites of carrier localization. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. The Photostabilizing Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Three Common Sunscreen Absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martincigh, Bice S; Ollengo, Moses A

    2016-11-01

    The photostabilizing ability of grape seed extract on three common sunscreen absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP3) and tert-butylmethoxy dibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), was investigated. Samples were exposed to simulated solar radiation and monitored by spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The chemical composition of the grape seed extract was determined by GC-MS and HPLC-MS, and the major secondary metabolites were found to be epicatechin and catechin. Exposure of the extract to UV radiation increased the UV absorption capacity of the extract. All sunscreens showed an improved photostability in the extract. The inherent photo-instability of BMDBM when exposed to UV radiation was almost eliminated in the presence of grape seed extract. A mixture of all three sunscreens in the extract showed very high photostability and a red shift covering the entire UVB and UVA regions, thereby improving the broad-spectrum protection. The incorporation of grape seed extract in sunscreen and other cosmetic formulations for topical application boosts photoprotection by stabilizing the UV filters and enhancing broad-spectrum coverage. This in turn helps in reducing the amounts of absorbers and other additives incorporated in a sunscreen product and consequently lowers the risk of an unprecedented buildup of photoproducts whose toxicities are currently unknown. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Cumulative Training Dose's Effects on Interrelationships Between Common Training-Load Models During Basketball Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Dascombe, Ben J; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2017-02-01

    The influence of various factors on training-load (TL) responses in basketball has received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes and influence of cumulative training dose on TL responses and interrelationships during basketball activity. Ten state-level Australian male junior basketball players completed 4 × 10-min standardized bouts of simulated basketball activity using a circuit-based protocol. Internal TL was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), summated heart-rate zones (SHRZ), Banister training impulse (TRIMP), and Lucia TRIMP models. External TL was assessed via measurement of mean sprint and circuit speeds. Temporal TL comparisons were performed between 10-min bouts, while Pearson correlation analyses were conducted across cumulative training doses (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 0-40 min). sRPE TL increased (P basketball activity. sRPE TL was only significantly related to Lucia TRIMP (r = .66-.69; P basketball training doses lasting beyond 20 min. Thus, the interchangeability of commonly used internal and external TL approaches appears dose-dependent during basketball activity, with various psychophysiological mediators likely underpinning temporal changes.

  16. Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles: the city turned into a laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmori, Alfonso

    2010-06-01

    An experiment has been made exposing eggs and tadpoles of the common frog (Rana temporaria) to electromagnetic radiation from several mobile (cell) phone antennae located at a distance of 140 meters. The experiment lasted two months, from the egg phase until an advanced phase of tadpole prior to metamorphosis. Measurements of electric field intensity (radiofrequencies and microwaves) in V/m obtained with three different devices were 1.8 to 3.5 V/m. In the exposed group (n = 70), low coordination of movements, an asynchronous growth, resulting in both big and small tadpoles, and a high mortality (90%) was observed. Regarding the control group (n = 70) under the same conditions but inside a Faraday cage, the coordination of movements was normal, the development was synchronous, and a mortality of 4.2% was obtained. These results indicate that radiation emitted by phone masts in a real situation may affect the development and may cause an increase in mortality of exposed tadpoles. This research may have huge implications for the natural world, which is now exposed to high microwave radiation levels from a multitude of phone masts.

  17. Social mobbing calls in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): effects of experience and associated cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Elena; Tommasi, Luca; Rogers, Lesley J

    2008-04-01

    We compared the mobbing response to model snakes of two groups of captive-born common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) differing in genetic relatedness, age and past experience. Mobbing vocalisations (tsik calls), other mobbing behaviour and attention to the stimulus were recorded for 2 min. intervals pre-exposure, during exposure to various stimuli and post-exposure. Marmosets in one group were vocally reactive to all stimuli, although more so to one particular stimulus resembling rearing snakes and modified images of it, whereas the marmosets in a younger and genetically unrelated group attended to the stimuli but made very few mobbing calls. The parent stock of the first group had suffered stress in early life and had developed a phobic response to a specific stimulus, which they had transmitted to their offspring. A third group, matching the older group in age range but genetically unrelated, was also found to be unresponsive to the stimulus that elicited the strongest response in the first group. Cortisol levels in samples of hair were assayed and a significant negative correlation was found between the number of tsik calls made during presentation of the stimuli and the cortisol level, showing that mobbing behaviour/behavioural reactivity is associated with low levels of physiological stress.

  18. Effect of participatory selection of varieties on the identification of outstanding common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Lamz Piedra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the main factors affecting bean production is poor distribution of varieties for different environmental conditions in which its are grown. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of participatory selection of foreign genetic materials and national commercial and pre-commercial common bean in identifying genotypes for their outstanding performance and resistance to common bacteriosis (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith Dye (Xcp. In the "El Mulato" farm belonging to the Empowered Cooperative of Credit and Services (CCSF "Orlando Cuellar" in the municipality San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, two experiments were conducted. In the first one, 15 genotypes were planted in 13 September 2014 (early season in experimental plots to develop a diversity Fair and evaluate the natural incidence of common bean bacteriosis. In the second experiment, they were sown on 25 December (late season the materials selected by farmers with superior agronomic performance (7 genotypes to validate the stability of its performance. Among the results, an effective range of 93,33 % between the selected materials and selective criteria that this diversity was identified were high performance, resistance to common bacteriosis and color of beans. It was found that the selection of the diversity of beans by farmers is not influenced by the origin of materials and participatory selection identified common bean genotypes with high yield potential and stability between planting seasons.

  19. [Randomised study on histaminelike side-effects of 5 common plasmasubstitutes in orthopedic surgery (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöning, B; Koch, H

    1975-12-01

    Preceding anaesthesia 750 randomised patients, sub-divided into 5 different age groups, were given 500 ml of a standard plasma-substitute at a flow rate of 25-30 ml/min. There was direct correlation (p=0.1%) of the frequency of side-effects to the substance used; none, however, to the age or general surgical risk. Side-effects were observed in 21.3% with derivates of gelatin as compared to 3.7% with Macrodex and Plasmasteril combined. The rate of more serious anaphylactoid reactions was 6% with Haemaccel, 1.3% with Gelifundol-S, 0.67% with Macrodex and less than 0.67% with Neo-Plasmagel. The study reveals that serious side-effects may be expected in orthopaedictic patients after application of plasma substitutes. As a prophylactic procedure for those patients we recommend, therefore, the application of these substances only after careful consideration of the indications for their use.

  20. Effects of interactions between common genetic variants and alcohol consumption on colorectal cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Shin, Aesun; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2018-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 40 common genetic loci associated with colorectal cancer risk. To investigate possible gene-environment interactions (GEIs) between GWAS-identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcohol consumption with respect to colorectal cancer, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted. Results Higher levels of alcohol consumption as calculated based on a standardized definition of a drink (1 drink=12.5g of ethanol) were associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.62-3.76 for heavy drinkers [>50g/day] compared to never drinkers; ptrendcolorectal cancer associated with the G allele of rs6687758 tended to increase among individuals in the heavier alcohol consumption strata. A statistically significant association between rs6687758 and colorectal cancer risk was observed among moderate alcohol drinkers who consumed between >12.5 and ≤50g of alcohol per day (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.01-2.11). Methods A total of 2,109 subjects (703 colorectal cancer patients and 1,406 healthy controls) were recruited from the Korean National Cancer Center. For genotyping, 30 GWAS-identified SNPs were selected. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate associations of SNPs and alcohol consumption with colorectal cancer risk. We also tested GEIs between SNPs and alcohol consumption using a logistic model with multiplicative interaction terms. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNP rs6687758 at 1q41 may interact with alcohol consumption in the etiology of colorectal cancer. PMID:29464080

  1. Effects of interactions between common genetic variants and alcohol consumption on colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Shin, Aesun; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2018-01-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 40 common genetic loci associated with colorectal cancer risk. To investigate possible gene-environment interactions (GEIs) between GWAS-identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcohol consumption with respect to colorectal cancer, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted. Higher levels of alcohol consumption as calculated based on a standardized definition of a drink (1 drink=12.5g of ethanol) were associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.62-3.76 for heavy drinkers [>50g/day] compared to never drinkers; p trend colorectal cancer associated with the G allele of rs6687758 tended to increase among individuals in the heavier alcohol consumption strata. A statistically significant association between rs6687758 and colorectal cancer risk was observed among moderate alcohol drinkers who consumed between >12.5 and ≤50g of alcohol per day (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.01-2.11). A total of 2,109 subjects (703 colorectal cancer patients and 1,406 healthy controls) were recruited from the Korean National Cancer Center. For genotyping, 30 GWAS-identified SNPs were selected. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate associations of SNPs and alcohol consumption with colorectal cancer risk. We also tested GEIs between SNPs and alcohol consumption using a logistic model with multiplicative interaction terms. Our results suggest that SNP rs6687758 at 1q41 may interact with alcohol consumption in the etiology of colorectal cancer.

  2. Effectiveness of Plastinated Anatomical Specimens Depicting Common Sports Injuries to Enhance Musculoskeletal Injury Evaluation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kaori; Stickley, Christopher D.; Labrash, Steven J.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Context: Plastination techniques have emerged as effective methods for preserving human tissue and enabling human specimens to be utilized in a fashion similar to anatomical models with much greater accuracy. Opportunities to observe and experience human specimens in classroom settings should be beneficial to undergraduate and graduate students in…

  3. Fungicidal effect of 15 disinfectants against 24 fungal contaminants commonly found in bread and cheese manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    Resistance of 19 mold- and 6 yeast- species against 15 commercial disinfectants was investigated by a suspension-method in which the fungicidal effect and germination time were determined at 20 °C. Disinfectants containing 0.5 % dodecyldiethylentriaminacetic acid, 10 g/l chloramine-T, 2.0 % forma...

  4. Common effects of lithium and valproate on mitochondrial functions: protection against methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial damage

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Rosilla F.; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Li, Xiaoxia; Alesci, Salvatore; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A series of studies was undertaken to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondrial function, and against mitochondrially media...

  5. Using Common Themes: Cost-Effectiveness of Permanent Supported Housing for People with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Thomas Chalmers

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the cost-effectiveness of providing permanent supported housing to homeless people with mental illness. Through the use of billing records and frequency of use charts, researchers were able to map the service usage of a cohort of 268 homeless individuals from both urban and rural communities. The results suggest that…

  6. Teaching Business Ethics: The Effectiveness of Common Pedagogical Practices in Developing Students' Moral Judgment Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Susan M.; Melchar, David E.; Beauvais, Laura L.; Desplaces, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of pedagogical practices used to teach business ethics. The business community has greatly increased its demands for better ethics education in business programs. Educators have generally agreed that the ethical principles of business people have declined. It is important, then, to examine how common…

  7. Biodiversity effects in the wild are common and as strong as key drivers of productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J Emmett; Godwin, Casey M; Cardinale, Bradley J

    2017-09-14

    More than 500 controlled experiments have collectively suggested that biodiversity loss reduces ecosystem productivity and stability. Yet the importance of biodiversity in sustaining the world's ecosystems remains controversial, largely because of the lack of validation in nature, where strong abiotic forcing and complex interactions are assumed to swamp biodiversity effects. Here we test this assumption by analysing 133 estimates reported in 67 field studies that statistically separated the effects of biodiversity on biomass production from those of abiotic forcing. Contrary to the prevailing opinion of the previous two decades that biodiversity would have rare or weak effects in nature, we show that biomass production increases with species richness in a wide range of wild taxa and ecosystems. In fact, after controlling for environmental covariates, increases in biomass with biodiversity are stronger in nature than has previously been documented in experiments and comparable to or stronger than the effects of other well-known drivers of productivity, including climate and nutrient availability. These results are consistent with the collective experimental evidence that species richness increases community biomass production, and suggest that the role of biodiversity in maintaining productive ecosystems should figure prominently in global change science and policy.

  8. Establishing a Common Vocabulary of Key Concepts for the Effective Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihon, Traci M.; Cihon, Joseph H.; Bedient, Guy M.

    2016-01-01

    The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case…

  9. Effects of Injected Methylmercury on the Hatching of Common Loon (Gavia immer) Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the level of in ovo methylmercury (MeHg) exposure that results in detrimental effects on fitness and survival of loon embryos and hatched chicks, we conducted a field study in which we injected eggs with various doses of MeHg on day 4 of incubation. Eggs were collect...

  10. Is Dysguesia Going to be a Rare or a Common Side‑effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amlodipine is a long acting calcium channel blocker of dihydropyridine class, which is characterized by a higher vascular selectivity and a smaller negative inotropic effect compared to nifidipine, used as an antihypertensive and in the treatment of coronary artery disease. With its long elimination half-life of around 30-50 h ...

  11. Do effects of common case-mix adjusters on patient experiences vary across patient groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Dolf; van der Hoek, Lucas; Rademakers, Jany; Delnoij, Diana; van den Berg, Michael

    2017-11-22

    Many survey studies in health care adjust for demographic characteristics such as age, gender, educational attainment and general health when performing statistical analyses. Whether the effects of these demographic characteristics are consistent between patient groups remains to be determined. This is important as the rationale for adjustment is often that demographic sub-groups differ in their so-called 'response tendency'. This rationale may be less convincing if the effects of response tendencies vary across patient groups. The present paper examines whether the impact of these characteristics on patients' global rating of care varies across patient groups. Secondary analyses using multi-level regression models were performed on a dataset including 32 different patient groups and 145,578 observations. For each demographic variable, the 95% expected range of case-mix coefficients across patient groups is presented. In addition, we report whether the variance of coefficients for demographic variables across patient groups is significant. Overall, men, elderly, lower educated people and people in good health tend to give higher global ratings. However, these effects varied significantly across patient groups and included the possibility of no effect or an opposite effect in some patient groups. The response tendency attributed to demographic characteristics - such as older respondents being milder, or higher educated respondents being more critical - is not general or universal. As such, the mechanism linking demographic characteristics to survey results on patient experiences with quality of care is more complicated than a general response tendency. It is possible that the response tendency interacts with patient group, but it is also possible that other mechanisms are at play.

  12. Cariostatic Effect of Green Tea in Comparison with Common Anticariogenic Agents: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Jazaeri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Anticariogenic effects of different mouthrinses have been shown previously. In this in vitro study the anticariogenic effects of polyphenol extract of green tea with 0.05% fluoride, 0.2% chlorhexidine and fluoride-chlorhexidine were compared. Materials and methods. This in vitro study was performed on 50 maxillary premolars in 5 groups: 1 normal saline; 2 a 10% solution of green tea polyphenol extract; 3 0.05% fluoride; 4 0.2% chlorhexidine; and 5 fluoride-chlorhexidine. Each tooth was placed in a tube which contained a cariogenic solution. Every day the teeth were washed (depending on the ex-perimental groups with 5 mL of mouthrinse solution. The depth of the caries was measured under a polarized light micro-scope. Data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 with Kolmogorov–Smirnov, one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results. The mean and standard deviation (in m of caries depth were 194±16.43, 175±17.94, 142±9.34, 155±13.27, and 144±8.57 in groups 1 to 5, respectively, with significant differences between the groups (P0.001, they were significantly less than those in groups 3 to 5 (P0.001. Conclusion. The anticariogenic effect of fluoride-chlorhexidine was the highest among the groups. Although green tea showed higher cariostatic effects than normal saline, in comparison with other mouthrinses, it is less effective. More re-search is strongly recommended for clinical use of green tea as an anticariogenic agent.

  13. How effective are common household preparations on removing pesticide residues from fruit and vegetables? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen Wc

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, the use of pesticides is inevitable for pest control in crops, especially for fruit and vegetables. After the harvest from raw agricultural commodities, the amount of pesticide residues in food is mainly influenced by the storage, handling and processing that follow. If good agricultural and good manufacturing practices are enforced effectively, the amount of pesticide residues would be brought below the corresponding maximum residue level. Thus, the consumption of raw and/or prepared fruit and vegetables would be safe. Nonetheless, reports regarding pesticide residues in fruit or vegetables on mass media have been worrying consumers, who are concerned about the adverse effects of pesticide residues. As a result, consumers perform household processing before consumption to reduce any related risks. However, can these preparations effectively remove pesticide residues? Reviewing the extensive literature, it showed that, in most cases, washing and soaking can only lead to a certain degree of reduction in residue level, while other processing such as peeling, soaking in chemical baths and blanching can reduce pesticide residues more effectively. In general, the behaviour of residues during processing can be rationalised in terms of the physico-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In contrast, the reported studies are diversified and some areas still lack sufficient studies to draw any remarks. Recommendations are provided with respect to the available information that aims to formulate an environmental friendly, cost-effective and efficient household processing of fruit and vegetables to reduce pesticide residues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Liraglutide, leptin and their combined effects on feeding: additive intake reduction through common intracellular signalling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoski, S E; Ong, Z Y; Fortin, S M; Schlessinger, E S; Grill, H J

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the behavioural and intracellular mechanisms by which the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, liraglutide, and leptin in combination enhance the food intake inhibitory and weight loss effects of either treatment alone. We examined the effects of liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1 analogue) and leptin co-treatment, delivered in low or moderate doses subcutaneously (s.c.) or to the third ventricle, respectively, on cumulative intake, meal patterns and hypothalamic expression of intracellular signalling proteins [phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B)] in lean rats. A low-dose combination of liraglutide (25 µg/kg) and leptin (0.75 µg) additively reduced cumulative food intake and body weight, a result mediated predominantly through a significant reduction in meal frequency that was not present with either drug alone. Liraglutide treatment alone also reduced meal size; an effect not enhanced with leptin co-administration. Moderate doses of liraglutide (75 µg/kg) and leptin (4 µg), examined separately, each reduced meal frequency, cumulative food intake and body weight; only liraglutide reduced meal size. In combination these doses did not further enhance the anorexigenic effects of either treatment alone. Ex vivo immunoblot analysis showed elevated pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic tissue after liraglutide-leptin co-treatment, an effect which was greater than that of leptin treatment alone. In addition, s.c. liraglutide reduced the expression of PTP1B (a negative regulator of leptin receptor signalling), revealing a potential mechanism for the enhanced pSTAT3 response after liraglutide-leptin co-administration. Collectively, these results show novel behavioural and molecular mechanisms underlying the additive reduction in food intake and body weight after liraglutide-leptin combination treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Do effects of common case-mix adjusters on patient experiences vary across patient groups?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolf de Boer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many survey studies in health care adjust for demographic characteristics such as age, gender, educational attainment and general health when performing statistical analyses. Whether the effects of these demographic characteristics are consistent between patient groups remains to be determined. This is important as the rationale for adjustment is often that demographic sub-groups differ in their so-called ‘response tendency’. This rationale may be less convincing if the effects of response tendencies vary across patient groups. The present paper examines whether the impact of these characteristics on patients’ global rating of care varies across patient groups. Methods Secondary analyses using multi-level regression models were performed on a dataset including 32 different patient groups and 145,578 observations. For each demographic variable, the 95% expected range of case-mix coefficients across patient groups is presented. In addition, we report whether the variance of coefficients for demographic variables across patient groups is significant. Results Overall, men, elderly, lower educated people and people in good health tend to give higher global ratings. However, these effects varied significantly across patient groups and included the possibility of no effect or an opposite effect in some patient groups. Conclusion The response tendency attributed to demographic characteristics – such as older respondents being milder, or higher educated respondents being more critical – is not general or universal. As such, the mechanism linking demographic characteristics to survey results on patient experiences with quality of care is more complicated than a general response tendency. It is possible that the response tendency interacts with patient group, but it is also possible that other mechanisms are at play.

  16. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Slaninova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0 µg/L, 0.1 mg/L, and 1.0 mg/L where 1 µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P<0.05 effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH compared to control groups in the concentration of 1 mg/L. A significant decline (P<0.05 in triacylglycerols (TAG in plasma was found in the concentration of 1 mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected.

  17. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninova, Andrea; Modra, Helena; Hostovsky, Martin; Sisperova, Eliska; Blahova, Jana; Matejova, Iveta; Vicenova, Monika; Faldyna, Martin; Zelnickova, Lenka; Tichy, Frantisek; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0 µg/L, 0.1 mg/L, and 1.0 mg/L) where 1 µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH) compared to control groups in the concentration of 1 mg/L. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in triacylglycerols (TAG) in plasma was found in the concentration of 1 mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected. PMID:24795897

  18. Effect of using Falcaria vulgaris on skin wound healing and immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nasrin Choobkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are generally used to increase the immune response and wound healing of aquatic animals but due to the residual effects of these drugs, researchers are looking to replace them with natural materials such as medicinal plant extract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Falcaria vulgaris on wound healing and enhancement of immune system in common carp (Cyprinus carpio.The effect of Falcaria vulgaris at concentrations of 0, 2 and 10% with Lofag foods used on wound healing, immune response, and weight gain and survival of common carp was investigated during a 21 day period with twice per day feeding on the basis of body weight. The results showed that using Falcaria vulgaris at the 10% concentration had the greatest effect on wound healing, stimulation of the immune system by increasing white blood cells, weight gain and survival of carp in comparison with the control group. This herb can be used in wound healing, increasing resistance to disease and weight gain of common carp.

  19. Effects of common anesthetic agents on [(18)F]flumazenil binding to the GABAA receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; Beinat, Corinne; Banister, Sam

    2016-01-01

    in preclinical imaging studies and clinical imaging studies involving patient populations that do not tolerate relatively longer scan times. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of anesthesia on the binding of [(18)F]flumazenil to GABAA receptors in mice. METHODS: Brain and whole blood...... mice. CONCLUSIONS: Anesthesia has pronounced effects on the binding and blood-brain distribution of [(18)F]flumazenil. Consequently, considerable caution must be exercised in the interpretation of preclinical and clinical PET studies of GABAA receptors involving the use of anesthesia.......BACKGROUND: The availability of GABAA receptor binding sites in the brain can be assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) using the radioligand, [(18)F]flumazenil. However, the brain uptake and binding of this PET radioligand are influenced by anesthetic drugs, which are typically needed...

  20. Fungicidal effect of 15 disinfectants against 25 fungal contaminants commonly found in bread and cheese manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, K; Nielsen, P V

    1996-03-01

    Resistance of 19 mold and 6 yeast species to 15 commercial disinfectants was investigated by using a suspension method in which the fungicidal effect and germination time were determined at 20 degrees C. Disinfectants containing 0.5% dodecyldiethylentriaminacetic acid, 10 g of chloramine-T per 1, 2.0% formaldehyde, 0.1% potassium hydroxide, 3.0% hydrogen peroxide, or 0.3% peracetic acid were ineffective as fungicides. The fungicidal effect of quaternary ammonium compounds and chlorine compounds showed great variability between species and among the six isolates of Penicillium roqueforti var. roqueforti tested. The isolates of P roqueforti var. carneum, P. discolor, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium repens examined were resistant to different quaternary ammonium compounds. Conidia and vegetative cells were killed by alcohols, whereas ascospores were resistant. Resistance of ascospores to 70% ethanol increased with age. Both P. roqueforti var. roqueforti and E. repens showed great variability of resistance within isolates of each species.

  1. A Comprehensive Review on the Effectiveness of Existing Noise Barriers commonly used in the Railway Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, advanced development and sophisticated new technology have led to various types of environmental pollution such as water, air, land, thermal pollution and so on. Recently, however, noise pollution is becoming one of the major threats to the world especially in urban areas where it adversely affects the quality of life of the public. In Malaysia, the Department of Environment has identified that the average transportation noise levels in major cities in peninsular Malaysia are 71.6 dB (A and 70.4 dB (A during the day and night respectively. The noise is usually emitted by airplanes, trains, vehicles, motorcycles, trucks and etc. Even though rail transport requires less energy and emits less hazardous substances, it has contributed to noise pollution issues and several health hazards among urban inhabitants such as deafness, nervous breakdowns, mental disorder, heart troubles, high blood pressure, headaches, dizziness, inefficiency and insomnia. Therefore, many studies attempt to reduce noise pollution by applying noise barriers at noise polluted areas via various approaches. This paper aims to explore the effectiveness of noise barriers using noise absorption performance due to several factors such as type of absorbent materials, material thickness, density, porosity and design. This research has found that the thicker the specimen and the denser the absorbent material, the better the sound absorption performance. Besides that, barrier design also plays a major role in determining its effectiveness, where the effectiveness of noise barriers should be high and long enough to break the line-of-sight between the sound source and the receiver. There are several methods that can be used to measure the effectiveness of noise barriers such as the Adrienne Method (in-situ measurement method and impedance tube method (laboratory measurement method to measure the acoustic absorption. Nevertheless, the impedance tube measurement method provides

  2. The effect of commonly used anticoccidials and antibiotics in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model

    OpenAIRE

    Lanckriet , Anouk; Timbermont , Leen; De Gussem , Maarten; Marien , Maja; Vancraeynest , Dieter; Haesebrouck , Freddy; Ducatelle , Richard; Van Immerseel , Filip

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Necrotic enteritis poses an important health risk to broilers. The ionophore anticoccidials lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramicin, narasin and a combination of narasin and nicarbazin were tested in feed for their prophylactic effect on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental infection model that uses coccidia as predisposing factor. In addition, drinking water medication with the antibiotics amoxicillin, tylosin and lincomycin was evaluated as curat...

  3. Establishing a Common Vocabulary of Key Concepts for the Effective Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Traci M. CIHON; Joseph H. CIHON; Guy M. BEDIENT

    2016-01-01

    The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case example of the development of a shared vocabulary, using plain English when possible, among supervisors and supervisees at a large public school distric...

  4. Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases?1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Gary E

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies have evaluated the health of vegetarians. Others have studied the health effects of foods that are preferred or avoided by vegetarians. The purpose of this review is to look critically at the evidence on the health effects of vegetarian diets and to seek possible explanations where results appear to conflict. There is convincing evidence that vegetarians have lower rates of coronary heart disease, largely explained by low LDL cholesterol, probable lower rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and lower prevalence of obesity. Overall, their cancer rates appear to be moderately lower than others living in the same communities, and life expectancy appears to be greater. However, results for specific cancers are much less convincing and require more study. There is evidence that risk of colorectal cancer is lower in vegetarians and in those who eat less meat; however, results from British vegetarians presently disagree, and this needs explanation. It is probable that using the label “vegetarian” as a dietary category is too broad and that our understanding will be served well by dividing vegetarians into more descriptive subtypes. Although vegetarian diets are healthful and are associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases, different types of vegetarians may not experience the same effects on health. PMID:19321569

  5. Effect of the irradiation on the microbiological, physicochemical and technological properties of common wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benabderrahim Kaouthar

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we have studying the effect of irradiation dose: 1; 2; 3; 4 and 5kGy on microbiological, physico-chemical and technological properties of three wheat samples. Moreover, the effect of these irradiation doses on the lengthening of the shelf life during four months storage at room temperature was measured. Thus, the irradiation showed been efficiency on the microbiological level, in effect we observed a reduction of microbial load according to the irradiation dose. The dose of 2; 1.6 and 1.7kGy was caused the destruction of 90% of the initial aerobic total mesophyl flora respectively for the local varieties Salambo, Tebica and imported wheat. The irradiation did not cause any significant modification on the majority of the physico-chemical parameters. We can observe a reduction on humidity and an increase in fatty acidity and deterioration on the level of the starch and gluten. The α amylasic activity increase significantly with the irradiation doses. The rheological properties of the flour paste resulting from the wheat irradiated show that the irradiation caused an increase in the capacity of water absorption in the flour and reduction of the time of development, stability, elasticity and extensibility of the paste. The test of panification showed that the colour of the crust and the crumb intensify with increase of irradiation dose. During storage, the irradiated samples did not show a possible recontamination. (author). 70 refs

  6. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on common lethal factors for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yuling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo study the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and common lethal factors for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBC. MethodsA total of 235 patients with HBC who were admitted to our hospitals from October 2008 to October 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The infection rate of H. pylori in those patients was calculated. In the 155 patients with esophagogastric varices and 97 patients with portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG, the infection rate of H. pylori was compared between those with different degrees of esophagogastric varices or PHG. In the 32 patients whose blood ammonia was determined, the level of blood ammonia was compared between H. pylori-positive and -negative groups. Between-group comparison of continuous data was performed by t test and analysis of variance, and between-group comparison of categorical data was performed by χ2 test. ResultsThe infection rate of H. pylori in the 235 patients with HBC was 80.85% (190/235. In the 155 patients with esophagogastric varices, who had tortuous serpentine uplift or bead-like changes of esophageal varices and tumor-like changes (with or without gastric erosion of gastric varices visible under endoscopy, there was significant difference in infection rate of H. pylori between patients with mild, moderate, and severe varices (50.55% (46/91 vs 43.59% (17/39 vs 76% (19/25, χ2=6.913, P<0.05. In the 97 patients with PHG, who had snake skin-like changes, cherry red spots, scarlet rash, and erosion bleeding of gastric mucosa visible under endoscopy, there was significant difference in infection rate of H. pylori between patients with mild and severe PHG (43.33% (26/60 vs 67.57% (25/37, χ2=5.391, P<005.In patients whose blood ammonia was determined, patients in H. pylori-positive group had a significantly higher average concentration of blood ammonia than those in H. pylori-negative group (62.76±13.43 vs 47.20±12.51 μmol/L, t= 3.39, P<0

  7. The effect of Common Agricultural Policy on Dairy production in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Šakić Bobić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2007 there was price jump at world milk market. In the middle of the year 2008 the market was temporarily stabilized, because European Commission introduced Common Agricultural Policy modernization suggestion to the members of the European Parliament as the answer to an increasing food demand. The main elements of this suggestion were to abolish obligation to keep some agricultural areas set aside, milk quota removal, and abolition of subvention rate - production quantity link. When East and Central European countries entered in the European Union, they faced agricultural tax and milk price decrease. Today in new member states, the protection taxes are lower then before entering the Union (exceptions are Poland and Romania. The production costs in new member states are higher then in the Union, so there is higher market pressure at milk producers to increase their capacity (Livestock unit, to increase capacity utilization (milk per animal, and to produce at lower cost price. One part of smaller producers could not react to this pressure, so they decided to leave the dairy business. The consequence is decreased export of milk and dairy products in the new member states. Today milk market production in Croatia is around 650 million liters. In the production, there are around 32 thousand producers with 177 thousand of dairy cows. In the last 5 years of Croatian dairy, there was important shift in the production and redemption. Help to dairy sector through annual high investments as state subsidies and credit loans, and dairy industry subsidies at basic price, made redemption increase of more then 150 million liters, but also milk producer’s decrease. To stay at present production and redemption level, the only one that counts as Quota I, with around 90 % standard milk, there is a need to increase standard milk for 119 million liters. This increase in production quality, in the negotiation period and just after planned Croatian

  8. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  9. Effect of Common Species of Florida Landscaping Plants on the Efficacy of Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits Against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Kelly E; Scott, Jodi M; Muller, Gunter C; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-06-01

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) was applied to 5 different types of commonly found plants in landscaping of northeastern Florida. The ATSB applications were assessed for possible plant effects and preference against Aedes albopictus in semifield evaluations. Positive and negative controls consisted of plants sprayed with attractive sugar bait (no toxicant) and plants with nothing applied. Bioassays were conducted on stems with leaf clippings and on full plants to assess any difference in mosquito mortality on the different plants. Plants utilized in these evaluations were Indian hawthorne, Yaupon holly, Japanese privet, Loropetalum ruby, and podocarpus. In both assays, no significant difference was observed in the effect of ATSBs on adult female mosquitoes based on the type of plant. ATSB could be applied to common landscape plants for adult Ae. albopictus control.

  10. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  11. Cytotoxic effects of commonly used nanomaterials and microplastics on cerebral and epithelial human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirinzi, Gabriella F; Pérez-Pomeda, Ignacio; Sanchís, Josep; Rossini, Cesare; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2017-11-01

    Plastic wastes are among the major inputs of detritus into aquatic ecosystems. Also, during recent years the increasing use of new materials such as nanomaterials (NMs) in industrial and household applications has contributed to the complexity of waste mixtures in aquatic systems. The current effects and the synergism and antagonisms of mixtures of microplastics (MPLs), NMs and organic compounds on the environment and in human health have, to date, not been well understood but instead they are a cause for general concern. The aim of this work is to contribute to a better understanding of the cytotoxicity of NMs and microplastics/nanoplastics (MPLs/NPLs), at cell level in terms of oxidative stress (evaluating Reactive Oxygen Species effect) and cell viability. Firstly, the individual cytotoxicity of metal nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNPs and AuNPs), of metal oxide NPs (ZrO 2 NPs, CeO 2 NPs, TiO 2 NPs, and Al 2 O 3 NPs), carbon nanomaterials (C 60 fullerene, graphene), and MPLs of polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) has been evaluated in vitro. Two different cellular lines T98G and HeLa, cerebral and epithelial human cells, respectively, were employed. The cells were exposed during 24-48h to different levels of contaminants, from 10ng/mL to 10µg/mL, under the same conditions. Secondly, the synergistic and antagonistic relationships between fullerenes and other organic contaminants, including an organophosphate insecticide (malathion), a surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) and a plasticiser (diethyl phthalate) were assessed. The obtained results confirm that oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms of cytotoxicity at cell level, as has been observed for both cell lines and contributes to the current knowledge of the effects of NMs and MPLs-NPLs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Common Sense to Effectively Integrate Security Technologies within a School's Security Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gree, M.W.

    1998-11-03

    Security technologies are not the answer to all school security problems. However, they can be an excellent tool for school administrators and security personnel when incorporated into a total security strategy involving personnel, procedures, and facility layout. Unfortunately, very few of the tougher security problems in schools have solutions that are affordable, effective, and acceptable. Like any other type of facility, a school's security staff must understand the strengths and limitations of the security measures they are c

  13. Establishing a Common Vocabulary of Key Concepts for the Effective Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traci M. CIHON

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case example of the development of a shared vocabulary, using plain English when possible, among supervisors and supervisees at a large public school district in which behavior analytic services were provided for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. A list of terms and definitions are provided as well as suggestions on how to develop shared vocabularies within the readers’ own service provision context.

  14. Effect of Common Faults on the Performance of Different Types of Vapor Compression Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhimin; Domanski, Piotr A; Payne, W Vance

    2016-04-05

    The effect of faults on the cooling capacity, coefficient of performance, and sensible heat ratio, was analyzed and compared for five split and rooftop systems, which use different types of expansion devices, compressors and refrigerants. The study applied multivariable polynomial and normalized performance models, which were developed for the studied systems for both fault-free and faulty conditions based on measurements obtained in a laboratory under controlled conditions. The analysis indicated differences in responses and trends between the studied systems, which underscores the challenge to devise a universal FDD algorithm for all vapor compression systems and the difficulty to develop a methodology for rating the performance of different FDD algorithms.

  15. Cumulative effects, creeping enclosure, and the marine commons of New Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Murray

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to declining fish stocks and increased societal concern, the marine ‘commons’ of New Jersey is no longer freely available to commercial and recreational fisheries. We discuss the concept of ‘creeping’ enclosure in relation to New Jersey’s marine fisheries and suggest that reduced access can be a cumulative process and function of multiple events and processes and need not be the result of a single regulatory moment. We begin with a short review of the ‘expected’ effects of enclosure, including loss of flexibility, erosion of community, proletarianization of fishermen, and corporatization of the fishery. We then present some findings of our research and discuss how the signs of enclosure are visible in fisheries that do not feature explicitly privatized property or access rights. We rely on an oral history approach and the rich detail that emerges from attention to the lived experiences of fish harvesters to provide a framework for understanding the range of cumulative effects that have resulted from this process of creeping enclosure. We conclude with a discussion of how the gradual process of enclosure has affected the flows of information between the bio-physical environment and fish harvesters, managers and scientists by reducing both participation in fisheries and the accumulation of knowledge itself.

  16. The effect of commonly used anticoccidials and antibiotics in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanckriet, A; Timbermont, L; De Gussem, M; Marien, M; Vancraeynest, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2010-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis poses an important health risk to broilers. The ionophore anticoccidials lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramicin, narasin and a combination of narasin and nicarbazin were tested in feed for their prophylactic effect on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental infection model that uses coccidia as a predisposing factor. In addition, drinking water medication with the antibiotics amoxicillin, tylosin and lincomycin was evaluated as curative treatment in the same experimental model. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all antibiotics and anticoccidials were determined in vitro against 51 Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broilers. The strains examined appeared uniformly susceptible to lasalocid, maduramicin, narasin, salinomycin, amoxicillin and tylosin, whereas an extended frequency distribution range of MICs for lincomycin was seen, indicating acquired resistance in 36 isolates in the higher range of MICs. Nicarbazin did not inhibit the in vitro growth of the C. perfringens strains even at a concentration of 128 microg/ml. Supplementation of the diet from day 1 onwards with lasalocid, salinomycin, narasin or maduramicin led to a reduction in birds with necrotic enteritis lesions as compared with the non-medicated infected control group. A combination product of narasin and nicarbazin had no significant protective effect. Treatment with amoxicillin, lincomycin and tylosin completely stopped the development of necrotic lesions.

  17. The effect of education type on common misconceptions of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Iorio, Monica L; Nolan, Susan A; Teague, Susan

    2017-11-01

    In the current study, we investigated the effects of existing education materials-either a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) factsheet or personal stories of people with TBI-on undergraduate students' misconceptions and attributions about the causes of TBI-related behavior. Undergraduate students (N = 164) were recruited through the university participant pool. The participants were randomly assigned to receive either a factsheet about TBI, personal stories of people with TBI, or a control reading. Groups were compared on the number of TBI misconceptions endorsed, scores on an attribution measure, and their willingness to interact with people who have TBIs. Both the TBI factsheet group and the personal stories group endorsed fewer misconceptions, on average, than the control group (p = .02). Additionally, those who read either the personal stories or the factsheet had significantly lower attribution scores, on average, than the control group (p = .001; p = .03). That is, those who read either of the educational materials were more likely to endorse a TBI explanation over an adolescent explanation, compared to those who read a control reading. The groups did not significantly differ on their willingness for social interaction. Results suggest that, on average, factsheets and personal stories are effective for increasing knowledge about moderate-to-severe TBI as compared to a control group. Personal stories and factsheets may also be useful, on average, for addressing tendencies to discount TBIs as explanations for behavioral change, as compared to a control group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Effect of Cooking on Quality Commonly Consumed Marine Fish Platycephalidae (Platycephalus indicus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish Platycephalus indicus usually are consumed by southern people in Iran. The present study assessed the effect of processing on proximate compositions in the fillets of P.indicus. The fish samples were prepared by boiling, baking and frying, while proximate analysis was done by standard methods. Boiling processing method significantly reduced ash content in the fillet whereas fat content was significantly increased in frying. Baking method recorded highest ash content of 10.64%. The highest protein concentration was obtained for boiled fillet (82.73%. Lipid content was recorded highest in fried fillet (17.27%. P. indicus was, rich in fat, protein, and ash, thus its consumption should be encouraged.

  19. Effects of industrial processing on the immunogenicity of commonly ingested fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletten, Gaynour; Van Do, Thien; Lindvik, Helene; Egaas, Eliann; Florvaag, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Food-processing techniques may induce changes in fish protein immunogenicity. Allergens from >100 fish species have been identified, but little is known on the effects of processing on fish protein immunogenicity. IgE binding of sera of patients allergic to fresh and processed (smoked, salted/sugar-cured, canned, lye-treated and fermented) cod, haddock, salmon, trout, tuna, mackerel and herring and of hydrolysates based on salmon and whiting was investigated using immunoblot and inhibition ELISA. Parvalbumin oligomers were identified using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. IgE binding was seen in most sera at 12-14 kDa (parvalbumin), and at 17-60 kDa for all fish except tuna. Changes in IgE binding appeared to reflect altered parvalbumin monomers and oligomers. Smoked haddock, salmon and mackerel had increased IgE binding and novel bands at 30 kDa. Chemically processed cod, salmon, trout and pickled herring had reduced or abolished IgE binding. The serum of 1 subject, however, had increased IgE binding to these products and also inhibition of binding by both fish hydrolysates to their constituent fish species. Process-induced changes in fish protein immunogenicity were more dependent on process rather than species, although individual responses varied. Changes in the allergenicity of a product may depend on the net effect of processing on parvalbumin oligomerization patterns, which may also vary in different species. Chemical processes generally caused loss in IgE-binding activity, though sensitization may occur to modified or degraded rather than intact peptides as shown by increased binding by chemically processed fish and hydrolysates in 1 subject. The clinical significance of these findings remains to be established.

  20. [Prevention and Treatment of Common Acute Adverse Effects With Antipsychotic Use in Adults With Schizophrenia Diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Borrero, Álvaro Enrique; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; Vélez Traslaviña, Ángela; Castro Díaz, Sergio Mario; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; García Valencia, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    To determine the most adequate strategies for the prevention and treatment of the acute adverse effects of the use of antipsychotics. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. A systematic literature search was carried out. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The non-pharmacological interventions such as nutritional counseling by a nutritionist, exercise and psychotherapy are effective in preventing weight gain with the use of antipsychotics. (Kg Weight reduction in DM of -3.05 (-4.16, -1.94)). The antipsychotic change from olanzapine to aripiprazole showed weight loss and decreased BMI (decreased weight in KG DM -3.21 (-9.03, -2.61). The use of beta blockers was ineffective in reducing akathisia induced by antipsychotic; using as outcome the 50% reduction of symptoms of akathisia comparing beta-blockers with placebo RR was 1.4 (0.59, 1.83). It is recommended to make psychotherapeutic accompaniment and nutrition management of overweight for patients with weight gain. If these alternatives are ineffective is suggested to change the antipsychotic or consider starting metformin. For the management of drug-induced akathisia it is recommended to decrease the dose of the drug and the addition of lorazepam. It is recommended using 5mg biperiden IM or trihexyphenidyl 5mg orally in case of secondary acute dystonia and for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism to decrease the dose of antipsychotic or consider using 2 - 4mg/day of biperiden or diphenhydramine 50mg once daily. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Characterization, Tissue Distribution and Expression, and Potential Antiviral Effects of TRIM32 in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeda; Li, Zeming; Lu, Yuanan; Hu, Guangfu; Lin, Li; Zeng, Lingbing; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-01-01

    Tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32) belongs to the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, which consists of a large number of proteins containing a RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain, one or two B-box domains, and coiled coil motif followed by different C-terminal domains. The TRIM family is known to be implicated in multiple cellular functions, including antiviral activity. However, it is presently unknown whether TRIM32 of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has the antiviral effect. In this study, the sequence, expression, and antiviral function of TRIM32 homolog from common carp were analyzed. The full-length coding sequence region of trim32 was cloned from common carp. The results showed that the expression of TRIM32 (mRNA) was highest in the brain, remained stably expressed during embryonic development, and significantly increased following spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection. Transient overexpression of TRIM32 in affected Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid cells led to significant decrease of SVCV production as compared to the control group. These results suggested a potentially important role of common carp TRIM32 in enhancing host immune response during SVCV infection both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27735853

  2. Sonochemical Effects on 14 Flavonoids Common in Citrus: Relation to Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liping; Sun, Yujing; Chen, Rongrong; Fu, Yu; Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Xin; Chen, Jianchu; Shen, Yan; Ye, Xingqian

    2014-01-01

    The sonochemical effects of ultrasound (US) treatment on 14 flavonoids representing the main flavonoids in citrus fruit were investigated in a standard mixture by stability evaluation of a model system. Degradation products were further tentatively identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet detection–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Thirteen flavonoids (i.e., eriocitrin, narirutin, neohesperidin, quercitrin, eridictyol, didymin, naringenin, luteolin, sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, naringin, and hesperidin) were fairly stable whereas quercetin was degraded significantly by US treatment. The types of solvent and temperature used were important factors that determined the resulting degradation reactions. The degradation rate of quercetin was highest in 80% ethanol aqueous solution and decreased with increasing temperature. Longer US durations caused increases in the extent of quercetin degradation. Liquid height, ultrasonic intensity, pulse length, and duty cycle of US affected degradation rates but did not change the nature of degradation of the flavonoids. Four types of reactions occurred simultaneously for quercetin under US treatment: oxidation, addition, polymerization, and decomposition. Eight degradation products were tentatively identified as dimer, alcohol addition, oxidation, and decomposition products. PMID:24516562

  3. Sonochemical effects on 14 flavonoids common in citrus: relation to stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Qiao

    Full Text Available The sonochemical effects of ultrasound (US treatment on 14 flavonoids representing the main flavonoids in citrus fruit were investigated in a standard mixture by stability evaluation of a model system. Degradation products were further tentatively identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Thirteen flavonoids (i.e., eriocitrin, narirutin, neohesperidin, quercitrin, eridictyol, didymin, naringenin, luteolin, sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, naringin, and hesperidin were fairly stable whereas quercetin was degraded significantly by US treatment. The types of solvent and temperature used were important factors that determined the resulting degradation reactions. The degradation rate of quercetin was highest in 80% ethanol aqueous solution and decreased with increasing temperature. Longer US durations caused increases in the extent of quercetin degradation. Liquid height, ultrasonic intensity, pulse length, and duty cycle of US affected degradation rates but did not change the nature of degradation of the flavonoids. Four types of reactions occurred simultaneously for quercetin under US treatment: oxidation, addition, polymerization, and decomposition. Eight degradation products were tentatively identified as dimer, alcohol addition, oxidation, and decomposition products.

  4. Effect of Temperature on Film Thickness of Two Types of Commonly used Luting Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Praveen; Priyadarshini, Reddy; Kumar, Yasangi M; Priya, K Shanthi; Chunchuvyshnavi, Chunchuvyshnavi; Yerrapragada, Harika

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of temperature change on film thickness of both types of cements. Totally, 60 samples were prepared with 10 in each subgroup, thus comprising 30 in each group. Materials tested were glass ionomer cement (GIC) type I and zinc phosphate type I. Samples were manipulated with manufacturer's instructions and tested according to American Dental Association (ADA) guidelines. The mean values of film thickness were recorded for both groups I and II. In intragroup comparison of group 1, subgroup III (26.560 ± 0.489 urn) was found to have the highest film thickness followed by subgroup II (24.182 ± 0.576 urn) and the lowest in subgroup I (20.209 ± 0.493 urn). In intragroup comparison of group II, the film thickness recorded in subgroup III (25.215 ± 0.661 urn) was the highest followed by subgroup II (21.471 ± 0.771 urn) and the least in subgroup I (17.951 ± 0.654 urn; p film thickness than group I (23.650 ± 0.271). The results were found to be statistically significant (p film thickness. Zinc phosphate has less film thickness than GIC. Zinc phosphate should be preferred over GIC in clinical practice, and more stress should be given in mechanical preparation of crowns for better retentive quality of prosthesis.

  5. Effects of pH on antioxidant and prooxidant properties of common medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayliak Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied in vitro and vivo antioxidant and prooxidant abilities of aqueous extracts from Rosa canina L., Rhodiola rosea L., Hypericum perforatum L., and Gentiana lutea L. Methodology: Total antioxidant capacity was measured by four assays (phosphomolybdate method, Fe3+-reducing activity, ABTS•+ scavenging, H2O2 scavenging. Prooxidant activity was estimated by H2O2 production. Yeast viability in the presence of H2O2 and/or plant extracts was determined by plating or by counting live cells’ number. Results: Plant extracts differed in the total phenolic content (R. canina > R. rosea > H. perforatum > G. lutea which clearly correlated with their ABTS•+ scavenging activity (R2 = 0.963. H2O2 scavenging activity was not clearly associated with plant phenol levels and was significantly higher in acidic, than in alkaline medium. In line with this, plant extracts effectively protected yeast S. cereviasiae against H2O2 and stimulated reproductive ability of yeast cells at acidic but not at alkaline pH. At alkaline pH, plant extracts produced certain amounts of H2O2 which were related to their phenolic content. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of plant extracts is decreased at alkaline pH with an increase in the prooxidant activity. It reduces protective capacity of plant extracts against oxidative and other stresses in vivo.

  6. Comparative Effectiveness Research, Genomics-Enabled Personalized Medicine, and Rapid Learning Health Care: A Common Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Kuderer, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite stunning advances in our understanding of the genetics and the molecular basis for cancer, many patients with cancer are not yet receiving therapy tailored specifically to their tumor biology. The translation of these advances into clinical practice has been hindered, in part, by the lack of evidence for biomarkers supporting the personalized medicine approach. Most stakeholders agree that the translation of biomarkers into clinical care requires evidence of clinical utility. The highest level of evidence comes from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). However, in many instances, there may be no RCTs that are feasible for assessing the clinical utility of potentially valuable genomic biomarkers. In the absence of RCTs, evidence generation will require well-designed cohort studies for comparative effectiveness research (CER) that link detailed clinical information to tumor biology and genomic data. CER also uses systematic reviews, evidence-quality appraisal, and health outcomes research to provide a methodologic framework for assessing biologic patient subgroups. Rapid learning health care (RLHC) is a model in which diverse data are made available, ideally in a robust and real-time fashion, potentially facilitating CER and personalized medicine. Nonetheless, to realize the full potential of personalized care using RLHC requires advances in CER and biostatistics methodology and the development of interoperable informatics systems, which has been recognized by the National Cancer Institute's program for CER and personalized medicine. The integration of CER methodology and genomics linked to RLHC should enhance, expedite, and expand the evidence generation required for fully realizing personalized cancer care. PMID:23071236

  7. Protective effect of Lannea coromandelica Houtt. Merrill. against three common pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurvedic text reports suggested Lannea coromandelica is used in various microbial origin disorders like dysentery, sore eyes and leprosy, genital wounds. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial effect of L. coromandelica Houtt. Merrill. (Anacardiaceae on microbes which cause female reproductive tract infection. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous bark extract (Ext. of L. coromandelica were screened against strains of Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Antimicrobial assay had been done with agar well diffusion method. Results: Ethanolic extracts [100% (16 mg, 75% (12 mg and 50% (8 mg] of L. coromandelica exhibited zone of inhibition (ZI 19.21 mm, 18.45 mm, 16.41 mm and 18.12 mm, 17.35 mm, 16.35 mm against S. aureus and S. pyogens, respectively. However, only 100% and 75% ethanolic extract showed (ZI-19.18 mm, 16.29 mm activity against C. albicans. Nevertheless, aqueous extract (100% showed higher antifungal activity (ZI-16.97 mm. Ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B were used as a standard drugs in the present study. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that L. coromandelica Houtt. Merrill. have antibacterial activity against S. pyogens, S. aureus and antifungal property against C. albicans. Our findings corroborate the ethnobotanical use of L. coromandelica in traditional medicine system (Ayurveda of India.

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on growth and survival of common seed-borne fungi in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, J.P. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia 741235, WB (India); Department of Atomic Energy Consortium for Scientific Research, University Grant Commission, Kolkata Center, 3/LB-8, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Center for Study of Man and Environment, CK-11, Sector-II, Kolkata 700091 (India)], E-mail: jyoti_maity@yahoo.com; Chakraborty, A. [Department of Atomic Energy Consortium for Scientific Research, University Grant Commission, Kolkata Center, 3/LB-8, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Chanda, S. [Center for Study of Man and Environment, CK-11, Sector-II, Kolkata 700091 (India); Santra, S.C. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia 741235, WB (India)

    2008-07-15

    The present work describes radiation-induced effects of major seeds like Oryza sativa Cv-2233, Oryza sativa Cv-Shankar, Cicer arietinum Cv-local and seed-borne fungi like Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp., Trichoderma sp. and Curvularia sp. {sup 60}Co gamma source at 25 deg. C emitting gamma ray at 1173 and 1332 keV energy was used for irradiation. Dose of gamma irradiation up to 3 kGy (0.12 kGy/h) was applied for exposing the seed and fungal spores. Significant depletion of the fungal population was noted with irradiation at 1-2 kGy, whereas germinating potential of the treated grain did not alter significantly. However, significant differential radiation response in delayed seed germination, colony formation of the fungal spores and their depletion of growth were noticed in a dose-dependent manner. The depletion of the fungal viability (germination) was noted within the irradiation dose range of 1-2 kGy for Alternaria sp. and Aspergillus sp., while 0.5-1 kGy for Trichoderma sp. and Curvularia sp. However, complete inhibition of all the selected fungi was observed above 2.5 kGy.

  9. Effects of Ramadan fasting on common upper gastrointestinal disorders: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Seifi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is the ninth month of Muslim's calendar during which Muslims fast. Ramadan lasts 29-30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon. Fasting during Ramadan has significant health effects. The present study aimed at reviewing the literature of the impact of Ramadan fasting on upper gastrointestinal disorders. Methods: MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched  by using ((“Ramadan” R   fasting” AND( "Upper Gastrointestinal Tract" OR "Gastrointestinal Diseases" OR "Dyspepsia" OR "Gastroesophageal Reflux"  OR "Peptic Ulcer" OR "Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage" as keywords in the title and abstract. Relevant, non- duplicate full articles written in English were reviewed. Results: Gastric acid and pepsin secretion increase during Ramadan fasting, probably associated with dyspeptic symptoms. Regarding peptic ulcer frequency, results are inconsistent. However, peptic ulcer complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding and peptic ulcer perforation increase during Ramadan fasting. Conclusion: Fasting during Ramadan seems to be beneficial for healthy individuals, but in people with gastrointestinal disorders, it might be harmful as it increases the risk of complications. Therefore, taking medical advice before Ramadan fasting is highly recommended to people suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms.

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on growth and survival of common seed-borne fungi in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, J.P.; Chakraborty, A.; Chanda, S.; Santra, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The present work describes radiation-induced effects of major seeds like Oryza sativa Cv-2233, Oryza sativa Cv-Shankar, Cicer arietinum Cv-local and seed-borne fungi like Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp., Trichoderma sp. and Curvularia sp. 60 Co gamma source at 25 deg. C emitting gamma ray at 1173 and 1332 keV energy was used for irradiation. Dose of gamma irradiation up to 3 kGy (0.12 kGy/h) was applied for exposing the seed and fungal spores. Significant depletion of the fungal population was noted with irradiation at 1-2 kGy, whereas germinating potential of the treated grain did not alter significantly. However, significant differential radiation response in delayed seed germination, colony formation of the fungal spores and their depletion of growth were noticed in a dose-dependent manner. The depletion of the fungal viability (germination) was noted within the irradiation dose range of 1-2 kGy for Alternaria sp. and Aspergillus sp., while 0.5-1 kGy for Trichoderma sp. and Curvularia sp. However, complete inhibition of all the selected fungi was observed above 2.5 kGy

  11. Preventive and curative effects of acupuncture on the common cold: a multicentre randomized controlled trial in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Kenji; Shichidou, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Etsuko; Nabeta, Tomoyuki; Kitakouji, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Shigekatsu; Nishida, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Takahashi, Norihito; Yano, Tadashi; Tanzawa, Syouhachi

    2004-12-01

    To determine the preventive and curative effects of manual acupuncture on the symptoms of the common cold. Students and staff in five Japanese acupuncture schools (n=326) were randomly allocated to acupuncture and no-treatment control groups. A specific needling point (Y point) on the neck was used bilaterally. Fine acupuncture needles were gently manipulated for 15 s, evoking de qi sensation. Acupuncture treatments were performed four times during the 2-week experimental period with a 2-week follow-up period. A common cold diary was scored daily for 4 weeks, and a common cold questionnaire was scored before each acupuncture treatment and twice at weekly intervals. A reliability test for the questionnaire was performed on the last day of recording. Five of the 326 subjects who were recruited dropped out. The diary score in the acupuncture group tended to decrease after treatment, but the difference between groups was not significant (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, log rank test P=0.53, Cox regression analysis, P>0.05). Statistically significantly fewer symptoms were reported in the questionnaire by the acupuncture group than control group (P=0.024, general linear model, repeated measure). Significant inter-centre (Pcold. A significantly positive effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in the summed questionnaire data, although a highly significant inter-centre difference was observed. Needling on the neck using the Japanese fine needle manipulating technique was shown to be effective and safe. The use of acupuncture for symptoms of the common cold symptoms should be considered, although further evidence from placebo controlled RCTs is required.

  12. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  13. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  14. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  15. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, Christoph; Fedorova, Ganna; Prokes, Miroslav; Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour

    2013-01-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L −1 to μg L −1 . In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC 50 values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L −1 for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L −1 . Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L −1 of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of common carp. • The

  16. Research on common methods for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities of iron and steel enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Considering the large quantities of wastewater generated from iron and steel enterprises in China, this paper is aimed to research the common methods applied for evaluating the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises. Based on survey results on environmental protection performance, technological economy, resource & energy consumption, services and management, an indicator system for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities is set up. By discussing the standards and industrial policies in and out of China, 27 key secondary indicators are further defined on the basis of investigation on main equipment and key processes for wastewater treatment, so as to determine the method for setting key quantitative and qualitative indicators for evaluation indicator system. It is also expected to satisfy the basic requirements of reasonable resource allocation, environmental protection and sustainable economic development, further improve the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises, and reduce the emission of hazardous substances and environmental impact.

  17. Modelling Common Agricultural Policy-Water Framework Directive interactions and cost-effectiveness of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Russell, Graham; Topp, Cairistiona; Louhichi, Kamel; Moran, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Selecting cost-effective measures to regulate agricultural water pollution to conform to the Water Framework Directive presents multiple challenges. A bio-economic modelling approach is presented that has been used to explore the water quality and economic effects of the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy Reform and to assess the cost-effectiveness of input quotas and emission standards against nitrate leaching, in a representative case study catchment in Scotland. The approach combines a biophysical model (NDICEA) with a mathematical programming model (FSSIM-MP). The results indicate only small changes due to the Reform, with the main changes in farmers' decision making and the associated economic and water quality indicators depending on crop price changes, and suggest the use of target fertilisation in relation to crop and soil requirements, as opposed to measures targeting farm total or average nitrogen use.

  18. Personally important posttraumatic growth in adolescents: The effect on self-esteem beyond commonly defined posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taku, Kanako; McDiarmid, Leah

    2015-10-01

    Research on posttraumatic growth (PTG), positive psychological changes that may occur as a result of highly stressful life events, reveals adolescents are able to experience PTG. The current study tests individual differences among adolescents in relative importance of PTG and examines the relationships among personally important PTG, commonly defined PTG, and self-esteem. Adolescents (N = 145) with the mean age of 15.75 (SD = 1.13) completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and PTG Inventory, and then reported which items on the PTG Inventory were personally important to them. Results indicated within-scale differences in item importance on the PTG Inventory. Personally important PTG was a better predictor of adolescent self-esteem than commonly defined PTG, measured as total PTGI score or each of the five factors. These findings suggest future research should look at both short-term and long-term effects of personally important PTG as well as commonly defined PTG. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Making the Common Good Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  20. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Finley, Daniel L.; Flint, Paul L.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  1. Development and Characterization of a High Throughput Screen to investigate the delayed Effects of Radiations Commonly Encountered in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. F.

    Astronauts based on the space station or on long-term space missions will be exposed to high Z radiations in the cosmic environment In order to evaluate the potentially deleterious effects of exposure to radiations commonly encountered in space we have developed and characterized a high throughput assay to detect mutation deletion events and or hyperrecombination in the progeny of exposed cells This assay is based on a plasmid vector containing a green fluorescence protein reporter construct We have shown that after stable transfection of the vector into human or hamster cells this construct can identify mutations specifically base changes and deletions as well as recombination events e g gene conversion or homologous recombination occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation Our focus has been on those events occurring in the progeny of an irradiated cell that are potentially associated with radiation induced genomic instability rather than the more conventional assays that evaluate the direct immediate effects of radiation exposure Considerable time has been spent automating analysis of surviving colonies as a function of time after irradiation in order to determine when delayed instability is induced and the consequences of this delayed instability The assay is now automated permitting the evaluation of potentially rare events associated with low dose low dose rate radiations commonly encountered in space

  2. Commonly used bowel preparations have significant and different effects upon cell proliferation in the colon: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Stuart A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of such studies, but there is little data on the impact of commonly used bowel preparations on markers of cell proliferation. Methods Crypt length, crypt cellularity and crypt cell proliferation were assessed in biopsies acquired after preparation with either Klean-Prep or Picolax. Crypt cell proliferation was assessed by whole-mount mitotic figure count, and by two different immunohistochemical (IHC labelling methods (Ki-67 and pHH3. Subsequent biopsies were obtained from the same patients without bowel preparation and similarly assessed. Parameters were compared between groups using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. Results There were significant differences in labelling indices (LI between biopsies taken after Klean-prep and those taken after Picolax preparation, for both Ki67 (p = 0.019 and pHH3 (p = 0.017. A similar trend was seen for whole-mount mitotic figure counts. Suppression or elevation of proliferation parameters by bowel preparation may mask any effect due to an intervention or disease. Conclusion Commonly used bowel preparations may have significant and different effects on crypt cell proliferation. This should be taken into account when designing studies and when considering the findings of existing studies.

  3. Biological effect of 60Co chronic irradiation on different development stage in common wheat (T. aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Youliang; Yang Pinghua; Xie Yukang

    1991-01-01

    Common wheats were irradiated in 60 Co garden at the stages of plant mature sporophyte, gametophyte and zygote-young embryo during the growing cycle. The biological effects of M 1 and M 2 was significantly related to the development stage of irradiation. When irradiated in the phase of zygote-young embryo, the emergence rate of M 2 was greatly influenced, but the irradiation had a little effect on the fertility of M 1 . The rate of seedling emergence in M 2 can be used for determining optimal dose of irradiation. The rate of micro-nuclei cells were low in the root tip cells of M 1 and seedling cells of M 2 . The M 1 is the major generation of irradiation injury. The irradiation injury of M 2 is minor. M 2 is the first generation for mutant selection. The generation gradation of chronic irradiation was discussed

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of endoscopic ultrasound versus magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in patients with suspected common bile duct stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Morris

    Full Text Available Patients with suspected common bile duct (CBD stones are often diagnosed using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, an invasive procedure with risk of significant complications. Using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS or Magnetic Resonance CholangioPancreatography (MRCP first to detect CBD stones can reduce the risk of unnecessary procedures, cut complications and may save costs.This study sought to compare the cost-effectiveness of initial EUS or MRCP in patients with suspected CBD stones.This study is a model based cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs per patient from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS over a 1 year time horizon. A decision tree model was constructed and populated with probabilities, outcomes and cost data from published sources, including one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Using MRCP to select patients for ERCP was less costly than using EUS to select patients or proceeding directly to ERCP ($1299 versus $1753 and $1781, respectively, with similar QALYs accruing to each option (0.998, 0.998 and 0.997 for EUS, MRCP and direct ERCP, respectively. Initial MRCP was the most cost-effective option with the highest monetary net benefit, and this result was not sensitive to model parameters. MRCP had a 61% probability of being cost-effective at $29,000, the maximum willingness to pay for a QALY commonly used in the UK.From the perspective of the UK NHS, MRCP was the most cost-effective test in the diagnosis of CBD stones.

  5. Common Core State Standards and Teacher Effectiveness. Q&A with Ross Wiener, Ph.D. REL Mid-Atlantic Teacher Effectiveness Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this REL Mid-Atlantic webinar, Dr. Ross Wiener, Vice President and Executive Director of the Education and Society Program, Aspen Institute, discussed strategies for integrating the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) into teacher effectiveness systems, including ways in which the CCSS can support professional growth and inform teacher…

  6. A common-garden study of resource-island effects on a native and an exotic, annual grass after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Amber N.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-soil variation related to perennial-plant resource islands (coppices) interspersed with relatively bare interspaces is a major source of heterogeneity in desert rangelands. Our objective was to determine how native and exotic grasses vary on coppice mounds and interspaces (microsites) in unburned and burned sites and underlying factors that contribute to the variation in sagebrush-steppe rangelands of the Idaho National Lab, where interspaces typically have abiotic crusts. We asked how the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve) were distributed among the microsites and measured their abundances in three replicate wildfires and nearby unburned areas. We conducted a common-garden study in which soil cores from each burned microsite type were planted with seed of either species to determine microsite effects on establishment and growth of native and exotic grasses. We assessed soil physical properties in the common-garden study to determine the intrinsic properties of each microsite surface and the retention of microsite soil differences following transfer of soils to the garden, to plant growth, and to wetting/drying cycles. In the field study, only bluebunch wheatgrass density was greater on coppice mounds than interspaces, in both unburned and burned areas. In the common-garden experiment, there were microsite differences in soil physical properties, particularly in crust hardness and its relationship to moisture, but soil properties were unaffected by plant growth. Also in the experiment, both species had equal densities yet greater dry mass production on coppice-mound soils compared to interspace soils, suggesting microsite differences in growth but not establishment (likely related to crust weakening resulting from watering). Coppice-interspace patterning and specifically native-herb recovery on coppices is likely important for postfire resistance of this rangeland to cheatgrass.

  7. Investigations of effects of pilot injection with change in level of compression ratio in a common rail diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajarlawar Nilesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available These day diesel engines are gaining lots of attention as prime movers for various source of transportation. It offers better drive ability, very good low end torque and importantly the lower CO2 emission. Diesel engines are bridging the gap between gasoline and diesel engines. Better noise vibration and harshness levels of gasoline engine are realized to great extent in diesel engine, thanks to common rail direct injection system. Common rail injection system is now well known entity. Its unique advantage is flexible in operation. In common rail injection system, number of injection prior and after main injection at different injection pressure is possible. Due to multiple injections, gain in emission reduction as well as noise has been already experienced and demonstrated by researcher in the past. However, stringent emission norms for diesel engine equipped vehicle demands for further lower emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx and particulate matter (PM. In the present paper, authors attempted to study the effect of multiple injections in combination with two level of compression ratio. The aim was to study the combustion behavior with the reduced compression ratio which is going to be tried out as low temperature combustion concept in near future. The results were compared with the current level of compression ratio. Experiments were carried out in 2.2L cubic capacity engine with two levels of compression ratios. Pilot injection separation and quantities were varied keeping the main injection, rail pressure, boost pressure and EGR rate constant. Cylinder pressure traces and gross heat release rates were measured and analyzed to understand the combustion behavior.

  8. Effects of iodinated contrast media on common carotid and brachial artery blood flow and wall shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irace, C.; Tamburini, S.; Bertucci, B.; Franceschi, M.S. de; Gnasso, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the intravenous contrast media iomeprol on wall shear stress, blood flow and vascular parameters in the common carotid and brachial artery. Thirty outpatients undergoing thoracic or abdominal spiral CT scans were studied. The internal diameter and flow velocity of the common carotid and brachial artery were evaluated by ultrasound, and blood viscosity was measured before and after low osmolality iomeprol (Iomeron 350) injection. The wall shear stress, blood flow and pulsatility index were calculated. To test the differences between groups, the Wilcoxon rank test and Mann Whitney U test were applied. Blood viscosity decreased slightly, but significantly after contrast media (4.6±0.7 vs. 4.5±0.7 mPa.s, P=0.02). Contrarily, blood flow and wall shear stress did not change in the common carotid artery, but significantly decreased in the brachial artery (0.9±0.4 vs. 0.6±0.3 ml/s, P<0.0001, and 41.5±13.9 vs. 35.3±11.0 dynes/cm2, P<0.002, respectively), whereas the pulsatility index significantly increased in the brachial artery (5.0±3.3 vs. 7.5±5.3, P<0.001). Iomeprol injection causes blood flow and wall shear stress reduction of the brachial artery; the rise in the pulsatility index suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether these modifications can be clinically relevant. (orig.)

  9. Effect of common polymorphisms of the farnesoid X receptor and bile acid transporters on the pharmacokinetics of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Miao; Fok, Benny S P; Wo, Siu-Kwan; Lee, Vincent H L; Zuo, Zhong; Tomlinson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a natural, dihydroxy bile acid, promotes gallstone dissolution and has been attributed with several other beneficial effects. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) may influence the pharmacokinetics of UDCA by modulating the expression of bile acid transporters. This exploratory study examined whether common functional polymorphisms in FXR and in bile acid transporter genes affect the pharmacokinetics of exogenous UDCA. Polymorphisms in genes for transporters involved in bile acid transport, solute carrier organic anion 1B1 (SLCO1B1) 388A>G and 521T>C, solute carrier 10A1 (SLC10A1) 800 C>T and ATP-binding cassette B11 (ABCB11) 1331T>C, and the FXR -1G>T polymorphism were genotyped in 26 male Chinese subjects who ingested single oral 500-mg doses of UDCA. Plasma concentrations of UDCA and its major conjugate metabolite glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) were determined. The mean systemic exposure of UDCA was higher in the five subjects with one copy of the FXR -1G>T variant allele than in those homozygous for the wild-type allele (n = 21) (AUC0-24 h : 38.5 ± 28.2 vs. 20.9 ± 8.0 μg h/mL, P = 0.021), but this difference appeared mainly due to one outlier with the -1GT genotype and elevated baseline and post-treatment UDCA concentrations. After excluding the outlier, body weight was the only factor associated with plasma concentrations of UDCA and there were no significant associations with the other polymorphisms examined. None of the polymorphisms affected the pharmacokinetics of GUDCA. This study showed that the common polymorphisms in bile acid transporters had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of exogenous UDCA but an effect of the FXR polymorphism cannot be excluded. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. A meta-analysis of the effects of common management actions on the nest success of North American birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartway, Cynthia; Mills, L Scott

    2012-08-01

    Management strategies for the recovery of declining bird populations often must be made without sufficient data to predict the outcome of proposed actions or sufficient time and resources necessary to collect these data. We quantitatively reviewed studies of bird management in Canada and the United States to evaluate the relative efficacy of 4 common management interventions and to determine variables associated with their success. We compared how livestock exclusion, prescribed burning, removal of predators, and removal of cowbirds (Molothrus ater) affect bird nest success and used meta-regression to evaluate the influence of species and study-specific covariates on management outcomes. On average, all 4 management interventions increased nest success. When common species and threatened, endangered, or declining species (as defined by long-term trend data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey) were analyzed together, predator removal was the most effective management option. The difference in mean nest success between treatment and control plots in predator-removal experiments was more than twice that of either livestock exclusion or prescribed burning. However, when we considered management outcomes from only threatened, endangered, or declining species, livestock exclusions resulted in the greatest mean increase in nest success, more than twice that of the 3 other treatments. Our meta-regression results indicated that between-species variation accounted for approximately 86%, 40%, 35%, and 7% of the overall variation in the results of livestock-exclusion, prescribed-burn, predator-removal, and cowbird-removal studies, respectively. However, the covariates we tested explained significant variation only in outcomes among prescribed-burn studies. The difference in nest success between burned and unburned plots displayed a significant, positive trend in association with time since fire and was significantly larger in grasslands than in woodlands. Our results

  11. The effects of common footwear on stance-phase mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Scham, Joel; Orendurff, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Prosthetic feet are prescribed based on their mechanical function and user functional level. Subtle changes to the stiffness and hysteresis of heel, midfoot, and forefoot regions can influence the dynamics and economy of gait in prosthesis users. However, the user's choice of shoes may alter the prosthetic foot-shoe system mechanical characteristics, compromising carefully prescribed and rigorously engineered performance of feet. Observe the effects of footwear on the mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system including commonly prescribed prosthetic feet. Repeated-measures, Mechanical characterization. The stiffness and energy return was measured using a hydraulic-driven materials test machine across combinations of five prosthetic feet and four common shoes as well as a barefoot condition. Heel energy return decreased by an average 4%-9% across feet in all shoes compared to barefoot, with a cushioned trainer displaying the greatest effect. Foot designs that may improve perceived stability by providing low heel stiffness and rapid foot-flat were compromised by the addition of shoes. Shoes altered prosthesis mechanical characteristics in the sagittal and frontal planes, suggesting that shoe type should be controlled or reported in research comparing prostheses. Understanding of how different shoes could alter certain gait-related characteristics of prostheses may aid decisions on footwear made by clinicians and prosthesis users. Clinical relevance Shoes can alter function of the prosthetic foot-shoe system in unexpected and sometimes undesirable ways, often causing similar behavior across setups despite differences in foot design, and prescribing clinicians should carefully consider these effects on prosthesis performance.

  12. Effects of olestra and sorbitol consumption on objective measures of diarrhea: impact of stool viscosity on common gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRorie, J; Zorich, N; Riccardi, K; Bishop, L; Filloon, T; Wason, S; Giannella, R

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of olestra and sorbitol consumption on three accepted objective measures of diarrhea (stool output >250 g/day, liquid/watery stools, bowel movement frequency >3/day), and how stool composition influences reports of common gastrointestinal symptoms. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of sorbitol (40 g/day in candy), a poorly absorbed sugar-alcohol with known osmotic effects, with those of olestra (20 or 40 g/day in potato chips), a nonabsorbed fat, on objective measures of stool composition and GI symptoms. Sixty-six subjects resided on a metabolic ward for 12 days: 2 days lead-in, 4 days baseline, 6 days treatment. Sorbitol 40 g/day resulted in loose/liquid stools within 1-3 h of consumption. In contrast, olestra resulted in a dose-responsive stool softening effect after 2-4 days of consumption. Subjects reported "diarrhea" when mean stool apparent viscosity (peak force (PF), g) decreased from a perceived "normal" (mean +/- SE, 1355 +/- 224 g PF; firm stool) to loose (260 +/- 68 g PF) stool. Mean apparent viscosity of stool during treatment: placebo, 1363 +/- 280 g (firm); olestra 20 g/day 743 +/- 65 g (soft); olestra 40 g/day, 563 +/- 105 g (soft); and sorbitol 40 g/day, 249 +/- 53 g (loose). Of the 1098 stool samples collected, 38% (419/1098) were rated by subjects as "diarrhea," yet only 2% of treatment days (all in the sorbitol treatment group) met commonly accepted criteria for a clinical diarrhea. Sorbitol, but not olestra, increased the severity of abdominal cramping, urgency and nausea compared to placebo. Olestra consumption, at levels far in excess of normal snacking conditions, resulted in a gradual stool softening effect after several days of consumption, did not meet any of the three objective measures of diarrhea, and did not increase GI symptoms. Sorbitol consumption, at only 80% of the dose requiring a "laxative effect" information label, resulted in rapid onset loose

  13. Behavioural Effects of Tourism on Oceanic Common Dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: The Effects of Markov Analysis Variations and Current Tour Operator Compliance with Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Anna M.; Christiansen, Fredrik; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Pawley, Matthew D. M.; Orams, Mark B.; Stockin, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within conservation management

  14. Behavioural effects of tourism on oceanic common dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: the effects of Markov analysis variations and current tour operator compliance with regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Anna M; Christiansen, Fredrik; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Pawley, Matthew D M; Orams, Mark B; Stockin, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within conservation management

  15. Behavioural effects of tourism on oceanic common dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: the effects of Markov analysis variations and current tour operator compliance with regulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Meissner

    Full Text Available Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within

  16. Effects of commonly consumed fruit juices and carbohydrates on redox status and anticancer biomarkers in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke M.; Nielsen, Salka E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2003-01-01

    /kg of diet. However, no effects were observed on hepatic glutathione S-transferase or quinone reductase activities, plasma redox status, or the activity of red blood cell antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that commonly consumed fruit juices can alter lipid and protein......Administration of apple juice, black currant juice, ora 1:1 combination of the two juices significantly decreased the level of the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde in plasma of female rats, whereas the protein oxidation biomarker 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde, was significantly increased...... following administration of orange juice, black currant juice, or the 1: 1 combination of apple and black currant juice. A significant increase in 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde was also observed in control rats given sucrose, fructose, and glucose in the drinking water at concentrations approximating...

  17. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Acupuncture Effect on Common Extensor Tendon Thickness in Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Fatma Gülçin; Öztürk, Gökhan Tuna; Bölük, Hüma; Akkuş, Selami

    2017-10-01

    To explore the effect of acupuncture on common extensor tendon (CET) thickness in patients with lateral epicondylitis (LE). Additionally, to identify whether clinical and ultrasonographic changes showed any correlation. Forty-one patients were randomly assigned to acupuncture and control groups. Conventional treatment (rest, NSAİİ, bracing, exercise) methods for LE were applied to all patients. In addition to this, the acupuncture treatment was applied to the acupuncture group. The visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the Duruoz Hand Index (DHI) for functioning of the affected limb, the pressure pain threshold, and CET thickness (via ultrasound imaging) were assessed before and end of the treatment in both groups. The VAS and DHI scores in both groups decreased. The pressure pain threshold and CET thickness only demonstrated improvement in the acupuncture group. These findings show that the CET thickness was reduced after 10 sessions of acupuncture treatment in LE patients.

  18. Compressive effect of the magnetic field on the positron range in commonly used positron emitters simulated using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Cao, Xingzhong; Liu, Fuyan; Tang, Haohui; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Baoyi; Wei, Long

    2017-11-01

    The compressive effect of a magnetic field on the positron range from commonly used positron emitters in PET (Positron Emission Tomography) was simulated using the Geant4 toolkit with H2O as the environmental material. The compression of the positron range, which was different in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, showed finite final variation of relative change rate versus the magnetic field. The variation greatly depended on the positron-emission energy spectrum in the same medium. Furthermore, the volume of the positron annihilation point was dramatically compressed as the magnetic field was set in the range of 3-6T. It was more prominent for 82Rb , which is generally used as a positron source in PET technology.

  19. [The effect of berberine administration of evaluation of the functional state of rat liver after ligation of common bile duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverinskiĭ, I V; Mel'nichenko, N G; Poplavskiĭ, V A; Sut'ko, I P; Telegin, P G; Shliakhtun, A G

    2013-01-01

    On the eighth day after ligation of the common bile duct in rats a significant increase in the serum content of total lipids, cholesterol bilirubin and ALT, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase was observed. In the microsomal fraction there was a marked decrease in the content and activity of microsomal monooxygenases. Introperitoneal injection of berberine (10 mg/kg) for 6 days caused a partial normalization of permeability of hepatocytes plasma membranes and activity microsomal flavin-containing monooxygenases. It is suggested that berberine is a substrate and inducer of flavin-containing monooxygenases. Membrane-stabilizing effect of berberine is probably realized at the level of inhibition of prooxidant status of liver cells.

  20. Common Ion Effects In Zeoponic Substrates: Dissolution And Cation Exchange Variations Due to Additions of Calcite, Dolomite and Wollastonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    c1inoptilolite-rich tuff-hydroxyapatite mixture (zeoponic substrate) has the potential to serve as a synthetic soil-additive for plant growth. Essential plant macro-nutrients such as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, ammonium and potassium are released into solution via dissolution of the hydroxyapatite and cation exchange on zeolite charged sites. Plant growth experiments resulting in low yield for wheat have been attributed to a Ca deficiency caused by a high degree of cation exchange by the zeolite. Batch-equilibration experiments were performed in order to determine if the Ca deficiency can be remedied by the addition of a second Ca-bearing, soluble, mineral such as calcite, dolomite or wollastonite. Variations in the amount of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite resulted in systematic changes in the concentrations of Ca and P. The addition of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite to the zeoponic substrate resulted in an exponential decrease in the phosphorous concentration in solution. The exponential rate of decay was greatest for calcite (5.60 wt. % -I), intermediate for wollastonite (2.85 wt.% -I) and least for dolomite (1.58 wt.% -I). Additions of the three minerals resulted in linear increases in the calcium concentration in solution. The rate of increase was greatest for calcite (3.64), intermediate for wollastonite (2.41) and least for dolomite (0.61). The observed changes in P and Ca concentration are consistent with the solubilities of calcite, dolomite and wollastonite and with changes expected from a common ion effect with Ca. Keywords: zeolite, zeoponics, common-ion effect, clinoptilolite, hydroxyapatite

  1. Dispositional Affect Moderates the Stress-Buffering Effect of Social Support on Risk for Developing the Common Cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to examine whether trait positive and negative affect (PA, NA) moderate the stress-buffering effect of perceived social support on risk for developing a cold subsequent to being exposed to a virus that causes mild upper respiratory illness. Analyses were based on archival data from 694 healthy adults (M age  = 31.0 years, SD = 10.7 years; 49.0% female; 64.6% Caucasian). Perceived social support and perceived stress were assessed by self-report questionnaire and trait affect by aggregating responses to daily mood items administered by telephone interview across several days. Subsequently, participants were exposed to a virus that causes the common cold and monitored for 5 days for clinical illness (infection + objective signs of illness). Two 3-way interactions emerged-Support × Stress × PA and Support × Stress × NA. The nature of these effects was such that among persons with high trait PA or low trait NA, greater social support attenuated the risk of developing a cold when under high but not low perceived stress; this stress-buffering effect did not emerge among persons with low trait PA or high trait NA. Dispositional affect might be used to identify individuals who may be most responsive to social support and support-based interventions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Control and game models of the Greenhouse effect. Economics essays on the comedy and tragedy of the commons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, H.S.J.

    1994-01-01

    Following chapter 1 (introduction and conclusions) in Chapter 2, the groundwork is laid for the analysis later on. First, the most relevant aspects of the Greenhouse Effect are discussed. The causes, trends, impacts and especially the policy options are highlighted. This elaboration will justify the choice of carbon dioxide emissions (CO 2 ) as the primary Greenhouse gas in later chapters. Next, the literature on environmental resource economics using optimal control models is critically surveyed. In Chapter 3, one-country models of the Greenhouse Effect are developed and four elements, often neglected in the literature are elaborated in particular. In Chapter 4, the issue of the 'tragedy of the commons' is highlighted by looking at the transboundary aspect of the Greenhouse Effect. To clarify this, assume the following prisoner's dilemma gamme of a world consisting of two countries. In Chapter 5, it is shown that (in-kind) technology transfers can overcome some of the incentive problems that render cash transfers prone to strategic behviour. (orig./UA)

  3. Effects of sequence of nylon bags rumen incubation on kinetics of degradation in some commonly used feedstuffs in dairy rations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Shuang-zhao; Arash Azarfar; ZOU Yang; LI Sheng-li; WANG Ya-jing; CAO Zhi-jun

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, most available information on the degradative behaviour of feeds in ruminants is based onin situ incubation in the rumen, and it is adopted by many feed evaluation systems currently in use for ruminants. However, the outcome of this technique might be affected by many factors such as sequence of nylon bags incubation in the rumen. The objective of current study was to investigate effects of sequence of nylon bag incubation on degradative behavior of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent ifber (NDF) and acid detergent ifber (ADF) in some feed ingredients commonly used in dairy rations, including alfalfa haylage, corn silage, corn grain and soybean meal. Four multiparous Holstein lactating cows iftted with permanent ruminal cannulas were used. The nylon bags containing feed samples either were placed in the rumen at once and removed at designated time intervals (all in-gradually out method; AG) or were placed in the rumen at designated time points and retrieved at once (gradually in-all out method; GA). Fractional rate of degradation of potentially degradable fraction, lag time and effective rumen degradability (ED) of DM and CP were signiifcantly higher in the AG compared to the GA method (P namely corn grain and soybean meal. This experiment is the ifrst time to investigate effects of two methods under the same experiment conditions, providing basic data for the determination of ED.

  4. Number and density discrimination rely on a common metric: Similar psychophysical effects of size, contrast, and divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S; Greenwood, John A; Dakin, Steven C

    2012-06-04

    While observers are adept at judging the density of elements (e.g., in a random-dot image), it has recently been proposed that they also have an independent visual sense of number. To test the independence of number and density discrimination, we examined the effects of manipulating stimulus structure (patch size, element size, contrast, and contrast-polarity) and available attentional resources on both judgments. Five observers made a series of two-alternative, forced-choice discriminations based on the relative numerosity/density of two simultaneously presented patches containing 16-1,024 Gaussian blobs. Mismatches of patch size and element size (across reference and test) led to bias and reduced sensitivity in both tasks, whereas manipulations of contrast and contrast-polarity had varied effects on observers, implying differing strategies. Nonetheless, the effects reported were consistent across density and number judgments, the only exception being when luminance cues were made available. Finally, density and number judgment were similarly impaired by attentional load in a dual-task experiment. These results are consistent with a common underlying metric to density and number judgments, with the caveat that additional cues may be exploited when they are available.

  5. Prevalence and Predicting Factors for Commonly Neglected Sexual Side Effects to External-Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Anders; Pedersen, Christian; Lindberg, Henriette; Bisbjerg, Rasmus; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2017-04-01

    Changes in sexual function other than erectile dysfunction are sparsely investigated after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. To investigate orgasmic dysfunction, urinary incontinence during sexual activity, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis in patients with prostate cancer treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). In February 2015, men treated with EBRT at our center 3 months to 5 years previously (N = 519) received a study-specific questionnaire. This was developed from purpose-built questions and validated tools including the Erection Hardness Scale. All patients had received a radiation dose of 78 Gy. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to disease characteristics. Outcome measurements were prevalence rates and predictors of these side effects as identified by multivariate logistic regression analyses. One hundred nine patients were eligible (sexually active and had completed androgen deprivation therapy) for inclusion. Twenty-four percent reported anorgasmia, 44% reported a decreased intensity of their orgasms, and 40% reported that the time it took to reach orgasm had increased. Eleven percent reported anejaculation. Fifteen percent reported orgasm-associated pain. Only 4% reported urinary incontinence during sexual activity. Subjective penile length loss in excess of 1 cm was reported by 42%. Twelve percent reported an altered curvature of their penis after EBRT. Six percent reported painful erections. Twenty-seven percent reported decreased sensitivity in the penis after EBRT, 2% reported a cold sensation, and 2% reported paresthesia. Increasing time since final treatment increased the risk of penile sensory disturbances (odds ratio = 1.05; P = .028). Orgasmic dysfunction, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis are common side effects of ERBT. Patients should be properly informed of the occurrence of these side effects before deciding which treatment to

  6. Effect of some commonly used pesticides on seed germination, biomass production and photosynthetic pigments in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Kanwal, Memoona; Murad, Waheed; Zia ur Rehman; Shafiq ur Rehman; Daud, M K; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic substances. Their toxicity may not be absolutely specific to the target organisms but can adversely affect different processes in the non-target host plants. In the present study, the effect of over application of four commonly used pesticides (emamectin benzoate, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) was evaluated on the germination, seedling vigor and photosynthetic pigments in tomato. The obtained results revealed that seed germination was decreased by the pesticides and this effect was more prominent at early stages of exposure. All the tested pesticides reduced the growth of tomato when applied in higher concentration than the recommended dose, but at lower doses the pesticides had some stimulatory effects on growth as compared to the control. A similar effect of pesticides was observed on the photosynthetic pigments, i.e. a decrease in pigments concentrations was caused at higher doses but an increase was observed at lower doses of pesticides. The calculation of EC50 values for different parameters revealed the lowest EC50 values for emamectin (ranged as 51-181 mg/L) followed by alpha-cypermethrin (191.74-374.39), lambda-cyhalothrin (102.43-354.28) and imidacloprid (430.29-1979.66 mg/L). A comparison of the obtained EC50 values for different parameters of tomato with the recommended doses revealed that over application of these pesticides can be harmful to tomato crop. In a few cases these pesticides were found toxic even at the recommended doses. However, a field based study in this regard should be conducted to further verify these results.

  7. Effect of steam explosion on in vitro gas production kinetics and rumen fermentation profiles of three common straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wen He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of steam explosion on in vitro gas production (GP and rumen fermentation profiles of common straws, in vitro cultivation was conducted for 96 h with the rumen fluid collected from steers. Different types of straw had various chemical compositions, which were affected by steam explosion (P<0.01. Steam explosion increased (P<0.01 the rate and volume of GP, lag time disappeared and asymptotic GP decreased, which were also affected (P<0.01 by the type of straw. The type of straw influenced (P<0.05 the final pH, while steam explosion exerted an effect (P<0.01 on the ammonia-nitrogen concentration. The proportions of individual volatile fatty acid (VFA, except acetate (A, differed (P<0.05 among the feeds. Steam explosion increased total VFA production and the proportion of propionate (P, while decreased the proportions of A, isobutyrate and valerate as well as the ratio A/P (P<0.01. The type of straw had an effect (P<0.05 on the activities of avicelase and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase, while steam explosion increased (P<0.01 the activities of avicelase, CMCase, β-glucanase and xylanase. The available energy concentrations and digestibilities differed (P<0.01 in the feeds and were increased (P<0.05 with steam explosion processing. The interaction straw type×treatments was significant (P<0.05 for most monitored parameters. These results suggest that steam explosion could improve rumen fermentability and energy utilisation of straw, being an effective pre-treatment method in feed industry.

  8. The Protective Effect of Liquorice Plant Extract on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malekinejad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of liquorice plant extract (LPE on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp was evaluated using fifty adult carps. The fish were cultured in a standard environment in terms of water flow rate, oxygen, pH, food and temperature. The fish were assigned into 5 groups (N = 10 as control, sham, and tests. The test groups were pre-treated for 3 h with various concentrations of LPE, 3 days before CCl4 exposure. The control and sham groups received normal saline before and after CCl4 exposure. To induce hepatotoxicity, animals in the sham and test groups were exposed against 100 l L-1 CCl4 for 45 min. The fish in all groups 1 h after CCl4 exposure were anesthetized and the blood samples were collected. Immediately the liver specimens were dissected out and were stored in 10 % formalin for further pathological studies. Determination of serum level of ALP and SGOT revealed that acute form of CCl4 exposure elevated significantly (P < 0.05 the serum level of either tested hepatic marker enzymes. While 3 days pretreatment with LPE prevented from ALP and SGOT enhancement. The pathological evaluation revealed that the CCl4 exposure resulted in a minor pathologic manifestation such as slight congestion, which the LPE pretreated groups showed the remarkable improvement. The anti-oxidant capacity of LPE was assayed by FRAP and DPPH methods. Both provided techniques showed that LPE exerts an excellent anti-oxidant effect. This data suggest that LPE exerts protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effect of LPE may attribute to its antioxidant capacity.

  9. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Velisek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine’s herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found.

  10. Effectiveness of common fish screen materials for protecting lamprey ammocoetes—Influence of sweeping velocities and decreasing flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2017-12-14

    In previous tests of the effectiveness of four common fish screen materials for excluding lamprey ammocoetes, we determined that woven wire (WW) allowed substantially more entrainment than perforated plate (PP), profile bar (PB), or Intralox (IL) material. These tests were simplistic because they used small vertically-oriented screens positioned perpendicular to the flow without a bypass or a sweeping velocity (SV). In the subsequent test discussed in this report, we exposed ammocoetes to much larger (2.5-m-wide) screen panels with flows up to 10 ft3 /s, a SV component, and a simulated bypass channel. The addition of a SV modestly improved protection of lamprey ammocoetes for all materials tested. A SV of 35 cm/s with an approach velocity (AV) of 12 cm/s, was able to provide protection for fish about 5–15 mm smaller than the protection provided by an AV of 12 cm/s without a SV component. The best-performing screen panels (PP, IL, and PB) provided nearly complete protection from entrainment for fish greater than 50-mm toal length, but the larger openings in the WW material only protected fish greater than 100-mm total length. Decreasing the AV and SV by 50 percent expanded the size range of protected lampreys by about 10–15 mm for those exposed to IL and WW screens, and it decreased the protective ability of PP screens by about 10 mm. Much of the improvement for IL and WW screens under the reduced flow conditions resulted from an increase in the number of lampreys swimming away from the screen. Fish of all sizes became impinged (that is, stuck on the screen surface for more than 1 s) on the screens, with the rate of impingement highest on PP (39– 72 percent) and lowest on WW (7–22 percent). Although impingements were common, injuries were rare, and 24-h post-test survival was greater than 99 percent. Our results refined the level of protection provided by these screen materials when both an AV and SV are present and confirmed our earlier recommendation that

  11. Phenotypic plasticity in the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina): long-term physiological effects of chronic hypoxia during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Oliver H; Eme, John; Rhen, Turk; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-01-15

    Studies of embryonic and hatchling reptiles have revealed marked plasticity in morphology, metabolism, and cardiovascular function following chronic hypoxic incubation. However, the long-term effects of chronic hypoxia have not yet been investigated in these animals. The aim of this study was to determine growth and postprandial O2 consumption (V̇o2), heart rate (fH), and mean arterial pressure (Pm, in kPa) of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) that were incubated as embryos in chronic hypoxia (10% O2, H10) or normoxia (21% O2, N21). We hypothesized that hypoxic development would modify posthatching body mass, metabolic rate, and cardiovascular physiology in juvenile snapping turtles. Yearling H10 turtles were significantly smaller than yearling N21 turtles, both of which were raised posthatching in normoxic, common garden conditions. Measurement of postprandial cardiovascular parameters and O2 consumption were conducted in size-matched three-year-old H10 and N21 turtles. Both before and 12 h after feeding, H10 turtles had a significantly lower fH compared with N21 turtles. In addition, V̇o2 was significantly elevated in H10 animals compared with N21 animals 12 h after feeding, and peak postprandial V̇o2 occurred earlier in H10 animals. Pm of three-year-old turtles was not affected by feeding or hypoxic embryonic incubation. Our findings demonstrate that physiological impacts of developmental hypoxia on embryonic reptiles continue into juvenile life. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Metabolic Effects of a Commonly Used Combined Hormonal Oral Contraceptive in Women With and Without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, Adeola A.; Essah, Paulina A.; Nestler, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Data on combined hormonal oral contraceptives' (OCs) effects on metabolic changes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been conflicting and were predominantly based on OCs with cyproterone acetate (unavailable in the United States) Most studies did not include normal women as controls. We compared metabolic changes before and after an OC commonly used in the United States between women with and without PCOS. Methods: Ten PCOS and 20 control women took ethinyl estradiol 35 μg and norgestimate 0.18/0.215/0.25 mg. Fasting glucose and insulin, area-under-the-curve (AUC) glucose and insulin, insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity index [HOMA-ISI] and Matsuda index), insulinogenic index (Δinsulin0–30 minutes/Δglucose0–30 minutes), blood pressure, and lipids were evaluated at baseline and after three cycles of OC. Results: At baseline, PCOS women had lower insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index p = 0.0093, HOMA-ISI p = 0.0397), higher fasting insulin (p = 0.0495), fasting glucose (p = 0.0393), AUC insulin (p = 0.0023), and triglycerides (p = 0.0044) versus controls. Baseline AUC glucose did not differ between PCOS women and controls. After 3 months of OC use, glucose tolerance worsened in PCOS women versus controls (p = 0.0468). Higher baseline androgens were predictive of worsened glucose tolerance, and a reduction of AUC insulin during OC use. The insulinogenic index significantly decreased in PCOS women (p glucose tolerance (demonstrated by AUC glucose) after 3 months of a commonly used OC compared with control women. Larger studies with longer follow-up should confirm these findings. PMID:26871978

  13. What is the effect of regular group exercise on maternal psychological outcomes and common pregnancy complaints? An assessor blinded RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakstad, Lene A H; Torset, Beate; Bø, Kari

    2016-01-01

    to examine the effects of supervised group exercise on maternal psychological outcomes and commonly reported pregnancy complaints. an observer-blinded randomized controlled trial. Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway. 105 sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women, mean age 30.7(± 4.0) years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 (± 4.3), were assigned to either exercise (n=52) or control group (n= 53) at mean gestation week 17.7 (± 4.2). the exercise intervention followed ACOG guidelines and included a 60 minutes general fitness class, with 40 minutes of endurance training/aerobic and 20 minutes of strength training and stretching/relaxation, performed at least twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks. outcome measures were assessed through standardized interviews pre- and post-intervention (gestation week 36.6, ± 0.9), and included psychological variables related to quality of life, well-being, body image and pregnancy depression, as well as assessment of 13 commonly reported pregnancy complaints. post-intervention, using intention to treat (ITT) analysis, women randomized to exercise rated their health significantly better compared to women in the control group (p=0.02) and reported less fatigue related to everyday activities (p=0.04). Women with complete exercise adherence (≥ 24 sessions) had significantly better scores on measurements of feelings related to sadness, hopelessness and anxiety (pbenefits. A qualitative study exploring the barriers of women in achieving recommended amount of activity may be necessary to understand this population and developing better clinical practice educational tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Strain effects in the common-cation II-VI heterostructures: case of ZnS/ZnSe superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Tit, N

    2003-01-01

    The electronic band-structures of the strained-layer ZnS/ZnSe (001) superlattices (SLs) have been investigated using the sp sup 3 s* tight-binding method, which includes the strain and spin-orbit effects. The SL band-structures are studied versus the biaxial strain, layer thickness, and band offsets. The results suggest that the common-cation II-VI heterojunction exhibit a vanishingly small conduction-band offset (CBO). It is shown that the SL valence-band top state is always a heavy-hole localized within ZnSe slabs; whereas the conduction-band edge state (electron) is sensitive to the biaxial strain (or VBO). To assess the strain effects, we considered three differently strained SLs corresponding to the three substrates: (i) ZnSe; (ii) ZnS sub 0 sub . sub 5 Se sub 0 sub . sub 5; and (iii) ZnS. The results show that all the studied SLs are of type-I except those strained to ZnS (case iii), that may exhibit type-I to type-II transition. One striking result obtained here is the existence of a critical VBO (V su...

  15. Effects of Canola Oil Biodiesel Fuel Blends on Combustion, Performance, and Emissions Reduction in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ki Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of canola oil biodiesel (BD to improve combustion and exhaust emissions in a common rail direct injection (DI diesel engine using BD fuel blended with diesel. Experiments were conducted with BD blend amounts of 10%, 20%, and 30% on a volume basis under various engine speeds. As the BD blend ratio increased, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at the low engine speed of 1500 rpm, while they increased at the middle engine speed of 2500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC increased at all engine speeds while the carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions were considerably reduced. On the other hand, the nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions only increased slightly. When increasing the BD blend ratio at an engine speed of 2000 rpm with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, the combustion pressure and IMEP tended to decrease. The CO and PM emissions decreased in proportion to the BD blend ratio. Also, the NOx emissions decreased considerably as the EGR rate increased whereas the BD blend ratio only slightly influenced the NOx emissions.

  16. Effects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Cognitive Functions: Evidence for a Common Nature

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    Georgia Andreou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS show similar neurocognitive impairments. Effects are more apparent in severe cases, whereas in moderate and mild cases the effects are equivocal. The exact mechanism that causes cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases is still unknown and only suggestions have been made for each disease separately. The primary objective of this review is to present COPD and OSAS impact on cognitive functions. Secondly, it aims to examine the potential mechanisms by which COPD and OSAS can be linked and provide evidence for a common nature that affects cognitive functions in both diseases. Patients with COPD and OSAS compared to normal distribution show significant deficits in the cognitive abilities of attention, psychomotor speed, memory and learning, visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive skills, and language. The severity of these deficits in OSAS seems to correlate with the physiological events such as sleep defragmentation, apnea/hypopnea index, and hypoxemia, whereas cognitive impairments in COPD are associated with hypoventilation, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia. These factors as well as vascocerebral diseases and changes in systemic hemodynamic seem to act in an intermingling and synergistic way on the cause of cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases. However, low blood oxygen pressure seems to be the dominant factor that contributes to the presence of cognitive deficits in both COPD and OSAS.

  17. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jichul; Benoit, Diane L; Watson, Alan K

    2016-06-01

    In southern Québec, supplement roadside ground covers (i.e. Trifolium spp.) struggle to establish near edges of major roads and thus fail to assist turf recruitment. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd) on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed (A. artemisiifolia) and ground cover legumes (Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium arvense). All metals inhibited T. arvense germination, but the effect was least on A. artemisiifolia. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. artemisiifolia. Germination of L. corniculatus was not affected by Zn, Pb, and Ni, but inhibited by Cu and Cd. Germination of C. varia was decreased by Ni, Cu, and Cd and delayed by Zn and Pb. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. artemisiifolia but highest in T. arvense when exposed to the metal treatments. L. corniculatus and C. varia seedlings survived when subjected to high levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. artemisiifolia along roadside edges can be associated with its greater tolerance of heavy metals. The findings also revealed that L. corniculatus is a potential candidate for supplement ground cover in metal-contaminated roadside edges in southern Québec, especially sites contaminated with Zn and Pb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Apple cider vinegar boosted immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of Lactobacillus casei in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Nejadmoghadam, Shabnam; Khalili, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of combined or singular administration of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and Lactobacillus casei in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) diet. An 8-week feeding trial was designed with following treatments: Control (basal diet), Pro (contains 10 7  CFU g -1 L. casei), LACV (contains 1% ACV), HACV (contains 2% ACV), Pro + LACV (contains 10 7  CFU g -1 L. casei plus 1% ACV) and Pro + HACV (contains 10 7  CFU g -1 L. casei plus 2% ACV). Evaluation of skin mucus revealed notable increase of total Ig level and lysozyme activity in Pro + LACV and Pro + HACV treatments compared other groups (P < 0.05). Similarly, serum total Ig and lysozyme activity in HACV, Pro + LACV and Pro + HACV fed carps was remarkably higher than other groups (P < 0.05). However, regarding serum alternative complement (ACH50) activity significant difference was observed just between Pro + HACV and control treatment (P < 0.05). The highest expression of immune related (LYZ, TNF-alpha, IL1b, IL8) and antioxidant enzymes genes (GSR, GST) were observed in carps fed Pro + HACV and Pro + LACV. The expression of GH gene expression in Pro, LACV and HACV treatments was significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The highest expression level of GH and IGF1 was observed in fish fed combined Pro and ACV (P < 0.05). These results indicated that co-administration of ACV boosted immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of L. casei and can be considered as a promising immunostimulants in early stage of common carp culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Monochloroacetic acid application is an effective alternative to cryotherapy for common and plantar warts in primary care: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, S.C.; Gussekloo, J.; Egberts, P.F.; Bavinck, J.N.; Waal, M.W. de; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Eekhof, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cryotherapy and salicylic acid (SA) often fail as treatments for skin warts. We examined the effectiveness of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) for patients with common or plantar warts. Consecutive patients aged 4 years and older with one or more newly diagnosed common or plantar warts were recruited in

  20. Effect of additives with common cation on the radiolysis of ammonium, sodium and potassium nitrates in admixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.P.; Garg, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma radiolysis of admixtures of NH 4 NO 3 , NaNO 3 and KNO 3 with additive salts having common cation has been studied over a wide range of nitrate salt concentration and absorbed dose. Radiolytic decomposition of nitrate salt depends on the concentration of nitrate in the admixture as well as the total absorbed dose. G(NO 2 - ) values calculated on the basis of electron fraction of the nitrate salt decrease with the increase in mol% of the nitrate salt in somewhat exponential manner. In (NaNO 3 + Na 2 SO 4 ) and (KNO 3 + KX, where X = Cl, Br, I) systems decomposition was found to increase linearly with the absorbed dose in the composition range of 20-100 mol%. The additives seem to exhibit sensitization effect causing extra decomposition by the energy transfer process in solid state. The efficiency of energy transfer depends on the nature of added salt, concentration of the nitrate in admixture and absorbed dose. (author)

  1. Molecular crowding defines a common origin for the Warburg effect in proliferating cells and the lactate threshold in muscle physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Vazquez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic glycolysis is a seemingly wasteful mode of ATP production that is seen both in rapidly proliferating mammalian cells and highly active contracting muscles, but whether there is a common origin for its presence in these widely different systems is unknown. To study this issue, here we develop a model of human central metabolism that incorporates a solvent capacity constraint of metabolic enzymes and mitochondria, accounting for their occupied volume densities, while assuming glucose and/or fatty acid utilization. The model demonstrates that activation of aerobic glycolysis is favored above a threshold metabolic rate in both rapidly proliferating cells and heavily contracting muscles, because it provides higher ATP yield per volume density than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In the case of muscle physiology, the model also predicts that before the lactate switch, fatty acid oxidation increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases to zero with concomitant increase in glucose utilization, in agreement with the empirical evidence. These results are further corroborated by a larger scale model, including biosynthesis of major cell biomass components. The larger scale model also predicts that in proliferating cells the lactate switch is accompanied by activation of glutaminolysis, another distinctive feature of the Warburg effect. In conclusion, intracellular molecular crowding is a fundamental constraint for cell metabolism in both rapidly proliferating- and non-proliferating cells with high metabolic demand. Addition of this constraint to metabolic flux balance models can explain several observations of mammalian cell metabolism under steady state conditions.

  2. The effects of captive versus wild rearing environments on long bone articular surfaces in common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Lewton

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The physical environments of captive and wild animals frequently differ in substrate types and compliance. As a result, there is an assumption that differences in rearing environments between captive and wild individuals produce differences in skeletal morphology. Here, this hypothesis is tested using a sample of 42 captive and wild common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Articular surface areas of the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, and tibia were calculated from linear breadth measurements, adjusted for size differences using Mosimann shape variables, and compared across sex and environmental groups using two-way ANOVA. Results indicate that the articular surfaces of the wrist and knee differ between captive and wild chimpanzees; captive individuals have significantly larger distal ulna and tibial plateau articular surfaces. In both captive and wild chimpanzees, males have significantly larger femoral condyles and distal radius surfaces than females. Finally, there is an interaction effect between sex and rearing in the articular surfaces of the femoral condyles and distal radius in which captive males have significantly larger surface areas than all other sex-rearing groups. These data suggest that long bone articular surfaces may be sensitive to differences experienced by captive and wild individuals, such as differences in diet, body mass, positional behaviors, and presumed loading environments. Importantly, these results only find differences due to rearing environment in some long bone articular surfaces. Thus, future work on skeletal morphology could cautiously incorporate data from captive individuals, but should first investigate potential intraspecific differences between captive and wild individuals.

  3. Conformational effects of a common codon 751 polymorphism on the C-terminal domain of the xeroderma pigmentosum D protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaco Regina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The xeroderma pigmentosum D (XPD protein is a DNA helicase involved in the repair of DNA damage, including nucleotide excision repair (NER and transcription-coupled repair (TCR. The C-terminal domain of XPD has been implicated in interactions with other components of the TFIIH complex, and it is also the site of a common genetic polymorphism in XPD at amino acid residue 751 (Lys->Gln. Some evidence suggests that this polymorphism may alter DNA repair capacity and increase cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these effects could be attributable to conformational changes in XPD induced by the polymorphism. Materials and Methods: Molecular dynamics techniques were used to predict the structure of the wild-type and polymorphic forms of the C-terminal domain of XPD and differences in structure produced by the polymorphic substitution were determined. Results: The results indicate that, although the general configuration of both proteins is similar, the substitution produces a significant conformational change immediately N-terminal to the site of the polymorphism. Conclusion: These results provide support for the hypothesis that this polymorphism in XPD could affect DNA repair capability, and hence cancer risk, by altering the structure of the C-terminal domain.

  4. Zinc Sulfate: An Effective Micronutrient for Common Colds in Children: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Gholamzadeh Baeis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Cold is defined as a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The disease is more common in children than in adults and usually requires greater attention and care. Methods This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial (zinc versus placebo of zinc was carried out using a repeated measures design. After excluding the cases that met the exclusion criteria, data was collected from 120 participants and analyzed. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months (June 2015 to August 2015. The intervention group received Zinc (1 mg/kg for 7 days and the control group received the same amount of placebo. Results The durations of runny nose and nasal congestion was significantly shorter in patients in the intervention group, who had received zinc, when compared with the control group (P = 0.017 and P = 0.001, respectively. Moreover, there were significant differences between patients, who received zinc and those, who did not receive the drug, in terms of the duration, severity of signs and symptoms, severity of illness, and weakness (P = 0.018. Conclusions Based on the results of this study and other similar studies, zinc sulfate has positive effects on children with colds. Thus, the results of these studies could be utilized by medical teams to adopt a more accurate and complete clinical approach towards the use of zinc sulfate for patients with colds.

  5. Therapeutic effects of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract on plasma biochemical parameters of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Mahdi; Soleimany, Vahid; Nematdoost Haghi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated preclinical and clinical safety of marshmallow ( Althaea officinalis L.) extract as a naturopathic medicine in common carp deliberately infected with Aeromonas hydrophila . The fish were fed 0 (control), 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 g of marshmallow extract for 60 days in a preclinical experiment and then, challenged with A. hydrophila for a 10-day experiment. Significant increases were observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activities and plasma creatinine levels in fish fed 10 g marshmallow extract per kg feed. However, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly decreased on day 60. The fish fed 2.50 g marshmallow extract per kg feed indicated increased levels of total protein and globulin. There were no significant changes in albumin levels ( p > 0.05). 2.50 and 5.00 g marshmallow significantly decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and increased glucose levels ( p Marshmallow extract at 5.00 and 10.00 g can adjust plasma biochemical parameters in fish challenged with A. hydrophila . The results of preclinical studies and pharmaceutical toxicity of marshmallow extract revealed that dietary levels lower than 5.00 g were safe and effective. The results of this clinical study demonstrated that marshmallow extract (5.00 g kg -1 feed) can protect fish against A. hydrophila .

  6. Effects of pilot injection timing and EGR on a modern V6 common rail direct injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli Abdullah, Nik; Mamat, Rizalman; Wyszynski, Miroslaw L.; Tsolakis, Anthanasios; Xu, Hongming

    2013-12-01

    Nitric oxide and smoke emissions in diesel engine can be controlled by optimising the air/fuel mixture. Early injection produces premixed charge resulted in simultaneous NOx and smoke emissions reduction. However, there could be an increase in hydrocarbons and CO emissions due to fuel impinged to the cylinder wall. The focus of the present work is to investigate the effects of a variation of pilot injection timing with EGR to NOx and smoke level on a modern V6 common rail direct injection. This study is carried out at two different engine load conditions of 30 Nm and 55 Nm, at constant engine speed of 2000 rpm. The results show that the early pilot injection timing contributed to the lower smoke level and higher NOx emissions. The higher level of NOx is due to higher combustion temperatures resulting from the complete combustion. Meanwhile, the lower smoke level is due to complete fuel combustion and soot oxidation. The early pilot injection timing produces an intermediate main ignition delay which also contributed to complete combustion. The formation of smoke is higher at a high engine load compared with low engine load due to the higher amount of fuel being injected.

  7. Effects of Commonly Used Pesticides in China on the Mitochondria and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence continues to accumulate that pesticides are the leading candidates of environmental toxins that may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. The mechanisms, however, remain largely unclear. According to epidemiological studies, we selected nine representative pesticides (paraquat, rotenone, chlorpyrifos, pendimethalin, endosulfan, fenpyroximate, tebufenpyrad, trichlorphon and carbaryl which are commonly used in China and detected the effects of the pesticides on mitochondria and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS function. Our results reveal that all the nine studied pesticides induce morphological changes of mitochondria at low concentrations. Paraquat, rotenone, chlorpyrifos, pendimethalin, endosulfan, fenpyroximate and tebufenpyrad induced mitochondria fragmentation. Furthermore, some of them (paraquat, rotenone, chlorpyrifos, fenpyroximate and tebufenpyrad caused a significant dose-dependent decrease of intracellular ATP. Interestingly, these pesticides which induce mitochondria dysfunction also inhibit 26S and 20S proteasome activity. However, two out of the nine pesticides, namely trichlorphon and carbaryl, were found not to cause mitochondrial fragmentation or functional damage, nor inhibit the activity of the proteasome, which provides significant guidance for selection of pesticides in China. Moreover, our results demonstrate a potential link between inhibition of mitochondria and the UPS, and pesticide-induced Parkinsonism.

  8. Palmitoylethanolamide: A Natural Body-Own Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Effective and Safe against Influenza and Common Cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Keppel Hesselink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA is a food component known since 1957. PEA is synthesized and metabolized in animal cells via a number of enzymes and exerts a multitude of physiological functions related to metabolic homeostasis. Research on PEA has been conducted for more than 50 years, and over 350 papers are referenced in PubMed describing the physiological properties of this endogenous modulator and its pharmacological and therapeutical profile. The major focus of PEA research, since the work of the Nobel laureate Levi-Montalcini in 1993, has been neuropathic pain states and mast cell related disorders. However, it is less known that 6 clinical trials in a total of nearly 4000 people were performed and published last century, specifically studying PEA as a therapy for influenza and the common cold. This was done before Levi-Montalcini’s clarification of PEA’s mechanism of action, analyzing the role of PEA as an anti-inflammatory agent. We will review in depth these studies, as the results support the effectiveness and safety of PEA in flu and respiratory infections.

  9. Effects of four commonly used UV filters on the growth, cell viability and oxidative stress responses of the Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Yuan, Tao; Zhou, Chuanqi; Cheng, Peng; Bai, Qifeng; Ao, Junjie; Wang, Wenhua; Zhang, Haimou

    2013-11-01

    UV filters are increasingly used in sunscreens and other personal care products. Although their residues have been widely identified in aquatic environment, little is known about the influences of UV filters to protozoan. The growth inhibition effects, cell viability and oxidative stress responses of four commonly used UV filters, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 4-methyl-benzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and octocrylene (OC), to protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila were investigated in this study. The 24-h EC50 values with 95% confidence intervals for BP-3 and 4-MBC were 7.544 (6.561-8.675) mg L(-1) and 5.125 (4.874-5.388) mg L(-1), respectively. EHMC and OC did not inhibit the growth of T. thermophila after 24h exposure at the tested concentrations. The results of cell viability assays with propidium iodide (PI) staining were consistent with that of the growth inhibition tests. As for BP-3 and 4-MBC, the relatively higher concentrations, i.e. of 10.0 and 15.0 mg L(-1), could lead to the cell membranes impairment after 4h exposure. With the increase of the exposure time to 6h, their adverse effects on cell viability of T. thermophila were observed at the relatively lower concentration groups (1.0 mg L(-1) and 5.0 mg L(-1)). In addition, it is noticeable that at environmentally relevant concentration (1.0 μg L(-1)), BP-3 and 4-MBC could lead to the significant increase of catalase (CAT) activities of the T. thermophila cells. Especially for the BP-3, the oxidative injuries were further confirmed by the reduction of glutathione (GSH) content. It is imperative to further investigate the additive action of UV filters and seek other sensitive endpoint, especially at environmentally relevant concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  11. Juxtaposition of micro and macro dynamics of dividend policy on stock price volatility in financial sector of Pakistan : (comparative analysis through common, fixed, random and GMM effect)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Kashif; Khurram, Muhammad Usman; Ghaffar, Wasim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the dividend policy dynamics in context to firm specific and macroeconomic variables with stock price volatility in the financial sector of Pakistan. Panel data is used for the period 2006-2014 to identify the common, fixed, random and GMM effect. It is concluded that dividend payout ratio, market value, interest volatility and inflation volatility have positive significant correlation with price volatility. Common effect model shows that dividend payou...

  12. Effects of 2-phenoxyethanol Anaesthesia on Haematological Profile on Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Velíšek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess changes in haematological profile of common carp (Cyprinus carpio and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss after the exposure to anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol. The haematological profile was assessed before, immediately after 10 min of anaesthesia and 24 h after the anaesthesia with recommended concentration of 0.30 ml l-1 2-phenoxyethanol. The 10-min exposure to 2-phenoxyethanol of common carp caused the significant increase (p -1 does not cause irreversible damage of the blood in common carp and rainbow trout.

  13. Are quantitative trait-dependent sampling designs cost-effective for analysis of rare and common variants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yildiz E; Bull, Shelley B

    2011-11-29

    Use of trait-dependent sampling designs in whole-genome association studies of sequence data can reduce total sequencing costs with modest losses of statistical efficiency. In a quantitative trait (QT) analysis of data from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 mini-exome for unrelated individuals in the Asian subpopulation, we investigate alternative designs that sequence only 50% of the entire cohort. In addition to a simple random sampling design, we consider extreme-phenotype designs that are of increasing interest in genetic association analysis of QTs, especially in studies concerned with the detection of rare genetic variants. We also evaluate a novel sampling design in which all individuals have a nonzero probability of being selected into the sample but in which individuals with extreme phenotypes have a proportionately larger probability. We take differential sampling of individuals with informative trait values into account by inverse probability weighting using standard survey methods which thus generalizes to the source population. In replicate 1 data, we applied the designs in association analysis of Q1 with both rare and common variants in the FLT1 gene, based on knowledge of the generating model. Using all 200 replicate data sets, we similarly analyzed Q1 and Q4 (which is known to be free of association with FLT1) to evaluate relative efficiency, type I error, and power. Simulation study results suggest that the QT-dependent selection designs generally yield greater than 50% relative efficiency compared to using the entire cohort, implying cost-effectiveness of 50% sample selection and worthwhile reduction of sequencing costs.

  14. The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Abdulreshid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ≥ six indicating high levels of CMD. Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50. There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

  15. Three operational taxonomic units of Eimeria are common in Nigerian chickens and may undermine effective molecular diagnosis of coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatau, Isa D; Lawal, Idris A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P; Nok, Andrew J

    2016-06-04

    Chicken is fast becoming the world's most consumed meat. As a consequence poultry health is more important now than ever before, with pathogens of chickens recognised as serious threats to food security. One such threat are Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which can cause the disease coccidiosis. Eimeria can compromise economic poultry production and chicken welfare, and have serious consequences for poor livestock keepers. Seven Eimeria species that infect chickens are recognised with a global enzootic distribution. More recently three cryptic Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUx, y and z) have been described in populations of Eimeria recovered from chickens in Australia. Two of the three OTUs have also been detected in sub-Saharan Africa, but their occurrence, pathology and the risk they pose is largely unknown. Nigeria has witnessed a dramatic expansion in poultry production and is now the largest poultry producer in Africa. Here, faecal samples collected from nine of 12 commercial chicken farms sampled in Kaduna state, Nigeria, were found to contain eimerian oocysts. After amplification by in vivo propagation all three cryptic OTU genotypes were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including OTUy for the first time outside of Australia. Comparison with a widely used, established Eimeria species-specific PCR assay revealed failure to detect the OTU genotypes. All three of the Eimeria OTU genotypes appear to be common in north-western Nigeria. The failure of a leading species-specific molecular assay to detect these genotypes indicates a risk of false negative Eimeria diagnosis when using molecular tools and suggests that the spatial occurrence of each OTU may be far wider than has been recognised. The risk posed by these novel genotypes is unknown, but it is clear that a better understanding of Eimeria occurrence is required together with the validation of effective diagnostics.

  16. Effects of ilexonin a on IL-6 and M-CSF following ballon angioplasty in rabbit common carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lihua; Li Zhangwei; Yang Chuang; Jiang Yaqiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of ilexonin A(IA) on IL-6 and M-CSF following ballon angioplasty in rabbit common carotide artery to provide experimental basis for percutaneous coronary interventions. Mehtods: 30 Japanese rabbits were fed with high cholesterol food for 4 weeks. Then they were divided into three groups randomly. Each group had ten rabbits. 1) Control group: the incision was sew directly after right carotide artery of the rabbit was seeked. 2) Balloon dilation group: the proximal of the carotide artery was cuted, the ballon was delivered and distended, after it was drawn repeatly, the incision was closed. 3) IA therapy group: operation was the same to the balloon dilation group, then IA was administered in vein. All of them were fed with high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks and the blood samples were collected 1 d before the operation and 1 d, 1,2,4 weeks after the operation. The serum IL-6 and M-CSF levels were determined with radioimmunoassay. The pathological changes of injuried artery were observed. Results: 1) The IL-6 level in balloon dilation group was higher than that in IA therapy group after the operation (P<0.05), and came back later to preoperation level. 2) Though the M-CSF level in IA therapy group was increased, but it was lower than that in dilation group (P<0.05). 3) The pathological results demonstrated that the artery endothelial in control group was smooth and no foam cell in sight. In bolloon dilation group, the endangium was thickened, the vascular smooth muscle cells proliferated, there were many foam cells and the lumen was constrictive. In IA therapy group, the number of foam cells reduced, the constrictive degree of lumen was alleviated. Conclusion: IA can redece the levels of serum IL-6 and M-CSF and inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells following ballon angioplasty. (authors)

  17. Calculation of conversion coefficients for effective dose by using voxel phantoms with defined genus for radiodiagnostic common examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, F.R.A.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H.J.; Vieira, J.W.; Loureiro, E.C.M.; Hoff, G.

    2004-01-01

    Patient exposure from radiological examinations is usually quantified in terms of average absorbed dose or equivalent dose to certain radiosensitive organs of the human body. As these quantities cannot be measured in vivo, it is common practice to use physical or computational exposure models, which simulate the exposure to the patient in order to determine not only the quantities of interest (absorbed or equivalent dose), but also at the same time measurable quantities for the exposure conditions given. The ratio between a quantity of interest and a measurable quantity is called a conversion coefficient (CC), which is a function of the source and field parameters (tube voltage, filtration, field size, field position, focus-to-skin distance, etc.), the anatomical properties of the phantom, the elemental composition of relevant body tissues, and the radiation transport method applied. As the effective dose represents a sum over 23 risk-weighted organ and tissue equivalent doses, its determination practically implies the measurement or calculation of a complete distribution of equivalent doses throughout the human body. This task can be resolved most efficiently by means of computational exposure models, which consist of a virtual representation of the human body, also called phantom, connected to a Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code. The recently introduced MAX (Male Adult voXel) and FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head+trunk phantoms have been chosen for this task. With respect to their anatomical properties these phantoms correspond fairly well to the data recommended by the ICRP for the Reference Adult Male and Female. (author)

  18. Post-feeding activity of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on common domestic indoor surfaces and its effect on development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L A; Bryson, D; Bulling, M T; Sparks, N; Wellard, K S

    2018-05-01

    Developmental data of forensically important blowflies used by entomologists to estimate minimum post mortem interval (mPMI) are established under controlled laboratory conditions for various temperature ranges throughout the stages of egg, 1st-3rd instar, puparia, and adult fly emergence. However, environmental conditions may influence the patterns of development and behaviour of blowflies, potentially impacting on these established development rates. Previous studies investigating indoor colonisation have focused on the delay to oviposition, with behaviour during the post-feeding phase in this setting often overlooked. The environment in which third instar larvae disperse when searching for a pupariation site may vary drastically at both outdoor and indoor scenarios, influencing the activity and distance travelled during this phase and possibly affecting developmental rates. This study investigated the effect of eight common domestic indoor surfaces on dispersal time, distance travelled, and behaviour of post-feeding Lucilia sericata as well as any resulting variation in development. It was found that pupariation and puparia length within a pupariation medium of sawdust (often used in laboratory settings) produced comparable results with that of carpeted environments (those deemed to be 'enclosed'). Non-carpeted environments (those which were 'exposed') produced a delay to pupariation likely due to increased activity and energy expenditure in searching for pupariation sites which enabled burial. In addition, the observed speed of travel during dispersal was seen via time lapse photography to be greater within 'exposed' conditions. Larvae which dispersed upon burnt laminate flooring were observed to travel faster than in all other conditions and showed the only significant variation (P=0.04) in the day of emergence in comparison to the control condition of sawdust. This study has demonstrated that wandering phase activity is affected by the environmental surface

  19. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of CommonlyConsumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been

  20. Effects of Antiseptic Solutions Commonly Used in Dentistry on Bone Viability, Bone Morphology, and Release of Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kosaku; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Schaller, Benoit; Miron, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Antiseptic solutions are commonly used in dentistry for a number of sterilization procedures, including harvesting of bone chips, irrigation of extraction sockets, and sterilization of osteonecrotic bone. Despite its widespread use, little information is available regarding the effects of various antiseptic solutions on bone cell viability, morphology, and the release of growth factors. The antiseptic solutions included 1) 0.5% povidone iodine (PI), 2) 0.2% chlorhexidine diguluconate (CHX), 3) 1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 4) 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (HYP). Bone samples collected from porcine mandibular cortical bone were rinsed in the antiseptic solutions for 10 minutes and assessed for cell viability using an MTS assay and protein release of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1β, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing. After antiseptic rinsing, changes to the surface protein content showed marked alterations, with an abundant protein layer remaining on CHX-rinsed bone samples. The amount of surface protein content gradually decreased in the following order: CHX, H2O2, PI, and HYP. A similar trend was also observed for the relative cell viability from within bone samples after rinsing, with up to 6 times more viable cells found in the CHX-rinsed bone samples than in the HYP- and PI-rinsed samples. An analysis of the growth factors found that both HYP and PI had significantly lower VEGF and TGF-β1 protein release from bone samples at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing compared with CHX and H2O2. A similar trend was observed for RANKL and IL-1β protein release, although no change was observed for BMP2. The results from the present study have demonstrated that antiseptic solutions present with very different effects on bone samples after 10 minutes of

  1. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Sharath; Krithika, M J; Cyriac, Bobby

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate and compare the effect of Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash on the force delivered by elastomeric chain in vitro. Four specimen groups (distilled water, Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash) with a total sample size of 480 specimens. A specimen is described as a four link grey close elastomeric chain. Jigs, each with a series of pins set 25 mm apart, was used to hold stretched elastomeric chains at a constant length. These jigs allowed for complete submersion of the elastomeric chain in a water bath throughout the test period, as well as the dipping of elastomeric chains in respective control and test solutions. For 60 s, twice a day, groups were exposed to the respective solutions, the two daily exposure was separated by 9 h and force measurements were taken at six time points during the experiment, that is, 1 h, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days. Force measurements were made by Instron machine by a single blinded examiner with the help of a second examiner. It was found out that there was highly significant difference between groups control, Coca-Cola®, Listerine®, and tea as well as there was highly significant (p Coca-Cola® and the Listerine® group reached a plateau between 7 and 21 days then decrease between 21 and 28 days. The tea group showed plateau phase between 7 and 28 days. After 28 days in the control group, 25% force decay occurred while the test groups force decay of 30-50% occurred. Coca-Cola®, Listerine® mouthwash, and tea cause an increase in force decay of elastomeric chains over time. Tea caused highest force decay followed by Listerine® and Coca-Cola® when compared to control group. How to cite the article: Kumar K, Shetty S, Krithika MJ, Cyriac B. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: A comparative in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):7-10.

  2. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Rui; Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang; Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan; Jeney, Galina; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guo-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl 4 at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl 4 activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl 4 on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl 4 in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl 4 at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl 4 significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl 4 caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in fish

  3. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Rui [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Jeney, Galina [National Agricultural Research Center, Research Institute for Fisherie and, Aquaculture, Anna Light 8, Szarvas 5440 (Hungary); Xu, Pao, E-mail: xup@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Yin, Guo-Jun, E-mail: yingj@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl{sub 4} at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl{sub 4} activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl{sub 4} on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl{sub 4} in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl{sub 4} at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl{sub 4} significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl{sub 4} caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity in fish.

  4. Effects of food type on diel behaviours of common carp Cyprinus carpio in simulated aquaculture pond conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Meyer, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand behaviour patterns of common carp Cyprinus carpio in aquaculture ponds, their diel grazing, swimming, resting and schooling behaviours were observed in six 1 m(2) tanks under simulated pond conditions. Each tank was fertilized to stimulate natural food production before

  5. The impact of compliant surfaces on in-hospital chest compressions: effects of common mattresses and a backboard.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordergraaf, G.J.; Paulussen, I.W.; Venema, A.; Berkom, P.F. van; Woerlee, P.H.; Scheffer, G.J.; Noordergraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate, in a hospital setting, the influence of different, common mattresses, with and without a backboard, on chest movement during CPR. DESIGN AND SETTING: Sixty CPR sessions (140s each, 30:2, C:R ratio 1:1) were performed using a manikin on standard hospital mattresses, with or

  6. Genome wide analysis of drug-induced torsades de pointes: lack of common variants with large effect sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behr, Elijah R.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kääb, Stefan; Crawford, Dana C.; Nicoletti, Paola; Floratos, Aris; Sinner, Moritz F.; Kannankeril, Prince J.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Zumhagen, Sven; Guicheney, Pascale; Bishopric, Nanette H.; Marshall, Vanessa; Shakir, Saad; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Bevan, Steve; Jamshidi, Yalda; Bastiaenen, Rachel; Myerburg, Robert J.; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Camm, A. John; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Norris, Kris; Altman, Russ B.; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Jeffery, Steve; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Shen, Yufeng; George, Alfred L.; Roden, Dan M.

    2013-01-01

    Marked prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram associated with the polymorphic ventricular tachycardia Torsades de Pointes is a serious adverse event during treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs and other culprit medications, and is a common cause for drug relabeling and withdrawal.

  7. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital highspeed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  8. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital high-speed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  9. The effect of seed morphology on the potential dispersal of aquatic macrophytes by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; de Jong, M.D.E.; Steegh, A.; Ouborg, N.J.; Van Groenendael, J.M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    1. The potential for seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory) will vary among aquatic plants because of differences in seed size and morphology. 2. To examine how seed morphology influences the probability of dispersal by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we studied seed ingestion, retention time and

  10. Assessing effectiveness of electrical stunning and chillingin ice water of farmed yellowtail kingfish, common sole and pike-perch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llonch, P.; Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Animals should be rendered unconscious before slaughter in order to avoid suffering or pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate an electrical stunning after dewatering to induce instantaneous unconsciousness and insensibility in yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi), common sole (Solea

  11. The effects of operating a touch screen smartphone and other common activities performed while bicycling on cycling behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Dick; Lewis Evans, Ben; Jelijs, Bart; Tucha, Oliver; Brookhuis, Karel

    Although it has been shown that making phone calls or sending text messages while riding a bicycle can have a negative impact on bicyclist’s behaviour, in countries such as the Netherlands the operation of a mobile phone while cycling on a bicycle is not illegal and is actually quite common. In

  12. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Becky; Halsall, Crispin James; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin Christopher; Shore, Richard Francis; Martin, Francis Luke

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpol...

  13. Genome wide analysis of drug-induced torsades de pointes: lack of common variants with large effect sizes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah R Behr

    Full Text Available Marked prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram associated with the polymorphic ventricular tachycardia Torsades de Pointes is a serious adverse event during treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs and other culprit medications, and is a common cause for drug relabeling and withdrawal. Although clinical risk factors have been identified, the syndrome remains unpredictable in an individual patient. Here we used genome-wide association analysis to search for common predisposing genetic variants. Cases of drug-induced Torsades de Pointes (diTdP, treatment tolerant controls, and general population controls were ascertained across multiple sites using common definitions, and genotyped on the Illumina 610k or 1M-Duo BeadChips. Principal Components Analysis was used to select 216 Northwestern European diTdP cases and 771 ancestry-matched controls, including treatment-tolerant and general population subjects. With these sample sizes, there is 80% power to detect a variant at genome-wide significance with minor allele frequency of 10% and conferring an odds ratio of ≥2.7. Tests of association were carried out for each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP by logistic regression adjusting for gender and population structure. No SNP reached genome wide-significance; the variant with the lowest P value was rs2276314, a non-synonymous coding variant in C18orf21 (p  =  3×10(-7, odds ratio = 2, 95% confidence intervals: 1.5-2.6. The haplotype formed by rs2276314 and a second SNP, rs767531, was significantly more frequent in controls than cases (p  =  3×10(-9. Expanding the number of controls and a gene-based analysis did not yield significant associations. This study argues that common genomic variants do not contribute importantly to risk for drug-induced Torsades de Pointes across multiple drugs.

  14. Therapeutic effects of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract on plasma biochemical parameters of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Banaee, Mahdi; Soleimany, Vahid; Nematdoost Haghi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated preclinical and clinical safety of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract as a naturopathic medicine in common carp deliberately infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. The fish were fed 0 (control), 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 g of marshmallow extract for 60 days in a preclinical experiment and then, challenged with A. hydrophila for a 10-day experiment. Significant increases were observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase ...

  15. Counting with Colours? Effect of Colours on the Numerical Abilities of House Crows (Corvus splendens) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Nor Amira Abdul; Ali, Zalila; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik

    2016-01-01

    We conducted several aviary experiments to investigate the influence of colours in quantity judgments of two species of birds; house crow (Corvus splendens) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Different quantity (in seven different food proportions) of mealworms were presented nonsequentially to all birds using artificially coloured red mealworms, for experiment 1, and using artificially coloured green mealworms, for experiment 2. Both red and green coloured mealworms have no significant ...

  16. Monochloroacetic acid application is an effective alternative to cryotherapy for common and plantar warts in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Egberts, Paulette F; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; de Waal, Margot W M; Assendelft, Willem J J; Eekhof, Just A H

    2015-05-01

    Cryotherapy and salicylic acid (SA) often fail as treatments for skin warts. We examined the effectiveness of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) for patients with common or plantar warts. Consecutive patients aged 4 years and older with one or more newly diagnosed common or plantar warts were recruited in 53 Dutch general practices. We randomly allocated eligible patients to 13-week treatment protocols of office-applied MCA versus liquid nitrogen cryotherapy every 2 weeks for patients with common warts (n=188), and MCA versus cryotherapy combined with daily SA self-application for patients with plantar warts (n=227). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients whose warts were all cured at 13 weeks. In the common wart group, cure rates were 40/92 (43%, 95% confidence interval 34-54) for MCA and 50/93 (54%, 44-64) for cryotherapy (risk difference (RD) -10%, -25-4.0, P=0.16). In the plantar wart group, cure rates were 49/106 (46%, 37-56) for MCA and 45/115 (39%, 31-48) for cryotherapy combined with SA (RD 7.1, 5.9-20, P=0.29). For common warts, MCA is an effective alternative to cryotherapy to avoid pain during the treatment, although pain after the treatment is similar. For plantar warts, office-applied MCA may be preferred over cryotherapy combined with SA, on the basis of comparable effectiveness, less treatment pain, and less treatment burden.

  17. Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF on the Common Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: Tagging Pilot Experiments in the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Langhamer

    Full Text Available Worldwide growth of offshore renewable energy production will provide marine organisms with new hard substrate for colonization in terms of artificial reefs. The artificial reef effect is important when planning offshore installations since it can create habitat enhancement. Wind power is the most advanced technology within offshore renewable energy sources and there is an urgent need to study its impacts on the marine environment. To test the hypothesis that offshore wind power increases the abundance of reef species relative to a reference area, we conduct an experiment on the model species common shore crab (Carcinus maenas.Overall, 3962 crabs were captured, observed, marked and released in 2011 and 1995 crabs in 2012. Additionally, carapace size, sex distribution, color morphs and body condition was recorded from captured crabs. We observed very low recapture rates at all sites during both years which made evaluating differences in population sizes very difficult. However, we were able to estimate population densities from the capture record for all three sites. There was no obvious artificial reef effect in the Lillgrund wind farm, but a spill-over effect to nearby habitats cannot be excluded. We could not find any effect of the wind farm on either, morphs, sex distribution or condition of the common shore crab. Our study found no evidence that Lillgrund wind farm has a negative effect on populations of the common shore crab. This study provides the first quantitative and experimental data on the common shore crab in relation to offshore wind farms.

  18. Effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidase activity, and immune function in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ke; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Yang, Yi-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic use in livestock feed additives has resulted in harmful residue accumulation and spread of drug-resistance. We examined the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a safer alternative to antibiotics in feeding the common carp. AMPs were added to common carp basal diets (Control) as additives at four concentrations: 100 mg kg(-1) (B1), 200 mg kg(-1) (B2), 400 mg kg(-1) (B3), 600 mg kg(-1) (B4) by dry weight of basal diet. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the final weight, DG and SGR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly higher than the control (p 0.05) in levels of uric ammonia, globulin, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and blood glucose in all groups. The serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and B4-fed carps. The serum alkaline phosphate activity of carps on B1 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than B4-fed carps. The serum acid phosphatase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other antimicrobial peptide-fed groups. The serum lysozyme activity of carps on B1, B2, and B3 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control- and B4-fed carps. Regarding immune factors in serum, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) and interleukin (IL)-1β in B1-fed carps were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other groups, while IL-1α levels in B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control-, B2-, and B3-fed carps. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the content of MHC among the five groups. In conclusion, antimicrobial peptide can reduce triglyceride levels in serum, enrich oxidation resistance, and improve immunity of the common carp. It showed that appropriate concentration of antibacterial peptide as supplements in diets for common carp increased the final weight, DG, SGR and decreased the FCR. Copyright © 2015

  19. Changes in B cell immunophenotype in common variable immunodeficiency: cause or effect – is bronchiectasis indicative of undiagnosed immunodeficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, P; Grigoriadou, S; Kamperidis, P; Buckland, M; Hickey, A; Longhurst, H J

    2013-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common severe primary immunodeficiency, but the pathology of this condition is poorly understood. CVID involves a defect in the production of immunoglobulin from B cells, with a subsequent predisposition to infections. Approximately 10–20% of cases are inherited, but even in families with a genetic defect the penetrance is far from complete. A classification system for CVID has been suggested (EUROclass) based on B cell immunophenotyping, but it has not been shown that altered B cell immunophenotype is not a consequence of the complications and treatment of CVID. This study compares the EUROclass B cell immunophenotype of CVID patients (n = 30) with suitable disease controls with bronchiectasis (n = 11), granulomatous disease (Crohn's disease) (n = 9) and neurological patients on immunoglobulin treatment (n = 6). The results of this study correlate with previous literature, that alterations in B cell immunophenotype are associated strongly with CVID. Interestingly, three of the 11 bronchiectasis patients without known immunodeficiency had an altered B cell immunophenotype, suggesting the possibility of undiagnosed immunodeficiency, or that bronchiectasis may cause a secondary alteration in B cell immunophenotype. This study showed a significant difference in B cell immunophenotype between CVID patients compared to disease control groups of granulomatous disease and immunoglobulin treatment. This suggests that granulomatous disease (in Crohn's disease) and immunoglobulin treatment (for chronic neurological conditions) are not causal of an altered B cell immunophenotype in these control populations. PMID:23286946

  20. Effect of storage on residue levels of enrofloxacin in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralica Kyuchukova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since fluoroquinolones are one of the most commonly used antibacterial drugs in aquaculture, there is a risk of their residues to be found in the treated fish. The objective of this study was to examine t he changes in enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin levelsduring storage of rainbow trout and common carp muscle at -18 °C. The trout and carp were treated orally with a single dose of 10 mg/kg of enrofloxacin. Tissue samples were collected 24 h after the treatment and stored at -18 °C for 270 days either as a whole fish or as precut muscle samples. Results for trout revealed that in the precut samples enrofloxacin concentration decreased significantly only after 9 months of storage, whereas a significant decline in the ciprofloxacin level was observed much earlier (after 3 months. After 9 months of storage, the trout stored without being sliced and eviscerated showed significantly higher levels of both quinolones as compared to the precut muscle samples. The enrofloxacin levels in the carp musculature decreased considerably after 3 months of storage and stayed almost unchanged up to the end of the study, whereas the ciprofloxacin concentration continued to drop even after this period and after 270 days constituted 1/6 of the initial values.

  1. Effectiveness of an exposure-based return-to-work program for workers on sick leave due to common mental disorders: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordik, E.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Geskus, R.B.; de Boer, M.R.; van Dijk, F.J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In case of long-term sick leave, gradually increasing workload appears to be an effective component of work-directed interventions to reduce sick leave due to common mental disorders (CMD). CMD are defined as stress-related, adjustment, anxiety, or depressive disorders. We developed an

  2. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  3. Effect of stocking biomass on solids, phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and production parameters in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of initial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) fingerling biomass (1.4, 1.8, or 2.3 kg m-3) on phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and stocker catfish production parameters was evaluated in biofloc technology production tanks. Stocker catfish size (145.5 – 1...

  4. Common mycorrhizal networks and their effect on the bargaining power of the fungal partner in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücking, Heike; Mensah, Jerry A; Fellbaum, Carl R

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic interactions with the majority of land plants, including some of the most important crop species. The fungus takes up nutrients from the soil, and transfers these nutrients to the mycorrhizal interface in the root, where these nutrients are exchanged against carbon from the host. AM fungi form extensive hyphal networks in the soil and connect with their network multiple host plants. These common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) play a critical role in the long-distance transport of nutrients through soil ecosystems and allow the exchange of signals between the interconnected plants. CMNs affect the survival, fitness, and competitiveness of the fungal and plant species that interact via these networks, but how the resource transport within these CMNs is controlled is largely unknown. We discuss the significance of CMNs for plant communities and for the bargaining power of the fungal partner in the AM symbiosis.

  5. The sensitivity of the most common microorganisms of pig liquid manure to the effect of 60Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szemeredy, Gy.; Simon, J.

    1979-01-01

    In model experiments the most common representatives of pathogens and facultative pathogens of pig liquid manure contaminating bacterial flora were examined for their sensitivity to different doses of 60 Co, using liquid medium supplemented with 1% glucose, as well as Korthof-medium and different kinds of selective media. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiea, Brucella suis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Pasteurella haemolytica proved to be the most senstive ones to irradiation, as they did not survive 100 krad dose. The highest resistances were observed in the cases of the following microorganisms: the spore containing Bacillus anthracis, killed by 700 krad irradiation dose, the saprophytic and pathogenic Mycobacteria and the spore containing Clostridium perfringens, killed by 1000-1500 krad irradiation. (author)

  6. Survey of strain-rate effects for some common structural materials used in radioactive material packaging and transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Zielenbach, W.J.; Lawrence, A.A.

    1976-08-01

    In safety evaluation of radioactive material packaging and transport systems during accidents mechanical property data for the structural materials under impact conditions are needed in order to assess the damage and consequences of the accident. This document reviews the status of dynamic material property data for the following common structural materials: lead, uranium, stainless steels, steels, aluminum, copper, and brass. The strain rate data reviewed were limited to the range from static to dynamic impact velocities of 50 ft/s or strain rates of 10 2 /second; temperature conditions were limited to the range -40 to 1000 0 F. Purpose of this document is to explain the test methods, present some of the relevant data, and identify some of the needs for additional data. 7 tables, 14 figures, 77 references

  7. Osmolyte Effects on Monoclonal Antibody Stability and Concentration-Dependent Protein Interactions with Water and Common Osmolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Gregory V; Razinkov, Vladimir I; Kerwin, Bruce A; Blake, Steven; Qi, Wei; Curtis, Robin A; Roberts, Christopher J

    2016-04-07

    Preferential interactions of proteins with water and osmolytes play a major role in controlling the thermodynamics of protein solutions. While changes in protein stability and shifts in phase behavior are often reported with the addition of osmolytes, the underlying protein interactions with water and/or osmolytes are typically inferred rather than measured directly. In this work, Kirkwood-Buff integrals for protein-water interactions (G12) and protein-osmolyte interactions (G23) were determined as a function of osmolyte concentration from density measurements of antistreptavidin immunoglobulin gamma-1 (AS-IgG1) in ternary aqueous solutions for a set of common neutral osmolytes: sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). For sucrose and PEG solutions, both protein-water and protein-osmolyte interactions depend strongly on osmolyte concentrations (c3). Strikingly, both osmolytes change from being preferentially excluded to preferentially accumulated with increasing c3. In contrast, sorbitol and trehalose solutions do not show large enough preferential interactions to be detected by densimetry. G12 and G23 values are used to estimate the transfer free energy for native AS-IgG1 (Δμ2N) and compared with existing models. AS-IgG1 unfolding via calorimetry shows a linear increase in midpoint temperatures as a function of trehalose, sucrose, and sorbitol concentrations, but the opposite behavior for PEG. Together, the results highlight limitations of existing models and common assumptions regarding the mechanisms of protein stabilization by osmolytes. Finally, PEG preferential interactions destabilize the Fab regions of AS-IgG1 more so than the CH2 or CH3 domains, illustrating preferential interactions can be specific to different protein domains.

  8. Effect of estradiol-17β on the sex ratio, growth and survival of juvenile common snook (Centropomus undecimalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Vaz Avelar de Carvalho; Gabriel Passini; Wanessa de Melo Costa; Beatriz Nunes Vieira; Vinicius Ronzani Cerqueira

    2014-01-01

    Sex control in fish is a promising technique for aquaculture, since it gives advantages associated with one sex. The aim of this study was to investigate the feminization of common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) by oral administration of two doses of estradiol-17β (50 and 100 mg E2 kg-1 feed) and control treatment for 45 days and to evaluate their effects on the sex ratio, growth and survival of common snook juveniles. After this period, fish were fed only with commercial feed without hormon...

  9. Effect in field of the native strain COL6 of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae on common bean cv. Percal in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klever Iván Granda-Mora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inoculation with selected Rhizobium strains of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contributes to the agricultural yield of this legume, improves soil fertility and reduces the use of nitrogen fertilizers in sustainable agricultural systems. The research aimed to determine the effect in field of the native strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae COL6 on growth, N fixation and agricultural yield in common bean cv. Percal. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the parameters of nodulation, biomass, nitrogen fixation, yield components and agricultural yield in common bean. In addition, soil analyzes were performed before and after experimentation. Prior to planting an inoculant was formulated with the strain COL6. The seeds of cv. Percal were mixed in 250 g inoculant per 10 kg of seed and it was sown manually in the soil. The results of growth, N fixation (total N % and agricultural yield demonstrated the positive effect of inoculation with the bacterial inoculant comparable with chemical fertilizers. The increase in agricultural yield with bacterial inoculant application and chemical fertilization with respect to control was 62 and 64 %, respectively. The results of the soil analysis were variable with respect to the initial physical-chemical characteristics. The promising results of bacterial inoculant use and the effective stimulation in common bean, open the doors for its potential use in Ecuadorian soils and with that the desired potential yield can be reached.

  10. Ultrastructural effects of pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, clofibric acid, metoprolol, diclofenac) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebskorn, R; Casper, H; Scheil, V; Schwaiger, J

    2007-02-01

    In order to assess potential effects of human pharmaceuticals in aquatic wildlife, laboratory experiments were conducted with carbamazepine, clofibric acid, metoprolol, and diclofenac using fish as test organisms. For each substance, at least one environmentally relevant concentration was tested. In liver, kidney, and gills of trout and carp exposed to carbamazepine, clofibric acid, and metoprolol, ultrastructural effects were qualitatively described and semi-quantitatively assessed. The obtained assessment values were compared with previously published data for diclofenac-induced effects in rainbow trout tissues. Quantitative analyses of protein accumulated in kidneys of diclofenac-exposed trout corroborated previously published data which indicated that diclofenac induced a severe glomerulonephritis resulting in a hyaline droplet degeneration of proximal kidney tubules. The investigations provided information on the general health status of the pharmaceutical-exposed fish, and allowed a differential diagnosis of harmful effects caused by these human pharmaceuticals in non-target species. For the different cytological effects observed, lowest observed effect concentration (LOECs) for at least three of the test substances (diclofenac, carbamazepine, metoprolol) were in the range of environmentally relevant concentrations (1 microg/L).

  11. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. The Effect Of Organic Surfactants On The Properties Of Common Hygroscopic Particles: Effective Densities, Reactivity And Water Evaporation Of Surfactant Coated Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrarodriguez, L.; Zelenyuk, A.; Imre, D.; Ellison, B.

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of atmospheric aerosol compositions routinely show that organic compounds account for a very large fraction of the particle mass. The organic compounds that make up this aerosol mass represent a wide range of molecules with a variety of properties. Many of the particles are composed of hygroscopic salts like sulfates, nitrates and sea-salt internally mixed with organics. While the properties of the hygroscopic salts are known, the effect of the organic compounds on the microphysical and chemical properties which include CCN activity is not clear. .One particularly interesting class of internally mixed particles is composed of aqueous salts solutions that are coated with organic surfactants which are molecules with long aliphatic chain and a water soluble end. Because these molecules tend to coat the particles' surfaces, a monolayer might be sufficient to drastically alter their hygroscopic properties, their CCN activity, and reactivity. The aliphatic chains, being exposed to the oxidizing atmosphere are expected to be transformed through heterogeneous chemistry, yielding complex products with mixed properties. We will report the results from a series of observations on ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and sea salt particles coated with three types of surfactant molecules: sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium oleate and laurtrimonium chloride. We have been able to measure the effective densities of internally mixed particles with a range of surfactant concentration that start below a monolayer and extend all the way to particles composed of pure surfactant. For many of the measurements the data reveal a rather complex picture that cannot be simply interpreted in terms of the known pure-compound densities. For unsaturated hydrocarbons we observed and quantified the effect of oxidation by ozone on particle size, effective density and individual particle mass spectral signatures. One of the more important properties of these surfactants is that they can form a

  13. Effects of L-Cystine and L-Theanine Supplementation on the Common Cold: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Shigekazu; Hiraoka, Takenori; Akutsu, Masahisa; Sukegawa, Eiji; Bannai, Makoto; Shibahara, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    The common cold is one of the most frequent illnesses caused by viral infection. Recently, we have reported that oral administration of cystine and theanine (CT) to mice enhanced the humoral immune response associated with antibody production. Based on this mouse study, we investigated the effects of CT supplementation on the common cold in humans as a pilot study. A total of 176 healthy male volunteers were randomized to receive either placebo or CT (490 mg) tablets twice daily for 35 days. The incidence outcome was assessed using the definition in our laboratory based on questionnaires regarding cold symptoms. The incidence of subjects with colds during the trial was significantly lower in the CT group than in the placebo group, although the duration of the colds was not significantly different between the groups. These results suggest that CT supplementation may be useful for the prevention of the common cold. PMID:22331996

  14. Population and life-stage-specific effects of two herbicide formulations on the aquatic development of European common frogs (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan; Viertel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination is suggested to contribute to amphibian population declines. However, the effects of a contaminant on a particular amphibian species can differ among populations. The authors investigated the toxic effects of 2 herbicide formulations on different populations and on representative developmental stages of the European common frog (Rana temporaria). Larvae from forest populations were more sensitive to a commonly used glyphosate-based herbicide compared with individuals from agrarian land. Median lethal concentrations correlated with measured glyphosate levels in the breeding ponds, which may be a sign of evolved tolerances. The reverse result was observed for a less commonly used cycloxydim-based herbicide. Effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide were stronger for earlier larval stages compared with later larval stages. Hence, applications in early spring (when early larvae are present in breeding ponds) pose greater risk concerning acute toxic effects on R. temporaria. With regard to late larval stages, short exposure (96 h) of prometamorphic larvae prolonged time to metamorphosis, but only at the highest test concentration that did not significantly induce mortality. This could be due to impairment of the thyroid axis. Notably, nearly all test concentrations of the 2 herbicides provoked growth retardation. Further research on how evolved or induced tolerances are acquired, actual contamination levels of amphibian habitats, and potential endocrine effects of glyphosate-based herbicides is necessary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:190-200. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Exacerbating the Tragedy of the Commons: Private Inefficient Outcomes and Peer Effect in Experimental Games with Fishing Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Higinio Maldonado

    Full Text Available Economic Experimental Games have shown that individuals make decisions that deviate down from the suboptimal Nash equilibrium. However, few studies have analyzed the case when deviation is above the Nash equilibrium. Extracting from above the Nash equilibrium is inefficient not only socially but also privately and it would exacerbate the tragedy of the commons. That would be the case of a race to the fish when stocks are becoming depleted or driver behavior on a highly congested road. The objective of this study is to analyze private inefficient extraction behavior in experimental games and to associate the type of player and the type of player group with such inefficient outcomes. To do this, we carried out economic experimental games with local coastal fishermen in Colombia, using a setting where the scarcity of the resource allows for an interior Nash equilibrium and inefficient over-extraction is possible. The state of the resource, the type of player and the composition of the group explain, in part, this inefficient behavior.

  16. Effects of chronic exposure to tributyltin on tissue-specific cytochrome P450 1 regulation in juvenile common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Mu, Wei-Na; Wu, Yan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to compare tributyltin (TBT)-induced cytochrome P450 1 (CYP450 1) regulation in liver, gills and muscle of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). 2. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75, 0.75 and 7.5 μg/L) for 60 days. CYP450 1A was measured at the enzyme activity level as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as well as the mRNA expression of CYP450 1 family genes (CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C1 and CYP1C2) in fish tissues. 3. Based on the results, the liver displayed the highest absolute levels of EROD activity, both under nonexposed and exposed conditions. Additional, EROD activities and CYP1A gene levels showed a good correlation in all three organs. According to the mRNA expression of CYP450 1 family genes, it suggested that CYP1A was to accommodate most EROD activity in fish, but other CYP450 forms also involved in this proceeding. 4. Overall, the study revealed both similarities and differences in the concentration-dependent CYP450 1 responses of the three target organs, which could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity.

  17. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campenhout, K. van [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, L. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be; Blust, R. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 {sup o}C to 15 {sup o}C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature.

  18. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campenhout, K. van; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 o C to 15 o C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature

  19. Developmental estrogen exposures and disruptions to maternal behavior and brain: Effects of ethinyl estradiol, a common positive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Mary C; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2017-11-07

    Due of its structural similarity to the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) is widely used to study the effects of estrogenic substances on sensitive organs at multiple stages of development. Here, we investigated the effects of EE2 on maternal behavior and the maternal brain in females exposed during gestation and the perinatal period. We assessed several components of maternal behavior including nesting behavior and pup retrieval; characterized the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)α in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), a brain region critical for the display of maternal behavior; and measured expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker for dopaminergic cells, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a brain region important in maternal motivation. We found that developmental exposure to EE2 induces subtle effects on several aspects of maternal behavior including time building the nest and time spent engaged in self-care. Developmental exposure to EE2 also altered ERα expression in the central MPOA during both early and late lactation and led to significantly reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the VTA. Our results demonstrate both dose- and postpartum stage-related effects of developmental exposure to EE2 on behavior and brain that manifest later in adulthood, during the maternal period. These findings provide further evidence for effects of exposure to exogenous estrogenic compounds during the critical periods of fetal and perinatal development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Rebecca J; Halsall, Crispin J; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-06-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles collected from ponds with differing water quality. Small differences in spectral signatures were revealed between a rural agricultural pond and an urban pond receiving wastewater and landfill run-off; these were limited to the liver and heart, although large differences in body size were apparent, surprisingly with tadpoles from the urban site larger than those from the rural site. Large differences in liver spectra were found between tadpoles from the pesticide and nutrient impacted pond compared to the rural agricultural pond, particularly in regions associated with lipids. Liver mass and hepatosomatic indices were found to be significantly increased in tadpoles from the site impacted by pesticides and trace organic chemicals, suggestive of exposure to environmental contamination. Significant alterations were also found in muscle tissue between tadpoles from these two ponds in regions associated with glycogen, potentially indicative of a stress response. This study highlights the use of IR spectroscopy, a low-cost, rapid and reagent-free technique in the biomonitoring of a class of organisms susceptible to environmental degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Common psychiatric disorders and caffeine use, tolerance, and withdrawal: an examination of shared genetic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Jocilyn E; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies examined caffeine use and caffeine dependence and risk for the symptoms, or diagnosis, of psychiatric disorders. The current study aimed to determine if generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, phobias, major depressive disorder (MDD), anorexia nervosa (AN), or bulimia nervosa (BN) shared common genetic or environmental factors with caffeine use, caffeine tolerance, or caffeine withdrawal. Using 2,270 women from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders, bivariate Cholesky decomposition models were used to determine if any of the psychiatric disorders shared genetic or environmental factors with caffeine use phenotypes. GAD, phobias, and MDD shared genetic factors with caffeine use, with genetic correlations estimated to be 0.48, 0.25, and 0.38, respectively. Removal of the shared genetic and environmental parameter for phobias and caffeine use resulted in a significantly worse fitting model. MDD shared unique environmental factors (environmental correlation=0.23) with caffeine tolerance; the genetic correlation between AN and caffeine tolerance and BN and caffeine tolerance were 0.64 and 0.49, respectively. Removal of the genetic and environmental correlation parameters resulted in significantly worse fitting models for GAD, phobias, MDD, AN, and BN, which suggested that there was significant shared liability between each of these phenotypes and caffeine tolerance. GAD had modest genetic correlations with caffeine tolerance, 0.24, and caffeine withdrawal, 0.35. There was suggestive evidence of shared genetic and environmental liability between psychiatric disorders and caffeine phenotypes. This might inform us about the etiology of the comorbidity between these phenotypes.

  2. Common Psychiatric Disorders and Caffeine Use, Tolerance, and Withdrawal: An Examination of Shared Genetic and Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Jocilyn E.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies examined caffeine use and caffeine dependence and risk for the symptoms, or diagnosis, of psychiatric disorders. The current study aimed to determine if generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, phobias, major depressive disorder (MDD), anorexia nervosa (AN), or bulimia nervosa (BN) shared common genetic or environmental factors with caffeine use, caffeine tolerance, or caffeine withdrawal. Method Using 2,270 women from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders, bivariate Cholesky decomposition models were used to determine if any of the psychiatric disorders shared genetic or environmental factors with caffeine use phenotypes. Results GAD, phobias, and MDD shared genetic factors with caffeine use, with genetic correlations estimated to be 0.48, 0.25, and 0.38, respectively. Removal of the shared genetic and environmental parameter for phobias and caffeine use resulted in a significantly worse fitting model. MDD shared unique environmental factors (environmental correlation = 0.23) with caffeine tolerance; the genetic correlation between AN and caffeine tolerance and BN and caffeine tolerance were 0.64 and 0.49, respectively. Removal of the genetic and environmental correlation parameters resulted in significantly worse fitting models for GAD, phobias, MDD, AN, and BN, which suggested that there was significant shared liability between each of these phenotypes and caffeine tolerance. GAD had modest genetic correlations with caffeine tolerance, 0.24, and caffeine withdrawal, 0.35. Conclusions There was suggestive evidence of shared genetic and environmental liability between psychiatric disorders and caffeine phenotypes. This might inform us about the etiology of the comorbidity between these phenotypes. PMID:22854069

  3. Effect of dietary, social, and lifestyle determinants of accelerated aging and its common clinical presentation: A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, S M S; Chandola, H M; Ravishankar, B

    2011-07-01

    Aging is unavoidable and natural phenomenon of life. Modern gerontologists are realizing the fact that aging is a disease, which Ayurveda had accepted as natural disease since long. Rate of aging is determined by one's biological, social, lifestyle, and psychological conditions and adversity of which leads to accelerated form of aging (Akalaja jara or premature aging). The aim of this study is to identify potential factors that may accelerate aging in the context of dietry factors, lifestyle and mental makeup. The 120 diagnosed subjects of premature-ageing of 30-60 years were randomly selected in the survey study. Premature ageing was common among females (75.83%), in 30-40 age group (70%), 86.67% were married, had secondary level of education (36.66%), house-views (61.67%), belongs top middle class (58.33%) and engaged in occupations that dominating physical labour (88.33%). The maximum patients are constipated (60%), had mandagni (80%), vata-kapha prakriti (48.33%), rajasika prakriti (58.33%), madhyama vyayama shakti (73.33%), and madhyama jarana shakti (85.83%). Collectively, 43.33% patients were above normal BMI. The more patients had anushna (38.33%) and vishamasana dietary pattern (25.83%), consumed Lavana (88.33%) and Amla rasa (78.33%) in excess on regular basis. Some patients had addicted to tobacco (11.67%) and beetle chewing (5.83%). The maximum patients had no any exercise (79.17%) and specific hobby (79.17%) in their leisure times. Analyzing Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Rating Scales revealed that 39.80%, 37.86%, 33.98%, 24.27% and 18.44% patients had insomnia, depression, tension, GIT symptoms and anxious mood respectively. These data suggest that certain social, dietary and lifestyle factors contribute towards accelerated ageing among young individuals.

  4. Effects of dietary glucose and sodium chloride on intestinal glucose absorption of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chaobin; Yang, Liping; Zheng, Wenjia; Yan, Xiao; Lu, Ronghua; Xie, Dizhi; Nie, Guoxing

    2018-01-08

    The co-transport of sodium and glucose is the first step for intestinal glucose absorption. Dietary glucose and sodium chloride (NaCl) may facilitate this physiological process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To test this hypothesis, we first investigated the feeding rhythm of intestinal glucose absorption. Carps were fed to satiety once a day (09:00 a.m.) for 1 month. Intestinal samples were collected at 01:00, 05:00, 09:00, 13:00, 17:00 and 21:00. Result showed that food intake greatly enhanced sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) expressions, and improved glucose absorption, with highest levels at 09:00 a.m.. Then we designed iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets with graded levels of glucose (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) and NaCl (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%), and submitted to feeding trial for 10 weeks. The expressions of SGLT1 and GLUT2, brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) glucose transport and intestinal villus height were determined after the feeding trial. Increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, enhanced BBMVs glucose transport in the proximal, mid and distal intestine. As for histological adaptive response, however, high-glucose diet prolonged while high-NaCl diet shrank intestinal villus height. Furthermore, we also found that higher mRNA levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, higher glucose transport capacity of BBMVs, and higher intestinal villus were detected in the proximal and mid intestine, compared to the distal part. Taken together, our study indicated that intestinal glucose absorption in carp was primarily occurred in the proximal and mid intestine, and increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl enhanced intestinal glucose absorption in carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of phosphorus availability and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas on the carbon budget of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, K.F.; Bouma, T.J.; Lynch, J.P.; Eissenstat, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Low phosphorus availability is often a primary constraint to plant productivity in native soils. Here we test the hypothesis that root carbon costs are a primary limitation to plant growth in low P soils by assessing the effect of P availability and mycorrhizal infection on whole plant C budgets in

  6. Altered precipitation patterns and simulated nitrogen deposition effects on phenology of common plant species in a Tibetan Plateau alpine meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactive effects of five seasonal precipitation distribution patterns and two levels of N deposition (ambient and doubled) on phenological traits of six dominant plant species were studied in an alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau for two consecutive years. Seasonal precipitation patterns i...

  7. Common origin of positive ionospheric storms at middle latitudes and the geomagnetic activity effect at low latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proelss, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    The author looks for a correlation between two different atmospheric effects. They are a positive atmospheric storm (an anomalous increase in the F2 region ionization density), observed at middle latitudes, and the geomagnetic activity effect (the anomalous changes of temperature and gas density seen in the thermosphere), observed at low latitudes. A temporal correlation is sought to test the argument that both of these effects are the result of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TAD). A TAD is a pulselike atmospheric wave thought to be generated by substorm activity, and to propagate with high velocity (600 m/s) from polar latitudes toward equatorial latitudes. The author looks at data from five separate events correlating magnetic, ionospheric, and neutral atmospheric measurements. The conclusion is that there is a positive correlation between magnetic substorm activity at high latitudes, and positive ionospheric storms at middle latitudes and geomagnetic activity at low latitudes. The time correlations are consistent with high propagation speeds between these events. The author also presents arguments which indicate that the middle latitude positive ionospheric storms are not the result of electric field effects

  8. DNA-protective effects of sumach (Rhus coriaria L.), a common spice: Results of human and animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Asima; Ferk, Franziska; Simic, Tatjana [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brantner, Adelheid [Institute of Pharmacognosy, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 4/I, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Dusinska, Maria [Center for Ecological Economics, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Instituttveien 18, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Kundi, Michael [Institute of Environmental Health, Center for Public Health, Medical Unviversity of Vienna (Austria); Hoelzl, Christine; Nersesyan, Armen [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Knasmueller, Siegfried [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: siegfried.knasmueller@meduniwien.ac.at

    2009-02-10

    Sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) is widely used as a spice. The aim of this study was the investigation of its DNA-protective effects in humans and animals. Prevention of the formation of strand breaks and oxidized DNA bases as well as the protection against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}- and ({+-})-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydro-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-induced DNA-damage were monitored in human lymphocytes in a placebo controlled trial (N = 8/group) with ethanolic extract of sumach (3.0 g/day, 3 days) in single cell gel electrophoresis assays. Furthermore, DNA-protective effects of sumach were monitored in different inner organs of rats under identical conditions. No alteration of DNA-migration was detectable in human lymphocytes under standard conditions, but a decrease of the tail-lengths due to formation of oxidized purines and pyrimidines (52% and 36%) was found with lesion-specific enzymes. Also damage caused by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and BPDE was significantly reduced by 30% and 69%, respectively. The later effect may be due to induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST). After the intervention, the overall GST (CDNB) activity in plasma was increased by 40%, GST-{alpha} by 52% and GST-{pi} by 26% (ELISA). The antioxidant effects of extract are probably due to scavenging which was observed in in vitro experiments, which also indicated that gallic acid is the active principle of sumach. The animal experiments showed that sumach also causes protection in inner organs. Supplementation of the drinking water (0.02 g/kg per animal) decreased the formation of oxidized DNA bases in colon, liver, lung and lymphocytes; also after {gamma}-irradiation pronounced effects were seen.

  9. Effect of Punica granatum L. Flower Water Extract on Five Common Oral Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Ghazanfarian, Marzieh; Amdjadi, Parisa; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mahboubi, Arash

    2014-12-01

    Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml and maximum bactericidal effect on S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 with minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml. The water extract decreased bacterial biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. mutans ATCC 35608 and E. faecalis CIP 55142 by 93.7-100%, 40.6-99.9%, 85.2-86.5%, 66.4-84.4% and 35.5-56.3% respectively. Punica granatum L. water extract had significant antibacterial properties against 5 oral bacteria and prevented orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation. However, further investigations are required to generalize these results to the clinical setting.

  10. Effect of Punica granatum L. Flower Water Extract on Five Common Oral Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAHID DASTJERDI, Elahe; ABDOLAZIMI, Zahra; GHAZANFARIAN, Marzieh; AMDJADI, Parisa; KAMALINEJAD, Mohammad; MAHBOUBI, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Methods: Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results: The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml and maximum bactericidal effect on S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 with minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml. The water extract decreased bacterial biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. mutans ATCC 35608 and E. faecalis CIP 55142 by 93.7–100%, 40.6–99.9%, 85.2–86.5%, 66.4–84.4% and 35.5–56.3% respectively. Conclusion: Punica granatum L. water extract had significant antibacterial properties against 5 oral bacteria and prevented orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation. However, further investigations are required to generalize these results to the clinical setting. PMID:26171362

  11. Assessing Effects of Joining Common Currency Area with Large-Scale DSGE model: A Case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Bukowski; Sebastian Dyrda; Pawe³ Kowal

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a large scale dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model, in order to analyze and simulate effects of Euro introduction in Poland. Presented framework is a based on a two-country open economy model, where foreign acts as the Eurozone, and home as a candidate country. We have implemented various types of structural frictions in the open economy block, that generate empirically observable deviations from purchasing power parity rule. We consider such mechanisms as a d...

  12. Cytomegalovirus Survival and Transferability and the Effectiveness of Common Hand-Washing Agents against Cytomegalovirus on Live Human Hands

    OpenAIRE

    Stowell, Jennifer D.; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Cannon, Michael J.; Schmid, D. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 105 infectious particles/ml. Samples fr...

  13. Establishing a common vocabulary of key concepts for the effective ımplementation of applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Traci M Cihon; Joseph H Cihon; Guy M. Bedient

    2016-01-01

    The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case example of the development of a shared vocabulary, using plain English when possible, among supervisors and supervisees at a large public school distric...

  14. A comparative study of the antacid effect of some commonly consumed foods for hyperacidity in an artificial stomach model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Vandana; Shinde, Priyanka; Deora, Jyoti; Gupta, Pankaj

    2017-10-01

    The incorporation of certain alkalinizing vegetables, fruits, milk and its products in the diet has been known to alleviate hyperacidity. These foods help to restore the natural gastric balance and function, curb acid reflux, aid digestion, reduce the burning sensation due to hyperacidity and soothe the inflamed mucosa of the stomach. The present study evaluates and compares the antacid effect of broccoli, kale, radish, cucumber, lemon juice, cold milk and curd in an artificial stomach model. The pH of the test samples and their neutralizing effect on artificial gastric acid was determined and compared with that of water, the active control sodium bicarbonate and a marketed antacid preparation ENO. A modified model of Vatier's artificial stomach was used to determine the duration of consistent neutralization of artificial gastric acid by the test samples. The neutralizing capacity of the test samples was determined in vitro using the classical titration method of Fordtran. All test samples except lemon showed significantly higher (p<0.05 for cucumber and p<0.001 for the rest) acid neutralizing effect than water. All test samples also exhibited a significantly (p<0.001) higher duration of consistent neutralization and higher antacid capacity than water. Highest antacid activity was demonstrated by cold milk and broccoli which was comparable with ENO and sodium bicarbonate. It may be concluded that the natural food ingredients used in this study exhibited significant antacid activity, justifying their use as essential dietary components to counter hyperacidity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of region, demography, and protection from fishing on batch fecundity of common coral trout ( Plectropomus leopardus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alex B.; Davies, Campbell R.; Mapstone, Bruce D.; Russ, Garry R.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Williams, Ashley J.

    2014-09-01

    Batch fecundity of female Plectropomus leopardus, a coral reef fish targeted by commercial and recreational fishing, was compared between reefs open to fishing and reefs within no-take marine reserves within three regions of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Length, weight, and age had positive effects on batch fecundity of spawners from northern and central reefs but negligible effects on spawners from southern reefs. Females were least fecund for a given length, weight, and age in the southern GBR. Batch fecundity of a 500-mm fork length female was 430 % greater on central reefs and 207 % greater on northern reefs than on southern reefs. The effects of length and age on batch fecundity did not differ significantly between reserve and fished reefs in any region, but weight-specific fecundity was 100 % greater for large 2.0 kg females on reserve reefs compared with fished reefs in the central GBR. We hypothesize that regional variation in batch fecundity is likely driven by water temperature and prey availability. Significant regional variation in batch fecundity highlights the need for understanding spatial variation in reproductive output where single conservation or fishery management strategies cover large, potentially diverse, spatial scales.

  16. A common oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism modulates intranasal oxytocin effects on the neural response to social cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C; Lori, A; Waldman, I D; Binder, E B; Haroon, E; Rilling, J K

    2015-09-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) can modulate social-emotional functioning and related brain activity in humans. Consequently, OT has been discussed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders involving social behavioral deficits. However, OT effects are often heterogeneous across individuals. Here we explore individual differences in OT effects on the neural response to social cooperation as a function of the rs53576 polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Previously, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which healthy men and women were randomized to treatment with intranasal OT or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Within the left ventral caudate nucleus, intranasal OT treatment increased activation to reciprocated cooperation in men, but tended to decrease activation in women. Here, we show that these sex differences in OT effects are specific to individuals with the rs53576 GG genotype, and are not found for other genotypes (rs53576 AA/AG). Thus, OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions for male GG homozygotes, while decreasing those processes for female GG homozygotes. These results suggest that rs53576 genotype is an important variable to consider in future investigations of the clinical efficacy of intranasal OT treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  17. Effective treatment of common variable immunodeficiency associated diarrhea Diarrea asociada a inmunodeficiencia común variable tratada con budesonida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Córdova Guevara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID, the commonest symptomatic primary antibody deficiency syndrome, is characterised by recurrent bacterial infections, particularly of the upper and lower airways; it is also associated with an increased incidence of autoimmune and neoplastic disorders. CVID has a high prevalence of infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases. Up to 60% of the patients with non-treated CVID develop diarrhea and 10% associated idiopathic malabsorption with weight loss. The case of a 50-year-old woman with CVID-associated diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating of one year's duration is reported. An exhaustive evaluation made for secondary causes of her symptoms was unrevealing; she was treated with loperamide and diet, without improvement. She later followed a course of oral budesonide for 3 months; her clinical symptoms disappeared and her quality of life improved. In conclusion, we report the case of a patient with CVID-related chronic diarrhea who responded well to oral budesonide treatment. This outcome provides the gastroenterologist with a new therapeutic option in this difficult group of patients.La inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV es la deficiencia primaria de anticuerpos sintomática más frecuente y está caracterizada por infecciones bacterianas recurrentes, especialmente de las vías aéreas superiores e inferiores, y también asociada a incremento de enfermedades autoinmunes y neoplasias. Presenta alta prevalencia de enfermedades gastrointestinales infecciosas, inflamatorias y neoplásicas. Hasta el 60% de los pacientes con IDCV no tratados desarrollan diarrea y el 10% desarrollan malabsorción idiopática asociado a pérdida de peso. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 50 años con IDCV que presenta diarrea crónica, con dolor y distensión abdominal desde hace 1 año. Realizándose múltiples exploraciones y descartando causas secundarias de diarrea crónica, se inicia

  18. Effect of long-term physical aging on the kinetic parameters in a common pharmaceutical drug: Flutab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Sehly, A.A.; Elabbar, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were performed to investigate the effects of long-term physical aging on kinetic parameters of the pharmaceutical drug (Flutab). Kinetics parameters such as activation energy (E) and fragility parameter (m) of the glass transition for aged and rejuvenated glasses were determined using different kinetic models. Evidence of variation of E with temperature is presented. It is shown in this work that natural storage of the drug introduced significant physical aging as indicated by changes in the glass transition temperature, activation energy and fragility parameter.

  19. Effects of lead nitrate (PbNO3) on the glucose and cortisol hormone levels in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, S; Afaghi, A; Heidari, R; Asadpoor, Y; Shiri, S

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of PbNO3 exposure on variations of glucose and cortisol levels in Cyprinus carpio. Fish were subjected to two sub-lethal concentrations of PbNO3 for 14 days. Blood samples were isolated from the fish following the exposure, to measure the levels of cortisol and glucose compared to the control group. We found significant increases (plead would affect the levels of both glucose and cortisol in Cyprinus carpio.

  20. Establishing a common vocabulary of key concepts for the effective ımplementation of applied behavior analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traci M Cihon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case example of the development of a shared vocabulary, using plain English when possible, among supervisors and supervisees at a large public school district in which behavior analytic services were provided for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. A list of terms and definitions are provided as well as suggestions on how to develop shared vocabularies within the readers’ own service provision context.

  1. Effect of Commonly Used Beverage, Soft Drink, and Mouthwash on Force Delivered by Elastomeric Chain: A Comparative In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Sharath; Krithika, M J; Cyriac, Bobby

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to evaluate and compare the effect of Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash on the force delivered by elastomeric chain in vitro. Materials and Methods: Four specimen groups (distilled water, Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash) with a total sample size of 480 specimens. A specimen is described as a four link grey close elastomeric chain. Jigs, each with a series of pins set 25 mm apart, was used to hold stretched elastomeric chains at a...

  2. Greening the CAP. An analysis of the effects of the European Commission's proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy 2014-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westhoek, H.; Van Zeijts, H.; Witmer, M.; Van den Berg, M.; Overmars, K.; Van der Esch, S.; Van der Bilt, W.

    2012-02-15

    The impact of the proposed greening measures of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on the sustainable development of agriculture appears to be relatively small. Member States must assign 30 percent of their Pillar I budget to these measures, a total annual amount of 13 billion euros. Greening measures could be made more effective by tailoring the proposed ecological focus areas to local conditions and by promoting the formation of a green infrastructure.

  3. Effects of diode laser welding with dye-enhanced glue on tensile strength of sutures commonly used in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, A J; Chang, D T; Kayton, M L; Libutti, S K; Connor, J P; Hensle, T W

    1996-01-01

    Tissue welding using laser-activated protein solders may soon become an alternative to sutured tissue approximation. In most cases, approximating sutures are used both to align tissue edges and provide added tensile strength. Collateral thermal injury, however, may cause disruption of tissue alignment and weaken the tensile strength of sutures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser welding on the tensile strength of suture materials used in urologic surgery. Eleven types of sutures were exposed to diode laser energy (power density = 15.9 W/cm2) for 10, 30, and 60 seconds. Each suture was compared with and without the addition of dye-enhanced albumin-based solder. After exposure, each suture material was strained (2"/min) until ultimate breakage on a tensometer and compared to untreated sutures using ANOVA. The strength of undyed sutures were not significantly affected; however, violet and green-dyed sutures were in general weakened by laser exposure in the presence of dye-enhanced glue. Laser activation of the smallest caliber, dyed sutures (7-0) in the presence of glue caused the most significant loss of tensile strength of all sutures tested. These results indicate that the thermal effects of laser welding using our technique decrease the tensile strength of dyed sutures. A thermally resistant suture material (undyed or clear) may prevent disruption of wounds closed by laser welding techniques.

  4. Innate Immune Response and Off-Target Mis-splicing Are Common Morpholino-Induced Side Effects in Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, George E; Spruce, Thomas; Monteiro, Rita S; Owens, Nick D L; Martin, Stephen R; Smith, James C

    2018-03-12

    Antisense morpholino oligomers (MOs) have been indispensable tools for developmental biologists to transiently knock down (KD) genes rather than to knock them out (KO). Here we report on the implications of genetic KO versus MO-mediated KD of the mesoderm-specifying Brachyury paralogs in the frog Xenopus tropicalis. While both KO and KD embryos fail to activate the same core gene regulatory network, resulting in virtually identical morphological defects, embryos injected with control or target MOs also show a systemic GC content-dependent immune response and many off-target splicing defects. Optimization of MO dosage and increasing incubation temperatures can mitigate, but not eliminate, these MO side effects, which are consistent with the high affinity measured between MO and off-target sequence in vitro. We conclude that while MOs can be useful to profile loss-of-function phenotypes at a molecular level, careful attention must be paid to their immunogenic and off-target side effects. Copyright © 2018 The Francis Crick Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of different concentrations of bee propolis on skin wound healing and immune response and survival of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nasrin choubkar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics use to increase the immune and wound healing in many animals. But due to the residual effects of a drug, Antibiotics and used to increase the immune response and propolis wound healing is aquadic animals. But due to their residual, researchers are looking to replace them with natural materials. One of these natural materials that has many health benefits is bee propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of propolis on wound healing and immune system response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Propolis extracts were prepared from Kashan Barij essence with different concentrations of 0 , 2 , 5 and 10% with carrier substances (to dissolve the propolis  in water, and were evaluated on wound healing and immune response and survival  of common carp on a 21 –day cycle of short baths once a day . The results showed that, compared with the control group (0%, the use of bee propolis in concentration of 2% has statistically significant difference on wound healing and immune system response in common carp. The use of higher concentrations of propolis healed wound, but increased the number of blood cells (red blood cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils and increased mortality of fish, so it is better to use lower concentrations of propolis in fish. The use bee propolis as additive in water is effective in low concentrations and stimulates the immune system.

  6. Effects of a common worldwide drink (Beer) on L-Phenylalanine and L-Tyrosine fibrillar assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Debasis; Banerjee, Pavel; Sabeehuddin, Ghazi; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2017-11-01

    In this letter, small amount of beer [0.42-2.08% (v/v)] is employed to investigate the fibril inhibition kinetics of 1 mM L-Phenylalanine and L-Tyrosine (relevant to disease condition) using Fluorescence Lifetime imaging Microscopy (FLIM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic (HR-TEM) techniques. Our results indicate that 1.67 and 0.42% of beer is sufficient for effective breakdown of L-Phe and L-Tyr assemblies, respectively. Quantitative information about fibril inhibition is obtained from Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopic (FCS) measurements. We have shown that the morphology of L-Phe changes to L-Tyr in presence of 2,2‧-Bipyridine-3,3‧-diol (BP(OH)2).

  7. Combined effects of 19 common variations on type 2 diabetes in Chinese: results from two community-based studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many susceptible loci for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have recently been identified from Caucasians through genome wide association studies (GWAS. We aimed to determine the association of 11 known loci with T2DM and impaired glucose regulation (IGR, individually and in combination, in Chinese.Subjects were enrolled in: (1 a case-control study including 1825 subjects with T2DM, 1487 with IGR and 2200 with normal glucose regulation; and (2 a prospective cohort with 734 non-diabetic subjects at baseline. The latter was followed up for 3.5 years, in which 67 subjects developed T2DM. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected to replicate in both studies. We found that CDKAL1 (rs7756992, SLC30A8 (rs13266634, rs2466293, CDKN2A/2B (rs10811661 and KCNQ1 (rs2237892 were associated with T2DM with odds ratio from 1.21 to 1.35. In the prospective study, the fourth quartile of risk scores based on the combined effects of the risk alleles had 3.05 folds (95% CI, 1.31-7.12 higher risk for incident T2DM as compared with the first quartile, after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index and diabetes family history. This combined effect was confirmed in the case-control study after the same adjustments. The addition of the risk scores to the model of clinical risk factors modestly improved discrimination for T2DM by 1.6% in the case-control study and 2.9% in the prospective study.Our study provided further evidence for these GWAS derived SNPs as the genetic susceptible loci for T2DM in Chinese and extended this association to IGR.

  8. Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Schmid, D Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 10(5) infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands.

  9. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.

  10. Effects of Common Fig (Ficus carica Leaf Extracts on Sperm Parameters and Testis of Mice Intoxicated with Formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Naghdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is the leading cause of cellular injury and oxidative damage in testis that is one of the main infertility causes. There has been an increasing evidence of herbal remedies use in male infertility treatment. This assay examines the role of Ficus carica (Fc leaf extracts in sperm parameters and testis of mice intoxicated with FA. Twenty-five adult male mice were randomly divided into control; sham; FA-treated (10 mg/kg twice per day; Fc-treated (200 mg/kg; and FA + Fc-treated groups. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were analyzed for viability, count, and motility. Testes were weighed and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Also, histoarchitecture of seminiferous tubules was assessed in the Haematoxylin and Eosin stained paraffin sections. The findings showed that FA significantly decreased GSI and increased percentage of immotile sperm compared with control group. Disorganized and vacuolated seminiferous epithelium, spermatogenic arrest, and lumen filled with immature germ cells were also observed in the testes. However, Fc leaf extracts improved sperm count, nonprogressive motility of spermatozoa, and GSI in FA-treated testes. Moreover, seminiferous tubule with spermatogenic arrest was rarely seen, indicating that Fc has the positive effects on testis and epididymal sperm parameters exposed with FA.

  11. Effects of commonly used chemical fertilizers on development of free-living stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected pasture

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    Tapas Kumar Roul

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The effects of N-P-K fertilizers in the form of urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash on development of free-living stages of Haemonchus contortus were studied. Materials and Methods: Five parasite free experimental plots of 1 mx1 m area, each of paddy leaves (15-day-old and an equal number of Cynodon dactylon grass were infested with about 10x104 eggs/ml phosphate buffer saline along with the application of the calculated amount of fertilizers solution. On the 10th day of posttreatment, the pasture was cut, processed, larvae recovered by Baermann method and counted, which was expressed as number of L3 per kg dry matter (DM of pasture. Results: The average recovered population of L3 of H. contortus per kg DM varied significantly (p0.05. Conclusion: This study shown that when N-P-K fertilizers administered at recommended level, significantly reduced larval translation of H. contortus minimizing pasture infectivity for the free range grazing animals.

  12. A comparison of mutagenic effects of common wheat by electron beam, fast neutron and 60Co gamma ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Daochang; Wang Linqing

    1988-02-01

    After winter wheat was irradiated by electron beam, fast neutron and γ-rays, respectively, the RBE value of electron beam to both fast neutrons and γ-rays was less than one, the RBE value of fast neutron to γ-rays was largely more than one. This results indicated that biological effect of M 1 generation induced by electron beam was less than that of fast neutrons very much, and similar to γ-ray irradiation. With electron beam irradiation, the half-lethal doses of M 1 generation were from 185 to 370 Gy, closer to 370 Gy, the lethal doses from 740 to 925 Gy. M 2 mutation efficiency with electron beam treatment was larger as compared with that with both fast neutrons and γ-rays. A wider mutation spectrum and higher mutation efficiency compared with other physical mutagens can be obtained with electron beam irradiation, about 30% higher than that with γ-ray irradiation. The best doses of irradiation with electron beam were 370 to 555 Gy. Fast neutrons, a better dose of which was 25 Gy, could induce more mutants than that with γ-rays in M 2 generation. The dose in which biological injury reached to 50% was the best dose for M 2 mutants by electron beam irradiation

  13. Effect of copper nanoparticles exposure in the physiology of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio: Biochemical, histological and proteomic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantak Raj Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs are serious water pollutants but their impact in teleosts performance remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have exposed juvenile carps (Cyprinus carpio, a freshwater teleost edible in India to two different doses (20 and 100 μg/L of Cu-NPs for seven days. The doses selected were eco-relevant considering the contamination levels of certain water resources. The results indicated that the activity oxidative stress enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly increased in the kidney, liver and gills of the treated groups when compared to control. Histological analysis revealed that after exposure, disruption of the secondary lamellae of gills, liver damage with pyknotic nuclei and structural disarray of the kidney occurred. Proteomic analysis of the liver showed down-regulation of several proteins including the ferritin heavy chain, rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 17-like, cytoglobin-1 and up-regulation of diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase and selenide & water dikinase-1. Taken together, the results of suggest that short-term exposure of juvenile carp to Cu-NPs causes oxidative stress and impart serious deleterious effects in the tissues which may affect fish growth and development.

  14. Effect of an emergency department-based electronic system for musculoskeletal consultation on facilitating care for common injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Simon C; Pantle, Hardin A; Bessman, Edward S; Lifchez, Scott D

    2015-05-01

    Access to musculoskeletal consultation in the emergency department (ED) is a nationwide problem. In addition, consultation from a subspecialist may be delayed or may not be available, which can slow down the ED flow and reduce patient satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to review the 1-year results of a change in the authors' institutional practice to reduce subspecialty consultation for select musculoskeletal problems while still ensuring adequate patient follow-up in orthopedic or plastic surgery clinics for patients not seen by these services in the ED. The authors hypothesized that select injuries could be safely managed in the ED by using an electronic system to ensure appropriate follow-up care. Using Kaizen methodology, a multidisciplinary group (including ED staff, orthopedics, plastic surgery, pediatrics, nursing, radiology, therapy, and administration) met to improve care for select musculoskeletal injuries. A system was agreed on in which ED providers managed select musculoskeletal injuries without subspecialist consultation. Follow-up was organized using an electronic system, which facilitated communication between the ED staff and the secretarial staff of the subspecialist departments. Over a 1-year period, 150 patients were treated using this system. Charts and radiographs were reviewed for missed injuries. Radiographic review revealed 2 missed injuries. One patient had additional back pain and a lumbar spine fracture was found during the subspecialist follow-up visit; it was treated nonoperatively. Another patient appeared to have scapholunate widening on the injury radiograph that was not appreciated in the ED. Of the 150 patients, 51 were seen in follow-up by a subspecialist at the authors' institution. An electronic system to organize follow-up with a subspecialist allowed the ED providers to deliver safe and effective care for simple musculoskeletal injuries. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Effects of brood size manipulation and common origin on phenotype and telomere length in nestling collared flycatchers

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    Voillemot Marie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is accumulating that telomere length is a good predictor of life expectancy, especially early in life, thus calling for determining the factors that affect telomere length at this stage. Here, we investigated the relative influence of early growth conditions and origin (genetics and early maternal effects on telomere length of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis at fledging. We experimentally transferred hatchlings among brood triplets to create reduced, control (i.e. unchanged final nestling number and enlarged broods. Results Although our treatment significantly affected body mass at fledging, we found no evidence that increased sibling competition affected nestling tarsus length and telomere length. However, mixed models showed that brood triplets explained a significant part of the variance in body mass (18% and telomere length (19%, but not tarsus length (13%, emphasizing that unmanipulated early environmental factors influenced telomere length. These models also revealed low, but significant, heritability of telomere length (h2 = 0.09. For comparison, the heritability of nestling body mass and tarsus length was 0.36 and 0.39, respectively, which was in the range of previously published estimates for those two traits in this species. Conclusion Those findings in a wild bird population demonstrate that telomere length at the end of the growth period is weakly, but significantly, determined by genetic and/or maternal factors taking place before hatching. However, we found no evidence that the brood size manipulation experiment, and by extension the early growth conditions, influenced nestling telomere length. The weak heritability of telomere length suggests a close association with fitness in natural populations.

  16. The effect of temperature on compressive and tensile strengths of commonly used luting cements: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Suneel G; Sajjan, Mc Suresh; Patil, Rekha

    2015-02-01

    The luting cements must withstand masticatory and parafunctional stresses in the warm and wet oral environment. Mouth temperature and the temperature of the ingested foods may induce thermal variation and plastic deformation within the cements and might affect the strength properties. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of temperature on the compressive and diametral tensile strengths of two polycarboxylate, a conventional glass ionomer and a resin modified glass ionomer luting cements and, to compare the compressive strength and the diametral tensile strength of the selected luting cements at varying temperatures. In this study, standardized specimens were prepared. The temperature of the specimens was regulated prior to testing them using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Six specimens each were tested at 23°C, 37°C and 50°C for both the compressive and diametral tensile strengths, for all the luting cements. All the luting cements showed a marginal reduction in their compressive and diametral tensile strengths at raised temperatures. Fuji Plus was strongest in compression, followed by Fuji I > Poly F > Liv Carbo. Fuji Plus had the highest diametral tensile strength values, followed by Poly F = Fuji I = Liv Carbo, at all temperatures. An increase in the temperature caused no significant reduction in the compressive and diametral tensile strengths of the cements evaluated. The compressive strength of the luting cements differed significantly from one another at all temperatures. The diametral tensile strength of resin modified glass ionomers differed considerably from the other cements, whereas there was no significant difference between the other cements, at all the temperatures.

  17. Effects of Common Polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ACE Genes on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Progression: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuai; Han, Yan; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Cui, Guangcheng; Li, Zezhi; Guan, Yangtai

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T and ACE I/D polymorphisms in the development of DPN. We systematically reviewed published studies on MTHFR 677 C>T and ACE I/D polymorphisms and DPN found in various types of electronic databases. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) quality score systems were used to determine the quality of the articles selected for inclusion. Odds ratios (ORs) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated. We used STATA statistical software (version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) to deal with statistical data. Our results indicated an association of ACE D>I mutation (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.12-1.83, P = 0.004) and MTHFR 677 C>T mutation (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.08-1.90, P = 0.014) with DPN under the allele model, and similar results were also found under the dominant model (all P T polymorphism may be the main risk factor for DPN in Turkey under four genetic models. ACE D>I mutation was correlated with DPN in Japanese and Pakistani populations in the majority of groups. The relationships of MTHFR 677 C>T and ACE I/D polymorphisms with DPN patients presented in this meta-analyses support the view that the MTHFR and ACE genes might play an important role in the development of DPN.

  18. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Mekala; Willoughby, Janna R; Lichti, Nathanael I; Steele, Michael A; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%), and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%). A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA) on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is consistent with a weak

  19. Identification of Cardiometabolic Vulnerabilities Caused by Effects of Synergistic Stressors that are Commonly Encountered During Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, M.; Scheer, F. A. J.; Barger, L. K.; Lockley, S. W.; Wang, W.; Johnston, S. L. III; Crucian, B.; Shea, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Microgravity is a physiologically challenging state even when at rest. Astronauts experience additional physical and mental stresses, such as prolonged exertion, sleep loss and circadian misalignment, that could impact cardiovascular function. The main goals of this four year NASA project are to characterize the independent and synergistic effects on cardiovascular and immune function of: (1) circadian misalignment; (2) sleep loss; and (3) varied physical and mental stressors, mimicking some of the synergistic stressors experienced by astronauts. Sixteen healthy volunteers, aged 35-55 years, will be studied with standardized behavioral stressors occurring across all circadian phases, both with and without accruing sleep loss, achieved via two 11-day "forced desynchrony" protocols performed in each subject (randomized, within-subject design), where wake periods are advanced 4-h each "day" (i.e. recurring 20-h "days"). One protocol permits 8.33 h sleep opportunity per 20-h "day" (=10 h sleep per 24-h), and the other permits 5 h sleep per 20-h "day" (=6 h sleep per 24-h; matching the reported sleep duration of astronauts). In both protocols, subjects will perform a standardized stress battery including a cognitively challenging task; bicycle exercise, and passive 60deg head up tilt. Outcome variables include blood pressure, heart rate, arrhythmia frequency, cardiac vagal tone (from heart rate variability), sympathetic activity (catecholamines), and endothelial function. Additional measures of cardiac function (echocardiography), responses to a passive 80deg head up tilt, maximal oxygen uptake, and immune function will be assessed at the beginning and at the end of each protocol (i.e., without and with sleep loss, and before and after circadian misalignment). We hope to identify the relative impact on cardiovascular risk markers of varied behavioural stressors while subjects experience circadian misalignment and sleep loss, mimicking some of the synergistic stressors

  20. Effect of common pesticides used in the Niger Delta basin of southern Nigeria on soil microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekundayo, E O

    2003-11-01

    The effects of eleven pesticides on the populations of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and protozoa was investigated by treating a garden soil with their recommended rates. The microbial populations were estimated using the standard plate-count technique. Of the 11 pesticides investigated, phenylmercuric acetate (agrosan) at 50 microg g(-1) inhibited bacterial density the most, i.e. from 4,600,000 to 220 cells g(-1). The pesticides were Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), tetramethylmethylthiuram disulphide (thiram), 1-naphthylmethylcarbamate (Vetox 85), 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (Gammalin 20), phenylmercuric acetate (Agrosan), tetrachloroterephthalic acid (Dacthal), 4-nitrophenyl-2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl ether (Preforan), 2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-2-methoxy-1-methyl ethyl-chloroacetanide (Dual), Benlate, Brestan and Gramoxone. Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) at 240,000 microg g(-1) reduced bacterial population from 4,600,000 to 2,100 cells g(-1), whereas tetramethylthiuram disulphide (thiram) at 100 microg g(-1) suppressed it by 2 log orders of magnitude. Soil application of 1-naphthylmethylcarbamate (Vetox 85) at 100 microg g(-1) and 1,2,3,4,5,6,-hexachlorocyclohexane (Gamalin 20) at 1,300 microg g(-1) repressed the bacterial numbers by 2 log orders of magnitude each. Pentachloronitrobenzene reduced the actinomycetes density from 340,000 to 320 cells g(-1) and completely eliminated all fungal and protozoan propagules from the soil. The Gammalin 20 completely wiped out all the fungi, whereas phenylmercuric acetate totally eliminated all the protozoa and reduced the fungal population from 34,000 to 60 cells g(-1). In general, protozoa and fungi were more susceptible to fungicides than bacteria and actinomycetes. Pentachloronitrobenzene, 1,2,3,4,5,6,-hexachlorocyclohexane and phenylmercuric acetate were toxic particularly to soil microorganisms, whereas the herbicides dacthal, Preforan and Dual were quite harmless in soil at application rates of 0.1, 0.06 and 0

  1. Evaluating aggregate effects of rare and common variants in the 1000 Genomes Project exon sequencing data using latent variable structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Nl; Zhang, Lx

    2011-11-29

    Methods that can evaluate aggregate effects of rare and common variants are limited. Therefore, we applied a two-stage approach to evaluate aggregate gene effects in the 1000 Genomes Project data, which contain 24,487 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 697 unrelated individuals from 7 populations. In stage 1, we identified potentially interesting genes (PIGs) as those having at least one SNP meeting Bonferroni correction using univariate, multiple regression models. In stage 2, we evaluate aggregate PIG effects on trait, Q1, by modeling each gene as a latent construct, which is defined by multiple common and rare variants, using the multivariate statistical framework of structural equation modeling (SEM). In stage 1, we found that PIGs varied markedly between a randomly selected replicate (replicate 137) and 100 other replicates, with the exception of FLT1. In stage 1, collapsing rare variants decreased false positives but increased false negatives. In stage 2, we developed a good-fitting SEM model that included all nine genes simulated to affect Q1 (FLT1, KDR, ARNT, ELAV4, FLT4, HIF1A, HIF3A, VEGFA, VEGFC) and found that FLT1 had the largest effect on Q1 (βstd = 0.33 ± 0.05). Using replicate 137 estimates as population values, we found that the mean relative bias in the parameters (loadings, paths, residuals) and their standard errors across 100 replicates was on average, less than 5%. Our latent variable SEM approach provides a viable framework for modeling aggregate effects of rare and common variants in multiple genes, but more elegant methods are needed in stage 1 to minimize type I and type II error.

  2. Effects of methylmercury exposure on glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Hoffman, David J.; Hines, Randy K.; Meyer, Michael W.; Bickham, John W.; Matson, Cole W.; Stebbins, Katie R.; Montagna, Paul; Elfessi, Abdulaziz

    2008-01-01

    We quantified the level of dietary mercury (Hg), delivered as methylmercury chloride (CH 3 HgCl), associated with negative effects on organ and plasma biochemistries related to glutathione (GSH) metabolism and oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks reared from hatch to 105 days. Mercury-associated effects related to oxidative stress and altered glutathione metabolism occurred at 1.2 μg Hg/g and 0.4 μg Hg/g, an ecologically relevant dietary mercury level, but not at 0.08 μg Hg/g. Among the variables that contributed most to dissimilarities in tissue chemistries between control and treatment groups were increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH peroxidase, and the ratio of GSSG to GSH in brain tissue; increased levels of hepatic GSH; and decreased levels of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH). Our results also suggest that chronic exposure to environmentally relevant dietary Hg levels did not result in statistically significant somatic chromosomal damage in common loon chicks. - Oxidative stress and altered glutathione metabolism were evident in common loon chicks exposed to ≥0.4 μg Hg as CH 3 HgCl per gram wet food intake

  3. Common low-density lipoprotein receptor p.G116S variant has a large effect on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in circumpolar inuit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Joseph B; Wang, Jian; Cao, Henian; McIntyre, Adam D; Johansen, Christopher T; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Stringer, Randa; Hosseinzadeh, Siyavash; Kennedy, Brooke A; Ban, Matthew R; Young, T Kue; Connelly, Philip W; Dewailly, Eric; Bjerregaard, Peter; Boyer, Bert B; Hegele, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    Inuit are considered to be vulnerable to cardiovascular disease because their lifestyles are becoming more Westernized. During sequence analysis of Inuit individuals at extremes of lipid traits, we identified 2 nonsynonymous variants in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), namely p.G116S and p.R730W. Genotyping these variants in 3324 Inuit from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland showed they were common, with allele frequencies 10% to 15%. Only p.G116S was associated with dyslipidemia: the increase in LDL cholesterol was 0.54 mmol/L (20.9 mg/dL) per allele (P=5.6×10(-49)), which was >3× larger than the largest effect sizes seen with other common variants in other populations. Carriers of p.G116S had a 3.02-fold increased risk of hypercholesterolemia (95% confidence interval, 2.34-3.90; P=1.7×10(-17)), but did not have classical familial hypercholesterolemia. In vitro, p.G116S showed 60% reduced ligand-binding activity compared with wild-type receptor. In contrast, p.R730W was associated with neither LDL cholesterol level nor altered in vitro activity. LDLR p.G116S is thus unique: a common dysfunctional variant in Inuit whose large effect on LDL cholesterol may have public health implications. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Effects of methylmercury exposure on glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenow, Kevin P. [U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, 2630 Fanta Reed Road, La Crosse, WI 54603 (United States)], E-mail: kkenow@usgs.gov; Hoffman, David J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)], E-mail: djhoffman@usgs.gov; Hines, Randy K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, 2630 Fanta Reed Road, La Crosse, WI 54603 (United States)], E-mail: rkhines@usgs.gov; Meyer, Michael W. [Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 107 Sutliff Avenue, Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States)], E-mail: michael.meyer@dnr.state.wi.us; Bickham, John W. [Center for the Environment and Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: bickham@purdue.edu; Matson, Cole W. [Integrated Toxicology and Environmental Health Program, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)], E-mail: matson@duke.edu; Stebbins, Katie R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Montagna, Paul [Texas A and M University-Corpus Christi, Harte Research Institute, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)], E-mail: paul.montagna@tamucc.edu; Elfessi, Abdulaziz [University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601 (United States)], E-mail: elfessi.abdu@uwlax.edu

    2008-12-15

    We quantified the level of dietary mercury (Hg), delivered as methylmercury chloride (CH{sub 3}HgCl), associated with negative effects on organ and plasma biochemistries related to glutathione (GSH) metabolism and oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks reared from hatch to 105 days. Mercury-associated effects related to oxidative stress and altered glutathione metabolism occurred at 1.2 {mu}g Hg/g and 0.4 {mu}g Hg/g, an ecologically relevant dietary mercury level, but not at 0.08 {mu}g Hg/g. Among the variables that contributed most to dissimilarities in tissue chemistries between control and treatment groups were increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH peroxidase, and the ratio of GSSG to GSH in brain tissue; increased levels of hepatic GSH; and decreased levels of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH). Our results also suggest that chronic exposure to environmentally relevant dietary Hg levels did not result in statistically significant somatic chromosomal damage in common loon chicks. - Oxidative stress and altered glutathione metabolism were evident in common loon chicks exposed to {>=}0.4 {mu}g Hg as CH{sub 3}HgCl per gram wet food intake.

  5. Toward Customer-Centric Organizational Science: A Common Language Effect Size Indicator for Multiple Linear Regressions and Regressions With Higher-Order Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasikova, Dina V; Le, Huy; Bachura, Eric

    2018-01-22

    To address a long-standing concern regarding a gap between organizational science and practice, scholars called for more intuitive and meaningful ways of communicating research results to users of academic research. In this article, we develop a common language effect size index (CLβ) that can help translate research results to practice. We demonstrate how CLβ can be computed and used to interpret the effects of continuous and categorical predictors in multiple linear regression models. We also elaborate on how the proposed CLβ index is computed and used to interpret interactions and nonlinear effects in regression models. In addition, we test the robustness of the proposed index to violations of normality and provide means for computing standard errors and constructing confidence intervals around its estimates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Comprehensive analysis of RET common and rare variants in a series of Spanish Hirschsprung patients confirms a synergistic effect of both kinds of events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño Luis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RET is the major gene associated to Hirschsprung disease (HSCR with differential contributions of its rare and common, coding and noncoding mutations to the multifactorial nature of this pathology. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive study of our HSCR series evaluating the involvement of both RET rare variants (RVs and common variants (CVs in the context of the disease. Methods RET mutational screening was performed by dHPLC and direct sequencing for the identification of RVs. In addition Taqman technology was applied for the genotyping of 3 RET CVs previously associated to HSCR, including a variant lying in an enhancer domain within RET intron 1 (rs2435357. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS v.17.0 to analyze the distribution of the variants. Results Our results confirm the strongest association to HSCR for the "enhancer" variant, and demonstrate a significantly higher impact of it in male versus female patients. Integration of the RET RVs and CVs analysis showed that in 91.66% of cases with both kinds of mutational events, the enhancer allele is in trans with the allele bearing the RET RV. Conclusions A gender effect exists on both the transmission and distribution of rare coding and common HSCR causing mutations. In addition, these RET CVs and RVs seem to act in a synergistic way leading to HSCR phenotype.

  7. Systematic analysis of cell cycle effects of common drugs leads to the discovery of a suppressive interaction between gemfibrozil and fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoose, Scott A; Duran, Camille; Malik, Indranil; Eslamfam, Shabnam; Shasserre, Samantha C; Downing, S Sabina; Hoover, Evelyn M; Dowd, Katherine E; Smith, Roger; Polymenis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Screening chemical libraries to identify compounds that affect overall cell proliferation is common. However, in most cases, it is not known whether the compounds tested alter the timing of particular cell cycle transitions. Here, we evaluated an FDA-approved drug library to identify pharmaceuticals that alter cell cycle progression in yeast, using DNA content measurements by flow cytometry. This approach revealed strong cell cycle effects of several commonly used pharmaceuticals. We show that the antilipemic gemfibrozil delays initiation of DNA replication, while cells treated with the antidepressant fluoxetine severely delay progression through mitosis. Based on their effects on cell cycle progression, we also examined cell proliferation in the presence of both compounds. We discovered a strong suppressive interaction between gemfibrozil and fluoxetine. Combinations of interest among diverse pharmaceuticals are difficult to identify, due to the daunting number of possible combinations that must be evaluated. The novel interaction between gemfibrozil and fluoxetine suggests that identifying and combining drugs that show cell cycle effects might streamline identification of drug combinations with a pronounced impact on cell proliferation.

  8. Systematic analysis of cell cycle effects of common drugs leads to the discovery of a suppressive interaction between gemfibrozil and fluoxetine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Hoose

    Full Text Available Screening chemical libraries to identify compounds that affect overall cell proliferation is common. However, in most cases, it is not known whether the compounds tested alter the timing of particular cell cycle transitions. Here, we evaluated an FDA-approved drug library to identify pharmaceuticals that alter cell cycle progression in yeast, using DNA content measurements by flow cytometry. This approach revealed strong cell cycle effects of several commonly used pharmaceuticals. We show that the antilipemic gemfibrozil delays initiation of DNA replication, while cells treated with the antidepressant fluoxetine severely delay progression through mitosis. Based on their effects on cell cycle progression, we also examined cell proliferation in the presence of both compounds. We discovered a strong suppressive interaction between gemfibrozil and fluoxetine. Combinations of interest among diverse pharmaceuticals are difficult to identify, due to the daunting number of possible combinations that must be evaluated. The novel interaction between gemfibrozil and fluoxetine suggests that identifying and combining drugs that show cell cycle effects might streamline identification of drug combinations with a pronounced impact on cell proliferation.

  9. A modelling approach for the assessment of the effects of Common Agricultural Policy measures on farmland biodiversity in the EU27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmars, Koen P; Helming, John; van Zeijts, Henk; Jansson, Torbjörn; Terluin, Ida

    2013-09-15

    In this paper we describe a methodology to model the impacts of policy measures within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on farm production, income and prices, and on farmland biodiversity. Two stylised scenarios are used to illustrate how the method works. The effects of CAP measures, such as subsidies and regulations, are calculated and translated into changes in land use and land-use intensity. These factors are then used to model biodiversity with a species-based indicator on a 1 km scale in the EU27. The Common Agricultural Policy Regionalised Impact Modelling System (CAPRI) is used to conduct the economic analysis and Dyna-CLUE (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects) is used to model land use changes. An indicator that expresses the relative species richness was used as the indicator for biodiversity in agricultural areas. The methodology is illustrated with a baseline scenario and two scenarios that include a specific policy. The strength of the methodology is that impacts of economic policy instruments can be linked to changes in agricultural production, prices and incomes, on the one hand, and to biodiversity effects, on the other - with land use and land-use intensity as the connecting drivers. The method provides an overall assessment, but for detailed impact assessment at landscape, farm or field level, additional analysis would be required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The pricing effect of the common pattern in firm-level idiosyncratic volatility: Evidence from A-Share stocks of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi; Shu, Tengjia; Yin, Libo

    2018-05-01

    Inspired by Herskovic et al. (2016), we investigate the pricing effect of the firm-level common idiosyncratic volatility (CIV) in China's A-Share market. Return tests indicate that lower CIV risk loadings bring higher returns significantly, while the pricing function of market volatility (MV) is inconsistent. Strategy that goes long the highest CIV-beta quintile and short the lowest CIV-beta quintile brings an annualized average return of 5%-7%. Our findings supplement Herskovic et al. (2016) by confirming a significantly negative relationship between CIV and stock returns in a developing market.

  11. Evaluating the effects of common control measures for influenza A (H1N1 outbreak at school in China: A modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianmu Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza A (H1N1 outbreaks have become common at schools in China since 2009. However, the effects of common countermeasures for school influenza outbreak have not been quantified so far, including isolation, vaccination, antivirus and school closure. We conducted a mathematically modeling study to address this unsolved issue.We collected data of all small-scale school outbreaks caused by influenza A that occurred in Changsha city between January 2009 and December 2013. Two outbreaks (one was in 2009 and the other one was in 2013 were used for simulating the effects of single and combined use of common measures, including isolation (Iso, therapeutics (T, prophylactics (P, vaccinating 70% of susceptible individuals prior to the outbreak (VP70, vaccinating 70% of susceptible individuals every day during the outbreak (VD70 and school closure of one week (S1w. A susceptible-exposed-infectious/asymptomatic-recovered (SEIR model was developed to implement the simulations based on the natural history of influenza A.When no control measures are taken, the influenza is expected to spread quickly at school for the selected outbreak in 2013; the outbreak would last 56 days, and the total attack rate (TAR would reach up to 46.32% (95% CI: 46.12-46.52. Of all single control measures, VP70 is most effective to control the epidemic (TAR = 8.68%, followed by VP50, VD70, VD50 and Iso. The use of VP70 with any other measure can reduce TAR to 3.37-14.04% and showed better effects than any other combination of two kinds of measures. The best two-measure combination is 'S1w+VP70' (TAR = 3.37%, DO = 41 days. All combinations of three kinds of measures were not satisfactory when Vp70 and VD70 were excluded. The most effective three-intervention combination was 'Iso+S1w+VP70' (with TAR = 3.23%. When VP70 or VD70 is included, the combinations of four or five kinds of interventions are very effective, reducing TAR to lower than 5%. But the TAR of combination of 'T

  12. Effect of 2-Phenylethanol as Antifungal Agent and Common Antifungals (Amphotericin B, Fluconazole, and Itraconazole) on Candida Species Isolated from Chronic and Recurrent Cases of Candidal Vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdabadi, Niloufar; Falahati, Mehraban; Heidarie-Kohan, Fariba; Farahyar, Shirin; Rahimi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Ashrafi-Khozani, Mahtab; Razavi, Tandis; Mohammadnejad, Sina

    2018-04-01

    The antifungal effects of 2-phenylethanol are clearly visible through its intervention in Candida morphogenesis. Chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, however, does not respond to this standard experimental therapy; therefore, the study presented in this article investigated the effect of common antifungal drugs (amphotericin B [AMB], fluconazole [FLU], and itraconazole [ITC]), in combination with 2-phenylethanol, on the Candida species isolated from cases of chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, thereby allowing the recommendation of a more appropriate treatment option. Forty isolates from patients with chronic and recurrent vaginal candidiasis were investigated in this experimental study. The specimens were examined by direct microscopy, culturing, and PCR to identify the species. The antifungal effects of 2-phenylethanol and conventional drugs, both alone and in combination, were determined in duplicate. Finally, the findings were analyzed. In this study, 40 strains of Candida species were identified, whose agents were Candida albicans (95%) and Candida africana (5%). After 48 h, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of the 2-phenylethanol was 800-3,200 μg/mL. Also, in the final study on the MIC levels of common antifungal drugs, AMB (0.42 μg/mL) had the lowest MIC, FLU (40.51 μg/mL) had the highest MIC, and the combination of ITC and 2-phenylethanol had the lowest fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of any of the combinations (FICI range, 0.26-1.03). Combining FLU and ITC with 2-phenylethanol can effectively increase their antifungal effect.

  13. Common Vestibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Balatsouras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most common vestibular diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD and vestibular neuritis (VN, are presented in this paper. BPPV, which is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, can be defined as transient vertigo induced by a rapid head position change, associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus. Canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is considered the most convincing theory of its pathogenesis and the development of appropriate therapeutic maneuvers resulted in its effective treatment. However, involvement of the horizontal or the anterior canal has been found in a significant rate and the recognition and treatment of these variants completed the clinical picture of the disease. MD is a chronic condition characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Presence of endolymphatic hydrops on postmortem examination is its pathologic correlate. MD continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Patients with the disease range from minimally symptomatic, highly functional individuals to severely affected, disabled patients. Current management strategies are designed to control the acute and recurrent vestibulopathy but offer minimal remedy for the progressive cochlear dysfunction. VN is the most common cause of acute spontaneous vertigo, attributed to acute unilateral loss of vestibular function. Key signs and symptoms are an acute onset of spinning vertigo, postural imbalance and nausea as well as a horizontal rotatory nystagmus beating towards the non-affected side, a pathological headimpulse test and no evidence for central vestibular or ocular motor dysfunction. Vestibular neuritis preferentially involves the superior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents. Symptomatic medication is indicated only during the acute phase to relieve the vertigo and nausea

  14. Enrichment of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) diet with medlar (Mespilus germanica) leaf extract: Effects on skin mucosal immunity and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khodadadian Zou, Hassan; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Van Doan, Hien; Romano, Nicholas; Dadar, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    A feeding trial was performed to assess the effects of dietary Medlar (Mespilus germanica) leaf extract (MLE) on the growth performance, skin mucus non-specific immune parameters as well as mRNA levels of immune and antioxidant related genes in the skin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Fish were fed diets supplemented with graded levels (0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00%) of MLE for 49 days. The results revealed an improvement to the growth performance and feed conversion ratio in MLE fed carps (P  0.05) in case protease activity in the skin mucous or tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta gene expression in the skin of carps (P > 0.05). The expression of genes encoding glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase alpha were remarkably increased in MLE fed carps compared to the control group (P < 0.05) while carp fed 0.50% or 1.00% MLE had significantly increased glutathione peroxidase expression in their skin (P < 0.05). The present results revealed the potentially beneficial effects of MLE on the mucosal immune system and growth performance in common carp fingerlings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Common selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor side effects in older adults associated with genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and receptors: data from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E; Pollock, Bruce G; Kristjansson, Sean D; Doré, Peter M; Lenze, Eric J

    2014-10-01

    Antidepressant side effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation, and, rarely, significant harm. Older adults assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram. Adults (N = 177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12 weeks. Side effects were assessed using the Udvalg fur Kliniske Undersøgelser side-effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR [L/S + rs25531], HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found: increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea, and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- versus low-transcription genotype groupings revealed six pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing serotonin transporter genotypes, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the 1A receptor low-transcription genotype. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more by high-expressing genotypes in the serotonin transporter, 1A, or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Genetic variation in the serotonin system may predict who develops common SSRI side effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Common SSRI side-effects in older adults associated with genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and receptors: Data from a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D.; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Kristjansson, Sean D.; Doré, Peter M.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Antidepressant side-effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation and in rare cases significant harm. This is especially relevant for older adults, who assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side-effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side-effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the SSRI escitalopram. Method Adults (n=177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12-weeks. Side-effects were assessed using the UKU side effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR (L/S + rs25531), HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Results Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found, including increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- vs low-transcription genotype groupings revealed 6 pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing genotypes of the serotonin transporter, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the low-transcription genotype of the 1A receptor. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more in those with high-expressing genotype and either the serotonin transporter, 1A or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side-effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Conclusion Genetic variation in the 5HT system may predict who develops common SSRI side-effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. PMID:24021217

  17. Consumer Attitudes Toward Storing and Thawing Chicken and Effects of the Common Thawing Practices on Some Quality Characteristics of Frozen Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a survey was conducted to both evaluate the consumers' general attitudes for purchasing and storing the raw chicken and determine the thawing practices used for defrosting frozen chicken at home. About 75% of the consumers indicated purchasing chicken meat at least once a week or more. Furthermore, the majority (82.16%) of those who stored at least a portion of the raw chicken stated freezing the raw chicken meat at home. Freezing the chicken meat was considered to have no effect on the quality by 43.49% of the consumers while 56.51% thought that freezing had either negative or positive effects on the quality. The survey study indicated that top five most commonly used thawing practices included thawing on the kitchen counter, thawing in the refrigerator, thawing in the warm water, thawing in the microwave, and thawing under tap water. In addition, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effects of these most commonly used thawing practices on some quality characteristics of the chicken meat including pH, drip loss, cooking loss, color analysis and textural profile analysis. Although, L* value for thawing on the kitchen counter was the lowest, after cooking, none of the thawing treatments have a significant effect on the color values. Thawing in the microwave produced the highest drip loss of 3.47% while the lowest drip loss of 0.62% was observed with thawing in the refrigerator. On the other hand, thawing in the microwave and refrigerator caused the lowest cooking loss values of 18.29% and 18.53%, respectively. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among textural parameter values of the defrosted and then cooked samples using the home based thawing practices, indicating similar quality characteristics among the samples.

  18. Consumer Attitudes Toward Storing and Thawing Chicken and Effects of the Common Thawing Practices on Some Quality Characteristics of Frozen Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a survey was conducted to both evaluate the consumers’ general attitudes for purchasing and storing the raw chicken and determine the thawing practices used for defrosting frozen chicken at home. About 75% of the consumers indicated purchasing chicken meat at least once a week or more. Furthermore, the majority (82.16%) of those who stored at least a portion of the raw chicken stated freezing the raw chicken meat at home. Freezing the chicken meat was considered to have no effect on the quality by 43.49% of the consumers while 56.51% thought that freezing had either negative or positive effects on the quality. The survey study indicated that top five most commonly used thawing practices included thawing on the kitchen counter, thawing in the refrigerator, thawing in the warm water, thawing in the microwave, and thawing under tap water. In addition, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effects of these most commonly used thawing practices on some quality characteristics of the chicken meat including pH, drip loss, cooking loss, color analysis and textural profile analysis. Although, L* value for thawing on the kitchen counter was the lowest, after cooking, none of the thawing treatments have a significant effect on the color values. Thawing in the microwave produced the highest drip loss of 3.47% while the lowest drip loss of 0.62% was observed with thawing in the refrigerator. On the other hand, thawing in the microwave and refrigerator caused the lowest cooking loss values of 18.29% and 18.53%, respectively. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among textural parameter values of the defrosted and then cooked samples using the home based thawing practices, indicating similar quality characteristics among the samples. PMID:26732333

  19. Consumer Attitudes Toward Storing and Thawing Chicken and Effects of the Common Thawing Practices on Some Quality Characteristics of Frozen Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Benli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a survey was conducted to both evaluate the consumers’ general attitudes for purchasing and storing the raw chicken and determine the thawing practices used for defrosting frozen chicken at home. About 75% of the consumers indicated purchasing chicken meat at least once a week or more. Furthermore, the majority (82.16% of those who stored at least a portion of the raw chicken stated freezing the raw chicken meat at home. Freezing the chicken meat was considered to have no effect on the quality by 43.49% of the consumers while 56.51% thought that freezing had either negative or positive effects on the quality. The survey study indicated that top five most commonly used thawing practices included thawing on the kitchen counter, thawing in the refrigerator, thawing in the warm water, thawing in the microwave, and thawing under tap water. In addition, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effects of these most commonly used thawing practices on some quality characteristics of the chicken meat including pH, drip loss, cooking loss, color analysis and textural profile analysis. Although, L* value for thawing on the kitchen counter was the lowest, after cooking, none of the thawing treatments have a significant effect on the color values. Thawing in the microwave produced the highest drip loss of 3.47% while the lowest drip loss of 0.62% was observed with thawing in the refrigerator. On the other hand, thawing in the microwave and refrigerator caused the lowest cooking loss values of 18.29% and 18.53%, respectively. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among textural parameter values of the defrosted and then cooked samples using the home based thawing practices, indicating similar quality characteristics among the samples.

  20. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  1. How Common Is PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » How Common Is PTSD? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... here Enter ZIP code here How Common Is PTSD? Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, ...

  2. Effects of seed density and proximity to refuge habitat on seed predation rates for a rare and a common Lupinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Patten, Melissa V; Knight, Tiffany M

    2017-03-01

    Biotic interactions such as seed predation can play a role in explaining patterns of abundance among plant species. The effect of seed predation will depend on how the strength of predation differs across species and environments, and on the degree to which seed loss at one life-cycle phase increases fitness at another phase. Few studies have simultaneously quantified predispersal and postdispersal predation in co-occurring rare and common congeners, despite the value of estimating both for understanding causes of rarity. We quantified predispersal seed predation on the rare, herbaceous species Lupinus tidestromii (Fabaceae) and its common, shrubby congener L. chamissonis across multiple years in the same community. We experimentally measured postdispersal seed predation at two seed densities and locations near or far from an exotic grass housing high densities of deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ), their primary, native seed predator. The common L. chamissonis had the lowest predispersal seed predation of the two lupine species, potentially because of its height: its high racemes received less predation than those low to the ground. By contrast, the same species experienced higher postdispersal seed predation, and at predators traveled long distances away from refuge habitat to consume their seeds. Across both plant species, mice preferentially predated high-density seed sources. Our results show differences in the magnitude and direction of seed predation between the species across different life-cycle phases. We demonstrated possible roles of proximity to refuge habitat, seed density, and seed size in these patterns. Congeneric comparisons would benefit from a comprehensive framework that considers seed predation across different life-cycle phases and the environmental context of predation. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Ecotoxicological Effects of Imidacloprid and Lambda-Cyhalothrin (Insecticide on Tadpoles of the African Common Toad, Amietophrynus Regularis (Reuss, 1833 (Amphibia: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brice Kenko Nkontcheu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the main activity carried out in Cameroon and pesticide use is believed to be a common rule for its success. Most of the farms are situated close to water bodies, thus constituting a potential risk to non-target aquatic organisms. Declines of amphibian populations have been a worldwide issue of concern for the scientific community during the last several decades. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of an insecticide used by local farmers in Buea on amphibians. Parastar 40WP® which is constituted of imidacloprid + lambda-cyhalothrin a commonly used insecticide was applied on tadpoles of the African common toad Amietophrynus regularis (Reuss, 1833 in a static renewal experiment. The acute toxicity test was carried out after a range finding test from which seven test concentrations were selected. These concentrations were 0.0025mg/l, 0.005mg/l, 0.01mg/l, 0.05mg/l, 0.1mg/l, 0.5mg/l and 0.2mg/l. Signs of toxicity such as hyperactive symptoms, loss of balance, motionlessness and death were recorded. A varying degree of mortality (dose-dependent was noticed during the test. On the contrary, no such toxicity signs and mortality occurred in the control, indicating that they were caused by the test substance. The 24h LC50 was 3.66mg/l, which is less than the recommended application dose (125mg/l. Products constituted of imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin should therefore be handled with care and far from water bodies because of their potential to cause harm to non-target aquatic biota.

  4. Effects of a common transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol on motor evoked potentials found to be highly variable within individuals over 9 testing sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Vogrin, Simon J; Carter, Olivia; Cook, Mark J; Forte, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses a weak electric current to modulate neuronal activity. A neurophysiologic outcome measure to demonstrate reliable tDCS modulation at the group level is transcranial magnetic stimulation engendered motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Here, we conduct a study testing the reliability of individual MEP response patterns following a common tDCS protocol. Fourteen participants (7m/7f) each underwent nine randomized sessions of 1 mA, 10 min tDCS (3 anode; 3 cathode; 3 sham) delivered using an M1/orbito-frontal electrode montage (sessions separated by an average of ~5.5 days). Fifteen MEPs were obtained prior to, immediately following and in 5 min intervals for 30 min following tDCS. TMS was delivered at 130 % resting motor threshold using neuronavigation to ensure consistent coil localization. A number of non-experimental variables were collected during each session. At the individual level, considerable variability was seen among different testing sessions. No participant demonstrated an excitatory response ≥20 % to all three anodal sessions, and no participant demonstrated an inhibitory response ≥20 % to all three cathodal sessions. Intra-class correlation revealed poor anodal and cathodal test-retest reliability [anode: ICC(2,1) = 0.062; cathode: ICC(2,1) = 0.055] and moderate sham test-retest reliability [ICC(2,1) = 0.433]. Results also revealed no significant effect of tDCS at the group level. Using this common protocol, we found the effects of tDCS on MEP amplitudes to be highly variable at the individual level. In addition, no significant effects of tDCS on MEP amplitude were found at the group level. Future studies should consider utilizing a more strict experimental protocol to potentially account for intra-individual response variations.

  5. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of software-induced common cause failure probability in the computer-based reactor trip system unavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamyab, Shahabeddin; Nematollahi, Mohammadreza; Shafiee, Golnoush

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Importance and sensitivity analysis has been performed for a digitized reactor trip system. ► The results show acceptable trip unavailability, for software failure probabilities below 1E −4 . ► However, the value of Fussell–Vesley indicates that software common cause failure is still risk significant. ► Diversity and effective test is founded beneficial to reduce software contribution. - Abstract: The reactor trip system has been digitized in advanced nuclear power plants, since the programmable nature of computer based systems has a number of advantages over non-programmable systems. However, software is still vulnerable to common cause failure (CCF). Residual software faults represent a CCF concern, which threat the implemented achievements. This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of so-called defensive strategies against software CCF with respect to reliability. Sensitivity analysis has been performed by re-quantifying the models upon changing the software failure probability. Importance measures then have been estimated in order to reveal the specific contribution of software CCF in the trip failure probability. The results reveal the importance and effectiveness of signal and software diversity as applicable strategies to ameliorate inefficiencies due to software CCF in the reactor trip system (RTS). No significant change has been observed in the rate of RTS failure probability for the basic software CCF greater than 1 × 10 −4 . However, the related Fussell–Vesley has been greater than 0.005, for the lower values. The study concludes that consideration of risk associated with the software based systems is a multi-variant function which requires compromising among them in more precise and comprehensive studies

  6. Effect size comparison of ketorolac nasal spray and commonly prescribed oral combination opioids for pain relief after third molar extraction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebler, Gwendolyn; Dayno, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are frequently used for treatment of moderate to severe short-term pain, but concerns exist about this treatment approach. Ketorolac tromethamine nasal spray, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, is indicated for the short-term management of moderate to moderately severe pain requiring analgesia at the opioid level. However, there are no direct comparison studies between ketorolac nasal spray and opioids. The objective of this study was to use an effect size analysis to compare the effectiveness of ketorolac nasal spray with oral combination opioid formulations in treating moderate to severe short-term pain. An effect size analysis of three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of third molar extraction surgery compared pain relief with ketorolac nasal spray and commonly prescribed combination opioids including hydrocodone/acetaminophen (APAP), oxycodone/APAP, oxycodone/ibuprofen and tramadol HCl/APAP. Effect size comparisons were made using total pain relief scores (TOTPAR6 or TOTPAR8; the weighted sum of pain relief scores through 6 or 8 h). Pain relief was measured using a five-point categorical rating scale (0 = none; 4 = complete). The effect size equivalent correlation, r, was determined using an online effect size calculator. The treatment effect size r compared with placebo was classified using established criteria (small = 0.20-0.49, moderate = 0.50-0.79 and large = ≥ 0.80). TOTPAR6 data indicated a moderate effect size for ketorolac nasal spray 31.5 mg (0.51) and oxycodone/ibuprofen 5/400 mg (0.64) and a small effect size for hydrocodone/APAP 7.5/500 mg (0.24) and oxycodone/APAP 5/325 mg (0.32). TOTPAR8 data indicated small effect sizes for ketorolac nasal spray (0.48), hydrocodone/APAP 10/650 mg (0.43), tramadol HCl/APAP 75/650 mg (0.35) and tramadol HCl/APAP 37.5/325 mg (0.17). The treatment effect sizes of ketorolac nasal spray were similar to or higher than the opioid comparators after third molar surgery, a well-accepted pain

  7. Exposure to Common Food Additive Carrageenan Alone Leads to Fasting Hyperglycemia and in Combination with High Fat Diet Exacerbates Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia without Effect on Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Results. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Conclusions. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

  8. Low-Dose Hyper-Radiosensitivity Is Not a Common Effect in Normal Asynchronous and G2-Phase Fibroblasts of Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Słonina, Dorota; Biesaga, Beata; Janecka, Anna; Kabat, Damian; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Gasińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In our previous study, using the micronucleus assay, a low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS)-like phenomenon was observed for normal fibroblasts of 2 of the 40 cancer patients investigated. In this article we report, for the first time, the survival response of primary fibroblasts from 25 of these patients to low-dose irradiation and answer the question regarding the effect of G2-phase enrichment on HRS elicitation. Methods and Materials: The clonogenic survival of asynchronous as well as G2-phase enriched fibroblast populations was measured. Separation of G2-phase cells and precise cell counting was performed using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Sorted and plated cells were irradiated with single doses (0.1-4 Gy) of 6-MV x-rays. For each patient, at least 4 independent experiments were performed, and the induced-repair model was fitted over the whole data set to confirm the presence of HRS effect. Results: The HRS response was demonstrated for the asynchronous and G2-phase enriched cell populations of 4 patients. For the rest of patients, HRS was not defined in either of the 2 fibroblast populations. Thus, G2-phase enrichment had no effect on HRS elicitation. Conclusions: The fact that low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity is not a common effect in normal human fibroblasts implies that HRS may be of little consequence in late-responding connective tissues with regard to radiation fibrosis

  9. Effect of hydro-ethanolic extracts of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L. on incidence and severity of Botrytis cinerea on strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazmiño-Miranda Pilar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of application of three dosages (5, 10 and 15 mL/L and two frequencies (each 6 and 8 days of ethanoic extracts obtained from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L. on incidence and severity of grey mould (Botrytis cinerea on strawberry crop (Fragaria ananassa cv. Albion was evaluated. Experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with factorial arrangement 2 x 3 x 2 + 1, with three replications. Lower incidence and severity percentage in flower and fruit (10.24 and 24.43%, respectively were observed after application of cinnamon extract at 15 mL/L at 6 days interval. Similarly, lower fruit severity (11.86% was observed with the same treatment. In general, reduction in B. cinerea incidence and severity was lower when common horsetail extract was used, compared to cinnamon extracts. According to our results, using of cinnamon hydro-ethanoic extracts could be considered as sustainable alternative for grey mold management in strawberry crops.

  10. Effect of semen extender supplementation with cysteine on postthaw sperm quality, DNA damage, and fertilizing ability in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öğretmen, Fatih; İnanan, Burak Evren; Kutluyer, Filiz; Kayim, Murathan

    2015-06-01

    Amino acids have an important biological role for prevention of cell damage during cryopreservation. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of cysteine on postthaw sperm motility, duration of sperm motility, DNA damage, and fertility in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Sperm collected from 10 individuals was cryopreserved in extenders containing different cysteine concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mM). Semen samples diluted at the ratio of 1:9 by the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. After dilution, the semen was aspirated into 0.25-mL straws; the straws were placed on the tray, frozen in nitrogen vapor, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. DNA damage was evaluated by comet assay after cryopreservation. Our results indicated that an increase in the concentration of cysteine caused a significant increase in the motility rate and duration of sperm in the common carp (C carpio; P < 0.05). Comparing all concentrations of cysteine, the best concentration of cysteine was 20 mM. Higher postthaw motility (76.00 ± 1.00%) and fertilization (97.00 ± 1.73%) rates were obtained with the extender at the concentration of 20 mM. Supplementation of the extender with cysteine was increased the fertilization and hatching rate and decreased DNA damage. Consequently, cysteine affected the motility, fertilization, and DNA damage positively, and extenders could be supplemented with cysteine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Common Law and Un-common Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the practical and conceptual differences which arise when juries are invited to apply their common sense in assessing reasonable behaviour in the midst of an ethnically plural society. The author explores the conundrums which the increasing salience of ethnic pluralism has now begun to pose in legal terms, most especially with respect to organisation of system for the equitable administration and delivery of justice in the context of an increasingly heterogeneous society. ...

  12. Effect of heavy metals on the level of vitamin E, total lipid and glycogen reserves in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine some changes in the biochemical profile of the liver tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to a sublethal concentration of heavy metal mixture (cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead. The biochemical profile, specifically glycogen, total lipid and vitamin E content in the liver tissue was examined and compared to that of the control group. The exposed group showed a marked decline in glycogen and vitamin E reserves. Conversely an increase in total lipid in comparison to control was observed. The result reflects the sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to the effects of sublethal levels of combined heavy metals for this the widely consumed freshwater fish.

  13. Scoring CT/HRCT findings among asbestos-exposed workers: effects of patient's age, body mass index and common laboratory test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, T.; Huuskonen, M.S. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Kivisaari, L. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, M.S. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); University of Birmingham, Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    We studied the effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and some common laboratory test results on several pulmonary CT/HRCT signs. Five hundred twenty-eight construction workers (age 38-80, mean 63 years) were imaged with spiral and high resolution CT. Images were scored by three radiologists for solitary pulmonary nodules, signs indicative of fibrosis and emphysema, ground glass opacities, bronchial wall thickness and bronchiectasis. Multivariate statistical analyses were adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure. Increasing age, blood haemoglobin value and erythrocyte sedimentation rate correlated positively with several HRCT signs. Increasing BMI was associated with a decrease in several signs, especially parenchymal bands, honeycombing, all kinds of emphysema and bronchiectasis. The latter finding might be due to the suboptimal image quality in obese individuals, which may cause suspicious findings to be overlooked. Background data, including patient's age and body constitution, should be considered when CT/HRCT images are interpreted. (orig.)

  14. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  15. Effects of prenatal dexamethasone treatment on physical growth, pituitary-adrenal hormones, and performance of motor, motivational, and cognitive tasks in juvenile and adolescent common marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Jonas; Knapman, Alana; Zürcher, Nicole R; Pilloud, Sonia; Maier, Claudia; Diaz-Heijtz, Rochellys; Forssberg, Hans; Dettling, Andrea; Feldon, Joram; Pryce, Christopher R

    2008-12-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone (DEX) are commonly used to prevent respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants, but there is emerging evidence of subsequent neurobehavioral abnormalities (e.g. problems with inattention/hyperactivity). In the present study, we exposed pregnant common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, primates) to daily repeated DEX (5 mg/kg by mouth) during either early (d 42-48) or late (d 90-96) pregnancy (gestation period of 144 days). Relative to control, and with a longitudinal design, we investigated DEX effects in offspring in terms of physical growth, plasma ACTH and cortisol titers, social and maintenance behaviors, skilled motor reaching, motivation for palatable reward, and learning between infancy and adolescence. Early DEX resulted in reduced sociability in infants and increased motivation for palatable reward in adolescents. Late DEX resulted in a mild transient increase in knee-heel length in infants and enhanced reversal learning of stimulus-reward association in adolescents. There was no effect of either early or late DEX on basal plasma ACTH or cortisol titers. Both treatments resulted in impaired skilled motor reaching in juveniles, which attenuated in early DEX but persisted in late DEX across test sessions. The increased palatable-reward motivation and decreased social motivation observed in early DEX subjects provide experimental support for the clinical reports that prenatal glucocorticoid treatment impairs social development and predisposes to metabolic syndrome. These novel primate findings indicate that fetal glucocorticoid overexposure can lead to abnormal development of motor, affective, and cognitive behaviors. Importantly, the outcome is highly dependent upon the timing of glucocorticoid overexposure.

  16. Effect of residence on mothers' health care seeking behavior for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based comparative cross--sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Alene, Kefyalew Addis

    2014-10-08

    Children are at higher risk of acquiring infections and developing severe disease. This study assessed the health care seeking behavior and associated factors of urban and rural mothers for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia. A comparative community based cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural mothers living in the district. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questioner via interview was used to collect the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 827 (274 urban and 553 rural) mothers were interviewed. Among these, 79.3% (95% CI: (76.5%, 82.06%)) of the mothers were sought health care in the district. Health care seeking behavior was higher among urban mothers (84.6%) than rural mothers (76.7%). Marital status, completion health extension package, and sex of child were significantly associated with health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Whereas age of child, age and occupation of mothers, educational level of fathers, wealth quintile, and type of reported illness were significantly associated with rural mothers. Perceived severity of illness was significantly associated with both urban and rural mothers for health care seeking behavior. The overall health seeking behaviors of mothers for common childhood illness was high. However, urban mothers seek health care more than rural. Socio Economic position and types of reported illness has an effect for health seeking behavior of rural mothers. Whereas child sex preference and graduation status for health extension package has an effect for health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Work on strengthen accessibility of health care services in the rural mothers and increase awareness of mothers about the disadvantage of sex preferences will improve the health care seek behavior of

  17. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Foliar Application of Some Micro nutrients on Growth and Yield Quality of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T. Sh.; Abo Elkhier, OH.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on common bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.) cv Bronco under sandy-loam soil conditions in the farm of the Research Station of the Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Kalubia Governorate on October 15 th in the two successive growing seasons of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. The aim of the experiments was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiated seeds at the doses of 0, 40 and 80 Gy and foliar spray with Zn, Mn and Fe micro nutrients at the concentrations of 0, 25 and 50 ppm on vegetative growth, yield and chemical responses of common bean plants at age of 21 days. Three levels of application namely 0.0 (control), 25 and 50 ppm were sprayed twice during the growing seasons after two and four weeks of planting. Data analysis showed that all sprayed concentrations improved plant growth i.e plant height, number of branches and helped in earliness of flowering. Pod yield as well as pod quality parameters were also improved with the increase of concentration of sprayed materials. The improvement in plant growth and production were positively correlated with the doses and concentrations. The highest response recorded with the concentration 50 ppm with irradiated dose of 40 Gy after which the response started to decline but still significantly higher than control treatment. Pod yield was positively correlated with the applied concentration of the two substances with the highest effect recorded with 50 ppm of micro nutrients. The treatments resulted in higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control. Also treatments significantly improved chemical compositions of pod quality particularly total nitrogen and total sugar contents which responded more positively to all applied treatments. Mineral contents of Zn, Mn and Fe in un cracked seeds also showed similar trend to the applied concentrations. While the best results were in treated plants at 40 Gy and 50 ppm micro nutrient.

  18. Effect of Different Feeding on Feed Conversion and Growth of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio in Floating Net Cage Culture at Jatiluhur Dike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two feeding methods commonly used in cage culture of carp Cyprinus carpio at Jatiluhur Lake, Purwakarta. Common carp in mean weight of 24.29±4.29 gram were reared in floating net cage 7×7×3 m3, for 70 days rearing.  Fish were fed on a commercial diet containing 30% protein at 5 times daily.  Experimental treatment was feeding technique, i.e., by 6% of body weight, and at satiation for the second treatment.  The results showed that the application of "at satiation feeding method" was more effective than "fixed method" (6% of body weight indicating with food conversion ratio of 1.86 versus 1.91. Production of fish fed on the diet using at satiation method for 70 days was 1,241 kg/cage. Keywords: common carp, Cyprinus carpio, FCR, floating net cage, at satiation   ABSTRAK Salah satu cara untuk menekan biaya dalam usaha budidaya ikan secara intensif adalah dengan penggunaan pakan secera efisien agar ikan tumbuh optimal dan pakan yang terbuang seminimal mungkin. Penelitian dilakukan di Waduk Jatiluhur, Purwakarta.  Ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio ukuran bobot awal rata-rata 24,29±4,29 gram dipelihara dalam jaring apung ukuran 7×7×3 m3, selama 70 hari.  Ikan diberi pakan dengan frekuensi yang sama sebanyak 5 kali/hari. Perlakuan pada penelitian ini adalah teknik pemberian pakan, yaitu ikan pada jaring pertama diberi pakan sebanyak 6% dari bobot biomassa, sementara pada jaring kedua ikan diberi pakan sekenyangnya (at satiation.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pakan dengan metode sekenyangnya (at satiation menghasilkan nilai FCR sebesar 1,86 yang relatif lebih efisien dibandingkan dengan sebanyak 6% berdasarkan bobot biomassa (1,91. Produktivitas akhir ikan dengan pemberian pakan sekenyangnya 70 hari pemeliharaan dalam jaring apung di waduk Jatiluhur mencapai 1.241 kg. Kata kunci: ikan mas, Cyprinus carpio, FCR, Keramba jaring apung, at satiation

  19. Effect of lime, N, P, and K amendments to surface-mined coal spoils on yield and chemical composition of common Bermuda grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebelhar, M W; Barnhisel, R I; Akin, G W; Powell, J L

    1982-12-01

    Common Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon, L. Pers.) was used as an alternative to cool-season grasses such as tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) on acid sandstone surface-mine spoils in western Kentucky. Lime, N, P, and K fertilizer amendments were evaluated as to their effects in promoting Bermuda grass growth and development. The applied lime was effective in raising the pH from 3.4 to 4.6, 5.7, and 6.3 for the 18, 36 and 72 metric ton/ha treatments, respectively, over a 17-month period. Nitrogen was found to affect Bermuda grass production significantly and severe deficiency symptoms were observed where N was not applied. Dry matter yields increased significantly with each additional increment of N applied. Although the application of P and K increased the concentration of these ions in the plant tissues, the main influence of P and K was to increase the plants' resistance to winter killing; little effect on total dry matter production was observed. 19 references.

  20. The effect of low doses of gamma irradiation on common bunt and covered smut diseases in wheat and barley seeds (Tilletia Caries, T. Foetida and Ustilago Hordei)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, F.A.

    1991-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of seeds treated by low doses of gamma irradiation (5-45 GY) in reducing the infection caused by pathagens transferred on wheat and barley seeds. Field experiments included 4 varieties of wheat (Mexipak, Fl. Aurore, Haurani, Jezira 17) and one variety of barley (WI 2291). Laboratory experiments were also carried out where fungal spores were germinated in soil-extract agar after the exposure to radiation. Field experiments included planting of irradiated seeds before and after inoculation, seed inculated by irradiated spores and seeds planted in soil contaminated by spores. In other experiments, irradiated seeds were planted after inoculation by spores of T. Caries and another time by the spores of T. Foetida. Results for 1988-89 and 1989-90 show that irradiation at doses used have a clear effect on reducing the infection by common bunt in wheat and covered smut in barley, where reductions reached between 15-60% compared with the control. The effects of 30 and 40 GY were more obvious. This study has also shown that the effect of radiation on the rate of infection (Mexipak, Fl. Aurore) was higher than in varieties which are more disease-resistent (Haurani, Jazira 17). Field and laboratory experiments indicate that this reduction in infection may be attributed to the effect of radiation on seeds and their germination and not on the fungi spores. There have been no significant differences between the rate of infection caused by T. Caries and T. Foetida after irradiation treatment. (author). 61 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  1. The Effect of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. Extract on Growth and Enzyme Activities of Common Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L. Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Faramarzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Allelopathy means any process involving the secondary metabolites (allelochemicals produced by plants, algae, bacteria, and fungi (excluding animals that influences the growth and development of agricultural and biological systems, with positive or negative effects. Plants produce secondary metabolites and in certain circumstances, these can act as phytotoxins, inhibiting or promoting some biochemical or physiological processes in the other plants or organisms. Toxicity of allelochemical compounds include effects on growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, relative growth rate, and oxygen uptake in many crops. Furthermore, the influence of allelochemicals on alpha amylase, oxidase, sucrose synthase activity and malon dialdehyde concentration were analysed. The role of numerous plant secondary metabolites is still unclear, and this raises curiosity for both plant physiologist and ecologists. Inhibitory effects on germination and establishments of crops caused by residues of either crops or weeds have lead to investigation of the release of toxic compounds from such residues. This present study was designed to evaluate the allelopathic potential of milk thistle for controlling common cocklebur in vegetables. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effect of milk thistle aqueous extract on growth and enzyme activities of common cocklebur seedlings, two separate experiments were carried out in randomized complete design and randomized complete block designs with five and four replications, respectively, in spring 2012 in seed technology laboratory and greenhouse of Azad University, Shoushtar branch, Shoushtar, Iran. Milk thistle aqueous extract concentrations were involved (0, 5, 10 and 15% (v/v in petridish and (0, 10, 20 and 30% (v/v as spraying on common cocklebur seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Whole plants of milk thistle were gathered from medicine plant farm of Azad

  2. The common good

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the common good occupied a relevant place in classical social, political and economic philosophy. After losing ground in the Modern age, it has recently reappeared, although with different and sometimes confusing meanings. This paper is the draft of a chapter of a Handbook; it explains the meaning of common good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy and in the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church; why the common good is relevant; and how it is different from the other uses...

  3. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivanković, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Brühl, Carsten A; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L -1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L -1 ) on larval development of Common toads ( Bufo bufo , L.; Amphibia: Anura) and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C). Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (-8%), induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails) and reduced algae diversity (-6%). Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl) +66%, length-to-width ratio +4%) and decreased algae diversity (-21%). No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological interactions in freshwater ecosystems. Although no clear dose

  4. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia and associated algae are altered by temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Baier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1 on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C. Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%, induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails and reduced algae diversity (−6%. Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl +66%, length-to-width ratio +4% and decreased algae diversity (−21%. No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological

  5. Effects of social organization, trap arrangement and density, sampling scale, and population density on bias in population size estimation using some common mark-recapture estimators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manan Gupta

    Full Text Available Mark-recapture estimators are commonly used for population size estimation, and typically yield unbiased estimates for most solitary species with low to moderate home range sizes. However, these methods assume independence of captures among individuals, an assumption that is clearly violated in social species that show fission-fusion dynamics, such as the Asian elephant. In the specific case of Asian elephants, doubts have been raised about the accuracy of population size estimates. More importantly, the potential problem for the use of mark-recapture methods posed by social organization in general has not been systematically addressed. We developed an individual-based simulation framework to systematically examine the potential effects of type of social organization, as well as other factors such as trap density and arrangement, spatial scale of sampling, and population density, on bias in population sizes estimated by POPAN, Robust Design, and Robust Design with detection heterogeneity. In the present study, we ran simulations with biological, demographic and ecological parameters relevant to Asian elephant populations, but the simulation framework is easily extended to address questions relevant to other social species. We collected capture history data from the simulations, and used those data to test for bias in population size estimation. Social organization significantly affected bias in most analyses, but the effect sizes were variable, depending on other factors. Social organization tended to introduce large bias when trap arrangement was uniform and sampling effort was low. POPAN clearly outperformed the two Robust Design models we tested, yielding close to zero bias if traps were arranged at random in the study area, and when population density and trap density were not too low. Social organization did not have a major effect on bias for these parameter combinations at which POPAN gave more or less unbiased population size estimates

  6. Effects of Vernacular Climatic Strategies (VCS on Energy Consumption in Common Residential Buildings in Southern Iran: The Case Study of Bushehr City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohammadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use the vernacular climatic strategies (VCS of traditional dwellings in Bushehr, in the common residential buildings of this southern Iranian city (which is characterized by its hot and humid climate, and provide answers to the following question: What effects do VCS have in terms of energy consumption in these buildings? This study has been conducted at three levels. At the first level, three context-based climatic solutions including shading, natural ventilation, and insulation of external walls and roofs were identified and selected based on bibliographic study. At the second level, a case study reflecting the current typology of common residential buildings in Bushehr city was selected. A combination of the mentioned climatic solutions was used in the baseline case to create a developed model. Based on the space layout of the developed model and some design criteria, a series of proposed models was also created and modeled. The selected case study building was also used to establish a local weather station at a height of 12 m based on the roof, collecting local climate data which were then used for simulation to improve simulation accuracy. Finally, all models were simulated with the use of Design Builder software under natural ventilation conditions during moderate climatic periods of the year while split air-conditioning systems were used during hot and humid periods. The results showed reductions of 16% in energy consumption and 22% in CO2 emissions for the developed model, and reductions of 24–26% in energy consumption and 32–34% in CO2 emissions for the proposed models, as compared with the baseline model. Furthermore, all proposed models achieved lower annual energy consumption when compared with a selection of international sustainable low energy standards and domestic energy performance references for the Middle East region. Further studies are also recommended, and there is potential for combining VCS with

  7. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Polania

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW, canopy biomass and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index and pod harvest index in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE. The main objectives were: (i to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593 and BFS 67 were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into

  8. Effects of vitamins E and Riboflavin (B2 and combinations of them on the hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifzadeh Seyedeh Atefeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of vitamins E, B2 and combinations of them on hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were investigated during a 56-day experiment. The various dietary levels of vitamins E, B2 and their combination were used as experimental treatments, as follows: T1: vitamin E (80 mg, T2: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1, T3: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1, T4: vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1, T5: vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1, T6: vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1, T7: vitamin E (80 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1, T8: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1, T9: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1. One group not given vitamin supplements was the control. The values of red blood cells (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb, and hematocrit (Hct were higher in T7 than in the other experimental treatments. The values of white blood cells (WBC were higher in T2 than in the other treatments. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgM was also lower in T10 than in the other experimental treatments. The highest values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular volume (MCV were observed in T2. No significant differences were noted among experimental groups in the values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. This study showed that vitamin E and B2 supplements alter the hematological parameters of common carp.

  9. Effect of dietary amino acid composition from proteins alternative to fishmeal on the growth of juveniles of the common snook, Centropomus undecimalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Freire Silvão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the effect of dietary amino acid composition from proteins alternative to fishmeal on the growth performance of the common snook, Centropomus undecimalis. Fish of 10.79±0.71 g (n = 150 were stocked in 15 shaded outdoor tanks of 1 m3. The basal diet contained 643.4 g kg−1 salmon byproduct meal (SML and 200.0 g kg−1 soy protein concentrate (SPC. Two other diets replaced 39 and 29% of the SML with poultry byproduct meal (PBM, 170.1 g kg−1 and SPC (334.9 g kg−1, respectively. Fish were fed twice daily for 84 days under 32±1 g L−1 water salinity and 27.3±0.9 °C temperature. Final survival (99.5±2.6% was unaffected by dietary treatment. Snook grew slower (0.24±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 vs 0.35±0.06 g day−1 and achieved the lowest body weight (31.1±6.62 and 33.3±10.20 vs 40.4±13.18 g and the highest feed conversion ratio (3.69±0.29 and 3.11±0.51 vs 2.33±0.34 when fed SPC and basal diets compared with PBM, respectively. Retention of dietary crude protein varied from 36 to 38% for fish fed the basal and SPC diets, but exceeded 51% in fish fed PBM. Results indicate a greater ability of the common snook to gain weight and increase retention of nutrients when dietary protein is of terrestrial animal origin. Dietary protein from PBM yields a more balanced dietary amino acid composition relative to fish muscle, but possibly in excess of the species requirements.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of an enteral nutrition protocol for children with common gastrointestinal diseases in China: good start but still a long way to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Chen, Pei-Yu; Gong, Si-Tang; Lyman, Beth; Geng, Lan-Lan; Liu, Li-Ying; Liang, Cui-Ping; Xu, Zhao-Hui; Li, Hui-Wen; Fang, Tie-Fu; Li, Ding-You

    2014-11-01

    A standard nutrition screening and enteral nutrition (EN) protocol was implemented in January 2012 in a tertiary children's center in China. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a standard EN protocol in hospitalized patients. A retrospective chart review was performed in the gastroenterology inpatient unit. We included all inpatient children requiring EN from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2013, with common gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Children from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013, served as the standard EN treatment group, and those from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011, were the control EN group. Pertinent patient information was collected. We also analyzed the length of hospital stay, cost of care, and in-hospital infection rates. The standard EN treatment group received more nasojejunal tube feedings. There was a tendency for the standard EN treatment group to receive more elemental and hydrolyzed protein formulas. Implementation of a standard EN protocol significantly reduced the time to initiate EN (32.38 ± 24.50 hours vs 18.76 ± 13.53 hours; P = .011) and the time to reach a targeted calorie goal (7.42 ± 3.98 days vs 5.06 ± 3.55 days; P = .023); length of hospital stay was shortened by 3.2 days after implementation of the standard EN protocol but did not reach statistical significance. However, the shortened length of hospital stay contributed to a significant reduction in the total cost of hospital care (13,164.12 ± 6722.95 Chinese yuan [CNY] vs 9814.96 ± 4592.91 CNY; P common GI diseases. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  11. The Effect of Commonly Performed Exercises on the Levator Hiatus Area and the Length and Strength of Pelvic Floor Muscles in Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siff, Lauren N; Hill, Audra J; Walters, Samantha J; Walters, Ginny; Walters, Mark D

    2018-05-02

    The aim oft his study was to compare the effects of 10 common exercises to traditional pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions (Kegel) on levator hiatus (LH) area and PFM length and strength. This is a cross-sectional study of 15 healthy postpartum women. Ten exercises were studied. These were common variations of leg, core, and back exercises used in yoga, Pilates, strength training, and physical therapy. Each participant performed all 10 exercises at a single visit in 2 examination settings: transperineal ultrasound and perineometry. Ultrasound measured the LH area and PFM length, and perineometry measured the muscle strength (peak squeeze pressure). Kegel generates an increase in squeeze pressure (24.3 cm H2O), shortens the muscles (-0.46 cm) and narrows the LH (-0.13 cm). The bird-dog and plank exercises were not different from Kegel in any measurement. While the leg-lift ultrasound dimensions are similar to Kegel, leg lifts generated peak squeeze pressures stronger than any other exercise (including Kegel). Whereas ultrasound dimensions were similar to Kegel, tucked and untucked squats and thigh adductions generated weaker contractions than Kegel. While crunch generated a squeeze pressure similar to Kegel, the ultrasound dimensions showed a significantly wider LH and longer muscle than Kegel. Bridge, clam, and plié exercises affected the PFMs differently than Kegel in all measures. Bird-dog, plank, and leg-lift exercises should be evaluated as alternative exercises to Kegel as they affect PFM strength and length and LH area similarly to Kegel, and leg lifts generate a stronger contraction than Kegel.

  12. Common heritable effects underpin concerns over norm maintenance and in-group favoritism: evidence from genetic analyses of right-wing authoritarianism and traditionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Bates, Timothy C

    2014-08-01

    Research has shown that in-group favoritism is associated with concerns over the maintenance of social norms. Here we present two studies examining whether genetic factors underpin this association. A classical twin design was used to decompose phenotypic variance into genetic and environmental components in two studies. Study 1 used 812 pairs of adult U.S. twins from the nationally representative MIDUS II sample. Study 2 used 707 pairs of middle-age twins from the Minnesota Twin Registry. In-group favoritism was measured with scales tapping preferences for in-group (vs. out-group) individuals; norm concerns were measured with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire-Traditionalism (Study 1) and Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA; Study 2) scales. In Study 1, heritable effects underlying traditionalism were moderately (c. 35%) overlapping with the genetic variance underpinning in-group favoritism. In Study 2, heritable influences on RWA were entirely shared with the heritable effects on in-group favoritism. Moreover, we observed that Big Five Openness shared common genetic links to both RWA and in-group favoritism. These results suggest that, at the genetic level, in-group favoritism is linked with a system related to concern over normative social practices, which is, in turn, partially associated with trait Openness. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Common toxicity criteria: version 2.0. an improved reference for grading the acute effects of cancer treatment: impact on radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotti, Andy; Byhardt, Roger; Stetz, Joanne; Gwede, Clement; Corn, Benjamin; Fu, Karen; Gunderson, Leonard; McCormick, Beryl; Morris, Mitchell; Rich, Tyvin; Shipley, William; Curran, Walter

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) led an effort to revise and expand the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) with the goal of integrating systemic agent, radiation, and surgical criteria into a comprehensive and standardized system. Representatives from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) participated in this process in an effort to improve acute radiation related criteria and to achieve better clarity and consistency among modalities. CTC v. 2.0 replaces the previous NCI CTC and the RTOG Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria and includes more than 260 individual adverse events with more than 100 of these applicable to acute radiation effects. One of the advantages of the revised criteria for radiation oncology is the opportunity to grade acute radiation effects not adequately captured under the previous RTOG system. A pilot study conducted by the RTOG indicated the new criteria are indeed more comprehensive and were preferred by research associates. CTC v. 2.0 represents an improvement in the evaluation and grading of acute toxicity for all modalities

  14. Interface depolarization field as common denominator of fatigue and size effect in Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3 ferroelectric thin film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouregba, R.; Sama, N.; Soyer, C.; Poullain, G.; Remiens, D.

    2010-05-01

    Dielectric, hysteresis and fatigue measurements are performed on Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3 (PZT) thin film capacitors with different thicknesses and different electrode configurations, using platinum and LaNiO3 conducting oxide. The data are compared with those collected in a previous work devoted to study of size effect by R. Bouregba et al., [J. Appl. Phys. 106, 044101 (2009)]. Deterioration of the ferroelectric properties, consecutive to fatigue cycling and thickness downscaling, presents very similar characteristics and allows drawing up a direct correlation between the two phenomena. Namely, interface depolarization field (Edep) resulting from interface chemistry is found to be the common denominator, fatigue phenomena is manifestation of strengthen of Edep in the course of time. Change in dielectric permittivity, in remnant and coercive values as well as in the shape of hysteresis loops are mediated by competition between degradation of dielectric properties of the interfaces and possible accumulation of interface space charge. It is proposed that presence in the band gap of trap energy levels with large time constant due to defects in small nonferroelectric regions at the electrode—PZT film interfaces ultimately governs the aging process. Size effect and aging process may be seen as two facets of the same underlying mechanism, the only difference lies in the observation time of the phenomena.

  15. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  16. Evaluation of antimicrobial effect of azadirachtin plant extract (Soluneem ™ on commonly found root canal pathogenic microorganisms (viz. Enterococcus faecalis in primary teeth: A microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanal Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Soluneem ™ when used as an irrigating solution along with other commonly used irrigating solution sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Microorganism used in this study was E. faecalis (Microbial Type Culture Collection 439. Test substance used was Soluneem ™, which was obtained from Vittal Mallya Scientific Research Foundation (VMSRF, Bengaluru. This study was conducted in a microbiology laboratory (Biocare Research India Pvt., Ltd. Laboratory, Ahmedabad, Gujarat to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Soluneem ™ (Azadirachtin on E. faecalis. Antimicrobial activity testing was performed using the macrobroth dilution method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. All determinations were performed thrice. Results: Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was seen as 2.6% for Soluneem ™ while the same was seen at 0.1% for NaOCl. Independent sample t-test was carried out to compare the MBC of Soluneem ™ and NaOCl, which showed that there was no statistically significant difference between them, i.e., 2.6% Soluneem ™ was as effective as 0.1% NaOCl. Conclusion: Soluneem ™ showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis at various concentrations. It was also found that the efficacy of Soluneem ™ at 2.6% concentration and above was relatively similar to that of gold standard irrigating solution (NaOCl on inhibition of E. faecalis.

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial effect of azadirachtin plant extract (Soluneem (™)) on commonly found root canal pathogenic microorganisms (viz. Enterococcus faecalis) in primary teeth: A microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shanal; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Choudhary, Prashant; Mohammad, Shameer; Trivedi, Krishna; Shah, Shalin G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Soluneem ™ when used as an irrigating solution along with other commonly used irrigating solution sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Microorganism used in this study was E. faecalis (Microbial Type Culture Collection 439). Test substance used was Soluneem ™, which was obtained from Vittal Mallya Scientific Research Foundation (VMSRF), Bengaluru. This study was conducted in a microbiology laboratory (Biocare Research India Pvt., Ltd. Laboratory, Ahmedabad, Gujarat) to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Soluneem ™ (Azadirachtin) on E. faecalis. Antimicrobial activity testing was performed using the macrobroth dilution method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. All determinations were performed thrice. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was seen as 2.6% for Soluneem ™ while the same was seen at 0.1% for NaOCl. Independent sample t-test was carried out to compare the MBC of Soluneem ™ and NaOCl, which showed that there was no statistically significant difference between them, i.e., 2.6% Soluneem ™ was as effective as 0.1% NaOCl. Soluneem ™ showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis at various concentrations. It was also found that the efficacy of Soluneem ™ at 2.6% concentration and above was relatively similar to that of gold standard irrigating solution (NaOCl) on inhibition of E. faecalis.

  18. Effectiveness of a return-to-work program for workers without an employment contract, sick-listed due to common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerts, Lieke; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Bonefaas-Groenewoud, Karin; van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    Both the presence of mental health problems and the absence of an employment contract have been related to long-term sickness absence and unemployment, indicating a need for return-to-work (RTW) interventions. Our aim was to study the effectiveness of a new participatory, supportive RTW program for workers without an employment contract, sick-listed 2-14 weeks due to a common mental disorder, in comparison with usual care. A participatory approach, integrated care and direct placement in a competitive job were part of the new program. The primary outcome measure was duration until first sustainable RTW in competitive employment. Cox regression analysis was applied to study this outcome. Secondary outcome measures were average working hours, duration until any type of employment, sickness benefit duration, and perceived health and functioning. In total, 186 participants were included in the study and randomly allocated to an intervention group (N=94), or control group (N= 92). A hazard ratio (HR) of 1.15 (95% CI 0.61-2.16) for duration until first sustainable RTW indicated no significant effect of allocation to the new program, compared to usual care. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in favor of the intervention group on any secondary outcome. Compared to usual care, the new program did not result in a significant shorter duration until first sustainable RTW. However, due to low protocol adherence, it remains unclear what the results would have been if the program had been executed according to protocol.

  19. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  20. Analysis of the common deletions in the mitochondrial DNA is a sensitive biomarker detecting direct and non-targeted cellular effects of low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling-Toth, Boglarka; Sandor, Nikolett; Kis, Eniko; Kadhim, Munira; Safrany, Geza; Hegyesi, Hargita

    2011-01-01

    One of the key issues of current radiation research is the biological effect of low doses. Unfortunately, low dose science is hampered by the unavailability of easily performable, reliable and sensitive quantitative biomarkers suitable detecting low frequency alterations in irradiated cells. We applied a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) based protocol detecting common deletions (CD) in the mitochondrial genome to assess direct and non-targeted effects of radiation in human fibroblasts. In directly irradiated (IR) cells CD increased with dose and was higher in radiosensitive cells. Investigating conditioned medium-mediated bystander effects we demonstrated that low and high (0.1 and 2 Gy) doses induced similar levels of bystander responses and found individual differences in human fibroblasts. The bystander response was not related to the radiosensitivity of the cells. The importance of signal sending donor and signal receiving target cells was investigated by placing conditioned medium from a bystander response positive cell line (F11-hTERT) to bystander negative cells (S1-hTERT) and vice versa. The data indicated that signal sending cells are more important in the medium-mediated bystander effect than recipients. Finally, we followed long term effects in immortalized radiation sensitive (S1-hTERT) and normal (F11-hTERT) fibroblasts up to 63 days after IR. In F11-hTERT cells CD level was increased until 35 days after IR then reduced back to control level by day 49. In S1-hTERT cells the increased CD level was also normalized by day 42, however a second wave of increased CD incidence appeared by day 49 which was maintained up to day 63 after IR. This second CD wave might be the indication of radiation-induced instability in the mitochondrial genome of S1-hTERT cells. The data demonstrated that measuring CD in mtDNA by qRT-PCR is a reliable and sensitive biomarker to estimate radiation-induced direct and non-targeted effects.

  1. Analysis of the common deletions in the mitochondrial DNA is a sensitive biomarker detecting direct and non-targeted cellular effects of low dose ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling-Tóth, Boglárka; Sándor, Nikolett; Kis, Eniko; Kadhim, Munira; Sáfrány, Géza; Hegyesi, Hargita

    2011-11-01

    One of the key issues of current radiation research is the biological effect of low doses. Unfortunately, low dose science is hampered by the unavailability of easily performable, reliable and sensitive quantitative biomarkers suitable detecting low frequency alterations in irradiated cells. We applied a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) based protocol detecting common deletions (CD) in the mitochondrial genome to assess direct and non-targeted effects of radiation in human fibroblasts. In directly irradiated (IR) cells CD increased with dose and was higher in radiosensitive cells. Investigating conditioned medium-mediated bystander effects we demonstrated that low and high (0.1 and 2Gy) doses induced similar levels of bystander responses and found individual differences in human fibroblasts. The bystander response was not related to the radiosensitivity of the cells. The importance of signal sending donor and signal receiving target cells was investigated by placing conditioned medium from a bystander response positive cell line (F11-hTERT) to bystander negative cells (S1-hTERT) and vice versa. The data indicated that signal sending cells are more important in the medium-mediated bystander effect than recipients. Finally, we followed long term effects in immortalized radiation sensitive (S1-hTERT) and normal (F11-hTERT) fibroblasts up to 63 days after IR. In F11-hTERT cells CD level was increased until 35 days after IR then reduced back to control level by day 49. In S1-hTERT cells the increased CD level was also normalized by day 42, however a second wave of increased CD incidence appeared by day 49 which was maintained up to day 63 after IR. This second CD wave might be the indication of radiation-induced instability in the mitochondrial genome of S1-hTERT cells. The data demonstrated that measuring CD in mtDNA by qRT-PCR is a reliable and sensitive biomarker to estimate radiation-induced direct and non-targeted effects. Copyright

  2. Mutations in DDX3X Are a Common Cause of Unexplained Intellectual Disability with Gender-Specific Effects on Wnt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders Blok, Lot; Madsen, Erik; Juusola, Jane; Gilissen, Christian; Baralle, Diana; Reijnders, Margot R F; Venselaar, Hanka; Helsmoortel, Céline; Cho, Megan T; Hoischen, Alexander; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Koemans, Tom S; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn; Eichler, Evan E; Romano, Corrado; Van Esch, Hilde; Stumpel, Connie; Vreeburg, Maaike; Smeets, Eric; Oberndorff, Karin; van Bon, Bregje W M; Shaw, Marie; Gecz, Jozef; Haan, Eric; Bienek, Melanie; Jensen, Corinna; Loeys, Bart L; Van Dijck, Anke; Innes, A Micheil; Racher, Hilary; Vermeer, Sascha; Di Donato, Nataliya; Rump, Andreas; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Parker, Michael J; Henderson, Alex; Lynch, Sally A; Fryer, Alan; Ross, Alison; Vasudevan, Pradeep; Kini, Usha; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Chandler, Kate; Male, Alison; Dijkstra, Sybe; Schieving, Jolanda; Giltay, Jacques; van Gassen, Koen L I; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke; Tan, Perciliz L; Pediaditakis, Igor; Haas, Stefan A; Retterer, Kyle; Reed, Patrick; Monaghan, Kristin G; Haverfield, Eden; Natowicz, Marvin; Myers, Angela; Kruer, Michael C; Stein, Quinn; Strauss, Kevin A; Brigatti, Karlla W; Keating, Katherine; Burton, Barbara K; Kim, Katherine H; Charrow, Joel; Norman, Jennifer; Foster-Barber, Audrey; Kline, Antonie D; Kimball, Amy; Zackai, Elaine; Harr, Margaret; Fox, Joyce; McLaughlin, Julie; Lindstrom, Kristin; Haude, Katrina M; van Roozendaal, Kees; Brunner, Han; Chung, Wendy K; Kooy, R Frank; Pfundt, Rolph; Kalscheuer, Vera; Mehta, Sarju G; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2015-08-06

    Intellectual disability (ID) affects approximately 1%-3% of humans with a gender bias toward males. Previous studies have identified mutations in more than 100 genes on the X chromosome in males with ID, but there is less evidence for de novo mutations on the X chromosome causing ID in females. In this study we present 35 unique deleterious de novo mutations in DDX3X identified by whole exome sequencing in 38 females with ID and various other features including hypotonia, movement disorders, behavior problems, corpus callosum hypoplasia, and epilepsy. Based on our findings, mutations in DDX3X are one of the more common causes of ID, accounting for 1%-3% of unexplained ID in females. Although no de novo DDX3X mutations were identified in males, we present three families with segregating missense mutations in DDX3X, suggestive of an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. In these families, all males with the DDX3X variant had ID, whereas carrier females were unaffected. To explore the pathogenic mechanisms accounting for the differences in disease transmission and phenotype between affected females and affected males with DDX3X missense variants, we used canonical Wnt defects in zebrafish as a surrogate measure of DDX3X function in vivo. We demonstrate a consistent loss-of-function effect of all tested de novo mutations on the Wnt pathway, and we further show a differential effect by gender. The differential activity possibly reflects a dose-dependent effect of DDX3X expression in the context of functional mosaic females versus one-copy males, which reflects the complex biological nature of DDX3X mutations. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavioural Effects of the Commonly Used Fish Anaesthetic Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS-222) on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Its Relevance for the Acetic Acid Pain Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgreen, Janicke; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Janczak, Andrew M.; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2014-01-01

    The pros and cons of using anaesthesia when handling fish in connection with experiments are debated. A widely adopted practice is to wait thirty minutes after anaesthesia before behavioural observations are initiated, but information about immediate effects of a treatment is then lost. This is pertinent for responses to acute stressors, such as acid injection in the acetic acid pain test. However, omission of anaesthetics in order to obtain data on immediate responses will compromise the welfare of fish and contribute to experimental noise due to stress. We therefore tested the effect of tricaine methanesulfonate on the behaviour of zebrafish. We predicted that tricaine (MS 222) would decrease swimming velocity and that the control fish would show an increased level of anxiety- and stress-related behaviours compared to the tricaine group. Following acclimatization to the test tank, baseline behaviour was recorded before immersion in either tricaine (168 mg l−1, treatment group, N = 8) or tank water (control group, N = 7). Latencies to lose equilibrium and to lose response to touch were registered. The fish was then returned to the test tank, and the latency to regain equilibrium was registered in anaesthetized fish. When equilibrium was regained, and at five, thirty and sixty minutes after the fish had been returned to the test tank, behaviour was recorded. The tricaine fish showed the following responses (mean ± sd): latency to lose equilibrium 22.6 s±3.9; latency to lose response to touch 101.9 s±26.8; latency to regain equilibrium 92.0 s±54.4. Contrary to our predictions, neither treatment caused a change in any of the behaviours registered. This indicates that tricaine has no effect on several commonly used behavioural parameters, and that it may be unnecessary to postpone behavioural observations to 30 min after anaesthesia. PMID:24658262

  4. Common pathogenic effects of missense mutations in the P-type ATPase ATP13A2 (PARK9) associated with early-onset parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhajska, Agata; Musso, Alessandra; Trancikova, Alzbeta; Stafa, Klodjan; Moser, Roger; Sonnay, Sarah; Glauser, Liliane; Moore, Darren J

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the ATP13A2 gene (PARK9) cause autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by parkinsonism. KRS mutations produce truncated forms of ATP13A2 with impaired protein stability resulting in a loss-of-function. Recently, homozygous and heterozygous missense mutations in ATP13A2 have been identified in subjects with early-onset parkinsonism. The mechanism(s) by which missense mutations potentially cause parkinsonism are not understood at present. Here, we demonstrate that homozygous F182L, G504R and G877R missense mutations commonly impair the protein stability of ATP13A2 leading to its enhanced degradation by the proteasome. ATP13A2 normally localizes to endosomal and lysosomal membranes in neurons and the F182L and G504R mutations disrupt this vesicular localization and promote the mislocalization of ATP13A2 to the endoplasmic reticulum. Heterozygous T12M, G533R and A746T mutations do not obviously alter protein stability or subcellular localization but instead impair the ATPase activity of microsomal ATP13A2 whereas homozygous missense mutations disrupt the microsomal localization of ATP13A2. The overexpression of ATP13A2 missense mutants in SH-SY5Y neural cells does not compromise cellular viability suggesting that these mutant proteins lack intrinsic toxicity. However, the overexpression of wild-type ATP13A2 may impair neuronal integrity as it causes a trend of reduced neurite outgrowth of primary cortical neurons, whereas the majority of disease-associated missense mutations lack this ability. Finally, ATP13A2 overexpression sensitizes cortical neurons to neurite shortening induced by exposure to cadmium or nickel ions, supporting a functional interaction between ATP13A2 and heavy metals in post-mitotic neurons, whereas missense mutations influence this sensitizing effect. Collectively, our study provides support for common loss-of-function effects of homozygous and heterozygous missense

  5. Effect of Foliar Application of Chelate Iron in Common and Nanoparticles Forms on Yield and Yield Components of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nasiri Dehsorkhi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin is a member of Apiaceae family and annual plant which is widely cultivated in arid and semi-arid zone. Iran is one of the main producers of this plant. Water deficit is the major limiting factor in crops production. Proper nutrition management under stress conditions could partly help the plant to tolerate different stresses. Various studies were carried out to understand the effect of nanoparticles on the growth of plants. For example, Hong et al. (2005 and Yang et al. (2006 reported that a proper concentration of nano-TiO2 was found to improve the growth of spinach by promoting photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism. Iran a country with arid and semi-arid climate, always face water deficiency. Thus the aim of this research was investigate the effect of foliar application of chelate iron in common and nanoparticles forms on yield and yield components of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. under drought stress conditions. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted as a split plot in complete randomized block design with three replications in Esfahan city, during the growing season of 2015-2016. Treatments were included three irrigation intervals (5, 10 and 15 days as main plots and Fe foliar application in four levels (control, 2 g L-1 iron chelate, 2 g L-1 Nano-iron chelate, 4 g L-1 iron chelate, 4 g L-1 nano-iron chelate. Foliar application of Fe chelate on leaves was done two times at before and after flowering stage. The plots were 16 m2 with 4 sowing rows, 4 m long. Seeds were placed at 2 to 4 cm depth in each row. All data collected were subjected of analysis of variance (ANOVA using MSTATC software. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 by LSD test. Results and Discussion The results indicated that drought stress decreased the investigated traits significantly but the effect of irrigation by 15 days interval was more than 10 days. Plots which irrigated by 15 days interval showed

  6. Effects of Different Densities of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum and Common Lambsquarter (Chenopodium Album on Some Cotton Growth Characteristics in Birjand Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Velayati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Weeds are problematic plants in agroecosystems as a competitor for crops. In order to evaluate effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album densities on some crop growth indices, a study was conducted during 2006 in Experimental Station of Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Birjand as factorial experiment based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Three densities of cotton (6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 and four weed densities (0, 6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 were used to provide different weed interference levels. Indeed, three plots in each replication were intended to cultivation of lambsquarter alone at 6, 9 or 12 Pl.m-2. Results showed that crop growth rate (CGR of cotton was influenced by weed density, and its relative growth rate (RGR and net assimilation rate (NAR indicated a declining trend as weed density increased. Dry matter accumulation of cotton also was affected negatively by weed densities, as interference of lambsquarter at 6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 resulted to 35, 42 and 48 percent dry matter reduction, respectively, than weed-free treatment. Increasing of cotton density could partly compensate for negative impact of weed attendance on cotton growth. Thus, it seems higher plant densities can be used as a managing tool against weeds in cotton fields to avoid reduction of yield. Keywords: Cotton, Density, Weed, competition, Growth analysis

  7. Innovative ways of studying the effect of migration on obesity and diabetes beyond the common designs: lessons from the RODAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyemang, Charles; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Addo, Juliet; Aikins, Ama de-Graft; Bahendeka, Silver; Danquah, Ina; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Schulze, Matthias B; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Smeeth, Liam; Stronks, Karien

    2017-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are major global public health problems, with migrant populations in high-income countries being particularly affected. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are also major threats in low- and middle-income countries, from which most migrant populations originate. Transitioning of societies and the resulting changes in lifestyles are thought to be major driving forces, but the key specific factors within this broad category still need to be determined. Migrant studies provide a unique opportunity to understand the potential underlying causes of these conditions, but current research is mainly geared toward analyzing the differences between migrants and the host populations in the countries of settlement. For better understanding, there is a need to extend migrant health research across national boundaries. This review discusses innovative ways of studying the effect of migration on type 2 diabetes and obesity beyond the common designs and the relevance of extending migrant health studies across national boundaries in the current era of increasing global migration. Specifically, we describe the burden and different methods for conducting migrant studies. We use the Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study as a case study, discussing the methods, some results, and lessons learned, including challenges and an essential recipe for success that may guide future migrant health research. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. The effects of irradiated chicken manure as feed supplement on the growth and heavy metals content of common carp (cyprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryoso; L S Andini; S Suwirma; Sinaga, R

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the use of irradiated chicken manure as feed supplement for common for carp raised in ponds. The three composition A consisted chicken manure, B consisted of shrimp waste mixed with the other materials, composition C was commercial pellet as a control. the feeding with the amount of 3% from total body weight was given to the fishes three time per day. The quality of food measured with the conversion value (amount of feed needed for 1 kg body weight gain) and the quality of water i.e. pH, temperature, and oxygen concentration were also measured. Determination of heavy metal content in fish meat and water were carried out using the atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). Results of the experiment showed that fed of composition A (irradiated chicken manure) at 10th and 14th weeks had lowest conversion value than the fed composition B (mixed with shrimp waste) and feed of composition C (commercial pellet). The content of heavy metals in all fish meat and water were under permissible limit, except for Fe content in water before and experiment were found 5,92 and 1.92 and 1.01 ppm which higher than permissible limit for fish raised. there were no Salmonella found in the chicken manure. This means that irradiated chicken manure can be used safely as feed supplement for fish and has almost the same effect compared to the commercial feed. the water quality was found suitable for the growth of fish. (author)

  9. Effect of silage from ryegrass intercropped with winter or common vetch for grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy systems in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Heredia-Nava, Darwin; Espinoza-Ortega, Angelica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of including silages of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) intercropped with winter vetch (Vicia villosa) (ARG-VV) or with common vetch (Vicia sativa) (ARG-VS) compared with maize silage (MS) on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows grazing cultivated perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures with supplemented concentrate during the dry season. Six Holstein dairy cows with a mean yield of 19.0 kg/cow/day at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 repeated Latin square. Treatments were: 8 h/day intensive grazing, 3.6 kg of dry matter (DM) per cow per day of concentrate plus MS, and ARG-VV or ARG-VS ad libitum at a stocking rate of 3.0 cows/ha for three experimental periods of 3 weeks each. Milk yield (MY) and milk composition, live weight and body condition score as well as silage and concentrate intakes were recorded during the third week of each experimental period, and pasture intake was estimated indirectly from utilised metabolisable energy. Economic analysis was obtained by preparing partial budgets. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.10) in MY, milk fat or protein content nor for live weight, but there was significant difference (P dairy production systems in the dry season as it is comparable to MS in animal performance and slightly better in economic terms.

  10. Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Common and Tartary Buckwheat Sprout Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 and Peritoneal Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Gyu Nam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat sprouts have been widely consumed all around world due to their great abundance of bioactive compounds. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid-rich common buckwheat sprout (CBS and tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS extracts were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and primary peritoneal macrophages from male BALB/c mice. Based on the reversed-phase HPLC analysis, the major flavonoids in CBS were determined to be C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin, quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, and rutin, whereas TBS contained only high amounts of rutin. The TBS extract exhibited higher inhibitory activity as assessed by the production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide and cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL- 6, and IL-12 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages than CBS extract. In addition, TBS extract suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B activation by preventing inhibitor kappa B-alpha degradation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, the TBS extract markedly reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that TBS extract can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents that may influence macrophage-mediated inflammatory disorders.

  11. Effects of date palm fruit extracts on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khalili, Mohsen; Rufchaei, Rudabeh; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Attar, Marzieh; Cordero, Héctor; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of date palm fruit extracts (DPFE) on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio). One hundred and twenty specimens (4.06 ± 0.13 g) were supplied and allocated into six aquaria; specimens in three aquaria were fed non-supplemented diet (control) while the fish in the other 3 aquaria were fed with DPFE at 200 ml kg(-1). At the end of feeding trial (8 weeks) skin mucus immune parameters (total immunoglobulins, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase activity) and immune related gene expression (tumor necrosis factor α [tnfa], lysozyme [ly] and interleukin-1-beta, [il1b]) in the head-kidney were studied. The results revealed that feeding carp fry with 200 ml kg(-1) DPFE remarkably elevated the three skin mucus immune parameters tested (P 0.05) compared to control fish (fed control diet). Furthermore, growth performance parameters were significantly improved in fry fed DPFE (P < 0.05). More studies are needed to understand different aspects of DPFE administration in fry mucosal immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of gamma radiation on the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio): In vivo genotoxicity assessment with the micronucleus and comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Soorambail K, Shyama; Bhagatsingh Harisingh, Sonaye; D'costa, Avelyno; Ramesh Chandra, Chaubey

    2015-10-01

    Radioactive wastes may be leached into freshwater, either accidentally or in industrial effluents. We have studied gamma radiation-induced DNA damage in the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. Fish were irradiated with 2-10Gy gamma radiation and genotoxic effects in blood cells were studied with the micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Micronuclei and a dose-dependent increase in comet-tail DNA were seen in dose- and time-dependent studies. The highest % tail DNA was observed at 24h, declining until 72h, which may indicate the repair of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks after gamma radiation. However, double-stranded DNA damage may not have been repaired, as indicated by increased micronuclei at later periods. A positive correlation was observed between the comet and micronucleus assay results. This study confirms the mutagenic/genotoxic potential of gamma radiation in the Common carp, as well as the possible combined use of the micronucleus and comet assays for in vivo laboratory studies with fresh-water fish for screening the genotoxic potential of radioactive pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Governing for the Common Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-12-01

    The proper object of global health governance (GHG) should be the common good, ensuring that all people have the opportunity to flourish. A well-organized global society that promotes the common good is to everyone's advantage. Enabling people to flourish includes enabling their ability to be healthy. Thus, we must assess health governance by its effectiveness in enhancing health capabilities. Current GHG fails to support human flourishing, diminishes health capabilities and thus does not serve the common good. The provincial globalism theory of health governance proposes a Global Health Constitution and an accompanying Global Institute of Health and Medicine that together propose to transform health governance. Multiple lines of empirical research suggest that these institutions would be effective, offering the most promising path to a healthier, more just world.

  14. The effect of detecting undetected common mental disorders on psychological distress and quality of life in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    The burden imposed by common mental disorders on individuals and society calls for interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving quality of life.......The burden imposed by common mental disorders on individuals and society calls for interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving quality of life....

  15. The effect of detecting undetected common mental disorders on psychological distress and quality of life in long-term sickness absence: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    The burden imposed by common mental disorders on individuals and society calls for interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving quality of life.......The burden imposed by common mental disorders on individuals and society calls for interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving quality of life....

  16. Associations of type 2 diabetes with common variants in PPARD and the modifying effect of vitamin D among middle-aged and elderly Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified that variants in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR-δ (PPARD, a target gene of vitamin D, were significantly associated with fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity in European populations. This current study sought to determine (1 whether the genetic associations of PPARD variants with type 2 diabetes and its related traits could be replicated in Chinese Han population, and (2 whether the associations would be modified by the effect of vitamin D status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We genotyped 9 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that cover the gene of PPARD (rs2267664, rs6902123, rs3798343, rs2267665, rs2267668, rs2016520, rs2299869, rs1053049, and rs9658056 and tested their associations with type 2 diabetes risk and its related traits, including fasting glucose, insulin and HbA1c in 3,210 Chinese Hans. Among the 9 PPARD tag SNPs, rs6902123 was significantly associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.75 [95%CI 1.22-2.53]; P = 0.0025 and combined type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG (odds ratio 1.47 [95%CI 1.12-1.92]; P = 0.0054. The minor C allele of rs6902123 was associated with increased levels of fasting glucose (P = 0.0316 and HbA1c (P = 0.0180. In addition, we observed that vitamin D modified the effect of rs6902123 on HbA1c (P for interaction = 0.0347. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that common variants in PPARD contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese Hans, and provided suggestive evidence of interaction between 25(OHD levels and PPARD-rs6902123 on HbA1c.

  17. Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiditsch, Isabelle Pia; Ladich, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Background In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders. Methodology/Principal Findings Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes) after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C). Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB) in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB) in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies) in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical) species. PMID:25255456

  18. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  19. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  20. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  1. Common symptoms during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your gums healthy Swelling, Varicose Veins, and Hemorrhoids Swelling in your legs is common. You may ... In your rectum, veins that swell are called hemorrhoids. To reduce swelling: Raise your legs and rest ...

  2. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...... good” has always been a contested concept. It is established through messy and blurred heterogeneity of knowledge, purposes and goal achievements originating from a multitude of scientific, religious, political and civil society spheres contested not only in terms of words and definitions but also...

  3. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  4. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ...

  5. Meal frequencies modify the effect of common genetic variants on body mass index in adolescents of the northern Finland birth cohort 1986.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jääskeläinen

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that meal frequencies influence the risk of obesity in children and adolescents. It has also been shown that multiple genetic loci predispose to obesity already in youth. However, it is unknown whether meal frequencies could modulate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the risk of obesity. We examined the effect of two meal patterns on weekdays -5 meals including breakfast (regular and ≤ 4 meals with or without breakfast (meal skipping - on the genetic susceptibility to increased body mass index (BMI in Finnish adolescents. Eight variants representing 8 early-life obesity-susceptibility loci, including FTO and MC4R, were genotyped in 2215 boys and 2449 girls aged 16 years from the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. A genetic risk score (GRS was calculated for each individual by summing the number of BMI-increasing alleles across the 8 loci. Weight and height were measured and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Among meal skippers, the difference in BMI between high-GRS and low-GRS (<8 and ≥ 8 BMI-increasing alleles groups was 0.90 (95% CI 0.63,1.17 kg/m(2, whereas in regular eaters, this difference was 0.32 (95% CI 0.06,0.57 kg/m(2 (p interaction = 0.003. The effect of each MC4R rs17782313 risk allele on BMI in meal skippers (0.47 [95% CI 0.22,0.73] kg/m(2 was nearly three-fold compared with regular eaters (0.18 [95% CI -0.06,0.41] kg/m(2 (p interaction = 0.016. Further, the per-allele effect of the FTO rs1421085 was 0.24 (95% CI 0.05,0.42 kg/m(2 in regular eaters and 0.46 (95% CI 0.27,0.66 kg/m(2 in meal skippers but the interaction between FTO genotype and meal frequencies on BMI was significant only in boys (p interaction = 0.015. In summary, the regular five-meal pattern attenuated the increasing effect of common SNPs on BMI in adolescents. Considering the epidemic of obesity in youth, the promotion of regular eating may have

  6. The Effect of the Common Agricultural Policy Reform by 2013 on Direct Payments in Relation to Animal Welfare in the European Union - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Angelovič

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary role of agriculture is to provide food and the European Union should be able to contribute to rising world food demand. The Common Agriculture Policy covers the wide variety of measures used to support and protect the European Union farmers. The most important measure within the Common Agriculture Policy is direct payments paid directly to farmers to protect their income. The Common Agriculture Policy is due to be reformed by 2013. The main object of the Common Agriculture Policy, which is a provision of safe, healthy choice of food at transparent and affordable prices, will remain unchanged, but further changes of the Common Agriculture Policy are necessary to respond to the new challenges such as animal welfare, global food security, natural resources such as water, air, biodiversity and soil, climate changes, increasing globalization and rising price volatility.

  7. Effect of late-season nitrogen fertilization on grain yield and on flour rheological quality and stability in common wheat, under different production situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Blandino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for a high and homogeneous technological quality of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. points out the necessity of improving wheat with by a higher protein (GPC and gluten content, strength of dough (W and dough stability. Among the current crop practices, late-season nitrogen (N fertilization, from heading to flowering, is generally considered the practice that has the most effects on the storage proteins and technological quality of the grain. In order to explore the influence late-season N application can have on the dough properties and on the formation of homogeneous lots in more detail, a research was set up between 2007 and 2013, over 6 growing seasons at different sites in North West Italy using the Bologna cultivar in each of the trials. Three different late-season N fertilization strategies were compared: T1, control without a late distribution of N; T2, foliar N fertilization at flowering; T3, top-dress granular soil fertilization at the beginning of heading. A randomized complete block experimental design with four replicates was adopted. The grain yield, GPC, W and P/L indexes were analyzed. Moreover, the rheological and enzymatic properties of the samples were studied using a Mixolab® analyser (Chòpin Technologies, Paris, France. Grain yield was found to be unaffected by the fertilization treatments, while the late N application (T2, T3 significantly increased GPC. Only the granular N fertilization (T3 increased the W index compared to T1, while the P/L index was not affected by any of the fertilization strategies. Furthermore, the T3 strategy was always more effective in reducing the variability of the W index than the T2 and the T1 strategies. Water absorption and dough development time were higher in T3, than in T1, while intermediate results were reached for T2. The effect of late-season N fertilization was also significant on the starch behaviour of the dough, as an increase in starch gelatinization and

  8. Effects of 2,5-dimethylfuran fuel properties coupling with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) on combustion and emission characteristics in common-rail diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guisheng; Di, Lei; Zhang, Quanchang; Zheng, Zunqing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of DMF (2,5-dimethylfuran) fuel properties combined with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation), CA50, EHN (2-Ethylhexyl nitrate) and multi-injection strategies on combustion and emission characteristics were experimentally investigated in two common-rail diesel engines including a single-cylinder engine and a multi-cylinder engine. Results demonstrate that, with DMF addition into diesel, ID (ignition delay) prolongs and smoke decreases more greatly as EGR rate increases. When DMF addition fraction increases up to 40%, the inherent trade-off between NO_x and smoke can be eliminated, but the MPRR (maximum pressure rise rate) is too high. However, the higher MPRR can be reduced efficiently without serious penalties in smoke and BTE (brake thermal efficiency) by delaying CA50 and adding EHN reasonably. Although DMF and gasoline have very similar physic-chemical properties, DMF/diesel blends are much more efficient than gasoline/diesel wide-distillation blends to reduce soot with high EGR rates due to its much longer ID and atomic oxygen. With increasing DMF addition fraction, BTE is affected less by the delay of CA50, meanwhile, multi-injection strategies have less impact on soot generation. Additionally, as compared to the delay of CA50 and the addition of EHN, the employ of pilot injection is poor to reduced MPRR for DMF/diesel blends. - Highlights: • D40 can solve the NO_x-smoke trade-off relationship, but leading to higher MPRR. • Adding EHN into D40 can reduce MPRR efficiently with a little increase in soot. • Compared to gasoline, DMF is much more efficient to reduce soot in CI engines. • With DMF addition, multi-injection strategies have less impact on MPRR and soot. • DMF may be a promising alternative for reducing soot emissions in CI engine LTC.

  9. Predicting the Effectiveness of Work-Focused CBT for Common Mental Disorders: The Influence of Baseline Self-Efficacy, Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenninkmeijer, Veerle; Lagerveld, Suzanne E; Blonk, Roland W B; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Wijngaards-de Meij, Leoniek D N V

    2018-02-15

    Purpose This study examined who benefits most from a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based intervention that aims to enhance return to work (RTW) among employees who are absent due to common mental disorders (CMDs) (e.g., depression, anxiety, or adjustment disorder). We researched the influence of baseline work-related self-efficacy and mental health (depressive complaints and anxiety) on treatment outcomes of two psychotherapeutic interventions. Methods Using a quasi-experimental design, 12-month follow-up data of 168 employees were collected. Participants either received work-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (W-CBT) that integrated work aspects early into the treatment (n = 89) or regular cognitive behavioural therapy (R-CBT) without a focus on work (n = 79). Results Compared with R-CBT, W-CBT resulted in a faster partial RTW, irrespective of baseline self-efficacy. Among individuals with high self-efficacy, W-CBT also resulted in faster full RTW. The effectiveness of W-CBT on RTW did not depend on baseline depressive complaints or anxiety. The decline of mental health complaints did not differ between the two interventions, nor depended on baseline self-efficacy or mental health. Conclusions Considering the benefits of W-CBT for partial RTW, we recommend this intervention as a preferred method for employees with CMDs, irrespective of baseline self-efficacy, depression and anxiety. For individuals with high baseline self-efficacy, this intervention also results in higher full RTW. For those with low self-efficacy, extra exercises or components may be needed to promote full RTW.

  10. Optimization of Radiological Protection in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Common Conventional Radiological Procedures: Effectiveness of Increasing the Film to Focus Distance (FFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Karami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasing the x-ray film to focus distance (FFD, has been recommended as a practical dose optimization tool for patients undergoing conventional radiological procedures. In the previous study, we demonstrated a 32% reduction in absorbed dose is achievable due to increasing the FFD from 100 to 130 cm during pediatric chest radiography. The aim of this study was to examine whether increasing the FFD from 100 to 130 cm is equally effective for other common radiological procedures and performing a literature review of published studies to address the feasibility and probable limitations against implementing this optimization tool in clinical practice. Materials and Methods Radiographic examination of the pelvis (AP view, abdomen (AP view, skull (AP and lateral view, and spine (AP and lateral view, were taken of pediatric patients. The radiation dose and image quality of a radiological procedure is measured in FFD of 100 cm (reference FFD and 130 cm (increased FFD. The thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLD were used for radiation dose measurements and visual grading analysis (VGA for image quality assessments. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the ESD ranged from 21.91% for the lateral skull projection to 35.24% for the lateral spine projection was obtained, when the FFD was increased from 100 to 130 cm (P0.05. Conclusion Increasing the FFD from 100 to 130 cm has significantly reduced radiation exposure without affecting on image quality. Our findings are commensurate with the literatures and emphasized that radiographers should learn to use of an updated reference FFD of 130 cm in clinical practice.

  11. Effects of Added Lipids on Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance in Oiled Common Murres ( Uria aalge ) and Western Grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ) Fed Four Formulations of a Critical Care Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Rebecca S; Klasing, Kirk C

    2017-06-01

    Nutritional support is a primary therapy administered to oiled animals during responses to oil spills, but data informing nutritional decision-making during events are limited. In this study, 44 common murres ( Uria aalge ) and 6 Western grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ), naturally oiled by oceanic seeps off the coast of Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties, CA, USA, were assigned to 1 of 4 groups fed diets with varying levels (6.8% [no added oil], 11%, and 20%) and types (salmon, corn) of oil added to a partially purified basal diet. Birds used in the study ranged from extremely emaciated to thin body condition (62%-80% wild bird mean body mass). Acid-insoluble ash was used as an indigestible dietary marker to quantify nitrogen retention, apparent nitrogen digestibility, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, energy digestibility, fat retention, fat digestibility, and estimated fat excretion. Fat excretion is important in these species because once birds have been cleaned they are at risk of plumage recontamination from excreted fat during care. Lower fat diets resulted in lower fat excretion but higher nitrogen retention, higher apparent nitrogen digestibility, and higher apparent metabolizable energy. Decreases in nitrogen retention were significantly related to increases in fat excretion. Regardless of diet, energy digestibility significantly declined with declines in body mass, suggesting severity of emaciation reduced a birds' ability to extract energy from food. Energy digestibility was highest in the 11% (low) salmon oil diet; hence, this diet had the highest effective energy content despite a lower gross kcal/kg diet. Diets fed during oil spills historically have had high fat concentrations to provide maximum caloric support. Results of this study suggest that lower fat diets may be more efficacious for nutritionally depleted seabirds. This study provides valuable data to guide clinical decision making regarding nutritional support during oil

  12. Effect of acute administration of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oil on rat cerebral cortex following transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quartu Marina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischemia/reperfusion leads to inflammation and oxidative stress which damages membrane highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (HPUFAs and eventually induces neuronal death. This study evaluates the effect of the administration of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oil (E.O., a mixture of terpenes and sesquiterpenes, on modifications of fatty acid profile and endocannabinoid (eCB congener concentrations induced by transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO in the rat frontal cortex and plasma. Methods Adult Wistar rats underwent BCCAO for 20 min followed by 30 min reperfusion (BCCAO/R. 6 hours before surgery, rats, randomly assigned to four groups, were gavaged either with E.O. (200 mg/0.45 ml of sunflower oil as vehicle or with the vehicle alone. Results BCCAO/R triggered in frontal cortex a decrease of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, the membrane highly polyunsaturated fatty acid most susceptible to oxidation. Pre-treatment with E.O. prevented this change and led further to decreased levels of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, as assessed by Western Blot. In plasma, only after BCCAO/R, E.O. administration increased both the ratio of DHA-to-its precursor, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and levels of palmytoylethanolamide (PEA and oleoylethanolamide (OEA. Conclusions Acute treatment with E.O. before BCCAO/R elicits changes both in the frontal cortex, where the BCCAO/R-induced decrease of DHA is apparently prevented and COX-2 expression decreases, and in plasma, where PEA and OEA levels and DHA biosynthesis increase. It is suggested that the increase of PEA and OEA plasma levels may induce DHA biosynthesis via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR alpha activation, protecting brain tissue from ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  13. Assessment of effectiveness of endovascular treatment of common and external iliac artery stenosis/occlusion using self-expanding Jaguar SM stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordecki, Kazimierz; Łukasiewicz, Adam; Nowicki, Mirosław; Lewszuk, Andrzej; Kowalewski, Radosław; Panek, Bogusław; Zawadzki, Michał; Michalak, Paweł; Gacko, Marek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work was to assess the effectiveness of endovascular treatment of common and external iliac artery stenosis/occlusion classified according to TASC using a self-expanding stent Jaguar SM. The study group included 95 patients (61 men and 34 women) who underwent treatment for stenosis or occlusion of lower limb arteries at the Department of Radiology of the University Hospital in Bialystok and the Diagnostic Radiology Department of the Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Interior (MSWiA) in Warsaw between 2005 and 2007. All arterial lesions were of atherosclerotic etiology. The shortest stenotic fragment was 10 mm long and the longest occluded arterial fragment did not exceed 90 mm. Morphological classification of iliac artery lesions in treated patients was performed according to TASC II classification and included 10 patients with type A, 39 cases of type B, 36 with type C and 10 patients with type D lesions. Endovascular procedure failed to restore flow in five patients with TASC type D lesions, who were later referred for surgery. One patient suffered a complication – vessel perforation during predilatation, and had a stentgraft implanted. In 95% of patients stents were expanded using a balloon after implantation. Good results were achieved in practically all patients who underwent stent implantation. Patients were subjected to follow-up clinical and imaging evaluation during next 1–24 months. Success rate of the performed procedures as well as in a 30-day observation period was 100% in case of stenosis and 80% in case of vessel occlusion. A follow-up after 12 and 24 months showed patency of treated vessels in 84% and 76% of patients, respectively

  14. Chemiluminescence analysis of the effect of butanol-diesel fuel blends on the spray-combustion process in an experimental common rail diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merola Simona Silvia S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion process was studied from the injection until the late combustion phase in an high swirl optically accessible combustion bowl connected to a single cylinder 2-stroke high pressure common rail compression ignition engine. Commercial diesel and blends of diesel and n-butanol (20%: BU20 and 40%: BU40 were used for the experiments. A pilot plus main injection strategy was investigated fixing the injection pressure and fuel mass injected per stroke. Two main injection timings and different pilot-main dwell times were explored achieving for any strategy a mixing controlled combustion. Advancing the main injection start, an increase in net engine working cycle (>40% together with a strong smoke number decrease (>80% and NOx concentration increase (@50% were measured for all pilot injection timings. Compared to diesel fuel, butanol induced a decrease in soot emission and an increase in net engine working area when butanol ratio increased in the blend. A noticeable increase in NOx was detected at the exhaust for BU40 with a slight effect of the dwell-time. Spectroscopic investigations confirmed the delayed auto-ignition (~60 ms of the pilot injection for BU40 compared to diesel. The spectral features for the different fuels were comparable at the start of combustion process, but they evolved in different ways. Broadband signal caused by soot emission, was lower for BU40 than diesel. Different balance of the bands at 309 and 282 nm, due to different OH transitions, were detected between the two fuels. The ratio of these intensities was used to follow flame temperature evolution.

  15. Prevention of recurrent sickness absence among employees with common mental disorders : design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial with cost-benefit and effectiveness evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety disorder, and adjustment disorder, have emerged as a major public and occupational health problem in many countries. These disorders can have severe consequences such as absenteeism and work disability. Different interventions have

  16. No clear effect of initiating vaccination against common endemic infections on the amounts of prescribed antimicrobials for Danish weaner and finishing pigs during 2007-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Amanda Brinch; de Knegt, Leonardo Victor; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2017-01-01

    common endemic infections: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, porcine circovirus type II, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Lawsonia intracellularis. Comparison was made to the change after a randomly selected date in herds not vaccinating against each...

  17. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......? influences the confidence with which managers delegate decision authority to employees, as managers improve their knowledge of the educational background, firm-specific knowledge, and perhaps even the possible actions of those to whom they delegate such authority. To test these ideas, we match a large......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...

  18. Effect of seed treatment with milk powder and mustard flour in control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat and stem smut (Urocystis occulta) in rye

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders; Kristensen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In field trials mustard flour was able to control seed borne infection by common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat without decreasing the germination vigour of the treated seeds. Full control of common bunt by coating the seeds with milk powder could only be achieved at doses which reduced germination vigour of the seeds. Mustard flour can be recommended as a seed treatment in organic agriculture while a treatment based on milk powder should be developed in combination with biological control....

  19. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  20. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  1. Local, Short-term Effects of Forest Harvesting on Breeding Waterfowl and Common Loon in Forest-Dominated Landscapes of Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Vincent Lemelin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern forests are major breeding habitats for several waterfowl and other waterbird species. In Quebec, as in many other areas within the boreal region, clear-cut logging is an important human activity, and it is likely to affect ground- and cavity-nesting species differently. We used Black Duck Joint Venture/Canadian Wildlife Service aerial survey data, together with Quebec digital forest maps, to investigate local, i.e., within 2 km of clear-cut areas, short-term (~ 4 yr effects of forest harvesting on waterfowl and Common Loon. Our predictions were that clear-cut logging would not affect ground nesters, but would negatively affect pair settling patterns in cavity nesters through nesting habitat disturbance. Our study spanned a 540,000-km² territory in which we considered over 30,000 ha of clear-cut areas that were dispersed into 42 different locations. We controlled for interannual variation in population size by comparing the pre- and post-harvest percentages of potentially hospitable nesting cover disturbed by timber harvesting within a 1-km radius of indicated breeding pairs. Our results suggest that timber harvesting positively influenced local populations of Canada Goose and American Green-winged Teal. No other ground-nesting species showed a significant response. For the cavity-nesting guild and species, we detected no local, short-term effect of clear-cutting. This result was unexpected because many previous studies of nest-box provisioning reported increased breeding pair densities, indicating that availability of natural holes may limit cavity-nesting duck populations. Moreover, because cavity-nesting ducks are considered among the most vulnerable bird species to forest management, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that boreal bird populations exhibit some resilience to disturbance. This conclusion follows from a study in landscapes where forests were mostly first-growth. It is not evident that it will remain valid

  2. Acute systemic effects of inhaled salbutamol in asthmatic subjects expressing common homozygous beta2-adrenoceptor haplotypes at positions 16 and 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel K C; Bates, Caroline E; Lipworth, Brian J

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms at positions 16 and 27, and the acute systemic beta2-adrenoceptor effects of inhaled salbutamol is unclear. We therefore elected to evaluate the influence of common homozygous beta2-adrenoceptor haplotypes on the acute systemic beta2-adrenoceptor effects following inhaled salbutamol in asthmatic subjects. An initial database search of 531 asthmatic subjects identified the two commonest homozygous haplotypes at positions 16 and 27 to be Arg16-Gln27 (12%) and Gly16-Glu27 (19%). After a 1-week washout period where all beta2-adrenoceptor agonists were withdrawn, 16 Caucasian subjects (Arg16-Gln27: n = 8 and Gly16-Glu27: n = 8) were given a single dose of inhaled salbutamol (1200 microg), followed by serial blood sampling for serum potassium, along with measurements of diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, at 5-min intervals for 20 min. The two groups were well matched for age, sex, FEV1, and inhaled corticosteroid dose. Baseline values for serum potassium, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly different comparing Arg16-Gln27 vs Gly16-Glu27. The mean +/- SEM maximum serum potassium change from baseline over 20 min was significantly greater (P = 0.04) for Arg16-Gln27: -0.37 +/- 0.05 mmol l(-1) vs Gly16-Glu27: -0.23 +/- 0.04 mmol l(-1); 95% CI for difference: -0.01 to -0.28 mmol l(-1). The maximum diastolic blood pressure change from baseline over 20 min was significantly greater (P = 0.0008) for Arg16-Gln27: -13 +/- 1 mmHg vs Gly16-Glu27: -4 +/- 2 mmHg; 95% CI for difference: -5, 14 mmHg. There was no significant difference comparing the maximum heart rate change from baseline for Arg16-Gln27: 10 +/- 3 beats min(-1) vs Gly16-Glu27: 10 +/- 3 beats min(-1). Caucasian asthmatic subjects with the Arg16-Gln27 haplotype exhibited a greater systemic response to inhaled salbutamol, compared with those with the Gly16-Glu27 haplotype. The attenuated beta2-adrenoceptor response in the Gly16-Glu27

  3. Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

  4. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your information may be shared between healthcare providers by faxing ... E-mail cannot be used to transmit health information – FALSE E-mail can be used to transmit information, ...

  5. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  6. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or duplicated without permission of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Page last updated: March 02, 2018. Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding can be ...

  7. Common mistakes of investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Wai Pong Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral finance is an actively discussed topic in the academic and investment circle. The main reason is because behavioral finance challenges the validity of a cornerstone of the modern financial theory: rationality of investors. In this paper, the common irrational behaviors of investors are discussed

  8. Inhibitory Effects of Commonly Used Herbal Extracts on UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A4, 1A6, and 1A9 Enzyme Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed-Eslam F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commonly used botanicals on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 activities in human liver microsomes. The extracts screened were black cohosh, cranberry, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, milk thistle, saw palmetto, and valerian in addition to the green tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Formation of trifluoperazine glucuronide, serotonin glucuronide, and mycophenolic acid phenolic glucuronide was used as an index reaction for UGT1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 activities, respectively, in human liver microsomes. Inhibition potency was expressed as the concentration of the inhibitor at 50% activity (IC50) and the volume in which the dose could be diluted to generate an IC50-equivalent concentration [volume/dose index (VDI)]. Potential inhibitors were EGCG for UGT1A4, milk thistle for both UGT1A6 and UGT1A9, saw palmetto for UGT1A6, and cranberry for UGT1A9. EGCG inhibited UGT1A4 with an IC50 value of (mean ± S.E.) 33.8 ± 3.1 μg/ml. Milk thistle inhibited both UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 with IC50 values of 59.5 ± 3.6 and 33.6 ± 3.1 μg/ml, respectively. Saw palmetto and cranberry weakly inhibited UGT1A6 and UGT1A9, respectively, with IC50 values >100 μg/ml. For each inhibition, VDI was calculated to determine the potential of achieving IC50-equivalent concentrations in vivo. VDI values for inhibitors indicate a potential for inhibition of first-pass glucuronidation of UGT1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 substrates. These results highlight the possibility of herb-drug interactions through modulation of UGT enzyme activities. Further clinical studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo extent of the observed interactions. PMID:21632963

  9. Effective international information exchange as a key element of modern tax systems: promises and pitfalls of the OECD’s common reporting standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Gadzo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s global economic environment is characterized by the high mobility of capital and labour across national borders. Against the backdrop of a legal framework governing taxation of cross-border income, this may lead to double taxation on the one hand, as well as provide opportunities for tax evasion and tax avoidance on the other. It is well-established that a prerequisite for effective taxation of foreign-sourced income earned by “domestic taxpayers” (i.e. tax residents is the system of administrative co-operation across national boundaries, mainly in the form of exchange of tax-relevant information between tax authorities. Since the lack of information-exchange mechanisms is linked with tax havens and the proliferation of “harmful tax practices”, the OECD put the issue high on the global political agenda as early as 1998. Further developments strengthened the importance of the exchange of information, leading to the so-called “big bang” of 2009, i.e. to a significant increase in the number of concluded tax information exchange agreements, caused by the growing concern about international tax evasion and avoidance in the post-crisis period.Nowadays the so-called automatic exchange of information (AEOI between tax authorities has emerged as a new global standard. This is mostly due to the development of specific national and international models, aimed at enhancing intergovernmental cooperation in fighting offshore tax evasion. In this regard special attention should be drawn to the 2014 release of the OECD’s Common Reporting Standard (CRS, which is based on the idea that banks and other financial institutions should play a crucial role in providing information on taxpayer’s income and assets to tax authorities around the globe.The aim of this paper is to explore some of the most important implications of the adoption of the CRS as a global AEOI model. While there are marked advantages of the new standard - mainly related

  10. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  11. Common anorectal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.

  12. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  13. Context-dependent Dynamic Processes in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Differentiating Common and Unique Effects of State Regulation Deficits and Delay Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Wiersema, Jan R.; van der Meere, Jacob J.; Roeyers, Herbert

    The ability to specify differential predictions is a mark of a scientific models' value. State regulation deficits (SRD) and delay aversion (DAv) have both been hypothesized as context-dependent dynamic dysfunctions in ADHD. However, to date there has been no systematic comparison of their common

  14. Effects of Misbehaving Common Items on Aggregate Scores and an Application of the Mantel-Haenszel Statistic in Test Equating. CSE Report 688

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Michalis P.

    2006-01-01

    Consistent behavior is a desirable characteristic that common items are expected to have when administered to different groups. Findings from the literature have established that items do not always behave in consistent ways; item indices and IRT item parameter estimates of the same items differ when obtained from different administrations.…

  15. Effects of partial dietary supplementation of fish meal with soymeal on the stress and apoptosis response in the digestive system of common dentex (Dentex dentex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Chouri, Eleni; Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Lazou, Antigone; Chatzifotis, Stavros

    2017-12-01

    Soybean is a common alternative protein source of plant origin in aquafeeds as it has a reasonably balanced amino acid profile and is widely available. This study aimed to investigate the influence of partial substitution of fish meal with soy meal on cytoprotective pathways and apoptosis in the digestive system of common dentex ( Dentex dentex ), using the activation of Hsp70, p38 MAPK, Bcl-2 and caspase-3. The experimental approach involved feeding of common dentex with three isoprotein and isoenergetic diets that contained fish meal as a protein source (FM), partial replacement of fish meal by soy meal 25% (SM25) and 40% (SM40) for 3 months. The SM40 diet induced Hsp70 activation only in the middle part of intestine. On the other hand, both SM25 and SM40 diets diminished the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the anterior and the middle part of intestine, whereas only SM25 induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation in the stomach. Moreover, a decrease in the levels of caspase-3 activity was observed in the middle and posterior intestine, as well as in the stomach after feeding with SM25 diets. Furthermore, Bcl-2 levels were increased by SM40 in the anterior and by SM25 in the middle part of intestine. SM25 and SM40 diets elicited a tissue and soy concentration specific cellular and cell protective response in the different parts of the digestive tract in common dentex.

  16. Predicting the Effectiveness of Work-focused Treatment of Common Mental Disorders: The Influence of Baseline Self-efficacy, Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, V.; Lagerveld, S.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.D.N.V.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This study examined who benefits most from a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based intervention that aims to enhance return to work (RTW) among employees who are absent due to common mental disorders (CMDs) (e.g., depression, anxiety, or adjustment disorder). We researched the influence

  17. Supplementary feeding with thermally treated cereals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) pond farming and its effects on water quality, nutrient budget and zooplankton and zoobenthos assemblages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváč, D.; Anton-Pardo, M.; Másílko, J.; Hartman, P.; Regenda, J.; Vejsada, P.; Baxa, M.; Pechar, L.; Valentová, O.; Všetičková, Lucie; Drozd, B.; Adámek, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2016), s. 1681-1697 ISSN 0967-6120 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Common carp * Nutrient budget * Supplementary feeding * Thermally treated cereals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.095, year: 2016

  18. The Effect of Pre-emergence Application of some Common Herbicides on Weed Population, Vegetative Growth, Flower and Corm Characteristics of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sadrabadi Haghighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction: Saffron (Corocus sativus L. as the most expensive crop has special position among export products of Iran. Currently, Iran is the biggest saffron producer and exporter in the world. Much of saffron in Iran produced in South and Razavi provinces (6. One of the problems in saffron production of these regions is weed control. Weed competing with saffron for water, nutrients, light cause reduction of product (3, 7. Among control methods of weed, use of herbicides is not common in saffron fields. The main reason is the evidences about herbicides damage. For example, Zare Hosseini et al (14 observed application of herbicides of Iodosulfuron methyl sodium + Mesosulfuron- methyl+ Mefenpyr-diethyl destroyed grasses and broadleaf, but it destroyed saffron plant too. Haloxyfop- R methyl ester damaged grasses, but decreased stigma yield. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-emergence herbicides on weed population changes; the performance characteristics of saffron and saffron corms were implemented. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted in a 4-year saffron farm located in Shahn Abad village, Zaveh city in Khorasan Razavi province in 2011- 2012. It was in a completely randomized block design with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments included six pre-emergence herbicides including Metribuzin 70% WP (850 g.ha-1, Oxyfluorfen24% EC (1 l.ha-1, Ioxynil 22.5% EC (1.5 l.ha-1, Etalfluorelin 33.3%EC (3 l.ha-1, Trifluoralin 48%EC (2 l.ha-1 and Chloridazon 80 %WP (5 Kg.ha-1 + Desmedipham 15.7% EC (5 l.ha-1 along with weed free and weedy check. Herbicides applied after irrigation simultaneously with crust breaking. The measurement characteristics included the number of flowers, fresh and dry weight of flower and stigma, leaf dry weight, leaf length, corm number and weight of saffron, weed type and wet and dry weight of dominant weeds. Herbicide treatments after irrigation were performed simultaneously with Crust

  19. Effects of common hemoglobin variants on HbA1c measurements in China: results for α- and β-globin variants measured by six methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Anping; Chen, Weidong; Xia, Yong; Zhou, Yu; Ji, Ling

    2018-04-07

    HbA1c is a widely used biomarker for diabetes mellitus management. Here, we evaluated the accuracy of six methods for determining HbA1c values in Chinese patients with common α- and β-globin chains variants in China. Blood samples from normal subjects and individuals exhibiting hemoglobin variants were analyzed for HbA1c, using Sebia Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing (C2FP), Bio-Rad Variant II Turbo 2.0, Tosoh HLC-723 G8 (ver. 5.24), Arkray ADAMS A1c HA-8180V fast mode, Cobas c501 and Trinity Ultra2 systems. DNA sequencing revealed five common β-globin chain variants and three common α-globin chain variants. The most common variant was Hb E, followed by Hb New York, Hb J-Bangkok, Hb G-Coushatta, Hb Q-Thailand, Hb G-Honolulu, Hb Ube-2 and Hb G-Taipei. Variant II Turbo 2.0, Ultra2 and Cobas c501 showed good agreement with C2FP for most samples with variants. HLC-723 G8 yielded no HbA1c values for Hb J-Bangkok, Hb Q-Thailand and Hb G-Honolulu. Samples with Hb E, Hb G-Coushatta, Hb G-Taipei and Hb Ube-2 produced significant negative biases for HLC-723 G8. HA-8180V showed statistically significant differences for Hb E, Hb G-Coushatta, Hb G-Taipei, Hb Q-Thailand and Hb G-Honolulu. HA-8180V yielded no HbA1c values for Hb J-Bangkok. All methods showed good agreement for samples with Hb New York. Some common hemoglobin variants can interfere with HbA1c determination by the most popular methods in China.

  20. Philosophy vs the common sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chernyshov

    2017-01-01

    analysis. However, the authentic project of philosophy has not always remained faithful to itself, keeping its self-identity. A considerable part of that which now bears the name of philosophy has rather been an alienation of the original idea. Among these phenomena of the alienated philosophy, for example, we can mention a number of cases: the emergence of the philosophical paideia, political and social engineering, scholastics, and the interpretation of philosophy as a science that can (and should be directed to gaining the ultimate positive result. All these witness the alienation from the authentic philosophical tradition, degrading philosophy to the role of a «servant-maid», which eventually brought to the ultimate rejection and denial of its profundity and its values. Finally, the study considers the place that the Modern philosophy has taken in emergence of the modern and contemporary science. He states that there were a number of efforts – beginning with Rene Descartes – to create a new philosophy not upon the foundations of the love of wisdom, but upon the ones of the common sense. Although philosophers had easily recognised the falsity of this enterprise and had rejected this idea, these efforts did not pass away without effect, having caused the emergence of the modern and contemporary science, recognising as its true basis the common sense rather than any metaphysics.

  1. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than ......-demand, is very efficient in practice, incurring only slightly higher I/O cost than the theoretical lower bound cost for the problem....

  2. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  3. Building the common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    document, A Common Immigration Policy for Europe: Principles, actions and tools (2008) as a part of Hague Programme (2004) on actions against terrorism, organised crime and migration and asylum management and influenced by the renewed Lisbon Strategy (2005-2010) for growth and jobs. My aim is to explore...... policy in the European Union is constructed and the categories and themes that are discussed. I will look also at the discourse strategies to show the linguistic representations of the social actors, who are excluded from or include in such representations. I will analysis a European Commission’s policy...

  4. Managing common marital stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P

    1989-10-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  5. Effect of dietary arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on survival, growth and pigmentation in larvae of common sole ( Solea solea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence confirms that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA are involved in growth as well in pigmentation of marine fish larvae. In the present study we examined the performance of common sole larvae reared...... on Artemia enriched with 10 formulated emulsions, differing in inclusions of ARA, EPA, and DHA. The specific growth rate of the sole larvae until late metamorphosis, 21 days after hatching (dah) was 20 to 27% d(-1). Even though the relative tissue essential fatty acid (EFA) concentrations significantly...... reflected dietary composition, neither standard growth nor larval survival were significantly related to the absolute concentrations of ARA, EPA and DHA or their ratios. This suggests low requirements for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in common sole. Malpigmentation was significantly related...

  6. The Sea Empress oil spill (Wales, UK): effects on Common Scoter Melanitta nigra in Carmarthen Bay and status ten years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, A N; Sanderson, W G; Hughes, B; Cranswick, P A; Smith, L E; Whitehead, S; Musgrove, A J; Haycock, B; Fairney, N P

    2008-05-01

    Carmarthen Bay, UK, regularly supports internationally important numbers (>16,000) of non-breeding Common Scoters Melanitta nigra. The spill of 72,000 tonnes of crude oil from the Sea Empress in 1996 affected birds both through direct mortality and likely pollution of key food resources. Numbers were greatly reduced following the spill, whilst changes in the distribution of birds within Carmarthen Bay suggested that potentially sub-optimal foraging zones were used. However, ten years after the incident, numbers of Common Scoter were no different to those recorded immediately before the spill. Compared to some other spills, rapid revival is evident. Numbers increased to pre-spill levels within three winters and distributional changes suggested a concurrent return to previously contaminated feeding areas, implying that the ecosystem had regenerated sufficiently to support its top predator. The importance of prolonged, standardised monitoring of bird numbers and distribution as indicators of ecological recovery from environmental damage is emphasised.

  7. The effects of crosscutting before gang-ripping on dimension part yields from no. 1 and 2A common red oak lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1996-01-01

    Mills should have the option to crosscut red oak lumber prior to gang-ripping to remove crook and worthless material and to take advantage of the quality differences between board ends. At least half of No: 1 and 2A Common red oak boards will have end-to-end yield differences of at least 10 percent. Preprocessing will cause a slight decrease in overall yield but will...

  8. Common Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor p.G116S Variant Has a Large Effect on Plasma Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Circumpolar Inuit Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dube, J. B.; Wang, J.; Cao, H.

    2015-01-01

    .G116S and p.R730W. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genotyping these variants in 3324 Inuit from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland showed they were common, with allele frequencies 10% to 15%. Only p.G116S was associated with dyslipidemia: the increase in LDL cholesterol was 0.54 mmol/L (20.9 mg/dL) per allele (P=5.6x...

  9. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  10. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical compo